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  1. Lower Risk of Cancer in the Areas Inhabited by the German Minority in the Region of Opole, Poland.

    Chawińska, Ewa; Tukiendorf, Andrzej; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    The lower risk of cancer in the areas inhabited by the German minority in the region of Opole, Poland, at the turn of the 1980's and 1990's has been already reported. A reanalysis of the present-day data was conducted. All the cancer cases (at all sites combined) registered within the years 2008-2012 with data collected by the Regional Cancer Registry in Opole were analyzed in this study. To estimate the risk of cancer in different spatial contexts, such as trends, clusters, and levels, modern geostatistical tools were applied. A statistically significant reduction of the cancer risk was reported in administrative units with ≥ 10% of the German minority. Average decreases in relative risk of 13% in men and 16% in women were estimated. The geographical patterns of the estimates are illustrated. The observed differences in the risk of cancer between the ethnic groups (Germans and repatriates) confirm a historical trend of the disease in the region of Opole, Poland. Some genetic, nutritional, or cultural aspects together with economic issues may play a role in the specified spatial disease patterns. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF PAHS AND SELECTED PESTICIDES IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER IN THE HIGHEST PROTECTED AREAS IN THE OPOLE REGION, POLAND

    Mariusz Głowacki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ground water quality was determined after the analyses of water samples from 18 wells. The wells were in the Groundwater Area with the Highest Protection (Triassic water, Opole region, Poland, rural build up. The water table level was low: 0.5 – 18.0 m below the ground surface level (except for one artesian well. The following parameters were determined: pH, EC, colour, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD-Mn, COD-Cr, humic substances, chloride, sulphate, total hardness, alkalinity, dry residue PAHs (16 compounds, pesticides (6 compounds, however, only selected data were presented in this paper. In all the analysed water samples chloro-organic pesticides were observed. The analysed water contained heptachlor in the highest concentrations of 15.97 mg/dm3. Good quality water must not include concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/dm3 of heptachlor. However, the concentration was circa 32 times higher than this value. The second pesticide determining poor water quality is dieldrin. This compound in the investigated groundwater was 1.94 mg/dm3 – 4 times higher than the limit for acceptable quality ground water. The concentration of pesticides also changed over the course of the research; the concentration in the analysed groundwater in the same well changed quite dramatically over a period of 1 year. Although PAHs and pesticides are potentially toxic for biological organisms they do exist in the environment as a product of the natural biological transformation of organic matter. The noted concentrations and compositions of PAH compounds were different to natural PAHs. It confirms the fact that agricultural activity influences groundwater quality.

  3. [The attitude of the nursing students of Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole towards the smoking problems in Poland].

    Wojtal, Mariola; Kurpas, Donata; Bielska, Dorota; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been main reason of the Polish society health hazard and one of the most widespread unhealthy element of the human life style. Aim of the study is to evaluate the attitude of the nursing students of Public Higher Medical Professional School in Opole towards the smoking problems in Poland. Most of respondents considered the nicotinism problem in Poland as very important--3 of them evaluate importance of problem on the scale of 0 - 10, estimated it from 8, 9 and 10 points. 74.3% of respondents support the opinion to put the total injunction from smoking at public areas into practice. According to respondents, the most effective forms to express a non-smoking lifestyle is to promote the idea of the total injunction from smoking at public areas and the promotion of the nonsmoking people at the mass media.

  4. The Development of Agri-tourism in Opole Province, Poland. From Inexpensive Holidays in the Countryside to Experiential Marketing

    Barbara WOŚ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to show the evolution stages of agri-tourism in the Opole Province between the years 2002 and 2014. The bases for the study are as follows: archival and current data on the development of rural tourism, field research and interviews conducted in agri-tourism farms of the Opole Province. The research presents the stages of agri-tourism development in the Opole Province and identifies its basic tendencies. During the study the following basic trends were observed: the shift from agri-tourism to rural tourism, creation of family businesses implying an increase in the number of beds and service offer; experiential marketing – forming a specific offer for a specific recipient; increase in the standard of services and the development of active recreation; development of eco-tourism enriched by educational activities.

  5. Level ofnutrition and nutrition disorders as well as characteristics ofdietary habits and physical activity among 6–13-year-old children attending selected primary schools in Opole and Silesia Provinces in Poland

    Paweł Jonczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Analysis of nutrition disorders, learning about eating habits and characterising physical activity among primary school children at the age of 6–13, living in the rural areas of Silesia and Opole Provinces in Poland. Material and methods: The study included the parents of children at the age 6–13 attending selected primary schools and living in rural areas of Silesia (Wielowieś, Boruszowice, Wojska, Potępa, Świerklaniec and Opole (Kielcza Provinces. The research group comprised 410 pupils: 217 boys (52.93% and 193 girls (47.07%. On the basis of obtained data, BMI index was calculated and a nutritional level was assessed. Moreover, the statistical analysis of dietary habits and physical activity of studied children was also performed. Results: Nearly 38% of studied children are overweight or obese. Furthermore, 17% are malnourished Every second child has a proper number of meals per day. Above 60% of pupils eat first and second breakfast every day. Merely 3.66% of children eat five or more portions of fruit and vegetables daily. Less than 62% of students declare to drink milk or eat dairy products. Over 83% of the respondents declare that their children eat meat several times a week. Over 28% of children have sweets or salty snacks every day. As for physical activity, about 59% of children prefer spending free time outdoors but approximately 22% of pupils practise sport regularly. Conclusion: This study revealed that students attending primary schools in selected rural areas are characterised by improper dietary habits. Their way of eating is not balanced in a right way – it is mainly based on meat and snacks like sweets. Furthermore, children eat few fruit and vegetables, highfibre products and drink little milk. Behaviours connected with physical activity are also inappropriate – children dedicate too little time to physical activity a week.

  6. Importance of Folk Sports Teams in shaping the sports activity of rural areas young inhabitants in the Opole region in the years 2001-2010

    Agnieszka Krawczyk-Sołtys

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the times of progressing commercialization, the existing sports organizations – Sports Folk Teams – seem to be areas of pure sport. Rural areas sports activists and sportsmen themselves present an altruistic and open attitude towards sport. The activity of the team members is voluntary and is often of a charitable character since the main objective of local clubs is both active and attractive utilization of the young rural community’s free time. The teams in focus play a vital role in bringing up both children and youth; sport is not only a test of physical strength or abilities, it teaches action and acting, compromising attitudes and patterns of behaviour, as well as loyalty towards partners. The aim of the article was depicting the sports teams as a form of promoting sport among the young people of the Opole voivodeship in the period discussed. Additionally, the tasks realized in 2010 by the Opole Province Association (Local Country Teams, performed owing to the cooperation and support of the provincial marshal’s office, are presented here.

  7. The consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland

    Grzegorz Przekota

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Each region in Poland has a different economic potential due to its own specific features. Taking account of the specific nature of individual regions is important for the management of the country as a whole and of its particular regions. Existing disparities in the economic development may lead to many negative phenomena, such as internal migration or regional marginalization. Excessive price and income inequalities may weaken economic growth throughout the country. It is important for the coherence of the whole country that the disparities between regions are not too big. The study determines the consequences of price differentiation for regional development in Poland. The analysis was conducted using the coefficient of variation, correlation coefficient, regression coefficient and medium pace. The regions differ in terms of development, dynamic growth and wages. However, prices are much less diverse.

