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Sample records for opossums

  1. Bacterial Clearance and Endocarditis in American Opossums

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    Musher, Daniel M.; Richie, Yvonne

    1974-01-01

    The American opossum is the only experimental animal that regularly develops bacterial endocarditis spontaneously. There was no relation between the ability of opossums to clear bacteria from the bloodstream and the subsequent development of endocarditis. PMID:4208530

  2. Radiation lethality in the opossum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, N.; Bushong, S.C.; North, L.B.; Thornby, J.

    1976-01-01

    Groups of male opossum (Didelphis virginiana) at 6 months of age were exposed to 350, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700, and 750 rad of whole-body 60 Co radiation at a midline dose rate of 125 rad/min. The 30-day LD 50 was 511 rad with 95% confidence limits of 454 to 576 rad. The overall mean survival time was 17.9 days and the highest incidence of death occurred on the 16th day

  3. Radiation lethality in the opossum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, N.; Bushong, S.C.; North, L.B.; Thornby, J.

    1976-12-01

    Groups of male opossum (Didelphis virginiana) at 6 months of age were exposed to 350, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700, and 750 rad of whole-body /sup 60/Co radiation at a midline dose rate of 125 rad/min. The 30-day LD/sub 50/ was 511 rad with 95% confidence limits of 454 to 576 rad. The overall mean survival time was 17.9 days and the highest incidence of death occurred on the 16th day.

  4. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

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    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research.

  5. Behavioral and nutritional aspects of the Virginian opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

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    McRuer, David L; Jones, Kenneth D

    2009-05-01

    Virginia opossums are widely distributed throughout the United States, except in the most arid regions, and wild individuals are commonly brought to practitioners for medical attention. Opossums' popularity as pets seems to be growing, and it is likely that pet opossums will be more common in veterinary practice. Clinicians must be aware of natural opossum behaviors so that thorough physical examination and diagnostic procedures can be performed on injured patients. For animals kept captive long-term or as pets, veterinarians must understand proper nutrition and nutritional disorders, such as secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism, obesity, and dental disease, to properly treat this species.

  6. Antiinflammatory agents protect opossum esophagus during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northway, M.G.; Eastwood, G.L.; Libshitz, H.I.; Feldman, M.S.; Mamel, J.J.; Szwarc, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen opossums received 2250 rad 60 Co to the entire esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter. Animals received treatment with 600 mg aspirin, 25 mg/kg hydrocortisone, or saline before irradiation and twice daily for 1 week after irradiation. At 10 days postirradiation, animals were evaluated for signs of acute esophagitis by esophagoscopy and barium esophagram. Each animal was then killed and the esophagus removed and evaluated histologically. Animals treated with either aspirin or hydrocortisone had significantly milder esophagitis than control irradiated animals

  7. Prevalence of sarcocystis species sporocysts in wild-caught opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

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    Dubey, J P

    2000-08-01

    Sarcocystis sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings from 24 (54.5%) of 44 opossums (Didelphis virginiana). The number of sporocysts varied from a few (< 10,000) to 245 million. Sporocysts from 23 of 24 opossums were fed to captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatas), and the inocula from 21 opossums were infective, indicating the presence of Sarcocystis falcatula. Sporocysts from 24 opossums were fed to gamma-interferon-knockout (KO) or nude mice; inocula from 14 opossums were infective to mice. Sarcocystis neurona was detected in tissues of KO mice by specific staining with anti-S. neurona antibodies, and the parasite was cultured in vitro from the brains of KO mice fed sporocysts from 8 opossums. Sarcocystis speeri was identified by specific staining with anti-S. speeri antibodies in tissues of KO mice fed inocula from 8 opossums; 3 opossums had mixed S. neurona and S. speeri infections. Thus, the prevalences of sporocysts of different species of Sarcocystis in opossums were: S. falcatula 21 of 44 (47.7%), S. neurona 8 of 44 (18.1%), and S. speeri 8 of 44 (18.1%) opossums. Sarcocystis neurona alone was found in 1 opossum, and S. speeri alone was found in 1 opossum. Mixed Sarcocystis infections were present in 21 opossums.

  8. Prevalence of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from rural Mississippi.

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    Dubey, J P; Black, S S; Rickard, L G; Rosenthal, B M; Lindsay, D S; Shen, S K; Kwok, O C; Hurst, G; Rashmir-Raven, A

    2001-02-26

    Sarcocystis species sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings from 24 of 72 opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from rural Mississippi. The number of sporocysts in each opossum varied from a few ( virginiana suggests that this opossum constitutes an ample reservoir of infection in the southern United States.

  9. Besnoitia darlingi infection in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

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    Shaw, Shannon; Grasperge, Britton; Nevarez, Javier; Reed, Scott; Long, Lauren; Rademacher, Nathalie; Sánchez-Migallón Guzmán, David

    2009-03-01

    This is a case report of natural infection with Besnoitia darlingi in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Louisiana. Clinical pathologic data included a severe nonregenerative anemia, inflammatory leukogram, increased hepatocellular leakage enzymes, renal azotemia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, and proteinuria. Tissue cysts containing bradyzoites were found in the majority of organs, especially the skin, mucous membranes, kidneys, adrenals, lungs, and heart. Images of the bradyzoites obtained by transmission electron microscopy were consistent with the previously described ultrastructure of Besnoitia darlingi. This opossum also suffered from an open phalangeal fracture and concurrent gastrointestinal parasites. Histopathologic findings included a glomerulonephritis and hepatic necrosis.

  10. Parotid Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma in a Big-eared Opossum (Didelphis aurita).

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    Díaz-Delgado, J; Coimbra, A A C; Dos Santos-Cirqueira, C; Sanches, T C; Guerra, J M; de Oliveira, A S; Di Loretto, C; Zwarg, T; Ressio, R; Rivas, L; Sansone, M; Nagamori, F O; Kanamura, C; Gonçalves, P S; Fernandes, N C C A; Groch, K R; Catão-Dias, J L

    2018-02-01

    The opossum (family Didelphidae) is a marsupial endemic to the Americas. Apart from the South American short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), there is considerable lack of knowledge about the health and diseases of most opossum species. Among these, the big-eared opossum (Didelphis aurita) is found in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Natural and experimental studies have shown this species to be susceptible to infectious agents with zoonotic potential and the animals may play a role in transmission of such agents. However, neoplasia appears to be uncommon in this species. We describe the gross, microscopical and immunohistochemical features of a parotid salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinoma in a free-living big-eared opossum. This case represents the first report of salivary gland neoplasia in opossums. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental aerosol inoculation of Mycobacterium bovis in North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Zwick, Laura S; Diegel, Kelly L; Berry, Dale E; Church, Steven V; Sikarskie, James G; Kaneene, John B; Reed, Willie M

    2003-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to aerosol inoculation of Mycobacterium bovis at two dose levels in order to gain information on disease pathogenesis, fecal shedding of the organism, and the potential role that opossums play in the spread of this disease in nature. Six opossums received high dose (1 x 10(7) colony forming units (cfu) by aerosol inoculation, six opossums received low dose (1 x 10(3) cfu inoculation, and six opossums were sham-inoculated with sterile water and served as controls. Lungs were the most frequently infected tissues, with nine of 12 inoculated opossums positive for M. bovis on culture. Gross lesions consisted of multifocal pneumonia and enlarged lymph nodes. Microscopically, granulomatous pneumonia and granulomatous lymphadenitis associated with acid-fast bacilli were present in eight of 12 inoculated opossums. Fecal shedding of M. bovis was uncommon at both inoculation doses. While opossums were highly susceptible to aerosol inoculation of M. bovis, they did not become emaciated or develop widely disseminated lesions. From this study, opossums may transmit tuberculosis by aerosol infection to other opossums in close contact and serve as a source of infection to carnivores that feed upon them, however, transmission of the disease to large herbivores by fecal shedding or direct contact may be less likely.

  12. Experimental Bacterial Endocarditis in the Opossum (Didelphis virginiana)

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    Sherwood, B. F.; Rowlands, D. T.; Vakilzadeh, J.; LeMay, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    It was possible to induce bacterial endocarditis in opossums with single intravenous injections of Streptococcus viridans or Staphylococcus aureus. Fiftyeight percent of those animals given Streptococcus viridans developed bacterial endocarditis in which most of the lesions were on the left side of the heart. The experimentally induced streptococcal disease was similar to that which may occur spontaneously in opossums, both with respect to the distribution and structure of the vegetations. Single injections of Staphylococcus aureus resulted in endocarditis in 100% of the test animals. These lesions differed from those due to streptococci by having a relatively high frequency of right- as well as left-sided valvular disease and by being somewhat smaller than those due to streptococci.Endocarditis could not be successfully induced with injection of three different fungi. PMID:5133514

  13. FINE STRUCTURE OF THE NEUROHYPOPHYSIS OF THE OPOSSUM (DIDELPHIS VIRGINIANA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lawrence M.; Luse, Sarah A.

    1964-01-01

    The neurohypophysis of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) was studied by electron microscopy in order to amplify Bodian's classic light microscopic observations in which he demonstrated a definite lobular pattern. The lobule of the opossum neurohypophysis is divided into three regions: a hilar, a palisade, and a septal zone. The hilar portion contains bundles of nerve fibers, the extensions of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract containing neurofilaments but few neurosecretory granules. In the opossum, pituicytes have a densely fibrillar cytoplasm. Herring bodies are prominent in the hilar region. They are large bodies packed with neurosecretory granules that have been described as end bulb formations of axons. From the hilar region, axons fan out into a palisade zone where the nerve terminals packed with neurosecretory granules, mitochondria, and microvesicles abut upon basement membranes. The neurosecretory granules are similar to those present in the neurohypophysis of other mammals, except for an occasional huge granule of distinctive type. Material morphologically and histochemically resembling glycogen occurs as scattered particles and as aggregates within nerve fibers. The septal zone, containing collagen, fibroblasts, and numerous small capillaries, is separated from the adjacent glandular tissue by a basement membrane. PMID:14128048

  14. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae) from Mexico

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    Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Abstract From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556

  15. Helminths of three species of opossums (Mammalia, Didelphidae from Mexico

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    Karla Acosta-Virgen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes. Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals.

  16. ABCB4 mediates diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in laboratory opossums.

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    Chan, Jeannie; Mahaney, Michael C; Kushwaha, Rampratap S; VandeBerg, Jane F; VandeBerg, John L

    2010-10-01

    High-responding opossums are susceptible to developing hypercholesterolemia on a high-cholesterol diet, but low-responding opossums are resistant. The observation of low biliary cholesterol and low biliary phospholipids in high responders suggested that the ABCB4 gene affects response to dietary cholesterol. Two missense mutations (Arg29Gly and Ile235Leu) were found in the ABCB4 gene of high responders. High responders (ATHH strain) were bred with low responders (ATHE or ATHL strain) to produce F1 and F2 progeny in two different genetic crosses (KUSH6 and JCX) to determine the effect of ABCB4 allelic variants on plasma cholesterol concentrations after a dietary challenge. Pedigree-based genetic association analyses consistently implicated a variant in ABCB4 or a closely linked locus as a major, but not the sole, genetic contributor to variation in the plasma cholesterol response to dietary cholesterol. High responders, but not low responders, developed liver injury as indicated by elevated plasma biomarkers of liver function, probably reflecting damage to the canalicular membrane by bile salts because of impaired phospholipid secretion. Our results implicate ABCB4 as a major determinant of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in high-responding opossums and suggest that other genes interact with ABCB4 to regulate lipemic response to dietary cholesterol.

  17. The immune response of adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to the bacteriophage f2

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    Rowlands, D. T.

    1970-01-01

    Humoral immunity to the bacteriophage f2 was studied in adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and their responses were compared to those in New Zealand White rabbits. Antibodies were found in the serum of opossums 7 days after the subcutaneous injection of the antigen and peak antibody responses were observed between 10 and 21 days after immunization. A second injection of antigen resulted in increased antibody activity. In either case the level of serum antibody reached in opossums was less than that in rabbits. More striking, however, was the relatively slow conversion from γM to γG antibodies in opossums. The course of the immune response in adult opossums was more nearly like that of cold-blooded vertebrates than that of eutherian mammals. PMID:5416636

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi in the anal glands of urban opossums: I- isolation and experimental infections

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    S Urdaneta-Morales

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Opossums (Didelphis marsupialis captured in intensely urbanized areas of the city of Caracas, Venezuela, were found infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The developmental cycle of trypomastigote-epimastigote-metacyclic infective trypomastigote, usually occurring in the intestine of the triatomine vector, was taking place in the anal odoriferous glands of the opossums. Material from the glands, inoculated in young, healthy opossums and white mice by different routes, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, orally, and into the eye, induced T. cruzi infections in all animals. Parasitemia, invasion of cardiac and skeletal muscle, and intracellular multiplication of amastigotes were observed. Inoculation of metacyclics from anal glands, cultured in LIT medium, gave equivalent results. All opossums survived; all mice died. Excreta of opossums may thus transmit Chagas' disease by contamination, even in urban areas where insect vectors are not present.

  19. Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis

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    Barretto O.C. de O.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study of erythrocyte metabolism of vertebrates, the specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD of the Brazilian opossum Didelphis marsupialis in a hemolysate was shown to be high, 207 ± 38 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37ºC, compared to the human erythrocyte activity of 12 ± 2 IU g-1 Hb-1 min-1 at 37ºC. The apparent high specific activity of the mixture led us to investigate the physicochemical properties of the opossum enzyme. We report that reduced glutathione (GSH in the erythrocytes was only 50% higher than in human erythrocytes, a value lower than expected from the high G6PD activity since GSH is maintained in a reduced state by G6PD activity. The molecular mass, determined by G-200 Sephadex column chromatography at pH 8.0, was 265 kDa, which is essentially the same as that of human G6PD (260 kDa. The Michaelis-Menten constants (Km: 55 µM for glucose-6-phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (Km: 3.3 µM were similar to those of the human enzyme (Km: 50-70 and Km: 2.9-4.4, respectively. A 450-fold purification of the opossum enzyme was achieved and the specific activity of the purified enzyme, 90 IU/mg protein, was actually lower than the 150 IU/mg protein observed for human G6PD. We conclude that G6PD after purification from the hemolysate of D. marsupialis does not have a high specific activity. Thus, it is quite probable that the red cell hyperactivity reported may be explained by increased synthesis of G6PD molecules per unit of hemoglobin or to reduced inactivation in the RBC hemolysate.

  20. Lack of Sarcocystis neurona antibody response in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) fed Sarcocystis neurona-infected muscle tissue.

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    Cheadle, M A; Lindsay, D S; Greiner, E C

    2006-06-01

    Serum was collected from laboratory-reared Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to determine whether experimentally infected opossums shedding Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts develop serum antibodies to S. neurona merozoite antigens. Three opossums were fed muscles from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), and 5 were fed muscles from striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Serum was also collected from 26 automobile-killed opossums to determine whether antibodies to S. neurona were present in these opossums. Serum was analyzed using the S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT). The SAT was modified for use with a filter paper collection system. Antibodies to S. neurona were not detected in any of the serum samples from opossums, indicating that infection in the opossum is localized in the small intestine. Antibodies to S. neurona were detected in filter-paper-processed serum samples from 2 armadillos naturally infected with S. neurona.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Sarcocystis neurona infections in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from central California.

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    Rejmanek, Daniel; Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Miller, Melissa A; Mazet, Jonna A K; Nichelason, Amy E; Melli, Ann C; Packham, Andrea E; Jessup, David A; Conrad, Patricia A

    2009-12-03

    Sarcocystis neurona, a protozoal parasite shed by opossums (Didelphis virginiana), has been shown to cause significant morbidity and mortality in horses, sea otters, and other marine mammals. Over the course of 3 years (fall 2005-summer 2008), opossums from central California were tested for infection with S. neurona. Of 288 opossums sampled, 17 (5.9%) were infected with S. neurona based on the molecular characterization of sporocysts from intestinal scrapings or feces. Risk factors evaluated for association with S. neurona infection in opossums included: age, sex, location, season, presence of pouch young in females, concomitant infection, and sampling method (live-trapped or traffic-killed). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that opossums in the Central Valley were 9 times more likely to be infected than those near the coast (p=0.009). Similarly, opossum infection was 5 times more likely to be detected during the reproductive season (March-July; p=0.013). This first investigation of S. neurona infection prevalence and associated risk factors in opossums in the western United States can be used to develop management strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of S. neurona infections in susceptible hosts, including horses and threatened California sea otters (Enhydra lutris neries).

  2. Debilitation and mortality associated with besnoitiosis in four Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

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    Ellis, Angela E; Mackey, Elizabeth; Moore, Philip A; Divers, Stephen J; Hensel, Patrick; Carmichael, K Paige; Accola, Peter; Brown, Justin; Gottdenker, Nicole; Keel, M Kevin; Shock, Barbara C; Yabsley, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Besnoitia spp. are coccidian parasites that infect a variety of wild and domestic mammals as well as some reptiles. Although infection with Besnoitia is common in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), clinical signs or death due to Besnoitia is rare. This manuscript describes four Virginia opossums that had severe clinical disease and inflammation associated with besnoitiosis. Clinical signs included trembling, incoordination, circling, blindness, poor body condition, and sudden death. Gross lesions included parasitic cysts in eyes, skin, and visceral organs. Histologically, cysts were often degenerate and associated with mild to marked inflammation, and amyloidosis was noted in one animal. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing confirmed Besnoitia darlingi in three of the four opossums.

  3. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

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    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  4. Normal conjunctival flora in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoon (Procyon lotor).

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    Pinard, Chantale L; Brightman, Alan H; Yeary, Teresa J; Everson, Troy D; Cox, Linda K; Chengappa, M M; Davidson, Harriet J

    2002-10-01

    We documented the normal conjunctival bacterial flora from 17 opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and 10 raccoons (Procyon lotor) trapped in Manhattan, Kansas (USA) from November 1999 to January 2000. Both raccoons and opossums were free of apparent ocular disease. The inferior conjunctival sacs of each animal were swabbed for aerobic bacterial and Mycoplasma culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia detection. All conjunctival samples were positive for one or more species of aerobic bacteria. The most common isolate from opossums was Staphylococcus spp. Other isolates included Streptococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp., and Enterococcus faecalis. The most common isolates in raccoons was Bacillus spp. Other isolates included Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., non-hemolytic Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis. Mycoplasma culture was negative in samples from opossums and raccoons. Evidence of Mycoplasma and Chlamydia presence was detected by PCR.

  5. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California

    OpenAIRE

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Miller, Melissa A.; Grigg, Michael E.; Crosbie, Paul R.; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a significant cause of neurological disease in horses and other animals, including the threatened Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the only known definitive hosts for S. neurona in North America, are an introduced species in California. S. neurona DNA isolated from sporocysts and/or infected tissues of 10 opossums, 6 horses, 1 cat, 23 Southern sea otters, and 1 harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with natural infections was an...

  6. ABCB4 mediates diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in laboratory opossums[S

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Jeannie; Mahaney, Michael C.; Kushwaha, Rampratap S.; VandeBerg, Jane F.; VandeBerg, John L.

    2010-01-01

    High-responding opossums are susceptible to developing hypercholesterolemia on a high-cholesterol diet, but low-responding opossums are resistant. The observation of low biliary cholesterol and low biliary phospholipids in high responders suggested that the ABCB4 gene affects response to dietary cholesterol. Two missense mutations (Arg29Gly and Ile235Leu) were found in the ABCB4 gene of high responders. High responders (ATHH strain) were bred with low responders (ATHE or ATHL strain) to produ...

  7. A retrospective study of 11 cases of lungworm (Didelphostrongylus hayesi) infection in opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

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    Lamberski, Nadine; Reader, J Rachel; Cook, Lizette F; Johnson, Eileen M; Baker, David G; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2002-06-01

    A juvenile, female North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) died of verminous pneumonia caused by Didelphostrongylus haysei despite aggressive treatment with oral fenbendazole, corticosteroids, and antibiotics. This prompted a retrospective study of lungworm infection in opossums, during which 19 additional necropsy reports from opossums were reviewed. Including the subject of this report, a total of 11 (55%) of these cases included a diagnosis of lungworm infection. This diagnosis was considered to have contributed to death in eight out of the 11 cases (73%). Histologically, 10 of the 11 (91%) opossums had granulomatous bronchopneumonia with small to moderate numbers of adult nematodes in the airways and parenchyma. Four of the 11 (36%) opossums had free larvae within the parenchyma or terminal airways. Inflammation was usually associated with larvae, degenerating parasites, and nonintact adult nematodes. Superimposed bacterial pneumonia was evident in three animals, and sections of lung examined from all the opossums were characterized by moderate to severe smooth-muscle hyperplasia in airways, including terminal respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts. Nine animals had prominent medial smooth-muscle hyperplasia in small- and medium-sized arterioles. Lesions in other organs, particularly in liver, heart, and gastrointestinal tract, were frequently identified. Three animals had concomitant septicemia or bacterial bronchopneumonia (or both), which contributed to the cause of death. Seven animals had gastric nematodosis (Physaloptera sp.), although three of them had been treated with a 14-day course of fenbendazole.

  8. Experimental Aerosol Inoculation and Investigation of Potential Lateral Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana)

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Karla A.; Fitzgerald, Scott D.; Bolin, Steve; Kaneene, John; Sikarskie, James; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    An endemic focus of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection in the state of Michigan has contributed to a regional persistence in the animal population. The objective of this study was to determine if Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) contribute to disease persistence by experimentally assessing intraspecies lateral transmission. One wild caught pregnant female opossum bearing 11 joeys (young opossum) and one age-matched joey were obtained for the study. Four joeys were aerosol inocul...

  9. Molecular discrimination of pouched four-eyed opossums from the Mamirauá Reserve in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes,Cláudia; Ayres,Jose Marcio; Sampaio,Iracilda; Schneider,Horacio

    2006-01-01

    Previous cytochrome B (CytB) mtDNA studies have suggested four species for the opossum genus Philander (four-eyed opossums), three (P. mcilhennyi, P. andersoni and P. opossum) from the Amazon and one (P. frenata) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest. During a faunal survey nine specimens of Philander sp. and four of Didelphis marsupialis were collected in the Mamirauá Sustainable Reserve, Amazonas State, Brazil. Preliminary analyses based on morphology and geographical distributions were not co...

  10. Genetically different isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi elicit different infection dynamics in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M; Ellis, Angela E; Yabsley, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a genetically and biologically diverse species. In the current study we determined T. cruzi infection dynamics in two common North American reservoirs, Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor). Based on previous molecular and culture data from naturally-exposed animals, we hypothesised that raccoons would have a longer patent period than opossums, and raccoons would be competent reservoirs for both genotypes T. cruzi I (TcI) and TcIIa, while opossums would only serve as hosts for TcI. Individuals (n=2 or 3) of each species were inoculated with 1x10(6) culture-derived T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa (North American (NA) - raccoon), TcI (NA - opossum), TcIIb (South American - human), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitemias in opossums gradually increased and declined rapidly, whereas parasitemias peaked sooner in raccoons and they maintained relatively high parasitemia for 5weeks. Raccoons became infected with all three T. cruzi strains, while opossums only became infected with TcI and TcIIb. Although opossums were susceptible to TcIIb, infection dynamics were dramatically different compared with TcI. Opossums inoculated with TcIIb seroconverted, but parasitemia duration was short and only detectable by PCR. In addition, raccoons seroconverted sooner (3-7days post inoculation) than opossums (10days post inoculation). These data suggest that infection dynamics of various T. cruzi strains can differ considerably in different wildlife hosts.

  11. oPOSSUM-3: advanced analysis of regulatory motif over-representation across genes or ChIP-Seq datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Andrew T; Arenillas, David J; Worsley Hunt, Rebecca; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-09-01

    oPOSSUM-3 is a web-accessible software system for identification of over-represented transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and TFBS families in either DNA sequences of co-expressed genes or sequences generated from high-throughput methods, such as ChIP-Seq. Validation of the system with known sets of co-regulated genes and published ChIP-Seq data demonstrates the capacity for oPOSSUM-3 to identify mediating transcription factors (TF) for co-regulated genes or co-recovered sequences. oPOSSUM-3 is available at http://opossum.cisreg.ca.

  12. Surveillance and movements of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the bovine tuberculosis region of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W D; Fischer, J W; Anderson, C W; Marks, D R; Deliberto, T; Robbe-Austerman, S; Vercauteren, K C

    2013-07-01

    Wildlife reservoir hosts of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in the UK and New Zealand, respectively. Similar species warrant further investigation in the northern lower peninsula of Michigan, USA due to the continued presence of bTB on cattle farms. Most research in Michigan, USA has focused on interactions between white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) for the transmission of the infectious agent of bTB, Mycobacterium bovis, due to high deer densities and feeding practices. However, limited data are available on medium-sized mammals such as Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; hereafter referred to as opossum) and their movements and home range in Michigan near cattle farms. We conducted surveillance of medium-sized mammals on previously depopulated cattle farms for presence of M. bovis infections and equipped opossum with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to assess potential differences in home range between farms inside and outside the bTB core area that has had cattle test positive for M. bovis. On farms inside the bTB core area, prevalence in opossum was comparable [6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-11.0] to prevalence in raccoon (Procyon lotor; 4%, 95% CI 1.0-9.0, P=0.439) whereas only a single opossum tested positive for M. bovis on farms outside the bTB core area. The prevalence in opossum occupying farms that had cattle test positive for M. bovis was higher (6.4%) than for opossum occupying farms that never had cattle test positive for M. bovis (0.9%, P=0.01). Mean size of home range for 50% and 95% estimates were similar by sex (P=0.791) both inside or outside the bTB core area (P=0.218). Although surveillance efforts and home range were not assessed on the same farms, opossum use of farms near structures was apparent as was selection for farms over surrounding forested habitats. The use of farms, stored feed, and structures by opossum

  13. Evaluation of the shedding of Sarcocystis falcatula sporocysts in experimentally infected Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R A; Ginn, P E; Dame, J B; Greiner, E C

    2001-02-26

    Five Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were fed muscles of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) containing sarcocysts of Sarcocystis falcatula. Shedding of sporocysts was confirmed in all five opossums by fecal flotation. Counts were conducted daily for 2 weeks and then biweekly until the animals were euthanized and necropsied. The average prepatent period was 9.8 (7-16) days. The number of sporocysts shed varied greatly between the opossums with maximum mean shedding occurring at 71.6 (26-112) days post-infection (DPI). Average sporocyst production was 1480 sporocysts/gram of feces (SPG). Maximum output was 37,000 SPG. Average fecal yield in captivity was 17.5g of feces/day. Opossums shed 25,900 sporocysts/day (average) and a maximum of 647,500 sporocysts/day. All opossums shed sporocysts until time of euthanasia (46-200 DPI). Histologically, numerous sporocysts were present in the lamina propria at necropsy, primarily in the proximal half of the small intestine. Sporocysts were generally in clusters within the lamina propria of the luminal two-thirds of the villi. Sporocysts were found less frequently in the epithelium. No evidence of ongoing gametogony or other development was evident.

  14. Postmortem scavenging by the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana): Impact on taphonomic assemblages and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kama A; Lord, Wayne D; Ketchum, Heather R; O'Brien, R Christopher

    2016-09-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is a highly active scavenger whose behavior has significant impacts on rates of decomposition and skeletonization, which have previously not been addressed. In this study, scavenging by the opossum led to the skeletonization of carcasses in half of the accumulated degree days (ADD) of a comparable non-scavenged control carcass. Opossums used body orifices, as well as natural tears caused by the decomposition process, to access internal tissues and consume them. This activity resulted in little movement of the carcass and the retained appearance of natural undisturbed decomposition. This concealed activity has the potential to cause drastically incorrect estimates of time since deposition and post-mortem interval. Scavenging by opossums was also found to leave distinct tooth mark and other defects on bone, which have not been previously distinguished in the literature. This research suggests, beyond effects on PMI, that scavenging by opossums has been historically overlooked and misattributed to canid scavengers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Granulomatous pneumonia in the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) associated with an intracellular fungal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almgren, C M; McClure, D E

    2000-06-01

    Two of nine female opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in a closed breeding colony were submitted for necropsy due to a history of poor reproductive performance in the absence of overt clinical disease. On histologic examination, marked granulomatous to pyogranulomatous pneumonia was identified in these animals. Lung sections were stained with periodic acid-Schiff and Gomori's methenamine silver nitrate. Pulmonary lesions were characterized by large numbers of foamy macrophages within the alveoli and interstitium, prominent subpleural and peribronchiolar aggregates of histiocytes, and a few scattered lymphoid nodules. Numerous fungal organisms were evident within the cytoplasm of macrophages on impregnation of histologic sections with the aforementioned stains. Other inciting agents were not identified. A third opossum lacked pulmonary lesions, but had similar organisms within one auricular sebaceous gland/hair follicle without apparent reaction to the organisms. A fungal agent was associated with granulomatous pneumonia in the opossum, and comparison was made with endogenous lipid pneumonia previously described in opossums. These findings stress the importance of use of special stains and additional diagnostic techniques when prominent alveolar macrophage accumulation is present on histologic examination of the opossum lung.

  16. Intrahepatic growth and maturation of Gnathostoma turgidum in the natural definitive opossum host, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia Páz; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Willms, Kaethe; de la Cruz-Otero, María del Carmen; Guadalupe Rendón-Maldonado, José; Robert, Lilia; Antuna, Silvia; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2010-09-01

    Gnathostoma turgidum is a gastric nematode parasite of opossums found in the Americas. We recently found that G. turgidum juveniles appear in the liver of the opossums where they become mature adults and almost synchronously move to the stomach during certain months of the year, suggesting the importance of the liver for the growth and maturation of this species in the final hosts. In this study we attempted to detect G. turgidum larvae in the liver of opossums, Didelphis virginiana that are the natural final hosts. The results show that tiny (<3mm in length) third stage larvae (L3) appeared in the liver of opossums around November and December. Also in the liver, we found large L3 of up to about 10mm in length together with juveniles and mature adults from February to March. In spite of their length, large L3 have 4 rows of hooklets, and their gonads remained undeveloped. Morphological features of the small and large L3 of G. turgidum are described including scanning electron microscope images. The seasonal switching of the several growth stages of G. turgidum from small L3 to adult worms in the liver and eventual migration to the stomach in opossums suggests the unique feature of G. turgidum utilizing the liver as the maturation site.

  17. Aerobic bacteria cultured from the mouth of the American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) with reference to bacteria associated with bite infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, J M; Dalsey, W C

    1990-01-01

    The American opossum inflicts bite injuries both when hunted for food and when accidentally provoked when handled in captivity. This study involved aerobically culturing organisms from the mouths of seven wild opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Isolates included streptococci, coagulase-positive and -negative staphylococci, Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter freundii, Eikenella corrodens, and Escherichia coli.

  18. Aerobic bacteria cultured from the mouth of the American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) with reference to bacteria associated with bite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J M; Dalsey, W C

    1990-01-01

    The American opossum inflicts bite injuries both when hunted for food and when accidentally provoked when handled in captivity. This study involved aerobically culturing organisms from the mouths of seven wild opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Isolates included streptococci, coagulase-positive and -negative staphylococci, Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter freundii, Eikenella corrodens, and Escherichia coli. PMID:2229365

  19. Experimental Aerosol Inoculation and Investigation of Potential Lateral Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Karla A; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Bolin, Steve; Kaneene, John; Sikarskie, James; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    An endemic focus of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection in the state of Michigan has contributed to a regional persistence in the animal population. The objective of this study was to determine if Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) contribute to disease persistence by experimentally assessing intraspecies lateral transmission. One wild caught pregnant female opossum bearing 11 joeys (young opossum) and one age-matched joey were obtained for the study. Four joeys were aerosol inoculated with M. bovis (inoculated), four joeys were noninoculated (exposed), and four joeys plus the dam were controls. Four replicate groups of one inoculated and one exposed joey were housed together for 45 days commencing 7 days after experimental inoculation. At day 84 opossums were sacrificed. All four inoculated opossums had a positive test band via rapid test, culture positive, and gross/histologic lesions consistent with caseogranulomatous pneumonia. The exposed and control groups were unremarkable on gross, histology, rapid test, and culture. In conclusion, M. bovis infection within the inoculated opossums was confirmed by gross pathology, histopathology, bacterial culture, and antibody tests. However, M. bovis was not detected in the control and exposed opossums. There was no appreciable lateral transmission of M. bovis after aerosol inoculation and 45 days of cohabitation between infected and uninfected opossums.

  20. Experimental Aerosol Inoculation and Investigation of Potential Lateral Transmission of Mycobacterium bovis in Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Fenton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An endemic focus of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis infection in the state of Michigan has contributed to a regional persistence in the animal population. The objective of this study was to determine if Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana contribute to disease persistence by experimentally assessing intraspecies lateral transmission. One wild caught pregnant female opossum bearing 11 joeys (young opossum and one age-matched joey were obtained for the study. Four joeys were aerosol inoculated with M. bovis (inoculated, four joeys were noninoculated (exposed, and four joeys plus the dam were controls. Four replicate groups of one inoculated and one exposed joey were housed together for 45 days commencing 7 days after experimental inoculation. At day 84 opossums were sacrificed. All four inoculated opossums had a positive test band via rapid test, culture positive, and gross/histologic lesions consistent with caseogranulomatous pneumonia. The exposed and control groups were unremarkable on gross, histology, rapid test, and culture. In conclusion, M. bovis infection within the inoculated opossums was confirmed by gross pathology, histopathology, bacterial culture, and antibody tests. However, M. bovis was not detected in the control and exposed opossums. There was no appreciable lateral transmission of M. bovis after aerosol inoculation and 45 days of cohabitation between infected and uninfected opossums.

  1. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi and organ alterations in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from western Mexico - short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Vincenzo; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Villagrán-Herrera, María E; De Diego-Cabrera, José A; Rocha-Chávez, Gonzalo; Martínez-Ibarra, José A

    2017-12-01

    Small populations of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in western Mexico are endangered by hunting and natural predators as well as by different kinds of diseases. After two serological analyses using Serodia® latex particle agglutination and indirect haemagglutination (IHA) tests, 35 (53.03%) of 66 collected opossums in two small towns in western Mexico were positive for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi. Twenty-eight of the 35 seropositive opossums had pathological lesions: 11 had changes in only one organ, 13 in two organs, and four had pathological changes in three organs. Splenomegaly was the most common finding in the examined opossums, followed by hepatomegaly. These potentially fatal pathological changes could contribute to the scarcity of the opossum population, even leading to the extinction of this species in western Mexico.

  2. Spontaneous cure after natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda) in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Montoya, Hilario; Galaviz-Renteria, Xochilth; Castillo-Ureta, Hipólito; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Nawa, Yukifumi; Bojorquez-Contreras, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia; Rocha-Tirado, Rodrigo; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Seasonality of the nematode Gnathostoma turgidum in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in the wild has been reported; however, the mechanisms involved in deworming are unknown. We monitored the parasitologic and biologic changes in four Virginia opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum by coproparasitologic examination and abdominal ultrasonography. Eggs became detectable in the feces of opossums in May, peaked in July and August, and suddenly decreased in October. Adults of G. turgidum were expelled in the feces mainly in September. Ultrasonography of the liver showed slight damage during May. Lesions in the stomach appeared in April and persisted until September. The abnormalities of the liver and stomach were resolved in November. These data suggest that G. turgidum is likely expelled as a result of host immunologic mechanisms, although termination of a natural life span cannot be definitively excluded.

  3. PULMONARY LESIONS CAUSED BY THE LUNGWORM (DIDELPHOSTRONGYLUS HAYESI) IN THE OPOSSUM (DIDELPHIS VIRGINIANA) IN COLIMA, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Crespo, Rubén A; López-Mayagoitia, Alfonso; Ramírez-Romero, Rafael; Martínez-Burnes, Julio; Prado-Rebolledo, Omar F; García-Márquez, Luis J

    2017-06-01

    Didelphostrongylus hayesi is an important and prevalent pulmonary nematode in the opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ). An in-depth description of the pulmonary lesions caused by this nematode is lacking. The objective of this investigation was to make a detailed account of the gross, subgross, and microscopic changes that occur in the lungs of opossums naturally infected with D. hayesi. Forty-four opossums trapped in the state of Colima, Mexico, were euthanized by an overdose of barbiturates. Following a postmortem examination, the right lung was cut from the main bronchi and placed in a Petri dish containing a saline solution for the detection and identification of live parasites. The left lung was fixed and cut serially for subgross microscopic examination and sections of lung were cut and stained for histopathologic examination. The most remarkable gross change in parasitized lungs was a poorly collapsible pulmonary parenchyma and mild emphysema. The right lung tested positive for lungworms on gross examination in 20/44, and 11/44 (25%) of the left lungs showed tan nodules on the pleural surface. Microscopically, the bronchi of 20/44 animals harbored adult and larval stages of D. hayesi (left lung), the same 20 opossums from which nematodes were grossly evident at necropsy (right lung). Adults and larvae were present in bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli mixed with desquamated cells and many eosinophils, and to a lesser extent neutrophils, alveolar macrophages, and giant cells. Bronchi and bronchioles exhibited goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia respectively, and infiltration of lymphoplasmacytic cells in the interstitium and lamina propria. The tan nodules consisted of focal alveolar endogenous lipidosis, which likely resulted from parasitic airway obstruction. The lungs of 3/20 parasitized opossums also showed alveolar bronchiolization (Lambertosis). The absence of Eucoleus aerophilus or bacterial pneumonia incriminates D. hayesi as the putative cause of

  4. Prevalence of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in Northern Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Murphy, Alice J; Mansfield, Linda S

    2004-08-01

    A total of 206 Virginia opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) collected from the mid-Michigan region, United States, during a period extending from 1996 to 2002 were sampled for the presence of Sarcocystis spp sporocysts. All isolates were phenotypically identified as Sarcocystis spp and genotyped to the species level by PCR-based techniques. The overall prevalence of Sarcocystis spp in opossums was 18% (37/206). The prevalence of Sarcocystis spp differed significantly with age ( P<0.001) and adult opossums were more commonly infected (14.6%; 30/206) than juveniles (3.4%; 7/206). No significant difference in the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp infection was observed between male and female ( P<0.15). The highest prevalence was recorded during summer (9.2%; 19/206). PCR-RFLP analyses demonstrated the majority of Sarcocystis isolates to be S. neurona, with some animals co-infected with sporocysts of S. falcatula. Out of the 37 Sarcocystis-infected opossums, 23 (62%) had sporocysts of S. neurona only, four (11%) had sporocysts of S. falcatula only, and eight (22%) had a mixture of S. neurona and S. falcatula sporocysts. These findings indicate that mixed Sarcocystis infections in opossums are common. The propensity for Sarcocystis spp to co-exist in the opossum gut enhances dissemination and environmental contamination with these coccidia. Additionally, this increases the chance for sexual recombination between Sarcocystis spp, given the proclivity of these species to reproduce sexually at high numbers in the intestinal cells of their definitive host.

  5. Isolation of 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Jennifer A; Beasley, James C; Rhodes, Olin E

    2009-07-01

    Twenty-one polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). The number of alleles ranged from two to 13 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.464 to 0.964. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were observed at three loci and null alleles were detected at five loci. Evidence for gametic disequilibrium was observed between three sets of paired loci after a sequential Bonferroni correction was applied. These markers will enable us to investigate the mating tactics, movement behaviour and social structure of Virginia opossum populations inhabiting fragmented agricultural landscapes. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Helminths of the Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana (Mammalia: Didelphidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monet-Mendoza, Anne; Osorio-Sarabia, David; García-Prieto, Luis

    2005-02-01

    The goal of this study was to provide further information about helminth parasites of Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana Kerr, 1792 from Mexico. During routine faunal investigations between 1958 and 2001, 101 opossum were necropsied. Nineteen taxa of helminths were collected, representing 13 genera from hosts in 27 localities from Mexico. There are 58 new locality records, with 6 species recorded in Mexico for the first time: Brachylaima virginiana Dickerson, 1930; Cruzia americana Mapleston, 1930; Didelphonema longispiculata (Hill, 1939); Didelphostrongylus hayesi Prestwood, 1976; Viannaia didelphis Travassos, 1914; and Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914. This increases the number of helminth taxa previously known for this host in Mexico to 28.

  7. Discovery of an endemic area of Gnathostoma turgidum infection among opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia Páz; Willms, Kaethe; Rendón-Maldonado, José Guadalupe; de la Cruz-Otero, María del Carmen; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Robert, Lilia; Antuna, Silvia; León-Règagnon, Virginia; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-06-01

    Gnathostomosis, caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum, is a serious public health issue in Mexico. Although 2 other Gnathostoma spp., G. turgidum and G. lamothei, have been found in wild animals, their natural life cycle or their relation to human disease remains unclear. While we were conducting an epidemiological survey on Gnathostoma spp. in Sinaloa State, Mexico, we found an endemic area for G. turgidum in common opossums, Didelphis virginiana, located in Tecualilla, Sinaloa. The species identification was carried out by morphological and molecular biological methods. This is the first record of an endemic area for G. turgidum infection in opossums, D. virginiana, in the Americas.

  8. Substance P stimulates the opossum sphincter of Oddi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, J E; Cho, N; Zenilman, M E; Barteau, J A; Soper, N J; Becker, J M

    1990-09-01

    We have previously shown that substance P (SP) regulates sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility in vivo. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Our aim was to develop an in vitro model to measure spikeburst (SB) an contractile frequency (CMC) of the SO and to characterize further SP effects. In 16 opossums, SO rings were excised, mounted within a Kreb's tissue bath with bipolar electrodes and force transducers, allowed to equilibrate, and exposed to increasing SP concentrations with washout between each test solution. Spikeburst and CMC frequencies were recorded on a polygraph, quantitated, expressed as differences before and during SP, and statistically analyzed with Student's test. Although SP induced a significant concentration-dependent increase in phasic SB frequency and CMC, the amplitude of concentrations was not affected by SP. A close correlation was found between basal and SP-stimulated SB and CMC, suggesting myoelectric and mechanical coupling. Previous exposure of SO to SP antagonist [D-Arg1, D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9, Leu11]-SP significantly decreased the response to SP. Tetrodotoxin (TTX), did not affect the delta CMC response to SP. In conclusion an in vitro preparation was developed to study the effect of SP on the SO. Substance P increased SB and CMC of the SO in a concentration-dependent fashion, thus acting as a stimulatory peptide. Perfusion of SO rings with SP antagonist had no effect on basal CMC but significantly inhibited the action of SP in a competitive manner. The effect of SP was not altered by TTX. These data suggest that the action of SP on the SO is primarily myogenic.

  9. Experimental transmission of Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999 from the South American opossum (Didelphis albiventris) to the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Speer, C A; Bowman, D D; Horton, K M; Venturini, C; Venturini, L

    2000-06-01

    Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999 from the South American opossum Didelphis albiventris was successfully transmitted to the North American opossum Didelphis virginiana. Sporocysts from a naturally infected D. albiventris from Argentina were fed to 2 gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice. The mice were killed 64 and 71 days after sporocyst feeding (DAF). Muscles containing sarcocysts from the KO mouse killed 71 DAF were fed to a captive D. virginiana; this opossum shed sporocysts 11 days after ingesting sarcocysts. Sporocysts from D. virginiana were fed to 9 KO mice and 4 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Schizonts, sarcocysts, or both of S. speeri were found in tissues of all 7 KO mice killed 29-85 DAF; 2 mice died 39 and 48 DAF were not necropsied. Sarcocystis stages were not found in tissues of the 4 budgerigars fed S. speeri sporocysts and killed 35 DAE These results indicate that S. speeri is distinct from Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona, and that S. speeri is present in both D. albiventris and D. virginiana.

  10. Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in Brazilian opossums (Didelphis spp.): Molecular investigation and in vitro isolation of Sarcocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Leane S Q; Jesus, Rogério F; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Silva, Jean C R; Siqueira, Daniel B; Marvulo, Maria F V; Aléssio, Felipe M; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Julião, Fred S; Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gondim, Luís F P

    2017-08-30

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. Opossums (Didelphis albiventris and Didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of S. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while N. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. The aims of this study were to investigate S. neurona and N. caninum in tissues from opossums in the northeastern Brazil, and to isolate Brazilian strains of Sarcocystis spp. from wild opossums for comparison with previously isolated strains. Carcasses of 39 opossums from Bahia state were available for molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. and N. caninum in their tissues, and for sporocyst detection by intestinal scraping. In addition, Sarcocystis-like sporocysts from nine additional opossums, obtained in São Paulo state, were tested. Sarcocystis DNA was found in 16 (41%) of the 39 opossums' carcasses; N. caninum DNA was detected in tissues from three opossums. The sporocysts from the nine additional opossums from São Paulo state were tested by bioassay and induced infection in nine budgerigars, but in none of the gamma-interferon knockout mice. In vitro isolation was successful using tissues from all nine budgerigars. The isolated strains were maintained in CV-1 and Vero cells. Three of nine isolates presented contamination in cell culture and were discarded. Analysis of six isolates based on five loci showed that these parasites were genetically different from each other and also distinct from S. neurona, S. falcatula, S. lindsayi, and S. speeri. In conclusion, opossums in the studied regions were infected with N. caninum and Sarcocystis spp. and represent a potential source of infection to other animals. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in tissues from black-eared opossum (D. aurita or D

  11. Experimental inoculation of North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana) with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegel, Kelly L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Berry, Dale E; Church, Steven V; Reed, Willie M; Sikarskie, James G; Kaneene, John B

    2002-04-01

    Eight North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were inoculated with 1 x 10(5) colony forming units of Mycobacterium bovis to investigate their potential as reservoir hosts for bovine tuberculosis in Michigan. Four animals received this dose orally and four were inoculated intramuscularly (i.m.). In each group, two animals were euthanized 1 mo postinoculation (PI) and two at 2 mo PI. Four control animals were housed separately and sacrificed in the same manner as those inoculated. One of four orally inoculated opossums and three of four i.m.-inoculated opossums were positive for M. bovis by culture of tissues obtained at necropsy. The oral recipient had positive cultures from intestine and pooled lymphoid samples. Pooled lymphoid samples were positive in three i.m.-inoculated animals and two of these also had positive liver and lung cultures. One animal with gross and histologic lesions compatible with tuberculosis had negative tissue cultures. The findings suggest that opossums are susceptible to M. bovis infection by multiple routes, although their relative susceptibility compared to true reservoir hosts appears to be low.

  12. West Nile virus isolated from a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R; Lash, R Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M; Godsey, Marvin S; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L; Brault, Aaron C; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  13. Prevalence and tissue distribution of Besnoitia darlingi cysts in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Mansfield, Linda S; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Saeed, Mahdi A

    2003-08-14

    Specimens of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in Michigan were examined over 1 year to document the presence of Besnoitia darlingi cysts. Cyst morphology, prevalence, seasonal variation, and tissue sites of isolation were studied. Histology and ultrastructural features of the detected cysts and bradyzoites were consistent with B. darlingi. In the opossums, B. darlingi had intracellular tissue cysts. Tissue cysts had a mean diameter of 560 microm and were separated from the host tissue by a thick (5-20 microm) cyst wall. Overall prevalence of B. darlingi cysts in opossums was 10.9% (15/137). Variations in the prevalence were detected during spring (3/17; 17.6%), summer (10/34; 29.4%), and fall (2/60; 3.3%). No cysts were detected in the specimens examined during winter (0/26; 0%). Numerous B. darlingi cysts were detected in ears, conjunctiva, tongue, abdominal muscles, diaphragm, stomach, heart, liver, kidney, lung, and spleen. Cysts were detected mainly in adult female opossums that were debilitated. Ear was the most frequent organ from which the cysts were reported (10/15; 66.7%) when compared individually with other body tissues (P<0.05).

  14. oPOSSUM: integrated tools for analysis of regulatory motif over-representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Sui, Shannan J.; Fulton, Debra L.; Arenillas, David J.; Kwon, Andrew T.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2007-01-01

    The identification of over-represented transcription factor binding sites from sets of co-expressed genes provides insights into the mechanisms of regulation for diverse biological contexts. oPOSSUM, an internet-based system for such studies of regulation, has been improved and expanded in this new release. New features include a worm-specific version for investigating binding sites conserved between Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae, as well as a yeast-specific version for the analysis of co-expressed sets of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes. The human and mouse applications feature improvements in ortholog mapping, sequence alignments and the delineation of multiple alternative promoters. oPOSSUM2, introduced for the analysis of over-represented combinations of motifs in human and mouse genes, has been integrated with the original oPOSSUM system. Analysis using user-defined background gene sets is now supported. The transcription factor binding site models have been updated to include new profiles from the JASPAR database. oPOSSUM is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/oPOSSUM/ PMID:17576675

  15. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Miller, Melissa A; Grigg, Michael E; Crosbie, Paul R; Conrad, Patricia A

    2010-05-28

    Sarcocystis neurona is a significant cause of neurological disease in horses and other animals, including the threatened Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the only known definitive hosts for S. neurona in North America, are an introduced species in California. S. neurona DNA isolated from sporocysts and/or infected tissues of 10 opossums, 6 horses, 1 cat, 23 Southern sea otters, and 1 harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with natural infections was analyzed based on 15 genetic markers, including the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region; the 25/396 marker; S. neurona surface antigen genes (snSAGs) 2, 3, and 4; and 10 different microsatellites. Based on phylogenetic analysis, most of the S. neurona strains segregated into three genetically distinct groups. Additionally, fifteen S. neurona samples from opossums and several intermediate hosts, including sea otters and horses, were found to be genetically identical across all 15 genetic markers, indicating that fatal encephalitis in Southern sea otters and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses is strongly linked to S. neurona sporocysts shed by opossums. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation in immunodeficient mice of Sarcocystis neurona from opossum (Didelphis virginiana) faeces, and its differentiation from Sarcocystis falcatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S

    1998-12-01

    Sarcocystis neurona was isolated in nude mice and gamma-interferon knockout mice fed sporocysts from faeces of naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana). Mice fed sporocysts became lethargic and developed encephalitis. Protozoa were first found in the brain starting 21 days post-inoculation. Sarcocystis neurona was recovered in cell culture from the homogenate of liver, spleen and brain of a nude mouse 11 days after feeding sporocysts. The protozoa in mouse brain and in cell culture multiplied by schizogony and mature schizonts often had a residual body. Sarcocystis falcatula, which has an avian-opossum cycle, was not infective to nude or knockout mice. Protozoa were not found in tissues of nude mice or knockout mice after subcutaneous injection with culture-derived S. falcatula merozoites and sporocysts from the faeces of opossums presumed to contain only S. falcatula. Results demonstrate that S. neurona is distinct from S. falcatula, and that opossums are hosts for both species.

  17. Risk factors associated with the presence of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts in opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, L G; Black, S S; Rashmir-Raven, A; Hurst, G; Dubey, J P

    2001-12-13

    Sarcocystis neurona is the most important cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horse in the Americas. The only known definitive host for this parasite in the United States is the opossum (Didelphis virginiana); however, despite the importance of the disease, the epidemiology of the parasite in the definitive host is poorly understood. To begin addressing these data gaps, potential risk factors were evaluated for their association with the presence of sporocysts of S. neurona in opossums live-trapped in March 1999 and November 1999 to May 2000. Sporocysts of S. neurona were found in 19 of the 72 animals examined. Potential risk factors evaluated were locality, trap date, age, gender, the presence of young in the pouch of females, and body condition score. Variables that were associated with the presence of S. neurona sporocysts were used in logistic regression analysis. Of the factors examined, season and body condition score were associated with increased odds of an animal harboring sporocysts.

  18. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp.) FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo A; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis) and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis) by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltA and 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1%) from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households.

  19. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Castro, M.; Noh-Pech, H.; Puerto-Hern?ndez, R.; Reyes-Hern?ndez, B.; Panti-May, A.; Hern?ndez-Betancourt, S.; Yeh-Gorocica, A.; Gonz?lez-Herrera, L.; Zavala-Castro, J.; Puerto, F.I.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13) in brains. Positive amplic...

  20. Cone pigments in a North American marsupial, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana)

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Gerald H.; Williams, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Only two of the four cone opsin gene families found in vertebrates are represented in contemporary eutherian and marsupial species. Recent genetic studies of two species of South American marsupial detected the presence of representatives from two of the classes of cone opsin genes and the structures of these genes predicted cone pigments with respective peaks in the ultraviolet and long-wavelength portions of the spectrum. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), a profoundly nocturnal a...

  1. Receptors and cGMP signalling mechanism for E. coli enterotoxin in opossum kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, L.R.; Krause, W.J.; Freeman, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Receptors for the heat-stable enterotoxin produced by Escherichia coli were found in the kidney and intestine of the North American opossum and in cultured renal cell lines. The enterotoxin markedly increased guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) production in slices of kidney cortex and medulla, in suspensions of intestinal mucosa, and in the opossum kidney (OK) and rat kangaroo kidney (PtK-2) cell lines. In contrast, atrial natriuretic factor elicited much smaller increases in cGMP levels of kidney, intestine, or cultured kidney cell lines. The enterotoxin receptors in OK cells had a molecular mass of approximately 120 kDa when measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of receptors crosslinked with 125 I-enterotoxin. The occurrence of receptors for the E. coli peptide in OK implies that these receptors may be involved in the regulation of renal tubular function in the opossum. E. coli enterotoxin caused a much larger increase in urine cGMP excretion than did atrial natriuretic factor when these peptides were injected intravenously into opossums. However, atrial natriuretic factor elicited a marked diuresis, natriuresis, and increased urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, potassium, and magnesium. In contrast, the enterotoxin did not acutely influence OK fluid and electrolyte excretion. Thus the substantial increase in cGMP synthesis produced by the bacterial peptide in OK cortex and medulla in vitro and the increased renal excretion of cGMP in vivo were not associated with changes in electrolyte or water excretion. Whether cGMP represents a second messenger molecule in the kidney is an interesting question that was raised but not answered in this series of experiments

  2. CUTANEOUS EPITHELIOTROPIC T-CELL LYMPHOMA WITH METASTASES IN A VIRGINIA OPOSSUM (DIDELPHIS VIRGINIANA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbie, Christine T; Carpenter, James W; Choudhary, Shambhunath; DeBey, Brad; Bagladi-Swanson, Mary; Eshar, David

    2015-06-01

    A 2-yr-old, captive, intact female Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ) with a 7-mo history of ulcerative dermatitis and weight loss was euthanatized for progressive worsening of clinical signs. Initially the opossum was treated with several courses of antibiotics, both topically and systemically; systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication; and, later, systemic glucocorticoids, with no improvement in clinical signs. Histopathologic samples of skin lesions taken 3 mo into the course of disease revealed no evidence of neoplasia; however, cytologic samples of a skin lesion taken 5 mo into the course of disease revealed mature lymphocytes, and were suggestive of cutaneous lymphoma. Postmortem histopathology revealed neoplastic cells consistent with lymphoma; these were found in the haired skin of the forearm, axilla, hind limb, face, and lateral body wall, as well as the liver, kidney, axillary lymph node, heart, and spleen. Multifocal neutrophilic and eosinophilic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis and folliculitis of the haired skin were also present. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of cutaneous lymphoma in a Virginia opossum and the first documented case with visceral metastases in a marsupial.

  3. Observations on besnoitiosis in Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) from Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sheikha, Hany M; Hussein, Hussein S; Monib, Mohammad el-Salahy M; Mansfield, Linda S

    2007-04-01

    Besnoitia tissue cysts were found in five naturally-infected adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Michigan. Details of the microscopy, histopathology, ultra-structure, and genetic features of the cysts were studied to identify their species-specific traits. The materials were differentiated phenotypically from cysts of other Besnoitia spp. by difference in size, pattern of tissue distribution, morphology of pellicle and nucleus, number of micronemes and rhoptries, amount of lipids and amylopectin, and presence of enigmatic bodies. Morphometric variations identified the tissue cysts and the pathologic changes in opossums host to be due to B. darlingi. The data were proved by phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequences of the first internal transcribed spacer of nuclear rDNA. Cluster analysis showed that B. darlingi was distinct from all other Besnoitia spp. as two distinct phylogenetic clades: I- included Besnoitia spp. described from opossum (B. darlingi), sheep (B. jellisoni), rodent (B. akadoni) and rabbit (B. oryctofelisi) and clade II- encompassed parasites described from cattle (B. besnoiti), equids (B. bennetti) and reindeer (B. tarandi). The genetic attributed particular to the genus Besnoitia complemented the morphologica features and lead to accurate delimitation of Besnoitia species.

  4. Site selection by intestinal helminths of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, R D; Pung, O J; Richardson, D J

    1999-02-01

    Digestive tract helminths of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) were examined for site specificity and interspecific interactions. Thirty opossums were live-trapped at 2 localities in Georgia, killed, and their digestive tracts removed and divided into the following sections; esophagus, stomach, small intestine (20 equal sections), cecum, and large intestine (5 equal sections). Helminths present in each section were identified and counted. Three trematode, 1 cestode, 2 acanthocephala, and 6 nematode species were found. Two parasites (the acanthocephalan Centrorhynchus spinosus and the nematode Viannaia hamata) are new state records for Georgia and this is the first report of C. spinosus from an opossum. There was considerable overlap between the spatial distributions of many of the helminth species found in the small intestine though most species had different modal locations. Helminth species locations were unaffected by host sex or trapping locality. There was no evidence that the presence, absence, or intensity of any helminth species affected the location or intensity of other helminth species in the digestive tract.

  5. Sporocyst size of isolates of Sarcocystis shed by the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, M A; Dame, J B; Greiner, E C

    2001-02-26

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is a definitive host for multiple Sarcocystis species including Sarcocystis neurona, one of the causative agents of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a severe, neuromuscular disease of horses. Size and morphologic characteristics of isolates of Sarcocystis shed by the opossum were examined to determine if differences were useful in discriminating between the isolates and/or species. Collections of sporocysts from 17 opossums were molecularly characterized and measured using an ocular micrometer. The mean sporocyst size of isolates of S. neurona was 10.7 microm x 7.0 microm, Sarcocystis falcatula 11.0 microm x 7.1 microm, Sarcocystis speeri 12.2 microm x 8.8 microm, 1085-like isolate 10.9 microm x 6.8 microm, and 3344-like isolate 19.4 microm x 10.5 microm. The length and width of S. speeri were statistically different (p < 0.05) from the sporocysts of other types. The length of S. neurona and S. falcatula sporocysts were statistically different (p < 0.05) from each other and the width of S. falcatula and 1085 differed (p < 0.05). The fifth sporocyst type (3344) was observed, but due to pronounced morphological characteristics, statistical analysis was not performed. There was no consistent difference between the taxa based on internal structure of the sporocyst.

  6. A three-dimensional stereotaxic atlas of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Piotr; Chlodzinska, Natalia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Banasik, Tomasz; Djavadian, Ruzanna L; Węglarz, Władysław P; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2018-05-01

    The gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is a small marsupial gaining recognition as a laboratory animal in biomedical research. Despite numerous studies on opossum neuroanatomy, a consistent and comprehensive neuroanatomical reference for this species is still missing. Here we present the first three-dimensional, multimodal atlas of the Monodelphis opossum brain. It is based on four complementary imaging modalities: high resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance images, micro-computed tomography scans of the cranium, images of the face of the cutting block, and series of sections stained with the Nissl method and for myelinated fibers. Individual imaging modalities were reconstructed into a three-dimensional form and then registered to the MR image by means of affine and deformable registration routines. Based on a superimposition of the 3D images, 113 anatomical structures were demarcated and the volumes of individual regions were measured. The stereotaxic coordinate system was defined using a set of cranial landmarks: interaural line, bregma, and lambda, which allows for easy expression of any location within the brain with respect to the skull. The atlas is released under the Creative Commons license and available through various digital atlasing web services.

  7. ABCB4 mediates diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in laboratory opossums[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeannie; Mahaney, Michael C.; Kushwaha, Rampratap S.; VandeBerg, Jane F.; VandeBerg, John L.

    2010-01-01

    High-responding opossums are susceptible to developing hypercholesterolemia on a high-cholesterol diet, but low-responding opossums are resistant. The observation of low biliary cholesterol and low biliary phospholipids in high responders suggested that the ABCB4 gene affects response to dietary cholesterol. Two missense mutations (Arg29Gly and Ile235Leu) were found in the ABCB4 gene of high responders. High responders (ATHH strain) were bred with low responders (ATHE or ATHL strain) to produce F1 and F2 progeny in two different genetic crosses (KUSH6 and JCX) to determine the effect of ABCB4 allelic variants on plasma cholesterol concentrations after a dietary challenge. Pedigree-based genetic association analyses consistently implicated a variant in ABCB4 or a closely linked locus as a major, but not the sole, genetic contributor to variation in the plasma cholesterol response to dietary cholesterol. High responders, but not low responders, developed liver injury as indicated by elevated plasma biomarkers of liver function, probably reflecting damage to the canalicular membrane by bile salts because of impaired phospholipid secretion. Our results implicate ABCB4 as a major determinant of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in high-responding opossums and suggest that other genes interact with ABCB4 to regulate lipemic response to dietary cholesterol. PMID:20488799

  8. Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of the Lingual Papillae of the Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2005-08-01

    The mammalian tongue has evolved for specialized functions in different species. The structure of its papillae tells about the animal's diet, habit, and taxonomy. The opossum has four kinds of lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, vallate). Scanning electron microscopy of the external features, connective tissue cores, and corrosion casts of the microvasculature show the filiform papillae have a spearhead-like main process and spiny accessory processes around the apical part of the main process. The shape and number of both processes depend on their position on the tongue. On the apex, the main processes have shovel-like capillary networks and the accessory processes have small conical networks. On the lingual radix, the processes have small capillary loops. In the patch region, conical papillae have capillaries arranged as a full sail curving posteriorly. The fungiform papillae are scattered among the filiform papillae and have capillary baskets beneath each taste bud. Giant fungiform papillae on the tongue tip are three to four times larger than the ones on the lingual body. Capillaries of giant papillae form a fan-shaped network. The opossum has three vallate papillae arranged in a triangle. Their tops have secondary capillary loops but not their lateral surfaces. Mucosal folds on the posterolateral border have irregular, fingerlike projections with cylindrical capillary networks. These findings and the structure of the rest of the masticatory apparatus suggest the lingual papillae of opossum have kept their ancestral carnivorous features but also developed the herbivore characteristics of other marsupials.

  9. Adaptive evolution of the venom-targeted vWF protein in opossums that eat pitvipers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A Jansa

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of venom toxin genes is often explained as the result of a biochemical arms race between venomous animals and their prey. However, it is not clear that an arms race analogy is appropriate in this context because there is no published evidence for rapid evolution in genes that might confer toxin resistance among routinely envenomed species. Here we report such evidence from an unusual predator-prey relationship between opossums (Marsupialia: Didelphidae and pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae. In particular, we found high ratios of replacement to silent substitutions in the gene encoding von Willebrand Factor (vWF, a venom-targeted hemostatic blood protein, in a clade of opossums known to eat pitvipers and to be resistant to their hemorrhagic venom. Observed amino-acid substitutions in venom-resistant opossums include changes in net charge and hydrophobicity that are hypothesized to weaken the bond between vWF and one of its toxic snake-venom ligands, the C-type lectin-like protein botrocetin. Our results provide the first example of rapid adaptive evolution in any venom-targeted molecule, and they support the notion that an evolutionary arms race might be driving the rapid evolution of snake venoms. However, in the arms race implied by our results, venomous snakes are prey, and their venom has a correspondingly defensive function in addition to its usual trophic role.

  10. Experimental induction of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses using Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, C K; Granstrom, D E; Gajadhar, A A; Williams, N M; McCrillis, S A; Stamper, S; Langemeier, J L; Dubey, J P

    1997-02-01

    Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts isolated from eight feral opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were pooled and fed to 18 commercially reared budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), 14 wild-caught sparrows (Passer domesticus), one wild-caught slate-colored Junco (Junco hyemalis) and five weanling horses (Equus caballus). All budgerigars died within 5 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Histologic examination revealed meronts within the pulmonary epithelia and typical Sarcocystis falcatula sarcocysts developing in the leg muscles. Sparrows were euthanized 13 and 17 wpi and their carcasses were fed to four laboratory raised opossums. Sporocysts were detected in the feces of two opossums on 15 days post inoculation (dpi) and in a third opossum on 40 dpi. Fecal samples from the fourth opossum remained negative; however, sporocysts were found in intestinal digests from all four opossums. Sporocysts were not found in feces or intestinal digest of an additional opossum that was fed three uninoculated sparrows. Five foals were fed sporocysts (Foals 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7) and two foals were maintained as uninoculated controls (Foals 1 and 6). Sporocysts from two additional feral opossums also were fed to foals. Foal 5 was given 0.05 mg kg-1 dexamethasone sodium phosphate daily beginning 2 days before inoculation for a total of 2 weeks. Horse sera were tested three times per week, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested biweekly for anti-Sarcocystis neurona antibodies by Western blot analysis. No foals had any S. neurona-specific antibodies by Western blot analysis prior to sporocysts ingestion. Seroconversion occurred in Foals 3, 5, and 7 by 24 dpi, followed by positive CSF tests on 28 dpi. Foals 2 and 4 seroconverted by 40 dpi. Cerebrospinal fluid from Foal 2 tested positive by 42 dpi, but Foal 4 remained seronegative throughout the study. Sera and CSF from control Foals 1 and 6 remained seronegative. All foals with positive CSF developed neurologic clinical signs. Neurologic disease

  11. Spontaneous neoplasms in captive Virginia opossums ( Didelphis virginiana): a retrospective case series (1989-2014) and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jenny P; Donnell, Robert L

    2017-05-01

    This retrospective project summarizes the types of neoplasms identified in Virginia opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) presented to the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM) postmortem service in 1989-2014 and serves as a review of the literature. Of the 85 Virginia opossums identified from the UTCVM case database, there were 17 diagnoses of neoplasia from 12 cases (14%). These cases included 8 females, 2 males, and 2 neutered males. All opossums with known ages (11 of 12) were >2 y old. Pulmonary tumors, specifically minimally invasive or lepidic-predominant adenocarcinomas, were the most common diagnosis and accounted for 53% (9 of 17) of the neoplasms. Additional tumors included acute myeloid leukemia with eosinophil maturation, hepatic hemangiosarcoma, sarcoma (unknown origin), squamous cell carcinoma, disseminated mast cell tumor, trichoblastoma, thyroid adenoma, and an osteoma. These findings serve as a reference for the types of spontaneous neoplasms in Virginia opossums; based on these findings, neoplasia should be considered as a differential in mature captive Virginia opossums.