  8. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Rawicki Kacper

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February. The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 – 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 – 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method, three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3 and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  9. Regions of pollution with particulate matter in Poland

    Rawicki, Kacper; Czarnecka, Małgorzata; Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the temporal and spatial variability of particulate matter concentration in Poland in the calendar winter season (December-February). The basis for the study were the hourly and daily values of particulate matter PM10 concentration from the period 2005/06 - 2014/15, obtained from 33 air pollution monitoring stations. In Poland, the obligation to monitor the concentration of the finer fraction of particles smaller than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter was introduced only in 2010. Consequently, data on PM2.5 concentration refer to a shorter period, i.e. 2009/10 - 2014/15, and were obtained from 23 stations. Using the cluster analysis (k-means method), three regions of comparable variability of particulate matter concentration were delineated. The largest region, i.e. Region I, comprises the northern and eastern central area of Poland, and its southern boundary is along the line Gorzów Wlkp-Bydgoszcz-Konin-Łódź-Kielce-Lublin. Markedly smaller Region II is located to the south of Region I. By far the smallest area was designated to Region III which covers the south west area of Poland. The delineated regions show a marked variability in terms of mean concentration of both PM fractions in winter (PM10: region I - 33 µg·m-3, region II - 55 µg·m-3, region III - 83 µg·m-3; PM2,5: region I - 35 µg·m-3, region II - 50 µg·m-3, region III - 60 µg·m-3) and, in the case of PM10, the frequency of excessive daily limit value.

  10. NOx reduction in Opole power plant

    Higgins, B.; Gong, B.; Pozzobon, E.; Kinal, E.; Pilipionek, J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 PGE Elektrownia Opole ordered a 'turn-key' retrofit execution of the combustion system to reduce NO x emission at BP-1150 boiler. The project includes modifications of burners as a first stage, and then ROFA system installation for combustion optimization and primary reduction of NO x , and Rotamix system installation for the further, secondary NO x reduction. The condition to install ROFA and Rotamix systems was keeping the same parameters of the power unit operation, in particular CO emission level, fly ash LOI and bottom ash LOI, ammonia slip, ambient noise, boiler availability and efficiency, material wastage rate, steam flow rate and temperature, as well as consumption of urea, water, electricity and compressed air. The work for this project was performed by a consortium that included Nalco Mobotec, Remak-Rozruch (a Consortium Leader) and SEFAKO

  11. Radioecological analysis of the north-eastern region of Poland

    Zalewski, M.; Mnich, Z.; Kapala, J.; Karpinska, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of natural radioactivity of K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 in building material as well as radon concentrations and dose rates in houses and outdoors. The mean absorbed rate in air outdoors from natural gamma radiation was found to be 40.2 nGyh -1 . Doses inside houses made from particular materials were (nGyh -1 ): brick - 102, prefabricate - 89, wood - 88. The mean equivalent per one statistical inhabitant of ''Poland Green Lungs'' is 1.61 mSv/year. The doses absorbed by the population in the north-eastern region of Poland from natural sources of ionizing radiation are lower than the population-weighted world averages. (author)

  12. Regional development of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship

    Marcin Salamaga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Regional development includes qualitative changes in economy (e.g. in production, investments, employment as well as qualitative changes (regarding the structure of economy and society, changes in the environment. The research of regional development is important and necessary in order to make appropriate decisions at the regional and local level. The main purpose of the article is comparative analysis of districts in the Lesser Poland Voivodship in the area of economic, social and ecological development. Scientific aim: The scientific aims of paper are verifying the hypothesis concerning eco-development and forecasting the level of regional development in districts of Lesser Poland Voivodship. Methodology/methods: In the research of regional development the quality index of economic, social and ecological development has been proposed which has been calculated on the basis of a certain aggregation of the results of the Principal Component Analysis made on the correlation matrix of standardised variables being the components of the index. Forecasts of the regional development level in districts were calculated with the use of different econometric models as linear model, exponential model, or power model. Findings: The findings prove that the Lesser Poland Voivodship is characterised by considerable disproportions in regional development. The most favourable conditions for economic and social development are in the districts with large city agglomerations as well as extensive municipality infrastructure and transport infrastructure. The presented results demonstrate that the majority of districts have not exhibited a constant tendency to changes in the positions in successive ranking lists in terms of the economic, social and ecological development. The positions occupied by most districts are generally stable and have not changed considerably in the examined period. Conclusions: The research has confirmed the negative

  13. Poland

    Sitnicki, S.; Budzinski, K.; Juda, J.; Michna, J.; Szpilewicz, A.

    1990-01-01

    Poland is an important case study in understanding the role of international cooperation in reducing the risk of global climate change. A the world's fourth largest coal producer, the nation occupies a key position in the political economy of a changing Europe. More importantly, Poland is pursuing energy policy reforms that half of the world must follow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prosper economically. Poland is undergoing profound economic and environmental change. This nation of 38 million people hopes to shift from planning to markets to allocate economic resources, and at the same time to conserve and protect environmental resources. Per capita incomes are only one-fourth of West Germany's, for example, but per capita energy use (and emissions of carbon dioxide) is just as high. High energy intensity causes much of Poland's serious air and water pollution. Economic efficiency could help reduce carbon and sulfur emissions, but the capital required to improve the energy infrastructure is scarce. The combination of these problems has reduced GNP per capita 9 percent over the last decade

  14. Online Political Campaigning during the 2014 Regional Elections in Poland

    Paweł Baranowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the analysis and evaluation of political communication on a regional level. Without any doubt, the Internet revolution affected electoral campaigning on every level. Online campaigning before local elections is often marginalized by political scientists and other scholars researching political marketing. However, the question emerges: are the candidates aware of the possibilities that new media has brought to political communication? Content analysis of all the major online communication tools has allowed the author to analyze the patterns of using websites, official Facebook profiles and Twitter accounts of candidates during the 2014 Lower Silesian Regional assembly elections. The Lower Silesian Voivodeship is among the fastest developing regions in Poland with high Internet penetration rate. Is the Internet campaign treated as a second-class way to communicate with potential voters, or is it perceived as an opportunity to reach electorate online?

  15. Demographic characteristics of MS patients in Poland's upper Silesia region.

    Pierzchala, Krystyna; Adamczyk-Sowa, Monika; Dobrakowski, Pawel; Kubicka-Baczyk, Katarzyna; Niedziela, Natalia; Sowa, Pawel

    2015-05-01

    In Poland, no national registry of MS patients has yet been introduced. So far, no demographic studies have been conducted in patients with MS in Upper Silesia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, for the first time, a selected demographic and clinical parameters in MS patients from the Upper Silesia region and compare these characteristics with previously published data from other regions of Poland. 640 patients with clinically defined MS, were prospectively and randomly selected for the study. Social, socio-economic, and demographic data were obtained through a questionnaire study. All subjects performed a self-assessment of their health condition using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS version questionnaires. The ratio of women to men was 2.18. The average age of onset was 29.6 ± 11.1 years; the disease duration was 7.9 ± 4.5 years. The relapsing-remitting form of MS was diagnosed in 73.12%. In 71.25% the onset was monofocal and in 28.75% multifocal disease onset was observed. Among the studied population 339 (52.97%) patients were still employed. A mean EQ-VAS score of 66.11 ± 20.12 was calculated. Results from our study identify for the first time the demographic and clinical characteristics of the Upper Silesia MS population.

  16. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE COMPETITIVENESS OF FARMS IN POLAND

    Anna Nowak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the competitiveness of the regional diversity of farms in Poland. The study was conducted on a sample of commodity holdings participating in the Polish FADN in 16 voivodeships for the years 2010–2012. The study was based on indicators of competitiveness in terms of production factors and results. Research shows that labour resources and the eff ectiveness of their use are important aspects of regional diversity of competitiveness of farms. In regions where this factor is present in excess (Małopolskie, Świętokrzyskie, Mazowieckie, Łódzkie and Lubelskie voivodeships, labor productivity was relatively low. These regions are also characterized by lower production potential expressed by the agricultural area of an average farm. The greatest competitive advantages in terms of production profi tability were achieved by farms in Dolnośląskie voivodeship, where there were also some of the highest rates of profi tability of assets.

  17. Diversity of agrocoenoses in the Lublin region, Poland

    Mariola Staniak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Lublin region, one of the main agricultural regions in Poland, has very favorable conditions for agricultural production but the development of the agricultural sector has been very slow there. This is due, among other factors, to the extensive farming used on large areas and the fragmentation of fields with numerous fragments of natural ecosystems. In Lublin Province, cereals comprise the highest proportion of the crop structure, especially wheat, but farmers also often cultivate maize, oilseed rape, sugar beet, and legumes for consumption. The biological diversity of agricultural areas is enhanced by growing traditional plant species and varieties. Crop species are accompanied by segetal weeds, sometimes very expansive, sometimes rare and endangered by extinction. In recent years, the following have been the dominant weed species in the region’s crop fields: Galium aparine, Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Viola arvensis, and Veronica persica. However, there are several locations of occurrence of Muscari comosum (a strictly protected species and the following unique species: Adonis aestivalis, Anthemis tinctoria, Caucalis platycarpos, Galium tricornutum, and Thymelaea passerina. In Lublin Province, there are many organic farms which contribute to the significant diversity of agricultural plant communities. In this review, we also indicate the biocoenotic role of weeds and their importance in the proper maintenance of agroecosystems and ecosystem services.

  18. Key Trends and Problems of Regional Innovation Systems' Development in Poland and Ukraine

    Oleksandr Fedirko

    2014-01-01

    This article is devoted to comparative study of regional innovation development in Poland and Ukraine. Innovation potential and performance of Ukrainian regions assessment is grounded on the regional innovation systems approach, employing selected indicators of the EU regional innovation evaluation criteria. Key trends and problematic issues of regional innovation development are captured through a number of methods: comparative analysis, calculating variation of regional innovation capacity ...

  19. HOW ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING HELPED TO CONTINUE BUILDING AND UPGRADE OF THE OPOLE POWER PLANT

    Jan Siuta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Principles of ecological engineering were applied for upgrading the Opole Power Plant under construction, complete with modern installation to protect the environment. The modernized project was a subject of „Integrated environmental impact assessment of the Opole Power Plant” developed by the Institute of Environmental Protection in 1981. The main issues covered by the impact assessment were presented and discussed at the national scientific conference attended, among others, by the representatives of local community from Opole. The conference was organized by the Polish Society of Ecological Engineering on June 5 and 6, 1992. The main aim of the conference was to identify and deliver as broad as possible analysis of environmental conditions for designing, building and operating coal fired power plants. A secondary goal, though of main concern for the Opole agglomeration, was to evaluate many-sided environmental risks resulting from the construction and operation of the Power Plant. The feasibility of continuing the construction of a power generating facility that meets the requirements of the 21st century was demonstrated by the fact that the Opole Power Plant S.A. was awarded the ISO 14001 - Environmental Management System certificate by the British Standards Institution. Advanced construction of the two consecutive blocks of a combined power of 1800 MW in the Opole Power Plant substantiates the validity and effectiveness of the conference organized in 1992.

  20. FUNCTIONING OF A FARM ADVISORY SYSTEM ACCORDING TO THE FARMERS OF THE OPOLE VOIVODESHIP

    Stanisława Sokołowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farm advisory system is a unique form of long-lasting education of framers and rural area dwellers. This attribute is significant as far as a transformation of European agriculture is concerned which resulted in creating a farm advisory system for the territorial scope Europe. The effectiveness of the system depends on many factors mainly, however, on active trust of farmers in the knowledge they acquire. The case study uses a questionnaire data collecting method in the households of the Opole voivodeship. On their basis the place and aim of a farm advisory organisation in the system of both agricultural knowledge and information have been determined as well as kinds of knowledge sought by farmers. The respondents’ evaluation of the significance of this institutional structure in the development of households and in the local development has also been presented. A question of the use of regional internet platforms in the realisation of farm advisory system tasks has been considered. The case study ends with conclusions and recommendation referring to the challenges to be faced by the regional structures of a farm advisory system.

  1. Overweight and obesity among adolescents in Poland: gender and regional differences.

    Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacinska, Anna; Tabak, Izabela

    2010-10-01

    To examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Polish adolescents in 2005 using both the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs and a national reference; to compare this to data collected in 1995; and to assess whether there were differences in overweight or obesity by gender and place of residence in 1995-2005. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight, collected in a cross-sectional study in five regions of Poland in 2005. Adolescents were categorised as normal, overweight or obese based on IOTF cut-off values, and by national weight for stature tables, where the 90th and 97th percentiles were used as cut-off values for overweight and obesity. Population-based study set in Poland. A two-stage sampling method was used to recruit 8065 pupils (3980 boys and 4085 girls) aged 13-15 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12·5 % and 1·9 %, respectively. No significant gender differences were found, either in overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in 2005 had increased 2 % compared to 1995. Overweight and obesity among adolescents were not related to urban-rural residence, but there were significant regional differences. Monitoring trends in overweight and obesity among adolescents in all regions of Poland using the same reference criteria is important. Since regional differences in overweight and obesity rates among adolescents were observed both in 1995 and 2005, future research should investigate the potential causes of these differences.

  2. Innovativeness of Enterprises in Poland in the Regional Context

    Anna Golejewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The artcle examines the innovatveness of enterprises in 69 Polish NUTS3 sub-regions in 2014. The analysis is based on unpublished regional data from the Polish Central Statstcal Ofce covering the following variables: the share of enterprises which have incurred outlays for innovatve actvites, the share of enterprises implementng process or product innovatons, the share of companies collaboratng in the feld of innovaton, and the share of new or modernized products in total producton sold in industrial companies. The analysis focuses on building rankings and cluster analysis of NUTS3 regions. As research methods, the author uses selected methods of multdimensional comparatve analysis, principal component analysis and the hierarchical Ward’s method. The results show that there are substantal differences among NUTS3 sub-regions as regards innovatveness of enterprises. The low level of cooperaton does not foster innovaton. Innovaton outputs of enterprises are also unsatsfactory. The highest variaton is seen in the share of new or modernized products in total producton sold in industrial companies. The fnal effect of the cluster analysis is the division of regions into 7 groups. In the case of units where innovaton inputs are not reflected in innovaton outputs, it would be useful to explore regional and local factors influencing those relatons. Further research is stll needed.