  12. Molecular discrimination of pouched four-eyed opossums from the Mamirauá Reserve in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Nunes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous cytochrome B (CytB mtDNA studies have suggested four species for the opossum genus Philander (four-eyed opossums, three (P. mcilhennyi, P. andersoni and P. opossum from the Amazon and one (P. frenata from the Brazilian Atlantic forest. During a faunal survey nine specimens of Philander sp. and four of Didelphis marsupialis were collected in the Mamirauá Sustainable Reserve, Amazonas State, Brazil. Preliminary analyses based on morphology and geographical distributions were not conclusive, suggesting that Philander specimens could belong to either P. andersoni or P. opossum. In order to elucidate the relationship of this taxon to the remaining Amazonian taxa, seven Philander and two Didelphis specimens animals were sequenced for the cytB mtDNA gene and compared to other previously studied taxa. The maximum likelihood (ML, neighbor-Joining (NJ and maximum parsimony (MP consensus bootstrap trees depicted six groups: Didelphis., P. frenata, P andersoni, P. mcilhennyi, P.o. opossum and Philander sp. and Philander canus in a common assemblage supported by significant bootstrap values, suggesting that the Philander sp. from Mamiraua in fact belongs to the species Philander canus.

  13. The importance of the opossum (Didelphis albiventris as a reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi in Bambuí, Minas Gerais state

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    Alexandre José Fernandes

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In a survey realized on the sylvatic and peridomestic environment at Bambuí county, Minas Gerais State, 44 (37.9% out of 116 opossums (Didelphis albiventris captured were found to be naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. One handred and forty three parasite samples were obtanied from 43 infected opossums using simultaneously hemoculture, xenodiagnosis (Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Rhodnius neglectus and examination of anal glands contents. The parasite samples were characterized according to six isoenzyme patterns. All samples, independently of the method of isolation, presented an isoenzyme pattern similar to the standard T. cruzi Z1, showing that either xenodiagnosis or hemoculture can used without selecting parasite subpopulation from naturally infected opossums. Preveous isoenzyme patterns reported for human T.cruzi isolates from same region were completely different. This isoenzyme dissimilarity between sylvatic and domiciliar environments suggests the existence of two independent T. cruzi transmission cycles in Bambuí. The epidemiological implicatinos of these results are discussed.

  14. Expression, purification and characterization of the recombinant chimeric IgE Fc-fragment opossum-human-opossum (OSO), an active immunotherapeutic vaccine component.

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    Xu, Bingze; Lundgren, Mats; Magnusson, Ann-Christine; Fuentes, Alexis

    2010-11-01

    The active vaccine component recombinant chimeric IgE Fc-fragment opossum-human-opossum (OSO) has been expressed in CHO-K1 cells. It contains two identical polypeptide chains with 338 amino acid residues in each chain connected by two disulfide bridges. The cell lines were adapted to suspension culture in a serum-free medium. An expression level of 60 mg/L was obtained after 8 days in a shaking flask at a temperature of 31.5 degrees C. The OSO protein has been purified to homogeneity by a combination of three chromatographic steps. Virus inactivation and reduction by solvent detergent treatment and nano-filtration were included in the process. The residual host cell protein content was less than 50 ng/mg OSO as analyzed by ELISA. Purity was analyzed by SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions and was estimated by densitometry to be above 99.0%. The dimer content was less than 0.1% as estimated by analytical size exclusion chromatography. The molecular mass, as estimated by SDS-PAGE, is 90 kDa. A value of around 74 kDa was calculated from its amino acid composition. This indicates that the protein is heavily glycosylated containing around 18% carbohydrate. Isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gel disclosed a ladder type band pattern with pI values in the pH-range 7.0-8.3, indicating a variation in the sialic acid content. The OSO protein is not stable at temperatures above 40 degrees C and at pH values below 4 indicating that virus inactivation by incubating the protein solution at higher temperature or at lower pH is not possible. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The detection of hemorrhagic proteins in snake venoms using monoclonal antibodies against Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum.

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    Sánchez, E E; García, C; Pérez, J C; De La Zerda, S J

    1998-10-01

    Most snakes and a few warm-blooded animals have a resistance to snake venoms because of naturally occurring antihemorrhagins found in their sera. The antihemorrhagins in serum of Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) neutralize hemorrhagic activity by binding to hemorrhagins in snake venoms. The binding characteristic of antihemorrhagins in D. virginiana serum was used to develop a five-step western blot. The detection of hemorrhagic proteins were measured indirectly with antihemorrhagins in Virginia opossum serum and with DV-2LD#2, a monoclonal antibody specific for Virginia opossum antihemorrhagins. Snake venoms were separated by native-PAGE, transferred to a Millipore Immobilon-P membrane and then incubated with crude Virginia opossum serum. The hemorrhagins in snake venom bind to antihemorrhagins in Virginia opossum serum which react with DV-2LD#2 a monoclonal antibody that is specific for Virginia opossum antihemorrhagins. DV-2LD#2 monoclonal antibody inhibits antihemorrhagic activity in Virginia opossum serum when mixed in equal amounts. The inhibition of antihemorrhagins by DV-2LD#2 monoclonal antibody suggests specificity. DV-2LD#2 monoclonal antibody does not recognize antihemorrhagins in gray woodrat (Neotoma micropus) serum. The five-step western blot reveals two well-defined bands which represent hemorrhagins found in Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom. Venoms from 15 different snake species were examined to determine the usefulness of the five-step western blot. Other hemorrhagic venoms (Great Basin rattlesnake (C. viridis lutosus), Prairie rattlesnake (C. viridis viridis), Tancitaran dusky rattlesnake (C. pusillus), Northern Mojave rattlesnake (C. scutulatus scutulatus type B) and Northern Pacific rattlesnake (C. v. oreganus)) had one single band in the five-step western blot. DV-2LD#2 did not bind to the non-hemorrhagic venoms and reacted with 50% of the hemorrhagic venoms used in this study. The monoclonal antibody, CAH

  16. Body size of commom opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied 1826 (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae on southern brazilian islands

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    CH. Salvador

    Full Text Available The body size of vertebrates isolated on islands can undergo changes due to ecological features of these environments. This study aimed to compare the body size of the common opossum, Didelphis aurita, from different insular populations within the same archipelago in southern Brazil. The opossum populations showed corporal variation and different hypotheses were raised to understand the results. This study constitutes the most detailed body size comparison of a marsupial within different insular populations in the Neotropical zone and the data gathered represents an initial contribution for regional fauna biometric knowledge.

  17. Myosin isoform fiber type and fiber size in the tail of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

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    Hazimihalis, P J; Gorvet, M A; Butcher, M T

    2013-01-01

    Muscle fiber type is a well studied property in limb muscles, however, much less is understood about myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression in caudal muscles of mammalian tails. Didelphid marsupials are an interesting lineage in this context as all species have prehensile tails, but show a range of tail-function depending on either their arboreal or terrestrial locomotor habits. Differences in prehensility suggest that MHC isoform fiber types may also be different, in that terrestrial opossums may have a large distribution of oxidative fibers for object carrying tasks instead of faster, glycolytic fiber types expected in mammals with long tails. To test this hypothesis, MHC isoform fiber type and their regional distribution (proximal/transitional/distal) were determined in the tail of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Fiber types were determined by a combination of myosin-ATPase histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and SDS-PAGE. Results indicate a predominance of the fast MHC-2A and -2X isoforms in each region of the tail. The presence of two fast isoforms, in addition to the slow MHC-1 isoform, was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. The overall MHC isoform fiber type distribution for the tail was: 25% MHC-1, 71% MHC-2A/X hybrid, and 4% MHC-1/2A hybrid. Oxidative MHC-2A/X isoform fibers were found to be relatively large in cross-section compared to slow, oxidative MHC-1 and MHC-1/2A hybrid fibers. A large percentage of fast MHC-2A/X hybrids fibers may be suggestive of an evolutionary transition in MHC isoform distribution (fast-to-slow fiber type) in the tail musculature of an opossum with primarily a terrestrial locomotor habit and adaptive tail-function. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Adult opossums (Didelphis virginiana) demonstrate near normal locomotion after spinal cord transection as neonates.

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    Wang, X M; Basso, D M; Terman, J R; Bresnahan, J C; Martin, G F

    1998-05-01

    When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is transected on postnatal day (PD) 5, the site of injury becomes bridged by histologically recognizable spinal cord and axons which form major long tracts grow through the lesion. In the present study we asked whether opossums lesioned on PD5 have normal use of the hindlimbs as adults and, if so, whether that use is dependent upon axons which grow through the lesion site. The thoracic spinal cord was transected on PD5 and 6 months later, hindlimb function was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale. All animals supported their weight with the hindlimbs and used their hindlimbs normally during overground locomotion. In some cases, the spinal cord was retransected at the original lesion site or just caudal to it 6 months after the original transection and paralysis of the hindlimbs ensued. Surprisingly, however, these animals gradually recovered some ability to support their weight and to step with the hindlimbs. Similar recovery was not seen in animals transected only as adults. In order to verify that descending axons which grew through the lesion during development were still present in the adult animal, opossums subjected to transection of the thoracic cord on PD5 were reoperated and Fast blue was injected several segments caudal to the lesion. In all cases, neurons were labeled rostral to the lesion in each of the spinal and supraspinal nuclei labeled by comparable injections in unlesioned, age-matched controls. The results of orthograde tracing studies indicated that axons which grew through the lesion innervated areas that were appropriate for them. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  19. Developmental plasticity of ascending spinal axons studies using the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

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    Terman, J R; Wang, X M; Martin, G F

    1999-01-11

    The objectives of the present study were to determine if axons of all ascending tracts grow through the lesion after transection of the thoracic spinal cord during development in the North American opossum, and if so, whether they reach regions of the brain they normally innervate. Opossum pups were subjected to transection of the mid-thoracic cord at PD5, PD8, PD12, PD20, or PD26 and injections of Fast Blue (FB) into the lower thoracic or upper lumbar cord 30-40 days or 6 months later. In the PD5 transected cases, labeled axons were present in all of the supraspinal areas labeled by comparable injections in unlesioned, age-matched controls. In the experimental cases, however, labeled axons appeared to be fewer in number and in some areas more restricted in location than in the controls. When lesions were made at PD8, labeled axons were present in the brain of animals allowed to survive 30-40 days prior to FB injections but they were not observed in those allowed to survive 6 months. When lesions were made at PD12 or later, labeled axons were never found rostral to the lesion. It appears, therefore, that axons of all ascending spinal pathways grow though the lesion after transection of the thoracic cord in developing opossums and that they innervate appropriate areas of the brain. Interestingly, the critical period for such growth is shorter than that for most descending axons, suggesting that factors which influence loss of developmental plasticity are not the same for all axons.

  20. Facial Mechanosensory Influence on Forelimb Movement in Newborn Opossums, Monodelphis domestica.

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    Marie-Josée Desmarais

    Full Text Available The opossum, Monodelphis domestica, is born very immature but crawls, unaided, with its forelimbs (FL from the mother's birth canal to a nipple where it attaches to pursue its development. What sensory cues guide the newborn to the nipple and trigger its attachment to it? Previous experiments showed that low intensity electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion induces FL movement in in vitro preparations and that trigeminal innervation of the facial skin is well developed in the newborn. The skin does not contain Vater-Pacini or Meissner touch corpuscles at this age, but it contains cells which appear to be Merkel cells (MC. We sought to determine if touch perceived by MC could exert an influence on FL movements. Application of the fluorescent dye AM1-43, which labels sensory cells such as MC, revealed the presence of a large number of labeled cells in the facial epidermis, especially in the snout skin, in newborn opossums. Moreover, calibrated pressure applied to the snout induced bilateral and simultaneous electromyographic responses of the triceps muscle in in vitro preparations of the neuraxis and FL from newborn. These responses increase with stimulation intensity and tend to decrease over time. Removing the facial skin nearly abolished these responses. Metabotropic glutamate 1 receptors being involved in MC neurotransmission, an antagonist of these receptors was applied to the bath, which decreased the EMG responses in a reversible manner. Likewise, bath application of the purinergic type 2 receptors, used by AM1-43 to penetrate sensory cells, also decreased the triceps EMG responses. The combined results support a strong influence of facial mechanosensation on FL movement in newborn opossums, and suggest that this influence could be exerted via MC.

  1. Femoral loading mechanics in the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana: torsion and mediolateral bending in mammalian locomotion.

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    Gosnell, W Casey; Butcher, Michael T; Maie, Takashi; Blob, Richard W

    2011-10-15

    Studies of limb bone loading in terrestrial mammals have typically found anteroposterior bending to be the primary loading regime, with torsion contributing minimally. However, previous studies have focused on large, cursorial eutherian species in which the limbs are held essentially upright. Recent in vivo strain data from the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), a marsupial that uses a crouched rather than an upright limb posture, have indicated that its femur experiences appreciable torsion during locomotion as well as strong mediolateral bending. The elevated femoral torsion and strong mediolateral bending observed in D. virginiana might result from external forces such as a medial inclination of the ground reaction force (GRF), internal forces deriving from a crouched limb posture, or a combination of these factors. To evaluate the mechanism underlying the loading regime of opossum femora, we filmed D. virginiana running over a force platform, allowing us to measure the magnitude of the GRF and its three-dimensional orientation relative to the limb, facilitating estimates of limb bone stresses. This three-dimensional analysis also allows evaluations of muscular forces, particularly those of hip adductor muscles, in the appropriate anatomical plane to a greater degree than previous two-dimensional analyses. At peak GRF and stress magnitudes, the GRF is oriented nearly vertically, inducing a strong abductor moment at the hip that is countered by adductor muscles on the medial aspect of the femur that place this surface in compression and induce mediolateral bending, corroborating and explaining loading patterns that were identified in strain analyses. The crouched orientation of the femur during stance in opossums also contributes to levels of femoral torsion as high as those seen in many reptilian taxa. Femoral safety factors were as high as those of non-avian reptiles and greater than those of upright, cursorial mammals, primarily because the load

  2. Sarcocystis greineri n. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

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    Cheadle, M A

    2001-10-01

    Sarcocysts were found in the skeletal muscles of road-killed and live-trapped opossums collected in north central Florida. Sarcocysts were spindle-shaped and macroscopic and had an average measurement of 3.8 mm by 154.6 microm. Sarcocysts were only observed in skeletal muscle. Sarcocysts have invaginations throughout the sarcocyst wall, which is approximately 1 microm thick. Protrusions on the sarcocyst wall are stumpy and digitlike and contain fibrillar elements that extend from the interior portion of the cyst wall through the villi. A new name, Sarcocystis greineri, is proposed for this species.

  3. Ontogeny of cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity in the Brazilian opossum brain.

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    Fox, C A; Jeyapalan, M; Ross, L R; Jacobson, C D

    1991-12-17

    We have studied the anatomical distribution of cholecystokinin-like immunoreactive (CCK-IR) somata and fibers in the brain of the adult and developing Brazilian short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica. Animals ranged in age from the day of birth (1PN) to young adulthood (180PN). A nickel enhanced, avidin-biotin, indirect immunohistochemical technique was used to identify CCK-IR structures. Somata containing CCK immunoreactivity were observed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, and brainstem in the adult. Cholecystokinin immunoreactive fibers had a wide distribution in the adult Monodelphis brain. The only major region of the brain that did not contain CCK-IR fibers was the cerebellum. The earliest expression of CCK immunoreactivity was found in fibers in the dorsal brainstem of 5-day-old opossum pups. It is possible that the CCK-IR fibers in the brainstem at 5PN are of vagal origin. Cholecystokinin immunoreactive somata were observed in the brainstem on 10PN. The CCK-IR cell bodies observed in the brainstem at 10PN may mark the first expression of CCK-IR elements intrinsic to the brain. A broad spectrum of patterns of onset of CCK expression was observed in the opossum brain. The early occurrence and varied ontogenesis of CCK-IR structures indicates CCK may be involved in the function of a variety of circuits from the brainstem to the cerebral cortex. The early expression of CCK-IR structures in the dorsal brainstem suggests that CCK may modulate feeding behavior in the Monodelphis neonate. Cholecystokinin immunoreactivity in forebrain structures such as the suprachiasmatic nucleus, medial preoptic area, thalamus and cortical structures indicates that CCK may also be involved in circadian rhythmicity, reproductive functions, as well as the state of arousal of the Brazilian opossum. The ontogenic timing of CCK immunoreactivity in specific circuitry also indicates that CCK expression does not occur simultaneously throughout the

  4. Natural infection of the opossum Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia, Didelphidae with Leishmania donovani, in Brazil

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    Ítalo A. Sherlock

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available An opossum, Didelphis albiventris, from Jacobina, bahia State, was found naturally infected with Leishmania donovani, being the first non-canid wild mammal to be detected with agent of kala-azar in the New World.Um gambá, Didelphis albiventris, de Jacobina, Bahia, foi encontrado com infecção natural pela Leishmania donovani, sendo o primeiro mamífero silvestre não-canídeo a ser achado com o agente do calazar nas Américas.

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi: vertebrate and invertebrate cycles in the same mammal host, the opossum Didelphis marsupialis

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    Maria P. Deane

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Epimastigotes multiplying extracellularly and metacyclic trypomastigotes, stages that correspond to the cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the intestinal lumen of its insect vector, were consistently found in the lumen of the anal glands of opossums Didelphis marsupialis inoculated subcutaneously with infective feces of triatomid bugs.No gambá (Didelphis marsupialis foi observado um ciclo extracelular do Trypanosoma cruzi: o parasita crescia abundantemente no material de secreção acumulado no lumen das glandulas anais de animais criados em cativeiro e infectados por via subcutanea com fezes de triatomineos.

  6. Rickettsia felis in cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis parasitizing opossums, San Bernardino County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, K F; Wekesa, J W; Nwadike, C N; Zambrano, M L; Karpathy, S E; Cecil, D; Burns, J; Hu, R; Eremeeva, M E

    2012-12-01

    Los Angeles and Orange Counties are known endemic areas for murine typhus in California; however, no recent reports of flea-borne rickettsioses are known from adjacent San Bernardino County. Sixty-five opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were trapped in the suburban residential and industrial zones of the southwestern part of San Bernardino County in 2007. Sixty out of 65 opossums were infested with fleas, primarily cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835). The flea minimum infection rate with Rickettsia felis was 13.3% in pooled samples and the prevalence was 23.7% in single fleas, with two gltA genotypes detected. In spite of historic records of murine typhus in this area, no evidence for circulation of R. typhi in fleas was found during the present study. Factors contributing to the absence of R. typhi in these cat fleas in contrast to its presence in cat fleas from Orange and Los Angeles Counties are unknown and need to be investigated further in San Bernardino County. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Cone pigments in a North American marsupial, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerald H; Williams, Gary A

    2010-05-01

    Only two of the four cone opsin gene families found in vertebrates are represented in contemporary eutherian and marsupial species. Recent genetic studies of two species of South American marsupial detected the presence of representatives from two of the classes of cone opsin genes and the structures of these genes predicted cone pigments with respective peaks in the ultraviolet and long-wavelength portions of the spectrum. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), a profoundly nocturnal animal, is the only marsupial species found in North America. The prospects for cone-based vision in this species were examined through recordings of the electroretinogram (ERG), a commonly examined retinal response to photic stimulation. Recorded under flickering-light conditions that elicit signals from cone photoreceptors, the spectral sensitivity of the opossum eye is well accounted for by contributions from the presence of a single cone pigment having peak absorption at 561-562 nm. A series of additional experiments that employed various chromatic adaptation paradigms were conducted in a search for possible contributions from a second (short-wavelength sensitive) cone pigment. We found no evidence that such a mechanism contributes to the ERG in this marsupial.

  8. Anatomical and radiographic study of the white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris skull1

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    Bruno C. Schimming

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was made to investigate the anatomical features of the white-eared opossum skull, by osteology and radiographic anatomy. For this, five animals were used without sexual distinction. The skull was examined by radiographic and macroscopic characteristics. The skulls were then subjected to maceration. The skull was described macroscopically according to standard views, i.e. dorsal and caudal, lateral, ventral, and midsagittal. The skull can be divided into facial (viscerocranium and cranial (neurocranium regions. The facial region was elongated and more developed than neurocranium. The supraorbital foramen was absent. The tympanic bulla is not well developed. The zygomatic arch was formed by zygomatic process of the temporal bone, zygomatic process of the maxilla, and temporal process of the zygomatic bone. There was no significant difference between bones found in this study when compared with those described for others mammals. These findings may contribute to the better understanding of the anatomy and biology of the white-eared opossum.

  9. INFECTION BY Rickettsia felis IN OPOSSUMS (Didelphis sp. FROM YUCATAN, MEXICO

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    Gaspar PENICHE-LARA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsia felis is an emergent pathogen and the causative agent of a typhus-like rickettsiosis in the Americas. Its transmission cycle involves fleas as biological vectors (mainly Ctenocephalides felis and multiple domestic and synanthropic mammal hosts. Nonetheless, the role of mammals in the cycle of R. felis is not well understood and many efforts are ongoing in different countries of America to clarify it. The present study describes for the first time in Mexico the infection of two species of opossum (Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis by R. felis. A diagnosis was carried out from blood samples by molecular methods through the gltAand 17 kDa genes and sequence determination. Eighty-seven opossum samples were analyzed and 28 were found to be infected (32.1% from five out of the six studied localities of Yucatan. These findings enable recognition of the potential epidemiological implications for public health of the presence of infected synanthropic Didelphis in households.

  10. Morphological observations on the metanephros in the postnatal opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

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    Krause, W J; Cutts, J H; Leeson, C R

    1979-10-01

    The metanephros of the newborn opossum is very immature, consisting only of collecting tubules and a few immature nephrons. Development during the postnatal period can be divided into two distinct phases. The initial phase occurs during the first 60 days of postnatal life and is concerned with nephronogenesis and the differentiation of nephrons that have formed during this period. The second phase lasts through the remainder of the postnatal period and is concerned with further differentiation and growth of established nephrons. During this latter period the tubular portion of the nephron increases in length and the renal corpuscle increases in diameter. Ultrastructural observations suggest that metanephric nephrons are not functional during the first 4 days of postnatal life, while the mesonephros reaches the height of its development during this period: there may be some functional overlap between the mesonephros and metanephros during the latter part of the first week of postnatal life. The pattern of nephron induction and differentiation in the opossum is discussed.

  11. Seasonal changes in the physiology of male Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana): signs of the Dasyurid semelparity syndrome?

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    Woods, Henri A; Hellgren, Eric C

    2003-01-01

    Semelparity, which is multiplying once in a lifetime, is a rare reproductive strategy among mammals. Several species of the marsupial family Dasyuridae experience 100% male mortality following an intense mating period. We investigated seasonal physiological changes that may be associated with early mortality in the male Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; Didelphidae) and compared these changes with those of semelparous, male dasyurids. Free-ranging male Virginia opossums (n=36) were collected during 2001 at the Oklahoma State University Cross Timbers Experimental Range. Seasonal data were collected on hematological, morphological, and helminth parameters of these individuals. We used one-way ANOVA to determine whether there were seasonal differences among means for each parameter. It appeared that male Virginia opossums experienced some physiological changes similar to those of male dasyurids exhibiting semelparity. All males collected in summer (August) were juveniles of the year. Lack of adult males in August suggests high mortality of this cohort during the breeding season. Opossum characteristics exhibiting the dasyurid semelparity syndrome included packed cell volume, adrenal mass, and helminth numbers. Minor lymphocytopenia, neutrophilia, and testosterone concentrations also were similar to semelparous dasyurids. However, a lack of change in serum cortisol concentration and body mass and dynamics in immunoglobulin protein, serum protein, and testes mass were not consistent with previous reports of semelparous dasyurid physiology. Evolutionary divergence and differences in breeding behavior between dasyurids and didelphids may be responsible for the lack of consistency between the taxa.

  12. Is Gnathostoma turgidum an annual parasite of opossums? Drastic seasonal changes of infection in Didelphis virginiana in Mexico.

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    Nawa, Yukifumi; de la Cruz-Otero, María del Carmen; Zazueta-Ramos, Magda Luz; Bojórquez-Contreras, Angel; Sicairos-Félix, Josefina; Campista-León, Samuel; Torres-Montoya, Edith Hilario; Sánchez-Gonzalest, Sergio; Guzmán-Loreto, Roberto; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia Páz

    2009-08-01

    Gnathostoma turgidum is a nematode that parasitizes the stomach of opossums, Didelphis virginiana. Despite its wide distribution in the Americas, its natural life cycle is poorly understood. Recently, we found an endemic area for G. turgidum infection in Sinaloa, Mexico (Diaz-Camacho et al., 2009). Based on sporadic surveys for several years, the prevalence was apparently high in summer and extremely low in winter. To confirm that this is really a seasonal variance, we conducted a longitudinal survey on G. turgidum infection in opossums from November 2007 to November 2008. The results showed amazing seasonal changes in the prevalence, with synchronized migration and maturation of worms in opossums. Between February and March, many juvenile worms, with occasional AL3, were found in the liver, but no worms were found in the stomach. Mature adult worms began to appear in the stomach around April and rapidly increased in number toward July, when all worms resided in the stomach. Then, the worms disappeared almost completely by November. These results suggest that G. turgidum is an annual parasite of the opossum, D. virginiana, in Mexico.

  13. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in skunks (Mephitis Mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and opossums (Didelphis Virginiana) from Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sheila M; Richardson, Dennis J; Cheadle, M Andy; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2002-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is the most important protozoan disease of horses in North America and is usually caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Natural cases of encephalitis caused by S. neurona have been reported in skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor). Opossums (Didelphis spp.) are the only known definitive host. Sera from 24 striped skunks, 12 raccoons, and 7 opossums (D. virginiana) from Connecticut were examined for agglutinating antibodies to S. neurona using the S. neurona agglutination test (SAT) employing formalin-fixed merozoites as antigen. The SAT was validated for skunk sera using pre- and postinfection serum samples from 2 experimentally infected skunks. Of the 24 (46%) skunks 11 were positive, and all 12 raccoons were positive for S. neurona antibodies. None of the 7 opossums was positive for antibodies to S. neurona. These results suggest that exposure to sporocysts of S. neurona by intermediate hosts is high in Connecticut. The absence of antibodies in opossums collected from the same areas is most likely because of the absence of systemic infection in the definitive host.

  14. Infection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia spp. in Opossums and Dogs in Campeche, Mexico: The Role of Tick Infestation

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    Edgar Rojero-Vázquez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some tick-borne diseases such as anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis became widespread worldwide, threatening the health of humans, domestic animals and wildlife. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 102 opossums (Didelphis spp. and 44 owned free-ranging dogs in southeastern Mexico using a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR. A. phagocytophilum was detected in opossums and dogs with a prevalence of 3 and 27%, respectively. E. canis was only present in 7% of dogs, while we didn't detect E. chaffeensis in any host. We report the first evidence of infections of A. phagocytophilum in Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis in Mexico. The infection rates and patterns we found of A. phagocytophilum suggest that dogs are more directly involved in the ecology of this pathogen than opossums. Despite the small prevalence found, our results are of public health concern because of the zoonotic capabilities of A. phagocytophilum, the high tick infestation rates found and because both opossums and free-ranging dogs can achieve high population densities in the region.

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozonn cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, from Southern Louisian

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoan’s of veterinary importance (Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums (Didelphis...

  16. DNA barcodes effectively identify the morphologically similar Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) from areas of sympatry in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Fernando A; Arcangeli, Jésica; Hortelano-Moncada, Yolanda; Borisenko, Alex V

    2010-12-01

    Two morphologically similar species of opossum from the genus Didelphis-Didelphis virginiana and Didelphis marsupialis-cooccur sympatrically in Mexico. High intraspecific variation complicates their morphological discrimination, under both field and museum conditions. This study aims to evaluate the utility and reliability of using DNA barcodes (short standardized genome fragments used for DNA-based identification) to distinguish these two species. Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (Cox1) mitochondrial gene were obtained from 12 D. marsupialis and 29 D. virginiana individuals and were compared using the neighbor-joining (NJ) algorithm with Kimura's two-parameter (K2P) model of nucleotide substitution. Average K2P distances were 1.56% within D. virginiana and 1.65% in D. marsupialis. Interspecific distances between D. virginiana and D. marsupialis varied from 7.8 to 9.3% and their barcode sequences formed distinct non-overlapping clusters on NJ trees. All sympatric specimens of both species were effectively discriminated, confirming the utility of Cox1 barcoding as a tool for taxonomic identification of these morphologically similar taxa.

  17. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Connecticut

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, S. M.; Richardson, D. J.; Lindsay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was examined in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from 8 cities in Connecticut. Ten (42%) of the 24 striped skunks, 2 of 7 (29%) opossums, and 12 of 12 (100%) raccoons were positive at dilutions of 1:50 or greater. These results suggest that T. gondii is prevalent in the environment, or prey items, or both, of these omnivores in Connecticut.

  18. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sheila M; Richardson, Dennis J; Lindsay, David S

    2006-06-01

    The prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was examined in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from 8 cities in Connecticut. Ten (42%) of the 24 striped skunks, 2 of 7 (29%) opossums, and 12 of 12 (100%) raccoons were positive at dilutions of 1:50 or greater. These results suggest that T. gondii is prevalent in the environment, or prey items, or both, of these omnivores in Connecticut.

  19. The effects of Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom on the production of antihemorrhagins and/or antibodies in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeller, Morgan R; Pérez, John C

    2002-04-01

    Opossums are animals that are naturally resistant to the proteolytic effects of Crotalid venoms. Opossums possess proteinase inhibitors in their sera that bind to and neutralize hemorrhagic and other proteolytic activity in many snake venoms. The proteinase inhibitors are not antibodies since they have different molecular weights (60kDa) and pI (4.2). The purpose of this study was to determine if opossums were capable of producing antibodies against venom and/or increasing the production of proteinase inhibitors (specifically antihemorrhagins). Five different venom immunization protocols were used to determine the effects of the venom in the opossums. The dosages ranged from 1mg of venom per immunization to 350mg/kg body weight of venom per immunization. The antihemorrhagic response was increased, but there is no evidence to suggest that an opossum can produce antibodies against venom. The lack of an antibody response is most likely due to the natural proteinase inhibitors clearing the venom from the opossum's body before an antibody response can occur.

  20. Evaluation of Cruzia americana, Turgida turgida, and Didelphostrongylus hayesi infection in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and risk factors along the California coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichelason, Amy E; Rejmanek, Dan; Dabritz, Haydee A; Melli, Ann C; Miller, Melissa; Conrad, Patricia A

    2008-10-01

    Three nematodes, Turgida turgida, Cruzia americana, and Didelphostrongylus hayesi, have been documented to cause morbidity and mortality in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). The present study was designed to determine the frequency of infection of these nematodes in opossums at 2 study sites in California and to determine if there are risk factors associated with shedding of eggs or larvae in the feces. Turgida turgida and C. americana adults were found in 84.4% (stomach; n = 45) and 62.5% (intestinal wash and feces; n = 16) of sampled opossums. Eggs were present in opossum feces (n = 105) less frequently (40% T. turgida and 35.2% C. americana). Didelphostrongylus hayesi larvae were found in 79.0% of opossum feces examined (n = 105). Adult age and wet season (December through April) were significant predictive factors for the presence of T. turgida eggs, whereas the dry season (May through November) was significantly associated with the presence of C. americana eggs in feces. Adult opossums were more likely to have eggs and larvae from all 3 nematodes in the feces.

  1. Humoral Immune Response Kinetics in Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis Infected and Immunized by Trypanosoma cruzi Employing an Immunofluorescence Antibody Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Legey

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis considered the most ancient mammals and an evolutionary success, maintain parasitism by Trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease or important tissue lesion. In order to elucidate this well-balanced interaction, we decided to compare the humoral immune response kinetics of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with T. cruzi and immunized by different schedules of parasite antigens, employing an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Both didelphids responded with high serological titers to different immunization routes, while the earliest response occurred with the intradermic route. Serological titers of naturally infected P. opossum showed a significant individual variation, while those of D. marsupialis remained stable during the entire follow-up period. The serological titers of the experimentally infected animals varied according to the inoculated strain. Our data suggest that (1 IFAT was sensitive for follow-up of P. opossum in natural and experimental T. cruzi infections; (2 both P. opossum and D. marsupialis are able to mount an efficient humoral immune response as compared to placental mammals; (3 experimentally infected P. opossum and D. marsupialis present distinct patterns of infection, depending on the subpopulation of T. cruzi, (4 the differences observed in the humoral immune responses between P. opossum and D. marsupialis, probably, reflect distinct strategies selected by these animals during their coevolution with T. cruzi.

  2. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana from Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Torres-Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13 in brains. Positive amplicons were sequenced for analysis, this produced results similar to T. gondii with identity and coverage values of 98% and 96-100%, respectively. This study presents the first molecular evidence of the circulation of T. gondii in D. virginiana from Mexico.

  3. Sarcocystis speeri N. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S

    1999-10-01

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is host to at least 3 species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystisfalcatula, Sarcocystis neurona, and a recently recognized Sarcocystis sp. A new name, Sarcocystis speeri, is proposed for the third unnamed Sarcocystis. Immunodeficient mice are an experimental intermediate host for S. speeri. Sarcocystis speeri sporocysts are 12-15 x 8-10 microm in size, and its schizonts are found in many organs of mice. Sarcocysts of S. speeri are found in skeletal muscles and they are up to 5 mm long and filiform. By light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall is thin (<1 microm thick); ultrastructurally, the cyst wall is up to 1.8 microm thick and has characteristic steeple-shaped villar protrusions surmounted by a spire. Sarcocystis speeri schizonts are morphologically and antigenically distinct from schizonts of S. neurona, and S. speeri sporocysts were not infective to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

  4. Skeletal lesions in a population of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Baldwin County, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Alfred J; Patterson, David B

    2009-04-01

    Antemortem skeletal lesions were analyzed in 61 Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) collected as roadkill from Baldwin County, Georgia, USA. As evidenced by bridging fracture calluses, misalignments, bone-surface depressions, perforations, localized superficial calluses, periosteal proliferations, and bony bridges across intervertebral disk spaces, 64% of the individuals had signs of one or more healed injuries. Within the subset of skeletons with bone lesions, 54% had healed rib fractures and 23% had scapular, 21% pelvic, 18% fibular, 18% vertebral, 13% dentary, 10% tibial, and 10% podial lesions. Bone lesions occurred most frequently in the cranial portion of the skeletons and averaged approximately four per individual. The majority of the skeletal injuries appeared to be inconsistent with those caused by falls or automobile collisions. The nature and position of the bone lesions suggested that nonfatal predator attacks, possibly from domestic dogs, may be a significant contributor to bodily injury in this species.

  5. Prevalence and site specificity of Sarcocystis greineri sarcocysts in Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, K L; Cheadle, M A; Greiner, E C

    2002-06-01

    Sarcocysts of Sarcocystis greineri in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) were observed for documenting sarcocyst prevalence, seasonal prevalence, and muscle specificity. Characteristics of sarcocysts found in striated muscle were recorded, as were light microscopy measurements. Overall prevalence of sarcocysts in striated muscle was 10.0% (24/240). No statistical difference (P = 0.156) in prevalence was detected between summer (13.1%; 16/122) and fall (6.7%; 8/118). Sarcocysts were found in muscles of the diaphragm, leg, breast, tongue, back, and esophagus. Diaphragm had the highest specificity of 72.7% (8/11), which was significantly different (P = 0.05) when compared with tongue and esophagus at 16.6% (1/6). Breast and leg muscle had a specificity of sarcocysts of 54.5% (6/11), whereas 27.2% (3/11) of back muscles contained sarcocysts.

  6. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Castro, M; Noh-Pech, H; Puerto-Hernández, R; Reyes-Hernández, B; Panti-May, A; Hernández-Betancourt, S; Yeh-Gorocica, A; González-Herrera, L; Zavala-Castro, J; Puerto, F I

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13) in brains. Positive amplicons were sequenced for analysis, this produced results similar to T. gondii with identity and coverage values of 98% and 96-100%, respectively. This study presents the first molecular evidence of the circulation of T. gondii in D. virginiana from Mexico.

  7. Purification of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts from opossum (Didelphis virginiana) using potassium bromide discontinuous density gradient centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Murphy, Alice J; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Mansfield, Linda S; Massey, Jeffrey P; Saeed, Mahdi A

    2003-06-01

    This report describes a new, inexpensive procedure for the rapid and efficient purification of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts from opossum small intestine. S. neurona sporocysts were purified using a discontinuous potassium bromide density gradient. The procedure provides a source of sporocyst wall and sporozoites required for reliable biochemical characterization and for immunological studies directed at characterizing antigens responsible for immunological responses by the host. The examined isolates were identified as S. neurona using random amplified polymorphic DNA primers and restriction endonuclease digestion assays. This method allows the collection of large numbers of highly purified S. neurona sporocysts without loss of sporocyst viability as indicated by propidium iodide permeability and cell culture infectivity assays. In addition, this technique might also be used for sporocyst purification of other Sarcocystis spp.

  8. Morphologic aspects of Tetratrichomonas didelphidis isolated from opossums Didelphis marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiana Tasca

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Tetratrichomonas didelphidis (Hegner & Ratcliffe, 1927 Andersen & Reilly, 1965 is a flagellate protozoan found in the intestine, cecum, and colon of Didelphis marsupialis. The parasitic protozoa used in this study was found and isolated in the intestine of opossums in Pavlova starch-containing medium in Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from D. marsupialis and Lutreolina crassicaudata. The strains were cultivated in Diamond medium without maltose and with starch solution, pH 7.5 at 28°C. The specimens were stained by the Giemsa method and Heidenhain's iron hematoxylin. The light microscopy study of the trophozoites revealed the same morphologic characteristics as specimens previously described.

  9. Description of Leishmania (Leishmania forattinii sp. n., a new parasite infecting opossums and rodents in Brazil

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    Elizaide L. A. Yoshida

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available A new parasite species of Leishmania is described, L. (Leishmania forattinii sp. n., which was isolated from a pooled triturate of liver and spleen of a opossum (Didelphis marsupialis aurita and from skin samples from a rodent (Proechmys iheringi denigratus, captured in primary forest on the Atlantic Cost of Brazil. Our results on the basis of biological and molecular criteria indicate that this taxonomically distinct parasite ias a new species of the L. mexicana complex, but closely related to L. (L. aristidesi Laison & shaw, 1979, as revelated by phenetic and phylogenetic numerical analyses of the enzyme data. L. forattinii was clearly distinguishable from other Leishmania species of the genus usisng enzyme electrophoresis, monoclonal antibodies, molecular karyotypes, analysis of restriction enzyme digestion patterns of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, as well as the use of kDNA hybridization procedures.

  10. The transcriptome of the Didelphis virginiana opossum kidney OK proximal tubule cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbach, Megan L; Sethi, Rahil; Avula, Raghunandan; Lamb, Janette; Hollingshead, Deborah J; Finegold, David N; Locker, Joseph D; Chandran, Uma R; Weisz, Ora A

    2017-09-01

    The OK cell line derived from the kidney of a female opossum Didelphis virginiana has proven to be a useful model in which to investigate the unique regulation of ion transport and membrane trafficking mechanisms in the proximal tubule (PT). Sequence data and comparison of the transcriptome of this cell line to eutherian mammal PTs would further broaden the utility of this culture model. However, the genomic sequence for D. virginiana is not available and although a draft genome sequence for the opossum Monodelphis domestica (sequenced in 2012 by the Broad Institute) exists, transcripts sequenced from both species show significant divergence. The M. domestica sequence is not highly annotated, and the majority of transcripts are predicted rather than experimentally validated. Using deep RNA sequencing of the D. virginiana OK cell line, we characterized its transcriptome via de novo transcriptome assembly and alignment to the M. domestica genome. The quality of the de novo assembled transcriptome was assessed by the extent of homology to sequences in nucleotide and protein databases. Gene expression levels in the OK cell line, from both the de novo transcriptome and genes aligned to the M. domestica genome, were compared with publicly available rat kidney nephron segment expression data. Our studies demonstrate the expression in OK cells of numerous PT-specific ion transporters and other key proteins relevant for rodent and human PT function. Additionally, the sequence and expression data reported here provide an important resource for genetic manipulation and other studies on PT cell function using these cells. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Urinary bladder incarceration and infarction by an intra-abdominal fat pad in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Voe, Ryan S; Spaulding, Kathy A; Rotstein, Jack; Rotstein, David S

    2004-01-01

    A 2.5-year-old, female opossum had acute stranguria. Based on radiography and ultrasonographic examination a cystic structure was identified in the caudal abdomen associated with bilateral hydroureter and hydronephrosis. This structure contained a neutrophilic fluid, determined to be urine. There was a neutrophilic leukocytosis. Serum chemistry values were within normal limits. The opossum was euthanized. An intra-abdominal fat pad incarceration of the urinary bladder above the trigone was present, resulting in complete obstruction of the urinary bladder and partial obstruction of the ureters. Vessels to the bladder were involved in the incarceration which resulted in vascular compromise and infarction of the bladder. Mild to moderate hydroureter and hydronephrosis were present.

  12. Spontaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and multiple bronchioloalveolar carcinomas in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D Y; Mitchell, M A; De las Heras, M; Taylor, H W; Cho, D-Y

    2002-01-01

    Two primary tumours, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and multiple bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, were diagnosed in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Two oral masses were located in the right ventrolateral surface of the tongue, near the frenulum, and the lungs contained multiple, widely distributed, nodular masses. Microscopically, the oral masses were composed of invasive cords of pleomorphic, polyhedral cells, typical of squamous cells. The multiple pulmonary masses consisted of non-ciliated, cuboidal, columnar, or occasionally polyhedral cells arranged in an alveolar pattern with multifocal areas of necrosis. This is the first report of spontaneous oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in the Virginia opossum. However, multiple pulmonary adenomas have been reported previously in this species, the lesions being similar to those in sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (jaagsiekte). In the present study, immunohistochemical examination of the pulmonary tumours with a rabbit polyclonal antiserum to jaagsiekte retroviral capsid protein proved negative. Copyright Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  13. Light and electron microscopic features of eperythrozoon-like parasites in a North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, J B; Berent, L M; Ehrhart, E J; Wasmer, C C

    2000-06-01

    Epierythrocytic parasites associated with a severe anemic episode have not been previously reported in the opossum. A Wright-Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smear from an anemic North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) revealed numerous organisms attached to red blood cells either singularly or in chains. Ring forms of the organism were common and could be found free in the plasma. Electron microscopy revealed that these organisms were attached to the intact plasma membrane in depressions on the surface of red blood cells. Delicate fibrils between the organism and adjacent membrane were observed. The organisms were round to oval with a diameter of 300-750 nm and were enclosed by a single limiting membrane. The light and electron microscopic features of these epierythrocytic organisms are similar to those reported for Eperythrozoon and Haemobartonella species.

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis: absence of neonatal transmission and protection by maternal antibodies in experimental infections

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    Ana M. Jansen

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of natural Trypanosoma cruzi infection found in opossums does not always correlate with appreciable densities of local triatomid populations. One alternative method which might bypass the invertebrate vector is direct transmission from mother to offspring. This possibility was investigated in five T. cruzi infected females and their litters (24 young. The influence of maternal antibodies transferred via lactation, on the course of experimental infection, was also examined. Our results show that neonatal transmission is probably not responsible for the high rate of natural T. cruzi infection among opossums. In addition antibodies of maternal origin confer a partial protection to the young. This was demonstrated by the finding of a double prepatency period and 4,5 fold lower levels of circulating parasites, in experimentally infected pouch young from infected as compared to control uninfected mothes. On the other hand, the duration of patent parasitemia was twice as long as that observed in the control group.

  15. Sarcocystis inghami n. sp. (Sporozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the skeletal muscles of the Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Mansfield, Linda S; Saeed, A Mahdi

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the newly identified Sarcocystis inghami n. sp. from the skeletal muscles of opossums (Mammalia: Didelphidae) that were collected from south central Michigan (42 degrees 43'-42 degrees 79'N, 84 degrees 18'-84 degrees 86'W), USA. The new species is distinguished from all species described from North and South American opossums by the distinctive morphology of the villar protrusions on the cyst wall. Sarcocysts of S. inghami are microscopic, up to 700 microm long and 110 microm wide. The sarcocyst wall is up to 7 microm thick, with long, stalked protrusions which average 5.5 x 1.2 microm. These are constricted at the base, expanded laterally, rounded off distally and occasionally bifid. The villar protrusions have numerous microtubules without electron-dense bodies that extend from the tips into the granular layer. Bradyzoites are 10.7 x 4.3 (8-12 x 4-5) microm. This is the second species of Sarcocystis sarcocyst described from the Virginia opossum in North America.

  16. Isolation of a third species of Sarcocystis in immunodeficient mice fed feces from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and its differentiation from Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Speer, C A; Lindsay, D S

    1998-12-01

    Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were found to be hosts for 3 species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula with an avian intermediate host, S. neurona with an undetermined intermediate host, and a third, unnamed, species. Sporocysts from the intestines of 2 opossums (nos. 26 and 47) were fed to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), nude mice, and gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice. Sporocysts of S. falcatula were not infective to nude or KO mice. Sporocysts of S. neurona induced encephalitis in KO and nude mice; only schizonts and merozoites were found in tissues of mice, and they reacted with anti-S. neurona serum raised against the SN-2 isolate of S. neurona originally obtained from tissues of a paralyzed horse. All 3 species of Sarcocystis were present in opossum no. 47. Sarcocystis neurona was isolated in cell culture from this opossum. Sporocysts from opossum no. 47 were lethal to budgerigars, indicating S. falcatula infection. Only 1 species of Sarcocystis (the third species) was found in opossum no. 26; the sporocysts were infective to KO and nude mice. Schizonts and merozoites of this species were predominantly in the liver but were also found in other tissues; schizonts did not react with anti-S. neurona serum. Merozoites of the third species were ultrastructurally distinct from S. falcatula and S. neurona merozoites. Sarcocysts were found in leg muscles of 2 mice killed 50 and 54 days after they were fed sporocysts from opossum no. 26. These sarcocysts had steeple-shaped protrusions on the cyst wall and were distinct from sarcocysts of S. falcatula and any other species of Sarcocystis.

  17. Origin, course, and laterality of spinocerebellar axons in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, J R; Wang, X M; Martin, G F

    1998-08-01

    Spinocerebellar axons have been studied extensively in placental mammals, but there have been no full reports on their origin, laterality, or spinal course in any marsupial. We have used the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) to obtain such information and to ask whether any spinocerebellar neurons innervate both the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum through axonal collaterals. To identify spinal neurons that project to the cerebellum, we employed the retrograde transport of Fluoro-Gold (FG) from the anterior lobe, the main target of spinocerebellar axons. In some cases, cerebellar injections of FG were combined with hemisections of the rostral cervical or midthoracic spinal cord, so that laterality of spinocerebellar connections could be established. To determine whether single neurons project to both the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe, injections of Fast Blue (FB) into the anterior lobe were combined with injections of Diamidino yellow (DY) or rhodamine B dextran (RBD) into the posterior lobe, or vice versa. Following injections of FG into the anterior lobe, neurons were labeled throughout the length of the spinal cord, which differed in laminar distribution and laterality of their projections. Among other areas, neurons were labeled in the central cervical nucleus, the nucleus centrobasalis, Clarke's nucleus, the dorsal horn dorsal spinocerebellar tract area, the spinal border region, and Stilling's nucleus. When anterior lobe injections of FB were combined with injections of RBD or DY into the posterior lobe, or vice versa, some double-labeled neurons were present in all major spinocerebellar groups. Cerebellar injections of FG also retrogradely labeled spinocerebellar axons, allowing us to document their locations in the gray matter as well as within the periphery of the lateral and ventral funiculi at all spinal levels. A few spinocerebellar axons also were found in the dorsal funiculus (a dorsal column-spinocerebellar tract

  18. Exogenous retinoic acid induces digit reduction in opossums (Monodelphis domestica) by disrupting cell death and proliferation, and apical ectodermal ridge and zone of polarizing activity function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Anna C; Maier, Jennifer A; Schecker, Teresa; Sears, Karen E

    2015-03-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A derivative. Exposure to exogenous RA generates congenital limb malformations (CLMs) in species from frogs to humans. These CLMs include but are not limited to oligodactyly and long-bone hypoplasia. The processes by which exogenous RA induces CLMs in mammals have been best studied in mouse, but as of yet remain unresolved. We investigated the impact of exogenous RA on the cellular and molecular development of the limbs of a nonrodent model mammal, the opossum Monodelphis domestica. Opossums exposed to exogenous retinoic acid display CLMs including oligodactly, and results are consistent with opossum development being more susceptible to RA-induced disruptions than mouse development. Exposure of developing opossums to exogenous RA leads to an increase in cell death in the limb mesenchyme that is most pronounced in the zone of polarizing activity, and a reduction in cell proliferation throughout the limb mesenchyme. Exogenous RA also disrupts the expression of Shh in the zone of polarizing activity, and Fgf8 in the apical ectodermal ridge, and other genes with roles in the regulation of limb development and cell death. Results are consistent with RA inducing CLMs in opossum limbs by disrupting the functions of the apical ectodermal ridge and zone of polarizing activity, and driving an increase in cell death and reduction of cell proliferation in the mesenchyme of the developing limb. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Arrangement of the myenteric plexus throughout the gastrointestinal tract of the opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J; Rick, G A; Robison, B A; Stiles, M J; Wix, M A

    1983-10-01

    Silver impregnation of the myenteric plexus of the opossum gut was used to find differences among various regions. In the esophagus, the plexus was sparse and ganglia were spaced irregularly, many being parafascicular. Ganglia were sparse in the striated-muscle region, but more frequent in the smooth-muscle region. In the stomach, uniformly spaced ganglia were large and intrafascicular; ganglia were larger in the distal stomach than in the proximal stomach. The proximal stomach contained thick fascicles, called shunt fascicles, radiating from the lesser to the greater curvatures and bypassing ganglia. A thick nerve bundle encircled the pylorus. In the small intestine, the regularly spaced ganglia were large and intrafascicular. In the cecum, they were small and intrafascicular. In the colon, they were large and intrafascicular. Shunt fascicles, like those of the proximal stomach, extended from the rectum into the distal colon. In the rectum, the plexus was sparse, and ganglia were small and distributed irregularly. Many ganglia were parafascicular. Unique knots of tangled fascicles were frequent in the rectum; these were called labyrinthine nodes. The least densely innervated regions of the gut are the lower esophageal sphincter and the rectum. Major differences in the anatomy of the plexus characterize the different regions of the gut.

  20. A Descriptive Morphometric Approach of the Skull and Mandible of the Common Opossum (Didelphis Marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 in the Caribbean and its Clinical Application during Regional Anaesthesia

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    Reda Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric values of the skull and the mandible of the common opossum from the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The skulls and mandibles were obtained from ten opossums captured for research purposes. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. Some anatomical landmarks of the skulls and mandibles were identified and measured. The results were important for identification of the common opossum via comparison and discussion of our results with that of other marsupial species. Furthermore, the results had clinical importance with regard to regional nerve blocks of the infraorbital, inferior alveolar, and mental nerves for dental extraction and head surgery. This study concluded that by using the anatomical landmarks of the infraorbital and mental foramina it will be easier for the veterinarian surgeons during the application of local anesthetic agent for the infraorbital, inferior alveolar, and mental nerve blocks.

  1. Prevalence of and risk factors associated with the presence of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts in opossum (Didelphis virginiana) from Michigan: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Murphy, Alice J; Mansfield, Linda S

    2004-11-10

    From April 1996 to December 2002 the prevalence of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts in North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Southern Michigan was estimated. Sporocysts of S. neurona were found in intestinal scrapings from 31 (15%) of 206 examined opossum. The frequency of infection was higher in adult animals (26/206; 12.6%) and females (19/206; 9.2%) than in juveniles (5/206; 2.4%) and males (12/206; 5.8%). Also, prevalence of S. neurona sporocysts in opossums in relation to factors such as age, sex, season, body condition, presence of concomitant infection, and presence of young in the pouch of females was studied in detail over the course of the year, 2002. Univariate analyses identified the following factors as being associated with the presence of S. neurona sporocysts in opossums: (i) for age, adult (odd ratio [OR] = 2.074, P = 0.0005); (ii) for sex, female (OR = 7.016, P = 0.0119); (iii) for season, summer (OR = 7.917, P = 0.0032) and spring (OR = 4.071, P = 0.1063); (iv) for body condition, poor (OR = 3.50, P = 0.1200) and good (OR = 1.167, P = 0.8637); (v) for the presence of concomitant infection (OR = 23.056, P = 0001), and (vi) for the presence of young in the pouch of females (OR = 40.083, P = 0.0001). Multivariate logistic-regression analyses selected the following factors as being significantly associated with presence of S. neurona sporocysts in opossums: (i) for the presence of concomitant infection (OR = 8.722, P = 0.0160) and (ii) for the presence of young in the pouch of females (OR = 31.915, P = 0.0065). The prevalence of S. neurona sporocysts in D. virginiana suggests that this opossum may constitute an ample reservoir of infection to other animals in the northern United States.

  2. The development of a testosterone stimulation test in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and its use in evaluating deslorelin contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S D; Camacho, F C; Carrillo, L; Guy, N; Govea, J; Martinez, O; Parãs, A; Lisle, A T; D'Occhio, M

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine the variability of testosterone secretion in the Virginia Opossum over a 24 h period and to develop a testosterone stimulation test that would provide an index of the prevailing testosterone biosynthetic capacity of the testes; the latter was used to clinically evaluate the efficacy of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist contraceptive. Sexually-mature captive opossums (n = 12) located in Africam Safari (Mexico) sampled every 12 h over 24 h consistently showed basal (<0.21 ng mL(-1)) blood testosterone concentrations. Intra-muscular injection of buserelin (2 microg mL(-1)) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG; 1000 IU) resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) of plasma testosterone concentrations with maximal concentrations (3.9 ng mL(-1) and 5.8 ng mL(-1) respectively) occurring 120 min after injection. Plasma testosterone declined relatively rapidly to basal concentrations after 240 min with hCG but remained elevated after the same period of time with buserelin. Male opossums treated with (n = 6) and without (n = 6) a controlled-release deslorelin implant (Suprelorin; 4.7 mg deslorelin) were evaluated over a 10-week period for changes in testosterone secretion (hCG stimulation test) and sperm production (spermatorrhea). At the end of this period, the animals were hemi-castrated and their relative testicular quantitative histology compared. Testosterone concentration decreased over the course of the study in both treated and control animals (P < 0.0001) but there was no apparent effect of deslorelin on testosterone secretion, testicular histology (relative proportions of testicular cell types and seminiferous tubule diameter), or sperm production (presence of sperm in the cauda epididymis or urine).

  3. Extracellular Trap Formation in Response to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Granulocytes Isolated From Dogs and Common Opossums, Natural Reservoir Hosts

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    Nicole de Buhr

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytes mediate the first line of defense against infectious diseases in humans as well as animals and they are well known as multitasking cells. They can mediate antimicrobial activity by different strategies depending on the pathogen they encounter. Besides phagocytosis, a key strategy against extracellular pathogens is the formation of extracellular traps (ETs. Those ETs mainly consist of DNA decorated with antimicrobial components and mediate entrapment of various pathogens. In the last years, various studies described ET formation as response to bacteria, viruses and parasites e.g., Trypanosma (T. cruzi. Nevertheless, it is not fully understood, if ET formation helps the immune system to eliminate intracellular parasites. The goal of this study was to analyze ET formation in response to the intracellular parasite Trypanosma (T. cruzi by granulocytes derived from animals that serve as natural reservoir. Thus, we investigated the ET formation in two T. cruzi reservoirs, namely dogs as domestic animal and common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis as wild animal. Granulocytes were harvested from fresh blood by density gradient centrifugation and afterwards incubated with T. cruzi. We conducted the analysis by determination of free DNA and immunofluorescence microscopy. Using both methods, we show that T. cruzi efficiently induces ET formation in granulocytes derived from common opossum as well as dog blood. Most ETs from both animal species as response to T. cruzi are decorated with the protease neutrophil elastase. Since T. cruzi is well known to circulate over years in both analyzed animals as reservoirs, it may be assumed that T. cruzi efficiently evades ET-mediated killing in those animals. Therefore, ETs may not play a major role in efficient elimination of the pathogen from the blood of dogs or common opossums as T. cruzi survives in niches of their body. The characterization of granulocytes in various animals and humans may be helpful

  4. Scanning electron microscopy of Turgida turgida (Nematoda: Spiruroidea), parasite of the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana, from southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matey, V E; Kuperman, B I; Kinsella, J M

    2001-10-01

    Taxonomic characters for identification of Turgida turgida Rudolphi, 1819, a parasitic nematode of the Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The distinguishing feature of the cephalic end is the presence of numerous denticles, structures associated with the internal tooth, and 2 spongelike areas on the inner side of each pseudolabia. The posterior end of male T. turgida differs from that in other species of Physalopteridae by the number of caudal papillae (22), truncated postcloacal papilla, and patterns of ventrocaudal ornamentation.

  5. Ecology of the Opossum Shrimp (Neomysis mercedis) in a Lower Snake River Reservoir, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Erhardt, John M.; Bickford, Brad

    2017-01-01

    The opossum shrimp Neomysis mercedis has expanded its range from the lower Columbia River upstream 695 kilometers into Lower Granite Reservoir where it is now very abundant. We studied Neomysis ecology in the reservoir during 2011–2015 to better understand the physical and biological factors that shape their distribution as well as their potential role in the food web. Benthic densities in offshore habitats ranged from 19 to 145 mysids m-2 in shallow (2–12 m) water and from 3 to 48 mysids m-2 in deep (> 12 m) water. Water velocity, depth, substrate, and seasonal interactions were important variables for explaining variation in Neomysis densities in offshore habitats. During spring, daytime densities in shoreline habitats (reproduction and as temperatures approached 23 °C. Neomysis were mainly collected from the water column during nighttime vertical tows in the downstream end of the reservoir when water velocities were low during summer and autumn. Reproduction occurred mainly in spring and early summer, but a second, smaller reproductive event was observed during autumn. The diet of Neomysis consisted primarily of detritus, rotifers, and copepods, but cladocerans were more prominent during summer and autumn. Physical factors like water velocity may have limited vertical migrations of Neomysis to feed in the water column and influenced use of different habitats in the reservoir. Neomysis are prey for a number of species, including juvenile salmon, but their relations are still largely unknown, and continued monitoring and research is warranted.

  6. Amelotin Gene Structure and Expression during Enamel Formation in the Opossum Monodelphis domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasse, Barbara; Liu, Xi; Corre, Erwan; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is an ameloblast-secreted protein that belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein family, which also includes the enamel matrix proteins amelogenin, ameloblastin and enamelin. Although AMTN is supposed to play an important role in enamel formation, data were long limited to the rodents, in which it is expressed during the maturation stage. Recent comparative studies in sauropsids and amphibians revealed that (i) AMTN was expressed earlier, i.e. as soon as ameloblasts are depositing the enamel matrix, and (ii) AMTN structure was different, a change which mostly resulted from an intraexonic splicing in the large exon 8 of an ancestral mammal. The present study was performed to know whether the differences in AMTN structure and expression in rodents compared to non-mammalian tetrapods dated back to an early ancestral mammal or were acquired later in mammalian evolution. We sequenced, assembled and screened the jaw transcriptome of a neonate opossum Monodelphis domestica, a marsupial. We found two AMTN transcripts. Variant 1, representing 70.8% of AMTN transcripts, displayed the structure known in rodents, whereas variant 2 (29.2%) exhibited the nonmammalian tetrapod structure. Then, we studied AMTN expression during amelogenesis in a neonate specimen. We obtained similar data as those reported in rodents. These findings indicate that more than 180 million years ago, before the divergence of marsupials and placentals, changes occurred in AMTN function and structure. The spatiotemporal expression was delayed to the maturation stage of amelogenesis and the intraexonic splicing gave rise to isoform 1, encoded by variant 1 and lacking the RGD motif. The ancestral isoform 2, housing the RGD, was initially conserved, as demonstrated here in a marsupial, then secondarily lost in the placental lineages. These findings bring new elements towards our understanding of the non-prismatic to prismatic enamel transition that occurred at the onset of

  7. Amelotin Gene Structure and Expression during Enamel Formation in the Opossum Monodelphis domestica.

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    Barbara Gasse

    Full Text Available Amelotin (AMTN is an ameloblast-secreted protein that belongs to the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein family, which also includes the enamel matrix proteins amelogenin, ameloblastin and enamelin. Although AMTN is supposed to play an important role in enamel formation, data were long limited to the rodents, in which it is expressed during the maturation stage. Recent comparative studies in sauropsids and amphibians revealed that (i AMTN was expressed earlier, i.e. as soon as ameloblasts are depositing the enamel matrix, and (ii AMTN structure was different, a change which mostly resulted from an intraexonic splicing in the large exon 8 of an ancestral mammal. The present study was performed to know whether the differences in AMTN structure and expression in rodents compared to non-mammalian tetrapods dated back to an early ancestral mammal or were acquired later in mammalian evolution. We sequenced, assembled and screened the jaw transcriptome of a neonate opossum Monodelphis domestica, a marsupial. We found two AMTN transcripts. Variant 1, representing 70.8% of AMTN transcripts, displayed the structure known in rodents, whereas variant 2 (29.2% exhibited the nonmammalian tetrapod structure. Then, we studied AMTN expression during amelogenesis in a neonate specimen. We obtained similar data as those reported in rodents. These findings indicate that more than 180 million years ago, before the divergence of marsupials and placentals, changes occurred in AMTN function and structure. The spatiotemporal expression was delayed to the maturation stage of amelogenesis and the intraexonic splicing gave rise to isoform 1, encoded by variant 1 and lacking the RGD motif. The ancestral isoform 2, housing the RGD, was initially conserved, as demonstrated here in a marsupial, then secondarily lost in the placental lineages. These findings bring new elements towards our understanding of the non-prismatic to prismatic enamel transition that occurred at

  8. Regeneration of supraspinal axons after transection of the thoracic spinal cord in the developing opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Terman, J R; Martin, G F

    1998-08-17

    When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum is transected early in development, supraspinal axons grow through the lesion. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether regeneration of cut axons contributes to such growth. Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the lumbar cord on postnatal day (PD)5, 8, 15, or 20. Five days later, FB was removed by gentle suction, and the spinal cord was transected at thoracic levels. Fourteen days later, rhodamine B dextran was injected between the site of the FB injection and the lesion. The pups were maintained for an additional 7-10 days before killing and perfusion. We assumed that supraspinal neurons that contained FB survived axotomy and those that contained both FB and rhodamine B dextran supported regenerating axons. In the PD5 group (lesioned at PD10), regenerative growth was documented for axons originating in all of the supraspinal nuclei that innervate the lumbar cord by PD10. When the injections were made at the later ages, however, neurons that supported regenerative growth were fewer in number and regionally restricted. In some cases, they were limited primarily to the red nucleus, the medullary raphe, and the adjacent reticular formation. Our results show that regeneration of cut axons contributes to growth of supraspinal axons through the lesion after transection of the thoracic cord in developing opossums and that the critical period for regenerative growth is not the same for all axons.

  9. Concurrent presence of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts, Besnoitia darlingi tissue cysts, and Sarcocystis inghami sarcocysts in naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, H M; Fitzgerald, S D; Rosenthal, B M; Mansfield, L S

    2004-07-01

    Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) are exposed to a wide range of coccidia through feeding on a variety of foods, including, but not limited to, carrion, insects, and nestling birds. Abundant D. virginiana populations in urban and suburban areas can be important reservoirs of parasitic infection because of their profuse and prolonged excretion of the sporocysts of several species of Sarcocystis, their omnivorous diet, and their relatively long life span. This report describes 2 adult female opossums found to be simultaneously infected with the tissue cysts of Besnoitia darlingi, sarcocysts of Sarcocystis inghami, as well as with the intestinal sporocysts of S. neurona. Cysts typical of B. darlingi based on gross, histological, and ultrastructural characteristics were disseminated throughout the visceral organs, musculature, ears, and skin. The S. neurona and B. darlingi infections were confirmed by comparative sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified diagnostic genetic loci. Sarcocysts of S. inghami are also described. Such examples of multiple parasitic infections show that concurrent infections occur naturally. The propensity for species to coexist should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa and may have important epidemiological and evolutionary implications.

  10. Anatomical and Radiographic Study on the Skull and Mandible of the Common Opossum (Didelphis Marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 in the Caribbean

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    Reda Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis are found throughout the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The present work was conducted on 10 skulls and mandibles of the common opossum to describe the osteology and foramina of these skulls and mandibles grossly and radiographically. The information that is garnered can be used to detect, diagnose, and treat head affections, as well as for comparative studies with the skulls and mandibles of other similar species. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. All of the characteristic features of various standards views of the skulls bones, including dorsal, lateral, caudal and midsagittal, and the lateral and caudal views of the mandibles as well as the foramina of the skulls and mandibles were described and discussed. Each skull was divided into long facial and short cranial regions. No supraorbital foramen was observed in the skulls. The tympanic bulla was absent while there was the tympanic process of the alisphenoid. The temporal process of the zygomatic bone, zygomatic process of maxilla, and zygomatic process of the squamosal bone formed the zygomatic arch. The dental formula was confirmed. The bones and foramina of the skull and mandible were similar to other marsupial species and were homologue to that of other mammals.