  3. The integration of rural regions of Ireland and Poland into the European Union

    Nienaber Birte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of the enlargement of the European Union, Ireland is often mentioned as a key example for the Central and Eastern European countries of a successful European integration process. Thereby, the development of the complete Republic of Ireland since the EU accession in 1973 is analyzed. If you survey separately the economic and social development of urban and rural regions, it emerges that the rural regions could hardly participate in the economic success of Ireland and that disparities have increased. Many farmers are dependent on public welfare to make a living, as the Irish living costs have increased during the last years. Consequently today about one third of the Irish households live - in spite of the economic success of the Celtic Tiger - under the relative poverty line. Against the background of this depletion process, the question comes up whether Ireland can act as a paradigm for the European integration process of Poland. Looking at the initial situation of Ireland in 1973 and the current situation in Poland, several parallels exist, however, also strong distinctions. While major similarities can be determined with the agricultural structures as well as with the social value system, developments in Poland are still subject to the not yet completed transformation process from a socialist to a democratic and capitalist system.

  4. Map of radioactive contamination in mushrooms of Poland in 1991

    Mietelski, J.W.; Jasinska, M.; Kubica, B.; Kozak, K.; Macharski, P.

    1992-01-01

    Results from part of the Polish Government programme for forests radioactive contamination studies are presented. 278 samples of edible mushroom (Xerocomus badius) were analysed for radiocesium 137 Cs and 134 Cs) and 40 K using low-background gamma spectrometer with a germanium detector. Samples were collected from all districts of Poland in October 1991 by forest inspectors. In consequence maps of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and for 40 K concentration in ''Xerocomus badius'' are presented. The method of measurements is also presented. Large differences in radiocesium contamination levels are observed for various parts of the country. The higher radiocesium contamination level is observed in Czestochowa-Opole region. Maximum value for 137 Cs is equal to 157 kBq/kg d.m. and that for 134 Cs is equal to 16.3 kBq/kg d.m. The 40 K content level is nearly constant and equal to c.a. 1.3 kBq/kg d.m. Minimum values for caesium contamination were observed in the Bieszczady Mountains. The effective dose equivalent estimation due to the consumption of mushrooms is performed. The limits of ingestion amounts are calculated. (author). 15 refs, 15 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Regional Determinants of Efficiency Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Evidence from Poland

    Teresa Łuczka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SMEs sector plays a vital role in modern economies. Therefore, the interest in its functioning among economists is in fact quite natural. This article is a part of a current research on regional factors contributing to the development of enterprises in this category. The first section examines earlier studies in this field conducted globally and in Poland. According to them, many elements enable the SME’s development. It is not surprisingly that the specified set of pro-growth factors does not exists. Next section describes the results of the author’s own studies in the fields. These studies relate to regional factors contributing to the efficiency growth of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. Data used in the study was collected from GUS[1] and EUROSTAT and encompassed 16 provinces for the years 2003-2008. The model prepared included 11 independent variables on labor force, social mobility, living standard and R&D policy. The authors would have gladly considered more than 11 explanatory variable, but the inaccessibility of such data made it impossible. In the next step, using GRETL software, equations of regression were defined. On this basis it was concluded that the most important factors contributing to efficiency growth of SMEs are the amount of spending on R&D and the level of wages.

  6. Physical activity and associated socio-demographic factors in adolescents from the eastern region of Poland

    Wasilewska, Małgorzata; Bergier, Józef

    The introduction and maintenance of healthy habits in the field of physical activity at the early stage of life is particularly important for public health. With increasing of public awareness in physical activity, researchers are increasingly questioning its determinants in different age groups. In this paper we focus on variables such as age, sex and place of residence. To determine what selected socio-demographic factors influence the level of physical activity of school youth from the eastern region of Poland in different domains of daily life. A random sample of 916 Polish school youth from Secondary Schools from Eastern Region of Poland aged 16-18 was interviewed in spring 2016 by diagnostic survey method with the use of the official Polish long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Analysing the relationship between gender and the level of physical activity statistically significant differences were found in all domains in favour of boys. The level of total physical activity in girls was 5345.5 MET-min./week, whereas in boys – 6556.6 MET-min./week. In the area of total physical activity, the highest values were observed in pupils from small towns and villages, with lower values in the youth living in large and medium-sized cities. When the relationship of age with the level of physical activity in particular domains was examined, only the activity in the work/ school domain (p = 0.0129) spoke in favour of the youngest pupils (2578.7 MET-min./week) when compared to the oldest ones (2226.4 MET-min./week). The level of physical activity in young people from the Eastern region of Poland is decreasing with age, both in girls and boys. It is therefore important, especially for the group emerging adulthood, to offer a wide variety of updated, involving, age and gender-oriented school physical activity classes that could be easily practised outside the school environment to improve the level of physical activity in leisure domain

  7. THE PRINCIPLES OF C&R IN OPINION OF ANGLERS FROM THE SUBCARPATHIAN REGION (POLAND

    Łukasz Jurczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The man exploits natural resources also when, at first sight, it is not necessary to maintain his existence. Angling, understood as a form of recreation or sport, associated with fish stocks usage, should be classified as that kind of activity. The prospect of significant reduction, or even extinction as a result of overharvest of many local populations of valuable species, cause that individual anglers more often recognizing their responsibility for the environment and leads towards increasing of environmental awareness and proper behavior in the fishery ground. One of the expressions of solicitude for the environment is, more and more popular among polish anglers, application to Catch and Release principles, which support the sustainable exploitation of fish fauna. In a survey conducted among anglers fishing in the Subcarpathian region (Poland, they were asked about the knowledge and approach to chosen C&R rules.

  8. Temperature Changes In Poland In 21st Century – Results Of Global Simulation And Regional Downscaling

    Pilarski Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main source of information about future climate changes are the results of numerical simulations performed in scientific institutions around the world. Present projections from global circulation models (GCMs are too coarse and are only usefulness for the world, hemisphere or continent spatial analysis. The low horizontal resolution of global models (100–200 km, does not allow to assess climate changes at regional or local scales. Therefore it is necessary to lead studies concerning how to detail the GCMs information. The problem of information transfer from the GCMs to higher spatial scale solve: dynamical and statistical downscaling. The dynamical downscaling method based on “nesting” global information in a regional models (RCMs, which solve the equations of motion and the thermodynamic laws in a small spatial scale (10–50 km. However, the statistical downscaling models (SDMs identify the relationship between large-scale variable (predictor and small-scale variable (predictand implementing linear regression. The main goal of the study was to compare the global model scenarios of thermal condition in Poland in XXI century with the more accurate statistical and dynamical regional models outcomes. Generally studies confirmed usefulness of statistical downscaling to detail information from GCMs. Basic results present that regional models captured local aspects of thermal conditions variability especially in coastal zone.