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of gastrin-releasing peptide, neuronal nitric oxide synthase and neurone-specific enolase in the uterus of the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, A; Sasaki, M; Budipitojo, T; Kitamura, N; Krause, W J; Yamada, J

    2005-08-01

    The present study has demonstrated the immunohistochemical localization of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and neurone-specific enolase (NSE) in the uterus of the North American opossum. Although the presence of GRP, nNOS and NSE has been reported recently in the uterus of eutherian species this is the first description of these peptides in a metatherian species. Metatherian mammals are of interest because in these species it is the prolonged lactation phase of development that is the period of primary reproductive investment rather than intrauterine development as is true of eutherian mammals. The opossum, like other marsupial species, has a very abbreviated gestation period which in Didelphis lasts only 12.5 days. GRP was localized in the cytoplasm of cells forming the surface lining epithelium and the glandular epithelium of the opossum endometrium late in pregnancy, at 11.5 days of gestation. Likewise, immunoreactivities of nNOS and NSE were found primarily within the epithelial cells of the endometrium at 11.5 days of gestation. As these peptides and enzymes appear primarily at the time of establishment of the yolk sac placenta (between day 10 and day 12.5 gestation), the present results strongly suggest that these factors may play a fundamental role in the placentation of the opossum.

  12. Sarcocystis neurona infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor): evidence for natural infection with sarcocysts, transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and experimental induction of neurologic disease in raccoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Stanek, J F; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Oglesbee, M J; Rosypal, A C; Njoku, C J; Stich, R W; Kwok, O C; Shen, S K; Hamir, A N; Reed, S M

    2001-10-24

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease of horses in the Americas and Sarcocystis neurona is the most common etiologic agent. The distribution of S. neurona infections follows the geographical distributions of its definitive hosts, opossums (Didelphis virginiana, Didelphis albiventris). Recently, cats and skunks were reported as experimental and armadillos as natural intermediate hosts of S. neurona. In the present report, raccoons (Procyon lotor) were identified as a natural intermediate host of S. neurona. Two laboratory-raised opossums were found to shed S. neurona-like sporocysts after ingesting tongues of naturally-infected raccoons. Interferon-gamma gene knockout (KO) mice fed raccoon-opossum-derived sporocysts developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was identified immunohistochemically in tissues of KO mice fed sporocysts and the parasite was isolated in cell cultures inoculated with infected KO mouse tissues. The DNA obtained from the tongue of a naturally-infected raccoon, brains of KO mice that had neurological signs, and from the organisms recovered in cell cultures inoculated with brains of neurologic KO mice, corresponded to that of S. neurona. Two raccoons fed mature S. neurona sarcocysts did not shed sporocysts in their feces, indicating raccoons are not likely to be its definitive host. Two raccoons fed sporocysts from opossum feces developed clinical illness and S. neurona-associated encephalomyelitis was found in raccoons killed 14 and 22 days after feeding sporocysts; schizonts and merozoites were seen in encephalitic lesions.

  13. Isolation of Salmonella enterica and serologic reactivity to Leptospira interrogans in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatán, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pina, Hugo Antonio; Puc-Franco, Miguel Angel; Flores-Abuxapqui, Javier; Vado-Solis, Ignacio; Cardenas-Marrufo, María Fidelia

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enterica and serologic evidence of infection by Leptospira interrogans, were detected in the opossum Didelphis virginiana in a semi-urban locality of the Yucatán State, México. Ninety-one opossums were captured during the period April 1996 and May 1998. From a total of 17 feces samples, four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes (Sandiego, Newport, Anatum, and Minnesota), and one Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae serovar O44:Z4,Z23:- were isolated. Some opossums presented mixed infections. From 81 sera samples, four (4.9%) were positive to antibodies to Leptospira serovars pomona and wolfii. Both animals infected with Salmonella enterica and those serologically positive to Leptospira interrogans were captured in peridomestic habitat. Opossums infected with Salmonella enterica, were captured in dry season, and those seropositive to Leptospira interrogans during the rainy season. The implications of infection and reactivity of these zoonotic pathogens in D. virginiana in the Yucatan state are briefly discussed.

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossums, Didelphis virginiana, from southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Alice E; Goodwin, David G; Zajac, Anne M; Barr, Stephen C; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, David S

    2010-12-01

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites ( Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoans of veterinary importance ( Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) from Louisiana. Samples from 30 opossums were collected as part of a survey for T. cruzi in Louisiana. Frozen sera from these 30 opossums were examined using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) against in vitro-produced antigenic stages of these protozoans. Additionally, 24 of the 30 samples were examined using hemoculture, and all 30 were examined in the modified direct agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies to To. gondii. The prevalences of reactive IFAT samples were as follows: 60% for T. cruzi, 27% for To. gondii, 23% for E. cuniculi, 17% for S. neurona, 47% for B. darlingi, and 0% for N. caninum. Hemoculture revealed that 16 (67%) of 24 samples were positive for T. cruzi, compared to 18 of 30 (60%) by IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity for the IFAT compared to hemoculture was 100% for each. The modified direct agglutination test revealed that 9 (30%) of the 30 samples from opossums had antibodies to To. gondii , compared to 8 (27%) using the IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the IFAT compared to the MAT was 100% and 72%, respectively.

  15. Didelphis marsupialis (common opossum): a potential reservoir host for zoonotic leishmaniasis in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; da Silva, Eduardo S.; van der Meide, Wendy F.; Schoone, Gerard J.; Gontijo, Celia M. F.

    2007-01-01

    Identification of the zoonotic reservoir is important for leishmaniasis control program. A number of (wild) animal species may serve as reservoir hosts, including the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. A survey carried out in Didelphis specimens (n = 111) from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte,

  16. The opossum Didelphis virginiana as a synanthropic reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi in Dzidzilché, Yucatán, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pina, Hugo A; Cruz-Reyes, Alejandro

    2002-07-01

    In México, the role of mammals in the transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi is poorly known. In the State of Yucatán, an endemic area of Chagas disease, both Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis occur sympatrically. However, until now, only the former species had been found infected with T. cruzi. To evaluate the role of D. virginiana in a peridomestic transmission, nine periods of capture-recapture were performed around the village of Dzidzilché, Yucatán. The sex, age, reproductive status, location, and presence of infection with T. cruzi were recorded for each opossum. The chromosome morphology was used to identify the opossum species. T. cruzi was identified by the presence of pseudocysts of amastigotes in cardiac muscle fibers of Balb/c mice inoculated with strains isolated from opossums. However, xenodiagnosis was the best diagnostic method. Triatoma dimidiata, the vector, were collected in and around the opossums' nests, and human dwellings; and were checked for T. cruzi. From 102 blood samples of D. virginiana examined 55 (53.9%) were positive to T. cruzi, the only two D. marsupialis captured were negative. Significant differences were found between infection, and both sex and reproductive condition. Eight out of 14 triatomines collected in peridomestic nests (57.1%), and 32 of 197 captured inside houses (16.3%) were found infected, suggesting a peridomestic transmission. The statistically high abundance of infected opossums and triatomines during the dry season (March to May) suggested the existence of a seasonality in the peridomestic transmission of T. cruzi in Dzidzilché.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona of horses and opossums to other cyst-forming coccidia deduced from SSU rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Lacher, David W; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the nuclear-encoded small subunit rRNA (ssurRNA) gene were performed to examine the origin, phylogeny, and biogeographic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona isolates from opossums and horses from the State of Michigan, USA, in relation to other cyst-forming coccidia. A total of 31 taxa representing all recognized subfamilies and genera of Sarcocystidae were included in the analyses with clonal isolates of two opossum and two horse S. neurona. Phylogenies obtained by the four tree-building methods were consistent with the classical taxonomy based on morphological criteria. The "isosporid" coccidia Neospora, Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, Isospora lacking stieda bodies, and Hyaloklossia formed a sister group to the Sarcocystis spp. Sarcocystis species were divided into three main lineages; S. neurona isolates were located in the second lineage and clustered with S. mucosa, S. dispersa, S. lacertae, S. rodentifelis, S. muris, and Frenkelia spp. Alignment of S. neurona SSU rRNA gene sequences of Michigan opossum isolates (MIOP5, MIOP20) and a S. neurona Michigan horse isolate (MIH8) showed 100% identity. These Michigan isolates differed in 2/1085 bp (0.2%) from a Kentucky S. neurona horse isolate (SN5). Additionally, S. neurona isolates from horses and opossums were identical based on the ultrastructural features and PCR-RFLP analyses thus forming a phylogenetically indistinct group in these regions. These findings revealed the concordance between the morphological and molecular data and confirmed that S. neurona from opossums and horses originated from the same phylogenetic origin.

  18. The opossum Didelphis virginiana as a synanthropic reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi in Dzidzilché, Yucatán, México

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    Hugo A Ruiz-Piña

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In México, the role of mammals in the transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi is poorly known. In the State of Yucatán, an endemic area of Chagas disease, both Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis occur sympatrically. However, until now, only the former species had been found infected with T. cruzi. To evaluate the role of D. virginiana in a peridomestic transmission, nine periods of capture-recapture were performed around the village of Dzidzilché, Yucatán. The sex, age, reproductive status, location, and presence of infection with T. cruzi were recorded for each opossum. The chromosome morphology was used to identify the opossum species. T. cruzi was identified by the presence of pseudocysts of amastigotes in cardiac muscle fibers of Balb/c mice inoculated with strains isolated from opossums. However, xenodiagnosis was the best diagnostic method. Triatoma dimidiata, the vector, were collected in and around the opossums' nests, and human dwellings; and were checked for T. cruzi. From 102 blood samples of D. virginiana examined 55 (53.9% were positive to T. cruzi, the only two D. marsupialis captured were negative. Significant differences were found between infection, and both sex and reproductive condition. Eight out of 14 triatomines collected in peridomestic nests (57.1%, and 32 of 197 captured inside houses (16.3% were found infected, suggesting a peridomestic transmission. The statistically high abundance of infected opossums and triatomines during the dry season (March to May suggested the existence of a seasonality in the peridomestic transmission of T. cruzi in Dzidzilché.

  19. Development of the eye in the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, P G; Krause, W J

    1993-01-01

    Marsupials are unique models for developmental biology-oriented research because of the immature state of their development at birth. The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) has several advantages over other marsupials, including large litter size, short prenatal period (12.5 d), an extended postnatal period while accessible in the pouch, and its ability to reproduce reliably in captivity. Studies of ocular development in this species have not been reported previously. The aim of the present investigation was therefore to document the major landmarks in prenatal and postnatal development of the cornea, lens, iris, ciliary body and retina. Fifteen embryos (10.5, 10.7 and 11 d postconception and 6 h after birth [12 d]) were studied by paraffin histology. Eyes of pouch young at 8 d, 2, 6, 9 and 13 wk were studied by transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. The study revealed a similar pattern of ocular development in Didelphis to other metatherian and eutherian mammals. Differentiation of the eye is particularly rapid in the 2 d before birth. For example, although the lens vesicle separates from the surface ectoderm on d 10, by birth (2.5 d later) a primitive cornea and fused eyelids have formed, presumably to protect the eye during migration to the pouch. At birth the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) contains melanin; however, the inner layer of the optic cup does not differentiate into an inner and outer neuroblastic layer until 8 d after birth. Around 6 wk after birth most components of the adult eye are identifiable, albeit in an immature form. These include the corneal layers, the iris (including the sphincter pupillae), ciliary processes, RPE tapetum, and a fully laminated retina with immature photoreceptors. A knowledge of the timing of major events in eye development in Didelphis and their comparison with equivalent events in human eye development should allow the appropriate choice of stages for any future experimental studies

  20. Anothor Trypanosoma, distinct from T. cruzi, multiplies in the lumen of the anal glands the opossum Didelphis marsupialis

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    Maria P. Deane

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Epimastigotes were found multiplying in the anal glands and in hemocultures of an opossum; rare metacyclics were seen in the cultures. The flagellate is possibly T. (Megatrypanum freitasi Rego, Magalhães & Siqueira, 1957, but its final identification is still pending.Um tripanosoma ainda não identificado foi encontrado multiplicando-se como epimastigotas extracelulares na glândulas anais de um gambá. Trata-se possivelmente do T. (M. freitasi. O achado demonstra que tal localização não se restringe ao T. cruzi e sugere que os tripanosomatídeos devem ser buscados nesta e em outras situações inortodoxas, no organismo dos hospedeiros vertebrados.

  1. Rescue of axotomized rubrospinal neurons by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the developing opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

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    Wang, X M; Terman, J R; Martin, G F

    1999-12-10

    Many rubrospinal neurons die in developing opossums when their axon is cut at thoracic levels of the spinal cord and in the present study we asked whether they can be rescued by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Bilateral injections of Fast Blue (FB) were made into the rostral lumbar cord to prelabel rubrospinal neurons and 5 days later the rubrospinal tract was cut unilaterally by hemisecting the thoracic cord. Immediately after hemisection, BDNF-soaked gelfoam was placed into the lesion cavity. Since pilot data indicated that one application of BDNF was not sufficient to produce a rescue effect, a second application was made 7 days later. Seven days after the second application the pups were killed by an overdose of anesthetic so that the red nucleus contralateral and ipsilateral to the lesion site could be examined for labeled neurons. The rubrospinal tract is almost entirely crossed, so the red nucleus contralateral to the lesion contained many axotomized neurons, whereas the red nucleus ipsilateral to it did not. Age-matched controls were subjected to the same procedures, but the gelfoam applied to the lesion site in the experimental animals was soaked only in the vehicle used to deliver BDNF. In all cases, labeled neurons were fewer in number in the red nucleus contralateral to the lesion than ipsilateral to it. It was of particular interest, however, that labeled neurons contralateral to the lesion were more numerous in the animals treated with BDNF than in the controls. We conclude that BDNF rescues at least some rubrospinal neurons from axotomy-induced cell death in developing opossums suggesting that loss of access to BDNF, and perhaps other neurotrophins, contributes to failure of rubrospinal neurons to survive axotomy.

  2. Dexamethasone treatment induces susceptibility of outbred Webster mice to experimental infection with Besnoitia darlingi isolated from opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

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    Elsheikha, Hany M; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-04-01

    The Sarcocystidae comprise a diverse, monophyletic apicomplexan parasite family, most of whose members form intracellular cysts in their intermediate hosts. The extent of pathology associated with such cyst formation can range widely. We currently lack experimental animal models for many of these infections. Here we explored dexamethasone treatment as a means to render outbred mice susceptible to Besnoitia darlingi infection and demonstrated that this approach allows viable parasites to be subsequently isolated from these mice and maintained in tissue culture. Besnoitia bradyzoites recovered from crushed cysts derived from naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana) replicated and reproduced the development of besnoitiosis in mice treated with dexamethasone (0.5 mg/ml drinking water) daily for 12 days post infection (DPI). Isolates recovered from the peritoneal exudates of these mice were viable and were maintained in long-term tissue cultures. In contrast, control mice given saline without dexamethasone and challenged with similar bradyzoites remained clinically normal for up to 70 DPI. An additional group of mice challenged with the same inoculum of bradyzoites and given dexamethasone at the same concentration and treated with sulfadiazine (1 mg/ml drinking water) daily for 12 DPI also remained normal for up to 70 DPI. Severe disease developed more rapidly in dexamethasone-treated mice inoculated with culture-derived B. darlingi tachyzoites than in those inoculated with cyst-derived bradyzoites. B. darlingi tachyzoite-infected, untreated control mice developed signs of illness at 18 DPI. In contrast, mice treated with sulfadiazine showed no clinical signs up to 50 DPI. Although dexamethasone treatment was required to establish B. darlingi infection in outbred mice inoculated with opossum-derived B. darlingi bradyzoites, no such treatment was required for mice inoculated with culture-derived B. darlingi tachyzoites. Finally, sulfadiazine was highly

  3. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

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    Wheaton, Benjamin J; Noor, Natassya M; Whish, Sophie C; Truettner, Jessie S; Dietrich, W Dalton; Zhang, Moses; Crack, Peter J; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Saunders, Norman R

    2013-01-01

    Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P)7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming) P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating that although

  4. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

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    Benjamin J Wheaton

    Full Text Available Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating

  5. Neutralization of lethality and proteolytic activities of Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) venom with North American Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornmanee, Piboon; Sánchez, Elda E; López, Gonzalo; Petsom, Amorn; Khow, Orawan; Pakmanee, Narumol; Chanhome, Lawan; Sangvanich, Polkit; Pérez, John C

    2008-07-01

    Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) envenomation is a major health problem in South East Asia. During envenomation, venom components mainly affect the hemostatic system. The sera from the North American Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were able to neutralize the venom of the Malayan pit viper. These natural inhibitors could be explored as potential therapeutics against envenomations of a variety of venomous snake species in different geographical habitats.

  6. Regeneration of descending spinal axons after transection of the thoracic spinal cord during early development in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G F; Terman, J R; Wang, X M

    2000-11-15

    Opossums are born in an immature, fetal-like state, making it possible to lesion their spinal cord early in development without intrauterine surgery. When the thoracic spinal cord of the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, is transected on postnatal day 5, and injections of Fast Blue (FB) are made caudal to the lesion site 30-40 days or 6 months later, neurons are labeled in all of the spinal and supraspinal areas that are labeled after comparable injections in age-matched, unlesioned controls. Double-labeling studies document that regeneration of cut axons contributes to growth of axons through the lesion site and behavioral studies show that animals lesioned on postnatal day 5 use their hindlimbs in normal appearing locomotion as adults. The critical period for developmental plasticity of descending spinal axons extends to postnatal day 26, although axons which grow through the lesion site become fewer in number and more restricted as to origin with increasing age. Animals lesioned between postnatal day 12 and 26 use the hindlimbs better than animals lesioned as adults, but hindlimb function is markedly abnormal and uncoordinated with that of the forelimbs. We conclude that restoration of anatomical continuity occurs after transection of the spinal cord in developing opossums, that descending axons grow through the lesion site, that regeneration of cut axons contributes to such growth, and that animals lesioned early enough in development have relatively normal motor function as adults.

  7. Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil

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    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied, 1826 (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil. The space use of the marsupial Didelphis aurita was studied in a forest fragment of southern Brazil from February 1995 to January 1996. The method used was the 'distribution utilization' in which each trap was set in 38 x 38 m quadrats. Captures of each marked individual in each point give information on its habitat use. Food availability was searched and compared to the habitat utilization and to the food consumption of opossums. Distribution patterns of captures (aggregated to random and spatial overlap between individuals were searched. Results showed aggregated distributions of individuals, particularly females, in the fragment. Females used exclusively the fragment during the drier season. Opossums tend to not choose the sites with highest food availability to establish home ranges. Spatial overlap was usually low between forest resident and neighbouring resident females, but much lower during the breeding season (only forest resident females in an apparently pattern of territoriality. Hence, core areas of females decreased in size during the breeding season. Males probably searched primarily for mates during the breeding season being less opportunistic than females in feeding habits, yet their space use did not correlate to food consumption.

  8. Making the most of RNA-seq: Pre-processing sequencing data with Opossum for reliable SNP variant detection [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

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    Laura Oikkonen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying variants from RNA-seq (transcriptome sequencing data is a cost-effective and versatile complement to whole-exome (WES and whole-genome sequencing (WGS analysis. RNA-seq (transcriptome sequencing is primarily considered a method of gene expression analysis but it can also be used to detect DNA variants in expressed regions of the genome. However, current variant callers do not generally behave well with RNA-seq data due to reads encompassing intronic regions. We have developed a software programme called Opossum to address this problem. Opossum pre-processes RNA-seq reads prior to variant calling, and although it has been designed to work specifically with Platypus, it can be used equally well with other variant callers such as GATK HaplotypeCaller. In this work, we show that using Opossum in conjunction with either Platypus or GATK HaplotypeCaller maintains precision and improves the sensitivity for SNP detection compared to the GATK Best Practices pipeline. In addition, using it in combination with Platypus offers a substantial reduction in run times compared to the GATK pipeline so it is ideal when there are only limited time or computational resources available.

  9. Making the most of RNA-seq: Pre-processing sequencing data with Opossum for reliable SNP variant detection [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

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    Laura Oikkonen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying variants from RNA-seq (transcriptome sequencing data is a cost-effective and versatile alternative to whole-genome sequencing. However, current variant callers do not generally behave well with RNA-seq data due to reads encompassing intronic regions. We have developed a software programme called Opossum to address this problem. Opossum pre-processes RNA-seq reads prior to variant calling, and although it has been designed to work specifically with Platypus, it can be used equally well with other variant callers such as GATK HaplotypeCaller. In this work, we show that using Opossum in conjunction with either Platypus or GATK HaplotypeCaller maintains precision and improves the sensitivity for SNP detection compared to the GATK Best Practices pipeline. In addition, using it in combination with Platypus offers a substantial reduction in run times compared to the GATK pipeline so it is ideal when there are only limited time or computational resources available.

  10. In vivo strains in the femur of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) during terrestrial locomotion: testing hypotheses of evolutionary shifts in mammalian bone loading and design.

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    Butcher, Michael T; White, Bartholomew J; Hudzik, Nathan B; Gosnell, W Casey; Parrish, John H A; Blob, Richard W

    2011-08-01

    Terrestrial locomotion can impose substantial loads on vertebrate limbs. Previous studies have shown that limb bones from cursorial species of eutherian mammals experience high bending loads with minimal torsion, whereas the limb bones of non-avian reptiles (and amphibians) exhibit considerable torsion in addition to bending. It has been hypothesized that these differences in loading regime are related to the difference in limb posture between upright mammals and sprawling reptiles, and that the loading patterns observed in non-avian reptiles may be ancestral for tetrapod vertebrates. To evaluate whether non-cursorial mammals show loading patterns more similar to those of sprawling lineages, we measured in vivo strains in the femur during terrestrial locomotion of the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), a marsupial that uses more crouched limb posture than most mammals from which bone strains have been recorded, and which belongs to a clade phylogenetically between reptiles and the eutherian mammals studied previously. The presence of substantial torsion in the femur of opossums, similar to non-avian reptiles, would suggest that this loading regime likely reflects an ancestral condition for tetrapod limb bone design. Strain recordings indicate the presence of both bending and appreciable torsion (shear strain: 419.1 ± 212.8 με) in the opossum femur, with planar strain analyses showing neutral axis orientations that placed the lateral aspect of the femur in tension at the time of peak strains. Such mediolateral bending was unexpected for a mammal running with near-parasagittal limb kinematics. Shear strains were similar in magnitude to peak compressive axial strains, with opossum femora experiencing similar bending loads but higher levels of torsion compared with most previously studied mammals. Analyses of peak femoral strains led to estimated safety factor ranges of 5.1-7.2 in bending and 5.5-7.3 in torsion, somewhat higher than typical mammalian values

  11. Effect of lead exposure on spatial learning and running speed in the short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica (Didelphidae).

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    Punzo, F; Farmer, C

    2004-01-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the spatial learning ability in adult males of the short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica using a T-maze, complex maze and elevated radial 8-arm maze. This is the first study of maze learning in opossums. In the T-maze, the performance of these animals improved over an 8-day training period. Eighty percent of the subjects initially trained to turn to the right for food reinforcement reached criterion (80% correct responses) by day 3 and all reached criterion by day 4. Reversal training (subjects then trained to turn to the left) was more difficult and required 8 days for all subjects to reach criterion. In the complex maze, 89% of the animals achieved the criterion level of performance (3 consecutive trials with 5 or fewer errors) on the eighth day of training and all reached criterion by day 10. The relative importance of intramaze vs. extramaze cues in directing choice behavior was investigated in the radial arm maze. A discrimination procedure was used which selectively rewarded subjects for following only one set of cues. Animals in the intramaze group obtained a food pellet from a cup at the end of each arm. In the extramaze group, the food cups were placed on a small platform just beyond the end of each arm. All subjects were initially trained to visit each arm with the maze in a fixed position (controls) and did so within 15 test sessions. Following these initial trials, the maze was rotated to a different position after each choice. For subjects in the intramaze group, the food moved in conjunction with the rotation of the arms thereby increasing the relevance of intramaze cues. In the extramaze group, extramaze cues became more important because the food remained on the platforms in the same position in the room. Animals in the extramaze group performed significantly better than chance whereas the intramaze subjects did not. This indicates that intramaze cues are not as important as extramaze cues for accurate choice

  12. Repair of the transected spinal cord at different stages of development in the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

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    Terman, J R; Wang, X M; Martin, G F

    2000-12-01

    When the thoracic spinal cord is transected on postnatal day (PD) 5 in the North American opossum, descending and ascending axons grow through the lesion site. When the lesion is made on PD20, comparable growth is limited to a subset of descending axons. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these differences, we analyzed the transection site at different times after lesioning at both ages. Axons which crossed the lesion site could be identified using silver impregnation and immunostaining for neurofilament. Nissl stains revealed that abnormal appearing grey matter was also present in some of the PD5 cases. In many PD5 cases, however, and in all of the animals transected at PD20, grey matter was not present at the lesion site. Immunostaining with a neuron specific antibody supported that conclusion. However, immunostaining with phenotypic specific antibodies revealed that glial cells were present in all cases. Immunostaining for Schwann cells was negative. Fibronectin-positive cells were also present at the lesion site after transection of the thoracic cord at PD20, but their identity was uncertain. When injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog, were made at different times after lesioning and the pups were sacrificed for BrdU immunohistochemistry up to 40 days later, labeled cells were found in the tissue which bridged the lesion site indicating that cell proliferation contributed to reconstruction at the lesion site.

  13. X-linked gene expression in the Virginia opossum: differences between the paternally derived Gpd and Pgk-A loci

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    Samollow, P.B.; Ford, A.L.; VandeBerg, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Expression of X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and phosphoglycerate kinase-A (PGK-A) in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) was studied electrophoretically in animals from natural populations and those produced through controlled laboratory crosses. Blood from most of the wild animals exhibited a common single-banded phenotype for both enzymes. Rare variant animals, regardless of sex, exhibited single-banded phenotypes different in mobility from the common mobility class of the respective enzyme. The laboratory crosses confirmed the allelic basis for the common and rare phenotypes. Transmission of PGK-A phenotypes followed the pattern of determinate (nonrandom) inactivation of the paternally derived Pgk-A allele, and transmission of G6PD also was consistent with this pattern. A survey of tissue-specific expression of G6PD phenotypes of heterozygous females revealed, in almost all tissues, three-banded patterns skewed in favor of the allele that was expressed in blood cells. Three-banded patterns were never observed in males or in putatively homozygous females. These patterns suggest simultaneous, but unequal, expression of the maternally and paternally derived Gpd alleles within individual cells. The absence of such partial expression was noted in a parallel survey of females heterozygous at the Pgd-A locus. Thus, it appears that Gpd and Pgk-A are X-linked in D. virginiana and subject to preferential paternal allele inactivation, but that dosage compensation may not be complete for all paternally derived X-linked genes.

  14. PRESENCIA DEL ZORRO DE CUATRO OJOS (Philander opossum EN EL CULTIVO DE PIÑA (Ananas comusus

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    Javier Monge-Meza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia del zorro de cuatro ojos (Philander opossum en áreas de producción de piña orgánica (Ananas comusus, en Sa nta Ce cilia de La Cruz, Guanacaste, Costa Ri ca. Las capturas se realizaron con trampas grandes de golpe, en muestreos quincenales desde febrero del 2008 hasta febrero del 2009. Se logró la captura de ocho individuos, desde marzo hasta agosto, lo cual indica que la especie podría tener actividad reproductiva desde finales de la época seca y en la lluviosa. Al menos uno de los individuos consumió piña, según análisis de su contenido estomacal. Si n embargo, el nivel de daño observado en el campo no permite considerar a esta especie como una plaga de la piña, sino una especie oportunista que aprovecha frutos maduros dejados en el campo, después de la cosecha. La colecta de individuos en varios meses del año, indican que esta especie utiliza las plantaciones de piña orgánica como parte de su hábitat, lo cual contradice la idea generalizada que los monocultivos no proveen condiciones mínimas para que las especie s de vida silvestre lo visiten o lo habiten.

  15. Late dry season habitat use of common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae in neotropical lower montane agricultural areas

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    Christopher S. Vaughan

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Three Didelphis marsupialis were radio tracked during late dry season (23 February-26 April, 1983 in agricultural area at 1500 m elevation in Central Valley, Costa Rica. All animals were nocturnally active, significantly more so between 2100-0300 h. Fifty diurnal den site locations were found, 96% inside tree cavities in living fence rows or abandoned squirrel nests in windbreaks. Two females occupied 3.4 and 3.1 ha 95% home ranges, moving an average 890 and 686 m nightly respectively. The male occupied a 5.6 ha 95% home range for 42 days overlapping 90% of females' home ranges. Over the next 15 days, he moved 1020 m south, establishing three temporary home ranges. During nocturnal movements, windbreaks and living fence rows were used in higher proportion than available, while pasture, roads and cultivated lands were used less then available within 100% home ranges. Abandoned coffee and spruce plantations, fruit orchards and overgrown pastures were used in equal proportions to availability in 100% home ranges. Opossum conservation techniques in coffee growing areas include promoting spruce windbreaks, living fence rows, and garbage dumps.

  16. Diversity of Sarcocystis spp shed by opossums in Brazil inferred with phylogenetic analysis of DNA coding ITS1, cytochrome B, and surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadas, Samantha Y O B; da Silva, Juliana I G; Lopes, Estela Gallucci; Keid, Lara B; Zwarg, Ticiana; de Oliveira, Alice S; Sanches, Thaís C; Joppert, Adriana M; Pena, Hilda F J; Oliveira, Tricia M F S; Ferreira, Helena L; Soares, Rodrigo M

    2016-05-01

    Although few species of Sarcocystis are known to use marsupials of the genus Didelphis as definitive host, an extensive diversity of alleles of surface antigen genes (sag2, sag3, and sag4) has been described in samples of didelphid opossums in Brazil. In this work, we studied 25 samples of Sarcocystis derived from gastrointestinal tract of opossums of the genus Didelphis by accessing the variability of sag2, sag3, sag4, gene encoding cytochrome b (cytB) and first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). Reference samples of Sarcocystis neurona (SN138) and Sarcocystis falcatula (SF1) maintained in cell culture were also analyzed. We found four allele variants of cytB, seven allele variants of ITS1, 10 allele variants of sag2, 13 allele variants of sag3, and 6 allele variants of sag4. None of the sporocyst-derived sequences obtained from Brazilian opossums revealed 100% identity to SN138 at cytB gene, nor to SN138 or SF1 at ITS1 locus. In addition, none of the sag alleles were found identical to either SF1 or SN138 homologous sequences, and a high number of new sag allele types were found other than those previously described in Brazil. Out of ten sag2 alleles, four are novel, while eight out of 13 sag3 alleles are novel and one out of six sag4 alleles is novel. Further studies are needed to clarify if such a vast repertoire of allele variants of Sarcocystis is the consequence of re-assortments driven by sexual exchange, in order to form individuals with highly diverse characteristics, such as pathogenicity, host spectrum, among others or if it only represents allele variants of different species with different biological traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae associated with opossum nests at urban sites in southeastern Brazil: a risk factor for urban and periurban zoonotic Leishmania transmission?

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    Andre Antonio Cutolo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies associated with opossum nests are reported for the first time in the yards of residences located in the urban area of the municipality of Monte Mor, situated in the metropolitan region of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eleven specimens of Evandromyia cortelezzii and one of Evandromyia lenti were captured in two Didelphis albiventris nests. Ev. cortelezzii is considered a secondary vector species for the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania infantum in the Neotropics. This association may contribute to the introduction, establishment and maintenance of urban and periurban zoonotic transmission outbreaks of Leishmania and should therefore be investigated further.

  18. Spontaneous development of full weight-supported stepping after complete spinal cord transection in the neonatal opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

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    Benjamin J Wheaton

    Full Text Available Spinal cord trauma in the adult nervous system usually results in permanent loss of function below the injury level. The immature spinal cord has greater capacity for repair and can develop considerable functionality by adulthood. This study used the marsupial laboratory opossum Monodelphis domestica, which is born at a very early stage of neural development. Complete spinal cord transection was made in the lower-thoracic region of pups at postnatal-day 7 (P7 or P28, and the animals grew to adulthood. Injury at P7 resulted in a dense neuronal tissue bridge that connected the two ends of the cord; retrograde neuronal labelling indicated that supraspinal and propriospinal innervation spanned the injury site. This repair was associated with pronounced behavioural recovery, coordinated gait and an ability to use hindlimbs when swimming. Injury at P28 resulted in a cyst-like cavity encased in scar tissue forming at the injury site. Using retrograde labelling, no labelled brainstem or propriospinal neurons were found above the lesion, indicating that detectable neuronal connectivity had not spanned the injury site. However, these animals could use their hindlimbs to take weight-supporting steps but could not use their hindlimbs when swimming. White matter, demonstrated by Luxol Fast Blue staining, was present in the injury site of P7- but not P28-injured animals. Overall, these studies demonstrated that provided spinal injury occurs early in development, regrowth of supraspinal innervation is possible. This repair appears to lead to improved functional outcomes. At older ages, even without detectable axonal growth spanning the injury site, substantial development of locomotion was still possible. This outcome is discussed in conjunction with preliminary findings of differences in the local propriospinal circuits following spinal cord injury (demonstrated with fluororuby labelling, which may underlie the weight bearing locomotion observed in the

  19. Establishment of Besnoitia darlingi from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in experimental intermediate and definitive hosts, propagation in cell culture, and description of ultrastructural and genetic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Sreekumar, C; Hill, D E; Shen, S K; Kwok, O C H; Rickard, L G; Black, S S; Rashmir-Raven, A

    2002-07-01

    Besnoitia darlingi from naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Mississippi, USA, was propagated experimentally in mice, cats, and cell culture and was characterised according to ultrastructural, genetic, and life-history characteristics. Cats fed tissue cysts from opossums shed oocysts with a prepatent period of nine or 11 days. Oocysts, bradyzoites, or tachyzoites were infective to outbred and interferon-gamma gene knockout mice. Tachyzoites were successfully cultivated and maintained in vitro in bovine monocytes and African green monkey cells and revived after an 18-month storage in liquid nitrogen. Schizonts were seen in the small intestinal lamina propria of cats fed experimentally-infected mouse tissues. These schizonts measured up to 45 x 25 microm and contained many merozoites. A few schizonts were present in mesenteric lymph nodes and livers of cats fed tissue cysts. Ultrastructurally, tachyzoites and bradyzoites of B. darlingi were similar to other species of Besnoitia. A close relationship to B. besnoiti and an even closer relationship to B. jellisoni was indicated for B. darlingi on the basis of the small subunit and ITS-1 portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

  20. Streptococcus didelphis sp. nov., a streptococcus with marked catalase activity isolated from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) with suppurative dermatitis and liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangirwa, F R; Teitzel, C A; Cui, J; French, D M; McDonough, P L; Besser, T

    2000-03-01

    beta-Haemolytic, catalase-positive, Gram-positive cocci that formed chains in broth media but did not react with Lancefield group antisera were isolated from skin lesions, spleen, liver and lungs of nine opossums, including eight from a research colony and one from a wildlife rehabilitation organization. The isolates had vigorous catalase activity that was retained on initial passage on non-blood-containing media, but this activity was lost in subsequent passages. The use of standard phenotypic tests did not lead to satisfactory identification of these organisms beyond the genus level, even if the aberrant catalase reaction was not considered. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolates was most similar (96%) to Streptococcus dysgalactiae, but distinct from that species as 16S rRNA gene similarity of different strains of S. dysgalactiae was > 99%. Characterization of biochemical reactions and cell-wall fatty acid profiles also revealed significant differences between the opossum isolates and all other known Streptococcus spp., thus it is proposed as a new species with the name Streptococcus didelphis, sp. nov. The type strain is ATCC 700828T.

  1. Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi Strains Isolated from Chronic Chagasic Patients, Triatomines and Opossums Naturally Infected from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Cloé Duarte Fernandes

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five Trypanosoma cruzi strains were isolated from chronic chagasic patients, triatomines and opossums from different municipalities of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Parasites were characterized by means of mice infectivity, enzyme electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Twenty-nine strains were isolated from chagasic patients, 4 from triatomines (2 from Triatoma infestans and 2 from Panstrongylus megistus and 2 from opossums Didelphis albiventris. Thirty-three T. cruzi strains were of low and 2 strains of high virulence in mice. Both virulent strains were isolated from P. megistus. Isoenzyme analysis of the strains showed 3 different zymodemes. Eleven strains isolated from chagasic patients and 2 from D. albiventris were Z2. Eighteen strains from patients and 2 from T. infestans were ZB and 2 T. cruzi strains isolated from P. megistus were Z1. RAPD profiles obtained with 4 random primers showed a high genetic heterogeneity of the T. cruzi strains. Zymodeme 2 and ZB strains were the more polymorphic. A band sharing analysis of the RAPD profiles of Z2 and ZB strains using 3 primers, showed a very low percentage of shared bands, 20% among 13 ZB strains and 14% among 13 Z2 strains. According to the isoenzyme results, 3 T. cruzi populations were present in State of Rio Grande do Sul. Zymodeme 2 and ZB strains were found infecting man (domiciliar transmission cycle whereas Z1 strains were found infecting the sylvatic vector P. megistus

  2. Watery and dark axons in Wallerian degeneration of the opossum's optic nerve: different patterns of cytoskeletal breakdown?

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    MARCELO S. NARCISO

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a qualitative morphological analysis of Wallerian degeneration in a marsupial. Right optic nerves of opossums Didelphis marsupialis were crushed with a fine forceps and after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 hours the animals were anaesthetized and perfused with fixative. The optic nerves were immersed in fixative and processed for routine transmission electron microscopy. Among the early alterations typical of axonal degeneration, we observed nerve fibers with focal degeneration of the axoplasmic cytoskeleton, watery degeneration and dark degeneration, the latter being prevalent at 168 hours after crush. Our results point to a gradual disintegration of the axoplasmic cytoskeleton, opposed to the previous view of an "all-or-nothing'' process (Griffin et al 1995. We also report that, due to an unknown mechanism, fibers show either a dark or watery pattern of axonal degeneration, as observed in axon profiles. We also observed fibers undergoing early myelin breakdown in the absence of axonal alterations.Neste trabalho, relatamos uma análise morfológica qualitativa da degeneração Walleriana em um marsupial. Os nervos ópticos direito de gambás da espécie Didelphis marsupialis foram esmagados com uma pinça fina. Após 24, 48, 72, 96 e 168 horas, os animais foram anestesiados e perfundidos com fixador. A seguir, os nervos foram imersos em fixador e processados para microscopia eletrônica de rotina. Entre as alterações precoces típicas da degeneração, observamos fibras nervosas com degeneração focal do citoesqueleto axoplasmático, degeneração aquosa e degeneração escura, com o último tipo prevalente às 168 horas após esmagamento. Nossos resultados indicam uma desintegração gradual do citoesqueleto axoplasmático, oposta à prévia visão de um processo "tudo-ou-nada''. Relatamos também que, devido a um mecanismo desconhecido, as fibras mostram ou um padrão aquoso ou um padrão escuro de degeneração axonal

  3. Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum (Didelphis virginiana) erythrocytes: V. Utilization of hypoxanthine for the synthesis of adenine and guanine nucleotides in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethlenfalvay, N.C.; White, J.C.; Chadwick, E.; Lima, J.E. (Fitzsimons Army Medical Center, Aurora, CO (USA))

    1990-06-01

    High pressure liquid radiochromatography was used to test the ability of opossum erythrocytes to incorporate tracer amounts of (G-{sup 3}H) hypoxanthine (Hy) into ({sup 3}H) labelled triphosphates of adenine and guanine. In the presence of supraphysiologic (30 mM) phosphate which is optimal for PRPP synthesis, both ATP and GTP are extensively labelled. When physiologic (1 mM) medium phosphate is used, red cells incubated under an atmosphere of nitrogen accumulate ({sup 3}H) ATP in a linear fashion suggesting ongoing PRPP synthesis in red cells whose hemoglobin is deoxygenated. In contrast, a lesser increase of labelled ATP is observed in cells incubated under oxygen, suggesting that conditions for purine nucleotide formation from ambient Hy are more favorable in the venous circulation.

  4. Frugivory by the black-eared opossum Didelphis aurita in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil: Roles of sex, season and sympatric species

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    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p203 Our objective in this study was to examine the frugivory performed by the black-eared opossum, Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826, in an area of the coastal Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil, including differences between sexes, seasonal variation, and relationships to other sympatric marsupials. We collected 63 fecal samples from a trap grid over a six-month period and analyzed seed presence, seed number and richness,  and diversity of fruit species in feces. Diversity of fruit items was estimated by the Shannon index. Results showed a high variability in fruit consumption along the seasons, but no sexual difference in consumption. Sympatric marsupial species, including D. aurita, showed substantial differences in frugivory which may be related to body size, space use and differences in the foraging behavior of such species.

  5. Turgida turgida (Nematoda: Physalopteridae parasitic in white-bellied opossum, Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Roberta M.P. Humberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Turgida turgida have been largely reported parasitizing Didelphis species in North and South America based on light microscopy observation. However, the features that differentiate T. turgida from other physalopterid species should be observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. A female white-bellied opossum, Didelphis albiventris, arrived dead at the Centro de Reabilitação de Animais Silvestres (CRAS in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. During the necropsy, adult nematodes were collected from stomach and intestine. The nematodes were determined to be adult specimens and submitted to SEM for the species determination. This is the first report of T. turgida confirmed by SEM in the Neotropical region and the first report in an urban area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  6. Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum (Didelphis virginiana) erythrocytes: V. Utilization of hypoxanthine for the synthesis of adenine and guanine nucleotides in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethlenfalvay, N.C.; White, J.C.; Chadwick, E.; Lima, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    High pressure liquid radiochromatography was used to test the ability of opossum erythrocytes to incorporate tracer amounts of [G- 3 H] hypoxanthine (Hy) into [ 3 H] labelled triphosphates of adenine and guanine. In the presence of supraphysiologic (30 mM) phosphate which is optimal for PRPP synthesis, both ATP and GTP are extensively labelled. When physiologic (1 mM) medium phosphate is used, red cells incubated under an atmosphere of nitrogen accumulate [ 3 H] ATP in a linear fashion suggesting ongoing PRPP synthesis in red cells whose hemoglobin is deoxygenated. In contrast, a lesser increase of labelled ATP is observed in cells incubated under oxygen, suggesting that conditions for purine nucleotide formation from ambient Hy are more favorable in the venous circulation

  7. Sarcocystis neurona infections in sea otter (Enhydra lutris): evidence for natural infections with sarcocysts and transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J R; Rosypal, A C; Rosenthal, B M; Thomas, N J; Lindsay, D S; Stanek, J F; Reed, S M; Saville, W J

    2001-12-01

    Although Sarcocystis neurona has been identified in an array of terrestrial vertebrates, recent recognition of its capacity to infect marine mammals was unexpected. Here, sarcocysts from 2 naturally infected sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were characterized biologically, ultrastructurally, and genetically. DNA was extracted from frozen muscle of the first of these sea otters and was characterized as S. neurona by polymerase chain reation (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Sarcocysts from sea otter no. 1 were up to 350 microm long, and the villar protrusions on the sarcocyst wall were up to 1.3 microm long and up to 0.25 microm wide. The villar protrusions were tapered towards the villar tip. Ultrastructurally, sarcocysts were similar to S. neurona sarcocysts from the muscles of cats experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. Skeletal muscles from a second sea otter failed to support PCR amplification of markers considered diagnostic for S. neurona but did induce the shedding of sporocysts when fed to a laboratory-raised opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Such sporocysts were subsequently fed to knockout mice for the interferon-gamma gene, resulting in infections with an agent identified as S. neurona on the basis of immunohistochemistry, serum antibodies, and diagnostic sequence detection. Thus, sea otters exposed to S. neurona may support the development of mature sarcocysts that are infectious to competent definitive hosts.

  8. Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis associated with rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) migration in two nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) and an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Martha F; Fenton, Heather; Cleveland, Christopher A; Elsmo, Elizabeth J; Yabsley, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis , the rat lungworm, was the cause of neural larval migrans in two nine-banded armadillos ( Dasypus novemcinctus ) and one Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ) from the southeastern United States. Histologic findings in all three cases included eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with variable numbers of nematode larvae in the meninges or the neuroparenchyma. In two of the three cases, nematodes were extracted from brain tissue via a "squash prep" method. Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by amplification and sequence analysis of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from all three cases. Sequences (704bp) from the two cases from Louisiana were identical and 99.7% similar to nematodes detected in the armadillo from Florida. As A. cantonensis is now considered endemic in the southern United States, it should be considered as an important differential for any wild or domestic animal or human patient with neurological signs and eosinophilic meningitis. Many wildlife species frequently consume snails and slugs and could serve as sentinels for the detection of this parasite in regions where the presence of this parasite has not been confirmed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of neural larval migrans due to A. cantonensis in an armadillo and provides additional documentation that this nematode can cause disease in wildlife species in the southeastern United States.

  9. Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis associated with rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis migration in two nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus and an opossum (Didelphis virginiana in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha F. Dalton

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, was the cause of neural larval migrans in two nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus and one Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana from the southeastern United States. Histologic findings in all three cases included eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with variable numbers of nematode larvae in the meninges or the neuroparenchyma. In two of the three cases, nematodes were extracted from brain tissue via a “squash prep” method. Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by amplification and sequence analysis of the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from all three cases. Sequences (704bp from the two cases from Louisiana were identical and 99.7% similar to nematodes detected in the armadillo from Florida. As A. cantonensis is now considered endemic in the southern United States, it should be considered as an important differential for any wild or domestic animal or human patient with neurological signs and eosinophilic meningitis. Many wildlife species frequently consume snails and slugs and could serve as sentinels for the detection of this parasite in regions where the presence of this parasite has not been confirmed. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of neural larval migrans due to A. cantonensis in an armadillo and provides additional documentation that this nematode can cause disease in wildlife species in the southeastern United States.

  10. Adjusting energy expenditures to energy supply: food availability regulates torpor use and organ size in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Muñoz, José L P; Naya, Daniel E; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P

    2007-05-01

    We studied how food abundance and consumption regulates torpor use and internal organ size in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans (Dielphidae), a small nocturnal marsupial, endemic in southern South America. We predicted that exposure to food rations at or above the minimum energy levels necessary for maintenance would not lead to any signs of torpor, while reducing food supply to energy levels below maintenance would lead to marked increases in frequency, duration and depth of torpor bouts. We also analyzed the relationship between food availability and internal organ mass. We predicted a positive relationship between food availability and internal organ size once the effect of body size is removed. Animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups and fed either 70, 100 or 130% of their daily energy requirement (DER). We found a positive and significant correlation between %DER and body temperature, and also between %DER and minimum body temperature. In contrast, for torpor frequency, duration and depth, we found a significant negative correlation with %DER. Finally, we found a significant positive correlation between the %DER and small intestine and ceacum dry mass. We demonstrate that when food availability is limited, T. elegans has the capacity to reduce their maintenance cost by two different mechanisms, that is, increasing the use of torpor and reducing organ mass.

  11. Sarcocystis neurona infections in sea otter (Enhydra lutris): evidence for natural infections with sarcocysts and transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Rosypal, A.C.; Rosenthal, B.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Lindsay, D.S.; Stanek, J.F.; Reed, S.M.; Saville, W.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although Sarcocystis neurona has been identified in an array of terrestrial vertebrates, recent recognition of its capacity to infect marine mammals was unexpected. Here, sarcocysts from 2 naturally infected sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were characterized biologically, ultrastructurally, and genetically. DNA was extracted from frozen muscle of the first of these sea otters and was characterized as S. neurona by polymerase chain reation (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Sarcocysts from sea otter no. 1 were up to 350 I?m long, and the villar protrusions on the sarcocyst wall were up to 1.3 I?m long and up to 0.25 I?m wide. The villar protrusions were tapered towards the villar tip. Ultrastructurally, sarcocysts were similar to S. neurona sarcocysts from the muscles of cats experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. Skeletal muscles from a second sea otter failed to support PCR amplification of markers considered diagnostic for S. neurona but did induce the shedding of sporocysts when fed to a laboratory-raised opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Such sporocysts were subsequently fed to knockout mice for the interferon-gamma gene, resulting in infections with an agent identified as S. neurona on the basis of immunohistochemistry, serum antibodies, and diagnostic sequence detection. Thus, sea otters exposed to S. neurona may support the development of mature sarcocysts that are infectious to competent definitive hosts.

  12. Synaptology of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-immunoreactive cells in the nervus terminalis of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L M; Pfaff, D W; Schwanzel-Fukuda, M

    1990-05-08

    Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry were used to examine the structure of LHRH neurons and fibers in the nervus terminalis of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). LHRH-immunoreactive neurons and fibers form a loose plexus within the fascicular network of the ganglion terminale on the median surface of the olfactory bulb. There are at least two populations of LHRH-immunoreactive neurons within the network of the ganglion terminale: fusiform and round neurons similar to those described in the forebrain. At the ultrastructural level, axosomatic and axodendritic contacts were seen between LHRH-immunoreactive and nonimmunoreactive elements in the ganglion terminale. These contacts were classified as 1) synaptic input, with asymmetric synapses seen between a nonimmunoreactive axon terminal and a LHRH-immunoreactive cell body or a nonimmunoreactive axon terminal and a LHRH-immunoreactive dendritic process. 2) synaptic output, with symmetric synapses seen between LHRH-immunoreactive and nonimmunoreactive processes. This study is the first systematic examination of the ultrastructure of the LHRH-immunoreactive neurons and their synaptic contacts in the nervus terminalis. The possible integrative roles for this LHRH-immunoreactive system are discussed.

  13. Infection by Leishmania spp. in Free-Ranging Opossums (Didelphis albiventris) in an Environmentally Protected Area Inhabited by Humans in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiz, Laís Moraes; Donalisio, Maria Rita; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Motoie, Gabriela; Castagna, Claudio Luiz; Tolezano, José Eduardo

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing concern about the participation of wild hosts and reservoirs in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, particularly within the context of increasingly frequent environmental changes and the expansion of the One Health concept. This work is a molecular research of infection by Leishmania spp. among the wildlife of an environmentally protected area located in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The studied area has a history of intense environmental changes, with notifications of human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the 1990s, and a focus of canine visceral leishmaniasis since 2009. Eighty-two wild mammals were sampled by monthly captures in this region over a 1-year period. Blood samples were collected from each animal and subjected to DNA extraction and PCR using primers for the region of the internal transcribed spacer-1. The results of gene sequencing for the first time revealed the infection of opossums (Didelphis albiventris) by Leishmania spp., subgenera Leishmania and Viannia, in Campinas. These findings, in addition to environmental and historical characteristics of the studied area, indicate a possible role of wildlife in the introduction and/or maintenance of natural foci of leishmaniasis transmission.

  14. Distribution and ultrastructure of neurons in opossum piriform cortex displaying immunoreactivity to GABA and GAD and high-affinity tritiated GABA uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberly, L.B.; Hansen, D.J.; Feig, S.L.; Presto, S.

    1987-01-01

    GABAergic neurons have been identified in the piriform cortex of the opossum at light and electron microscopic levels by immunocytochemical localization of GABA and the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and by autoradiographic visualization of high-affinity 3 H-GABA uptake. Four major neuron populations have been distinguished on the basis of soma size, shape, and segregation at specific depths and locations: large horizontal cells in layer Ia of the anterior piriform cortex, small globular cells with thin dendrites concentrated in layers Ib and II of the posterior piriform cortex, and multipolar and fusiform cells concentrated in the deep part of layer III in anterior and posterior parts of the piriform cortex and the subjacent endopiriform nucleus. All four populations were well visualized with both antisera, but the large layer Ia horizontal cells displayed only very light 3 H-GABA uptake, thus suggesting a lack of local axon collaterals or lack of high-affinity GABA uptake sites. The large, ultrastructurally distinctive somata of layer Ia horizontal cells receive a very small number of symmetrical synapses; the thin, axonlike dendrites of small globular cells are exclusively postsynaptic and receive large numbers of both symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses, in contrast to somata which receive a small number of both types; and the deep multipolar and fusiform cells receive a highly variable number of symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses on somata and proximal dendrites. Labeled puncta of axon terminal dimensions were found in large numbers in the neuropil surrounding pyramidal cell somata in layer II and in the endopiriform nucleus. Moderately large numbers of labeled puncta were found in layer I at the depth of pyramidal cell apical dendrites with greater numbers in layer Ia at the depth of distal apical segments than in layer Ib

  15. Energetics, thermoregulation and torpor in the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans (Didelphidae Energética, termorregulación y sopor en la yaca Thylamys elegans (Didelphidae

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    Francisco Bozinovic

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the energetic expenditure and thermoregulation of the Chilean mouse-opossum Thylamys elegans (Dielphidae a nocturnal small marsupial, endemic of southern South America. We studied their standard energetic and determined whether they exhibit shallow daily torpor or deep prolonged torpor as a function of ambient temperature and food availability. Thylamys elegans partially supports the hypothesis that Neotropical marsupials have somewhat a higher basal metabolic rate (BMR and thermal conductance (Cm than Australian ones. In fact, BMR was higher but Cm was lower than expected for their body mass. The higher mass-independent BMR of the Chilean mouse-opossum may be explained by its insectivorous food habits and its low Cm by its temperate habitats. Euthermic Chilean mouse-opossum showed daily fluctuations in body temperature being significantly higher during night time. In addition T. elegans entered in daily torpor and aroused spontaneously only was food was absent. That is, this species display a facultative type of daily torpor because propensity to enter in torpor was dependent of the combination of food absence and low ambient temperature. No torpor was observed when food was available. During torpor ambient temperature was slightly above ambient temperature between 0.3 to 0.5 °C. Torpor in this species as well as in marsupials in general, appears to be a flexible and an opportunistic response to unpredictable environmental conditionsEstudiamos la energética y termorregulación de Thylamys elegans o "yaca" (Dielphidae un marsupial pequeño y endémico de Sudamérica. Estudiamos su energética estándar y determinamos si presentan estados de sopor superficial o profundo en función de la temperatura ambiente y la disponibilidad de alimento. Thylamys elegans apoya de manera parcial la hipótesis que sostiene que los marsupiales Neotropicales poseen tasas metabólicas basales (BMR y conductancias térmicas (Cm mas altas

  16. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic dipstick test for detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in dogs experimentally infected with isolates obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana), armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), and dogs (Canis familiaris) from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Hill, Roderick; Lewis, Samantha; Barr, Stephen C; Valadas, Samantha; Gennari, Solange Maria; Lindsay, David S

    2011-02-01

    Dogs are reservoir hosts for Trypanosoma cruzi , the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis. A rapid immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) is available commercially for canine serological testing. The ICT was developed with the use of sera from South American dogs, but it is not routinely used in the United States. We evaluated the utility of the ICT in detecting anti-T. cruzi antibodies in dogs from the United States. Dogs (N  =  64) were experimentally infected with United States' isolates of T. cruzi from an opossum (Didelphis virginiana), an armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), and a domestic dog (Canis familiaris), and were tested after experimental infection. Sera from uninfected United States dogs (n  =  79; hemaculture negative) were used as negative controls. In a blind study, sera were tested by the ICT and compared to the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test with the use of Brazil-strain epimastigotes as antigen. The sensitivity of the ICT was 91% and the specificity was 98% in dogs experimentally infected with United States isolates. Our study indicates that the ICT could be a useful screening tool for serological surveillance of canine T. cruzi exposure in the United States.

  17. Estudo sobre a utilização de Rhodnius neglectus para xenodiagnósticos realizados em marsupiais (Didelphis The utilization of Rhodnius neglectus in xenodiagnosis: a study performed on opossums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Em marsupiais (Didelphis, portadores de infecção natural pelo T. cruzi, procurou-se levar a efeito xenodiagnósticos com o emprego de ninfas de Rhodnius neglectus e de Triatoma infestans e através do exame periódico de lotes formados por cinco insetos. Pôde-se observar o melhor rendimento por parte do exame do intestino posterior, mediante dissecção. O tempo ótimo foi situado no intervalo correspondente a 15 e 20 dias, e a eficiência de R. neglectus foi superior. Esse resultado, aliado à facilidade de sua manutenção em laboratório, sugere a utilização rotineira desse triatomíneo para fins de xenodiagnóstico.Third and fourth instars of Rhodnius neglectus and Triatoma infestans were fed on wild opossums (Didelphis with natural infeccions by Trypanosoma cruzi and, examined at regular 3.5 days intervals. Best results were obtained with rectum examinations and the infeccion was more easily detected from the 15th to the 20th days. R. neglectus showed better performance than T. infestans and so its utilisation in the xenodiagnosis technique is suggested.

  18. Isolation of Salmonella enterica and serologic reactivity to Leptospira interrogans in opossums (Didelphis virginiana from Yucatán, México Aislamiento de Salmonella enterica y reactividad serológica a Leptospira interrogans en tlacuaches (Didelphis virginiana de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Antonio RUIZ-PIÑA

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Salmonella enterica and serologic evidence of infection by Leptospira interrogans, were detected in the opossum Didelphis virginiana in a semi-urban locality of the Yucatán State, México. Ninety-one opossums were captured during the period April 1996 and May 1998. From a total of 17 feces samples, four Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes (Sandiego, Newport, Anatum, and Minnesota, and one Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae serovar O44:Z4,Z23:- were isolated. Some opossums presented mixed infections. From 81 sera samples, four (4.9% were positive to antibodies to Leptospira serovars pomona and wolfii. Both animals infected with Salmonella enterica and those serologically positive to Leptospira interrogans were captured in peridomestic habitat. Opossums infected with Salmonella enterica, were captured in dry season, and those seropositive to Leptospira interrogans during the rainy season. The implications of infection and reactivity of these zoonotic pathogens in D. virginiana in the Yucatan state are briefly discussed.La presencia de Salmonella enterica y evidencia serológica de infección por Leptospira interrogans fueron detectadas en tlacuaches de la especie Didelphis virginiana capturados en una localidad semi-urbana del estado de Yucatán, México. Se capturaron 91 marsupiales durante el período de abril de 1996 a mayo de 1998. De un total de 17 muestras de heces, se aislaron cuatro serotipos de Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (Sandiego, Newport, Anatum y Minnesota y una Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae serovar O44:Z4,Z23:-. En algunos tlacuaches se registraron infecciones mixtas. De 81 muestras de suero, cuatro (4,9% presentaron reacciones positivas con los serovares pomona y wolffi, ambos pertenecientes al género Leptospira. Los tlacuaches con serología positiva fueron capturados en el hábitat peridomiciliar. Los animales infectados con Salmonella enterica fueron capturados en los períodos de seca y

  19. Assessment of the risks of rats (Rattus norvegicus and opossums (Didelphis albiventris in different poultry-rearing areas in Argentina Avaliação dos riscos sanitários de ratos (Rattus norvegicus e gambás (Didelphis albiventris em diferentes granjas avícolas na Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel E. Gómez Villafañe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the prevalence of Trichinella spiralis, Leptospira spp. and Salmonella spp. in rats and opossums that inhabit poultry farms of Exaltación de la Cruz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, to determine the potential sanitary risk for humans that are in contact with these animals. The study was carried out on 48 poultry farms between spring 1999 and winter 2001. The study of opossums began in winter 2000. During the study period we captured 152 Rattus norvegicus, 3 Rattus rattus, 16 Didelphis albiventris and 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata. We have registered the presence of rats and opossums in 70% and 27% of the studied farms, respectively. The percentage of farms with rats was independent of the presence or absence of pigs. We did not detect the presence of Leptospira spp. and Trichinella spiralis in any individual. We detected the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in one Rattus norvegicus and one Didelphis albiventris. According to our results, the rats and opossums of poultry farms may not report a risk factor in the transmission of Trichinella and Leptospira under the present conditions; but the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in rats as well as in opossums suggests the idea of applying prophylactics measurements on poultry farms.A prevalência de Trichinella spiralis, Leptospira spp. e Salmonella spp. foi estudada em ratos e gambás que habitam granjas avícolas da região de Exaltación de la Cruz, Buenos Aires, Argentina, com o objetivo de determinar o potencial risco sanitário para pessoas que ficam em contato com esses animais. O estudo foi realizado entre a primavera de 1999 e o inverno de 2001 em 48 granjas avícolas. O estudo em gambás iniciou-se no inverno de 2000. Foram capturados 152 Rattus norvegicus, 3 Rattus rattus, 16 Didelphis albiventris e 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata. Registrou-se a presença de ratos e de gambás em 70% e 27% das granjas estudadas, respectivamente. A percentagem de granjas com ratos foi independente da

  20. Estudio de la prevalencia de la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi en zarigüeyas (Didelphis albiventris en Santiago del Estero, Argentina Study of the prevalence of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in opossums (Didelphis albiventris in Santiago del Estero, Argentina

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    Nicolás J. Schweigmann

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre los principales reservorios silvestres de Trypanosoma cruzi se encuentran las zarigüeyas del género Didelphis, ampliamente distribuidas por el continente americano. En Amamá y Trinidad, Provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina, Didelphis albiventris es el marsupial más frecuente. Su población se renueva cada año y normalmente hay dos períodos reproductivos: uno a principios de la primavera y otro a principios del verano. Estas dos camadas son destetadas y abandonan la bolsa marsupial para incorporarse a la población, la primera (G1 a principios del verano y la segunda (G2 a principios del otoño. Entre 1988 y 1991 se estudiaron 409 individuos distintos de D. albiventris y los xenodiagnósticos revelaron que 35% de ellos estaban infectados por T. cruzi. Se observaron ciclos de renovación anual de la infección con prevalencias que oscilaron entre 22 y 43%. La adquisición del parásito ocurría a lo largo de todo el año, desde el verano hasta la primavera. La prevalencia de la infección aumentó con la edad. Los individuos G1 tuvieron tendencia a presentar mayores prevalencias que los G2, probablemente debido a un mayor tiempo de exposición a la transmisión. En las dos primeras categorías de edad, los individuos G2 mostraron mayores prevalencias que los G1, lo cual indica un aumento significativo de la intensidad de la transmisión durante el otoño. Las zarigüeyas deberían considerarse como una fuente potencial de ingreso de T. cruzi al ciclo doméstico.The opossum of the genus Didelphis is one of the principal wild reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi and is widely distributed in the Western Hemisphere. Didelphis albiventris is the most common marsupial in Amamá and Trinidad, two communities in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. The D. albiventris population is replaced every year, and the opossum normally has two reproductive periods, one at the beginning of the spring and another at the beginning of the

  1. 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemodidelphidis' sp. nov., 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemolamae' sp. nov. and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., haemotrophic parasites from a naturally infected opossum (Didelphis virginiana), alpaca (Lama pacos) and dog (Canis familiaris): phylogenetic and secondary structural relatedness of their 16S rRNA genes to other mycoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Joanne B; Walker, Pamela G; Raphael, William; Berent, Linda; Shi, Xun

    2002-05-01

    The 16S rRNA sequence of newly characterized haemotrophic bacteria in an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and alpaca (Lama pacos) was determined. In addition, the 16S rRNA sequence of a haemotrophic parasite in the dog (Canis familiaris) was determined. Sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis as well as secondary structural similarity and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of their 16S rRNA genes, positioned these organisms in the genus Mycoplasma. The highest scoring sequence similarities were 16S rRNA genes from haemotrophic mycoplasma species (Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon spp.). However, the lack of several higher-order structural idiosyncrasies used to define the pneumoniae group, suggests that these organisms and related haemotrophic mycoplasmas represent a new group of mycoplasmas. It is recommended that the organisms be named 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphidis', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae' and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., to provide some indication of the target cell and host species of these parasites, and to reflect their phylogenetic affiliation.

  2. Isolamento de Salmonella enterica em gambás (Didelphis aurita e Didelphis albiventris do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Isolation of Salmonella enterica in opossum (Didelphis aurita and Didelphis albiventris of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, não há relato de estudos de Salmonella em gambás, sendo assim, este trabalho tem por objetivo determinar a frequência de isolamento de Salmonella enterica em gambás (D. aurita e D. albiventris no Estado de São Paulo. No período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006, foram necropsiados 106 D. aurita e 40 D. albiventris e colhidos fragmentos de intestinos delgado, grosso e suabe da cloaca. As amostras foram plaqueadas diretamente em ágar Mac Conkey, paralelamente suspendidas nos caldos Rappaport-Vassiliadis e Tetrationato e posteriormente plaqueados em ágar XLT4. As colônias sugestivas de Salmonella foram confirmadas através de provas bioquímicas e sorotipagem. Encontrou-se Salmonella enterica em 17,0% (18/106 dos D. aurita. Destes, 50% apresentaram positividade no intestino delgado (ID, 88,9% no intestino grosso (IG e 66,7% na cloaca. Da espécie S. enterica, as subespécies encontradas foram: diarizonae (11,1% houtenae e enterica (5,5% cada um; enquanto da subespécie S. enterica enterica os sorotipos foram Newport (83,3%, Typhimurium e Cerro (5,5% cada um. Nos D. albiventris, 17,5% (7/40 eram positivos, sendo que se encontraram 42,8% no ID, 85,7% no IG e 71,4% na cloaca. O sorotipo mais prevalente também foi Newport (71,4%, seguido por Typhimurium, Bareilly e Thompson (14,3% cada um. Através dos resultados obtidos neste estudo pode-se comprovar a presença de Salmonella enterica no trato intestinal de gambás no Brasil.In Brazil there is not report of Salmonella in opossum, so then, the objective of this study is to determine the isolation frequency of Salmonella enterica in opossum in São Paulo State, Brazil. From January 2005 to December 2006, 106 D. aurita and 40 D. albiventris were necropsied and samples from small and large intestine and cloacal swab were collected. These samples were submitted to direct plating in Mac Conkey agar and parallel suspension in Rappaport-Vassiliadis and Tetrationate broths with

  3. Perfil hematológico de gambás Didelphis aurita e D. albiventris do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil = Blood profile of opossums Didelphis aurita and D. albiventris of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi fornecer dados sobre o perfil hematológico de gambás (Didelphis sp.. Realizou-se hemograma de 83 D. aurita e 35 D. albiventris. Os valores obtidos dos D. aurita foram: Hematócrito dos adultos(A 31,8 ± 8,0% e dos filhotes(F 30,2 ± 6,9%; Eritrócitos A: 4,3 ± 1,5 x 106 μL-1, F: 3,4 ± 1,1 x 106 μL-1; Proteínas Totais A: 8,5 ± 1,0 g dL-1, F: 7,2 ± 0,9 g dL-1;Hemoglobina A: 10,9 ± 3,4 g dL-1, F: 8,7 ± 2,2 g dL-1; VCM A: 78,13 ± 18,13, F: 93,65 ± 23,62; HCM A: 26,41 ± 6,42, F: 27,09 ± 7,44; CHCM A: 64,59 ± 8,12, F: 30,40 ± 11,49; Leucócitos A: 8.205 ± 4.950 μL-1, F: 5.126 ± 3.945 μL-1; Neutrófilos A: 2.761 ± 2.966 μL-1, F: 1.310± 2.283 μL-1; Linfócitos A: 3.653 ± 2.431 μ L-1, F: 3.239 ± 2.234 μL-1; Monócitos A: 363,2 ± 308,7 μL-1, F: 101,5 ± 107,9 μL-1; Eosinófilos A: 1.362,0 ± 1.114,0 μL-1, F: 456,1 ± 464,4 μL-1 e Basófilos A: 65,9 ± 127,0 μL-1, F: 19,8 ± 48,7 μL-1. Os valores obtidos dos D. albiventris foram: Hematócrito A: 33,2 ± 14,0%, F: 25,7 ± 3,7%; Eritrócitos A: 4,8 ± 1,7 x 106 μL-1 , F: 3,9 ± 1,5 x 106 μL-1; Proteínas Totais A: 8,2 ± 0,6 g dL-1, F: 7,9 ± 1,1 g dL-1; Hemoglobina A: 10,3 ± 2,8 g dL-1, F: 10,2 ± 2,7 g dL-1; VCM A: 71,34 ± 23,74, F: 74,88 ± 27,68; HCM A: 22,86 ± 9,09, F: 28,63 ± 9,27,CHCM A: 32,48 ± 2,43, F: 40,13 ± 0,42; Leucócitos A: 11.683 ± 7.245 μL-1, F: 4.667 ± 4.027 μL-1; Neutrófilos A: 6.007 ± 6.250 μL-1, F: 1.274 ± 2.586 μL-1; Linfócitos A: 4.389 ± 1.928 μL-1, F: 3.151± 3.045 μL-1; Monócitos A: 455 ± 378 μL-1, F: 152,7 ± 180,4 μL-1; Eosinófilos A: 803 ± 840 μL-1, F: 67,8 ± 91,4 μL-1 e Basófilos A: 30,8 ± 75,3 μL-1, F: 21,5 ± 56,6 μL-1.The objective of this study was to provide data on the blood profile of opossums (Didelphis sp.. Hemograms were performed of 83 D. aurita and 35 D. albiventris. The results of D. aurita were: Hematocrit for adults(A 31.8 ± 8.0%, and for offspring(F 30.2 ± 6

  4. SINEs, evolution and genome structure in the opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wanjun; Ray, David A; Walker, Jerilyn A; Barnes, Erin W; Gentles, Andrew J; Samollow, Paul B; Jurka, Jerzy; Batzer, Mark A; Pollock, David D

    2007-07-01

    Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons, usually between 100 and 500 base pairs (bp) in length, which are ubiquitous components of eukaryotic genomes. Their activity, distribution, and evolution can be highly informative on genomic structure and evolutionary processes. To determine recent activity, we amplified more than one hundred SINE1 loci in a panel of 43 M. domestica individuals derived from five diverse geographic locations. The SINE1 family has expanded recently enough that many loci were polymorphic, and the SINE1 insertion-based genetic distances among populations reflected geographic distance. Genome-wide comparisons of SINE1 densities and GC content revealed that high SINE1 density is associated with high GC content in a few long and many short spans. Young SINE1s, whether fixed or polymorphic, showed an unbiased GC content preference for insertion, indicating that the GC preference accumulates over long time periods, possibly in periodic bursts. SINE1 evolution is thus broadly similar to human Alu evolution, although it has an independent origin. High GC content adjacent to SINE1s is strongly correlated with bias towards higher AT to GC substitutions and lower GC to AT substitutions. This is consistent with biased gene conversion, and also indicates that like chickens, but unlike eutherian mammals, GC content heterogeneity (isochore structure) is reinforced by substitution processes in the M. domestica genome. Nevertheless, both high and low GC content regions are apparently headed towards lower GC content equilibria, possibly due to a relative shift to lower recombination rates in the recent Monodelphis ancestral lineage. Like eutherians, metatherian (marsupial) mammals have evolved high CpG substitution rates, but this is apparently a convergence in process rather than a shared ancestral state.

  5. Resistance of the Opossum (Didelphis Virginiana) to Envenomation by Snakes of the Crotalidae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    ni., .d in Eiock 20. If dtli.r., ( ha. R.p.f ) IS S UPPL€ MEN TA RY NOTES Animal studies in relation to chemical agents 5 I E Y WO RDS (Co&Mu. ., r...cobra 1 .07 mg/kg, iv Died in 30 mm Na/a na/a atra 0 Snakebite Died in 45 min Chinese cobra Na/a nivea 03 1.38 mg/kg, iv Died in 1 hr Cape cobra Micn

  6. LIGHT AND SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE VALLATE PAPILLAE OF THE OPOSSUM (Didelphis albiventris)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Marcelo; Martinez, Francisco E.; Pinheiro, Patrícia F. F.; Almeida, Camila C. D.; Guida, Heraldo Lorena; Watanabe, II-Sei

    1998-01-01

    Las características morfológicas del epitelio y tejido conjuntivo de las papilas valadas del oposum fueron observadas a través de los microscopios de luz y electrónico de barrido. Fue utilizado el método de maceración de las células con NaOH para visualizar la arquitectura del tejido conjuntivo. El dorso posterior de la lengua del oposum posee dos papilas valadas. Las secciones histológicas mostraron que la cubierta epitelial de estas papilas es del tipo escamoso, estratificado, queratinizado...

  7. Environmental DNA marker development with sparse biological information: A case study on opossum shrimp (Mysis diluviana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Carim; K. R. Christianson; Kevin McKelvey; W. M. Pate; D. B. Silver; B. M. Johnson; B. T. Galloway; Michael Young; Michael Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    The spread of Mysis diluviana, a small glacial relict crustacean, outside its native range has led to unintended shifts in the composition of native fish communities throughout western North America. As a result, biologists seek accurate methods of determining the presence of M. diluviana, especially at low densities or during the initial stages of an invasion...

  8. Effects of Seawater Acidification on the Liffe Cycle and Fitness of Opossum Shrimp Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the current concern about ecological effects of ocean acidification focuses on molluscs and coccolithophores because of their importance in the global calcium cycle. However, many other marine organisms are likely to be affected by acidification because of their known se...

  9. Effects of Seawater Acidification on the Life Cycle and fitness of Opossum Shrimp Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the current concern about ecological effects of ocean acidification focuses on molluscs and coccolithophores because of their importance in the global calcium cycle. However, many other marine organisms are likely to be affected by acidification because of their known ph...

  10. Transitory cell attachments in the differentiating glomerular epithelium of the opossum metanephros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W J; Cutts, J H

    1980-01-01

    Numerous transitory intercellular attachments are observed between the central, lateral surfaces of adjacent glomerular epithelial cells in the differentiating renal corpuscle. The junctions are characterized by an increased electron density of the adjacent cell membranes and cytoplasm. The intervening intercellular space may contain an amorphous material of moderate electron density. The distribution and position of such temporary cell attachments, together with their modification and subsequent loss during the differentiation of podocytes, suggest that they play an important role in the histogenesis of the glomerular epithelium.

  11. The opossum Didelphis virginiana as a synanthropic reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi in Dzidzilché, Yucatán, México

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Piña, Hugo A; Cruz-Reyes, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    In México, the role of mammals in the transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi is poorly known. In the State of Yucatán, an endemic area of Chagas disease, both Didelphis virginiana and D. marsupialis occur sympatrically. However, until now, only the former species had been found infected with T. cruzi. To evaluate the role of D. virginiana in a peridomestic transmission, nine periods of capture-recapture were performed around the village of Dzidzilché, Yucatán. The sex, age, reproductive stat...

  12. Occurrence of Sarcocystis spp. in opossums (Didelphis aurita and Didelphis albiventris in regions of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Renata Assis Casagrande

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi de determinar a ocorrência de Sarcocystis spp. em D. albiventris e D. aurita em três regiões do Estado de São Paulo. Para tal, utilizou-se noventa e oito Didelphis mortos, sendo 66 D. aurita e 32 D. albiventris, e também 28 D. aurita e cinco D. albiventris vivos. O método de centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose foi empregado para isolamento dos oocistos/esporocistos de Sarcocystis spp. do intestino delgado e das fezes. Encontrou-se Sarcocystis spp. no intestino delgado de 9,1% dos D. aurita (6/66, sendo que quatro destes também houve positividade nas fezes. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre machos e fêmeas positivos (P= 0,522, e entre os positivos de diferentes origens do Estado de São Paulo (P= 0,627, quanto a ocorrência de Sarcocystis spp. Entretanto, houve diferença estatística significativa entre animais de vida livre e de cativeiro (P = 0.009, sendo que somente os de vida livre foram positivos. Entre adultos e filhotes positivos também houve diferença (P= 0,004, sendo os adultos mais parasitados que os filhotes. Das amostras provenientes dos 28 D. aurita vivos, encontrou-se Sarcocystis spp. em 7.1% (2/28 deles. Dos 32 D. albiventris, todos foram negativos para Sarcocystis spp. nas amostras de intestino delgado e fezes. Os cincos D. albiventris vivos também foram negativos. Sendo assim, pode-se observar que a ocorrência de Sarcocystis spp. em D. aurita e D. albiventris nestas três regiões do Estado de São Paulo é baixa para estas condições analisadas.

  13. Estimating Stage Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress Within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis bahia Using Digital Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  14. Estimating Stage-Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis Bahia Using Digital Imaging (NAC SETAC 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  15. Journal of Parasitology

    OpenAIRE

    Cheadle, M. A.; Lindsay, D. S.; Greiner, E. C.

    2006-01-01

    Serum was collected from laboratory-reared Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to determine whether experimentally infected opossums shedding Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts develop serum antibodies to S. neurona merozoite antigens. Three opossums were fed muscles from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), and 5 were fed muscles from striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Serum was also collected from 26 automobile-killed opossums to determine whether antibodies to S. neurona were p...

  16. On Didelphis caudivolvula Kerr and Didelphis vulpecula Kerr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1885-01-01

    Some months ago I was happy enough to procure for our library the rare Animal Kingdom written by Kerr. This autuhor described clearly two Phalangers under the names New-Holland descriptions have Opossum and Vulpine Opossum: these been overlooked by all the naturalist Who have studied the

  17. 50 CFR 32.62 - Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hunting for raccoon and opossum from legal sunset to legal sunrise. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting... do not open for spring squirrel hunting. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow the hunting of white-tailed... hours for raccoon and opossum are legal sunset to legal sunrise. C. Big Game Hunting. We allow hunting...

  18. MORFOLOGIA DA LARINGE E TRAQUEIA DE GAMBÁS (Didelphis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Machado Bertassoli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many species of opossums are created and used in laboratories, opening a wide field for studying and acquiring knowledge about the habits, diseases, diet and reproduction of these animals. The research aimed at describing the macroscopic and microscopical morphology of the trachea and larynx of opossums. In this study, five opossums (Didelphis sp. were used. The trachea and larynx of the opossums were extracted, measured and processed by histology routine and dyed with Hematoxiline eosine, Picrosirius and Masson´ Trichrome. The larynx can be divided into: cricoid in a "V"-like shape, thyroid in a shield-like shape, arytenoid in shell-like shape, and epiglottis shaped like sheets, the first three structures showed hyaline cartilage, and the last structure showed elastic cartilage. The trachea showed a cylindrical form and it consists of 25 cartilaginous incomplete rings in a "C"-like shape, similar to amphibians, snakes, lizards and pigs; and different from domestic animals.

  19. Six new leptospiral serovars isolated from wild animals in Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Liceras de Hidalgo, J L; Sulzer, K R

    1984-01-01

    Six new serovars of Leptospira interrogans were isolated from opossums (Didelphis marsupialis and Philander opossum) trapped in the Peruvian jungle. The proposed names, type strain designation, and serogroup of the serovars, respectively, were: huallaga, strain M-7, Djasiman serogroup; luis, strain M-6, Tarassovi serogroup; machiguenga, strain MMD-3, Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup; rioja, strain MR-12, Bataviae serogroup; rupa rupa, strain M-3, Sejroe serogroup; and tingomaria, strain M-13, Cy...

  20. Sleeping sites of woolly mouse opossum Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae in the Atlantic Forest of south-eastern Brazil Sítios de dormida da cuíca Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidaa na Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsel A. Moraes Junior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 is a medium-sized marsupial, around 130 g, with a nocturnal habit and insectivorous-omnivorous diet. From August 2001 to July 2002, seven individuals, three males and four females, were monitored with radio-telemetry in Reserva Biológica União, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, aiming to investigate and describe the sleeping sites used by this marsupial. Fifty eight sleeping sites were located, most of which (70,7% in palm trees Astrocaryum aculeatissimum (Schott Burret, and the remaining in other tree species (29,3%, a significant difference (chi2 test; p Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 é um marsupial de tamanho médio, cerca de 130 g, de hábito noturno e arborícola e dieta insetívora-onívora. No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, sete indivíduos, três machos e quatro fêmeas, foram acompanhados, através de rádio-telemetria, na Reserva Biológica União, Rio de Janeiro, com o objetivo de investigar e descrever os abrigos utilizados por essa espécie de marsupial. Foram localizados 58 abrigos, a maioria dos quais (70,7% em palmeiras Iri Astrocaryum aculeatissimum (Schott Burret e o restante em outras espécies de árvores (29,3%, uma diferença significativa (teste chi2; p < 0,005. Esta preferência por palmeiras não foi significativamente diferente entre os sexos (teste chi2; p = 0,920. Em 31 abrigos (53,4% do total o local exato onde o animal se encontrava pode ser localizado: nas palmeiras os animais sempre estavam alojados no local de inserção dos pecíolos junto ao tronco e a uma altura média de 4,66 ± 1,36 m, enquanto nas demais espécies de árvores, sete animais estavam em emaranhados de cipós e dois em ocos, a uma altura média de 10,67 ± 2,75 m. Esta diferença de altura entre abrigos em iris e não iris foi significativa (teste Mann Whitney; p < 0,001. Os resultados indicam que as palmeiras iris são um importante recurso para M. demerarae. A preferência por A. aculeatissimum se deve provavelmente à maior proteção contra predadores exercida pelos numerosos espinhos presentes nesta espécie.

  1. Histopathological changes in the liver and stomach of Didelphis virginiana (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) during natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda: Gnathostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Montoya, E H; Zazueta-Moreno, J M; Osuna-Martínez, L U; Castillo-Ureta, H; Silva-Hidalgo, G; López-Moreno, H S; Osuna-Ramírez, I; Noguera-Corona, E; Rendón-Maldonado, J G

    2017-11-06

    Gnathostoma turgidum is a nematode parasite that exploits the stomach of Virginian opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Latin America. The opossum is the definitive host of G. turgidum in the wild. Intrahepatic growth and maturation of the parasite, subsequent migration to the stomach and spontaneous expulsion are common. However, the histopathological lesions caused by G. turgidum are poorly described. A better understanding of the life cycle of this parasite and the pathological changes in natural host-parasite interactions could help to clarify the progression of human infections caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes in the liver and stomach of D. virginiana during natural infection and adult worm expulsion. Three opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum were captured from an endemic area of gnathostomosis. Three uninfected opossums captured from a non-endemic area were used as controls. The opossums were sacrificed at different stages of infection (March, May and December), and a histopathological study of their livers and stomachs was conducted. Injuries in livers were observed by histopathology - areas of necrosis and collagen septa were identified. Parasites caused nodules with necrosis on the periphery of lesions, and collagen fibres were also observed in stomachs. Collagen septa may be caused by antigenic remains of the parasite. Further immunological studies are necessary to verify that stimulation is caused by these factors.

  2. Interaction between Didelphis albiventris and Triatoma infestans in relation to Trypanosoma cruzi transmission

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    Nicolás J. Schweigmann

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to prove if a high Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence of opossums might be reached with few potential infective contacts. One non-infected Didelphis albiventris to T. cruzi and 10 infected nymphs of Triatoma infestans were left together during 23 hr in a device that simulated a natural opossum burrow. Twenty-six replicates were perfomed using marsupials and triatomines only once. Potentially infective contacts occurred in all the trials. From the 26 opossums used in trials, 54% did not eat any bug. Of the 260 bugs used, 21% were predated. In the 25 trials involving 205 surving bugs, 36 % of them did not feed. In 15/25 cases, maior ou igual a 60% of the triatomines were able to feed. The parasitological follow-up of 24 opossums showed that among 10 that had eaten bugs, 4 turned out infected and among the 14 that had not predate, 3 (21% became positive. In sum, 7/24 (29% of the marsupials acquired the infection after the experiment. This infection rate was similar to the prevalences found for the opossum population of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, suggesting that the prevalences observed in the field might be reached if each marsupial would encounter infected bugs just once in its lifetime.

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Didelphis marsupialis in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, southern Brazil

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    Grisard Edmundo C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI, in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI, located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed.

  4. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystis neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, N; Asmundsson, I M; Thomas, N J; Samuel, M D; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, B M

    2008-03-25

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of neurological disease in horses (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) and sea otters in the United States. In addition, EPM-like disease has been diagnosed in several other land and marine mammals. Opossums are its only definitive hosts. Little genetic diversity among isolates of S. neurona from different hosts has been reported. Here, we used 11 microsatellites to characterize S. neurona DNA isolated from natural infections in 22 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from California and Washington and in 11 raccoons (Procyon lotor) and 1 striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Wisconsin. By jointly analyzing these 34 isolates with 26 isolates previously reported, we determined that geographic barriers may limit S. neurona dispersal and that only a limited subset of possible parasite genotypes may have been introduced to recently established opossum populations. Moreover, our study confirms that diverse intermediate hosts share a common infection source, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

  5. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystic neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, N.; Asmundsson, I.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Dubey, J.P.; Rosenthal, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of neurological disease in horses (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) and sea otters in the United States. In addition, EPM-like disease has been diagnosed in several other land and marine mammals. Opossums are its only definitive hosts. Little genetic diversity among isolates of S. neurona from different hosts has been reported. Here, we used 11 microsatellites to characterize S. neurona DNA isolated from natural infections in 22 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from California and Washington and in 11 raccoons (Procyon lotor) and 1 striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Wisconsin. By jointly analyzing these 34 isolates with 26 isolates previously reported, we determined that geographic barriers may limit S. neurona dispersal and that only a limited subset of possible parasite genotypes may have been introduced to recently established opossum populations. Moreover, our study confirms that diverse intermediate hosts share a common infection source, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

  6. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

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    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L. longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L. i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L. longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  7. Experimental infection of two South American reservoirs with four distinct strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Roellig, Dawn M.; McMillan, Katherine; Ellis, Angela E.; Vandeberg, John L.; Champagne, Donald E.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a diverse species with 2 primary genotypes, TcI and TcII, with TcII further subdivided into 5 subtypes (IIa–e). This study evaluated infection dynamics of 4 genetically and geographically diverse T. cruzi strains in 2 South American reservoirs, degus (Octodon degus) and grey short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Based on prior suggestions of a genotype-host association, we hypothesized that degus (placental) would more readily become infected with TcII strains while short-tailed opossums (marsupial) would be a more competent reservoir for a TcI strain. Individuals (n = 3) of each species were intraperitoneally inoculated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa [North America (NA)-raccoon (Procyon lotor) origin], TcI [NA-Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)], TcIIb [South America (SA)-human], TcIIe (SA-Triatoma infestans), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitaemias in experimentally infected degus peaked earlier (7–14 days post-inoculation (p.i.)) compared with short-tailed opossums (21–84 days p.i.). Additionally, peak parasitaemias were higher in degus; however, the duration of detectable parasitaemias for all strains, except TcIIa, was greater in short-tailed opossums. Infections established in both host species with all genotypes, except for TcIIa, which did not establish a detectable infection in short-tailed opossums. These results indicate that both South American reservoirs support infections with these isolates from North and South America; however, infection dynamics differed with host and parasite strain. PMID:20128943

  8. Comparative genomics and proteomics of vertebrate diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), acyl CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase (AWAT) and monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Roger S

    2010-03-01

    BLAT (BLAST-Like Alignment Tool) analyses of the opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) genomes were undertaken using amino acid sequences of the acylglycerol acyltransferase (AGAT) superfamily. Evidence is reported for 8 opossum monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-like (MGAT) (E.C. 2.3.1.22) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase-like (DGAT) (E.C. 2.3.1.20) genes and proteins, including DGAT1, DGAT2, DGAT2L6 (DGAT2-like protein 6), AWAT1 (acyl CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 1), AWAT2, MGAT1, MGAT2 and MGAT3. Three of these genes (AWAT1, AWAT2 and DGAT2L6) are closely localized on the opossum X chromosome. Evidence is also reported for six zebrafish MGAT- and DGAT-like genes, including two DGAT1-like genes, as well as DGAT2-, MGAT1-, MGAT2- and MGAT3-like genes and proteins. Predicted primary, secondary and transmembrane structures for the opossum and zebrafish MGAT-, AWAT- and DGAT-like subunits and the intron-exon boundaries for genes encoding these enzymes showed a high degree of similarity with other members of the AGAT superfamily, which play major roles in triacylglyceride (DGAT), diacylglyceride (MGAT) and wax ester (AWAT) biosynthesis. Alignments of predicted opossum, zebrafish and other vertebrate DGAT1, DGAT2, other DGAT2-like and MGAT-like amino acid sequences with known human and mouse enzymes demonstrated conservation of residues which are likely to play key roles in catalysis, lipid binding or in maintaining structure. Phylogeny studies of the human, mouse, opossum, zebrafish and pufferfish MGAT- and DGAT-like enzymes indicated that the common ancestors for these genes predated the appearance of bony fish during vertebrate evolution whereas the AWAT- and DGAT2L6-like genes may have appeared more recently prior to the appearance of marsupial and eutherian mammals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Serological response of cats to experimental Besnoitia darlingi and Besnoitia neotomofelis infections and prevalence of antibodies to these parasites in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnoitia darlingi and B. neotomofelis are tissue cyst-forming apicomplexan parasite that use domestic cats (Felis domesticus) as definitive hosts and opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and southern planes woodrats (Neotoma micropus) as intermediate hosts, respectively. Nothing is known about the preva...

  10. Rickettsial Infections among Ctenocephalides felis and Host Animals during a Flea-Borne Rickettsioses Outbreak in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Carrie; Krueger, Laura; Macaluso, Kevin R.; Odhiambo, Antony; Nguyen, Kiet; Farris, Christina M.; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Bennett, Stephen; Jiang, Ju; Sun, Sokanary; Cummings, Robert F.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a resurgence of flea-borne rickettsioses in Orange County, California, we investigated the etiologies of rickettsial infections of Ctenocephalides felis, the predominant fleas species obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and domestic cats (Felis catus), collected from case exposure sites and other areas in Orange County. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of IgG antibodies against spotted fever group (SFGR) and typhus group (TGR) rickettsiae in opossum sera. Of the 597 flea specimens collected from opossums and cats, 37.2% tested positive for Rickettsia. PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes obtained from C. felis flea DNA preparations revealed the presence of R. typhi (1.3%), R. felis (28.0%) and R. felis-like organisms (7.5%). Sera from opossums contained TGR-specific (40.84%), but not SFGR-specific antibodies. The detection of R. felis and R. typhi in the C. felis fleas in Orange County highlights the potential risk for human infection with either of these pathogens, and underscores the need for further investigations incorporating specimens from humans, animal hosts, and invertebrate vectors in endemic areas. Such studies will be essential for establishing a link in the ongoing flea-borne rickettsioses outbreaks. PMID:27537367

  11. Identification of the porcine homologous of human disease causing trinucleotide repeat sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Thomsen, Bo; Sølvsten, Christina Ane Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    in this paper the identification of porcine noncoding and polyglutamine-encoding TNR regions and the comparison to the homologous TNRs from human, chimpanzee, dog, opossum, rat, and mouse. Several of the porcine TNR regions are highly polymorphic both within and between different breeds. The TNR regions...

  12. Author Details - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeh-Gorocica, A. Vol 6, No 1 (2016) - Articles First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatan, Mexico Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2218-6050. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  13. ( Didelphis virginiana ) from Yucatan, Mexico

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana ...

  14. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism

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    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed.

  15. Direct evidence of Rickettsia typhi infection in Rhipicephalus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These studies remarks that in addition to rats, other animals like cats, opossums and dogs could be implied in the transmission of Rickettsia typhi as infected fleas obtained from serologically positive animals have been detected in samples from endemic areas. In Mexico, the higher number of murine typhus cases have ...

  16. Landscape And Edge Effects On The Distribution Of Mammalian Predators In Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    William D. Dijak; Frank R. Thompson III

    2000-01-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) are predators of forest songbird eggs and nestlings. We examined the relative abundance of these predators at landscape and local scales to better understand predation risks. At the landscape scale, we examined the...

  17. Infection of a mammal by monogenetic insect trypanosomatids (Kinetoplastida, trypanosomatidae

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    Ana M. Jansen

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Monogenetic insect trypanosomatids of the genera Crithidia, Leptomonas and Herpetomonas, multiplied as in axenic cultures, for many months, in the lumen of the scent glands of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. Specific antibodies were detected in the serum of the animals but there was no evidence of invasion of their tissues by the parasites.

  18. The principal reservoir host of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the urban areas of Manaus, Central Amazon of Brazil

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    Jorge R. Arias

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty one opossums (Didelphis marsupialis from disturbed primary forest in the vicinity of Manaus, and seven from an isolated island of secondary vegetation within the city of Manaus, were examined for the presence of Leishmania. Of the opossums from the primary forests, 13 (61.9% were found to be positive for Leishmania braziliensis guyanenesis. One additional opossum was found to be positive for Le. mexicana amazonensis. A simple and economical trapping technique for opossums is presented here, and a control method in special cases is suggested.Vinte e uma mucuras (Didelphis marsupialis, procedentes de uma floresta primária explorada, e sete de uma vegetação secundária em uma ilha isolada, nas cercanias de Manaus, foram examinadas para detectar a presença de Leishmania. Das mucuras da floresta primária, 13 (61.9% foram detectadas positivas para Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis. Somente uma mucura foi dada como positiva para Le.mexicana amozonensis. Apresentamos aqui uma técnica simples e economica para captura de mucuras e e sugerido um método de controle, em casos especiais.

  19. Making Connections. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Kentucky's Mammoth Cave National Park is important because of its diversity of life on the surface and underground. Some of the plants in the park include trees such as oaks, hickories, tulip poplars, sycamores, and many types of bushes. The animal population is also very diverse and includes bats, squirrels, deer, raccoons, opossums, chipmunks,…

  20. Natural infection of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Marsupialia with Leishmania infantum in Brazil

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    Carreira João Carlos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The opossum Didelphis have been considered as natural hosts of Leishmania parasites in the New World, suggesting an important role in the epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL. Among six extant species that belong to the genus Didelphis, only two (D. marsupialis and D. albiventris, have been mentioned as natural hosts of Leishmania infantum in Brazil and Colombia. In the present paper, it is reported for the first time, the observation of intracellular parasites (amastigotes in tissues of Didelphis aurita naturally infected with Leishmania infantum in Brazil. We also discuss some aspects associated to the relationship between L. infantum and the geographical distribution of some species of the genus Didelphis. Methods The opossums studied were caught by wire traps (Tomahawk in Barra de Guaratiba, a peri-urban area in Rio de Janeiro. The opossums were killed with an overdose of Thiopental sodium.At necropsy, macroscopic alterations were examined and samples from liver, spleen, lymph nodes, ear, abdominal skin, scent glands and bone marrow were collected for parasitological and molecular diagnoses. Results Forty-eight opossums were captured in an AVL endemic region, 30 being caught in a mangrove area and eighteen animals in a forest area near to some residential-yards. Among the thirty opossums trapped in the mangrove area, all of them were negative by both imprint and sera samples assayed on Dipstick Tests, that is a test based on a combination of protein-A colloidal gold conjugate and rk39 Leishmania antigen to detect anti-Leishmania antibody in serum or plasma. At the macroscopic examination one out of eighteen opossums, caught close to the forest, presented alterations compatible with spleen hypertrophy and three were positive by Dipstick Tests (16.6% and presented amastigotes in the spleen and in one of them, the parasites were also observed in a submandibular lymph node. Leishmania infantum infections were confirmed

  1. Natural infection of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Marsupialia) with Leishmania infantum in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, João Carlos Araujo; da Silva, Alba Valéria Machado; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2012-06-07

    The opossum Didelphis have been considered as natural hosts of Leishmania parasites in the New World, suggesting an important role in the epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Among six extant species that belong to the genus Didelphis, only two (D. marsupialis and D. albiventris), have been mentioned as natural hosts of Leishmania infantum in Brazil and Colombia. In the present paper, it is reported for the first time, the observation of intracellular parasites (amastigotes) in tissues of Didelphis aurita naturally infected with Leishmania infantum in Brazil. We also discuss some aspects associated to the relationship between L. infantum and the geographical distribution of some species of the genus Didelphis. The opossums studied were caught by wire traps (Tomahawk) in Barra de Guaratiba, a peri-urban area in Rio de Janeiro. The opossums were killed with an overdose of Thiopental sodium.At necropsy, macroscopic alterations were examined and samples from liver, spleen, lymph nodes, ear, abdominal skin, scent glands and bone marrow were collected for parasitological and molecular diagnoses. Forty-eight opossums were captured in an AVL endemic region, 30 being caught in a mangrove area and eighteen animals in a forest area near to some residential-yards. Among the thirty opossums trapped in the mangrove area, all of them were negative by both imprint and sera samples assayed on Dipstick Tests, that is a test based on a combination of protein-A colloidal gold conjugate and rk39 Leishmania antigen to detect anti-Leishmania antibody in serum or plasma. At the macroscopic examination one out of eighteen opossums, caught close to the forest, presented alterations compatible with spleen hypertrophy and three were positive by Dipstick Tests (16.6%) and presented amastigotes in the spleen and in one of them, the parasites were also observed in a submandibular lymph node. Leishmania infantum infections were confirmed through dot blot hybridization using a L. infantum

  2. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Among Eleven Potential Reservoir Species from Six States Across the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Gompper, Matthew E.; Monello, Ryan J.; Wenning, Krista M.; Gabriel, Mourad W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0–68%) and opossums (17–52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi

  3. Convergent and divergent evolution of genomic imprinting in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

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    Das Radhika

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon resulting in parent-of-origin specific monoallelic gene expression. It is postulated to have evolved in placental mammals to modulate intrauterine resource allocation to the offspring. In this study, we determined the imprint status of metatherian orthologues of eutherian imprinted genes. Results L3MBTL and HTR2A were shown to be imprinted in Monodelphis domestica (the gray short-tailed opossum. MEST expressed a monoallelic and a biallelic transcript, as in eutherians. In contrast, IMPACT, COPG2, and PLAGL1 were not imprinted in the opossum. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs involved in regulating imprinting in eutherians were not found at any of the new imprinted loci in the opossum. Interestingly, a novel DMR was identified in intron 11 of the imprinted IGF2R gene, but this was not conserved in eutherians. The promoter regions of the imprinted genes in the opossum were enriched for the activating histone modification H3 Lysine 4 dimethylation. Conclusions The phenomenon of genomic imprinting is conserved in Therians, but the marked difference in the number and location of imprinted genes and DMRs between metatherians and eutherians indicates that imprinting is not fully conserved between the two Therian infra-classes. The identification of a novel DMR at a non-conserved location as well as the first demonstration of histone modifications at imprinted loci in the opossum suggest that genomic imprinting may have evolved in a common ancestor of these two Therian infra-classes with subsequent divergence of regulatory mechanisms in the two lineages.

  4. Genomic imprinting of IGF2 in marsupials is methylation dependent

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    Imumorin Ikhide

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Parent-specific methylation of specific CpG residues is critical to imprinting in eutherian mammals, but its importance to imprinting in marsupials and, thus, the evolutionary origins of the imprinting mechanism have been the subject of controversy. This has been particularly true for the imprinted Insulin-like Growth Factor II (IGF2, a key regulator of embryonic growth in vertebrates and a focal point of the selective forces leading to genomic imprinting. The presence of the essential imprinting effector, DNMT3L, in marsupial genomes and the demonstration of a differentially methylated region (DMR in the retrotransposon-derived imprinted gene, PEG10, in tammar wallaby argue for a role for methylation in imprinting, but several studies have found no evidence of parent-specific methylation at other imprinted loci in marsupials. Results- We performed the most extensive search to date for allele-specific patterns of CpG methylation within CpG isochores or CpG enriched segments across a 22 kilobase region surrounding the IGF2 gene in the South American opossum Monodelphis domestica. We identified a previously unknown 5'-untranslated exon for opossum IGF2, which is flanked by sequences defining a putative neonatal promoter, a DMR and an active Matrix Attachment Region (MAR. Demethylation of this DMR in opossum neonatal fibroblasts results in abherrant biallelic expression of IGF2. Conclusion- The demonstration of a DMR and an active MAR in the 5' flank of opossum IGF2 mirrors the regulatory features of the 5' flank of Igf2 in mice. However, demethylation induced activation of the maternal allele of IGF2 in opossum differs from the demethylation induced repression of the paternal Igf2 allele in mice. While it can now be concluded that parent-specific DNA methylation is an epigentic mark common to Marsupialia and Eutheria, the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional silencing at imprinted loci have clearly evolved along independent

  5. Playing by the rules? Phenotypic adaptation to temperate environments in an American marsupial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Ryan J.; Wayne, Robert K.

    2018-01-01

    Phenotypic variation along environmental gradients can provide evidence suggesting local adaptation has shaped observed morphological disparities. These differences, in traits such as body and extremity size, as well as skin and coat pigmentation, may affect the overall fitness of individuals in their environments. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is a marsupial that shows phenotypic variation across its range, one that has recently expanded into temperate environments. It is unknown, however, whether the variation observed in the species fits adaptive ecogeographic patterns, or if phenotypic change is associated with any environmental factors. Using phenotypic measurements of over 300 museum specimens of Virginia opossum, collected throughout its distribution range, we applied regression analysis to determine if phenotypes change along a latitudinal gradient. Then, using predictors from remote-sensing databases and a random forest algorithm, we tested environmental models to find the most important variables driving the phenotypic variation. We found that despite the recent expansion into temperate environments, the phenotypic variation in the Virginia opossum follows a latitudinal gradient fitting three adaptive ecogeographic patterns codified under Bergmann’s, Allen’s and Gloger’s rules. Temperature seasonality was an important predictor of body size variation, with larger opossums occurring at high latitudes with more seasonal environments. Annual mean temperature predicted important variation in extremity size, with smaller extremities found in northern populations. Finally, we found that precipitation and temperature seasonality as well as low temperatures were strong environmental predictors of skin and coat pigmentation variation; darker opossums are distributed at low latitudes in warmer environments with higher precipitation seasonality. These results indicate that the adaptive mechanisms underlying the variation in body size, extremity

  6. Playing by the rules? Phenotypic adaptation to temperate environments in an American marsupial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio F. Nigenda-Morales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic variation along environmental gradients can provide evidence suggesting local adaptation has shaped observed morphological disparities. These differences, in traits such as body and extremity size, as well as skin and coat pigmentation, may affect the overall fitness of individuals in their environments. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana is a marsupial that shows phenotypic variation across its range, one that has recently expanded into temperate environments. It is unknown, however, whether the variation observed in the species fits adaptive ecogeographic patterns, or if phenotypic change is associated with any environmental factors. Using phenotypic measurements of over 300 museum specimens of Virginia opossum, collected throughout its distribution range, we applied regression analysis to determine if phenotypes change along a latitudinal gradient. Then, using predictors from remote-sensing databases and a random forest algorithm, we tested environmental models to find the most important variables driving the phenotypic variation. We found that despite the recent expansion into temperate environments, the phenotypic variation in the Virginia opossum follows a latitudinal gradient fitting three adaptive ecogeographic patterns codified under Bergmann’s, Allen’s and Gloger’s rules. Temperature seasonality was an important predictor of body size variation, with larger opossums occurring at high latitudes with more seasonal environments. Annual mean temperature predicted important variation in extremity size, with smaller extremities found in northern populations. Finally, we found that precipitation and temperature seasonality as well as low temperatures were strong environmental predictors of skin and coat pigmentation variation; darker opossums are distributed at low latitudes in warmer environments with higher precipitation seasonality. These results indicate that the adaptive mechanisms underlying the variation in

  7. Molecular characterization and development of Sarcocystis speeri sarcocysts in gamma interferon gene knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Dunams, D; Calero-Bernal, R; Rosenthal, B M

    2015-11-01

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis speeri. The South American opossums (Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis aurita) are definitive hosts for S. falcatula and S. lindsayi. The sporocysts of these Sarcocystis species are similar morphologically. They are also not easily distinguished genetically because of the difficulties of DNA extraction from sporocysts and availability of distinguishing genetic markers. Some of these species can be distinguished by bioassay; S. neurona and S. speeri are infective to gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice, but not to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus); whereas S. falcatula and S. lindsayi are infective to budgerigars but not to KO mice. The natural intermediate host of S. speeri is unknown. In the present study, development of sarcocysts of S. speeri in the KO mice is described. Sarcocysts were first seen at 12 days post-inoculation (p.i.), and they became macroscopic (up to 4 mm long) by 25 days p.i. The structure of the sarcocyst wall did not change from the time bradyzoites had formed at 50-220 days p.i. Sarcocysts contained unique villar protrusions, 'type 38'. The polymerase chain reaction amplifications and sequences analysis of three nuclear loci (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and ITS1) and two mitochondrial loci (cox1 and cytb) of S. speeri isolate from an Argentinean opossum (D. albiventris) confirmed its membership among species of Sarcocystis and indicated an especially close relationship to another parasite in this genus that employs opossums as its definitive host, S. neurona. These results should be useful in finding natural intermediate host of S. speeri.

  8. Tonawanda Creek, Genesee County, New York, Regional Flood Control. Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Long-tail Weasel : Mustela frenata Least Weasel : Mustela rixosa Mink : Mustela vison Eastern Skunk : Mephitis mephitis Red Fox : Vulpes fulva Gray Fo...environments and listed: (a) thickening of gill lamellae, (b) excessive mucous secretion, (c) abrasion of branchial epithelium, and (d) respiratory distress...Ranges Uhich May Include the Batavia Reservoir Compound Site Opossum : Didelphis marsupialis Raccoon : Procyon lotor Short-tail Weasel : Mustela erminea

  9. Genetic Variation among Isolates of Sarcocystis neurona, the Agent of Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, as Revealed by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Elsheikha, H. M.; Schott, H. C.; Mansfield, L. S.

    2006-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona causes serious neurological disease in horses and other vertebrates in the Americas. Based on epidemiological data, this parasite has recently emerged. Here, the genetic diversity of Sarcocystis neurona was evaluated using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method. Fifteen S. neurona taxa from different regions collected over the last 10 years were used; six isolates were from clinically diseased horses, eight isolates were from wild-caught opossums (Didelph...

  10. Epidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona infections in domestic cats (Felis domesticus) and its association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) case farms and feral cats from a mobile spay and neuter clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, J F; Stich, R W; Dubey, J P; Reed, S M; Njoku, C J; Lindsay, D S; Schmall, L M; Johnson, G K; LaFave, B M; Saville, W J A

    2003-11-28

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease in the horse most commonly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. The domestic cat (Felis domesticus) is an intermediate host for S. neurona. In the present study, nine farms, known to have prior clinically diagnosed cases of EPM and a resident cat population were identified and sampled accordingly. In addition to the farm cats sampled, samples were also collected from a mobile spay and neuter clinic. Overall, serum samples were collected in 2001 from 310 cats, with samples including barn, feral and inside/outside cats. Of these 310 samples, 35 were from nine horse farms. Horse serum samples were also collected and traps were set for opossums at each of the farms. The S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT) was used for both the horse and cat serum samples (1:25 dilution). Fourteen of 35 (40%) cats sampled from horse farms had circulating S. neurona agglutinating antibodies. Twenty-seven of the 275 (10%) cats from the spay/neuter clinic also had detectable S. neurona antibodies. Overall, 115 of 123 (93%) horses tested positive for anti-S. neurona antibodies, with each farm having greater than a 75% exposure rate among sampled horses. Twenty-one opossums were trapped on seven of the nine farms. Eleven opossums had Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts, six of them were identified as S. neurona sporocysts based on bioassays in gamma-interferon gene knockout mice with each opossum representing a different farm. Demonstration of S. neurona agglutinating antibodies in domestic and feral cats corroborates previous research demonstrating feral cats to be naturally infected, and also suggests that cats can be frequently infected with S. neurona and serve as one of several natural intermediate hosts for S. neurona.

  11. Serologic evidence of canine parvovirus in domestic dogs, wild carnivores, and marsupials in the Argentinean Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, María Marcela; Miccio, Luciano; Enriquez, Gustavo Fabián; Iribarren, Fabián Eduardo; Gürtler, Ricardo Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The transmission of pathogens between domestic dogs and generalist wildlife species may be modified by environmental degradation, biodiversity losses, host densities, and increased contact rates in remnant forest patches. A serologic survey of canine parvovirus (CPV) in rural domestic dogs and wild mammals was conducted in two neighboring rural areas (disturbed and protected) from Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, between 2008 and 2011. A total of 174 domestic dogs and 26 wild mammals-4 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), 3 crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), 17 white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris), and 2 gray four-eyed opossums (Philander opossum)-were examined for antibodies to CPV using a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Domestic dogs were numerous and their movements unrestricted. The main function of dogs differed significantly between areas, with more dogs used for herding or hunting around the protected area. The seroprevalence of antibodies to CPV in dogs from both areas was very high (93.9-94.6%) and increased steeply with age. Nearly all carnivores and marsupials showed high exposure to CPV. Although a higher exposure to CPV was expected in wild mammals from disturbed areas as a result of enhanced contact between dogs and wildlife, no significant differences were found between areas. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to document exposure to CPV of free-ranging Pr. cancrivorus, D. albiventris, and Ph. opossum, and include a detailed demographic study of the domestic dog populations living in the area. This study highlights that dogs and wildlife have potential opportunities for contact and shows that the edges of the protected area may be as suitable as other fragmented areas for the transmission of CPV. Rural domestic dogs may pose serious threats to the health and conservation of wild carnivores in both disturbed and protected areas, especially in the Gran Chaco, where habitat fragmentation is severely

  12. The graphical user interface for CRISTAL V1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heulers, L.; Courtois, G.; Fernex, F.; Gomit, J.M.; Letang, E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the new Graphical User Interface (GUI) of the CRISTAL V1 package devoted to criticality studies including burn up calculations. The aim of this GUI is to offer users a high level of user-friendliness and flexibility in the data description and the results analysis of codes of the package. The three main components of the GUI (CIGAIES, EJM and OPOSSUM) are presented. The different functionalities of the tools are explained through some applications. (author)

  13. Environmental Assessment for Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook (WINDO) Plan Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    officially established on August 30, 1941 and was named after 1st Lt. Ervin D. Shaw, a Sumter County resident who was killed in action during World War I...Examples of the animal species likely to occur within this community include the cottontail, mockingbird , American robin, and crow. At the Poinsett...include the white-tailed deer, red fox, raccoon, opossum, striped skunk, cottontail, meadowlark, mockingbird , American kestrel, fence lizard, and

  14. Recreational Appendix Report, Elm Fork Flood Control Project, Dallas and Denton Counties, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    Juniperus virginiana 2. Willow Salix nigra 3. Cottonwood Populus deltoides 4. Black Walnut Juglans migra 5. Pecan Carya illinoensis 6. Bur Oak...Maclura pomifera 12. Red Mulberry Morus rubra 13. Sycamore Platanus occidentailis 14. Red Haw Crataegus, sps. 15. Wild Plum Prunus mexicana 16. Mesquite...also provides a habitat for a number of mammals including: 1. Opossum Didelphis virginiana 2. Shrews Blarina brevicuada and Cryptotis parva 3. Raccoon

  15. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Permit Application by United States Steel Corp., Proposed Lake Front Steel Mill, Conneaut, Ohio. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    route before reaching Lake Erie; and their flood plains contain the bulk of sefo prune areas in the Pennsylvania Coastal Communities. The U.S...leading variety, while sour cherries rank second. Other fruit crops of importance include cherries, peaches, apples, plums, prunes , and pears. Although...Lakefront Site (Spring, Summer and Fall) Species Common Name Spring Summer Fall Order Marsupialia Didelphis virginiana Virginia opossum X X X Order

  16. Snake-venom resistance as a mammalian trophic adaptation: lessons from didelphid marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Robert S; Jansa, Sharon A

    2012-11-01

    Mammals that prey on venomous snakes include several opossums (Didelphidae), at least two hedgehogs (Erinaceidae), several mongooses (Herpestidae), several mustelids, and some skunks (Mephitidae). As a group, these taxa do not share any distinctive morphological traits. Instead, mammalian adaptations for ophiophagy seem to consist only in the ability to resist the toxic effects of snake venom. Molecular mechanisms of venom resistance (as indicated by biochemical research on opossums, mongooses, and hedgehogs) include toxin-neutralizing serum factors and adaptive changes in venom-targeted molecules. Of these, toxin-neutralizing serum factors have received the most research attention to date. All of the toxin-neutralizing serum proteins discovered so far in both opossums and mongooses are human α1B-glycoprotein homologs that inhibit either snake-venom metalloproteinases or phospholipase A(2) myotoxins. By contrast, adaptive changes in venom-targeted molecules have received far less attention. The best-documented examples include amino-acid substitutions in mongoose nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that inhibit binding by α-neurotoxins, and amino-acid substitutions in opossum von Willebrand factor (vWF) that are hypothesized to weaken the bond between vWF and coagulopathic C-type lectins. Although multiple mechanisms of venom resistance are known from some species, the proteomic complexity of most snake venoms suggests that the evolved biochemical defences of ophiophagous mammals are likely to be far more numerous than currently recognized. Whereas most previous research in this field has been motivated by the potential for medical applications, venom resistance in ophiophagous mammals is a complex adaptation that merits attention from comparative biologists. Unfortunately, evolutionary inference is currently limited by ignorance about many relevant facts that can only be provided by future research. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge

  17. Comparison of angiotensin II (Ang II) effects in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and lower esophageal sphincter smooth muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Satish; Fan, Ya-Ping; Puri, Rajinder N

    2002-03-22

    Studies were performed to compare the actions of Ang II in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) vs. lower esophageal sphincter (LES) smooth muscles in vitro, in opossum and rabbit. Studies also were carried out in isolated smooth muscle cells. In opossum, Ang II produced no discernible effects in the IAS, but did produce a concentration-dependent contraction in the LES. Conversely, in the rabbit, while Ang II caused a modest response in the LES, it caused a significant contraction in the IAS. The contractile responses of Ang II in the opossum LES were mostly resistant to different neurohumoral antagonists but were antagonized by AT1 antagonist losartan. AT2 antagonist PD 123,319, rather than inhibiting, prolonged the contractile action of Ang II. The contractile actions of Ang II in the opossum LES were not modified by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin 1 x 10(-6) M) but were partially attenuated by the PKC inhibitor H-7 (1 x 10(-6) M), Ca2+ channel blocker nicardipine (1 x 10(-5) M), Rho kinase inhibitor HA-1077 (1 x 10(-7) M) or p(44/42) MAP kinase inhibitor PD 98059 (5 x 10(-5) M). The combination of HA-1077 and H-7 did not cause an additive attenuation of Ang II responses. Western blot analyses revealed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors. We conclude that Ang lI-induced contraction of sphincteric smooth muscle occurs primarily by the activation of AT1 receptors at the smooth muscle cells and involves multiple pathways, influx of Ca2+, and PKC, Rho kinase and p(44/42) MAP kinase.

  18. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Xianbao; Wang, Fan; Bi, Yan; Ji, Baoan

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of pancreatitis are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and developing and testing novel interventions. In this review, we aim to summarize the most commonly used animal models, overview their pathophysiology, and discuss their strengths and limitations. We will also briefly describe common animal study procedures and refer readers to more detailed protocols in the literature. Although animal models include pigs, dogs, opossums, and other animals, we will mai...

  19. Discovery of novel anelloviruses in small mammals expands the host range and diversity of the Anelloviridae

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, William Marciel; Fumagalli, Marcílio Jorge; de Araujo, Jansen; Sabino-Santos Jr., Gilberto; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Romeiro, Marilia Farignoli; Modha, Sejal; Nardi, Marcello Schiavo; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Murcia, Pablo Ramiro; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2018-01-01

    The Anelloviridae comprises single-stranded DNA viruses currently grouped in sixty-eight species classified in twelve genera. They have been found in many vertebrate hosts including primates. In this study, we describe the application of the high-throughput sequencing to examine the frequency and diversity of anelloviruses in rodents, bats and opossums captured in São Paulo State, Brazil. We report a total of twenty-six anelloviruses with sixteen nearly complete genomes and ten partial genome...

  20. Rickettsia infection in five areas of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício C Horta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated rickettsial infection in animals, humans, ticks, and fleas collected in five areas of the state of São Paulo. Eight flea species (Adoratopsylla antiquorum antiquorum, Ctenocephalides felis felis, Polygenis atopus, Polygenis rimatus, Polygenis roberti roberti, Polygenis tripus, Rhopalopsyllus lugubris, and Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi, and five tick species (Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Ixodes loricatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were collected from dogs, cats, and opossums. Rickettsia felis was the only rickettsia found infecting fleas, whereas Rickettsia bellii was the only agent infecting ticks, but no animal or human blood was shown to contain rickettsial DNA. Testing animal and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence assay against four rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. felis, and R. bellii, some opossum, dog, horse, and human sera reacted to R. rickettsii with titers at least four-fold higher than to the other three rickettsial antigens. These sera were considered to have a predominant antibody response to R. rickettsii. Using the same criteria, opossum, dog, and horse sera showed predominant antibody response to R. parkeri or a very closely related genotype. Our serological results suggest that both R. rickettsii and R. parkeri infected animals and/or humans in the studied areas.

  1. Seasonal source-sink dynamics at the edge of a species' range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, L Leann; Fuller, Todd K; Sievert, Paul R; Kellogg, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    The roles of dispersal and population dynamics in determining species' range boundaries recently have received theoretical attention but little empirical work. Here we provide data on survival, reproduction, and movement for a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population at a local distributional edge in central Massachusetts (USA). Most juvenile females that apparently exploited anthropogenic resources survived their first winter, whereas those using adjacent natural resources died of starvation. In spring, adult females recolonized natural areas. A life-table model suggests that a population exploiting anthropogenic resources may grow, acting as source to a geographically interlaced sink of opossums using only natural resources, and also providing emigrants for further range expansion to new human-dominated landscapes. In a geographical model, this source-sink dynamic is consistent with the local distribution identified through road-kill surveys. The Virginia opossum's exploitation of human resources likely ameliorates energetically restrictive winters and may explain both their local distribution and their northward expansion in unsuitable natural climatic regimes. Landscape heterogeneity, such as created by urbanization, may result in source-sink dynamics at highly localized scales. Differential fitness and individual dispersal movements within local populations are key to generating regional distributions, and thus species ranges, that exceed expectations.

  2. Two Pathogens and One Disease: Detection and Identification of Flea-Borne Rickettsiae in Areas Endemic for Murine Typhus in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    EREMEEVA, MARINA E.; KARPATHY, SANDOR E.; KRUEGER, LAURA; HAYES, ERICA K.; WILLIAMS, ASHLEY M.; ZALDIVAR, YAMITZEL; BENNETT, STEPHEN; CUMMINGS, ROBERT; TILZER, ART; VELTEN, ROBERT K.; KERR, NELSON; DASCH, GREGORY A.; HU, RENJIE

    2018-01-01

    Results of an environmental assessment conducted in a newly emergent focus of murine typhus in southern California are described. Opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, infested with cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis Buché, in the suburban area were abundant. Animal and flea specimens were tested for the DNA of two flea-borne rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis. R. felis was commonly detected in fleas collected throughout this area while R. typhi was found at a much lower prevalence in the vicinity of just 7 of 14 case-patient homes identified. DNA of R. felis, but not R. typhi, was detected in renal, hepatic, and pulmonary tissues of opossums. In contrast, there were no hematologic polymerase chain reaction findings of R. felis or R. typhi in opossums, rats, and cats within the endemic area studied. Our data suggest a significant probability of human exposure to R. felis in the area studied; however, disease caused by this agent is not recognized by the medical community and may be misdiagnosed as murine typhus using nondiscriminatory serologic methods. PMID:23270180

  3. Epidemiological factors related to the transmission risk of Trypanosoma cruzi in a Quilombola community, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Cezar Cominetti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This work was an epidemiological investigation of the risk of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the rural Quilombola community of Furnas do Dionízio, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Of the 71 animals examined, seven were captured (two opossums, Didelphis albiventris; four rats, Rattus rattus; and one nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus and 64 were domestic (one canine, Canis familiaris; five pigs, Sus scrofa; two bovines, Bos taurus; five caprines, Capra sp.; and 51 ovines, Ovis aries. Parasitological tests were performed to detect parasites in the blood and to identify the morphology of flagellates. These methods included fresh examinations, buffy coat tests and blood cultures. Molecular analysis of DNA for identification of trypanosomatids was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers S35 and S36. RESULTS: The parasitological tests showed flagellates in an opossum and two cattle. The molecular tests showed DNA from T. cruzi in an opossum and a pig. Triatoma sordida was the only triatomine species found in the community, and it colonized households (four specimens and the surrounding areas (124 specimens. Twenty-three specimens tested positive for flagellates, which were subsequently identified as T. cruzi by PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Data analysis demonstrated that T. cruzi has a peridomestic life cycle that involves both domestic and wild mammals.

  4. Seasonal source-sink dynamics at the edge of a species' range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, L.L.; Fuller, T.K.; Sievert, P.R.; Kellogg, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The roles of dispersal and population dynamics in determining species' range boundaries recently have received theoretical attention but little empirical work. Here we provide data on survival, reproduction, and movement for a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population at a local distributional edge in central Massachusetts (USA). Most juvenile females that apparently exploited anthropogenic resources survived their first winter, whereas those using adjacent natural resources died of starvation. In spring, adult females recolonized natural areas. A life-table model suggests that a population exploiting anthropogenic resources may grow, acting as source to a geographically interlaced sink of opossums using only natural resources, and also providing emigrants for further range expansion to new human-dominated landscapes. In a geographical model, this source-sink dynamic is consistent with the local distribution identified through road-kill surveys. The Virginia opossum's exploitation of human resources likely ameliorates energetically restrictive winters and may explain both their local distribution and their northward expansion in unsuitable natural climatic regimes. Landscape heterogeneity, such as created by urbanization, may result in source-sink dynamics at highly localized scales. Differential fitness and individual dispersal movements within local populations are key to generating regional distributions, and thus species ranges, that exceed expectations. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Reconstructing an ancestral mammalian immune supercomplex from a marsupial major histocompatibility complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Belov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The first sequenced marsupial genome promises to reveal unparalleled insights into mammalian evolution. We have used the Monodelphis domestica (gray short-tailed opossum sequence to construct the first map of a marsupial major histocompatibility complex (MHC. The MHC is the most gene-dense region of the mammalian genome and is critical to immunity and reproductive success. The marsupial MHC bridges the phylogenetic gap between the complex MHC of eutherian mammals and the minimal essential MHC of birds. Here we show that the opossum MHC is gene dense and complex, as in humans, but shares more organizational features with non-mammals. The Class I genes have amplified within the Class II region, resulting in a unique Class I/II region. We present a model of the organization of the MHC in ancestral mammals and its elaboration during mammalian evolution. The opossum genome, together with other extant genomes, reveals the existence of an ancestral "immune supercomplex" that contained genes of both types of natural killer receptors together with antigen processing genes and MHC genes.

  6. Experimental inoculation of domestic cats (Felis domesticus) with Sarcocystis neurona or S. neurona-like merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, M; Lakritz, J; Halaney, A; Branson, K; Gupta, G D; Kreeger, J; Marsh, A E

    2002-07-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is the parasite most commonly associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Recently, cats (Felis domesticus) have been demonstrated to be an experimental intermediate host in the life cycle of S. neurona. This study was performed to determine if cats experimentally inoculated with culture-derived S. neurona merozoites develop tissue sarcocysts infectious to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the definitive host of S. neurona. Four cats were inoculated with S. neurona or S. neurona-like merozoites and all developed antibodies reacting to S. neurona merozoite antigens, but tissue sarcocysts were detected in only two cats. Muscle tissues from the experimentally inoculated cats with and without detectable sarcocysts were fed to laboratory-reared opossums. Sporocysts were detected in gastrointestinal (GI) scrapings of one opossum fed experimentally infected feline tissues. The study results suggest that cats can develop tissue cysts following inoculation with culture-derived Sarcocystis sp. merozoites in which the particular isolate was originally derived from a naturally infected cat with tissue sarcocysts. This is in contrast to cats which did not develop tissue cysts when inoculated with S. neurona merozoites originally derived from a horse with EPM. These results indicate present biological differences between the culture-derived merozoites of two Sarcocystis isolates, Sn-UCD 1 and Sn-Mucat 2.

  7. Architectonic subdivisions of the amygdalar complex of a primitive marsupial (Didelphis aurita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rego, V; Canteras, N S; Anomal, R F; Volchan, E; Franca, J G

    2008-05-15

    The architecture of the amygdaloid complex of a marsupial, the opossum Didelphis aurita, was analyzed using classical stains like Nissl staining and myelin (Gallyas) staining, and enzyme histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase and NADPH-diaphorase. Most of the subdivisions of the amygdaloid complex described in eutherian mammals were identified in the opossum brain. NADPH-diaphorase revealed reactivity in the neuropil of nearly all amygdaloid subdivisions with different intensities, allowing the identification of the medial and lateral subdivisions of the cortical posterior nucleus and the lateral subdivision of the lateral nucleus. The lateral, central, basolateral and basomedial nuclei exhibited acetylcholinesterase positivity, which provided a useful chemoarchitectural criterion for the identification of the anterior basolateral nucleus. Myelin stain allowed the identification of the medial subdivision of the lateral nucleus, and resulted in intense staining of the medial subdivisions of the central nucleus. The medial, posterior, and cortical nuclei, as well as the amygdalopiriform area did not exhibit positivity for myelin staining. On the basis of cyto- and chemoarchitectural criteria, the present study highlights that the opossum amygdaloid complex shares similarities with that of other species, thus supporting the idea that the organization of the amygdala is part of a basic plan conserved through mammalian evolution.

  8. The role of fragmentation and landscape changes in the ecological release of common nest predators in the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V. Cove

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Loss of large mammalian carnivores may allow smaller mesopredators to become abundant and threaten other community members. There is considerable debate about mesopredator release and the role that other potential factors such as landscape variables and human alterations to land cover lead to increased mesopredator abundance. We used camera traps to detect four mesopredators (tayra, Eira barbara; white-nosed coati, Nasua narica; northern raccoon, Procyon lotor; and common opossum, Didelphis opossum in a biological corridor in Costa Rica to estimate habitat covariates that influenced the species’ detection and occurrence. We selected these mesopredators because as semi-arboreal species they might be common nest predators, posing a serious threat to resident and migratory songbirds. Pineapple production had a pronounced positive effect on the detectability of tayras, while forest cover had a negative effect on the detection of coatis. This suggests that abundance might be elevated due to the availability of agricultural food resources and foraging activities are concentrated in forest fragments and pineapple edge habitats. Raccoon and opossum models exhibited little influence on detection from habitat covariates. Occurrence models did not suggest any significant factors influencing site use by nest predators, revealing that all four species are habitat generalists adapted to co-existing in human altered landscapes. Furthermore, fragmentation and land cover changes may predispose nesting birds, herpetofauna, and small mammals to heightened predation risk by mesopredators in the Neotropics.

  9. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delir Corrêa Gomes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819, Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934 Freitas & Lent, 1937, Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914, Spirura guianensis (Ortlepp, 1924 Chitwood, 1938 and from the rodents Akodon cursor (Winger, 1887, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oligoryzomys eliurus (Wagner, 1845 and Oryzomys intermedius (Leche, 1886: Hassalstrongylus epsilon (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916, S. venteli Travassos, 1937, Physaloptera bispiculata Vaz & Pereira, 1935, Litomosoides carinii (Travassos, 1919 Vaz, 1934, Viannaia viannai, Hassalstrongylus epsilon, H. zeta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Stilestrongylus aculeata (Travassos, 1918 Durette-Desset, 1971 S. eta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971. Highest worm burdens and prevalences were those related to Cruzia tentaculata in marsupials. Stilestrongylus aculeata was referred for the first time in Akodon cursor.

  10. Synanthropic Mammals as Potential Hosts of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Bermúdez

    Full Text Available Synanthropic wild mammals can be important hosts for many vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The aim of this study was determine the exposure of synanthropic mammals to two types of tick-borne pathogens in Panama, spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR and Borrelia relapsing fever (RF spirochetes. One hundred and thirty-one wild mammals were evaluated, including two gray foxes, two crab-eating foxes (from zoos, four coyotes, 62 opossum and 63 spiny rats captured close to rural towns. To evaluate exposure to SFGR, serum samples from the animals were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA using Rickettsia rickettsii and Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii antigen. Immunoblotting was performed using Borrelia turicatae protein lysates and rGlpQ, to assess infection caused by RF spirochetes. One coyote (25% and 27 (43% opossums showed seroreactivity to SFGR. Of these opossums, 11 were seroreactive to C. R. amblyommii. Serological reactivity was not detected to B. turicatae in mammal samples. These findings may reflect a potential role of both mammals in the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Panama.

  11. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Beasley

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations, particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14-24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99-240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753 m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations

  12. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Toxoplasma gondii in wild horses from central Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Mitchell, S M; Morrow, J K; Rhyan, J C; Stewart, L M; Granstrom, D E; Romand, S; Thulliez, P; Saville, W J; Lindsay, D S

    2003-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora caninum, N. hughesi, and Toxoplasma gondii are 4 related coccidians considered to be associated with encephalomyelitis in horses. The source of infection for N. hughesi is unknown, whereas opossums, dogs, and cats are the definitive hosts for S. neurona, N. caninum, and T. gondii, respectively. Seroprevalence of these coccidians in 276 wild horses from central Wyoming outside the known range of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were found only in 1 of 276 horses tested with the modified agglutination test using 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 dilutions. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 86 (31.1%) of the 276 horses tested with the Neospora agglutination test--the titers were 1:25 in 38 horses, 1:50 in 15, 1:100 in 9, 1:200 in 8, 1:400 in 4, 1:800 in 2, 1:1,600 in 2, 1:3,200 in 2, and 1:12,800 in 1. Antibodies to S. neurona were assessed with the serum immunoblot; of 276 horses tested, 18 had antibodies considered specific for S. neurona. Antibodies to S. neurona also were assessed with the S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT). Thirty-nine of 265 horses tested had SAT antibodies--in titers of 1:50 in 26 horses and 1:100 in 13. The presence of S. neurona antibodies in horses in central Wyoming suggests that either there is cross-reactivity between S. neurona and some other infection or a definitive host other than opossum is the source of infection. In a retrospective study, S. neurona antibodies were not found by immunoblot in the sera of 243 horses from western Canada outside the range of D. virginiana.