  9. Interests and needs for participation in tourism among disabled from eastern regions of Poland.

    Bergier, Barbara; Kubińska, Zofia; Bergier, Józef

    2013-01-01

    The scope of problems concerning the disabled still remains a constantly up-to-date social issue, which requires current scientific analysis. In concern for the disabled, the problem of physical activity through their participation in tourism occupies an important position. The studies concern the disabled from three regions: Lublin, Białystok and Rzeszów, where there occurs the highest intensity of the phenomenon of disability. The recognition of interests and needs manifested by the disabled from the eastern regions of Poland concerning the use of forms of tourism during leisure time. The method of a diagnostic survey and questionnaire technique were applied. A total number of 750 disabled were examined. The study showed that the majority of the disabled spend their free time devoted to tourist activity according to their needs. The main forms of participation in tourism are sightseeing tours and package holidays, and the respondents would like most to participate in rehabilitation camps and sightseeing tours. A considerable variation was observed in the participation in forms of tourism among the disabled from individual regions. The disabled who do not wish to participate in sports-recreation and tourist activities, and for whom their state of health is the main barrier, require special interest. A relatively large variation of tourism forms used by the disabled in individual regions indicate the need for an exchange of experiences between specialist facilities taking care of the disabled.

  10. Economic situation and occupational accidents in Poland: 2002-2014 panel data regional study.

    Łyszczarz, Błażej; Nojszewska, Ewelina

    2018-01-07

    Occupational accidents constitute a substantial health and economic burden for societies around the world and a variety of factors determine the frequency of accidents at work. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the economic situation and the rate of occupational accidents in Poland. The analysis comprised data for 66 Polish sub-regions taken from the Central Statistical Office's Local Data Bank. The regression analysis with panel data for period 2002-2014 was applied to identify the relationships involved. Four measures of accidents were used: the rates of total occupational accidents, accidents among men and women separately as well as days of incapacity to work due to accidents at work per employee. Four alternative measures assessed the economic situation: gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, average remuneration, the unemployment rate and number of dwelling permits. The confounding variables included were: employment in hazardous conditions and the size of enterprises. The results of the regression estimates show that the number of occupational accidents in Poland exhibits procyclical behavior, which means that more accidents are observed during the times of economic expansion. Stronger relationships were observed in the equations explaining men's accident rates as well as total rates. A weaker and not always statistically significant impact of economic situation was identified for women's accident rates and days of incapacity to work. The results have important implications for occupational health and safety actions. In the periods of higher work intensity employers should focus on appropriate training and supervision of inexperienced workers as well as on ensuring enough time for already experienced employees to recuperate. In terms of public health actions, policy makers should focus on scrutinizing working conditions, educating employers and counteracting possible discrimination of injured employees. Int J Occup Med

  11. Epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Poland: part II. What are the causes of the different epidemiological situation in various regions of Poland?

    Rowińska-Zakrzewska, Ewa; Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Roszkowski-Śliż, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The different epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in various regions of Poland (higher and lower notification rates) was described previously by our group. The patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in the higher notification rate areas were younger and there were more cases of primary tuberculosis (tuberculous pleurisy and tuberculosis of chest lymph nodes) than in the patients diagnosed in the lower notification areas. The aim of the present study was to assess the possible causes of the different epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in various regions of Poland. Analysis was done at the same regions as in the previous paper. A comparison was made between two groups: Group I, which included three voivodeships with higher rates of notification, from 23.7 to 32.3/100,000 (mean rates in the analysed period of time); and Group II, which included five voivodeships with lower notification rates (mean rates from 12.2 to 18.6/100,000). The wealth of the regions (GDP, gross domestic product per capita), the level of unemployment, and social status of the patients were analysed. We compared the population density in both regions. The results of treatment in both regions were also analysed. We did not find any differences in GDP and unemployment rates between the compared regions. The results of treatment were different in particular regions, but there was no clear tendency for worse results in voivodeships in Group I compared to voivodeships in Group II. However, the number of patients lost from observation was significantly higher in the regions from Group I than in those from Group II. There was also a significantly higher death rate from tuberculosis in younger patients (£ 59 years) from Group I than from Group II. This is additional proof that the epidemiological situation in the two regions was different. Finally, we found that the mean density of population in the regions from Group I was higher than that from Group II. The density of population may

  12. Rural Sanctuaries as ‘Smart Destinations’ – Sustainability Concerns (Mazovia Region, Poland

    Pawlikowska-Piechotka Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this paper is to present and discuss the factors that need to be taken into account to ensure that the development and management of religious tourism at rural sites was sustainable from an economic, environmental and socio-cultural point of view. Among other issues, sustainable religious tourism means accessibility to the sanctuaries, protection of cultural and heritage values of the local community, benefits for the local residents and meaningful experience for visitors. Authors were especially interested in the less popular, more remotely located holy sites in Mazovia Region (Poland and two concerns: readiness to respond the needs of persons with different disabilities and local community opinion on tourists. As was documented by our research outcomes despite the recent numerous improvements, the most popular rural sanctuaries in Mazovia Region, remain only partially accessible for persons with disabilities. As masses of pilgrims have a significant effect on wellbeing and everyday life quality of residents (contributing both to positive and to negative effects, those who accept that tourists are important for economic development, benefit from it, creating ‘smart host area’. These rural communities which are not knowledgeable about positive impacts – see only negative consequences.

  13. Bio- and toxic elements in edible wild mushrooms from two regions of potentially different environmental conditions in eastern Poland.

    Brzezicha-Cirocka, Justyna; Mędyk, Małgorzata; Falandysz, Jerzy; Szefer, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the composition of bio-elements (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn) and toxic elements (Ag, Cd) in seven edible mushrooms from the rural and woodland region of Morąg (north-eastern Poland) and the rural and industrial region of the Tarnobrzeska Upland (south-eastern Poland) were investigated using a validated method. The species examined were Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Leccinum aurantiacum, Leccinum versipelle, Lycoperdon perlatum, Suillus luteus, and Xerocomus subtomentosus. Final determination was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) after microwave-assisted decomposition of sample matrices with solutions of concentrated nitric acid in the pressurized polytetrafluoroethylene vessels. The contents of the alkali elements and alkali earth elements were determined in the species surveyed. The alkali elements, earth alkali elements, and transition metals (Ag, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) were at typical concentrations as was determined for the same or similar species elsewhere in Poland and Europe. The results may suggest a lack of local and regional emissions of those metallic elements from industrialization of some sites in the Tarnobrzeska Plain. Cadmium was at elevated concentrations in L. versipelle from the Tarnobrzeska Plain but the reason-pollution or geogenic source-was unknown, while it was at typical concentrations in other species.

  14. One-Parent-One-Language (OPOL) Families: Is the Majority Language-Speaking Parent Instrumental in the Minority Language Development?