  13. A comparative study of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals from a protected and a disturbed area in the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, M M; Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Piccinali, R V; Gürtler, R E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the complex epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles requires comparative studies in widely different environments. We assessed the occurrence of T. cruzi infection in sylvatic mammals, their infectiousness to the vector, and parasite genotypes in a protected area of the Argentine Chaco, and compared them with information obtained similarly in a nearby disturbed area. A total of 278 mammals from >23 species in the protected area were diagnosed for T. cruzi infection using xenodiagnosis, kDNA-PCR and nuclear satellite DNA-PCR (SAT) from blood samples. The relative abundance and species composition differed substantially between areas. Didelphis albiventris opossums were less abundant in the protected area; had a significantly lower body mass index, and a stage structure biased toward earlier stages. The capture of armadillos was lower in the protected area. The composite prevalence of T. cruzi infection across host species was significantly lower in the protected area (11.1%) than in the disturbed area (22.1%), and heterogeneous across species groups. The prevalence of infection in D. albiventris and Thylamys pusilla opossums was significantly lower in the protected area (nil for D. albiventris), whereas infection in sigmodontine rodents was three times higher in the protected area (17.5 versus 5.7%). Parasite isolates from the two xenodiagnosis-positive mammals (1 Dasypus novemcinctus and 1 Conepatus chinga) were typed as TcIII; both specimens were highly infectious to Triatoma infestans. Fat-tailed opossums, bats and rodents were kDNA-PCR-positive and xenodiagnosis-negative. Desmodus rotundus and Myotis bats were found infected with T. cruzi for the first time in the Gran Chaco. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribuição para o estudo dos mecanismos de transmissão do agente etiológico da doença de Chagas A contribution to the study of the mechanisms of transmission of the etiological agent of "Chagas" disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Domingues Ribeiro

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram capturados no Município de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, exemplares de gambá, Didelphis albiventris. Na medida em que os exemplares chegavam ao laboratório foram submetidos a exames de sangue a fresco, hemoculturas e xenodiagnósticos, com o propósito de descartar a hipótese de infecção natural. Em cativeiro os animais passaram a ter, como parte de sua alimentação, camundongos parasitados pela cepa Bolívia do Tripanosoma cruzi ou exemplares de triatomíneos comprovadamente infectados pela mesma cepa do parasita. Vinte e cinco dias após a última refeição, foram realizados xenodiagnósticos nos animais em experimentação, cujo índice de infecção nos animais que ingeriram camundongos infectados foi de 60,0% e naqueles que ingeriram triatomíneos foi de 83,3%. Os resultados revelaram que os gambás apresentaram altos índices de infecção, mostrando a importância da via oral como porta de entrada do T. cruzi, bem como a importância do D. albiventris como reservatório do parasita nos focos naturais de infecção e elo de ligação entre o ambiente silvestre e o domicílio.The infection of several opossums Didelphis albiventris, male, female and young, by oral means by feeding them either on infected triatomines or on mice experimentally infected by Tripanosoma cruzi, is studied. After feeding uncontaminated opossums on carcasses or living specimens of baby mice, infected with the Bolivian strain of T.cruzi, a 60.0% infection index was obtained on xenodiagnoses. On the other hand, after feeding uncontaminated opossums on infected triatomines, an 83.3% index was obtained on xenodiagnoses. These results indicate that the feeding on infected mammals, as well as the ingestion of infected triatomines by omnivorous animals gives high infection indices and demonstrates the importance of the oral route as the means of access of T. cruzi. The also show the importance of opossums as reservoirs of the parasite in the natural focci of

  15. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xianbao; Wang, Fan; Bi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Animal models of pancreatitis are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and developing and testing novel interventions. In this review, we aim to summarize the most commonly used animal models, overview their pathophysiology, and discuss their strengths and limitations. We will also briefly describe common animal study procedures and refer readers to more detailed protocols in the literature. Although animal models include pigs, dogs, opossums, and other animals, we will mainly focus on rodent models because of their popularity. Autoimmune pancreatitis and genetically engineered animal models will be reviewed elsewhere. PMID:27418683

  16. The action of post-dispersal beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae on scats of Didelphis spp. (Mammalia: Didelphidae

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    Nilton Carlos Cáceres

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A two year study of dung beetles and ants acting on scats of two species of opossum (Didelphis spp. was carried out. Scats were left in the field in order to detect post-dispersal agents. A portion of each scat (30 % was examined for seeds in the laboratory. Beetles were recovered from burrows (51 % of 84 faecal samples left in the field where they either buried scats of opossums or were attracted, together with ants, to pitfalls (N= 10 baited with opossum scats. Dung beetles were the main post-dispersal agents of seeds found in scats of opossums, rolling the scats away or burying then on the site of deposition. They buried faeces at 4 to 15 cm in depth (N= 22 tunnels. The main dung beetles identified (medium to large size were Eurysternus (28.7 % in pitfalls and Dichotomius (13.7 %, Coprophanaeus (seen only directly on faeces, besides small-bodied beetles (Por dos años estudiamos los escarabajos coprófagos y las hormigas que actúan en las heces de zarigüellas (Didelphis. Se dejaron excrementos en el campo para descubrir los agentes secundarios de dispersión. Una parte de cada excremento (30 % fue analizada en laboratorio para estimar el número de semillas. Se recolectaron escarabajos del suelo (51 % de 84 excrementos dejados en el campo. También capturamos escarabajos y hormigas con trampas (N= 10. Los escarabajos coprófagos son los principales agentes secundarios de dispersión. Ruedan los excrementos o los entierran a 4-15 cm de profundidad (N= 22 túneles. Los escarabajos coprófagos de mayor tamaño fueron Eurysternus cyanescens (28.7 % en trampas, Dichotomius assifer (13.7 % y Coprophanaeus saphirinus (sólo visto en madrigueras y directamente sobre los excrementos. Los escarabajos de menos de 10 mm fueron el 57.6 %. La hormiga Acromirmex sp. fue 25.5 % del total de hormigas capturadas en trampas. Hallamos varias especies de semillas en los excrementos, muchos de ellos enterrados por los escarabajos, y algunas fueron extraídas por

  17. Miíase por Lucilia eximia (Diptera: Calliphoridae em Didelphis albiventris (Mammalia: Didelphidae no Brasil Central

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    Edison Cansi

    2011-12-01

    Abstract. In May 2009 were collected 18 larvae of Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, a fly responsible for primary and secondary myiasis in livestock and humans. The larvae were taken from the myiasis on anal and auricular regions of an opossum Didelphis albiventris (Lund, in Brasília Zoo, and later identified in the laboratory. After 15 days, 15 adults emerged from L. eximia. This is the first record of this blowfly causing a primary myiasis in a marsupial species in the Brasília Cerrado.

  18. Evidence to support horses as natural intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Thomas; Murphy, Alice J; Kiupel, Matti; Bell, Julia A; Rossano, Mary G; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-10-10

    Opossums (Didelphis spp.) are the definitive host for the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona, the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Opossums shed sporocysts in feces that can be ingested by true intermediate hosts (cats, raccoons, skunks, armadillos and sea otters). Horses acquire the parasite by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by opossum feces. However, horses have been classified as aberrant intermediate hosts because the terminal asexual sarcocyst stage that is required for transmission to the definitive host has not been found in their tissues despite extensive efforts to search for them [Dubey, J.P., Lindsay, D.S., Saville, W.J., Reed, S.M., Granstrom, D.E., Speer, C.A., 2001b. A review of Sarcocystis neurona and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Vet. Parasitol. 95, 89-131]. In a 4-month-old filly with neurological disease consistent with EPM, we demonstrate schizonts in the brain and spinal cord and mature sarcocysts in the tongue and skeletal muscle, both with genetic and morphological characteristics of S. neurona. The histological and electron microscopic morphology of the schizonts and sarcocysts were identical to published features of S. neurona [Stanek, J.F., Dubey, J.P., Oglesbee, M.J., Reed, S.M., Lindsay, D.S., Capitini, L.A., Njoku, C.J., Vittitow, K.L., Saville, W.J., 2002. Life cycle of Sarcocystis neurona in its natural intermediate host, the raccoon, Procyon lotor. J. Parasitol. 88, 1151-1158]. DNA from schizonts and sarcocysts from this horse produced Sarcocystis specific 334bp PCR products [Tanhauser, S.M., Yowell, C.A., Cutler, T.J., Greiner, E.C., MacKay, R.J., Dame, J.B., 1999. Multiple DNA markers differentiate Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula. J. Parasitol. 85, 221-228]. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of these PCR products showed banding patterns characteristic of S. neurona. Sequencing, alignment and comparison of both schizont and sarcocyst DNA

  19. Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

    2006-09-01

    A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.

  20. Detection of Rickettsia felis in Wild Mammals from Three Municipalities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús Alonso; Torres-Castro, Marco; Hernández-Betancourt, Silvia; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; López-Avila, Karina; Tello-Martín, Raúl

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information of the occurrence of Rickettsia felis in wild mammals from three municipalities in Yucatan, Mexico. The reactivity of rodent serum to Rickettsia antigens was detected in 80.9% (17 of 21) samples using immunofluorescence assay. Polymerase chain reaction identified rickettsial DNA in spleens of 43.5% (10 of 23) rodents and 57.1% (4 of 7) opossums. The identification of the rickettsial DNA was confirmed as R. felis by restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. This study comprises the first report of R. felis detection in wild mammals in Yucatan.

  1. Folly Beach, South Carolina. Survey Report on Beach Erosion Control and Hurricane Protection. Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    Animal species which may be observed in this community include the ground dove, mockingbird , robin, blackbird, grackle, opossum, rabbit, raccoon, gray...Laughing gull Larus- atricilia Least tern Sterna al bi fruncs Lesser yellowlegs Totanus flavip es Marsh hawk Circus cyaneus Mockingbird rlinus...ve’c It kill 0Iinltso ilt -iolIr;nt pet erilfi I grasses-- slit It Is- ci uiis (l~iiP j il it i I - il-it) .0 bit i ci 1tutu I grass 0’a n i tie

  2. Environmental Impact Research Program and Defense Natural Resources Program: Section 7.5.7, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    throated sparrow (Z. albicollis) X X Song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) X X Fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca) X X Mammals Opossum (Didelphis virginiana ) X...cm) and should not be less than 0.38 in. (0.4 cm). When Ellagood is pruned severely, an abundance of new shoots are produced (SCS, undated). Planting...Holes for the plants should be deep enough to take the full root without bending. Unusually long roots and tops may be pruned to 6 in. (15.2 cm) if

  3. Entrevista com Amade M’charek

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Larissa Costa; Besen, Lucas Riboli

    2017-01-01

    Amade M’charek (foto: Olaf Posselt – Opossum Photography). Amade M’charek é primeira titular da cadeira de Antropologia da Ciência na Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Comportamentais na Universidade de Amsterdã (UvA). Suas principais áreas de interesse são ciência, antropologia forense, materialidades, e raça. Ela participa do projeto Dutchness in Genes and Genealogy, uma pesquisa colaborativa com geneticistas de populações, arqueólogos e genealogistas que busca examinar como a categoria “hol...

  4. Neosporosis in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D P

    2005-01-20

    This work gathers reports about Neospora-infections in South America. Neospora-infections have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Evidence of exposure to N. caninum was mentioned in cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, South American opossums, wolves and other wild canids. No antibodies were found in horses. Interesting epidemiological and pathological data were described. Two isolations were performed from dogs, one from cattle, and recently five from water buffaloes. Since the cattle industry is important in South America and reproductive losses caused by Neospora-infection have been identified, more investigations are needed in order to understand its epidemiology and control the disease.

  5. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xianbao; Wang, Fan; Bi, Yan; Ji, Baoan

    2016-09-01

    Animal models of pancreatitis are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and developing and testing novel interventions. In this review, we aim to summarize the most commonly used animal models, overview their pathophysiology, and discuss their strengths and limitations. We will also briefly describe common animal study procedures and refer readers to more detailed protocols in the literature. Although animal models include pigs, dogs, opossums, and other animals, we will mainly focus on rodent models because of their popularity. Autoimmune pancreatitis and genetically engineered animal models will be reviewed elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Phlebotomus Fever Viruses in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    were not attempted. Dr. Howard Christensen of GML has recently completed blood meal determinations on four species of Lutzomyia whicb are thought to...t (): - j: - a - 1a r- > O O 00 004 i- H4 H () -4 -4-J rOQ W 4-) OU0 M 17 by Lutzomyia on sloths, rabbits, porcupines, primates and opossums. Blood...feeding upon them by Lutzomyia (to 65% in Lu. trapidoi) indicates that experimental infections of these hosts would also be justified. E. Conclusions

  7. Effects of urbanization on carnivore species distribution and richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordenana, Miguel A.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Siudyla, Shalene; Haas, Christopher D.; Harris, Sierra; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Turschak, Greta M.; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2010-01-01

    Urban development can have multiple effects on mammalian carnivore communities. We conducted a meta-analysis of 7,929 photographs from 217 localities in 11 camera-trap studies across coastal southern California to describe habitat use and determine the effects of urban proximity (distance to urban edge) and intensity (percentage of area urbanized) on carnivore occurrence and species richness in natural habitats close to the urban boundary. Coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) were distributed widely across the region. Domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), mountain lions (Puma concolor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were detected less frequently, and long-tailed weasels (Mustela frenata), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), western spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), and domestic cats (Felis catus) were detected rarely. Habitat use generally reflected availability for most species. Coyote and raccoon occurrence increased with both proximity to and intensity of urbanization, whereas bobcat, gray fox, and mountain lion occurrence decreased with urban proximity and intensity. Domestic dogs and Virginia opossums exhibited positive and weak negative relationships, respectively, with urban intensity but were unaffected by urban proximity. Striped skunk occurrence increased with urban proximity but decreased with urban intensity. Native species richness was negatively associated with urban intensity but not urban proximity, probably because of the stronger negative response of individual species to urban intensity.

  8. Scat removal: A source of bias in feces-related studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, T.R.; Gipson, P.S.; Ballard, W.B.; Sanchez, D.M.; Krausman, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Consumption of feces (coprophagy) may alter findings of dietary studies and population estimates based on fecal analyses, but its magnitude is poorly understood. We investigated seasonal incidence of scat removal on Fort Riley, Kansas, from January through December 2000. We placed feces from captive bobcats (Lynx rufus), captive coyotes (Canis latrans), and free-ranging coyotes randomly on tracking stations in forest and prairie landscapes to determine rates of scat removal by local wildlife. Rates of removal of feces from captive bobcats, captive coyotes, and free-ranging coyotes varied from 7% during spring to 50% during summer. We identified opossums (Didelphis virginiana) as the most common species present at stations where scat removal occurred. Feces may be an important seasonal source of food for opossums and may provide seasonal dietary supplements for other species. Other factors responsible for disturbance of feces included a woodrat (Neotoma floridana) caching coyote feces, removal of captive coyote feces by free-ranging coyotes accompanied by deposition of fresh feces, a bobcat burying a captive bobcat sample and depositing fresh feces, and rain storms. Dietary studies based on fecal analyses could be biased by scat removal, assuming that contents in feces are representative of the proportion of foods consumed.

  9. Relative abundance of mesopredators and size of oak patches in the cross-timbers ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M.R.; Hellgren, E.C.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M.; Engle, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Mesopredators (e.g., raccoon Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, striped skunk Mephitis mephitis) have received considerable attention because of links to population declines in birds via increased nest predation, especially in landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic forces. Relationships of abundance of mesopredators to size of habitat patches have received less attention than relationships to other metrics of fragmentation, particularly edge characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that relative abundance of mesopredators (e.g., raccoons and Virginia opossums) was related negatively to size of forest patch. We delineated 15 patches of oak (Quercus) forest ranging from 0.2 to 55.3 ha within a grassland-woodland mosaic in the cross-timbers ecoregion of Oklahoma. Scent stations and live traps within these patches were used to index relative abundance of mesopredators in summers 2003 and 2004. Both indices of relative abundance were related weakly and negatively to area of forest patch. However, rate of capture and visitation to scent station were not correlated consistently throughout the study. Our results suggested that the two methods to index abundance provided separate information on functional and numerical responses to size of patch. Our evidence that mesopredators within the cross timbers were more likely to be in smaller patches of oak forest may have implications to success of avian nesting in these patches.

  10. Evaluation of the Chagas Stat-Paktm Assay for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi Antibodies in Wildlife Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J.; Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    An immunochromatographic assay (Chagas Stat-Pak™) was evaluated for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 4 species of wildlife reservoirs. Antibodies to T. cruzi were detected in raccoons (Procyon lotor) (naturally and experimentally infected) and degus (Octodon degu) (experimentally-infected) using the Chagas Stat-Pak. In naturally exposed wild raccoons, the Chagas Stat-Pak had a sensitivity and specificity of 66.7–80.0% and 96.3%, respectively. Compared with indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay results, serocon-version as determined by Chagas Stat-Pak was delayed for experimentally infected raccoons, but occurred sooner in experimentally infected degus. The Chagas Stat-Pak did not detect antibodies in naturally or experimentally infected Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) or in experimentally infected short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). These data suggest that the Chagas Stat-Pak might be useful in field studies of raccoons and degus when samples would not be available for more-conventional serologic assays. Because this assay did not work on either species of marsupial, the applicability of the assay should be examined before it is used in other wild species. PMID:19016578

  11. Didelphis albiventris naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Regina Lucas; Fornazari, Felipe; Demoner, Larissa de Castro; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Langoni, Helio; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2017-10-01

    Hepatozoon species are vector-borne pathogens that infect domestic and wild animals. Marsupials of the species Didelphis albiventris are adapted to urban and peri-urban areas and act as reservoir hosts for several parasites. The present study evaluated the occurrence of infection by Hepatozoon species in synantropic D. albiventris from Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. Blood samples and ectoparasites from 19 D. albiventris were collected from urban and peri-urban areas. Hepatozoon spp. detection was performed by microscopy and molecular analysis. One opossum was positive for Hepatozoon spp. in microscopy analysis and PCR, while another animal was positive only in PCR. The obtained sequences were 100% identical to Hepatozoon canis. Six species of ticks and two species of fleas were detected on D. albiventris. This is the first report of H. canis in synantropic D. albiventris. In Brazil, H. canis transmission among dog populations is not well established, which highlights the importance of investigating the role that opossums might play in the epidemiology of this protozoan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of natural foci of Panstrongylus megistus in a forest fragment in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Jose Eloy dos Santos Jr

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Panstrongylus megistus is commonly found in wild environments of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize the network of refuges used by triatomine in a forest fragment of Porto Alegre and to identify Trypanosoma cruzi infection, associated hosts and the epidemiological importance of both hosts and triatomines. Methods Techniques including the spool-and-line method and active searching (transects were used to identify natural foci. Results The food source for each triatomine was determined using the precipitin test, and the infection of marsupials was determined by xenodiagnosis. A total of 33 adults (domestic environment and 27 nymphs (wild environment of P. megistus were found in addition to 43 Didelphis albiventris specimens. The infection rates of triatomine adults, triatomine nymphs and opossums with T. cruzi I were 64%, 73% and 69%, respectively. Birds, rodents and opossums were the main resources used by triatomine. Conclusions This work presents the first characterization of a natural focus of P. megistus in Rio Grande do Sul. The natural characteristics of this focus and its implication in the transmission of T. cruzi are discussed.

  13. Peridomiciliary colonies of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in rural areas of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Claudiney Biral dos Santos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the colonization of human dwellings by triatomines occurs in areas with native vegetation of the caatinga or cerrado types. In areas of Atlantic forest such as in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo, there are no species adapted to live in human habitations. The few autochthonous cases of Chagas disease encountered in Espírito Santo have been attributed to adult specimens of Triatoma vitticeps that invade houses from forest remnants. In recent years, the entomology unit of the Espírito Santo State Health Secretariat has recorded nymphs infected with flagellates similar to Trypanosoma cruzi in rural localities. Entomological surveys were carried out in the residences and outbuildings in which the insects were found, and serological examinations for Chagas disease performed on the inhabitants. Four colonies were found, all associated with nests of opossums (Didelphis aurita, 111 specimens of T. vitticeps, and 159 eggs being collected. All the triatomines presented flagellates in their frass. Mice inoculated with the faeces presented trypomastigotes in the circulating blood and groups of amastigotes in the cardiac muscle fibres. Serological tests performed on the inhabitants were negative for T. cruzi. Even with the intense devastation of the forest in Espírito Santo, there are no indications of change in the sylvatic habits of T. vitticeps. Colonies of this insect associated with opossum nests would indicate an expansion of the sylvatic environment into the peridomicile.

  14. Feeding Patterns of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Araújo, Andressa Nunes; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    The stomach contents of culicids from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were analyzed using the precipitin technique to evaluate the feeding patterns of the species. Sampling was performed from February 2012 to December 2013, using CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps to catch mosquitoes from 15 00 to 07 00 hours. The following antisera were used: bird, rodent, opossum, human, horse, capybara, lizard, and frog. Of the 325 adult bloodfed females caught and analyzed, 273 (84.0%) reacted in the precipitin test. The percentage of specimens with a positive reaction to a single antiserum included bird (39.2%), rodent (22.5%), opossum (13.2%), capybara (6.6%), horse (5.7%), frog (6.2%), human (4.0%), and lizard (2.6%). The specimens that reacted positively against more than one blood source (46) most frequently presented the following combinations: bird + rodent and bird + frog (17.4%), followed by bird + human (13.0%). The predominance of positive results for birds suggested that the avian-rich environment might have influenced the feeding behavior of the culicids. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A 2015 outbreak of flea-borne rickettsiosis in San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County, California.

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    Kimberly Nelson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although flea-borne rickettsiosis is endemic in Los Angeles County, outbreaks are rare. In the spring of 2015 three human cases of flea-borne rickettsiosis among residents of a mobile home community (MHC prompted an investigation. Fleas were ubiquitous in common areas due to presence of flea-infested opossums and overabundant outdoor cats and dogs. The MHC was summarily abated in June 2015, and within five months, flea control and removal of animals significantly reduced the flea population. Two additional epidemiologically-linked human cases of flea-borne rickettsiosis detected at the MHC were suspected to have occurred before control efforts began. Molecular testing of 106 individual and 85 pooled cat fleas, blood and ear tissue samples from three opossums and thirteen feral cats using PCR amplification and DNA sequencing detected rickettsial DNA in 18.8% of the fleas. Seventeen percent of these cat fleas tested positive for R. felis-specific DNA compared to under two (<2 percent for Candidatus R. senegalensis-specific DNA. In addition, serological testing of 13 cats using a group-specific IgG-ELISA detected antibodies against typhus group rickettsiae and spotted fever group rickettsiae in six (46.2% and one (7.7% cat, respectively. These results indicate that cats and their fleas may have played an active role in the epidemiology of the typhus group and/or spotted fever group rickettsial disease(s in this outbreak.

  16. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeropoulos, E T; Heldmaier, G; Frappell, P B; McAllan, B M; Withers, K W; Klingenspor, M; White, C R; Jastroch, M

    2012-01-07

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Surprisingly, we found that the mitochondrial proton leak was greater in marsupials than in eutherians, although marsupials have lower BMRs. To verify our finding, we kept similar-sized individuals of a marsupial opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and a eutherian rodent (Mesocricetus auratus) species under identical conditions, and directly compared BMR and basal proton leak. We confirmed an approximately 40 per cent lower mass specific BMR in the opossum although its proton leak was significantly higher (approx. 60%). We demonstrate that the increase in BMR during eutherian evolution is not based on a general increase in the mitochondrial proton leak, although there is a similar allometric relationship of proton leak and BMR within mammalian groups. The difference in proton leak between endothermic groups may assist in elucidating distinct metabolic and habitat requirements that have evolved during mammalian divergence.

  17. Sarcocyst Development in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) Inoculated with Different Strains of Sarcocystis neurona Culture-Derived Merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, E L; Marsh, A E; Dubey, J P; Howe, D K; Reed, S M; Bolten, K E; Pei, W; Saville, W J A

    2015-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is considered the major etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a neurological disease in horses. Raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) is considered the most important intermediate host in the life cycle of S. neurona in the United States; S. neurona sarcocysts do mature in raccoon muscles, and raccoons also develop clinical signs simulating EPM. The focus of this study was to determine if sarcocysts would develop in raccoons experimentally inoculated with different host-derived strains of in vitro-cultivated S. neurona merozoites. Four raccoons were inoculated with strains derived from a raccoon, a sea otter, a cat, and a horse. Raccoon tissues were fed to laboratory-raised opossums ( Didelphis virginiana ), the definitive host of S. neurona . Intestinal scraping revealed sporocysts in opossums who received muscle tissue from raccoons inoculated with the raccoon-derived or the sea otter-derived isolates. These results demonstrate that sarcocysts can mature in raccoons inoculated with in vitro-derived S. neurona merozoites. In contrast, the horse and cat-derived isolates did not produce microscopically or biologically detected sarcocysts. Immunoblot analysis revealed both antigenic and antibody differences when testing the inoculated raccoons. Immunohistochemical staining indicated differences in staining between the merozoite and sarcocyst stages. The successful infections achieved in this study indicates that the life cycle can be manipulated in the laboratory without affecting subsequent stage development, thereby allowing further purification of strains and artificial maintenance of the life cycle.

  18. Eclectic feeding behavior of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in the transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, state of Paraná, Brazil

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    Mauricio Baum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The blood meal source of sandflies provides valuable information about the vector/host interaction and allows for an understanding of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL transmission mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Brazil's State of Paraná using a precipitin test. Methods Sandflies were collected in the rural locality of Epitácio Pessoa within the City of Adrianópolis, State of Paraná, in southern Brazil. A total of 864 female sandflies were captured, and 862 (99.8% were identified as L. intermedia species. However, two unidentified specimens were considered to be part of the genus Lutzomyia. Results Among the females examined, 396 specimens presented reactions to a certain type of tested antiserum, and most (67.9% reacted to the simple type. These sandflies fed mainly on the blood of birds, opossums, and rodents, but specimens that fed on the blood of humans, dogs, horses, cattle, and cats were also found. Among the cross-reactions found (32.1%, bird/rodent, bird/opossum, bird/dog, bird/human, and horse/dog cross-reactions were the most common. Conclusions These results demonstrate a tendency in the eclectic feeding behavior of L. intermedia and support its potential role as a vector for ACL in the study area.

  19. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

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    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  20. Kidney tubular-cell secretion of osteoblast growth factor is increased by kaempferol: a scientific basis for "the kidney controlling the bone" theory of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mian; Li, Shun-xiang; Xiao, Jiang-feng; Wang, Jian; Lozanoff, Scott; Zhang, Zhi-guang; Luft, Benjamin J; Johnson, Francis

    2014-09-01

    To study, at the cytological level, the basic concept of Chinese medicine that "the Kidney (Shen) controls the bone". Kaempferol was isolated form Rhizoma Drynariae (Gu Sui Bu, GSB) and at several concentrations was incubated with opossum kidney (OK) cells, osteoblasts (MC3T3 E1) and human fibroblasts (HF) at cell concentrations of 2×10(4)/mL. Opossum kidney cell-conditioned culture media with kaempferol at 70 nmol/L (70kaeOKM) and without kaempferol (0OKM) were used to stimulate MC3T3 E1 and HF proliferation. The bone morphological protein receptors I and II (BMPR I and II) in OK cells were identified by immune-fluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. Kaempferol was found to increase OK cell growth (Pkaempferol increases kidney cell secretion of OGF. Neither of these media had any significant effect on HF growth. Kaempferol also was found to increase the level of the BMPR II in OK cells. This lends strong support to the original idea that the Kidney has a significant influence over bone-formation, as suggested by some long-standing Chinese medical beliefs, kaempferol may also serve to stimulate kidney repair and indirectly stimulate bone formation.

  1. Isolation of Leptospira borgpetersenii in synanthropic Didelphis albiventris in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Felipe Jorge da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a waterborne disease and, therefore, stands out for the possibility of environmental contamination, the cross transmission between domestic and wild animals and humans. Opossum species are important reservoirs of this disease making them potential pathogen spreaders. Aiming to verify the presence of Leptospira spp. and the antibodies against Leptospira spp. in the Campus of São Paulo State University, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, freeliving wild life opossum (Didelphis albiventris were captured for blood and urine sampling. Serological analysis was performed Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT. Aliquots of urine were seeded in media Ellinghausen-McCullough- Johnson-Harris (EMJH and Fletcher without antibiotics. The samples in which there was growth of leptospires were forwarded to the Leptospirosis Laboratory of the Institute of Pathobiology in the National Institute of Agricultural Technology, Buenos Aires, Argentina and were genotyped using Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA. Of the 15 analyzed animals, nine (60.0% were reactant to Patoc serovar. The pathogenic specie Leptospira borgpetersenii was isolated and identified in three Didelphis albiventris. The isolation findings of pathogenic specie Leptopsira borgpetersenii in the urine culture of three Didelphis albiventris in a university campus are a major discovery in the area of preventive veterinary medicine and public health and open a discussion about the important role of free-living wild animals as reservoirs of this agent to domestic animals and humans, a condition that serves as a warning for the improvement of health practices.

  2. Meta-analysis of cancer transcriptomes: A new approach to uncover molecular pathological events in different cancer tissues

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    Sundus Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To explore secrets of metastatic cancers, individual expression of true sets of respective genes must spread across the tissue. In this study, meta-analysis for transcriptional profiles of oncogenes was carried out to hunt critical genes or networks helping in metastasizing cancers. For this, transcriptomic analysis of different cancerous tissues causing leukemia, lung, liver, spleen, colorectal, colon, breast, bladder, and kidney cancers was performed by extracting microarray expression data from online resource; Gene Expression Omnibus. A newly developed bioinformatics technique; Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA was applied for enrichment analysis of transcriptional profiles using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID. Furthermore, oPOSSUM (v. 2.0 and Cytoscape (v. 2.8.2 were used for in-depth analysis of transcription factors and regulatory gene networks respectively. DAVID analysis uncovered the most significantly enriched pathways in molecular functions that were 'Ubiquitin thiolesterase activity' up regulated in blood, breast, bladder, colorectal, lung, spleen, prostrate cancer. 'Transforming growth factor beta receptor activity' was inhibited in all cancers except leukemia, colon and liver cancer. oPOSSUM further revealed highly over-represented Transcription Factors (TFs; Broad-complex_3, Broad-complex_4, and Foxd3 except for leukemia and bladder cancer. From these findings, it is possible to target genes and networks, play a crucial role in the development of cancer. In the future, these transcription factors can serve as potential candidates for the therapeutic drug targets which can impede the deadly spread.

  3. Ramescência do arco aórtico no gambá-de-orelha-branca (Didelphis albiventris

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    Bruno César Schimming

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the aortic arch main and collateral branches is important because these arteries supply vital organs found in the head, neck, thoracic cavity and forelimbs of domestic and wild animals. This study aimed to contribute to the anatomical knowledge in opossums and collaborate with veterinary medical and surgical clinics. Thus, the anatomy of aortic arch was described in eighteen opossums. The results indicated that the aortic arch gives off the brachiocephalic trunk and the left subclavian artery in all animals studied. The branching pattern of the aortic arch is similar to that reported in the guinea pig, chinchilla, paca, raccoon, nutria, red squirrel, and ocelot. The brachiocephalic trunk showed as collateral branches, the right subclavian artery and the bicarotid trunk, that originated in the right and left common carotid arteries (77.7%. Bicarotid trunk was absent in four animals (22.2%. The right and left subclavian arteries originated in the vertebral artery, costocervical trunk, internal thoracic artery, and superficial cervical artery. Collateral branches of the subclavian artery showed similarities to that observed in other wild animals such as paca, ocelot and rock cavy.

  4. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

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    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  5. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum saloboense n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae parasite of Monodelphis emiliae (Marsupiala: Didelphidae from Amazonian Brazil

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    Lainson R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum saloboense n. sp., is described in the Brazilian opossum Monodelphis emiliae (Thomas, 1912 from primary forest in the Salobo area of the Serra dos Carajás (6° S, 50° 18′ W Pará State, North Brazil. Two morphologically different trypomastigotes were noted. Slender forms, regarded as immature parasites, have a poorly developed undulating membrane adhering closely to the body: large, broad forms with a well developed membrane are considered to be the mature trypomastigotes and have a mean total length of 71.2 μm (62.4-76.2 and a width of 6.1 (5.0-8.0. Infections studied in two opossums were of very low parasitaemia. The large size of T. (M. saloboense readily distinguishes it from the two previously described members of the subgenus Megatrypanum of neotropical marsupials, T. (M. freitasi Régo et al., 1957 of Didelphis azarae and D. marsupialis, and T. (M. samueli Mello, 1977 of Monodelphis domesticus, which measure only 49.0-51.5 μm and 42.4 μm respectively. No infections were obtained in hamsters inoculated with triturated liver and spleen from one infected M. emiliae, or in laboratory mice inoculated with epimastigotes from a blood-agar culture. No division stages could be detected in the internal organs or the peripheral blood.

  6. Histopathological study of experimental and natural infections by Trypanosoma cruzi in Didelphis marsupialis

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    João Carlos Araujo Carreira

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Didelphis marsupialis, the most important sylvatic reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi, can also maintain in their anal scent glands the multiplicative forms only described in the intestinal tract of triatomine bugs. A study of 21 experimentally and 10 naturally infected opossums with T. cruzi was undertaken in order to establish the histopathological pattern under different conditions. Our results showed that the inflammation was predominantly lymphomacrophagic and more severe in the naturally infected animals but never as intense as those described in Chagas' disease or in other animal models. The parasitism in both groups was always mild with very scarce amastigote nests in the tissues. In the experimentally infected animals, the inflammation was directly related to the presence of amastigotes nests. Four 24 days-old animals, still in embryonic stage, showed multiple amastigotes nests and moderate inflammatory reactions, but even so they survived longer and presented less severe lesions than experimentally infected adult mice. Parasites were found in smooth, cardiac and/or predominantly striated muscles, as well as in nerve cells. Differing from the experimentally infected opossums parasitism in the naturally infected animals predominated in the heart, esophagus and stomach. Parasitism of the scent glands did not affect the histopathological pattern observed in extraglandular tissues.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a marsupial DNA photolyase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, C.L.K.; Ley, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Post UV-B (280-320 nm) exposure to UV-A (320-400 nm) reverses pyrimidine dimers in the epidermal DNA of the South American opossum Monodelphis domestica. To demonstrate that the observed photorepair is mediated by an enzyme, we have isolated a DNA photolyase from the opossum. DNA photolyase from liver was purified 3000-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation and phenylsepharose, hydroxylapatite, DEAE-cellulose and DNA-cellulose column chromatography. Heat denaturation completely eliminated the photoreactivating activity. The enzyme was active in the pH range of 5.5 to 8.5 with a pH optimum of 7.5. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 32 000 under nondenaturing conditions. The activity of the enzyme was not affected by sodium chloride up to 250 mM. The action spectrum for the purified DNA photolyase showed activity in the range of 325-475 nm with peak activity at 375 nm. (author)

  8. Isolation and characterization of a marsupial DNA photolyase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, C.L.K.; Ley, R.D.

    1988-05-01

    Post UV-B (280-320 nm) exposure to UV-A (320-400 nm) reverses pyrimidine dimers in the epidermal DNA of the South American opossum Monodelphis domestica. To demonstrate that the observed photorepair is mediated by an enzyme, we have isolated a DNA photolyase from the opossum. DNA photolyase from liver was purified 3000-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation and phenylsepharose, hydroxylapatite, DEAE-cellulose and DNA-cellulose column chromatography. Heat denaturation completely eliminated the photoreactivating activity. The enzyme was active in the pH range of 5.5 to 8.5 with a pH optimum of 7.5. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 32 000 under nondenaturing conditions. The activity of the enzyme was not affected by sodium chloride up to 250 mM. The action spectrum for the purified DNA photolyase showed activity in the range of 325-475 nm with peak activity at 375 nm.

  9. Inter-relation of sylvatic and domestic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in areas with and without domestic vectorial transmission in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    L. Diotaiuti

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1980-1986, we captured triatomine bugs and mammalian reservoir hosts from sylvatic and domestic situations in different municipalities of the State of Minas Gerais. Trypanosoma cruzi was isolated from captured bugs, mammals and patients. After cultivation in LIT medium, the electrophoretic enzyme profiles were determined. We obtained atotal of 32 parasite isolates from regions with active domestic transmission, and 24 isolates form areas under control. For the first areas the results suggest introduction of T. cruzi from sylvatic habitats, through incursion of infected opossums and/or sylvatic T. sordida, which appears to have given rise to at least one acute human infection. Of particular interest is the finding of sylvatic opossums and a T. sordida nymph infected with ZB, that could indicate return of parasites from chronic human infections to sylvatic transmission cycles. For the areas under control we also interpret the results as interaction between sylvatic and domestic cycles of transmission, here through the invasion of houses by bugs carrying the Z1 zymodeme from the sylvatic environment. The Multivariate Correspondence Analysis gives a spatial description between the different parasite isolates and confirms the existence of a bridge in the opposite direction in the region with active vectorial transmission including the exporting of Z2 through the peridomestic environment into the sylvatic cycle. For the others areas this bridge corresponds especially to Panstrongylus megistus, importing Z1 into the domestic environment.

  10. Eclectic feeding behavior of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in the transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, state of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira da Costa; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Damasio, Guilherme Augustto Costa; Castro, Edilene Alcântara de

    2013-01-01

    The blood meal source of sandflies provides valuable information about the vector/host interaction and allows for an understanding of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Brazil's State of Paraná using a precipitin test. Sandflies were collected in the rural locality of Epitácio Pessoa within the City of Adrianópolis, State of Paraná, in southern Brazil. A total of 864 female sandflies were captured, and 862 (99.8%) were identified as L. intermedia species. However, two unidentified specimens were considered to be part of the genus Lutzomyia. Among the females examined, 396 specimens presented reactions to a certain type of tested antiserum, and most (67.9%) reacted to the simple type. These sandflies fed mainly on the blood of birds, opossums, and rodents, but specimens that fed on the blood of humans, dogs, horses, cattle, and cats were also found. Among the cross-reactions found (32.1%), bird/rodent, bird/opossum, bird/dog, bird/human, and horse/dog cross-reactions were the most common. These results demonstrate a tendency in the eclectic feeding behavior of L. intermedia and support its potential role as a vector for ACL in the study area.

  11. [Blood feeding preference of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera, Psychodidae) in a transmission area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Vasconcelos, Gabriel Costa E; Azevêdo, Patrícia Castelo Branco; Lopes, Gildevan Nolasco; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Kuppinger, Oliver; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sources of blood meals for females of Lutzomyia whitmani, a phlebotomine species incriminated as the main vector for American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Maranhão. For this, 70 Lutzomyia whitmani females were collected in the municipality of Axixá, an area with one of the greatest numbers of cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans in Maranhão. They were analyzed using the precipitin technique. Ninety percent of the specimens showed a reaction to some type of antiserum positive immune reaction, among which 73% presented single reactions, with predominance for chicken blood (22%), rodent blood (14.3%) and human blood (12.7%). Among the double reactions, the predominant combinations were chicken/human (6.3%), chicken/opossum (4.8%), ox/human (3.2%) and opossum/human (3.2%). Thus, we conclude that humans and domestic and synanthropic animals are blood meal sources for Lutzomyia whitmani and may play an important role in the transmission cycle for American cutaneous leishmaniasis, thus explaining the cases of this disease in Axixá.

  12. Structure and expression of two nuclear receptor genes in marsupials: insights into the evolution of the antisense overlap between the α-thyroid hormone receptor and Rev-erbα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown M Scott

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative processing of α-thyroid hormone receptor (TRα, NR1A1 mRNAs gives rise to two functionally antagonistic nuclear receptors: TRα1, the α-type receptor, and TRα2, a non-hormone binding variant that is found only in mammals. TRα2 shares an unusual antisense coding overlap with mRNA for Rev-erbα (NR1D1, another nuclear receptor protein. In this study we examine the structure and expression of these genes in the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, in comparison with that of eutherian mammals and three other marsupial species, Didelphis virginiana, Potorous tridactylus and Macropus eugenii, in order to understand the evolution and regulatory role of this antisense overlap. Results The sequence, expression and genomic organization of mRNAs encoding TRα1 and Rev-erbα are very similar in the opossum and eutherian mammals. However, the sequence corresponding to the TRα2 coding region appears truncated by almost 100 amino acids. While expression of TRα1 and Rev-erbα was readily detected in all tissues of M. domestica ages 0 days to 18 weeks, TRα2 mRNA was not detected in any tissue or stage examined. These results contrast with the widespread and abundant expression of TRα2 in rodents and other eutherian mammals. To examine requirements for alternative splicing of TRα mRNAs, a series of chimeric minigenes was constructed. Results show that the opossum TRα2-specific 5' splice site sequence is fully competent for splicing but the sequence homologous to the TRα2 3' splice site is not, even though the marsupial sequences are remarkably similar to core splice site elements in rat. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that the variant nuclear receptor isoform, TRα2, is not expressed in marsupials and that the antisense overlap between TRα and Rev-erbα thus is unique to eutherian mammals. Further investigation of the TRα and Rev-erbα genes in marsupial and eutherian species promises to yield

  13. Structure and expression of two nuclear receptor genes in marsupials: insights into the evolution of the antisense overlap between the α-thyroid hormone receptor and Rev-erbα

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Alternative processing of α-thyroid hormone receptor (TRα, NR1A1) mRNAs gives rise to two functionally antagonistic nuclear receptors: TRα1, the α-type receptor, and TRα2, a non-hormone binding variant that is found only in mammals. TRα2 shares an unusual antisense coding overlap with mRNA for Rev-erbα (NR1D1), another nuclear receptor protein. In this study we examine the structure and expression of these genes in the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, in comparison with that of eutherian mammals and three other marsupial species, Didelphis virginiana, Potorous tridactylus and Macropus eugenii, in order to understand the evolution and regulatory role of this antisense overlap. Results The sequence, expression and genomic organization of mRNAs encoding TRα1 and Rev-erbα are very similar in the opossum and eutherian mammals. However, the sequence corresponding to the TRα2 coding region appears truncated by almost 100 amino acids. While expression of TRα1 and Rev-erbα was readily detected in all tissues of M. domestica ages 0 days to 18 weeks, TRα2 mRNA was not detected in any tissue or stage examined. These results contrast with the widespread and abundant expression of TRα2 in rodents and other eutherian mammals. To examine requirements for alternative splicing of TRα mRNAs, a series of chimeric minigenes was constructed. Results show that the opossum TRα2-specific 5' splice site sequence is fully competent for splicing but the sequence homologous to the TRα2 3' splice site is not, even though the marsupial sequences are remarkably similar to core splice site elements in rat. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that the variant nuclear receptor isoform, TRα2, is not expressed in marsupials and that the antisense overlap between TRα and Rev-erbα thus is unique to eutherian mammals. Further investigation of the TRα and Rev-erbα genes in marsupial and eutherian species promises to yield additional insight into the

  14. Estudios sobre Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920: VIII. Respuesta a las reinfecciones en dos mamíferos Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920: VIII. Responses to reinfections in 2 mammals

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    N. Añez

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones experimentales se estudia el curso de la infección primaria y la respuesta a las reinfecciones por Trypanosoma rangeli en ratones albinos y Didelphis marsupialis. Durante el curso de la infección primaria en ratones, se observa una parasitemia relativamente baja y de corta duración. Los mismos muestran durante la primera reinfección una parasitemia escasa de cuatro días de duración, siendo resistentes a las sucesivas reinfecciones con T. rangeli. Los ejemplares de D. marsupialis exhiben una parasitemia de más larga duración, pero con un nivel de parásitos sanguícolas mucho menor que el detectado en el modelo ratón, siendo la respuesta a las reinfecciones similar a la observada en ratones. Se detectan anticuerpos hemaglutinantes en los sueros inmunes de ratones y Didelphis marsupialis, sometidos a la reinfección por T. rangeli. Se especula sobre la posible acción sinérgica de una respuesta inmune en el sitio de deposición en contra de las formas metacíclicas de T. rangeli y la acción de anticuerpos circulantes en contra de las formas sanguícolas, para explicar la resistencia de ambos modelos a las reinfecciones por T. rangeli.Under experimental conditions, the course of the infection and the response to the reinfection by Trypanosoma rangeli in mice and Didelphis marsupialis, are studied. During the initial infection the mice show a relatively low parasitaemia and a short patent period. A scanty parasitaemia level of four days length, was observed following the first reinfection, being the mice resistant to new reinfections by T. rangeli. In opossums a lower parasitaemia and a longer patent period than that detected in mice, were observed during the initial infection. The response to reinfections in this mammal, was similar to that observed in mice. After reinfection with T. rangeli, haemagglutinant antibodies in immune-sera of both mice and opossums, were detected. The possible immune-response at the site of

  15. Technetium-99m-dimethylglyoxime ([sup 99m]Tc-DMG) as renal imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonaylo, V.N. (Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas); Stahl, Adriana; Pomilio, A.B.; Vitale, A.A. (Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales); Canellas, C.O. (Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-06-01

    Dimethylglyoxime (DMG) labelled with [sup 99m]Tc is presented as a renal imaging agent. The behaviour of this complex was analysed at different pH by means of UV spectral data and using DMG-calcium chloride as a reference complex. Biokinetic data were evaluated in two biological models, Sprague-Dawley rats and Didelphis albiventris argentine opossum. Biodistribution in rats demonstrated fast and specific renal excretion. Time-activity values over both kidneys could be quantified for this complex. Renographic studies led to mean time-to maximum values on twelve assays of 2.0 [+-] 0.1 min and a mean relative function of 53.0 [+-] 2.3 and 47.0 [+-] 3.2 for right and left kidneys, respectively. [sup 99m]Tc-DMG showed specificity for the renal excretion pathway and therefore seems to be a very useful radiopharmaceutical for renal function studies. (Author).

  16. Comparative uptake of uranium, thorium, and plutonium by biota inhabiting a contaminated Tennessee floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Bondietti, E.A.; Walker, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of 238 U, 232 Th, and 239 Pu from soil by fescue, grasshoppers, and small mammals was compared at the contaminated White Oak Creek floodplain in East Tennessee. Comparisons of actinide uptake were based on analyses of radionuclide ratios (U/Pu and Th/Pu) in soil and biota. U:Pu ratios in small mammal carcasses (shrews, mice, and rats) and bone samples from larger mammals (rabbit, woodchuck, opossum, and raccoon) were significantly greater (P less than or equal to 0.05) than U/Pu ratios in soil (based on 8M HNO 3 extractable). There was no significant difference between Th/Pu ratios in animals and soil. The order of actinide accumulation by biota from the site relative to contaminated soil was U > Th approx. = Pu

  17. Large number of ultraconserved elements were already present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor.

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianli; Lee, Alison P; Kodzius, Rimantas; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2009-01-01

    Stephen (2008) identified 13,736 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in placental mammals and investigated their evolution in opossum, chicken, frog, and fugu. They found that there was a massive expansion of UCEs during tetrapod evolution and the substitution rate in UCEs showed a significant decline in tetrapods compared with fugu, suggesting they were exapted in tetrapods. They considered it unlikely that these elements are ancient but evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes. In this study, we investigated the evolution of UCEs in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark and show that nearly half the UCEs were present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor. The substitution rate in UCEs is higher in fugu than in elephant shark, and approximately one-third of ancient UCEs have diverged beyond recognition in teleost fishes. These data indicate that UCEs have evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes, which may have implications for their vast diversity and evolutionary success.

  18. Large number of ultraconserved elements were already present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor.

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianli

    2009-03-01

    Stephen (2008) identified 13,736 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in placental mammals and investigated their evolution in opossum, chicken, frog, and fugu. They found that there was a massive expansion of UCEs during tetrapod evolution and the substitution rate in UCEs showed a significant decline in tetrapods compared with fugu, suggesting they were exapted in tetrapods. They considered it unlikely that these elements are ancient but evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes. In this study, we investigated the evolution of UCEs in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark and show that nearly half the UCEs were present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor. The substitution rate in UCEs is higher in fugu than in elephant shark, and approximately one-third of ancient UCEs have diverged beyond recognition in teleost fishes. These data indicate that UCEs have evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes, which may have implications for their vast diversity and evolutionary success.

  19. Feeding ecology of non-native Siberian prawns, Palaemon modestus (Heller, 1862) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in the lower Snake River, Washington, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Hurst, William

    2016-01-01

    We used both stomach content and stable isotope analyses to describe the feeding ecology of Siberian prawns Palaemon modestus (Heller, 1862), a non-native caridean shrimp that is a relatively recent invader of the lower Snake River. Based on identifiable prey in stomachs, the opossum shrimp Neomysis mercedis Holmes, 1896 comprised up to 34-55% (by weight) of diets of juvenile to adult P. modestus, which showed little seasonal variation. Other predominant items/taxa consumed included detritus, amphipods, dipteran larvae, and oligochaetes. Stable isotope analysis supported diet results and also suggested that much of the food consumed by P. modestus that was not identifiable came from benthic sources — predominantly invertebrates of lower trophic levels and detritus. Palaemon modestus consumption of N. mercedis may pose a competitive threat to juvenile salmon and resident fishes which also rely heavily on that prey.

  20. Carrapatos do gênero amblyomma (acari: ixodidae e suas relações com os hospedeiros em área endêmica para febre maculosa no Estado de São Paulo Ticks of genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae and their relationship with hosts in endemic area for spotted fever in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Perez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 7 espécies da mastofauna e 36 da avifauna quanto à prevalência e intensidade de infestação por carrapatos na ESALQ/USP, no Município de Piracicaba, SP. Analisaram-se 52 indivíduos da mastofauna e 158 da avifauna, parasitados por 12418 carrapatos. Os exemplares adultos (N= 7343 foram encontrados em parasitismo nas capivaras enquanto que os imaturos foram, na maioria, coletados de pequenos mamíferos e aves. Os principais hospedeiros para as formas imaturas, em ordem decrescente, foram gambás (69,1%, capivaras (24,4% e urubus (3,7%. Entre a avifauna, o urubu apresentou o maior número de carrapatos com 69,9%, seguido por indivíduos das famílias Thamnophilidae e Turdidae. Os carrapatos adultos encontrados em capivaras foram A. cajennense (80,8% e A. dubitatum (19,2%. Ambas as espécies foram também coletadas em gambás, correspondendo a 72,4% e 27,6%, respectivamente. Pela facilidade de captura e atratividade de Amblyomma spp. o gambá pode ser usado como bioindicador de infestação em locais endêmicos para febre maculosa. Considerando os índices de parasitismo e prevalência bem como de abundância de carrapatos, susceptibilidade dos hospedeiros, proliferação e susceptibilidade para infecção por R. rickettsi, capivaras e gambás são potenciais hospedeiros amplificadores desse microrganismo no Campus da ESALQ, enquanto eqüídeos, urubus e gatos atuam como hospedeiros secundários.Seven species of mammals and 36 of birds were investigated to determine the tick prevalence and intensity of infestation. The study was conducted at the Esalq/USP in Piracicaba municipality, State of São Paulo. It was collected 52 mammals and 158 birds parasitized by 12,418 ticks. Adult ticks (N= 7,343 were found on capybaras, while the immature were mainly collected on small mammals and birds. The main hosts for immatures in descending order were opossums (69.1%, capybara (24.4% and black vultures (3.7%. Among the avifauna, the black

  1. Sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas

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    Pence D.B.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available There are no published reports of domestic or sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas. The aim of the present survey was to determine the presence of Trichinella species in selected representative species of potential wildlife reservoirs in southern Texas. In 1998-99, tongues of 211 wild mammals were collected in southern Texas: 154 coyotes (Canis latrans, three bobcats (Lynx rufus, 32 racoons (Procyon lotor, 1 3 opossum (Didelphis marsupialis, four ocelots (Leopardus pardalis and five wild boars (Sus scrofa. Presence of Trichinella sp. larvae was investigated by artificial digestion and larvae of positive samples were identified at the species level by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Nine (5.8 % coyotes had trichinellosis ; in the muscles of seven of these coyotes, the larvae were identified as Trichinella murrelli. This is the first report of sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas.

  2. Photoreactivation of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers and erythema in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Post-UV treatment of the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica with photoreactivating light (320-400 nm) suppressed the appearance of UV-induced erythema as evidenced by an increase in the dose of UV required to elicit an erythemal response. Pre-UV exposure to photoreactivating light had no effect on the UV induction of erythema. The dose-response for the photoreversal of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of M. domestica was similar to that for the photoreactivation of erythema induction. These data not only support the notion that DNA is the primary chromophore involved in the induction of erythema but also identify pyrimidine dimers as the major DNA change responsible for its induction. These results also identify M. domestica as a useful whole-animal system with which to determine the role of pyrimidine dimers in other photobiological responses of mammalian skin

  3. Observations on the Domestic Ecology of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abad-Franch F

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius ecuadoriensis infests peridomiciles and colonises houses in rural southern Ecuador. Six out of 84 dwellings (7% surveyed in a rural village were infested (78 bugs/infested domicile; 279 bugs were collected in a single dwelling. Precipitin tests revealed R. ecuadoriensis fed on birds (65%, rodents (31%, marsupials (8%, and humans (15% - mixed bloodmeals detected in 37.5% of individual samples. Trypanosoma cruzi from opossums and rodents may thus be introduced into the domestic cycle. Wasp parasitoidism was detected in 6.5% of 995 R. ecuadoriensis eggs (only in peridomestic habitats. Control strategies should integrate insecticide spraying (indoors and peridomestic, better management of poultry, and housing improvements. A possible inefficacy of Malathion is reported.

  4. The isolation and identification of Trypanosoma cruzi from raccoons in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, B.C.; Bauman, P.M.; Diamond, L.S.; Herman, C.M.

    1958-01-01

    Five raccoons trapped at Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland, were found to have trypanosomes in the blood which were morphologically indistinguishable from Trypanosoma cruzi on stained smears. The organism grew well in culture. It developed and reproduced in Triatoma protracta, T. infestans, T. phyllosoma, and Rhodnius prolixus. Experimental infections were produced in raccoons, opossums, mice, rats, and monkeys by inoculation of blood, culture, and triatome forms. Typical leishmaniform bodies were found in tissue sections of cardiac muscle fibers from naturally and experimentally infected animals. Cross agglutinations carried out with Iiving cultural forms and rabbit antisera demonstrated a close antigenic relationship between the raccoon trypanosome and T. cruzi (Brazil strain). On the basis of (1) morphology, (2) presence of leishmaniform tissue stages, (3) development in triatomes, (4) infectivity to a variety of mammals, (5) culture characteristics, and (6) cross reactions in serological tests, this parasite is considered conspecific with Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909), the causative agent of American human trypanosomiasis.

  5. Reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia in the periurban environment of Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel dos Santos Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The various aspects of reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita were studied through capture-recapture on Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil. Surveys were carried out from April 1996 to March 1997. The study area was located near the stream of a swamp in a disturbed Atlantic Forest area. On 880 trap-nights, 31 opossums were captured on 108 occasions during one year. The results of this paper indicate a seasonal polyestrous reproduction pattern. Autumn-winter population levels grew on account of juvenile recruitment. The sex ratio favored females in first captures and total captures. Emigration was discussed as being the main reason for the female bias. The effects of sampling procedures over deviation in the pouch young sex ratio of resident females were also discussed.

  6. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  7. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in road-killed wild mammals from the Central Western Region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Road-killed wild animals host zoonotic pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii, offering a new opportunity for the epidemiological study of these infectious organisms. METHODS This investigation aimed to determine the presence of T. gondii and other apicomplexan parasites in tissue samples of 64 road-killed wild animals, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were then typed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using 7 markers: SAG1, 5′-3′SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c29-6, PK1, and Apico. PCR-RFLP targeting 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes was also performed on all samples to detect other apicomplexan parasites. RESULTS T. gondii DNA was detected in 16 tissue samples from 8 individual animals, as follows: 1 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox, 1 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum, 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata (lutrine opossum, 2 Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater, 1 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon, and 2 Sphiggurus spinosus (Paraguay hairy dwarf porcupine. Seven different T. gondii genotypes were identified, 6 of which were novel. Typing by 18S rRNA verified these 16 T. gondii-infected samples, and identified 1 Sarcocystis spp.-infected animal [Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo]. The amplified T. gondii (GenBank accession No. L37415.1 and Sarcocystis spp. 18S rRNA products were confirmed by sequencing. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that T. gondii is commonly present in wild mammals, which act as sources of infection for humans and animals, including other wild species. The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in the environment and identifying their natural reservoirs, contributing to our understanding of host-parasite interactions.

  8. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized.

  9. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Katherine J; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F; Keezer, Susan M; Mattingly, Raymond R; Yingst, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser(938) were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K · mg protein(-1) · min(-1) and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser(938) is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells.

  10. Regional Extinctions and Quaternary Shifts in the Geographic Range of Lestodelphys halli, the Southernmost Living Marsupial: Clues for Its Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahí E Formoso

    Full Text Available The Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli, the southernmost living marsupial, inhabits dry and open environments, mainly in the Patagonian steppe (between ~32 °S and ~49 °S. Its rich fossil record shows its occurrence further north in Central Argentina during the Quaternary. The paleoenvironmental meaning of the past distribution of L. halli has been mostly addressed in a subjective framework without an explicit connection with the climatic "space" currently occupied by this animal. Here, we assessed the potential distribution of this species and the changes occurred in its geographic range during late Pleistocene-Holocene times and linked the results obtained with conservation issues. To this end, we generated three potential distribution models with fossil records and three with current ones, using MaxEnt software. These models showed a decrease in the suitable habitat conditions for the species, highlighting a range shift from Central-Eastern to South-Western Argentina. Our results support that the presence of L. halli in the Pampean region during the Pleistocene-Holocene can be related to precipitation and temperature variables and that its current presence in Patagonia is more related to temperature and dominant soils. The models obtained suggest that the species has been experiencing a reduction in its geographic range since the middle Holocene, a process that is in accordance with a general increase in moisture and temperature in Central Argentina. Considering the findings of our work and the future scenario of global warming projected for Patagonia, we might expect a harsh impact on the distribution range of this opossum in the near future.

  11. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in road-killed wild mammals from the Central Western Region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Marson, Pâmela Merlo; Silva, Rodrigo Costa da; Langoni, Helio

    2016-01-01

    Road-killed wild animals host zoonotic pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii, offering a new opportunity for the epidemiological study of these infectious organisms. This investigation aimed to determine the presence of T. gondii and other apicomplexan parasites in tissue samples of 64 road-killed wild animals, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were then typed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using 7 markers: SAG1, 5'-3'SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c29-6, PK1, and Apico. PCR-RFLP targeting 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was also performed on all samples to detect other apicomplexan parasites. T. gondii DNA was detected in 16 tissue samples from 8 individual animals, as follows: 1 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 1 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata (lutrine opossum), 2 Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), 1 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), and 2 Sphiggurus spinosus (Paraguay hairy dwarf porcupine). Seven different T. gondii genotypes were identified, 6 of which were novel. Typing by 18S rRNA verified these 16 T. gondii-infected samples, and identified 1 Sarcocystis spp.-infected animal [Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo)]. The amplified T. gondii (GenBank accession No. L37415.1) and Sarcocystis spp. 18S rRNA products were confirmed by sequencing. Our results indicate that T. gondii is commonly present in wild mammals, which act as sources of infection for humans and animals, including other wild species. The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in the environment and identifying their natural reservoirs, contributing to our understanding of host-parasite interactions.

  12. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, Rosario; Fernández, María Soledad; Jacob, Jens; Lucero, Nidia; Morici, Gabriel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Farace, María Isabel; Caracostantogolo, Jorge; Cavia, Regino

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels. Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights) included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported. Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid contact with other

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

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    Rosario Lovera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels.Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported.Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid

  14. Unique regional distribution of delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5 alpha-oxidoreductase and associated epididymal morphology in the marsupial, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelce, W R; Krause, W J; Ganjam, V K

    1987-09-01

    The epididymal epithelial ultrastructure has been described in the adult male North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Morphological results have suggested that absorptive activity is prominent in the proximal epididymal region by virtue of numerous microvilli, an endocytotic complex, dense granules, and multivesicular bodies in the apical cytoplasm. In contrast, the middle and distal epididymal regions exhibit ultrastructural features indicative of protein synthesis such as large invaginated euchromatic nuclei, large nucleoli, and increased amounts of granular endoplasmic reticulum. It is in the middle and distal epididymal regions where sperm head rotation and sperm pairing take place. Epididymal delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5 alpha-oxidoreductase (5 alpha-reductase) activity also has been measured. It has been found that the level of enzyme activity differs significantly (p less than 0.01) between the proximal, middle, and distal epididymal regions. Enzyme-specific activity has been found to be highest in the middle region (47.6 +/- 5.4 picomoles 5 alpha-reduced androgens formed/b/mg protein), lower in the distal region (18.3 +/- 0.7 picomoles 5 alpha-reduced androgens formed/b/mg protein), with little activity (2.4 +/- 1.2 picomoles 5 alpha-reduced androgens formed/h/mg protein) found in the proximal epididymal region. This regional distribution of enzyme activity differs markedly from that reported for eutherian mammals. Both the suggested epididymal protein synthetic and secretory activity and the level of epididymal 5 alpha-reductase activity appear to correlate regionally with the morphological changes that occur in the opossum spermatozoa as they transit the epididymis.

  15. Regional Extinctions and Quaternary Shifts in the Geographic Range of Lestodelphys halli, the Southernmost Living Marsupial: Clues for Its Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Anahí E.; Martin, Gabriel M.; Teta, Pablo; Carbajo, Aníbal E.; Sauthier, Daniel E. Udrizar; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli), the southernmost living marsupial, inhabits dry and open environments, mainly in the Patagonian steppe (between ~32°S and ~49°S). Its rich fossil record shows its occurrence further north in Central Argentina during the Quaternary. The paleoenvironmental meaning of the past distribution of L. halli has been mostly addressed in a subjective framework without an explicit connection with the climatic “space” currently occupied by this animal. Here, we assessed the potential distribution of this species and the changes occurred in its geographic range during late Pleistocene-Holocene times and linked the results obtained with conservation issues. To this end, we generated three potential distribution models with fossil records and three with current ones, using MaxEnt software. These models showed a decrease in the suitable habitat conditions for the species, highlighting a range shift from Central-Eastern to South-Western Argentina. Our results support that the presence of L. halli in the Pampean region during the Pleistocene-Holocene can be related to precipitation and temperature variables and that its current presence in Patagonia is more related to temperature and dominant soils. The models obtained suggest that the species has been experiencing a reduction in its geographic range since the middle Holocene, a process that is in accordance with a general increase in moisture and temperature in Central Argentina. Considering the findings of our work and the future scenario of global warming projected for Patagonia, we might expect a harsh impact on the distribution range of this opossum in the near future. PMID:26203650

  16. A survey on Triatoma dimidiata in an urban area of the province of Heredia, Costa Rica

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    Rodrigo Zeledón

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma dimidiata has been found in several cities and towns of those countries where the insect is a domestic or peridomestic pest. In Central America, urban infestations occur in the capitals of at least five countries. During 2001 and 2002 a survey was carried out in the county of San Rafael, Heredia province, located 15 km northwest of San José, capital of Costa Rica, in order to determine the degree of infestation by T. dimidiata in an entire city block. Six peridomestic colonies of the insect were detected in the backyards of eight households. The ecotopes occupied by the insects consisted of store rooms with old objects, wood piles or firewood, and chicken coops. A total of 1917 insects were found in the six foci, during two sampling periods, and a mean infection rate by Trypanosoma cruzi of 28.4% was found in 1718 insects examined. The largest colony found in one of the households yielded 872 insects that were thriving mainly at the expenses of two dogs. Opossums and adult insects were common visitors of the houses and it became evident that this marsupial is closely related to the peridomestic cycle of the Chagas disease agent. Lack of colonization of the insect inside the human dwellings is explained by the type of construction and good sanitary conditions of the houses, in contrast to the situation in most peridomiciliary areas. Stomach blood samples from the insects showed that the main hosts were, in order of decreasing frequency: rodents, dogs, fowl, humans, opossums, and cats. The fact that no indication of infection with Chagas disease could be detected in the human occupants of the infested houses, vis a vis the high infection rate in dogs, is discussed.

  17. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

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    Diane I Schroeder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs and highly methylated domains (HMDs with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo.

  18. Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

    2008-01-01

    Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and

  19. Fonte alimentar sangüínea e a peridomiciliação de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae Blood feeding sources and peridomiciliation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

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    Flávio de Oliveira Passos Dias

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se por meio da reação da precipitina, o conteúdo estomacal de Lutzomyia longipalpis nos ambientes intradomiciliar e peridoméstico, no Município de Raposa, Maranhão, área de transmissão de leishmaniose visceral ou "calazar". De 2.240 fêmeas capturadas, 547 (24,4% estavam alimentadas com sangue de vertebrados nas proporções que seguem: ave (87,9%; roedor (47,2%; humano (42,4%, cão (27,6%; mucura (26,6% e eqüino (22,5%. A investigação levada a efeito em 120 habitações confirmou a galinha como o animal doméstico mais comum no ambiente peridoméstico (28,3%, seguido pelo cão (21,7%, gato (17,5%, jumento (13,3%, pombo (7,5%, coelho (3,3% e pato (3,3%; enquanto o cavalo, marreco e porco representaram, cada um, 1,7%. Entre os animais sinantrópicos, a mucura foi a mais citada naquele ambiente (39,3%, seguida pelo rato (37,9%, morcego (14,3% guaxinim (3,6%, raposa (2,1%, cobra (1,4% e sapo (1,4%. A presença no peridomicílio de animais domésticos e sinantrópicos e o encontro de flebótomos alimentados, ao mesmo tempo, com sangue humano, de mucura e de canídeos, corroboram a hipótese de que a transmissão do calazar esteja ocorrendo realmente no ambiente antrópico, no Município de Raposa.A precipitin test was employed to study the alimentary tract content of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the intra- and peridomiciliary environments in the municipality of Raposa, Maranhão State, a transmission area for visceral leishmaniasis or kala azar. Out of 2,240 female sandflies captured, 547 (24.4% had fed on vertebrate blood, with the following proportions: avian (87.9%; rodent (47.2%; human (42.4%; canine (27.6%; opossum (26.6%; and equine (22.5%. Based on a survey of 120 human dwellings, chickens were found to be the most common domestic animals in the peridomicile (28.3%, followed by dogs (21.7%, cats (17.5%, donkeys (13.3%, pigeons (7.5%, rabbits (3.3%, ducks (3.3%, and horses, mallards, and pigs (1.7% each. Synanthropic animals

  20. Estudo eletrorretinográfico de visão cromática Electroretinographic study of chromatic vision

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    Daniela Cavalcanti Ferrara de Almeida Cunha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é descrever o traçado eletrorretinográfico no gambá sul-americano (Didelphis aurita obtido com estímulo cromático de comprimento de onda seletivo. O eletrorretinograma é o registro das variações de voltagem nas células retinianas, desencadeadas por estímulo luminoso. O eletrorretinograma representa a atividade elétrica combinada de diferentes células, e sofre variações dependendo da fisiologia retiniana e do método de exame. MÉTODOS: Foram registrados os eletrorretinogramas de seis animais em adaptação ao escuro utilizando filtros cromáticos Kodak Wratten®, e registrada a sensibilidade espectral para comprimentos de onda específicos nas faixas de cores do azul, verde, amarelo, laranja e vermelho. RESULTADOS: Os resultados eletrorretinográficos mais consistentes foram obtidos quando o animal foi estimulado por faixas espectrais seletivas, ao invés de luz branca; e são consistentes com a curva de absorbância das opsinas descritas em fotorreceptores de marsupiais. Estudos prévios sugeriram a tricromacia dos marsupiais por microespectrofotometria de opsinas e imuno-histoquímica de retina. Esse fundamento morfológico não tinha demonstração fisiológica eletrorretinográfica, até este estudo. CONCLUSÃO: O gambá sul-americano tem se mostrado interessante como animal experimental no estudo comparativo da fisiologia visual em mamíferos, especialmente no estudo filogenético da visão cromática. Os marsupiais apresentam um modelo retiniano que superpõe os sistemas fotópico e escotópico; e o gênero Didelphis conserva características encontradas em fósseis do período pleoceno. Portanto, o sistema visual de um marsupial resgata características dos primórdios da evolução dos mamíferos, até o desenvolvimento dos padrões retinianos modernos.PURPOSE: To describe the electroretinogram of the South-American opossum (Didelphis aurita obtained by chromatic stimulus of specific

  1. The parasitism of Ixodes luciae (Acari: Ixodidae on marsupials and rodents in Peruvian Amazon O parasitismo do Ixodes luciae (Acari: ixodidae em marsupiais e em roedores na Amazônia Peruana

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    María Mónica Díaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the infestation with I. luciae on Didelphimorphia and Rodentia in different environments of Peruvian Amazon was studied. Didelphimorphia was represented by the family Didelphidae. Specimens belonging to Caluromys lanatus, Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosops sp.2, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Philander andersoni and Philander opossum were infested with adults I. luciae and one Micoureus sp. was infested with larvae. In Rodentia, the infestation with I. luciae nymphs was restricted to Hylaeamys perenensis, Hylaeamys yunganus and Oligoryzomys microtis, while one Oecomys bicolor (all Cricetidae was infested with larvae of this species. The few larvae were found on rodents captured in primary forest. The only significant difference (P No presente trabalho, infestações por Ixodes luciae em Didelphimorphia e Rodentia em diferentes ambientes da Amazônia peruana foram estudadas. Didelphimorphia foi representada pela família Didelphidae. Espécimes pertencentes a Caluromys lanatus, Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosops sp., Metachirus nudicaudatus, Philander andersoni e Philander opossum foram encontrados infestadas por adultos de I. luciae; um Micoureus sp. foi encontrado infestado por larvas. Em Rodentia, a infestação por ninfas de I. luciae estiveram restritas a Hylaeamys perenensis, Hylaeamys yunganus e Oligoryzomys microtis, enquanto que um Oecomys bicolor (todos Cricetidae esteve infestado por larvas de I. luciae. As poucas larvas foram encontradas em roedores capturados na floresta primária. A única diferença significante (P < 0.05 na prevalência de carrapatos adultos em Didelphimorphia foi entre P. andersoni e M. nudicaudatus (distribuição chi-quadrado. A distribuição de carrapatos adultos foi significativamente diferente em P. andersoni quando comparado com M. nudicaudatus, P. opossum e D. marsupialis (teste Kruskal-Wallis. Nenhum efeito significante do mês ou ambiente foi observado em relação à infestação por carrapato

  2. Diversity, Seasonality, and Context of Mammalian Roadkills in the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Patten, Brenda D.; Patten, Michael A.

    2008-06-01

    Thousands of mammals are killed annually from vehicle collisions, making the issue an important one for conservation biologists and environmental managers. We recorded all readily identifiable kills on or immediately adjacent to roads in the southern Great Plains from March 2004-March 2007. We also recorded distance traveled, whether a road was paved or divided, the number of lanes, and prevailing habitat. Surveys were opportunistic and were conducted by car during conditions of good visibility. Over our 239 surveys and >16,500 km traveled, we recorded 1412 roadkills from 18 different mammal species (size ranged from Sciurus squirrels to the white-tailed deer, Odocolieus virginianus). The overall kill rate was 8.50 / 100 km. Four species were prone to collisions: the Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana), nine-banded armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus), striped skunk ( Mephitis mephitis), and northern raccoon ( Procyon lotor). Together they accounted for approximately 85% (1198) of all roadkills. Mortality rate differed significantly between 2- and 4-lane roads (8.39 versus 7.79 / 100 km). Kill rates were significantly higher on paved versus unpaved roads (8.60 versus 3.65 / 100 km), but did not depend on whether a road was divided. Roadkills were higher in spring than in fall (1.5×), winter (1.4×), or summer (1.3×). The spring peak (in kills / 100 km) was driven chiefly by the armadillo (2.76 in spring/summer versus 0.73 in autumn/winter) and opossum (2.65 versus 1.47). By contrast, seasonality was dampened by a late winter/early spring peak in skunk mortalities, for which 41% occurred in the 6-week period of mid-February through March. The raccoon did not exhibit a strong seasonal pattern. Our data are consistent with dispersal patterns of these species. Our results underscore the high rate of highway mortality in the southern plains, as well as differences in seasonality and road type that contribute to mortality. Conservation and management efforts should

  3. Nutrition of Six Selected Neo-Tropical Mammals in Trinidad and Tobago with the Potential for Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Kavita Ranjeeta; Jones, Kegan Romelle; Garcia, Gary Wayne

    2018-05-14

    This review highlights the available literature on the nutrition of six neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication-the agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina / D. aguti ), lappe ( Agouti paca ), capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ), manicou/opossum ( Didelphis marsupialis insularis ), collared peccary ( Peccary tajucu ) and the red brokcet deer ( Mazama americana ). Over 100 references were used, spanning over 100 years. The earliest being 1915 and the most recent being 2018. The references used in this review were synthesized to give a detailed look of the dentition, anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract and type of feed these animals consume. Nutritional requirements of the animals are required to understand what is needed for growth, maintenance and reproduction of each physiological stage. The agouti ( D. leporina/D. aguti ) was observed to be a monogastric mammal that fed primarily on fruits, seeds, animal matter and practiced caecotrophy. The lappe/paca ( C. paca/A. paca ) was described as a strict herbivore and a frugivore which practiced caecotrophy, with a diet that varied throughout the year, according to food availability. The capybara ( H. hydrochaeris ) was found to be the largest known rodent and was described as a semiaquatic hindgut fermenter that practiced caecotrophy. The manicou/opossum ( D. marsupialis insularis ) was found to be an omnivore with a simple stomach. The collared peccary ( T. tajacu ) was found to be frugivorous. Their unique stomach enabled them to consume a wide variety of feedstuff, allowing them to be found in a wide range of habitats. The red brocket deer ( M. americana ), a ruminant, was described as a browser that consumed mainly fruits and seeds and they frequented mineral lick. Knowledge of what they consume in the wild is important, so that we know what to feed in captivity. There is also the need to evaluate captive diets while trying to domesticate these mammals and develop nutrient requirement tables for these

  4. Tripanosomiasis americana: determinación de riesgo epidemiológico de transmisión en el municipio de Amalfi, Antioquia American trypanosamiasis: determination of epidemiologic transmission risk in Amalfi, Antioquia, Colombia

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    John Jairo Arboleda

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta por primera vez en antioquia un estudio sobre la enfermedad de Chagas, en el cual se evaluaron simultáneamente los tres componentes fundamentales de esta parasitosis: vector, parásito y reservorio. Se evaluaron 640 domicilios en 9 veredas del municipio de Amalfi, se capturaron 196 triatominos, pertenecientes a las especies Panstrongylus geniculatus (49%, P. rufotuberculatus (47%, Triatoma dispar (3% y Rhodnius pallescens (0.5%. En total se capturaron 33 animales silvestres, pertenecientes a las especies Didelphis marsupialis (8, Marmosa robinsoni (1, Hoplomys gimnurus (3, Dasypus novemcinctus (2, Proechymis sp (13, Oryzomis sp (3, Philander opossum (3, así como 63 perros (Canis lupus. Los indicadores de riesgo de transmisión de Tripanosoma cruzi por triatominos, fueron: dispersión (100%, infestación domiciliaria (14,5%, densidad (30,5%, hacinamiento (204,2% e infección relativa (12,5%. Se obtuvo una alta prevalencia de anticuerpos en los perros de las veredas Montebello (61.1% y La Gardenia (70.0% y serología positiva en un humano adulto. In this paper we report the first Chagas disease study in Antioquia-Colombia, in which the main components of this disease were simultaneously evaluated: vector, parasite and host. Field studies were carried out evaluating 640 houses in nine localities from the municipality of Amalfi; 196 triatomine bugs were captured: Panstrongylus geniculatus (49%, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (47%, Triatoma dispar (3% and Rhodnius pallescens (0.5%. Thirty three wild animals were captured: Didelphis marsupialis (8, Marmosa robinsoni (1, Hoplomys gimnurus (3, Dasypus novemcinctus (2, Proechymis sp (13, Oryzomis sp (3, Philander opossum (3 as well as 63 dogs (Canis lupus. Transmission risk indicators for Trypanosoma cruzi were: Dispersion (100%, Domiciliary infestation (14,5%, Insect density (30,5%, crowding (204,2% and Relative infection (12,5%. Of the nine localities studied, Montebello (61.1% and La

  5. Forelimb preferences in quadrupedal marsupials and their implications for laterality evolution in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Acquisition of upright posture in evolution has been argued to facilitate manual laterality in primates. Owing to the high variety of postural habits marsupials can serve as a suitable model to test whether the species-typical body posture shapes forelimb preferences in non-primates or this phenomenon emerged only in the course of primate evolution. In the present study we aimed to explore manual laterality in marsupial quadrupeds and compare them with the results in the previously studied bipedal species. Forelimb preferences were assessed in captive grey short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in four different types of unimanual behaviour per species, which was not artificially evoked. We examined the possible effects of sex, age and task, because these factors have been reported to affect motor laterality in placental mammals. Results In both species the direction of forelimb preferences was strongly sex-related. Male grey short-tailed opossums showed right-forelimb preference in most of the observed unimanual behaviours, while male sugar gliders displayed only a slight, not significant rightward tendency. In contrast, females in both species exhibited consistent group-level preference of the left forelimb. We failed to reveal significant differences in manual preferences between tasks of potentially differing complexity: reaching a stable food item and catching live insects, as well as between the body support and food manipulation. No influence of subjects’ age on limb preferences was found. Conclusions The direction of sex-related differences in the manual preferences found in quadrupedal marsupials seems to be not typical for placental mammals. We suggest that the alternative way of interhemispheric connection in absence of corpus callosum may result in a fundamentally distinct mechanism of sex effect on limb preferences in marsupials compared to placentals. Our data confirm the idea that non

  6. Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae preys on the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Dipsadidae predando o marsupial arborícola Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae

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    S. Muñoz-Leal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Philodryas chamissonis, the Chilean long-tailed snake, is a diurnal predator mainly of Liolaemus lizards, but also of amphibians, birds, rodents and juvenile rabbits. Dromiciops gliroides (Colocolo opossum is an arboreal marsupial endemic of temperate rainforest of southern South America. Little information is available about this marsupial's biology and ecology. Here we report the predation of one Colocolo opossum by an adult female P. chamissonis in a mixed Nothofagus forest, composed mainly by N. dombeyi, N. glauca and N. alpina trees, in the "Huemules de Niblinto" National Reserve, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Since these two species have different activity and habitat use patterns, we discuss how this encounter may have occurred. Although it could just have been an opportunistic event, this finding provides insights into the different components of food chains in forest ecosystems of Chile.Philodryas chamissonis, cobra de cauda comprida ("Culebra de cola larga", é uma cobra diurna, predadora principalmente de lagartos do gênero Liolaemus, mas também de anfíbios, aves, roedores e coelhos jovens. Dromiciops gliroides (colocolo é um marsupial arborícola endêmico das florestas temperadas do sul da América do Sul. Há pouca informação disponível sobre a biologia e a ecologia deste marsulpial. É reportada, neste estudo, a predação de um colocolo por uma fêmea adulta de P. chamissonis, em uma floresta mista de Nothofagus, composta principalmente por árvores N. dombeyi, N. glauca e N. alpina, na Reserva Nacional de Huemules de Niblinto, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Uma vez que estas duas espécies possuem diferentes padrões de atividade e de uso de habitat, discute-se como este evento poder ter ocorrido. Embora este possa ter sido apenas um evento oportunístico, o achado fornece novas informações sobre os diferentes componentes da cadeia alimentar nos ecossistemas florestais do Chile.

  7. Dental anomalies in Dromiciops gliroides (Microbiotheria, Microbiotheriidae, Caenolestes fuliginosus and Rhyncholestes raphanurus (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae Anomalías en la dentición de Dromiciops gliroides (Microbiotheria, Microbiotheriidae, Caenolestes fuliginosus and Rhyncholestes raphanurus (Paucituberculata, Caenolestidae

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    GABRIEL M MARTIN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental anomalies are described after analyzing series of skulls and mandibles of three species of South American marsupials: the monito del monte {Dromiciops gliroides, the silky shrew-opossum {Caenolestes fuliginosus and the Chilean shrew-opossum {Rhyncholestes raphanurus. The anomalies are classified into three categories: (1 supernumerary or missing teeth in normal positions of the dental series, (2 morphological anomalies like teeth fusion or anomalous crown shape, and (3 presence of teeth in unusual positions. Cusp fusion and supernumerary teeth at the end of the toothrow have been observed predominantly in D. gliroides. A tendency to find supernumerary or missing teeth is observed between the procumbent incisors and the second lower premolars in caenolestids. Possible causes for these anomalies and their morphofunctional value are discussed. A comparison with other marsupials is presented and discussed. Isolation of local populations and its effects on genetic drift processes might explain the high percentage of dental anomaliesA partir del análisis de series de cráneos y mandíbulas del monito de monte {Dromiciops gliroides, el ratón marsupial sedoso {Caenolestes fuliginosus y la comadrejita trompuda {Rhyncholestes raphanurus, se describen las anomalías en la dentición (incisivos, premolares, molares, clasificándose de acuerdo a tres categorías: (1 dientes supernumerarios o faltantes en alguna posición, (2 anomalías morfológicas tales como fusión de dientes o variaciones en el número de raíces, y (3 presencia de dientes en posiciones inusuales. Se observa una tendencia al desarrollo de dientes supernumerarios en cenoléstidos, o pérdida de elementos dentarios en la mandíbula, principalmente entre los incisivos procumbentes y el segundo premolar. En D. gliroides, la tendencia es hacia la fusión de cúspides y la producción de dientes supernumerarios al final de la hilera molar superior (apareciendo como M5. Se discuten las

  8. Origin of resources and trophic pathways in a large SW Atlantic estuary: An evaluation using stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, Florencia; Gaitán, Esteban; Mianzan, Hermes; Acha, Marcelo; Giberto, Diego; Schiariti, Agustín; Iribarne, Oscar

    2011-03-01

    The Río de la Plata (34° 36' S, 55° 58' W; Argentina and Uruguay) estuary, one of the most important South American estuarine environments, is characterized by weak seasonal freshwater discharge, low tidal amplitude (freshwater marshes both contribute to the food web of the Río de la Plata estuary. On the basis of the sampled species, we identified four trophic levels. The clam Mactra isabelleana, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, and the opossum shrimp Neomysis americana are the primary consumers. The rays Atlantoraja castelnaui and Squatina guggenheim and the shark Galeorhinus galeus are the top predators. The Río de la Plata food web shows an important input of nutrients derived from phytoplankton. Rays, sharks, and predatory gastropods reveal an important contribution of C4 plants (likely Spartina spp.). However, production derived from C3 plants is also important for some species. The fishes Brazilian menhaden, Brevoortia aurea; the stripped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa; and the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri, showed differences in their isotopic signatures as juveniles and adults, indicating different food sources, and they were therefore treated as different components of the food web. Our data suggest that detritus from salt and freshwater marshes is reaching the Río de la Plata estuary and can be an important allocthonous source of energy to this environment.

  9. Ecological aspects of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in palms of the Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil

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    Fernando Braga Stehling Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa, buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera, catolé (Syagrus oleracea and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens. Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species. The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe.

  10. High Prevalence of Porocephalus crotali Infection on a Barrier Island (Cumberland Island) off the Coast of Georgia, with Identification of Novel Intermediate Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Ellis, Angela E; Cleveland, Christopher A; Ruckdeschel, Carol

    2015-10-01

    Porocephalus crotali is a pentastomid parasite that uses crotaline snakes as definitive hosts and a variety of rodents as intermediate hosts. A study of definitive and intermediate pentastome hosts on Cumberland Island, Georgia, revealed high prevalence of P. crotali infection in crotalid snakes as well as several mammalian species. Despite the presence of numerous nymphs in some animals, clinical signs of disease were not observed. In intermediate hosts, the liver, mesentery, and reproductive organs were most commonly infected. No gross evidence of tissue damage was noted in association with the numerous encysted nymphal pentastomes, and histopathology demonstrated minimal reaction to the encysted nymphs. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the parasites were P. crotali. In contrast to many previous reports in rodents, the prevalence on this barrier island was high, and this is the first report of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and any insectivore species as intermediate hosts. Although generally not considered pathogenic, the long-term consequences of high nymph intensities on individuals deserve attention.

  11. Evaluating wildlife-cattle contact rates to improve the understanding of dynamics of bovine tuberculosis transmission in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Michael J; Kay, Shannon L; Pepin, Kim M; Grear, Daniel A; Campa, Henry; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2016-12-01

    Direct and indirect contacts among individuals drive transmission of infectious disease. When multiple interacting species are susceptible to the same pathogen, risk assessment must include all potential host species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an example of a disease that can be transmitted among several wildlife species and to cattle, although the potential role of several wildlife species in spillback to cattle remains unclear. To better understand the complex network of contacts and factors driving disease transmission, we fitted proximity logger collars to beef and dairy cattle (n=37), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; n=29), raccoon (Procyon lotor; n=53), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; n=79) for 16 months in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, USA. We determined inter- and intra-species direct and indirect contact rates. Data on indirect contact was calculated when collared animals visited stationary proximity loggers placed at cattle feed and water resources. Most contact between wildlife species and cattle was indirect, with the highest contact rates occurring between raccoons and cattle during summer and fall. Nearly all visits (>99%) to cattle feed and water sources were by cattle, whereas visitation to stored cattle feed was dominated by deer and raccoon (46% and 38%, respectively). Our results suggest that indirect contact resulting from wildlife species visiting cattle-related resources could pose a risk of disease transmission to cattle and deserves continued attention with active mitigation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Postnatal development of the spleen in Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J H; Krause, W J

    1982-01-01

    The postnatal development of the spleen has been examined in 85 opossums ranging in age from newborn to adult. At birth the spleen consists of a well vascularized mass of mesenchymal tissue and lacks lymphatic tissue or any evidence of haemopoietic activity. Haemopoiesis is evident at seven days, increases to a maximum at about two to three weeks and thereafter gradually declines. Although production of granulocytes has disappeared by 60 days postnatum, a small degree of erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte formation continues throughout life. Lymphatic tissue appears by the third week, but germinal centres do not appear until after weaning. A feature of the spleen during the first three to four days is the presence of a population of primitive 'blast' cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:7153176

  13. Seed dispersal of Diospyros virginiana in the past and the present: Evidence for a generalist evolutionary strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebein, Mimi; Davis, Charli N; Abad, Helena; Stone, Taylor; Del Sol, Jillian; Skinner, Natalie; Moran, Matthew D

    2017-06-01

    Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon ( Diospyros virginiana ) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon ( Procyon lotor ), Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ), and coyote ( Canis latrans ), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) and alpaca ( Vicugna pacos ). Persimmon seeds excreted by raccoons, coyotes, and elephants survived gut transit. Gut passage did not affect sprouting success, but did tend to decrease time to sprout and increase seedling quality. Under field conditions, persimmon fruits were palatable on the parent tree and on the ground for an equal duration, but most fruits were consumed on the ground. Seven vertebrate species fed upon persimmon fruits, with the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )-a species not capable of dispersing persimmon seeds-comprising over 90% of detections. Conversely, potential living seed dispersers were rarely detected. Our results suggest the American persimmon evolved to attract a variety of seed dispersers and thus is not anachronistic. However, human-induced changes in mammal communities could be affecting successful seed dispersal. We argue that changes in the relative abundance of mammals during the Anthropocene may be modifying seed dispersal patterns, leading to potential changes in forest community composition.

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi strain TcIV infects raccoons from Illinois

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    Cailey Vandermark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The northern limits of Trypanosoma cruzi across the territory of the United States remain unknown. The known vectors Triatoma sanguisuga and T. lecticularia find their northernmost limits in Illinois; yet, earlier screenings of those insects did not reveal the presence of the pathogen, which has not been reported in vectors or reservoir hosts in this state. OBJECTIVES Five species of medium-sized mammals were screened for the presence of T. cruzi. METHODS Genomic DNA was isolated from heart, spleen and skeletal muscle of bobcats (Lynx rufus, n = 60, raccoons (Procyon lotor, n = 37, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, n = 5, Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, n = 3, and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Infections were detected targeting DNA from the kinetoplast DNA minicircle (kDNA and satellite DNA (satDNA. The discrete typing unit (DTU was determined by amplifying two gene regions: the Spliced Leader Intergenic Region (SL, via a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and the 24Sα ribosomal DNA via a heminested reaction. Resulting sequences were used to calculate their genetic distance against reference DTUs. FINDINGS 18.9% of raccoons were positive for strain TcIV; the rest of mammals tested negative. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These results confirm for the first time the presence of T. cruzi in wildlife from Illinois, suggesting that a sylvatic life cycle is likely to occur in the region. The analyses of sequences of SL suggest that amplicons resulting from a commonly used multiplex reaction may yield non-homologous fragments.

  15. Sources of Blood Meals of Sylvatic Triatoma guasayana near Zurima, Bolivia, Assayed with qPCR and 12S Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, David E.; Ribera, Wilma; Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Plaza, Carlos; Gordon, Levi W.; Peña, Reynaldo; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Stevens, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study we compared the utility of two molecular biology techniques, cloning of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and hydrolysis probe-based qPCR, to identify blood meal sources of sylvatic Chagas disease insect vectors collected with live-bait mouse traps (also known as Noireau traps). Fourteen T. guasayana were collected from six georeferenced trap locations in the Andean highlands of the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Methodology/Principal Findings We detected four blood meals sources with the cloning assay: seven samples were positive for human (Homo sapiens), five for chicken (Gallus gallus) and unicolored blackbird (Agelasticus cyanopus), and one for opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Using the qPCR assay we detected chicken (13 vectors), and human (14 vectors) blood meals as well as an additional blood meal source, Canis sp. (4 vectors). Conclusions/Significance We show that cloning of 12S PCR products, which avoids bias associated with developing primers based on a priori knowledge, detected blood meal sources not previously considered and that species-specific qPCR is more sensitive. All samples identified as positive for a specific blood meal source by the cloning assay were also positive by qPCR. However, not all samples positive by qPCR were positive by cloning. We show the power of combining the cloning assay with the highly sensitive hydrolysis probe-based qPCR assay provides a more complete picture of blood meal sources for insect disease vectors. PMID:25474154

  16. Novel piroplasmid and Hepatozoon organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Herbert S. Soares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During 2009–2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer (Mazama americana, Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, one agouti (Dasyprocta sp., and four lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca, Babesia spp. in one common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis and one white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari. The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani in three spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus, Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides and one lowland paca (Cuniculus paca. Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

  17. Novel piroplasmid and Hepatozoon organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Barbieri, Amália R M; Minervino, Antonio H H; Moreira, Thiago Rocha; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-08-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon ) or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis ), Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer ( Mazama americana ), Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos ( Dasypus novemcinctus ), one agouti ( Dasyprocta sp.), and four lowland pacas ( Cuniculus paca ), Babesia spp. in one common opossum ( Didelphis marsupialis ) and one white-lipped peccary ( Tayassu pecari ). The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani ) in three spectacled caimans ( Caiman crocodilus ), Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis ), and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle ( Kinosternon scorpioides ) and one lowland paca ( Cuniculus paca ). Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

  18. Hypertrophy of proximal tubular epithelial cells induced by low pH in vitro is independent of ammoniagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, A; Millwater, C J; Walls, J

    1994-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis can lead to tubular hypertrophy in vivo. This is thought to arise from stimulation of renal production of ammonia, a known hypertrophic agent. To examine this effect in vitro, confluent opossum (OK) proximal tubular epithelial cells were cultured at acidic pH (7.21 +/- 0.02) or at control pH (7.37 +/- 0.01) for 4 days. Protein content was 9% higher at acidic pH whereas DNA content was unaffected. The resulting increase in mean cell size (protein/DNA ratio) was 10% but correlated inversely with the mass of cells in control wells, varying from +48% at low cell mass to -14% at high cell mass. In contrast, low pH decreased 3H-thymidine incorporation by 9%. However, ammonia production was unaffected. These changes in protein/DNA ratio and 3H-thymidine incorporation cannot therefore be attributed to acid-induced ammoniagenesis and imply that low pH exerts a more direct effect on tubular cell growth than previously envisaged.

  19. MAP17 Is a Necessary Activator of Renal Na+/Glucose Cotransporter SGLT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Michael J.; El Tarazi, Abdulah; Santer, René; Bissonnette, Pierre; Sasseville, Louis J.; Calado, Joaquim; Lussier, Yoann; Dumayne, Christopher; Bichet, Daniel G.

    2017-01-01

    The renal proximal tubule reabsorbs 90% of the filtered glucose load through the Na+-coupled glucose transporter SGLT2, and specific inhibitors of SGLT2 are now available to patients with diabetes to increase urinary glucose excretion. Using expression cloning, we identified an accessory protein, 17 kDa membrane-associated protein (MAP17), that increased SGLT2 activity in RNA-injected Xenopus oocytes by two orders of magnitude. Significant stimulation of SGLT2 activity also occurred in opossum kidney cells cotransfected with SGLT2 and MAP17. Notably, transfection with MAP17 did not change the quantity of SGLT2 protein at the cell surface in either cell type. To confirm the physiologic relevance of the MAP17–SGLT2 interaction, we studied a cohort of 60 individuals with familial renal glucosuria. One patient without any identifiable mutation in the SGLT2 coding gene (SLC5A2) displayed homozygosity for a splicing mutation (c.176+1G>A) in the MAP17 coding gene (PDZK1IP1). In the proximal tubule and in other tissues, MAP17 is known to interact with PDZK1, a scaffolding protein linked to other transporters, including Na+/H+ exchanger 3, and to signaling pathways, such as the A-kinase anchor protein 2/protein kinase A pathway. Thus, these results provide the basis for a more thorough characterization of SGLT2 which would include the possible effects of its inhibition on colocalized renal transporters. PMID:27288013

  20. A genome-wide map of hyper-edited RNA reveals numerous new sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porath, Hagit T.; Carmi, Shai; Levanon, Erez Y.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine editing is one of the most frequent post-transcriptional modifications, manifested as A-to-G mismatches when comparing RNA sequences with their source DNA. Recently, a number of RNA-seq data sets have been screened for the presence of A-to-G editing, and hundreds of thousands of editing sites identified. Here we show that existing screens missed the majority of sites by ignoring reads with excessive (‘hyper’) editing that do not easily align to the genome. We show that careful alignment and examination of the unmapped reads in RNA-seq studies reveal numerous new sites, usually many more than originally discovered, and in precisely those regions that are most heavily edited. Specifically, we discover 327,096 new editing sites in the heavily studied Illumina Human BodyMap data and more than double the number of detected sites in several published screens. We also identify thousands of new sites in mouse, rat, opossum and fly. Our results establish that hyper-editing events account for the majority of editing sites. PMID:25158696

  1. Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging for studying pattern recognition in cranial ontogeny of bats and marsupials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, H.S.; Lopes, R.T.; Pessoa, L.M.; Hoennicke, M.G.; Tirao, G.; Cusatis, C.; Mazzaro, I.; Giles, C.

    2005-01-01

    The key to understanding evolution lies in the elucidation of mechanisms responsible for the observed underlying patterns and in the observation of sequences that emerge from those evolutionary landmarks. The comparative development can be used to access the derivation of form and the homology versus the convergence of evolution features. Phylogenetic and biological homologies are necessary to discern the evolutionary origins of these features. This work examined the patterns of cranial formation in pre-born bat specimens as well as post-born opossum by means of microradiography and Diffraction-Enhanced Radiography (DER) techniques. A direct conversion CCD camera was used to provide micrometer spatial resolution in order to acquire highly detailed density images. This technique allows the observation of structures, in early stages of development, which were impossible to be observed with traditional techniques, such as clearing and staining. Some cranial features have been described for adults in the literature, but the detailed description of the appearance sequence of those features in these species is still unknown and obscure. Microradiography and diffraction-enhanced imaging can improve quality of morphological detail analysis and permit the identification of anatomical landmarks that are useful in comparative studies and are still unknown in both species. In this study, we access evolution features in cranial morphology of bats and marsupials using both X-ray techniques

  2. Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging for studying pattern recognition in cranial ontogeny of bats and marsupials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, H.S. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN), COPPE, UFRJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN), COPPE, UFRJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Pessoa, L.M. [Laboratorio de Mastozoologia, Departamento Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, UFRJ (Brazil); Hoennicke, M.G. [Laboratorio de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao (LORXI) , Departamento de Fisica, UFPR (Brazil); Tirao, G. [Laboratorio de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao (LORXI) , Departamento de Fisica, UFPR (Brazil); Faculdad de Mat. Astronomia y Fisica (FAMAF), UNC. Cordoba (Argentina); Cusatis, C. [Laboratorio de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao (LORXI) , Departamento de Fisica, UFPR (Brazil); Mazzaro, I. [Laboratorio de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao (LORXI) , Departamento de Fisica, UFPR (Brazil); Giles, C. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS)/Laboratorio de Cristalografia Aplicada e Raios X, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, UNICAMP (Brazil)

    2005-08-11

    The key to understanding evolution lies in the elucidation of mechanisms responsible for the observed underlying patterns and in the observation of sequences that emerge from those evolutionary landmarks. The comparative development can be used to access the derivation of form and the homology versus the convergence of evolution features. Phylogenetic and biological homologies are necessary to discern the evolutionary origins of these features. This work examined the patterns of cranial formation in pre-born bat specimens as well as post-born opossum by means of microradiography and Diffraction-Enhanced Radiography (DER) techniques. A direct conversion CCD camera was used to provide micrometer spatial resolution in order to acquire highly detailed density images. This technique allows the observation of structures, in early stages of development, which were impossible to be observed with traditional techniques, such as clearing and staining. Some cranial features have been described for adults in the literature, but the detailed description of the appearance sequence of those features in these species is still unknown and obscure. Microradiography and diffraction-enhanced imaging can improve quality of morphological detail analysis and permit the identification of anatomical landmarks that are useful in comparative studies and are still unknown in both species. In this study, we access evolution features in cranial morphology of bats and marsupials using both X-ray techniques.

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira in wild mammals trapped on livestock farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Samantha E; Ojkic, Davor; Jardine, Claire M

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and diversity of Leptospira serogroups circulating in wildlife on farms in Ontario, we tested samples from 51 raccoons (Procyon lotor), seven skunks (Mephitis mephitis), four rats (Rattus norvegicus), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) that were trapped on 27 livestock (swine [Sus scrofa], cattle [Bos taurus]) farms in 2010. Seventeen of 51 raccoons (33%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 21-48%) sampled were positive for at least one Leptospira serogroup using the microscopic agglutination test. None of the other 14 animals had detectable Leptospira antibodies. On swine farms, 13 of 30 raccoons (43%; 95% CI, 27-61%) were antibody positive, and on cattle farms, four of 21 raccoons (19%; 95% CI, 8-40%) were positive. Leptospira antibody prevalence in raccoons did not differ between swine and cattle farms. Raccoons were positive to serovars representative of serogroups Grippotyphosa, Australis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona and were negative to serovars of serogroups Autumnalis, Canicola, and Sejroe. The prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in raccoons in this study is similar to what has been reported previously; however, the diversity of serogroups was higher in this study than what has been reported in raccoons from an urban area of Ontario, Canada. Understanding the prevalence and distribution of Leptospira serogroups in wildlife in Ontario, Canada, is important for the development and maintenance of appropriate disease management strategies in humans, livestock, and companion animals.

  4. Reproductive effort and seasonality associated with male-biased parasitism in Gracilinanus agilis (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) infected by Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, A L S; Levenhagem, M; Leiner, N O

    2015-07-01

    The aggregation of parasites among hosts is associated with differential host exposure and susceptibility to parasites, which varies according to host gender, body size, reproductive status and environmental factors. We evaluated the role of these factors on infestation by Eimeria spp. (Eimeriidae) in the agile gracile mouse opossum (Gracilinanus agilis), a semelparous didelphid inhabiting neotropical savannahs. Eimeria spp. abundance and prevalence among G. agilis were associated with the breeding status of individuals and to a lesser extent to climatic season, with both sexes presenting higher Eimeria spp. burdens during late breeding/wet season. On the other hand, male-biased parasitism was restricted to dry/mating season. We suggest that male spatial organization and diet may account for increased parasite burdens within this sex, although future studies should evaluate the role of physiological differences associated with androgen hormones. Finally, a rapid increase in Eimeria spp. loads among females during the late breeding/wet season seems associated with seasonal changes in susceptibility, due to breeding costs related to semelparity, and exposure to infective propagules, while male-die off seems to explain maintenance of higher Eimeria spp. burdens within this sex in the same period.

  5. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve) is an AMPK target participating in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lai, Yu-Chiang; Hill, Elaine V; Tyteca, Donatienne; Carpentier, Sarah; Ingvaldsen, Ada; Vertommen, Didier; Lantier, Louise; Foretz, Marc; Dequiedt, Franck; Courtoy, Pierre J; Erneux, Christophe; Viollet, Benoît; Shepherd, Peter R; Tavaré, Jeremy M; Jensen, Jørgen; Rider, Mark H

    2013-10-15

    PIKfyve (FYVE domain-containing phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase), the lipid kinase that phosphorylates PtdIns3P to PtdIns(3,5)P2, has been implicated in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We investigated whether PIKfyve could also be involved in contraction/AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Incubation of rat epitrochlearis muscles with YM201636, a selective PIKfyve inhibitor, reduced contraction- and AICAriboside (5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside)-stimulated glucose uptake. Consistently, PIKfyve knockdown in C2C12 myotubes reduced AICAriboside-stimulated glucose transport. Furthermore, muscle contraction increased PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels and PIKfyve phosphorylation. AMPK phosphorylated PIKfyve at Ser307 both in vitro and in intact cells. Following subcellular fractionation, PIKfyve recovery in a crude intracellular membrane fraction was increased in contracting versus resting muscles. Also in opossum kidney cells, wild-type, but not S307A mutant, PIKfyve was recruited to endosomal vesicles in response to AMPK activation. We propose that PIKfyve activity is required for the stimulation of skeletal muscle glucose uptake by contraction/AMPK activation. PIKfyve is a new AMPK substrate whose phosphorylation at Ser307 could promote PIKfyve translocation to endosomes for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis to facilitate GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) translocation.

  6. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

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    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  7. Genome-wide characterization of centromeric satellites from multiple mammalian genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Can; Cardone, Maria Francesca; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Antonacci, Francesca; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ryder, Oliver A; Purgato, Stefania; Zoli, Monica; Della Valle, Giuliano; Eichler, Evan E; Ventura, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance in cell biology and evolution, the centromere has remained the final frontier in genome assembly and annotation due to its complex repeat structure. However, isolation and characterization of the centromeric repeats from newly sequenced species are necessary for a complete understanding of genome evolution and function. In recent years, various genomes have been sequenced, but the characterization of the corresponding centromeric DNA has lagged behind. Here, we present a computational method (RepeatNet) to systematically identify higher-order repeat structures from unassembled whole-genome shotgun sequence and test whether these sequence elements correspond to functional centromeric sequences. We analyzed genome datasets from six species of mammals representing the diversity of the mammalian lineage, namely, horse, dog, elephant, armadillo, opossum, and platypus. We define candidate monomer satellite repeats and demonstrate centromeric localization for five of the six genomes. Our analysis revealed the greatest diversity of centromeric sequences in horse and dog in contrast to elephant and armadillo, which showed high-centromeric sequence homogeneity. We could not isolate centromeric sequences within the platypus genome, suggesting that centromeres in platypus are not enriched in satellite DNA. Our method can be applied to the characterization of thousands of other vertebrate genomes anticipated for sequencing in the near future, providing an important tool for annotation of centromeres.

  8. Feeding patterns of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from eastern Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; de Oliveira, Luis Claudio Motta; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Morone, Fernanda; Lorosa, Elias Seixas

    2012-07-01

    Blood-feeding sources of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the eastern region of the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina were analyzed by precipitin technique. One hundred fifty-four female mosquitoes collected by CDC traps in the Navegantes municipality 13-15 February 2005 reacted to one or more of eight antisera, including chicken, dog, goat, sheep, horse, opossum, human and rodent antisera. One hundred thirty-seven specimens (89%) reacted to only one source, and 17 (11%) specimens reacted to two sources. Among the 137 specimens reacting to only one source, reactions to rodent (50.4%), sheep (5.8%), chicken (5.1%), goat (5.1%), dog (2.2%), horse (3.6%), and human (3.6%) antisera were observed. The analyzed species demonstrated a high degree of opportunistic feeding behavior in relation to host preference. Results are compared with results from similar studies, and the low proportion of reactions to human antisera is discussed.

  9. Feeding patterns of Haemagogus capricornii and Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae) in two Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro and Goiás).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2008-09-01

    We present the identification of bloodfeeding sources of Haemagogus (Haemagogus) capricornii Lutz and Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon) (Diptera: Culicidae) from different regions of Brazil, as analyzed by precipitin tests. Anti-sera for bird, bovine, equine, human, opossum, and rodent were used. Two hundred one mosquitoes were examined (147 Hg. leucocelaenus and 54 Hg. capricornii), of which 177 reacted for some anti-serum. For Hg. leucocelaenus, 86 (68.3%) reacted to one blood source, 38 (30.2%) to two sources, and two (1.6%) to three sources; the combinations of bird + human (18.4%), bird + rodent (15.8%), and bird + marsupial (15.8%) were the most frequent. For Hg. capricornii, 34 (66.7%) reacted to one blood source; combinations bird + rodent (37.5%) and bird + marsupial (25%) were the most frequent combinations. Mosquito preference for bloodfeeding sources was different in these areas, possibly because of the availability of sources. This diversity of sources can have important epidemiological implications.

  10. Feeding patterns of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in six Brazilian environmental preservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Silva, Júlia; Alencar, Jeronimo; Costa, Janira Martins; Seixas-Lorosa, Elias; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2012-12-01

    Feeding patterns of mosquitoes in six Brazilian environmental preservation areas were analyzed by the precipitin technique. The mosquito populations were captured using Shannon traps during different time periods. Bird, cow, dog, horse, opossum, human, and rodent antisera diagnostic tests were employed and results were analyzed by calculating the Sørensen similarity index and using the null-model test. Of the 647 analyzed specimens, 443 reacted to the utilized antisera, of which 331 reacted to one blood source, with the most frequent being birds (49.4%); and 112 specimens reacted to two blood sources, with the most frequent combination from birds + rodents (14.3%). The feed profiles demonstrated that Anopheles albitarsis, An. evansae, Aedes fulvus, Psorophora albigenu, Ps. albipes, Ps. ferox, and Mansonia titillans fed predominantly on birds. The similarity index showed that in some localities An. cruzii, Chagasia fajardi, Ae. scapularis, Ae. serratus, Haemagogus leucocelaenus, Ps. albigenu, and Ps. ferox presented similar dietary habits. The null-models test indicated that species from SMSP, INP, CGNP, and THP demonstrated an aggregate pattern, while species from SONP and SBNP showed a random pattern. The mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds, but from an epidemiological standpoint, the eclectic feeding habits were found to be constant among the mosquitoes analyzed. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  11. Transposition and Intermingling of Galphai2 and Galphao afferences into single vomeronasal glomeruli in the Madagascan lesser Tenrec Echinops telfairi.

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    Rodrigo Suárez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The vomeronasal system (VNS mediates pheromonal communication in mammals. From the vomeronasal organ, two populations of sensory neurons, expressing either Galphai2 or Galphao proteins, send projections that end in glomeruli distributed either at the rostral or caudal half of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, respectively. Neurons at the AOB contact glomeruli of a single subpopulation. The dichotomic segregation of AOB glomeruli has been described in opossums, rodents and rabbits, while Primates and Laurasiatheres present the Galphai2-pathway only, or none at all (such as apes, some bats and aquatic species. We studied the AOB of the Madagascan lesser tenrec Echinops telfairi (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida and found that Galphai2 and Galphao proteins are expressed in rostral and caudal glomeruli, respectively. However, the segregation of vomeronasal glomeruli at the AOB is not exclusive, as both pathways contained some glomeruli transposed into the adjoining subdomain. Moreover, some glomeruli seem to contain intermingled afferences from both pathways. Both the transposition and heterogeneity of vomeronasal afferences are features, to our knowledge, never reported before. The organization of AOB glomeruli suggests that synaptic integration might occur at the glomerular layer. Whether intrinsic AOB neurons may make synaptic contact with axon terminals of both subpopulations is an interesting possibility that would expand our understanding about the integration of vomeronasal pathways.

  12. The Araguaia River as an Important Biogeographical Divide for Didelphid Marsupials in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rita Gomes; Ferreira, Eduardo; Loss, Ana Carolina; Heller, Rasmus; Fonseca, Carlos; Costa, Leonora Pires

    2015-01-01

    The riverine barrier model suggests that rivers play a significant role in separating widespread organisms into isolated populations. In this study, we used a comparative approach to investigate the phylogeography of 6 didelphid marsupial species in central Brazil. Specifically, we evaluate the role of the mid-Araguaia River in differentiating populations and estimate divergence time among lineages to assess the timing of differentiation of these species, using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The 6 didelphid marsupials revealed different intraspecific genetic patterns and structure. The 3 larger and more generalist species, Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis, and Philander opossum, showed connectivity across the Araguaia River. In contrast the genetic structure of the 3 smaller and specialist species, Gracilinanus agilis, Marmosa (Marmosa) murina, and Marmosa (Micoureus) demerarae was shaped by the mid-Araguaia. Moreover, the split of eastern and western bank populations of the 2 latter species is consistent with the age of Araguaia River sediments formation. We hypothesize that the role of the Araguaia as a riverine barrier is linked to the level of ecological specialization among the 6 didelphid species and differences in their ability to cross rivers or disperse through the associated habitat types. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) from feral cats on a dairy farm with Map-infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Stoffregen, William C; Carpenter, Jeremy G; Stabel, Judith R

    2005-07-01

    Paratuberculosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were collected from a mid-western dairy with known Map-infected cattle. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the mesenteric lymph node from seven of 25 (28%) feral cats. Ileum was culture-positive for three of these seven cats, and an isolation of Map was also made from the ileum of one of nine (11%) mice. Tissue samples from other species were negative as determined by Map culture; microscopic lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were not seen in any animal. Restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of isolates from cats and dairy cattle suggest interspecies transmission. The means by which interspecies transmission occurred may be through ingestion of Map-contaminated feces or waste milk or through ingestion of Map-infected prey. Shedding of Map from infected cats was not evaluated. The epidemiologic role of Map-infected feral cats on dairy farms requires further investigation.

  14. Investigação de anticorpos contra Sarcocystis neurona e Sarcocystis cruzi em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Antonello

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSarcocystis neurona is the primary agent for Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM, important neurological disease characterized by behavior or muscular changes, that impairs animal performance and husbandry. Sarcocystis cruzi is a pathogen related to myositis in cattle. Although related the life cycles of the parasites are distinct. S. neurona has opossums (Didelphis spp. and S. cruzi, dogs as definitive hosts. However, S. neurona and S. cruzi may undergo cross-reactivity in serological tests, interfering on results of EPM ante-mortem diagnostic tests. In the present study, serology of 189 mares was performed by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test, using antigens of S. neurona and S. cruzi in order to assess the exposure degree of animals to antigens. Analyzing the results, it was observed that most of the animals (84.13% reacted with at least one protozoal species and the number of animals which showed antibodies against S. cruzi was greater than S. neurona (80.42% and 33.86%, respectively and a third of seropositive animals reacted to antigens of both species.

  15. A genetically diverse but distinct North American population of Sarcocystis neurona includes an overrepresented clone described by 12 microsatellite alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundsson, Ingrid M; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2006-09-01

    The population genetics and systematics of most coccidians remain poorly defined despite their impact on human and veterinary health. Non-recombinant parasite clones characterized by distinct transmission and pathogenesis traits persist in the coccidian Toxoplasma gondii despite opportunities for sexual recombination. In order to determine whether this may be generally true for tissue-cyst forming coccidia, and to address evolutionary and taxonomic problems within the genus Sarcocystis, we characterized polymorphic microsatellite markers in Sarcocystis neurona, the major causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Bayesian statistical modeling, phylogenetic reconstruction based on genotypic chord distances, and analyses of linkage disequilibrium were employed to examine the population structure within S. neurona and closely related Sarcocystis falcatula isolates from North and South America. North American S. neurona were clearly differentiated from those of South America and also from isolates of S. falcatula. Although S. neurona is characterized by substantial allelic and genotypic diversity typical of interbreeding populations, one genotype occurs with significantly excessive frequency; thus, some degree of asexual propagation of S. neurona clones may naturally occur. Finally, S. neurona isolated from disparate North American localities and diverse hosts (opossums, a Southern sea otter, and horses) comprise a single genetic population. Isolates associated with clinical neurological disease bear no obvious distinction as measured by these presumably neutral genetic markers.

  16. Sarcocystis neurona schizonts-associated encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and myositis in a two-month-old dog simulating toxoplasmosis, and presence of mature sarcocysts in muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Black, S S; Verma, S K; Calero-Bernal, R; Morris, E; Hanson, M A; Cooley, A J

    2014-05-28

    Sarcocystis neurona is an unusual species of the genus Sarcocystis. Opossums (Didelphis virginianus, D. albiventris) are the definitive hosts and several other species, including dogs, cats, marine mammals, and horses are intermediate or aberrant hosts. Sarcocysts are not known to form in aberrant hosts. Sarcocystis neurona causes fatal disease in horses (Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, EPM). There are numerous reports of fatal EPM-like infections in other species, usually with central nervous system signs and associated with the schizont stage of S. neurona. Here, we report fatal disseminated S. neurona infection in a nine-week-old golden retriever dog from Mississippi, USA. Protozoal merozoites were identified in smears of the cerebrospinal fluid. Microscopically, lesions and protozoa were identified in eyes, tongue, heart, liver, intestines, nasal turbinates, skeletal muscle and brain, which reacted intensely with S. neurona polyclonal antibodies. Mature sarcocysts were seen in sections of muscles. These sarcocysts were ultrastructurally similar to those of S. neurona from experimentally infected animals. These data suggest that the dog is another intermediate host for S. neurona. Data suggest that the dog was transplacentally infected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sarcocystis neurona manipulation using culture-derived merozoites for bradyzoite and sporocyst production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Sarah B; Marsh, Antoinette E; Lewis, Stephanie; Carman, Michelle; Howe, Daniel K; Saville, William J; Reed, Stephen M

    2017-04-30

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) remains a significant central nervous system disease of horses in the American continents. Sarcocystis neurona is considered the primary causative agent and its intermediate life stages are carried by a wide host-range including raccoons (Procyon lotor) in North America. S. neurona sarcocysts mature in raccoon skeletal muscle and can produce central nervous system disease in raccoons, mirroring the clinical presentation in horses. The study aimed to develop laboratory tools whereby the life cycle and various life stages of S. neurona could be better studied and manipulated using in vitro and in vivo systems and compare the biology of two independent isolates. This study utilized culture-derived parasites from S. neurona strains derived from a raccoon or from a horse to initiate raccoon infections. Raccoon tissues, including fresh and cryopreserved tissues, were used to establish opossum (Didelphis virginiana) infections, which then shed sporocyts with retained biological activity to cause encephalitis in mice. These results demonstrate that sarcocysts can be generated using in vitro-derived S. neurona merozoites, including an isolate originally derived from a naturally infected horse with clinical EPM. This study indicates the life cycle can be significantly manipulated in the laboratory without affecting subsequent stage development, allowing further purification of strains and artificial maintenance of the life cycle. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) harbor Sarcocystis neurona and act as intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, L S; Mehler, S; Nelson, K; Elsheikha, H M; Murphy, A J; Knust, B; Tanhauser, S M; Gearhart, P M; Rossano, M G; Bowman, D D; Schott, H C; Patterson, J S

    2008-05-06

    We tested the hypothesis that brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) harbor Sarcocystis neurona, the agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), and act as intermediate hosts for this parasite. In summer 1999, wild caught brown-headed cowbirds were collected and necropsied to determine infection rate with Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic inspection. Seven of 381 (1.8%) birds had grossly visible sarcocysts in leg muscles with none in breast muscles. Histopathology revealed two classes of sarcocysts in leg muscles, thin-walled and thick-walled suggesting two species. Electron microscopy showed that thick-walled cysts had characteristics of S. falcatula and thin-walled cysts had characteristics of S. neurona. Thereafter, several experiments were conducted to confirm that cowbirds had viable S. neurona that could be transmitted to an intermediate host and cause disease. Specific-pathogen-free opossums fed cowbird leg muscle that was enriched for muscle either with or without visible sarcocysts all shed high numbers of sporocysts by 4 weeks after infection, while the control opossum fed cowbird breast muscle was negative. These sporocysts were apparently of two size classes, 11.4+/-0.7 microm by 7.6+/-0.4 microm (n=25) and 12.6+/-0.6 microm by 8.0+/-0 microm (n=25). When these sporocysts were excysted and introduced into equine dermal cell tissue culture, schizogony occurred, most merozoites survived and replicated long term and merozoites sampled from the cultures with long-term growth were indistinguishable from known S. neurona isolates. A cowbird Sarcocystis isolate, Michigan Cowbird 1 (MICB1), derived from thin-walled sarcocysts from cowbirds that was passaged in SPF opossums and tissue culture went on to produce neurological disease in IFNgamma knockout mice indistinguishable from that of the positive control inoculated with S. neurona. This, together with the knowledge that S. falcatula does not cause lesions in IFNgamma knockout mice, showed that cowbird

  19. Efficacy of decoquinate against Sarcocystis neurona in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David S; Nazir, M Mudasser; Maqbool, Azhar; Ellison, Siobhan P; Strobl, Jeannine S

    2013-09-01

    Decoquinate is a quinolone anticoccidial approved for use in the prevention of intestinal coccidiosis in farm animals. This compound has good activity against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in cell cultures. The drug acts on the parasites' mitochondria. The activity of decoquinate against developing merozoites of 2 isolates of Sarcocystis neurona was examined in cell culture. Merozoite production at 10 days was completely inhibited when decoquinate was used at 20 or 240 nM. The IC50 of decoquinate was 0.5 ± 0.09nM for the Sn6 isolate of S. neurona from a horse and 1.1 ± 0.6 nM for the SnOP15 isolate of S. neurona from an opossum. Levamisole was toxic at 5 μg/ml and no synergism was observed when decoquinate was combined with levamisole and tested against the Sn3YFP isolate of S. neurona. Decoquinate was cidal for developing schizonts of S. neurona at 240 nM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Golgi Analysis of Neuron Morphology in the Presumptive Somatosensory Cortex and Visual Cortex of the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Laura D; Harland, Tessa; Reep, Roger L; Sherwood, Chet C; Jacobs, Bob

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates neuron morphology in presumptive primary somatosensory (S1) and primary visual (V1) cortices of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) as revealed by Golgi impregnation. Sirenians, including manatees, have an aquatic lifestyle, a large body size, and a relatively large lissencephalic brain. The present study examines neuron morphology in 3 cortical areas: in S1, dorsolateral cortex area 1 (DL1) and cluster cortex area 2 (CL2) and in V1, dorsolateral cortex area 4 (DL4). Neurons exhibited a variety of morphological types, with pyramidal neurons being the most common. The large variety of neuron types present in the manatee cortex was comparable to that seen in other eutherian mammals, except for rodents and primates, where pyramid-shaped neurons predominate. A comparison between pyramidal neurons in S1 and V1 indicated relatively greater dendritic branching in S1. Across all 3 areas, the dendritic arborization pattern of pyramidal neurons was also similar to that observed previously in the afrotherian rock hyrax, cetartiodactyls, opossums, and echidnas but did not resemble the widely bifurcated dendrites seen in the large-brained African elephant. Despite adaptations for an aquatic environment, manatees did not share specific neuron types such as tritufted and star-like neurons that have been found in cetaceans. Manatees exhibit an evolutionarily primitive pattern of cortical neuron morphology shared with most other mammals and do not appear to have neuronal specializations for an aquatic niche. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Marson, Pamela Merlo; Hayasaka, Enio Yoshinori; Victoria, Cassiano; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Hélio

    2014-01-01

    Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction.

  2. Direct evidence of Rickettsia typhi infection in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and their canine hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Dzul-Rosado

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Murine typhus is a rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi, whose transmission is carried out by rat fleas in urban settlements as classically known, but it also has been related to cat fleas in a sub-urban alternative cycle that has been suggested by recent reports. These studies remarks that in addition to rats, other animals like cats, opossums and dogs could be implied in the transmission of Rickettsia typhi as infected fleas obtained from serologically positive animals have been detected in samples from endemic areas. In Mexico, the higher number of murine typhus cases have been detected in the Yucatan peninsula, which includes a great southeastern region of Mexico that shows ecologic characteristics similar to the sub-urban alternative cycle recently described in Texas and California at the United States. To find out which are the particular ecologic characteristics of murine typhus transmission in this region, we analyzed blood and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks obtained from domestic dogs by molecular approaches, demonstrating that both samples were infected by Rickettsia typhi. Following this, we obtained isolates that were analyzed by genetic sequencing to corroborate this infection in 100% of the analyzed samples. This evidence suggests for the first time that ticks and dogs could be actively participating in the transmission of murine typhus, in a role that requires further studies for its precise description.

  3. Ancient fossil specimens of extinct species are genetically more distant to an outgroup than extant sister species are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi

    2009-01-01

    There exists a remarkable correlation between genetic distance as measured by protein or DNA dissimilarity and time of species divergence as inferred from fossil records. This observation has provoked the molecular clock hypothesis. However, data inconsistent with the hypothesis have steadily accumulated in recent years from studies of extant organisms. Here the published DNA and protein sequences from ancient fossil specimens were examined to see if they would support the molecular clock hypothesis. The hypothesis predicts that ancient specimens cannot be genetically more distant to an outgroup than extant sister species are. Also, two distinct ancient specimens cannot be genetically more distant than their extant sister species are. The findings here do not conform to these predictions. Neanderthals are more distant to chimpanzees and gorillas than modern humans are. Dinosaurs are more distant to frogs than extant birds are. Mastodons are more distant to opossums than other placental mammals are. The genetic distance between dinosaurs and mastodons is greater than that between extant birds and mammals. Therefore, while the molecular clock hypothesis is consistent with some data from extant organisms, it has yet to find support from ancient fossils. Far more damaging to the hypothesis than data from extant organisms, which merely question the constancy of mutation rate, the study of ancient fossil organisms here challenges for the first time the fundamental premise of modern evolution theory that genetic distances had always increased with time in the past history of life on Earth. PMID:18600632

  4. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs and small mammals in Nuevo León, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz-Silva, Lucio; Mercado-Hernández, Roberto; Zárate-Ramos, José J; Molina-Garza, Zinnia J

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important public health concern in areas extending from South America northward into the southern United States of America. Although this hemoflagellate has many wild and domestic mammalians reported as reservoir hosts, studies on this subject are scarce in Nuevo León state, a region located in northeastern Mexico. This cross-sectional study showed that the general prevalence of T. cruzi infection in Nuevo León state was 14.5% (35/241), this percentage matching the ones determined by PCR and traditional diagnostics. Localities and infected mammals did not significantly differ (χ 2 =6.098, p=0.192); however the number of infected animals was highly correlated with mammalian species (p=0.009). Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were found to be the most infected overall (11/34, 32.3%), while dogs (Canis familiaris) had the lowest prevalence. In conclusion, although the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in small mammals was lower in Nuevo León than in other states of Mexico, our results provide new locality records, including striped skunks, opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) and dogs, and extend the recorded area to woodrats (Neotoma micropus). Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Metazoarios parásitos de Tlacuatzin canescens y Marmosa mexicana (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia de México Metazoan parasites of Tlacuatzin canescens and Marmosa mexicana (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia from Mexico

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    Carmen Guzmán-Cornejo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de un estudio sobre los metazoarios parásitos de mamíferos de México se recolectaron 4 ejemplares de ratones tlacuache: 2 de Tlacuatzin canescens (Allen, 1893 procedentes de Oaxaca y 2 de Marmosa mexicana Merriam, 1897 de Veracruz. Se presentan 5 registros nuevos de hospedero y localidad para ácaros de las especies Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940, Ixodes sinaloa Kohls y Clifford, 1966, las pulgas Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub 1950 y Polygenis martinezbaezi Vargas 1951, así como para el cestodo Hymenolepis sp. y por primera vez en México se registra el nematodo Hoineffia simplicispicula Navone, Suriano y Pujol, 1991.As a part of an ongoing project to inventory the metazoan parasites of Mexican mammals, 4 specimens of 2 species of mouse opossums (2 Tlacuatzin canescens [Allen, 1893] and 2 Marmosa mexicana Merriam, 1897, were collected from Oaxaca and Veracuz states, Mexico, respectively. Five new locality and host records are presented for the acari Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940, Ixodes sinaloa Kohls and Clifford, 1966, of fleas Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub 1950, and Polygenis martinezbaezi Vargas 1951, as well as the cestode Hymenolepis sp., while the nematode Hoineffia simplicispicula Navone, Suriano and Pujol, 1991, is recorded for the first time in Mexico.

  6. Sources of blood meals of sylvatic Triatoma guasayana near Zurima, Bolivia, assayed with qPCR and 12S cloning.

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    David E Lucero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compared the utility of two molecular biology techniques, cloning of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and hydrolysis probe-based qPCR, to identify blood meal sources of sylvatic Chagas disease insect vectors collected with live-bait mouse traps (also known as Noireau traps. Fourteen T. guasayana were collected from six georeferenced trap locations in the Andean highlands of the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia.We detected four blood meals sources with the cloning assay: seven samples were positive for human (Homo sapiens, five for chicken (Gallus gallus and unicolored blackbird (Agelasticus cyanopus, and one for opossum (Monodelphis domestica. Using the qPCR assay we detected chicken (13 vectors, and human (14 vectors blood meals as well as an additional blood meal source, Canis sp. (4 vectors.We show that cloning of 12S PCR products, which avoids bias associated with developing primers based on a priori knowledge, detected blood meal sources not previously considered and that species-specific qPCR is more sensitive. All samples identified as positive for a specific blood meal source by the cloning assay were also positive by qPCR. However, not all samples positive by qPCR were positive by cloning. We show the power of combining the cloning assay with the highly sensitive hydrolysis probe-based qPCR assay provides a more complete picture of blood meal sources for insect disease vectors.

  7. Using genomic data to unravel the root of the placental mammal phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J; Pringle, Thomas H; Crider, Tess A; Springer, Mark S; Miller, Webb

    2007-04-01

    The phylogeny of placental mammals is a critical framework for choosing future genome sequencing targets and for resolving the ancestral mammalian genome at the nucleotide level. Despite considerable recent progress defining superordinal relationships, several branches remain poorly resolved, including the root of the placental tree. Here we analyzed the genome sequence assemblies of human, armadillo, elephant, and opossum to identify informative coding indels that would serve as rare genomic changes to infer early events in placental mammal phylogeny. We also expanded our species sampling by including sequence data from >30 ongoing genome projects, followed by PCR and sequencing validation of each indel in additional taxa. Our data provide support for a sister-group relationship between Afrotheria and Xenarthra (the Atlantogenata hypothesis), which is in turn the sister-taxon to Boreoeutheria. We failed to recover any indels in support of a basal position for Xenarthra (Epitheria), which is suggested by morphology and a recent retroposon analysis, or a hypothesis with Afrotheria basal (Exafricoplacentalia), which is favored by phylogenetic analysis of large nuclear gene data sets. In addition, we identified two retroposon insertions that also support Atlantogenata and none for the alternative hypotheses. A revised molecular timescale based on these phylogenetic inferences suggests Afrotheria and Xenarthra diverged from other placental mammals approximately 103 (95-114) million years ago. We discuss the impacts of this topology on earlier phylogenetic reconstructions and repeat-based inferences of phylogeny.

  8. IN-VIVO DIAGNOSIS OF CHEMICALLY INDUCED MELANOMA IN AN ANIMAL MODEL USING UV-VISIBLE AND NIR ELASTIC SCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY: PRELIMINARY TESTING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A' AMAR; R. LEY; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    Elastic light scattering spectroscopy (ESS) has the potential to provide spectra that contain both morphological and chromophore information from tissue. We report on a preliminary study of this technique, with the hope of developing a method for diagnosis of highly-pigmented skin lesions, commonly associated with skin cancer. Four opossums were treated with dimethylbenz(a)anthracene to induce both malignant melanoma and benign pigmented lesions. Skin lesions were examined in vivo using both UV-visible and near infrared (NIR) ESS, with wavelength ranges of 330-900 nm and 900-1700 nm, respectively. Both portable systems used identical fiber-optic probe geometry throughout all of the measurements. The core diameters for illuminating and collecting fibers were 400 and 200 {micro}m, respectively, with center-to-center separation of 350 {micro}m. The probe was placed in optical contact with the tissue under investigation. Biopsies from lesions were analyzed by two standard histopathological procedures. Taking into account only the biopsied lesions, UV-visible ESS showed distinct spectral correlation for 11/13 lesions. The NIR-ESS correlated well with 12/13 lesions correctly. The results of these experiments showed that UV-visible and NIR-ESS have the potential to classify benign and malignant skin lesions, with encouraging agreement to that provided by standard histopathological examination. These initial results show potential for ESS based diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions, but further trials are required in order to substantiate the technique.

  9. Surveillance for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in scavengers of white-tailed deer carcasses in the chronic wasting disease area of wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Keane, D.P.; Barr, D.J.; Johnson, Chad; Vanderloo, J.P.; Aiken, Judd M.; Hamir, A.N.; Hoover, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a class of neurodegenerative transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) occurring in cervids, is found in a number of states and provinces across North America. Misfolded prions, the infectious agents of CWD, are deposited in the environment via carcass remains and excreta, and pose a threat of cross-species transmission. In this study tissues were tested from 812 representative mammalian scavengers, collected in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin, for TSE infection using the IDEXX HerdChek enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the collected mammals tested positive using the ELISA, but these were negative when tested by Western blot. While our sample sizes permitted high probabilities of detecting TSE assuming 1% population prevalence in several common scavengers (93%, 87%, and 87% for raccoons, opossums, and coyotes, respectively), insufficient sample sizes for other species precluded similar conclusions. One cannot rule out successful cross-species TSE transmission to scavengers, but the results suggest that such transmission is not frequent in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin. The need for further surveillance of scavenger species, especially those known to be susceptible to TSE (e.g., cat, American mink, raccoon), is highlighted in both a field and laboratory setting.

  10. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

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    Angélica H Klippel

    Full Text Available Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus, an opossum (Didelphis aurita and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  11. Comparative anatomy of the mammalian hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, V M; Speh, J C; Card, J P; Moore, R Y

    1988-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the cytoarchitecture, retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) projections, and immunohistochemical localization of major cell and fiber types within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) was conducted in five mammalian species: two species of opossum, the domestic cat, the guinea pig, and the house mouse. Cytoarchitectural and immunohistochemical studies were conducted in three additional species of marsupial mammals and in the domestic pig. The SCN in this diverse transect of mammalian taxonomy bear striking similarities. First, the SCN are similar in location, lying close to the third ventricle (3V) dorsal to the optic chiasm (OC), with a cytoarchitecture characterized by small, tightly packed neurons. Second, in all groups studied, the SCN receive bilateral retinal input. Third, the SCN contain immunohistochemically similar elements. These similarities suggest that the SCN developed characteristic features early in mammalian phylogeny. Some details of SCN organization vary among the species studied. In marsupials, vasopressin-like immunoreactive (VP-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactive (VIP-LI) cells codistribute primarily in the dorsomedial aspects of the SCN, while in eutherians, VP-LI and VIP-LI cells are separated into SCN subnuclei. Furthermore, the marsupial RHT projects to the periventricular dorsomedial region, whereas the eutherian RHT projects more ventrally in the SCN into the zone that typically contains VIP-LI perikarya.