    Venables, Elizabeth; Eisenchlas, Susana A.; Schalley, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the strategies majority language-speaking parents use to support the development of the minority language in families who follow the pattern of exposure known as one-parent-one-language (OPOL). In this particular pattern of raising a child bilingually, each parent speaks only their own native language to their…

  15. Elemental concentrations in tropospheric and lower stratospheric air in a Northeastern region of Poland

    Braziewicz, Janusz; Kownacka, Ludwika; Majewska, Urszula; Korman, Andrzej

    Element concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Sr and Pb as well as the activity of natural radionuclides 210Pb and 226Ra in air were measured. The aerosol samples were collected during tropospheric and stratospheric aircraft flights over the Northeastern region of Poland, which is mostly an agricultural and wooded area. The air volumes were filtered using Petrianov filters at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 km above the ground level by special equipment attached to a jet plane. Aircraft flights were provided from September 1997 to August 1998 in 5 separate sampling runs. The long sampling distances served as a good representation of mean aerosol composition and distribution. Concentrations of the same elements were also measured using stationary equipment near the ground level at the outskirts of Warsaw. The vertical profiles of element concentration were obtained and the elemental compositions for the tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols were compared with those from the near-ground level. Contribution of K, Ca, Ti and Fe, which are the main components of soil, in total mass of all detected ones was estimated. Relative concentrations of all measured elements, which show any differences in the composition of the aerosol were calculated. The results obtained confirm the fact that the stratospheric reservoir is observed in the bottom stratosphere. The XRF method based on molybdenum X-ray tube was used as an analytical tool in the determination of aerosols trace elements. The altitude distributions of radioactivity of 226Ra and 210Pb were determined using radiochemical methods.

  16. Epidemiology of school accidents during a six school-year period in one region in Poland.

    Sosnowska, Stefania; Kostka, Tomasz

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence of school accidents in relation to school size, urban/rural environment and conditions of physical education classes. 202 primary schools with nearly 50,000 students aged 7-15 years were studied during a 6-year period in the Włocławek region in Poland. There were in total 3274 school accidents per 293,000 student-years. Accidents during breaks (36.6%) and physical education (33.2%) were most common. Most frequently accidents took place at schoolyard (29.7%), gymnasium (20.2%), and in the corridor and stairs (25.2%). After adjustment for students' age and sex, student-staff ratio and duration of school hours, urban environment increased the probability of accident (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14-1.38). Middle-size schools (8-23 classes) had similar accident rate as small schools (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83-1.04), while schools with 24-32 classes (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.10-1.43) and with > or = 33 classes (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-1.58) had increased accident rate. Presence of a gymnasium was also associated with increased probability of accident (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.38-1.61). Urban environment, larger school-size and equipment with full-size gymnasium are important and independent risk factors for school accidents. These findings provide some new insights into the epidemiology of school-related accidents and may be useful information for the planning of strategies to reduce accident incidence in schools.

  17. The Kaliningrad Region in Exposé of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Poland in 2005-2016

    Yana A. Vorozheina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographical and geopolitical proximity of the exclave Kaliningrad region and the Republic of Poland can be an essential basis for the formation of “Kaliningrad vector” of Warsaw’s foreign policy (which might be a course separate from the general Poland’s foreign policy towards Russian Federation. In this regard, the welltimed assessment of the features of the Poland’s conceptual vision of neighborhood with exclave territory of Russia, as well as the nature and level of official Warsaw’s interest in development of cooperation with the Kaliningrad region is extremely important. The evaluation of the impact of implementation of the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Poland and the Government of the Russian Federation on the Rules of Local Border Traffic on significance of “Kaliningrad’s focus” in the foreign policy strategy of the official Warsaw is also extremely important. In this context, it should be understood that thanks to this agreement, the Kaliningrad region has acquired an additional specificity in the context of Russian-Polish relations. This article is the attempt to determine the today’s place and role of the Kaliningrad region in Poland’s foreign policy strategy after joining the EU. The author reveals the period of updating theme of Poland’s cooperation with the Kaliningrad region, as well as shows its nature and origins by analyzing the annual keynote addresses of the foreign ministers of Poland, which are concentrated on the basic provisions of the official foreign policy strategy of Warsaw.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF E.U. INTEGRATION ON THE OVERALL DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGIONS NORTH-EAST OF ROMANIA, SUBCARPATHIA OF POLAND AND CENTRAL SLOVAKIA

    Adrian Liviu SCUTARIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of some notable development differences in EU at interstate and interregional level imposed the elaboration of a regional development policy aimed at reducing such disparities. The financial assistance provided by the EU is to help the underdeveloped regions. In this article we highlight the overall level of development and its evolution in Romania, Poland and Slovakia, at regional level, in the context of EU accession. Our attention will be focused on the North-East region of Romania, achieving a comparative analysis with two other similar regions from Poland and Slovakia: Subcarpathia and Central Slovakia, respectively.

  19. Multifunctional Public Space As Exemplified By the Concept of the Development of Kopernik Square in Opole

    Wilczek, Iwona; Tenczyński, Mariusz

    2017-10-01

    In 2015 the authorities of the city of Opole decided to sell a part of Kopernik Square, one of the main city squares, to a private investor. The objective of this project was the extension of the existing shopping mall and the construction of an underground car park within the scope of a public-private partnership. In order to find the best solution to design the remaining part of the square, a competition for its development was announced in cooperation with the Opole branch of the Association of Polish Architects. The article presents a description of the studies and analyses of the aforementioned space conducted by the db2 architekci architectural studio for the purpose of preparing a competition entry. The square development concept was based on an analysis of the urban context of the Opole city centre. The character of the public spaces within a twenty-minute walk from Kopernik Square was analysed. In the course of the works, a decision was made to develop the public space in a manner different from that originally intended by the Investor. A graphic visualization of the maximum scope of the shopping mall extension was presented in accordance with the urban layout of this part of the city, allowing the preservation of the historical view corridors. The article presents a competition entry prepared by us along with a justification of decisions concerning the design. One of the fundamental design assumptions was the connection of all frontages with the square and the creation of a recreational part abounding in green areas. The concept provided for the division of the area into three parts of various characters. The central part of the square is a green area of a recreational character - a space so far absent in the city centre. Catering and food services, shops, parking spaces for bicycles as well as services related to the parking area are located at the southern frontage of the square under one roofing. The area directly adjoining the shopping mall is an open

  20. Radionuclide content in the Upper Vistula River sediments in a coal mining region in Poland (east-central Europe)

    Jasinska, M.; Mietelski, J.W.; Pociask-Karteczka, J.