  12. Bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging carnivores from Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning-Fann, C S; Schmitt, S M; Fitzgerald, S D; Fierke, J S; Friedrich, P D; Kaneene, J B; Clarke, K A; Butler, K L; Payeur, J B; Whipple, D L; Cooley, T M; Miller, J M; Muzo, D P

    2001-01-01

    During a survey of carnivores and omnivores for bovine tuberculosis conducted in Michigan (USA) since 1996, Mycobacterium bovis was cultured from lymph nodes pooled from six coyotes (Canis latrans) (four adult female, two adult male), two adult male raccoons (Procyon lotor), one adult male red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and one 1.5-yr-old male black bear (Ursus americanus). One adult, male bobcat (Felis rufus) with histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis was negative on culture but positive for organisms belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex when tested by polymerase chain reaction. All the tuberculous animals were taken from three adjoining counties where M. bovis is known to be endemic in the free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population. There were two coyotes, one raccoon, one red fox, and one bobcat infected in Alpena county. Montmorency County had two coyotes and one raccoon with M. bovis. Two coyotes and a bear were infected from Alcona County. These free-ranging carnivores/omnivores probably became infected with M. bovis through consumption of tuberculous deer. Other species included in the survey were opossum (Didelphis virginiana), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and badger (Taxidea taxus); these were negative for M. bovis.

  13. Murine Typhus: An Important Consideration for the Nonspecific Febrile Illness

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    Gurjot Basra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Murine typhus is a widely distributed flea-borne infection caused by Rickettsia typhi. Symptoms of murine typhus are nonspecific and mimic a variety of other infectious diseases. We herein report a case of murine typhus in an area where the broad use of DDT in the mid-20th century has now made it a rare disease. The patient described presented with headache, fever, and a faint macular rash. Initial laboratory studies revealed a slight transaminase elevation. Further questioning revealed exposure to opossums, prompting the consideration of murine typhus as a diagnosis. Although typhus group antibodies were not present during the patient’s acute illness, empiric therapy with doxycycline was initiated, and the patient defervesced. One month after convalescence, the patient returned to clinic with serum that contained typhus group antibodies with an IgG titer of 1 : 1024. Murine typhus is an important consideration during the workup of a patient with a nonspecific febrile illness. Exposure to reservoir hosts and the flea vector place humans at risk for this disease. Clinician recognition of this entity is required for diagnosis and effective therapy.

  14. Molecular Evolution of the non-coding Eosinophil Granule Ontogeny Transcript EGOT

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    Dominic eRose

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed. A large fraction of the transcriptional output consists of long, mRNA-like, non-protein-coding transcripts (mlncRNAs. The evolutionary history of mlncRNAs is still largely uncharted territory.In this contribution, we explore in detail the evolutionary traces of the eosinophil granule ontogeny transcript (EGOT, an experimentally confirmed representative of an abundant class of totally intronic non-coding transcripts (TINs. EGOT is located antisense to an intron of the ITPR1 gene. We computationally identify putative EGOT orthologs in the genomes of 32 different amniotes, including orthologs from primates, rodents, ungulates, carnivores, afrotherians, and xenarthrans, as well as putative candidates from basal amniotes, such as opossum or platypus. We investigate the EGOT gene phylogeny, analyse patterns of sequence conservation, and the evolutionary conservation of the EGOT gene structure. We show that EGO-B, the spliced isoform, may be present throughout the placental mammals, but most likely dates back even further. We demonstrat here for the first time that the whole EGOT locus is highly structured, containing several evolutionary conserved and thermodynamic stable secondary structures.Our analyses allow us to postulate novel functional roles of a hitherto poorly understood region at the intron of EGO-B which is highly conserved at the sequence level. The region contains a novel ITPR1 exon and also conserved RNA secondary structures together with a conserved TATA-like element, which putatively acts as a promoter of an independent regulatory element.

  15. Microflora of hydrobionts digestive tract in Kaunas water storage reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyvokiene, J.; Mickiene, L.; Mileriene, E.

    1996-01-01

    Microbiological and ichthiological investigations carried out in 1990 and 1992 showed the variability of bacterial cenoses in the digestive tract of hydrobionts before and after setting in motion Kruonis hydro pumped storage. The studies also showed that microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts investigated were involved in the degradation of nutritional substrates and could serve as indicators of an anthropogenic effect. Before setting in motion the hydro pumped storage hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (HDB) were detected in the digestive tract of the freshwater shrimps, opossum shrimps, sticklebacks, zebra mussels and roaches. The greatest number of HDB was found in the digestive tract of the roach while in perches they were not detected. However after setting in motion the hydro pumped storage , high numbers of HDB were determined in the digestive tracts of all the hydrobionts investigated. It has been shown that the function of bacterial digestion is conditioned not only by the nutrition specificity of the macroorganism, but on its environment as well. With the aid of enzymes secreted by microorganisms organic compounds difficult to assimilate are transformed into valuable nutrients. Besides, the functional activity of microorganisms of the digestive tract of the hydrobionts indicate the intensity of the digestive process and physiological state of their organism. Therefore, when investigating fish stocks in hydrosystems one must evaluate inner resources of their organism, i.e. functional activities and the activity of digestive tract microorganisms, their quantitative and qualitative composition, relationship with the macroorganism, its growth rate and environment. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Endoparásitos de micromamíferos del noroeste de Perú. 1: helmintos de marsupiales

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    Manuel Tantaleán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, informamos los resultados del análisis parasitológico realizado a 40 individuos marsupiales de las especies Caluromys lanatus, Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosops noctivagus, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Marmosa (Micoureus regina, Monodelphis adusta, Philander andersoni y Philander opossum procedentes del departamento de Loreto, Perú. Se determinaron en total 11 especies de helmintos parásitos: Nematoda: Aspidodera sp., Cruzia tentaculata, Physaloptera mirandai, Physaloptera sp., Pterygodermatites sp., Trichuris sp., Turgida turgida, y Viannaia sp.; Trematoda: Podospathalium pedatum; Acanthocephala: Giganthorhynchus ortizi; y Pentastomida: ninfa. Los parásitos Trichuris sp., Pterygodematities sp., Turgida turgida, Viannaia sp. y Podospathalium pedatum son nuevos registros para el Perú. De igual manera, se registran por primera vez las siguientes asociaciones parásitos-huéspedes: Pterygodermatites sp.-Marmosa regina, Viannaia sp.- Marmosops noctivagus, Trichuris sp.-Marmosops cf. noctivagus, Podospathalium pedatum-Monodelphis adusta, Giganthorhynchus ortizi-Marmosops cf. noctivagus, y ninfas de pentastómidos-Marmosa regina y Metachirus nudicaudatus.

  17. Ciglitazone induces caspase-independent apoptosis via p38-dependent AIF nuclear translocation in renal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Chae Hwa; Yoon, Chang Soo; Kim, Yong Keun

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists have been reported to induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types including renal proximal epithelial cells. However, the underlying mechanism of cell death induced by PPARγ agonists has not been clearly defined in renal proximal tubular cells. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the mechanism by which ciglitazone, a synthetic PPARγ agonist, induces apoptosis in opossum kidney (OK) cells, an established renal epithelial cell line. Ciglitazone treatment induced apoptotic cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ciglitazone caused a transient activation of ERK and sustained activation of p38 MAP kinase. Ciglitazone-mediated cell death was attenuated by the p38 inhibitor SB203580 and transfection of dominant-negative form of p38, but not by the MEK inhibitor U0126, indicating that p38 MAP kinase activation is involved in the ciglitazone-induced cell death. Although ciglitazone-induced caspase-3 activation, the ciglitazone-mediated cell death was not affected by the caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-CHO. Ciglitazone-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation and these effects were prevented by the p38 inhibitor. These results suggest that ciglitazone induces caspase-independent apoptosis through p38 MAP kinase-dependent AIF nuclear translocation in OK renal epithelial cells

  18. Experimental transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice

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    Leidi Herrera

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected Triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. We investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized NMRI albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain CO57, Rattus rattus (rat, strain CO22 and human (strain EP. Some animals were allowed to copulate the same day of the instillation. In other experiments, the strains were inoculated in the scrotum. To determine the effect of immunosuppression, some mice were treated with cyclophosphamide 30 days post-instillation. Controls were instilled orally and ocularly. Vaginal instillation with strain CO22 produced systemic infection with tropism to the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, duodenum, pancreas, ovary and sternum. Scrotal inoculation with strain EP likewise invaded liver, spleen, lung, lymph nodes and urogenital organs; while strain CO57 invaded skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, testis, and vas deferens. Penile infection with strain CO22 was detected by xenodiagnosis. Immunosuppression did not increase parasitemia of vaginally infected mice or controls. Mating did not produce infection. Our results show that contact of blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with genital mucosa can produce blood and tissue infections. These results are discussed in relation to reports of frequent experimental tropism of T. cruzi toward urogenital organs.

  19. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem

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    P.C. Barradas

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase, that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions.

  20. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: assessment of risk factors

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    Cabrera Maria Alice A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Barra de Guaratiba is a coastal area of the city of Rio de Janeiro where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL is endemic. Although control measures including killing of dogs and use of insecticides have been applied at this locality, the canine seroprevalence remains at 25% and during 1995 and 1997 eight autochthonous human cases were notified. In order to evaluate factors related to the increase of the risk for Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs we have screened 365 dogs by anti-Leishmania immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and captured sandflies in the domestic and peridomestic environment. Some variables related to the infection were assessed by uni- and multivariate analysis. The distance of the residence from the forest border, its altitude and the presence of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis in the backyard, were found predictor factors for L. (L. chagasi infection in dogs in Barra de Guaratiba. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the peridomestic environment indicates the possibility of appearence of new human cases. Our data also suggest the presence of a sylvatic enzootic cycle at this locality.

  1. Mercury accumulation in native mammals of the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbie, P.M.; Jenkins, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    Mercury levels in tissues of mammals collected in Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina were compared using hair mercury concentration as an index of total mercury content. Bobcats (Lynx rufus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) from the Lower Coastal Plain of Georgia had higher mercury levels than specimens from the Upper Coastal Plain or Piedmont. The highest individual mercury levels in raccoons and bobcats occurred in specimens from the Georgia Lower Coastal Plain flatwoods. Skeletal muscle and liver of individual raccoons and bobcats taken in the coastal flatwoods exceeded the 0.5 ppm limit for mercury in human foodstuffs. No pattern of mercury accumulation was detected in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Hair analysis revealed elevated mercury levels in mammals from a region exposed to mercury pollution. Mercury levels in wildlife exhibit a pattern similar to that of certain fallout radioisotopes such as /sub 137/Cs. These observations indicate that significant biomagnification of mercury may occur in native mammals in certain southeastern habitats. 28 references, 6 tables.

  2. Chagas' disease in the Amazon Basin: V. Periurban palms as habitats of Rhodnius robustus and Rhodnius pictipes - triatomine vectors of Chagas' disease

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    M. A. Miles

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infected Rhodnius robustus and/or Rhodnius pictipes were commonly found, in large numbers, in the Brazilian Amazonian palms Maximiliana regia ("inajá", Acrocomia sclerocarpa ("mucajá" and Orbignya speciosa ("babaçu". The common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, was the animal most frequently associated with triatomine infested palms. R. pictipes, frequently light-attracted into houses from palm trees, was the probable source of an acute case of Chagas' disease in the vicinity of Belém. It is considered that triatomine infested palms are likely to cause some cases of acute Chagas' disease in the States of Amazonas and Rondônia. Possible control methods are suggested.Rhodnius robustus e/ou Rhodnius pictipes, infectados com Trypanosoma cruzi foram comumente encontrados, em grande numero, nas palmeiras Maximiliana regia (inaja, Acrocomia sclerocarpa (mucaja e Orbignya speciosa (babacu na Amazonia brasileira. O marsupial Didelphis marsupialis foi o animal encontrado mais frequentemente nas palmeiras associadas a alta prevalencia de triatomineos. R. pictipes que e atraido pela luz nas residencias de palmeiras vizinhas, provavelmente e a fonte de um caso agudo de doenca de Chagas nas vizinhancas de Belem. Sugere-se que as palmeiras albergando triatomineos poderiam ser relacionadas com infeccoes humanas de doenca de Chagas nos Estados de Amazonas e Rondonia. Sugere-se, tambem, possiveis metodos de controle.

  3. An in vivo cis-regulatory screen at the type 2 diabetes associated TCF7L2 locus identifies multiple tissue-specific enhancers.

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    Daniel Savic

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have repeatedly shown an association between non-coding variants in the TCF7L2 locus and risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D, implicating a role for cis-regulatory variation within this locus in disease etiology. Supporting this hypothesis, we previously localized complex regulatory activity to the TCF7L2 T2D-associated interval using an in vivo bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC enhancer-trapping reporter strategy. To follow-up on this broad initial survey of the TCF7L2 regulatory landscape, we performed a fine-mapping enhancer scan using in vivo mouse transgenic reporter assays. We functionally interrogated approximately 50% of the sequences within the T2D-associated interval, utilizing sequence conservation within this 92-kb interval to determine the regulatory potential of all evolutionary conserved sequences that exhibited conservation to the non-eutherian mammal opossum. Included in this study was a detailed functional interrogation of sequences spanning both protective and risk alleles of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7903146, which has exhibited allele-specific enhancer function in pancreatic beta cells. Using these assays, we identified nine segments regulating various aspects of the TCF7L2 expression profile and that constitute nearly 70% of the sequences tested. These results highlight the regulatory complexity of this interval and support the notion that a TCF7L2 cis-regulatory disruption leads to T2D predisposition.

  4. Histological and immunohistological investigation of alimentary tract lymphoid tissue in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and ringtail possum (Pseudocheirus peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, S W; Canfield, P J; Husband, A J

    1996-01-01

    The histological appearance and distribution of T cells, B cells and plasma cells were investigated for oropharyngeal tonsils, small intestinal lymphoid aggregations (Peyer's patches), caecocolic lymphoid patches and mesenteric lymph nodes of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) and common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus). The histological organisation and distribution of lymphoid cell subpopulations of these tissues were similar to those described in eutherian mammals, although some differences were found in comparison with previous descriptions of American opossum tissues. The main variation among the 3 species was in the structural organisations of the oropharyngeal tonsil and the caecocolic lymphoid patch which were more complex in the koala than in possums. In the koala the extensive crypts of the oropharyngeal tonsils and folding of the mucosa of the caecocolic lymphoid patch increased their surface area and, in addition, both structures had areas of epithelium heavily infiltrated with T and B cells. These features could indicate that these structures are important in immunological surveillance of orally presented antigens in koalas. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:8621326

  5. Guanylin peptides: cyclic GMP signaling mechanisms

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    Forte L.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Guanylate cyclases (GC serve in two different signaling pathways involving cytosolic and membrane enzymes. Membrane GCs are receptors for guanylin and atriopeptin peptides, two families of cGMP-regulating peptides. Three subclasses of guanylin peptides contain one intramolecular disulfide (lymphoguanylin, two disulfides (guanylin and uroguanylin and three disulfides (E. coli stable toxin, ST. The peptides activate membrane receptor-GCs and regulate intestinal Cl- and HCO3- secretion via cGMP in target enterocytes. Uroguanylin and ST also elicit diuretic and natriuretic responses in the kidney. GC-C is an intestinal receptor-GC for guanylin and uroguanylin, but GC-C may not be involved in renal cGMP pathways. A novel receptor-GC expressed in the opossum kidney (OK-GC has been identified by molecular cloning. OK-GC cDNAs encode receptor-GCs in renal tubules that are activated by guanylins. Lymphoguanylin is highly expressed in the kidney and heart where it may influence cGMP pathways. Guanylin and uroguanylin are highly expressed in intestinal mucosa to regulate intestinal salt and water transport via paracrine actions on GC-C. Uroguanylin and guanylin are also secreted from intestinal mucosa into plasma where uroguanylin serves as an intestinal natriuretic hormone to influence body Na+ homeostasis by endocrine mechanisms. Thus, guanylin peptides control salt and water transport in the kidney and intestine mediated by cGMP via membrane receptors with intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity.

  6. Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor.

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    Peter L Erb

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT, a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana and coyotes (Canis latrans. Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus and bobcats (Lynx rufus, while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor. Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions.

  7. Determining nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo through point counts, tracking stations, and video photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bonnie L.; Kus, Barbara E.; Deutschman, Douglas H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared three methods to determine nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) in San Diego County, California, during spring and summer 2000. Point counts and tracking stations were used to identify potential predators and video photography to document actual nest predators. Parental behavior at depredated nests was compared to that at successful nests to determine whether activity (frequency of trips to and from the nest) and singing vs. non-singing on the nest affected nest predation. Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) were the most abundant potential avian predator, followed by Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica). Coyotes (Canis latrans) were abundant, with smaller mammalian predators occurring in low abundance. Cameras documented a 48% predation rate with scrub-jays as the major nest predators (67%), but Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, 17%), gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus, 8%) and Argentine ants (Linepithema humile, 8%) were also confirmed predators. Identification of potential predators from tracking stations and point counts demonstrated only moderate correspondence with actual nest predators. Parental behavior at the nest prior to depredation was not related to nest outcome.

  8. Novel Parvoviruses from Wild and Domestic Animals in Brazil Provide New Insights into Parvovirus Distribution and Diversity

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    William Marciel de Souza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae are small, single-stranded DNA viruses. Many parvoviral pathogens of medical, veterinary and ecological importance have been identified. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing (HTS to investigate the diversity of parvoviruses infecting wild and domestic animals in Brazil. We identified 21 parvovirus sequences (including twelve nearly complete genomes and nine partial genomes in samples derived from rodents, bats, opossums, birds and cattle in Pernambuco, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul states. These sequences were investigated using phylogenetic and distance-based approaches and were thereby classified into eight parvovirus species (six of which have not been described previously, representing six distinct genera in the subfamily Parvovirinae. Our findings extend the known biogeographic range of previously characterized parvovirus species and the known host range of three parvovirus genera (Dependovirus, Aveparvovirus and Tetraparvovirus. Moreover, our investigation provides a window into the ecological dynamics of parvovirus infections in vertebrates, revealing that many parvovirus genera contain well-defined sub-lineages that circulate widely throughout the world within particular taxonomic groups of hosts.

  9. Feeding preferences of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Silva, Virgínia P; Martins, Daniella R A; De Queiroz, Paula Vivianne Souza; Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo G; Freire, Caio C M; Queiroz, José W; Dupnik, Kathryn M; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria De Fátima F M

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). We trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, Brazil, where cases of human and dog VL were documented. Amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. The most common source ofbloodmeal was human, but blood from dog, chicken, and armadillo was also present. We tested the preference for a source of bloodmeal experimentally by feeding L. longipalpis F1 with blood from different animals. There were significant differences between the proportion of flies engorged and number of eggs laid among flies fed on different sources, varying from 8.4 to 19 (P < 0.0001). Blood from guinea pig or horse was best to support sand fly oviposition, but human blood also supported sand fly oviposition well. No sand flies fed on cats, and sand flies feeding on the opossum Monodelphis domestica Wagner produced no eggs. These data support the hypothesis that L. longipalpis is an eclectic feeder, and humans are an important source of blood for this sand fly species in periurban areas of Brazil.

  10. Hábito alimentar de Triatoma vitticeps no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Feeding patterns of Triatoma vitticeps in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Teresa Cristina M Gonçalves

    2000-08-01

    , pig, armadillo, opossum, rodent, and bird. RESULTS: From the total analyzed, 79 were positive and 43 were negative to the nine antisera tested: armadillo (30.3% > human and pig (13.1% > bird and dog (11.5% > horse (5.7% > opossum (4.9% > rodent (4.1% > cow (3.3%. Blood meals ranged from 0 to 4 and 6 in the following distribution: 0 = 25.41%; 1 = 45.08%; 2 = 10.66%; 3 = 6.56%; 4 = 1.64%, and 6 = 0.82%. Nine of the 122 insects captured were not examined, 74 (65.54% were positive for T. cruzi infection and 39 (34.51% were negative. CONCLUSIONS: These results identified the T. vitticeps as being a sylvatic species and trypanosomiasis as being an enzootic disease. Epidemiological vigilance will be important to provide more information regarding the behavior of the species

  11. Phylogenetic measures applied to the conservation of Mexican marsupials Medidas filogenéticas aplicadas para la conservación de los marsupiales mexicanos

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    Margarita Medina-Romero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The didelphimorphs in Mexico are found all over the country except for the Baja California Peninsula. The aim of this study was to use 3 methods to assess the phylogenetic diversity of the species Marmosa mexicana, Tlacuatzin canescens, Caluromys derbianus, Chironectes minimus, Didelphis marsupialis, Didelphis virginiana, Metachirus nudicaudatus, and Philander opossum, and to determine the potential conservation areas for these mammals. Phylogenetic information was included to measure the taxonomic weighting, taxonomic dispersion, and taxonomic distinctness within the Mexican biogeographic provinces. In addition, a gap analysis was performed to show which protected areas contain the didelphimorphs listed under a conservation category. Considering phylogenetic diversity with the former analysis, results indicate that the biogeographic provinces most important for conservation of didelphimorphs are the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific Coast, and Oaxaca, although Soconusco and Sierra Madre del Sur also have to be considered. We also observed that not all of the richest sites corresponded with current protected areas. This study is important because it employed different conservation approaches based on phylogenetic measures and was focused on Mexican marsupials, of which 1 species is endemic and 2 are of conservation concern.El orden Didelphimorphia se encuentra distribuido en todo México excepto en la península de Baja California. En este trabajo se evaluó la diversidad filogenética para las especies Marmosa mexicana, Tlacuatzin canescens, Caluromys derbianus, Chironectes minimus, Didelphis marsupialis, Didelphis virginiana, Metachirus nudicaudatus y Philander opossum, y se determinaron las áreas potenciales de conservación para estos organismos. Para realizar los análisis de peso taxonómico, dispersión taxonómica y diferenciación taxonómica se incluyó información filogenética. También se realizó un análisis de vacíos y omisiones

  12. Ocorrência de Giardia, Cryptosporidium e microsporídios em animais silvestres em área de desmatamento no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia in wild animals from a deforestation area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Maria Anete Lallo

    2009-08-01

    municipalities of Mogi das Cruzes, Salesópolis and Biritiba-Mirim, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil. Samples were obtained from 46 rodents, 21 marsupials, 16 frogs, 9 bats, 3 tamarins and 3 lizards. For the detection of Giardia, Cryptosporidium and microsporidia it was used, respectively, the floatation technique with lead sulphate, the Kinyoun method and the Gram-Chromotrope staining. The total number of parasitized animals by one of these protozoans was 17.35% (17/98. Cysts of Giardia were found in faecal samples from 2 prehensile-tailed porcupines (Coendou villosus. The three positive animals for Cryptoporidium were rodents - 1 montane akodont (Akodon montensis, 1 ebony akodont (Thaptomyces nigrita and 1 guainan squirrel (Sciurus aestuans. Microporidia spores were seen in the stools of 12 animals - 6 small rodents, including 3 montane akodonts, 1 prehensile-tailed porcupine and 2 pigmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys sp.; 3 marsupials, including 1 gray slender mouse opossum (Marmosops incanus and 2 big eared opossums (Didelphis aurita; 3 hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata. This is the first description of microsporidiosis in wildlife animals in Brazil. The present study emphasizes the importance of these animals, particularly small mammals, as potential sources of protozoan infection to other animal populations, including man, in areas of deforestation.

  13. Atropelamentos de vertebrados na Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Pará, Brasil Roadkills of vertebrates in Carajas National Forest, Para, Brazil

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    Fabiano Gumier-Costa

    2009-01-01

    frequency of vertebrates from April/2003 to Octobre/2006 along the first 25 km of the highway. We registered 155 roadkills. The number of roadkills diminished along the years (P=0,01, and with distance from the beginning of the highway (P=0,0002. Snakes (Ophidia and opossum Didelphis marsupialis presented higher roadkill numbers (7,5/year, followed by birds (Aves, crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, coati Nasua nasua, rodents (Rodentia, and non identified (4,9/year; opossum Marmosops sp., brazilian rabbit Sylvilagus brasiliensis, black howler monkey Alouatta sp., tayra Eira barbara, tortoise Geochelone sp., lizards (Lacertilia e capuchin monkey Cebus apella (1/year. There was no significant relation between monthly roadkill numbers and monthly precipitation.

  14. Prey preferences of the jaguar Panthera onca reflect the post-Pleistocene demise of large prey.

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    Matt W Hayward

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the impacts of the Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions on predator-prey interactions is a challenge because of the incomplete fossil record and depauperate extant community structure. We used a comparative ecological approach to investigate whether the existing prey preference patterns of jaguars Panthera onca were potentially affected by the Pleistocene extinctions in the Americas compared with large felids in Africa and Asia. We reviewed the literature and found 25 studies reporting 3214 jaguar kills recorded throughout the species’ distribution. We found that jaguars significantly preferred capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris and giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla, and avoided agoutis, carnivorans, primates, black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis and tapirs. Generalised linear models showed that jaguars select prey primarily based on socio-ecological and behavioural traits (abundance and herd size, rather than morphological characteristics (body size. Nonetheless, their accessible prey weight range was 6-60 kg, preferred prey weight range was 45-85 kg, and mean mass of significantly preferred prey was 32 ± 13 kg leading to a predator to prey body mass ratio of 1:0.53, which is much less than that of other solitary felids. Compared with other large, solitary felids, jaguars have an unusual predator to prey body mass ratio, show limited effect of prey morphology as a driver of prey selection, lack evidence of optimal foraging beyond their preferred prey, and an absence of preferentially hunting on Cetartiodactyla herbivores. These features, coupled with the reduction in jaguar body mass since the Pleistocene, suggest that the loss of larger potential prey items within the preferred and accessible weight ranges at the end-Pleistocene still affects jaguar predatory behaviour. It may be that jaguars survived this mass extinction event by preferentially preying on relatively small species.

  15. Wild and domestic animals likely involved in rickettsial endemic zones of Northwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Andrés F; Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Leidy Y; Marín, Diana; Contreras, Verónica; Díaz, Francisco J; Valbuena, Gustavo; Labruna, Marcelo B; Hidalgo, Marylin; Arboleda, Margarita; Mattar, Salim; Solari, Sergio; Rodas, Juan D

    2017-10-01

    Between 2006 and 2008, three outbreaks of human rickettsiosis occurred in Northwestern Colombia (municipalities of Necoclí, Los Córdobas and Turbo), with case fatality rates between 27% and 54%. The aim of this study was to determine previous exposure of wild and domestic animals to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae through serological tests, to detect rickettsial evidence in their ectoparasites, and to analyze their possible role in the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in this zone of the country. A cross-sectional association study was performed from 2010 to 2011. Blood and ectoparasite samples were collected from domestic animals and small mammals. A statistically significant association (panimals and the study zones was observed. A total of 2937 ticks, 672 fleas and 74 lice were collected and tested in pools by PCR. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of the positive pools was 5% in ticks, 4% in fleas, and 0% in lice. Phylogenetic analyses showed circulation of three 4.Rickettsia species: R. felis in fleas, and R. bellii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, both in Amblyomma ovale ticks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in domestic, synanthropic and wild animals, and suggests the use of equines and canines as good sentinels of infection, in the study zone. We speculate that a transmission cycle exist involving rodents in the areas where these outbreaks have occurred. Tomes' spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus) and common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) could be good candidates as amplifier hosts for SFG rickettsiae in enzootic/endemic zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

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    Zachary H Olson

    Full Text Available Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana, and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp. carcasses (180 trials total were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8 and avian species (N = 7. Fourteen carcasses (9.8% were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%, and four carcasses (2.8% remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness. We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically.

  17. An inventory of terrestrial mammals at national parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Annand, Elizabeth M.; Talancy, Neil W.; Sauer, John R.; Nichols, James D.

    2008-01-01

    An inventory of mammals was conducted during 2004 at nine national park sites in the Northeast Temperate Network (NETN): Acadia National Park (NP), Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (NHP), Minute Man NHP, Morristown NHP, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site (NHS), Saint-Gaudens NHS, Saugus Iron Works NHS, Saratoga NHP, and Weir Farm NHS. Sagamore Hill NHS, part of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN), was also surveyed. Each park except Acadia NP was sampled twice, once in the winter/spring and again in the summer/fall. During the winter/spring visit, indirect measure (IM) sampling arrays were employed at 2 to 16 stations and included sampling by remote cameras, cubby boxes (covered trackplates), and hair traps. IM stations were established and re-used during the summer/fall sampling period. Trapping was conducted at 2 to 12 stations at all parks except Acadia NP during the summer/fall period and consisted of arrays of small-mammal traps, squirrel-sized live traps, and some fox-sized live traps. We used estimation-based procedures and probabilistic sampling techniques to design this inventory. A total of 38 species was detected by IM sampling, trapping, and field observations. Species diversity (number of species) varied among parks, ranging from 8 to 24, with Minute Man NHP having the most species detected. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Fisher (Martes pennanti), and Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris) were the most common medium-sized mammals detected in this study and White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda), Deer Mouse (P. maniculatus), and Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) the most common small mammals detected. All species detected are considered fairly common throughout their range including the Fisher, which has been reintroduced in several New England states. We did not detect any state or federal endangered or threatened species.

  18. Wildlife Contact Rates at Artificial Feeding Sites in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Tyler A.; Long, David B.; Shriner, Susan A.

    2013-06-01

    Given the popularity of feeding white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) in Texas and the increasing amount of corn that is distributed, more information is needed on the impacts of this activity on non-target wildlife. Our objectives were to report visitation, intra- and interspecific contact, and contact rates of wildlife at artificial feeding sites in Texas. Our study was conducted at three sites in Kleberg and Nueces counties, Texas. We trapped animals from February to April and August to September, 2009 and marked animals with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. At each site and season, we placed one feeder system containing a PIT tag reader within 600 m of trap locations. Readers detected PIT tags from a distance of 25 cm. We determined a contact event to occur when two different PIT tags were detected by feeder systems within 5 s. We recorded 62,719 passes by raccoons ( Procyon lotor), 103,512 passes by collared peccaries ( Pecari tajacu), 2,923 passes by feral swine ( Sus scrofa), 1,336 passes by fox squirrels ( Sciurus niger), and no passes by opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) at feeder systems. For site-season combinations in which contact events occurred, we found intraspecific contact rates (contacts per day) for raccoons, collared peccaries, and feral swine to be 0.81-124.77, 0.69-38.08, and 0.0-0.66, respectively. Throughout our study we distributed ~2,625 kg of whole kernel corn, which resulted in 6,351 contact events between marked wildlife (2.4 contacts per kg of corn). If 136 million kg of corn is distributed in Texas annually, we would expect >5.2 billion unnatural contact events between wildlife would result from this activity each year in Texas. Consequently, we do not believe that it is wise for natural resource managers to maintain artificial feeding sites for white-tailed deer or other wildlife due to pathogen transmission risks.

  19. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Zachary H.; Beasley, James C.; Rhodes, Olin E.

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically. PMID:26886299

  20. Impactos de atropelamentos de animais silvestres no trecho da rodovia SP-215 confrontante ao Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira – Porto Ferreira, SP (Nota Científica. Impacts roadkills mortality of wild animals in the area of SP-215 highway alongside Porto Ferreira State Park – Porto Ferreira, SP (Scientific Note.

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    Sonia Aparecida de SOUZA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi realizado o monitoramento dos atropelamentos de animais silvestres na rodovia SP–215 no trecho confrontante ao Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira. Em seis anos foram registrados 72 indivíduos, sendo 17 espécies de mamíferos, 10 de aves, quatro de répteis, uma de anfíbio e três indivíduos não identificados. Dentre esses, lobo-guará Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguatirica Leopardus pardalis e cuíca-lanosa Caluromys lanatus se encontram na lista das espécies ameaçadas de extinção do Estado de São Paulo. A partir do conhecimento das espécies atingidas, faz-se necessário o desenvolvimento de estudos e propostas de implantação de medidas mitigadoras à presença da rodovia SP–215 para a conservação da fauna.This paper presents the data collected through the monitoring of roadkills on SP–215 highway in the area alongside Porto Ferreira State Park. During six years, 72 roadkills were recorded, including 17 species of mammals, 10 of birds, five of reptiles, one of amphibians and three unidentified individuals. Among those species, maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus, ocelot Leopardus pardalis, and Western woolly opossum Caluromys lanatus are included in the threatened species list of the state of São Paulo. After finding out which species are affected, it is necessary to develop studies and proposals for implementing effective mitigation measures for the presence of SP–215 highway in the area in order to preserve the local fauna.

  1. The role of feral mammals on wildlife infectious disease prevalence in two nature reserves within Mexico City limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzán, Gerardo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2005-09-01

    Wild and feral medium-sized mammals were live trapped at two natural protected areas within the Mexico City limits to determine antibody prevalence for the most common infectious diseases (rabies, toxoplasmosis, and canine parvovirus) in dogs and cats. Mammals were trapped during the dry (March-April) and rainy seasons (July-August) of 1996 and 1997. A total of 68 individuals were captured, representing 8 species: opossums (Didelphis virginiana), ringtails (Bassariscus astutus), spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis), weasels (Mustela frenata), rock squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus), Mexican gray squirrels (Sciurus aureogaster), feral cats (Felis catus), and feral dogs (Canis familiaris). There was marked seroprevalence for parvovirus (86.6%) and lower seroprevalences for both toxoplasma (23.9%) and rabies (17.9%). There were no significant prevalence differences among mammals in both protected areas, which were of contrasting size and isolation (i.e., small and isolated versus large and nonisolated). We suggest that high seroprevalence of these three infectious agents in wild mammals is a result of the high densities of feral dogs and cats in the two areas sampled. Feral dogs are able to maintain the infectious agents in these localities regardless of the protected area size and isolation. However, the native mammals of the small and isolated reserve are more vulnerable to infectious diseases because of small population size and genetic bottlenecks. Our results indicate that natural areas in and around Mexico City are a refugium for latent infectious agents, several of which are zoonotic. These findings suggest that conservation measures, such as eradication of feral mammals and vaccination programs, in the protected areas and surrounding areas could be beneficial.

  2. Gains of ubiquitylation sites in highly conserved proteins in the human lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong Seon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-translational modification of lysine residues of specific proteins by ubiquitin modulates the degradation, localization, and activity of these target proteins. Here, we identified gains of ubiquitylation sites in highly conserved regions of human proteins that occurred during human evolution. Results We analyzed human ubiquitylation site data and multiple alignments of orthologous mammalian proteins including those from humans, primates, other placental mammals, opossum, and platypus. In our analysis, we identified 281 ubiquitylation sites in 252 proteins that first appeared along the human lineage during primate evolution: one protein had four novel sites; four proteins had three sites each; 18 proteins had two sites each; and the remaining 229 proteins had one site each. PML, which is involved in neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration, acquired three sites, two of which have been reported to be involved in the degradation of PML. Thirteen human proteins, including ERCC2 (also known as XPD and NBR1, gained human-specific ubiquitylated lysines after the human-chimpanzee divergence. ERCC2 has a Lys/Gln polymorphism, the derived (major allele of which confers enhanced DNA repair capacity and reduced cancer risk compared with the ancestral (minor allele. NBR1 and eight other proteins that are involved in the human autophagy protein interaction network gained a novel ubiquitylation site. Conclusions The gain of novel ubiquitylation sites could be involved in the evolution of protein degradation and other regulatory networks. Although gains of ubiquitylation sites do not necessarily equate to adaptive evolution, they are useful candidates for molecular functional analyses to identify novel advantageous genetic modifications and innovative phenotypes acquired during human evolution.

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis in an environmentally protected area in southeastern Brazil: Epidemiological and laboratory cross-sectional investigation of phlebotomine fauna, wild hosts and canine cases.

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    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a rapidly expanding zoonosis that shows increasing urbanization. Concern exists regarding the role of wildlife in visceral leishmaniasis (VL transmission, due to frequent natural or anthropogenic environmental changes that facilitate contact between wildlife, humans and their pets. The municipality of Campinas, in southeastern Brazil, initially recorded VL in 2009, when the first autochthonous case was confirmed in a dog living in an upscale residential condominium, located inside an environmentally protected area (EPA. Since then, disease transmission remains restricted to dogs inhabiting two geographically contiguous condominiums within the EPA.We conducted a cross-sectional study of the VL focus to investigate Leishmania spp. infection in domestic dogs, wild mammals and sand flies using molecular tools and recommended serological techniques. Canine seroprevalences of 1.5% and 1.2% were observed in 2013 and 2015, respectively. Six insect species, confirmed or suspected vectors or potential transmitters of Leishmania, were identified. Two specimens of the main L. (L. infantum vector in Brazil, Lutzomyia longipalpis, were captured in the EPA. Natural infection by L. (L. infantum was recorded in one Expapillata firmatoi specimen and two Pintomyia monticola. Natural infection by L. (L. infantum and Leishmania subgenus Viannia was also detected in two white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris, a known reservoir of VL. Geographical coordinates of each sampling of infected animals were plotted on a map of the EPA, demonstrating proximity between these animals, human residences, including the dogs positive for VL, and forest areas.The EPA, which is inhabited by humans, has an active VL focus. The risk of establishing and maintaining disease transmission foci in similar scenarios, i.e. wild areas that undergo environmental modifications, is evident. Moreover, different epidemiological profiles of VL must be included to elaborate

  4. Deer carcass decomposition and potential scavenger exposure to chronic wasting disease

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    Jennelle, C.S.; Samuel, M.D.; Nolden, C.A.; Berkley, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy afflicting the Cervidae family in North America, causing neurodegeneration and ultimately death. Although there are no reports of natural cross-species transmission of CWD to noncervids, infected deer carcasses pose a potential risk of CWD exposure for other animals. We placed 40 disease-free white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses and 10 gut piles in the CWD-affected area of Wisconsin (USA) from September to April in 2003 through 2005. We used photos from remotely operated cameras to characterize scavenger visitation and relative activity. To evaluate factors driving the rate of carcass removal (decomposition), we used KaplanMeier survival analysis and a generalized linear mixed model. We recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (6 visiting species) and 14 species of scavenging birds (8 visiting species). Prominent scavengers included American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). We found no evidence that deer consumed conspecific remains, although they visited gut piles more often than carcasses relative to temporal availability in the environment. Domestic dogs, cats, and cows either scavenged or visited carcass sites, which could lead to human exposure to CWD. Deer carcasses persisted for 18 days to 101 days depending on the season and year, whereas gut piles lasted for 3 days. Habitat did not influence carcass decomposition, but mammalian and avian scavenger activity and higher temperatures were positively associated with faster removal. Infected deer carcasses or gut piles can serve as potential sources of CWD prions to a variety of scavengers. In areas where surveillance for CWD exposure is practical, management agencies should consider strategies for testing primary scavengers of deer carcass material.

  5. Heterologous expression of the antimyotoxic protein DM64 in Pichia pastoris.

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    Saulo Martins Vieira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite envenomation is a neglected condition that constitutes a public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries, including Brazil. Interestingly, some animals are resistant to snake envenomation due to the presence of inhibitory glycoproteins in their serum that target toxic venom components. DM64 is an acidic glycoprotein isolated from Didelphis aurita (opossum serum that has been characterized as an inhibitor of the myotoxicity induced by bothropic toxins bearing phospholipase A2 (PLA2 structures. This antitoxic protein can serve as an excellent starting template for the design of novel therapeutics against snakebite envenomation, particularly venom-induced local tissue damage. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce a recombinant DM64 (rDM64 in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and to compare its biological properties with those of native DM64. Yeast fermentation in the presence of Pefabloc, a serine protease inhibitor, stimulated cell growth (~1.5-fold, increased the rDM64 production yield approximately 10-fold and significantly reduced the susceptibility of rDM64 to proteolytic degradation. P. pastoris fermentation products were identified by mass spectrometry and Western blotting. The heterologous protein was efficiently purified from the culture medium by affinity chromatography (with immobilized PLA2 myotoxin and/or an ion exchange column. Although both native and recombinant DM64 exhibit different glycosylation patterns, they show very similar electrophoretic mobilities after PNGase F treatment. rDM64 formed a noncovalent complex with myotoxin II (Lys49-PLA2 from Bothrops asper and displayed biological activity that was similar to that of native DM64, inhibiting the cytotoxicity of myotoxin II by 92% at a 1:1 molar ratio.

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi IIc: phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights from sequence and microsatellite analysis and potential impact on emergent Chagas disease.

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    Martin S Llewellyn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is highly genetically diverse. Numerous lines of evidence point to the existence of six stable genetic lineages or DTUs: TcI, TcIIa, TcIIb, TcIIc, TcIId, and TcIIe. Molecular dating suggests that T. cruzi is likely to have been an endemic infection of neotropical mammalian fauna for many millions of years. Here we have applied a panel of 49 polymorphic microsatellite markers developed from the online T. cruzi genome to document genetic diversity among 53 isolates belonging to TcIIc, a lineage so far recorded almost exclusively in silvatic transmission cycles but increasingly a potential source of human infection. These data are complemented by parallel analysis of sequence variation in a fragment of the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase gene. New isolates confirm that TcIIc is associated with terrestrial transmission cycles and armadillo reservoir hosts, and demonstrate that TcIIc is far more widespread than previously thought, with a distribution at least from Western Venezuela to the Argentine Chaco. We show that TcIIc is truly a discrete T. cruzi lineage, that it could have an ancient origin and that diversity occurs within the terrestrial niche independently of the host species. We also show that spatial structure among TcIIc isolates from its principal host, the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, is greater than that among TcI from Didelphis spp. opossums and link this observation to differences in ecology of their respective niches. Homozygosity in TcIIc populations and some linkage indices indicate the possibility of recombination but cannot yet be effectively discriminated from a high genome-wide frequency of gene conversion. Finally, we suggest that the derived TcIIc population genetic data have a vital role in determining the origin of the epidemiologically important hybrid lineages TcIId and TcIIe.

  7. Carcass Type Affects Local Scavenger Guilds More than Habitat Connectivity.

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    Olson, Zachary H; Beasley, James C; Rhodes, Olin E

    2016-01-01

    Scavengers and decomposers provide an important ecosystem service by removing carrion from the environment. Scavenging and decomposition are known to be temperature-dependent, but less is known about other factors that might affect carrion removal. We conducted an experiment in which we manipulated combinations of patch connectivity and carcass type, and measured responses by local scavenger guilds along with aspects of carcass depletion. We conducted twelve, 1-month trials in which five raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus spp.) carcasses (180 trials total) were monitored using remote cameras in 21 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA. Of 143 trials with complete data, we identified fifteen species of vertebrate scavengers divided evenly among mammalian (N = 8) and avian species (N = 7). Fourteen carcasses (9.8%) were completely consumed by invertebrates, vertebrates exhibited scavenging behavior at 125 carcasses (87.4%), and four carcasses (2.8%) remained unexploited. Among vertebrates, mammals scavenged 106 carcasses, birds scavenged 88 carcasses, and mammals and birds scavenged 69 carcasses. Contrary to our expectations, carcass type affected the assemblage of local scavenger guilds more than patch connectivity. However, neither carcass type nor connectivity explained variation in temporal measures of carcass removal. Interestingly, increasing richness of local vertebrate scavenger guilds contributed moderately to rates of carrion removal (≈6% per species increase in richness). We conclude that scavenger-specific differences in carrion utilization exist among carcass types and that reliable delivery of carrion removal as an ecosystem service may depend on robust vertebrate and invertebrate communities acting synergistically.

  8. Comparative Myology and Evolution of Marsupials and Other Vertebrates, With Notes on Complexity, Bauplan, and "Scala Naturae".

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    Diogo, Rui; Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaelle; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Molnar, Julia L

    2016-09-01

    Opossums are frequent subjects of developmental studies because marsupials share developmental features not seen in placentals and because Didelphimorpha is the sister-group of other extant Marsupialia. But is the adult marsupial muscular system markedly different from that of placentals or is it, like the skeletal system, very similar? We provide, for the first time, a brief description of all head and limb muscles of Didelphis virginiana based on our dissections and using a unifying nomenclature by integrating the data gathered in our long-term project on the development, homologies, and evolution of the muscles of all major vertebrate taxa. Our data indicate that there were many more muscle synapomorphic changes from the last common ancestor (LCA) of amniotes to the mammalian LCA (63) and from this LCA to the LCA of extant therians (48) than from this latter LCA to the LCA of extant placentals (10 or 11). Importantly, Didelphis is anatomically more plesiomorphic (only 14 changes from LCA of extant therians) than are rats (37 changes) and humans (63 changes), but its musculature is more complex (193 muscles) than that of humans (only 180 muscles). Of the 194 muscles of Didelphis, 172 (89%) are present in rats, meaning that their adult muscle anatomy is indeed very similar. This similarity supports the existence of a common, easy recognizable therian Bauplan, but one that is caused by developmental constraints and by evolutionary change driven by the needs of the embryos/neonates, rather than by a "goal" toward a specific adult plan/"archetype," as the name Bauplan suggests. Anat Rec, 299:1224-1255, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Selection, diversity and evolutionary patterns of the MHC class II DAB in free-ranging Neotropical marsupials

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    Otten Celine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the genetic architecture and diversity of the MHC has focused mainly on eutherian mammals, birds and fish. So far, studies on model marsupials used in laboratory investigations indicated very little or even no variation in MHC class II genes. However, natural levels of diversity and selection are unknown in marsupials as studies on wild populations are virtually absent. We used two endemic South American mouse opossums, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus, to investigate characteristic features of MHC selection. This study is the first investigation of MHC selection in free-ranging Neotropical marsupials. In addition, the evolutionary history of MHC lineages within the group of marsupials was examined. Results G. microtarsus showed extensive levels of MHC diversity within and among individuals as 47 MHC-DAB alleles and high levels of sequence divergence were detected at a minimum of four loci. Positively selected codon sites were identified, of which most were congruent with human antigen binding sites. The diversity in M. incanus was rather low with only eight observed alleles at presumably two loci. However, these alleles also revealed high sequence divergence. Again, positive selection was identified on specific codon sites, all congruent with human ABS and with positively selected sites observed in G. microtarsus. In a phylogenetic comparison alleles of M. incanus interspersed widely within alleles of G. microtarsus with four alleles being present in both species. Conclusion Our investigations revealed extensive MHC class II polymorphism in a natural marsupial population, contrary to previous assumptions. Furthermore, our study confirms for the first time in marsupials the presence of three characteristic features common at MHC loci of eutherian mammals, birds and fish: large allelic sequence divergence, positive selection on specific sites and trans-specific polymorphism.

  10. Euarchontan Opsin Variation Brings New Focus to Primate Origins.

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    Melin, Amanda D; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D; Timm, Robert M; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B; Perry, George H; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2016-04-01

    Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders Scandentia (treeshrews), Dermoptera (colugos), and Primates. The ancestral state of primate color vision is therefore uncertain. Here, we report on the genes (OPN1SW and OPN1LW) that encode SWS1 and M/LWS opsins in seven species of treeshrew, including the sole nocturnal scandentian Ptilocercus lowii. In addition, we examined the opsin genes of the Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), an enduring ecological analogue in the debate on primate origins. Our results indicate: 1) retention of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity in C. derbianus and a shift from UV to blue spectral sensitivities at the base of Euarchonta; 2) ancient pseudogenization of OPN1SW in the ancestors of P. lowii, but a signature of purifying selection in those of C. derbianus; and, 3) the absence of OPN1LW polymorphism among diurnal treeshrews. These findings suggest functional variation in the color vision of nocturnal mammals and a distinctive visual ecology of early primates, perhaps one that demanded greater spatial resolution under light levels that could support cone-mediated color discrimination. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Mammal decline, linked to invasive Burmese python, shifts host use of vector mosquito towards reservoir hosts of a zoonotic disease.

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    Hoyer, Isaiah J; Blosser, Erik M; Acevedo, Carolina; Thompson, Anna Carels; Reeves, Lawrence E; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D

    2017-10-01

    Invasive apex predators have profound impacts on natural communities, yet the consequences of these impacts on the transmission of zoonotic pathogens are unexplored. Collapse of large- and medium-sized mammal populations in the Florida Everglades has been linked to the invasive Burmese python, Python bivittatus Kuhl. We used historic and current data to investigate potential impacts of these community effects on contact between the reservoir hosts (certain rodents) and vectors of Everglades virus, a zoonotic mosquito-borne pathogen that circulates in southern Florida. The percentage of blood meals taken from the primary reservoir host, the hispid cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord, increased dramatically (422.2%) from 1979 (14.7%) to 2016 (76.8%), while blood meals from deer, raccoons and opossums decreased by 98.2%, reflecting precipitous declines in relative abundance of these larger mammals, attributed to python predation. Overall species diversity of hosts detected in Culex cedecei blood meals from the Everglades declined by 40.2% over the same period ( H (1979) = 1.68, H (2016) = 1.01). Predictions based upon the dilution effect theory suggest that increased relative feedings upon reservoir hosts translate into increased abundance of infectious vectors, and a corresponding upsurge of Everglades virus occurrence and risk of human exposure, although this was not tested in the current study. This work constitutes the first indication that an invasive predator can increase contact between vectors and reservoirs of a human pathogen and highlights unrecognized indirect impacts of invasive predators. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Using genes as characters and a parsimony analysis to explore the phylogenetic position of turtles.

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    Bin Lu

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position of turtles within the vertebrate tree of life remains controversial. Conflicting conclusions from different studies are likely a consequence of systematic error in the tree construction process, rather than random error from small amounts of data. Using genomic data, we evaluate the phylogenetic position of turtles with both conventional concatenated data analysis and a "genes as characters" approach. Two datasets were constructed, one with seven species (human, opossum, zebra finch, chicken, green anole, Chinese pond turtle, and western clawed frog and 4584 orthologous genes, and the second with four additional species (soft-shelled turtle, Nile crocodile, royal python, and tuatara but only 1638 genes. Our concatenated data analysis strongly supported turtle as the sister-group to archosaurs (the archosaur hypothesis, similar to several recent genomic data based studies using similar methods. When using genes as characters and gene trees as character-state trees with equal weighting for each gene, however, our parsimony analysis suggested that turtles are possibly sister-group to diapsids, archosaurs, or lepidosaurs. None of these resolutions were strongly supported by bootstraps. Furthermore, our incongruence analysis clearly demonstrated that there is a large amount of inconsistency among genes and most of the conflict relates to the placement of turtles. We conclude that the uncertain placement of turtles is a reflection of the true state of nature. Concatenated data analysis of large and heterogeneous datasets likely suffers from systematic error and over-estimates of confidence as a consequence of a large number of characters. Using genes as characters offers an alternative for phylogenomic analysis. It has potential to reduce systematic error, such as data heterogeneity and long-branch attraction, and it can also avoid problems associated with computation time and model selection. Finally, treating genes as

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the MS4A and TMEM176 gene families.

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    Jonathan Zuccolo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The MS4A gene family in humans includes CD20 (MS4A1, FcRbeta (MS4A2, Htm4 (MS4A3, and at least 13 other syntenic genes encoding membrane proteins, most having characteristic tetraspanning topology. Expression of MS4A genes is variable in tissues throughout the body; however, several are limited to cells in the hematopoietic system where they have known roles in immune cell functions. Genes in the small TMEM176 group share significant sequence similarity with MS4A genes and there is evidence of immune function of at least one of the encoded proteins. In this study, we examined the evolutionary history of the MS4A/TMEM176 families as well as tissue expression of the phylogenetically earliest members, in order to investigate their possible origins in immune cells.Orthologs of human MS4A genes were found only in mammals; however, MS4A gene homologs were found in most jawed vertebrates. TMEM176 genes were found only in mammals and bony fish. Several unusual MS4A genes having 2 or more tandem MS4A sequences were identified in the chicken (Gallus gallus and early mammals (opossum, Monodelphis domestica and platypus, Ornithorhyncus anatinus. A large number of highly conserved MS4A and TMEM176 genes was found in zebrafish (Danio rerio. The most primitive organism identified to have MS4A genes was spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthus. Tissue expression of MS4A genes in S. acanthias and D. rerio showed no evidence of expression restricted to the hematopoietic system.Our findings suggest that MS4A genes first appeared in cartilaginous fish with expression outside of the immune system, and have since diversified in many species into their modern forms with expression and function in both immune and nonimmune cells.

  14. Phylogenetic Analysis of the MS4A and TMEM176 Gene Families

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    Zuccolo, Jonathan; Bau, Jeremy; Childs, Sarah J.; Goss, Greg G.; Sensen, Christoph W.; Deans, Julie P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The MS4A gene family in humans includes CD20 (MS4A1), FcRβ (MS4A2), Htm4 (MS4A3), and at least 13 other syntenic genes encoding membrane proteins, most having characteristic tetraspanning topology. Expression of MS4A genes is variable in tissues throughout the body; however, several are limited to cells in the hematopoietic system where they have known roles in immune cell functions. Genes in the small TMEM176 group share significant sequence similarity with MS4A genes and there is evidence of immune function of at least one of the encoded proteins. In this study, we examined the evolutionary history of the MS4A/TMEM176 families as well as tissue expression of the phylogenetically earliest members, in order to investigate their possible origins in immune cells. Principal Findings Orthologs of human MS4A genes were found only in mammals; however, MS4A gene homologs were found in most jawed vertebrates. TMEM176 genes were found only in mammals and bony fish. Several unusual MS4A genes having 2 or more tandem MS4A sequences were identified in the chicken (Gallus gallus) and early mammals (opossum, Monodelphis domestica and platypus, Ornithorhyncus anatinus). A large number of highly conserved MS4A and TMEM176 genes was found in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The most primitive organism identified to have MS4A genes was spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthus). Tissue expression of MS4A genes in S. acanthias and D. rerio showed no evidence of expression restricted to the hematopoietic system. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that MS4A genes first appeared in cartilaginous fish with expression outside of the immune system, and have since diversified in many species into their modern forms with expression and function in both immune and nonimmune cells. PMID:20186339

  15. The ecotopes and evolution of triatomine bugs (triatominae and their associated trypanosomes

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    Gaunt Michael

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatomine bug species such as Microtriatoma trinidadensis, Eratyrus mucronatus, Belminus herreri, Panstrongylus lignarius, and Triatoma tibiamaculata are exquisitely adapted to specialist niches. This suggests a long evolutionary history, as well as the recent dramatic spread a few eclectic, domiciliated triatomine species. Virtually all species of the genus Rhodnius are primarily associated with palms. The genus Panstrongylus is predominantly associated with burrows and tree cavities and the genus Triatoma with terrestrial rocky habitats or rodent burrows. Two major sub-divisions have been defined within the species Trypanosoma cruzi, as T. cruzi 1 (Z1 and T. cruzi 2 (Z2. The affinities of a third group (Z3 are uncertain. Host and habitat associations lead us to propose that T. cruzi 1 (Z1 has evolved in an arboreal, palm tree habitat with the triatomine tribe Rhodniini, in association with the opossum Didelphis. Similarly we propose that T. cruzi (Z2 and Z3 evolved in a terrestrial habitat in burrows and in rocky locations with the triatomine tribe Triatomini, in association with edentates, and/or possibly ground dwelling marsupials. Both sub-divisions of T. cruzi may have been contemporary in South America up to 65 million years ago. Alternatively, T. cruzi 2 (Z2 may have evolved more recently from T. cruzi 1 (Z1 by host transfers into rodents, edentates, and primates. We have constructed a molecular phylogeny of haematophagous vectors, including triatomine bugs, which suggests that faecal transmission of trypanosomes may be the ancestral route. A molecular clock phylogeny suggests that Rhodnius and Triatoma diverged before the arrival, about 40 million years ago, of bats and rodents into South America.

  16. A comparative study and a phylogenetic exploration of the compositional architectures of mammalian nuclear genomes.

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    Eran Elhaik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For the past four decades the compositional organization of the mammalian genome posed a formidable challenge to molecular evolutionists attempting to explain it from an evolutionary perspective. Unfortunately, most of the explanations adhered to the "isochore theory," which has long been rebutted. Recently, an alternative compositional domain model was proposed depicting the human and cow genomes as composed mostly of short compositionally homogeneous and nonhomogeneous domains and a few long ones. We test the validity of this model through a rigorous sequence-based analysis of eleven completely sequenced mammalian and avian genomes. Seven attributes of compositional domains are used in the analyses: (1 the number of compositional domains, (2 compositional domain-length distribution, (3 density of compositional domains, (4 genome coverage by the different domain types, (5 degree of fit to a power-law distribution, (6 compositional domain GC content, and (7 the joint distribution of GC content and length of the different domain types. We discuss the evolution of these attributes in light of two competing phylogenetic hypotheses that differ from each other in the validity of clade Euarchontoglires. If valid, the murid genome compositional organization would be a derived state and exhibit a high similarity to that of other mammals. If invalid, the murid genome compositional organization would be closer to an ancestral state. We demonstrate that the compositional organization of the murid genome differs from those of primates and laurasiatherians, a phenomenon previously termed the "murid shift," and in many ways resembles the genome of opossum. We find no support to the "isochore theory." Instead, our findings depict the mammalian genome as a tapestry of mostly short homogeneous and nonhomogeneous domains and few long ones thus providing strong evidence in favor of the compositional domain model and seem to invalidate clade Euarchontoglires.

  17. Hunting, Swimming, and Worshiping: Human Cultural Practices Illuminate the Blood Meal Sources of Cave Dwelling Chagas Vectors (Triatoma dimidiata) in Guatemala and Belize

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    Stevens, Lori; Monroy, M. Carlota; Rodas, Antonieta Guadalupe; Dorn, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog), food animals (pig, sheep/goat), wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species) and commensal animals (mouse, rat). Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10) tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals. Conclusions/Significance Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not. PMID:25211347

  18. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study

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    Pedro Chaves Baía Júnior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus, 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca; 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, 0.5% deer (Mazama americana, 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus, and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis. Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94% already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 1079-1088. Epub 2010 September 01.

  19. Characterisation of monotreme caseins reveals lineage-specific expansion of an ancestral casein locus in mammals.

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    Lefèvre, Christophe M; Sharp, Julie A; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2009-01-01

    Using a milk-cell cDNA sequencing approach we characterised milk-protein sequences from two monotreme species, platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and found a full set of caseins and casein variants. The genomic organisation of the platypus casein locus is compared with other mammalian genomes, including the marsupial opossum and several eutherians. Physical linkage of casein genes has been seen in the casein loci of all mammalian genomes examined and we confirm that this is also observed in platypus. However, we show that a recent duplication of beta-casein occurred in the monotreme lineage, as opposed to more ancient duplications of alpha-casein in the eutherian lineage, while marsupials possess only single copies of alpha- and beta-caseins. Despite this variability, the close proximity of the main alpha- and beta-casein genes in an inverted tail-tail orientation and the relative orientation of the more distant kappa-casein genes are similar in all mammalian genome sequences so far available. Overall, the conservation of the genomic organisation of the caseins indicates the early, pre-monotreme development of the fundamental role of caseins during lactation. In contrast, the lineage-specific gene duplications that have occurred within the casein locus of monotremes and eutherians but not marsupials, which may have lost part of the ancestral casein locus, emphasises the independent selection on milk provision strategies to the young, most likely linked to different developmental strategies. The monotremes therefore provide insight into the ancestral drivers for lactation and how these have adapted in different lineages.

  20. Leishmania infection and blood food sources of phlebotomines in an area of Brazil endemic for visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-e-Silva, Antônia Suely; Silva, Soraia de Oliveira; Ribeiro da Silva, Rosa Cristina; Pinheiro, Valéria Cristina Soares; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Melo, Maria Norma

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the blood feeding preferences of sandflies and to identify species of Leishmania that infected phlebotomines in Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil, an area that is highly endemic for leishmaniasis. Sandflies were captured in light traps located in the peridomiciliary environments of randomly selected houses in urban and rural settings between 1800 and 0600 hours on new moon days between March 2013 and February 2015. DNA extracts from 982 engorged female sandflies were submitted to fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify infecting species of Leishmania, and blood sources were identified for 778 of these specimens. Infection by Leishmania infantum was detected in Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lu. whitmani and Lu. termitophila; L. infantum/L. braziliensis in Lu. longipalpis, Lu. whitmani and Lu. trinidadensis; L. shawi in Lu. longipalpis; L. mexicana in Lu. longipalpis; L. braziliensis in Lu. longipalpis and Lu. whitmani; L. guyanensis in Lu. longipalpis and Lu. termitophila; L. amazonensis in Lu. longipalpis and L. lainsoni or L. naiffi in Lu. longipalpis, while Lu. longipalpis and Lu. trinidadensis were infected with unidentified Leishmania sp. Blood sources were identified in 573 individual phlebotomines and the preferred hosts were, in decreasing order, chicken, dog, rodent and human with lower preferences for pig, horse, opossum and cattle. Lu. longipalpis and Lu. whitmani performed mixed feeding on man, dog and rodent, while Lu. longipalpis was the most opportunistic species, feeding on the blood of all hosts surveyed, but preferably on dog/chicken, dog/rodent and rodent/chicken. Our findings reveal the concomitant circulation of Leishmania species that cause visceral leishmaniasis and tegumentary leishmaniasis in the study area, and explain the occurrence of autochthonous human cases of both clinical forms of leishmaniasis in Caxias, Maranhão. The results support our hypothesis that, in the municipality of Caxias, transmission

  1. Genetic variation among isolates of Sarcocystis neurona, the agent of protozoal myeloencephalitis, as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, H M; Schott, H C; Mansfield, L S

    2006-06-01

    Sarcocystis neurona causes serious neurological disease in horses and other vertebrates in the Americas. Based on epidemiological data, this parasite has recently emerged. Here, the genetic diversity of Sarcocystis neurona was evaluated using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method. Fifteen S. neurona taxa from different regions collected over the last 10 years were used; six isolates were from clinically diseased horses, eight isolates were from wild-caught opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and one isolate was from a cowbird (Molothrus ater). Additionally, four outgroup taxa were also fingerprinted. Nine primer pairs were used to generate AFLP patterns, with a total number of amplified fragments ranging from 30 to 60, depending on the isolate and primers tested. Based on the presence/absence of amplified AFLP fragments and pairwise similarity values, all the S. neurona isolates tested were clustered in one monophyletic group. No significant correlation could be found between genomic similarity and host origin of the S. neurona isolates. AFLP revealed significant intraspecific genetic variations, and S. neurona appeared as a highly variable species. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium analysis suggested that S. neurona populations within Michigan have an intermediate type of population structure that includes characteristics of both clonal and panamictic population structures. AFLP is a reliable molecular technique that has provided one of the most informative approaches to ascertain phylogenetic relationships in S. neurona and its closest relatives, allowing them to be clustered by relative similarity using band matching and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis, which may be applicable to other related protozoal species.

  2. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites express a family of immunogenic surface antigens that are orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-02-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been described for the T. gondii SAGs, and each was predicted to have an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxyl-terminal glycolipid anchor addition site, suggesting surface localization. All four proteins were confirmed to be membrane associated and displayed on the surface of S. neurona merozoites. Due to their surface localization and homology to T. gondii surface antigens, these S. neurona proteins were designated SnSAG1, SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4. Consistent with their homology, the SnSAGs elicited a robust immune response in infected and immunized animals, and their conserved structure further suggests that the SnSAGs similarly serve as adhesins for attachment to host cells. Whether the S. neurona SAG family is as extensive as the T. gondii SAG family remains unresolved, but it is probable that additional SnSAGs will be revealed as more S. neurona ESTs are generated. The existence of an SnSAG family in S. neurona indicates that expression of multiple related surface antigens is not unique to the ubiquitous organism T. gondii. Instead, the SAG gene family is a common trait that presumably has an essential, conserved function(s).

  3. Sarcocystis neurona Merozoites Express a Family of Immunogenic Surface Antigens That Are Orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii Surface Antigens (SAGs) and SAG-Related Sequences†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K.; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y.; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been described for the T. gondii SAGs, and each was predicted to have an amino-terminal signal peptide and a carboxyl-terminal glycolipid anchor addition site, suggesting surface localization. All four proteins were confirmed to be membrane associated and displayed on the surface of S. neurona merozoites. Due to their surface localization and homology to T. gondii surface antigens, these S. neurona proteins were designated SnSAG1, SnSAG2, SnSAG3, and SnSAG4. Consistent with their homology, the SnSAGs elicited a robust immune response in infected and immunized animals, and their conserved structure further suggests that the SnSAGs similarly serve as adhesins for attachment to host cells. Whether the S. neurona SAG family is as extensive as the T. gondii SAG family remains unresolved, but it is probable that additional SnSAGs will be revealed as more S. neurona ESTs are generated. The existence of an SnSAG family in S. neurona indicates that expression of multiple related surface antigens is not unique to the ubiquitous organism T. gondii. Instead, the SAG gene family is a common trait that presumably has an essential, conserved function(s). PMID:15664946

  4. Testing the Sarcocystis neurona vaccine using an equine protozoal myeloencephalitis challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, William J A; Dubey, Jitender P; Marsh, Antoinette E; Reed, Stephen M; Keene, Robert O; Howe, Daniel K; Morrow, Jennifer; Workman, Jeffrey D

    2017-11-30

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is an important equine neurologic disorder, and treatments for the disease are often unrewarding. Prevention of the disease is the most important aspect for EPM, and a killed vaccine was previously developed for just that purpose. Evaluation of the vaccine had been hampered by lack of post vaccination challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine if the vaccine could prevent development of clinical signs after challenge with Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts in an equine challenge model. Seventy horses that were negative for antibodies to S. neurona and were neurologically normal were randomly assigned to vaccine or placebo groups and divided into short-term duration of immunity (study #1) and long-term duration of immunity (study #2) studies. S. neurona sporocysts used for the challenge were generated in the opossum/raccoon cycle isolate SN 37-R. Study #1 horses received an initial vaccination and a booster, and were challenged 34days post second vaccination. Study #2 horses received a vaccination and two boosters and were challenged 139days post third vaccination. All horses in study #1 developed neurologic signs (n=30) and there was no difference between the vaccinates and controls (P=0.7683). All but four horses in study #2 developed detectable neurologic deficits. The neurologic signs, although not statistically significant, were worse in the vaccinated horses (P=0.1559). In these two studies, vaccination with the S. neurona vaccine failed to prevent development of clinical neurologic deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. SnSAG5 is an alternative surface antigen of Sarcocystis neurona strains that is mutually exclusive to SnSAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowdus, Carolyn A; Marsh, Antoinette E; Saville, Willliam J; Lindsay, David S; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E; Howe, Daniel K

    2008-11-25

    Sarcocystis neurona is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Previous work has identified a gene family of paralogous surface antigens in S. neurona called SnSAGs. These surface proteins are immunogenic in their host animals, and are therefore candidate molecules for development of diagnostics and vaccines. However, SnSAG diversity exists in strains of S. neurona, including the absence of the major surface antigen gene SnSAG1. Instead, sequence for an alternative SnSAG has been revealed in two of the SnSAG1-deficient strains. Herein, we present data characterizing this new surface protein, which we have designated SnSAG5. The results indicated that the protein encoded by the SnSAG5 sequence is indeed a surface-associated molecule that has characteristics consistent with the other SAGs identified in S. neurona and related parasites. Importantly, Western blot analyses of a collection of S. neurona strains demonstrated that 6 of 13 parasite isolates express SnSAG5 as a dominant surface protein instead of SnSAG1. Conversely, SnSAG5 was not detected in SnSAG1-positive strains. One strain, which was isolated from the brain of a sea otter, did not express either SnSAG1 or SnSAG5. Genetic analysis with SnSAG5-specific primers confirmed the presence of the SnSAG5 gene in Western blot-positive strains, while also suggesting the presence of a novel SnSAG sequence in the SnSAG1-deficient, SnSAG5-deficient otter isolate. The findings provide further indication of S. neurona strain diversity, which has implications for diagnostic testing and development of vaccines against EPM as well as the population biology of Sarcocystis cycling in the opossum definitive host.

  6. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S. K.; Calero-Bernal, R.; Lovallo, M. J.; Sweeny, A. R.; Grigg, M. E.; Dubey, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive host in the USA and other animals act as intermediate or aberrant hosts. Samples of tongue and heart from 35 bobcats hunted for fur and food from Mississippi State, USA in February, 2014 were used for the present study. Muscles were examined for Sarcocystis infection by microscopic examination of either unfixed muscle squash preparations or pepsin digests, by histopathology of fixed samples, and by molecular methods. Sarcocystis-like bradyzoites were found in digests of 14 hearts and 10 tongues of 35 bobcats. In histological sections, sarcocysts were found in 26 of 35 bobcats; all appeared relatively thin-walled similar to S. felis sarcocysts under light microscope at 1000x magnification. S. neurona-like sarcocysts having thickened villar tips were seen in unstained muscle squash of tongue of two bobcats and PCR-DNA sequencing identified them definitively as S. neurona-like parasite. DNA extracted from bradyzoites obtained from tongue and heart muscle digests was analyzed by PCR-DNA sequencing at the ITS1 locus. Results indicated the presence of S. neurona-like parasite in 26 of 35 samples. ITS1 sequences identical to S. dayspi were identified in 3 bobcats, 2 of which were also co-infected with S. neurona-like parasite. The high prevalence of sarcocysts in bobcat tissues suggested an efficient sylvatic cycle of Sarcocystis spp. in the remote regions of Mississippi State with the bobcat as a relevant intermediate host. PMID:26138150

  7. Ancient Exaptation of a CORE-SINE Retroposon into a Highly Conserved Mammalian Neuronal Enhancer of the Proopiomelanocortin Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumaschny, Viviana F; Low, Malcolm J; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC) is expressed in the pituitary gland and the ventral hypothalamus of all jawed vertebrates, producing several bioactive peptides that function as peripheral hormones or central neuropeptides, respectively. We have recently determined that mouse and human POMC expression in the hypothalamus is conferred by the action of two 5′ distal and unrelated enhancers, nPE1 and nPE2. To investigate the evolutionary origin of the neuronal enhancer nPE2, we searched available vertebrate genome databases and determined that nPE2 is a highly conserved element in placentals, marsupials, and monotremes, whereas it is absent in nonmammalian vertebrates. Following an in silico paleogenomic strategy based on genome-wide searches for paralog sequences, we discovered that opossum and wallaby nPE2 sequences are highly similar to members of the superfamily of CORE-short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE) retroposons, in particular to MAR1 retroposons that are widely present in marsupial genomes. Thus, the neuronal enhancer nPE2 originated from the exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon in the lineage leading to mammals and remained under purifying selection in all mammalian orders for the last 170 million years. Expression studies performed in transgenic mice showed that two nonadjacent nPE2 subregions are essential to drive reporter gene expression into POMC hypothalamic neurons, providing the first functional example of an exapted enhancer derived from an ancient CORE-SINE retroposon. In addition, we found that this CORE-SINE family of retroposons is likely to still be active in American and Australian marsupial genomes and that several highly conserved exonic, intronic and intergenic sequences in the human genome originated from the exaptation of CORE-SINE retroposons. Together, our results provide clear evidence of the functional novelties that transposed elements contributed to their host genomes throughout evolution. PMID:17922573

  8. Non-legalized commerce in game meat in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baía, Pedro Chaves; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2010-09-01

    In tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. This study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil. Wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and product demand. Data indicated that vendors were financially highly dependant of this activity, getting a monthly income up to US$271.49. During the survey, the amount of wildlife meat on sale added a total of 5 970kg, as follows: 63.2% capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), 34.4% cayman (Melanosuchus niger and/or Caiman crocodilus crocodilus), 1.1% paca (Cuniculus paca); 0.6% armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), 0.5% deer (Mazama americana), 0.2% matamata (Chelus fimbriatus), and 0.1% opossum (Didelphis marsupialis). Most of the commercialized species were not slaughtered locally. The consumption of wildlife meat was admitted by 94% of the interviewed, consisting of 27 ethno-species: 19 mammals, 6 reptiles, and 2 birds. The same percentage of the interviewed (94%) already bought wildlife meat of 18 species: 12 mammals and 6 reptiles. The great amount of wildlife meat traded and the important demand for these products by the local population, point out the necessity to adopt policies for a sustainable management of cinegetic species, guaranteeing the conservation of the environment, the improvement of living standards, and the maintenance of the local culture.

  9. Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structural Characterization of New Basic Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata Snake Venom

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    Victor Corasolla Carregari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bbil-TX, a PLA2, was purified from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom after only one chromatographic step using RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18 column. A molecular mass of 14243.8 Da was confirmed by Q-Tof Ultima API ESI/MS (TOF MS mode mass spectrometry. The partial protein sequence obtained was then submitted to BLASTp, with the search restricted to PLA2 from snakes and shows high identity values when compared to other PLA2s. PLA2 activity was presented in the presence of a synthetic substrate and showed a minimum sigmoidal behavior, reaching its maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 25–37∘C. Maximum PLA2 activity required Ca2+ and in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Mg2+ it was reduced in the presence or absence of Ca2+. Crotapotin from Crotalus durissus cascavella rattlesnake venom and antihemorrhagic factor DA2-II from Didelphis albiventris opossum sera under optimal conditions significantly inhibit the enzymatic activity. Bbil-TX induces myonecrosis in mice. The fraction does not show a significant cytotoxic activity in myotubes and myoblasts (C2C12. The inflammatory events induced in the serum of mice by Bbil-TX isolated from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom were investigated. An increase in vascular permeability and in the levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1 was was induced. Since Bbil-TX exerts a stronger proinflammatory effect, the phospholipid hydrolysis may be relevant for these phenomena.

  10. Expression and cellular distribution of ubiquitin in response to injury in the developing spinal cord of Monodelphis domestica.

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    Natassya M Noor

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin, an 8.5 kDa protein associated with the proteasome degradation pathway has been recently identified as differentially expressed in segment of cord caudal to site of injury in developing spinal cord. Here we describe ubiquitin expression and cellular distribution in spinal cord up to postnatal day P35 in control opossums (Monodelphis domestica and in response to complete spinal transection (T10 at P7, when axonal growth through site of injury occurs, and P28 when this is no longer possible. Cords were collected 1 or 7 days after injury, with age-matched controls and segments rostral to lesion were studied. Following spinal injury ubiquitin levels (western blotting appeared reduced compared to controls especially one day after injury at P28. In contrast, after injury mRNA expression (qRT-PCR was slightly increased at P7 but decreased at P28. Changes in isoelectric point of separated ubiquitin indicated possible post-translational modifications. Cellular distribution demonstrated a developmental shift between earliest (P8 and latest (P35 ages examined, from a predominantly cytoplasmic immunoreactivity to a nuclear expression; staining level and shift to nuclear staining was more pronounced following injury, except 7 days after transection at P28. After injury at P7 immunostaining increased in neurons and additionally in oligodendrocytes at P28. Mass spectrometry showed two ubiquitin bands; the heavier was identified as a fusion product, likely to be an ubiquitin precursor. Apparent changes in ubiquitin expression and cellular distribution in development and response to spinal injury suggest an intricate regulatory system that modulates these responses which, when better understood, may lead to potential therapeutic targets.

  11. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  12. Immigration rates in fragmented landscapes--empirical evidence for the importance of habitat amount for species persistence.

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    Thomas Püttker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The total amount of native vegetation is an important property of fragmented landscapes and is known to exert a strong influence on population and metapopulation dynamics. As the relationship between habitat loss and local patch and gap characteristics is strongly non-linear, theoretical models predict that immigration rates should decrease dramatically at low levels of remaining native vegetation cover, leading to patch-area effects and the existence of species extinction thresholds across fragmented landscapes with different proportions of remaining native vegetation. Although empirical patterns of species distribution and richness give support to these models, direct measurements of immigration rates across fragmented landscapes are still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Brazilian Atlantic forest marsupial Gray Slender Mouse Opossum (Marmosops incanus as a model species and estimating demographic parameters of populations in patches situated in three landscapes differing in the total amount of remaining forest, we tested the hypotheses that patch-area effects on population density are apparent only at intermediate levels of forest cover, and that immigration rates into forest patches are defined primarily by landscape context surrounding patches. As expected, we observed a positive patch-area effect on M. incanus density only within the landscape with intermediate forest cover. Density was independent of patch size in the most forested landscape and the species was absent from the most deforested landscape. Specifically, the mean estimated numbers of immigrants into small patches were lower in the landscape with intermediate forest cover compared to the most forested landscape. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the crucial importance of the total amount of remaining native vegetation for species persistence in fragmented landscapes, and specifically as to the role of variable immigration rates in

  13. Visceral leishmaniasis in an environmentally protected area in southeastern Brazil: Epidemiological and laboratory cross-sectional investigation of phlebotomine fauna, wild hosts and canine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Maria Rita; Paiz, Laís Moraes; da Silva, Vanessa Gusmon; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; von Zuben, Andrea Paula Bruno; Castagna, Claudio Luiz; Motoie, Gabriela; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Tolezano, José Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a rapidly expanding zoonosis that shows increasing urbanization. Concern exists regarding the role of wildlife in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) transmission, due to frequent natural or anthropogenic environmental changes that facilitate contact between wildlife, humans and their pets. The municipality of Campinas, in southeastern Brazil, initially recorded VL in 2009, when the first autochthonous case was confirmed in a dog living in an upscale residential condominium, located inside an environmentally protected area (EPA). Since then, disease transmission remains restricted to dogs inhabiting two geographically contiguous condominiums within the EPA. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the VL focus to investigate Leishmania spp. infection in domestic dogs, wild mammals and sand flies using molecular tools and recommended serological techniques. Canine seroprevalences of 1.5% and 1.2% were observed in 2013 and 2015, respectively. Six insect species, confirmed or suspected vectors or potential transmitters of Leishmania, were identified. Two specimens of the main L. (L.) infantum vector in Brazil, Lutzomyia longipalpis, were captured in the EPA. Natural infection by L. (L.) infantum was recorded in one Expapillata firmatoi specimen and two Pintomyia monticola. Natural infection by L. (L.) infantum and Leishmania subgenus Viannia was also detected in two white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris), a known reservoir of VL. Geographical coordinates of each sampling of infected animals were plotted on a map of the EPA, demonstrating proximity between these animals, human residences, including the dogs positive for VL, and forest areas. The EPA, which is inhabited by humans, has an active VL focus. The risk of establishing and maintaining disease transmission foci in similar scenarios, i.e. wild areas that undergo environmental modifications, is evident. Moreover, different epidemiological profiles of VL must be included to elaborate prevention and

  14. [Possible oral transmission of Chagas disease among hydrocarbons sector workers in Casanare, Colombia, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuleta-Dueñas, Liliana Patricia; López-Quiroga, Ángela Johana; Torres-Torres, Fernando; Castañeda-Porras, Oneida

    2017-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent for Chagas disease, can be transmitted by oral intake of contaminated food or drinks. During epidemiological week 14 of 2014, two cases of acute Chagas disease were notified among hydrocarbons sector workers in Paz de Ariporo, Casanare. To characterize the affected population, to establish control and prevention measures and to confirm the outbreak. We conducted an outbreak investigation that included the following components: a) Search for symptomatic people compatible with Chagas disease according to the case definition for their referral to medical services; b) entomological survey (192/197 houses); c) sanitary inspection and microbiological analysis of food samples; and d) study of reservoirs. Data management and analysis were done with Epi-Info 7.1.5 using descriptive statistics. We also calculated intradomicile and peridomicile triatomine infestation indexes. We detected 552 exposed people; 40 had the disease (7.2%), of whom seven were women (17,5%) and 33, men (82.5%), i.e., a male-female ratio of 5:1. The mean age was 39.1 ± 10.8 years; the attack rate was 7.2% and lethality, 5% (2/40). Symptoms included fever (100% of cases), headache (80%), myalgia and arthralgia (65%), facial edema (55%), and abdominal pain (37.5%). The mean incubation time was 17 days (range: 3-21). Rhodnius prolixus domiciliary infestation index was 3.3 % and 2.2% in the peridomicile. In the five restaurants inspected sanitary conditions were deficient and food samples were microbiologically non-conforming. We found a dog and two opossums positive for IgG antibodies by ELISA. Environmental, sanitary and epidemiological conditions at the place confirmed an outbreak of Chagas diseases related to occupational exposure, possibly by oral transmission, which may be the largest to date in Colombia.

  15. Besnoitia neotomofelis n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the southern plains woodrat ( Neotoma micropus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Yabsley, M J

    2010-10-01

    Certain species of the protozoan genus Besnoitia cause clinical disease in livestock and wildlife. In the present paper a new species, Besnoitia neotomofelis is described from the southern planes woodrat (Neotoma micropus). The parasite was detected by bioassay of woodrat tissues in outbred Swiss Webster mice in an attempt to isolate Toxoplasma gondii. Initially, the organism was misdiagnosed as T. gondii because it was highly pathogenic for mice and its tachyzoites resembled T. gondii tachyzoites. Further studies revealed that it differed structurally and biologically from T. gondii. Tachyzoites were successfully cultivated and maintained in vitro in bovine monocytes and African green monkey kidney cells, and in vivo in mice. Non-dividing, uninucleate tachyzoites were approximately 1 x 5 μm in size. Longitudinally-cut bradyzoites in tissue sections measured 1.5-1.6 x 7.7-9.3 μm. Tissue cysts were microscopic, up to 210 μm long, and were infective orally to mice. Cats fed tissue cysts shed unsporulated 13 x 14 μm sized oocysts. All mice inoculated with B. neotomofelis died of acute besnoitiosis, irrespective of the dose, and Norwegian rats became infected but remained asymptomatic. Entero-epithelial stages (schizonts, gamonts) were found in cats fed tissue cysts. Large (up to 40 x 50 μm) first-generation schizonts developed in the lamina propria of the small intestine of cats. A second generation of small sized (8 μm) schizonts containing 4-8 merozoites was detected in enterocytes of the small intestine. Gamonts and oocysts were seen in goblet cells of the small intestinal epithelium. Tachyzoites were present in mesenteric lymph nodes of cats. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. neotomofelis was related to other Besnoitia species from rodents, rabbits, and opossums. Besnoitia neotomofelis is distinct from the 3 other species of Besnoitia, B. wallacei, B. darlingi and B. oryctofelisi that utilize cats as a definitive host.

  16. Transcriptomic insights into the genetic basis of mammalian limb diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Jennifer A; Rivas-Astroza, Marcelo; Deng, Jenny; Dowling, Anna; Oboikovitz, Paige; Cao, Xiaoyi; Behringer, Richard R; Cretekos, Chris J; Rasweiler, John J; Zhong, Sheng; Sears, Karen E

    2017-03-23

    From bat wings to whale flippers, limb diversification has been crucial to the evolutionary success of mammals. We performed the first transcriptome-wide study of limb development in multiple species to explore the hypothesis that mammalian limb diversification has proceeded through the differential expression of conserved shared genes, rather than by major changes to limb patterning. Specifically, we investigated the manner in which the expression of shared genes has evolved within and among mammalian species. We assembled and compared transcriptomes of bat, mouse, opossum, and pig fore- and hind limbs at the ridge, bud, and paddle stages of development. Results suggest that gene expression patterns exhibit larger variation among species during later than earlier stages of limb development, while within species results are more mixed. Consistent with the former, results also suggest that genes expressed at later developmental stages tend to have a younger evolutionary age than genes expressed at earlier stages. A suite of key limb-patterning genes was identified as being differentially expressed among the homologous limbs of all species. However, only a small subset of shared genes is differentially expressed in the fore- and hind limbs of all examined species. Similarly, a small subset of shared genes is differentially expressed within the fore- and hind limb of a single species and among the forelimbs of different species. Taken together, results of this study do not support the existence of a phylotypic period of limb development ending at chondrogenesis, but do support the hypothesis that the hierarchical nature of development translates into increasing variation among species as development progresses.

  17. Cladistic analysis of olfactory and vomeronasal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Gutierrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2011-01-01

    Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies' view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical "cortex." We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials, and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), and rats (Rattus norvegicus) by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines). In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphaericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses.

  18. Brain stem origins of spinal projections in the lizard Tupinambis nigropunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruce, W L; Newman, D B

    1981-05-10

    . On the other hand, recent findings in cat, opossum, and monkey reveal that the organization of supraspinal pathways in the Tegu lizard bears a striking resemblance to that observed in mammals.

  19. Evolution of trappin genes in mammals

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    Furutani Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trappin is a multifunctional host-defense peptide that has antiproteolytic, antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The numbers and compositions of trappin paralogs vary among mammalian species: human and sheep have a single trappin-2 gene; mouse and rat have no trappin gene; pig and cow have multiple trappin genes; and guinea pig has a trappin gene and two other derivativegenes. Independent duplications of trappin genes in pig and cow were observed recently after the species were separated. To determine whether these trappin gene duplications are restricted only to certain mammalian lineages, we analyzed recently-developed genome databases for the presence of duplicate trappin genes. Results The database analyses revealed that: 1 duplicated trappin multigenes were found recently in the nine-banded armadillo; 2 duplicated two trappin genes had been found in the Afrotherian species (elephant, tenrec, and hyrax since ancient days; 3 a single trappin-2 gene was found in various eutherians species; and 4 no typical trappin gene has been found in chicken, zebra finch, and opossum. Bayesian analysis estimated the date of the duplication of trappin genes in the Afrotheria, guinea pig, armadillo, cow, and pig to be 244, 35, 11, 13, and 3 million-years ago, respectively. The coding regions of trappin multigenes of almadillo, bovine, and pig evolved much faster than the noncoding exons, introns, and the flanking regions, showing that these genes have undergone accelerated evolution, and positive Darwinian selection was observed in pig-specific trappin paralogs. Conclusion These results suggest that trappin is an eutherian-specific molecule and eutherian genomes have the potential to form trappin multigenes.

  20. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

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    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  1. Innervation of Extrahepatic Biliary Tract, With Special Reference to the Direct Bidirectional Neural Connections of the Gall Bladder, Sphincter of Oddi and Duodenum in Suncus murinus, in Whole-Mount Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S-Q; Ren, K; Kinoshita, M; Takano, N; Itoh, M; Ozaki, N

    2016-06-01

    Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is one of the most important symptoms in post-cholecystectomy syndrome. Using either electrical or mechanical stimulation and retrogradely transported neuronal dyes, it has been demonstrated that there are direct neural pathways connecting gall bladder and the sphincter of Oddi in the Australian opossum and the golden hamster. In the present study, we employed whole-mount immunohistochemistry staining to observe and verify that there are two different plexuses of the extrahepatic biliary tract in Suncus murinus. One, named Pathway One, showed a fine, irregular but dense network plexus that ran adhesively and resided on/in the extrahepatic biliary tract wall, and the plexus extended into the intrahepatic area. On the other hand, named Pathway Two, exhibiting simple, thicker and straight neural bundles, ran parallel to the surface of the extrahepatic biliary tract and passed between the gall bladder and duodenum, but did not give off any branches to the liver. Pathway Two was considered to involve direct bidirectional neural connections between the duodenum and the biliary tract system. For the first time, morphologically, we demonstrated direct neural connections between gall bladder and duodenum in S. murinus. Malfunction of the sphincter of Oddi may be caused by injury of the direct neural pathways between gall bladder and duodenum by cholecystectomy. From the viewpoint of preserving the function of the major duodenal papilla and common bile duct, we emphasize the importance of avoiding kocherization of the common bile duct so as to preserve the direct neural connections between gall bladder and sphincter of Oddi. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Hunting, swimming, and worshiping: human cultural practices illuminate the blood meal sources of cave dwelling Chagas vectors (Triatoma dimidiata in Guatemala and Belize.

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    Lori Stevens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations.We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥ 99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog, food animals (pig, sheep/goat, wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species and commensal animals (mouse, rat. Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10 tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals.Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not.

  3. Anomalous colour in Neotropical mammals: a review with new records for Didelphis sp. (Didelphidae, Didelphimorphia and Arctocephalus australis (Otariidae, Carnivora

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    MSL. Abreu

    Full Text Available Anomalous colourations occur in many tropical vertebrates. However, they are considered rare in wild populations, with very few records for the majority of animal taxa. We report two new cases of anomalous colouration in mammals. Additionally, we compiled all published cases about anomalous pigmentation registered in Neotropical mammals, throughout a comprehensive review of peer reviewed articles between 1950 and 2010. Every record was classified as albinism, leucism, piebaldism or eventually as undetermined pigmentation. As results, we report the new record of a leucistic specimen of opossum (Didelphis sp. in southern Brazil, as well as a specimen of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis with piebaldism in Uruguay. We also found 31 scientific articles resulting in 23 records of albinism, 12 of leucism, 71 of piebaldism and 92 records classified as undetermined pigmentation. Anomalous colouration is apparently rare in small terrestrial mammals, but it is much more common in cetaceans and michrochiropterans. Out of these 198 records, 149 occurred in cetaceans and 30 in bats. The results related to cetaceans suggest that males and females with anomolous pigmentation are reproductively successful and as a consequence their frequencies are becoming higher in natural populations. In bats, this result can be related to the fact these animals orient themselves primarily through echolocation, and their refuges provide protection against light and predation. It is possible that anomalous colouration occurs more frequently in other Neotropical mammal orders, which were not formally reported. Therefore, we encourage researchers to publish these events in order to better understand this phenomenon that has a significant influence on animal survival.

  4. Radiocobalt cycling in a small mammal food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    Cobalt-60 seeping from a nearby radioactive liquid waste trench on the Oak Ridge reservation into a temperate deciduous forest ecosystem provided a source of environmental contamination where its dispersion through a small mammal food web could be studied. Maximum radiocobalt concentrations in the soil were found in the upper 5 cm of 15 cm cores. Transient mammals such as the opossum and the raccoon had small amounts of 60 Co in their tissues (0.5 and 1.0 pCi/gm, respectively), while the permanent mammal residents including the short-tailed shrew (80 pCi/g), white-footed mouse (50 pCi/g), golden mouse (50 pCi/g) and the eastern chipmunk (20 pCi/g) had from 27 to more than 100 times that of the transient mammals. The persistent occurrence of 60 Co in the small mammals tissues indicated its importance in the food web. Of the potential mammalian food items present in the area, only earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) contained high levels of 60 Co activity (greater than 56 nCi/gm dry wt.). Earthworms collected from the seepage channel eliminated 70 percent of their body burden (gut contents) of 60 Co during the first 24-hour period, but retained the remaining 30 percent (tissue accumulation) for more than 11 weeks. Tissue retention by earthworms and the utilization of numerous burrows by mammals along the seepage channel during the summer months suggested that earthworms constituted a major link in the small mammal food chain. (U.S.)

  5. The mammary gland-specific marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI share a common ancestral gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; De Leo, Alison A; Renfree, Marilyn B; Thomson, Peter C; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2012-06-08

    The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP) gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A). Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1) and early lactation (Phase 2A). The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI genes in the other species examined and provided compelling evidence that they evolved from a common ancestral gene. In addition, whilst the eutherian CTI gene was conserved in the Laurasiatherian orders Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla, it had become a pseudogene in others. These data suggest that bovine CTI may be the ancestral gene of the Artiodactyla-specific, rapidly evolving chromosome 13 pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (PTI), spleen trypsin inhibitor (STI) and the five placenta-specific trophoblast Kunitz domain protein (TKDP1-5) genes. Marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI evolved from an ancestral therian mammal gene before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians between 130 and 160 million years ago. The retention of the ELP gene in marsupials suggests that this early lactation-specific milk protein may have an important role in the immunologically naïve young of these species.

  6. The mammary gland-specific marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI share a common ancestral gene

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    Pharo Elizabeth A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The marsupial early lactation protein (ELP gene is expressed in the mammary gland and the protein is secreted into milk during early lactation (Phase 2A. Mature ELP shares approximately 55.4% similarity with the colostrum-specific bovine colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI protein. Although ELP and CTI both have a single bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-Kunitz domain and are secreted only during the early lactation phases, their evolutionary history is yet to be investigated. Results Tammar ELP was isolated from a genomic library and the fat-tailed dunnart and Southern koala ELP genes cloned from genomic DNA. The tammar ELP gene was expressed only in the mammary gland during late pregnancy (Phase 1 and early lactation (Phase 2A. The opossum and fat-tailed dunnart ELP and cow CTI transcripts were cloned from RNA isolated from the mammary gland and dog CTI from cells in colostrum. The putative mature ELP and CTI peptides shared 44.6%-62.2% similarity. In silico analyses identified the ELP and CTI genes in the other species examined and provided compelling evidence that they evolved from a common ancestral gene. In addition, whilst the eutherian CTI gene was conserved in the Laurasiatherian orders Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla, it had become a pseudogene in others. These data suggest that bovine CTI may be the ancestral gene of the Artiodactyla-specific, rapidly evolving chromosome 13 pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (PTI, spleen trypsin inhibitor (STI and the five placenta-specific trophoblast Kunitz domain protein (TKDP1-5 genes. Conclusions Marsupial ELP and eutherian CTI evolved from an ancestral therian mammal gene before the divergence of marsupials and eutherians between 130 and 160 million years ago. The retention of the ELP gene in marsupials suggests that this early lactation-specific milk protein may have an important role in the immunologically naïve young of these species.

  7. Ancient exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon into a highly conserved mammalian neuronal enhancer of the proopiomelanocortin gene.

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    Andrea M Santangelo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC is expressed in the pituitary gland and the ventral hypothalamus of all jawed vertebrates, producing several bioactive peptides that function as peripheral hormones or central neuropeptides, respectively. We have recently determined that mouse and human POMC expression in the hypothalamus is conferred by the action of two 5' distal and unrelated enhancers, nPE1 and nPE2. To investigate the evolutionary origin of the neuronal enhancer nPE2, we searched available vertebrate genome databases and determined that nPE2 is a highly conserved element in placentals, marsupials, and monotremes, whereas it is absent in nonmammalian vertebrates. Following an in silico paleogenomic strategy based on genome-wide searches for paralog sequences, we discovered that opossum and wallaby nPE2 sequences are highly similar to members of the superfamily of CORE-short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE retroposons, in particular to MAR1 retroposons that are widely present in marsupial genomes. Thus, the neuronal enhancer nPE2 originated from the exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon in the lineage leading to mammals and remained under purifying selection in all mammalian orders for the last 170 million years. Expression studies performed in transgenic mice showed that two nonadjacent nPE2 subregions are essential to drive reporter gene expression into POMC hypothalamic neurons, providing the first functional example of an exapted enhancer derived from an ancient CORE-SINE retroposon. In addition, we found that this CORE-SINE family of retroposons is likely to still be active in American and Australian marsupial genomes and that several highly conserved exonic, intronic and intergenic sequences in the human genome originated from the exaptation of CORE-SINE retroposons. Together, our results provide clear evidence of the functional novelties that transposed elements contributed to their host genomes throughout evolution.

  8. Atlantic small-mammal: a dataset of communities of rodents and marsupials of the Atlantic forests of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovendorp, Ricardo S; Villar, Nacho; de Abreu-Junior, Edson F; Bello, Carolina; Regolin, André L; Percequillo, Alexandre R; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    The contribution of small mammal ecology to the understanding of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, population dynamics, and community assembly has been hindered by the absence of large datasets of small mammal communities from tropical regions. Here we compile the largest dataset of inventories of small mammal communities for the Neotropical region. The dataset reviews small mammal communities from the Atlantic forest of South America, one of the regions with the highest diversity of small mammals and a global biodiversity hotspot, though currently covering less than 12% of its original area due to anthropogenic pressures. The dataset comprises 136 references from 300 locations covering seven vegetation types of tropical and subtropical Atlantic forests of South America, and presents data on species composition, richness, and relative abundance (captures/trap-nights). One paper was published more than 70 yr ago, but 80% of them were published after 2000. The dataset comprises 53,518 individuals of 124 species of small mammals, including 30 species of marsupials and 94 species of rodents. Species richness averaged 8.2 species (1-21) per site. Only two species occurred in more than 50% of the sites (the common opossum, Didelphis aurita and black-footed pigmy rice rat Oligoryzomys nigripes). Mean species abundance varied 430-fold, from 4.3 to 0.01 individuals/trap-night. The dataset also revealed a hyper-dominance of 22 species that comprised 78.29% of all individuals captured, with only seven species representing 44% of all captures. The information contained on this dataset can be applied in the study of macroecological patterns of biodiversity, communities, and populations, but also to evaluate the ecological consequences of fragmentation and defaunation, and predict disease outbreaks, trophic interactions and community dynamics in this biodiversity hotspot. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Using Genes as Characters and a Parsimony Analysis to Explore the Phylogenetic Position of Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Weizhao; Dai, Qiang; Fu, Jinzhong

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of turtles within the vertebrate tree of life remains controversial. Conflicting conclusions from different studies are likely a consequence of systematic error in the tree construction process, rather than random error from small amounts of data. Using genomic data, we evaluate the phylogenetic position of turtles with both conventional concatenated data analysis and a “genes as characters” approach. Two datasets were constructed, one with seven species (human, opossum, zebra finch, chicken, green anole, Chinese pond turtle, and western clawed frog) and 4584 orthologous genes, and the second with four additional species (soft-shelled turtle, Nile crocodile, royal python, and tuatara) but only 1638 genes. Our concatenated data analysis strongly supported turtle as the sister-group to archosaurs (the archosaur hypothesis), similar to several recent genomic data based studies using similar methods. When using genes as characters and gene trees as character-state trees with equal weighting for each gene, however, our parsimony analysis suggested that turtles are possibly sister-group to diapsids, archosaurs, or lepidosaurs. None of these resolutions were strongly supported by bootstraps. Furthermore, our incongruence analysis clearly demonstrated that there is a large amount of inconsistency among genes and most of the conflict relates to the placement of turtles. We conclude that the uncertain placement of turtles is a reflection of the true state of nature. Concatenated data analysis of large and heterogeneous datasets likely suffers from systematic error and over-estimates of confidence as a consequence of a large number of characters. Using genes as characters offers an alternative for phylogenomic analysis. It has potential to reduce systematic error, such as data heterogeneity and long-branch attraction, and it can also avoid problems associated with computation time and model selection. Finally, treating genes as characters

  10. Lake and sea populations of Mysis relicta (Crustacea, Mysida with different visual-pigment absorbance spectra use the same A1 chromophore.

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    Nikolai Belikov

    Full Text Available Glacial-relict species of the genus Mysis (opossum shrimps inhabiting both fresh-water lakes and brackish sea waters in northern Europe show a consistent lake/sea dichotomy in eye spectral sensitivity. The absorbance peak (λmax recorded by microspectrophotometry in isolated rhabdoms is invariably 20-30 nm red-shifted in "lake" compared with "sea" populations. The dichotomy holds across species, major opsin lineages and light environments. Chromophore exchange from A1 to A2 (retinal → 3,4-didehydroretinal is a well-known mechanism for red-shifting visual pigments depending on environmental conditions or stages of life history, present not only in fishes and amphibians, but in some crustaceans as well. We tested the hypothesis that the lake/sea dichotomy in Mysis is due to the use of different chromophores, focussing on two populations of M. relicta from, respectively, a Finnish lake and the Baltic Sea. They are genetically very similar, having been separated for less than 10 kyr, and their rhabdoms show a typical lake/sea difference in λmax (554 nm vs. 529 nm. Gene sequencing has revealed no differences translating into amino acid substitutions in the transmembrane parts of their opsins. We determined the chromophore identity (A1 or A2 in the eyes of these two populations by HPLC, using as standards pure chromophores A1 and A2 as well as extracts from bovine (A1 and goldfish (A2 retinas. We found that the visual-pigment chromophore in both populations is A1 exclusively. Thus the spectral difference between these two populations of M. relicta is not due to the use of different chromophores. We argue that this conclusion is likely to hold for all populations of M. relicta as well as its European sibling species.

  11. Seasonally dynamic diel vertical migrations of Mysis diluviana, coregonine fishes, and siscowet lake trout in the pelagia of western Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenstorff, Tyler D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Yule, Daniel L.; Sass, Greg G.

    2011-01-01

    Diel vertical migrations are common among many aquatic species and are often associated with changing light levels. The underlying mechanisms are generally attributed to optimizing foraging efficiency or growth rates and avoiding predation risk (μ). The objectives of this study were to (1) assess seasonal and interannual changes in vertical migration patterns of three trophic levels in the Lake Superior pelagic food web and (2) examine the mechanisms underlying the observed variability by using models of foraging, growth, and μ. Our results suggest that the opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana, kiyi Coregonus kiyi, and siscowet lake trout Salvelinus namaycush migrate concurrently during each season, but spring migrations are less extensive than summer and fall migrations. In comparison with M. diluviana, kiyis, and siscowets, the migrations by ciscoes C. artedi were not as deep in the water column during the day, regardless of season. Foraging potential and μ probably drive the movement patterns of M. diluviana, while our modeling results indicate that movements by kiyis and ciscoes are related to foraging opportunity and growth potential and receive a lesser influence from μ. The siscowet is an abundant apex predator in the pelagia of Lake Superior and probably undertakes vertical migrations in the water column to optimize foraging efficiency and growth. The concurrent vertical movement patterns of most species are likely to facilitate nutrient transport in this exceedingly oligotrophic ecosystem, and they demonstrate strong linkages between predators and prey. Fishery management strategies should use an ecosystem approach and should consider how altering the densities of long-lived top predators produces cascading effects on the nutrient cycling and energy flow in lower trophic levels.

  12. Camera trap arrays improve detection probability of wildlife: Investigating study design considerations using an empirical dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kelly M; Nathan, Lucas R; Liberati, Marjorie R; Tingley, Morgan W; Vokoun, Jason C; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G

    2017-01-01

    Camera trapping is a standard tool in ecological research and wildlife conservation. Study designs, particularly for small-bodied or cryptic wildlife species often attempt to boost low detection probabilities by using non-random camera placement or baited cameras, which may bias data, or incorrectly estimate detection and occupancy. We investigated the ability of non-baited, multi-camera arrays to increase detection probabilities of wildlife. Study design components were evaluated for their influence on wildlife detectability by iteratively parsing an empirical dataset (1) by different sizes of camera arrays deployed (1-10 cameras), and (2) by total season length (1-365 days). Four species from our dataset that represented a range of body sizes and differing degrees of presumed detectability based on life history traits were investigated: white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). For all species, increasing from a single camera to a multi-camera array significantly improved detection probability across the range of season lengths and number of study sites evaluated. The use of a two camera array increased survey detection an average of 80% (range 40-128%) from the detection probability of a single camera across the four species. Species that were detected infrequently benefited most from a multiple-camera array, where the addition of up to eight cameras produced significant increases in detectability. However, for species detected at high frequencies, single cameras produced a season-long (i.e, the length of time over which cameras are deployed and actively monitored) detectability greater than 0.75. These results highlight the need for researchers to be critical about camera trap study designs based on their intended target species, as detectability for each focal species responded differently to array size and season length. We suggest that researchers a priori identify

  13. Edge effects and geometric constraints: a landscape-level empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Suzy E; Prevedello, Jayme A; Delciellos, Ana Cláudia; Vieira, Marcus Vinícius

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects are pervasive in landscapes yet their causal mechanisms are still poorly understood. Traditionally, edge effects have been attributed to differences in habitat quality along the edge-interior gradient of habitat patches, under the assumption that no edge effects would occur if habitat quality was uniform. This assumption was questioned recently after the recognition that geometric constraints tend to reduce population abundances near the edges of habitat patches, the so-called geometric edge effect (GEE). Here, we present the first empirical, landscape-level evaluation of the importance of the GEE in shaping abundance patterns in fragmented landscapes. Using a data set on the distribution of small mammals across 18 forest fragments, we assessed whether the incorporation of the GEE into the analysis changes the interpretation of edge effects and the degree to which predictions based on the GEE match observed responses. Quantitative predictions were generated for each fragment using simulations that took into account home range, density and matrix use for each species. The incorporation of the GEE into the analysis changed substantially the interpretation of overall observed edge responses at the landscape scale. Observed abundances alone would lead to the conclusion that the small mammals as a group have no consistent preference for forest edges or interiors and that the black-eared opossum Didelphis aurita (a numerically dominant species in the community) has on average a preference for forest interiors. In contrast, incorporation of the GEE suggested that the small mammal community as a whole has a preference for forest edges, whereas D. aurita has no preference for forest edges or interiors. Unexplained variance in edge responses was reduced by the incorporation of GEE, but remained large, varying greatly on a fragment-by-fragment basis. This study demonstrates how to model and incorporate the GEE in analyses of edge effects and that this

  14. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  15. Parathyroid hormone inhibition of Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 3 transcription: Intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Bezerra, Camila Nogueira Alves, E-mail: camilab@icb.usp.br; Queiroz-Leite, Gabriella Duarte; Polidoro, Juliano Zequini; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral

    2015-06-12

    The main transport mechanism of reabsorption of sodium bicarbonate and fluid in the renal proximal tubules involves Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 3 (NHE3), which is acutely and chronically downregulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Although PTH is known to exert an inhibitory effect on NHE3 expression and transcription, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that, in opossum kidney proximal tubule (OKP) cells, PTH-induced inhibition of Nhe3 gene promoter occurs even in the core promoter that controls expression of the reporter gene. We found that inhibition of the protein kinase A (PKA) and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways transformed PTH from an inhibitor of promoter activity into an activator of that same activity, as did point mutations in the EGR1, Sp1, and Sp3 binding consensus elements in the promoter. In nuclear extracts of PTH-treated OKP cells, we also observed increased expression of EGR1 mRNA and of some Sp3 isoforms. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed a supershift of the −61 to −42-bp probe with an anti-EGR1 antibody in PTH-treated cells, suggesting that EGR1 binding is relevant for the inhibitory activity of PTH. We conclude that PTH-induced inhibition of NHE3 transcription is related to higher EGR1 expression; to EGR1 binding to the proximal and core promoters; and to PKA and JAK/STAT pathway activation. This mechanism might be responsible, at least in part, for lower NHE3 expression and sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules in the presence of high PTH levels. - Highlights: • PTH regulation of Nhe3 promoter depends on EGR1 binding. • EGR1, PKA and JAK/STAT are involved in PTH inhibition of the Nhe3 promoter. • PTH alters expression of EGR1 and Sp3. • PTH inhibits the Nhe3 promoter by regulating PKA and JAK/STAT signaling.

  16. Epidemiologia da leishmaniose tegumentar na Comunidade São João, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Epidemiology of tegumentary leishmaniasis in São João, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil, o grau de exposição dos indivíduos à leishmaniose está relacionado aos processos de ocupação desordenada. Para avaliar fatores predisponentes à gênese do surto, confirmar o diagnóstico parasitológico, tratar os doentes, avaliar agentes etiológicos, reservatórios e transmissores, realizou-se um estudo em Manaus, numa comunidade localizada no Km 4 da BR-174, durante 12 meses. Atendeu-se 451 indivíduos, dos quais foram diagnosticados 17 casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Seis pacientes eram mulheres e 11 homens. A idade variou de um a 64 anos. Onze pacientes tinham entre uma e três lesões. Em relação aos reservatórios, três marsupiais foram capturados. Não foram encontrados hemoflagelados nos exames realizados. Dentre os insetos capturados, Lutzomyia umbratilis foi a espécie predominante. Grande parte dos pacientes de leishmaniose tegumentar americana tem atividades que os expõem aos vetores da Leishmania. Um grupo de pacientes foi infectado possivelmente no intra/peridomicílio. O perfil epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana nessa comunidade é semelhante àquele observado em outros focos na região. Com essa casuística, a leishmaniose tegumentar americana é caracterizada como endêmica e como um problema de saúde pública local.In Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, the degree of individual exposure to leishmaniasis is related to disorganized land occupation. In order to evaluate predisposing factors for an outbreak, confirm the parasitological diagnosis, treat patients, and assess etiological agents, reservoirs, and vectors, a 12-month study was conducted in Manaus in a community located along the BR-174 federal highway. Some 451 individuals were studied, among whom 17 cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL were diagnosed (six women and 11 men. Age varied from one to 64 years. Eleven patients had from one to three lesions. As for reservoirs, three opossums were

  17. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii

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    Patel Hardip R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. Results A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, (b End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Conclusions Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby

  18. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenwei; Webley, Lee; Wei, Ke-jun; Wakefield, Matthew J; Patel, Hardip R; Deakin, Janine E; Alsop, Amber; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Cooper, Desmond W; Nicholas, Frank W; Zenger, Kyall R

    2011-08-19

    The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a) sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), (b) End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c) tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers) to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby genome and considerably extends that of the first

  19. Camera trap arrays improve detection probability of wildlife: Investigating study design considerations using an empirical dataset.

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    Kelly M O'Connor

    Full Text Available Camera trapping is a standard tool in ecological research and wildlife conservation. Study designs, particularly for small-bodied or cryptic wildlife species often attempt to boost low detection probabilities by using non-random camera placement or baited cameras, which may bias data, or incorrectly estimate detection and occupancy. We investigated the ability of non-baited, multi-camera arrays to increase detection probabilities of wildlife. Study design components were evaluated for their influence on wildlife detectability by iteratively parsing an empirical dataset (1 by different sizes of camera arrays deployed (1-10 cameras, and (2 by total season length (1-365 days. Four species from our dataset that represented a range of body sizes and differing degrees of presumed detectability based on life history traits were investigated: white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, bobcat (Lynx rufus, raccoon (Procyon lotor, and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana. For all species, increasing from a single camera to a multi-camera array significantly improved detection probability across the range of season lengths and number of study sites evaluated. The use of a two camera array increased survey detection an average of 80% (range 40-128% from the detection probability of a single camera across the four species. Species that were detected infrequently benefited most from a multiple-camera array, where the addition of up to eight cameras produced significant increases in detectability. However, for species detected at high frequencies, single cameras produced a season-long (i.e, the length of time over which cameras are deployed and actively monitored detectability greater than 0.75. These results highlight the need for researchers to be critical about camera trap study designs based on their intended target species, as detectability for each focal species responded differently to array size and season length. We suggest that researchers a priori

  20. Strains of Sarcocystis neurona exhibit differences in their surface antigens, including the absence of the major surface antigen SnSAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Daniel K; Gaji, Rajshekhar Y; Marsh, Antoinette E; Patil, Bhagyashree A; Saville, William J; Lindsay, David S; Dubey, J P; Granstrom, David E

    2008-05-01

    of their life cycle in opossums.

  1. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana em municípios da região noroeste do estado do Paraná: utilização de sensoriamento remoto para análise do tipo de vegetação e os locais de ocorrência da doença American cutaneous leishmaniasis in municipalities in the northwestern region of Paraná State: use of remote sensing for analysis of vegetation types and places with disease occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides Arraes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose tegumentar americana, doença endêmica da região noroeste do Paraná, é transmitida por flebotomíneos ao homem e a animais como cães, tatu, gambá e roedores silvestres. A doença vem ocorrendo em locais de derrubadas de matas e às margens de rios e lagoas com vegetação arbórea, onde o homem entra em contato com o inseto infectado. Esta doença constitui-se num problema de saúde pública devido à ocorrência de surtos epidêmicos em todo o Paraná. Em decorrência da importância de se conhecer áreas endêmicas, este trabalho utilizou dados de fichas epidemiológicas de pacientes atendidos no período de 1999 a 2004 associado às áreas de desmatamento identificadas por técnicas e produtos de sensoriamento remoto por satélite. Os resultados mostraram que a ocorrência de casos em municípios da região coincidem com as prováveis áreas supostas de infecção dos pacientes.American cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic disease in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil, is transmitted by phlebotomines to man and animals like dogs, armadillos, opossums and wild rodents. This disease has been occurring in places where forests have been felled and on the banks of rivers and lakes with arboreal vegetation, where man comes into contact with infected insects. This disease is a public health problem because of the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks throughout Paraná. Because of the importance of finding out about endemic areas, this study used epidemiological file data on patients attended between 1999 and 2004. These data were correlated with areas of forest felling that were identified by means of satellite remote sensing techniques and products. The results showed that the occurrences of cases in the municipalities of this region coincided with the presumed likely areas for patient infection.

  2. Cloning and expression of ligand-gated ion-channel receptor L2 in central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtani, Takeshi; Munemoto, Yumi; Kase, Masahiko; Sakuma, Satoru; Tsutsumi, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    An orphan receptor of ligand-gated ion-channel type (L2, also termed ZAC according to the presence of zinc ion for channel activation) was identified by computer-assisted search programs on human genome database. The L2 protein shares partial homology with serotonin receptors 5HT3A and 5HT3B. We have cloned L2 cDNA derived from human caudate nucleus and characterized the exon-intron structure as follows: (1) The L2 protein has four transmembrane regions (M1-M4) and a long cytoplasmic loop between M3 and M4. (2) The sequence is conserved in species including chimpanzee, dog, cow, and opossum. (3) Nine exons form its protein-coding region and especially exon 5 corresponds to a disulfide bond region on the amino-terminal side. Our analysis using multiple tissue cDNA panels revealed that at least two splicing variants of L2 mRNA are present. The cDNA PCR amplification study revealed that L2 mRNA is expressed in tissues including brain, pancreas, liver, lung, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle while 5HT3A mRNA could be detected in brain, heart, placenta, lung, kidney, pancreas, and skeletal muscle, and 5HT3B mRNA in brain, kidney, and skeletal muscle, suggesting different significance in tissue expression of these receptors. Regional expression of L2 mRNA and protein was examined in brain. The RT-PCR studies confirmed L2 mRNA expression in hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, and thalamus in adult brain. The L2 protein was immunolocalized by using antipeptide antibodies. Immunostained tissue sections revealed that L2-like immunoreactivity was dominantly expressed in the hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. We analyzed the expression of L2 protein in HEK293 cells using GFP fusion protein reporter system. Western blots revealed that L2 protein confers sugar chains on the extracellular side. In transfected HEK293 cells, cellular membranes and intracellular puncta were densely labeled with GFP, suggesting selective dispatch to the

  3. Eco-epidemiological analysis of rickettsial seropositivity in rural areas of Colombia: A multilevel approach.

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    Juan C Quintero V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsiosis is a re-emergent infectious disease without epidemiological surveillance in Colombia. This disease is generally undiagnosed and several deadly outbreaks have been reported in the country in the last decade. The aim of this study is to analyze the eco-epidemiological aspects of rickettsial seropositivity in rural areas of Colombia where outbreaks of the disease were previously reported. A cross-sectional study, which included 597 people living in 246 households from nine hamlets in two municipalities of Colombia, was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016. The survey was conducted to collect sociodemographic and household characteristics (exposure data. Blood samples were collected to determine the rickettsial seropositivity in humans, horses and dogs (IFA, cut-off = 1/128. In addition, infections by rickettsiae were detected in ticks from humans and animals by real-time PCR targeting gltA and ompA genes. Data was analyzed by weighted multilevel clog-log regression model using three levels (person, household and hamlets and rickettsial seropositivity in humans was the main outcome. Overall prevalence of rickettsial seropositivity in humans was 25.62% (95%CI 22.11-29.12. Age in years (PR = 1.01 95%CI 1.01-1.02 and male sex (PR = 1.65 95%CI 1.43-1.90 were risk markers for rickettsial seropositivity. Working outdoors (PR = 1.20 95%CI 1.02-1.41, deforestation and forest fragmentation for agriculture use (PR = 1.75 95%CI 1.51-2.02, opossum in peridomiciliary area (PR = 1.56 95%CI 1.37-1.79 and a high proportion of seropositive domestic animals in the home (PR20-40% vs 40% vs <20% = 3.14 95%CI 2.43-4.04 were associated with rickettsial seropositivity in humans. This study showed the presence of Rickettsia antibodies in human populations and domestic animals. In addition, different species of rickettsiae were detected in ticks collected from humans and animals. Our results highlighted the role of domestic animals as sentinels of

  4. RNAseq Analyses Identify Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Inflammation as a Major Abnormality in ALS Spinal Cord.

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    David G Brohawn

    Full Text Available ALS is a rapidly progressive, devastating neurodegenerative illness of adults that produces disabling weakness and spasticity arising from death of lower and upper motor neurons. No meaningful therapies exist to slow ALS progression, and molecular insights into pathogenesis and progression are sorely needed. In that context, we used high-depth, next generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq, Illumina to define gene network abnormalities in RNA samples depleted of rRNA and isolated from cervical spinal cord sections of 7 ALS and 8 CTL samples. We aligned >50 million 2X150 bp paired-end sequences/sample to the hg19 human genome and applied three different algorithms (Cuffdiff2, DEseq2, EdgeR for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEG's. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA identified inflammatory processes as significantly elevated in our ALS samples, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF found to be a major pathway regulator (IPA and TNFα-induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2 as a major network "hub" gene (WGCNA. Using the oPOSSUM algorithm, we analyzed transcription factors (TF controlling expression of the nine DEG/hub genes in the ALS samples and identified TF's involved in inflammation (NFkB, REL, NFkB1 and macrophage function (NR1H2::RXRA heterodimer. Transient expression in human iPSC-derived motor neurons of TNFAIP2 (also a DEG identified by all three algorithms reduced cell viability and induced caspase 3/7 activation. Using high-density RNAseq, multiple algorithms for DEG identification, and an unsupervised gene co-expression network approach, we identified significant elevation of inflammatory processes in ALS spinal cord with TNF as a major regulatory molecule. Overexpression of the DEG TNFAIP2 in human motor neurons, the population most vulnerable to die in ALS, increased cell death and caspase 3/7 activation. We propose that therapies targeted to reduce inflammatory TNFα signaling may be

  5. New records of Histoplasma capsulatum from wild animals in the Brazilian Amazon Novos registros de Histoplasma capsulatum em animais silvestres na Amazônia brasileira

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    Roberto Daibes Naiff

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight isolates of Histoplasma capsulation were obtained from eight species of forest mammals from the States of Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia in the Amazon Region of Brazil. Primary isolates were obtained by inoculating triturated liver and spleen tissue intradermally and intraperito-neally in hamsters. Mycological diagnosis in hamsters presenting lesions was confirmed by histopathology and culture on Sabouraud dextrose-agar. Infected hamsters developed signs of disease within two to nine months; all had disseminated visceral lesions and most also had skin lesions at the sites of inoculation. None of the hamsters inoculated with skin macerates of the original hosts developed histoplasmosis, and histopathological examination of the viscera of the wild hosts failed to reveal H. capsulation. Prevalence of infection was considerably higher in females than in males both for the opossum Didelphis marsupialis and for total wild animals (479 examined. It is proposed that canopy-dwelling mammals may acquire the infection from conidia borne on convective currents in hollow trees with openings at ground-level.Vinte e oito amostras de Histoplasma capsulatum foram obtidas de oito espécies de mamíferos silvestres nos Estados do Amazonas, Pará e Rondônia. Os isolamentos foram feitos mediante inoculação de amostras trituradas de fígado e baço em hamsters por via intradérmica e intraperitoneal. O diagnóstico micológico nos hamsters que apresentaram lesões foi confirmado por histopatologia e cultivo em meio dextrose-agar de Sabouraud. Os hamsters infectados desenvolveram sinais de doença após dois a nove meses; todos apresentaram lesões disseminadas nas vísceras e a maioria apresentou também lesões cutâneas nos locais da inoculação. Nenhum dos hamsters inoculados com material de pele dos hospedeiros originais desenvolveu histoplasmose, e H. capsulatum não foi detectado nos exames histopatológicos dos animais silvestres. A preval

  6. Karyotype characterization and nucleolar organizer regions of marsupial species (Didelphidae from areas of Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in Brazil

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    Núbia P. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of 23 specimens belonging to 16 species from nine genera of Brazilian marsupials (family Didelphidae were studied. The animals were collected in eight localities of Cerrado or Atlantic Forest biomes in the states of Goiás, Tocantins and São Paulo. The karyotypes were analyzed after conventional Giemsa staining and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs. New karyotypic data were obtained for Gracilinanus microtarsus (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosops paulensis (2n = 14, FN = 24 , Micoreus paraguayanus (2n = 14, FN = 20 and Monodelphis rubida (2n = 18, FN = 32 and are discussed in detail. The karyotypes of G. microtarsus , M. paulensis and M. paraguayanus include three large pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 1, 2 and 3 and a medium-sized metacentric or submetacentric pair 4. Pairs 5 and 6 are small submetacentrics in G. microtarsus and M. paulensis and acrocentrics in M. paraguayanus . M. paulensis presented a single Ag-NOR in pair 6 (6p6p, while M. paraguayanus exhibited multiple Ag-NORs in pairs 5 and 6 (5pq5pq6p6p. There was variation in size and morphology of the sex chromosomes among these species. Monodelphis rubida presented a karyotype with 2n = 18 and FN = 32 composed of a large submetacentric pair 1, a medium-sized metacentric pair 2 and six pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 3 through 8. The X was a small acrocentric and the Y was dot-like. A single Ag-NOR bearing pair (5p5p characterized M. rubida. Relevant karyotypic information was obtained for 19 specimens belonging to 12 species collected in areas sampled for the first time [ Caluromys lanatus and C. philander (2n = 14, FN = 20, Gracilinanus emiliae (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosa murina , Metachirus nudicaudatus and Micoureus demerarae (2n = 14, FN = 20, Monodelphis americana (2n = 18, FN = 32 and M. domestica (2n = 18, FN = 20, and Didelphis marsupialis, Philander frenata, P. opossum and P. sp (2n = 22, FN = 20]. Although the karyotypes were relatively

  7. A scoping review of the role of wildlife in the transmission of bacterial pathogens and antimicrobial resistance to the food Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, J; Rajić, A; Young, I; Mascarenhas, M; Waddell, L; LeJeune, J

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife can contribute to environmental contamination with bacterial pathogens and their transfer to the human food chain. Global usage and frequent misuse of antimicrobials contribute to emergence of new antimicrobial resistant (AMR) strains of foodborne pathogens. We conducted a scoping review of published research to identify and characterize the evidence on wildlife's role in transmission of AMR and/or bacterial pathogens to the food chain. An advisory group (AG) of 13 North American experts from diverse disciplines was surveyed to solicit insight in the review scope, priority topics and research characteristics. A pre-tested search strategy was implemented in seven bibliographic databases (1990 to January 2013). Citations were relevance screened, and key characteristics on priority topics extracted independently by two reviewers. Analysis identified topic areas with solid evidence and main knowledge gaps. North America reported 30% of 866 relevant articles. The prevalence of five targeted bacterial pathogens and/or AMR in any pathogen in wildlife was reported in 582 articles. Transmission risk factors for selected bacteria or AMR in any bacteria were reported in 300. Interventions to control transmission were discussed in 124 articles and formally evaluated in 50. The majority of primary research investigated birds, cervids, rodents, feral pigs, opossums, E. coli (n = 329), Salmonella (n = 293) and Campylobacter (n = 124). An association between wildlife and transmission of bacterial pathogens and/or AMR to the food chain was supported in 122 studies. The scoping review identified a significant body of research on the role of wild birds in the prevalence and transmission of E. coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter. There was little research employing molecular methods contributing to the evidence concerning the importance and direction of transmission of wildlife/pathogen combinations. Given the advancements of these methods, future research should focus in this

  8. A transcriptome resource for the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): insights into koala retrovirus transcription and sequence diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Matthew; Pavasovic, Ana; King, Andrew G; Prentis, Peter J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Chen, Zhiliang; Colgan, Donald J; Polkinghorne, Adam; Wilkins, Marc R; Flanagan, Cheyne; Gillett, Amber; Hanger, Jon; Johnson, Rebecca N; Timms, Peter

    2014-09-11

    The koala, Phascolarctos cinereus, is a biologically unique and evolutionarily distinct Australian arboreal marsupial. The goal of this study was to sequence the transcriptome from several tissues of two geographically separate koalas, and to create the first comprehensive catalog of annotated transcripts for this species, enabling detailed analysis of the unique attributes of this threatened native marsupial, including infection by the koala retrovirus. RNA-Seq data was generated from a range of tissues from one male and one female koala and assembled de novo into transcripts using Velvet-Oases. Transcript abundance in each tissue was estimated. Transcripts were searched for likely protein-coding regions and a non-redundant set of 117,563 putative protein sequences was produced. In similarity searches there were 84,907 (72%) sequences that aligned to at least one sequence in the NCBI nr protein database. The best alignments were to sequences from other marsupials. After applying a reciprocal best hit requirement of koala sequences to those from tammar wallaby, Tasmanian devil and the gray short-tailed opossum, we estimate that our transcriptome dataset represents approximately 15,000 koala genes. The marsupial alignment information was used to look for potential gene duplications and we report evidence for copy number expansion of the alpha amylase gene, and of an aldehyde reductase gene.Koala retrovirus (KoRV) transcripts were detected in the transcriptomes. These were analysed in detail and the structure of the spliced envelope gene transcript was determined. There was appreciable sequence diversity within KoRV, with 233 sites in the KoRV genome showing small insertions/deletions or single nucleotide polymorphisms. Both koalas had sequences from the KoRV-A subtype, but the male koala transcriptome has, in addition, sequences more closely related to the KoRV-B subtype. This is the first report of a KoRV-B-like sequence in a wild population. This transcriptomic

  9. Expression profiles of the immune genes CD4, CD8β, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in mitogen-stimulated koala lymphocytes (Phascolarctos cinereus by qRT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iona E. Maher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the immune response of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus is needed urgently, but has been limited by scarcity of species-specific reagents and methods for this unique and divergent marsupial. Infectious disease is an important threat to wild populations of koalas; the most widespread and important of these is Chlamydial disease, caused by Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae. In addition, koala retrovirus (KoRV, which is of 100% prevalence in northern Australia, has been proposed as an important agent of immune suppression that could explain the koala’s susceptibility to disease. The correct balance of T regulatory, T helper 1 (Th1 and Th2 lymphocyte responses are important to an individual’s susceptibility or resistance to chlamydial infection. The ability to study chlamydial or KoRV pathogenesis, effects of environmental stressors on immunity, and the response of koalas to vaccines under development, by examining the koala’s adaptive response to natural infection or in-vitro stimulation, has been limited to date by a paucity of species- specific reagents. In this study we have used cytokine sequences from four marsupial genomes to identify mRNA sequences for key T regulatory, Th1 and Th2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 10 (IL-10 and interferon gamma (IFNγ along with CD4 and CD8β. The koala sequences used for primer design showed >58% homology with grey short-tailed opossum, >71% with tammar wallaby and 78% with Tasmanian devil amino acid sequences. We report the development of real-time RT-PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes in unstimulated cells and after three common mitogen stimulation protocols (phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate/phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. Phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin was found to be the most effective mitogen to up-regulate the production of IL-4, IL-10 and IFNγ. IL-6 production was not

  10. Expression profiles of the immune genes CD4, CD8β, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in mitogen-stimulated koala lymphocytes (Phascolarctos cinereus) by qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Iona E; Griffith, Joanna E; Lau, Quintin; Reeves, Thomas; Higgins, Damien P

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of the immune response of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is needed urgently, but has been limited by scarcity of species-specific reagents and methods for this unique and divergent marsupial. Infectious disease is an important threat to wild populations of koalas; the most widespread and important of these is Chlamydial disease, caused by Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae. In addition, koala retrovirus (KoRV), which is of 100% prevalence in northern Australia, has been proposed as an important agent of immune suppression that could explain the koala's susceptibility to disease. The correct balance of T regulatory, T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 lymphocyte responses are important to an individual's susceptibility or resistance to chlamydial infection. The ability to study chlamydial or KoRV pathogenesis, effects of environmental stressors on immunity, and the response of koalas to vaccines under development, by examining the koala's adaptive response to natural infection or in-vitro stimulation, has been limited to date by a paucity of species- specific reagents. In this study we have used cytokine sequences from four marsupial genomes to identify mRNA sequences for key T regulatory, Th1 and Th2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) along with CD4 and CD8β. The koala sequences used for primer design showed >58% homology with grey short-tailed opossum, >71% with tammar wallaby and 78% with Tasmanian devil amino acid sequences. We report the development of real-time RT-PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes in unstimulated cells and after three common mitogen stimulation protocols (phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate/phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A). Phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin was found to be the most effective mitogen to up-regulate the production of IL-4, IL-10 and IFNγ. IL-6 production was not consistently up-regulated by

  11. Distribuição geográfica de pequenos mamíferos não voadores nas bacias dos rios Araguaia e Paraná, região centro-sul do Brasil Geographic distribution of small non-volant mammals in the Araguaia and Paraná basins, south-central region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se amostragens de pequenos mamíferos em duas bacias hidrográficas do Brasil central pertencentes aos rios Araguaia e Paraná com intuito de descrever a composição de espécies de pequenos mamíferos de hábito florestal e comparar suas distribuições geográficas. Quatorze pontos de coleta foram amostrados, subdivididos em oito na bacia do Rio Paraná e seis na bacia do Rio Araguaia. Foram registradas 20 espécies de pequenos mamíferos na região (oito de marsupiais e 12 de roedores, sendo 16 delas por meio de armadilhas metálicas (5.253 armadilhas-noite e oito delas por meio de armadilhas de queda (224 baldes-noite, totalizando 161 capturas de 139 indivíduos. A bacia do Rio Paraná apresentou 16 espécies (armadilhas-noite: 3.115; baldes-noite: 104 e a bacia do Araguaia apresentou 11 espécies (armadilhas-noite: 2.138; baldes-noite: 120, sendo que as riquezas foram similares quando aplicado o método da rarefação. Das 20 espécies registradas, sete (35% ocorreram em ambas as bacias. Apesar da elevada riqueza de espécies amostrada, destacou-se a elevada abundância do marsupial Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840. As espécies de marsupiais amostradas foram D. albiventris, Caluromys philander (Linnaeus, 1758, Cryptonanus cf. agricolai Voss, Lunde & Jansa, 2005, Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854, G. microtarsus (Wagner, 1842, Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest, 1804, Marmosa murina (Linnaeus, 1758, e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758. As espécies de roedores amostradas foram Akodon gr. cursor, Calomys tener (Winge, 1887, Nectomys rattus (Pelzen, 1883, N. squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860, Oryzomys maracajuensis Langguth & Bonvicino, 2002, Oryzomys cf. marinhus, O. megacephalus (Fischer, 1814, Oligoryzomys fornesi (Massoia, 1973, Oligoryzomys sp., Proechimys longicaudatus (Rengger, 1830 e P. roberti (Thomas, 1901. A ampliação da distribuição de algumas espécies é discutida, assim como aspectos

  12. Um foco potencial de Tripanosomíase Americana na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nery Guimarães

    1943-12-01

    direto, enquanto que exibiam uma infecção peritoneal. Exame clínico sumário de 58 indivíduos residentes no local, permitiram o encontro de duas crianças com sintomas atribuíveis a doença de Chagas, mas o xenodiagnóstico dêstes pacientes foi negativo. Exames de sangue à fresco e xenodiagnóstico de 19 cães (cerca de 50 % dos existentes na zona estudada foram negativos. Assim também de dois gatos. A possibilidade de infecção humana pelo T. (S. cruzi no local estudado, é remota, considerados os hábitos silvestres aí observados nos transmissores. Porém, uma vez que aí existem depositários naturais abundantes dêsse tripanosoma, e também transmissores com alto índice de infestação, é possível a ocurrência de casos clínicos da moléstia, tanto mais quando se recorda que P. megistus tem geralmente habitos domiciliares em outras regiões do País, fàcilmente podendo adaptar-se às "cafuas" existentes no local. Por outro lado, a presença aí de famílias oriundas de zonas de endemia (Minas poderá ainda apressar a existencia de condições domésticas de contágio.The autors described a potencial focus of american trypanosomiasis in Santa Tereza, populous residencial zone, situated near of the center of Rio de Janeiro city. Fifteen specimens of opossum (Didelphis marsupialis L; were found naturally infected with Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum cruzi (Chagas 1909. A variety of opossum (Metachirus nudicaudatus Geoffroy, was referred to also, by the first time, as wild host of these trypanosomes. Eleven specimens of triatoma (Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister 1835, from whom nine infected, were captured in a large building situated in the same local. Careful inquiry realized in the local, on permitted to affirm that the breeding-places of these triatomoe, were localized in the forest. In these