    1998-01-01

    Hard coal mining activity is one of the Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation sources introduced more than a hundred years ago in the southern part of Poland. This study of radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, Ra-228) in river sediments showed the principal factors determining the specific activity of radionuclides are distance from mines and sorption by clay particles in river sediments. The K-40 specific activity varies between 185 and 595 Bq/kg. The highest Ra-228 and Ra-226 specific activities, 280-610 and 205-415 Bq/kg, respectively, were detected in sediments of the Vistula in the vicinity of Silesia region. 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. The assessment of selected factors influencing intent to get pregnant in the Greater Poland Region

    Małgorzata Wojciechowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction and objective. Nowadays, people decide to have a baby by first analysing their financial situation. Tradition is no longer a factor which determines the decision whether or not to have a baby. A prognosis of the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS shows that the population of Poland will fall from 38 to 36 million by 2035. The aim of this study is to assess the procreation behaviour of women in Greater Poland Region. materials and methods. For the research purpose, 3,120 women of reproductive age were examined by using an author designed questionnaire and a synthetic Family Financial Standard Index. results: 74.6% of the respondents lived in an urban area, 25.4% of women come from a rural area. 49% of examined women did not want to have a bigger family, 45% would like to have another child. Analysis of the reasons why women did not want to have another baby revealed that predominance of the financial factor – 67%, living conditions – 18.4% and health– 13.2%. Only 11.9% of the women declared their high financial status, 4.8% of families received family allowance from the government; 88.4% of the examined families did not receive any social benefits. Bad housing situation was declared by 5% of the respondents, 26.7% of the interviewees lived with family members, i.e. parents or grandparents. Analysis of the data concerning religious bonds showed that 67.6% of women declared their indifference to religion. conclusions. The economic factor was an important reason limiting procreation. The bad situation on the real estate market combined with an insufficient range of social welfare led to a decrease in the birth-rate in the Greater Poland region. The impact of religion on family planning was less important. The influence of the analysed socio-economic factors on family planning was similar in rural and urban areas.

  2. Socio-economic conditioning as a determinant of rural development in the Opole voivodeship – an attempt to diagnose

    Anna Mijal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of multidimensional changes taking place in rural areas has become a subject of interest to both sociologists, gerontoeducators, economists and management experts. The detailed analysis of rural areas under conditions of ambiguity and clear differences in their characteristic features (depopulation, suburbanization enables taking into consideration not only trends of alterations, but also their causes, consequences and corrective measures in the development strategy. In this context, the analysis of the changes that have occurred in rural areas in the Opole voivodeship in 2000-2010 in the perspective of 2035 seems to be especially interesting. The main aim of the article is to draw attention to the impact of socio-economic conditioning (demography, migration, economic and professional activity on contemporary and authentic view of the fine, but clearly aging country in the Opole voivodeship, burdened with adverse population growth and high net migration rate.

  3. HABITAT CONDITIONS OF CANADIAN GOLDENROD IN A SELECTED REGION OF EASTERN POLAND

    Aleksandra Bielecka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian goldenrod Solidago canadensis (L is an invasive species in Poland. It occurs both in habitats only weakly impacted by anthropogenic factors as well as in habitats subjected to intensive transformations by humans. The aim of this study was to characterise the habitats of S. canadensis in Mińsk Mazowiecki and in out-of-town areas. It has been shown, based on an analysis of the principal soil properties, that the sites where S. canadensis was found had clayey-sandy soil and a C/N ratio indicative of medium and high soil degradation. Canadian goldenrod was found at sites with a diverse content of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in soil, as well as a diverse soil pH, indicative of a strongly acidic, acidic and alkaline character of the soil.

  4. Organic geochemistry and petrology of oil source rocks, Carpathian Overthrust region, southeastern Poland - Implications for petroleum generation

    Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Solecki, A.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The organic mailer rich Oligocene Menilite black shales and mudstones are widely distributed in the Carpathian Overthrust region of southeastern Poland and have excellent hydrocarbon generation potential, according to TOC, Rock-Eval, and petrographic data. Extractable organic matter was characterized by an equable distribution of steranes by carbon number, by varying amounts of 28,30-dinor-hopane, 18??(H)-oleanane and by a distinctive group of C24 ring-A degraded triterpanes. The Menilite samples ranged in maturity from pre-generative to mid-oil window levels, with the most mature in the southeastern portion of the study area. Carpathian petroleum samples from Campanian Oligocene sandstone reservoirs were similar in biomarker composition to the Menilite rock extracts. Similarities in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions between petroleum asphaltene and source rock pyrolyzates provided further evidence genetically linking Menilite kerogens with Carpathian oils.

  5. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  6. Aerosol in selected laboratories at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Opole University of Technology

    Olszowski, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    The paper contains the results of a study into mass concentration of the dispersed aerosol fraction with the aerodynamic diameter of up to 2.5 and 10 micrometers. The study was conducted during classes with students participating in them in two laboratories located at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Opole University of Technology as well as outdoor outside the building. It was demonstrated that the values of the mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 measured in the laboratories differ considerably from the levels measured in the ambient air in the outdoor areas surrounding the faculty building. It was concluded that the diversity of PM2.5/PM10 ratio was greater in the laboratories. Direct correlation was not established between the concentrations of the particular PM fractions in the two investigated environments. It was demonstrated that there is a statistically significant relation between the concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 and the number of people present in the laboratory. The conducted cluster analysis led to the detection of the existence of dominant structures determining air quality parameters. For the analyzed case, endogenic factors are responsible for the aerosanitary condition. The study demonstrated that the evaluation of air quality needs to be performed individually for the specific rooms.

  7. Adaptation of the opole voivodeship agricultural holdings to new managing conditions

    Stanisława Sokołowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new outlook at the position, role and function of agriculture in the economy is connected with an attempt to answer the question how its development potential can be used as factors of economical growth. At the microeconomic level, not only the estimation of effectiveness of used production factors is important but also the identification of incentives which influence decisions, concerning the ways of economic activity of holdings, made by their managers. The second issue is important due to the fact that the institutions close to the reformed CAP direct agriculture onto the path of a balanced development, which requires the new types of its multifunctionality to take shape. The following work suggests the mechanism of this process as “the autonomic aims of the agricultural holdings” which are a mean of implementation of universal aims. The research was based on a survey held in 150 holdings in the Opole voivodeship. The results confirm that the structures, which co-govern agriculture and are shaped by CAP, encourage the holdings to look for market benefits, as well as for institutional benefits which enable their multi-functioning.

  8. Revision of Nymphaea candida range - new data on the distribution and habitat preferences of the species in southern Poland

    Arkadiusz Nowak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of geobotanical and taxonomic studies on the distribution and habitat requirements of Nymphaea candida in southern Poland. The researches were conducted in southern Poland in 2003-2009, in the provinces of Lower Silesia, Lublin, Małopolska, Opole, Silesian province as well as, in southern parts of Mazowieckie and Lubuskie. Flowers, leaves and fruits of Nymphaea species were collected from 27 locations. Altogether pollens from 73 populations of N. candida and 18 of N. alba from all the researched area were measured. The trophic level of an ecosystem was evaluated according to the results of the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, transparency and biological parameters. As the result of the studies of more than 200 water bodies, 57 localities of N. candida were documented within the investigation area. The populations of N. candida occupy mid-forest water bodies and river ox-bow lakes. A significant number of populations was also found in artificial reservoirs - fish ponds. The most suitable habitat conditions for N. candida occur in shallow waters in the shore zone with the amplitude of the water column vary from 0.5 to 2 m. Regarding the trophy level, N. candida occupies different habitats, mainly mesotrophic and also eutrophic with high content of organic matters. Considering the 15 checked morphological parameters, especially the stigma diameter, the number of carpellary teeth, flower and pollen diameters, the found and collected specimens of N. candida significantly differ from N. alba. The study confirms that N. candida ocurrs in whole lowland Poland without any regional distribution gaps. According to the IUCN guidelines to species assessment the data gathered during the presented study do not allow to classify N. candida as a vulnerable species in Poland. Still existing populations for more than 150 years, numerous stable locations, abundant populations, a habitat accessibility, a biotope extent, an

  9. Assessment of consumer exposure related to improper use of pesticides in the region of southeastern Poland.

    Szpyrka, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Plant protection products are widely used throughout the world in order to prevent a reduction in yield. Although the protection of plants brings many benefits, pesticides are toxic to the environment and to humans. To protect human health, pesticide residue risk assessment should be carried out. The aim of the study was to assess acute risk related to the improper use of pesticides. In 2010-2013, 878 crop samples: 382 fruits, 399 vegetables, 82 cereals and their products, 11 herbs and 4 seeds were tested. Pesticide residues were found in 240 samples (27.3%). Pesticide residues were found most frequently in: fruits (41.6% fruit samples), seed (25.0%), vegetables (19.3%) and herbs (9.1%), and least frequently in cereals and their products (2.4%). Improper pesticide use was determined for 49 samples, mainly for vegetables (24 samples) and fruits (22). Most irregularities associated with the use of plant protection products involved application of a substance not recommended for a given crop (36 samples). In nine samples, applications of plant protection products that were withdrawn from the market were found, and in seven samples, violations of maximum residue levels were determined. Despite there being cases of improper use of plant protection products, no hazard to consumer health was determined. The highest values of short-term exposure were obtained in the case of consumption of blackcurrants with iprodione-a substance not recommended in Poland for protection of blackcurrants (4.3% acceptable daily intake (ADI), adults; 6.8% ADI, children). Since potential consumer risk caused by pesticide residues could not be ruled out, inspections should be carried out continuously.

  10. Vneshnjaja politika Pol'shi i Kaliningradskaja oblast' v 1989—2012 godah [The foreign policy of Poland and the Kaliningrad region in 1989—2012

    Chełminiak Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to analyse the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Polish foreign policy after 1989. The analysis focuses on the political and regional determinants, which had the greatest impact on the Poland-Kaliningrad region relations. The methodology used in the article is not unusual for political science and is based on analysing original (documents and secondary (scholarly publications, press articles sources. The authors also use the system and decision analysis methods. The analysis covers the period after 1989, when the geopolitical changes brought about by the collapse of the Yalta-Potsdam order resulted in Poland redefine the priorities of its foreign policy. One of the most important challenges for the Polish diplomacy after 1989 was the development of economic and political relations with the Russian Federation. Cross-border cooperation between Poland and the Kaliningrad Region is conducted, inter alia, through euroregional structures functioning in the border areas. The analysis of this issue is vital for further cooperation in the Polish-Russian borderland, especially after the conclusion of the local border traffic agreement in 2012. The authors come to a conclusion that the implementation of the local border traffic agreement can improve cross-border relations but it will not significantly change the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Polish foreign policy.

  11. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor – incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland

    Anna Długosz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Introduction. Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. Objective. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. Material and methods. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13–18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions. The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES included 6 features. The SES index (SESI was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR of underweight (BMI0.05. The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05 and in high SESI adolescents – 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05. The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05 and in high SESI adolescents – 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05. Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Conclusions. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  12. Socio-economic status as an environmental factor - incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents from less-urbanized regions of Poland.

    Długosz, Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa; Długosz, Tomasz; Wądołowska, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Under-nutrition, over-nutrition and obesity incidence in relation to environmental diversity and socio-economic influences in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland has not been widely studied. To determine the correlation between socio-economic status and incidence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adolescents located in less-urbanized regions of Poland. The study involved 553 adolescents aged 13-18 living in 2 less-urbanized regions of Poland (small towns and villages in the central and north-eastern regions). The sample was randomly chosen. The distinguishing determinants of socio-economic status (SES) included 6 features. The SES index (SESI) was calculated. Low, average and high SESI adolescents were distinguished. Using logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of underweight (BMI0.05). The odds ratio of overweight incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 1.73 (95%CI: 0.93, 3.19; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 1.14 (95%CI: 0.83, 1.57; p>0.05). The odds ratio of obesity incidence in the average SESI adolescent was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.21, 2.34; p>0.05) and in high SESI adolescents - 0.76 (95%CI: 0.40, 1.44; p>0.05). Adjustments for gender, age or region of residence did not significantly change the ORs values or their interpretation. Underweight incidence in adolescents from less urbanized regions of Poland depended on socio-economic status. An adolescent with average socio-economic status was 3 times less likely to be underweight than an adolescent with low socio-economic status. The correlation between socio-economic status and overweight and obesity was not significant.

  13. Chemical Characterization of Dew Water Collected in Different Geographic Regions of Poland

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a dew monitoring program performed in Poland with the aim to outline the chemical composition of dew water in meteorological context are presented. Dew samples were collected from eight measurement stations from August 2004 to November 2006. Taking into account the type of land use and characteristics of pollutant emission, sampling sites were divided into the following categories: rural, coastal urban and inland urban stations. Selected anions and cations as well as formaldehyde and sum of phenols were determined. The average TIC (Total Inorganic Ionic Content values in dew samples ranged from 0.83 to 3.93 between individual stations with 10.9 meq/L as the highest daily value of TIC measured. The average TIC values observed in dew at all stations were at a similar level (2.46 meq/L when compared with hoarfrost (2.86 meq/L. However, these values were much higher in comparison with other kinds of atmospheric water like precipitation (wet only; 0.37 meq/L or fog/cloud (1.01 meq/L. The pH values of dew water ranged from 5.22 to 7.35 for urban coastal stations, from 5.67 to 8.02 for urban inland stations and from 4.16 to 8.76 for dew samples collected in the rural area. HCHO was found in 97 % of dew samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.010 to 5.40 meq/L. Excluding stations near the seashore, where the contribution of Na+ and Cl- increased, the most important ions were sulphates. A very low contribution of NO3- and noticeable increase of Ca2+ which were not observed in the case of precipitation and fog water, were typical in all stations. The contribution of ammonium ion was two times higher at rural stations as a result of agricultural ammonia emissions. The strongest correlations were noticed between the sum of acidifying anions SO42- + NO3- and Ca2+ ion for all urban and rural stations. A very strong correlation was also observed for Na+ and Cl- ions in urban coastal stations, as a natural consequence of the location of these

  14. Radiocaesium in Cortinarius spp. mushrooms in the regions of the Reggio Emilia in Italy and Pomerania in Poland.

    Zalewska, Tamara; Cocchi, Luigi; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Activity concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs have been determined in 23 species of mushrooms of the genus Cortinarius (59 individual samples) collected from the Reggio Emilia in Italy 1992-1999 and in 4 species (16 composite samples and 413 individuals) from the Pomerania region in Poland from 1996 to 2015. Across all the Cortinarius species from the Reggio Emilia, the activity concentrations were relatively high in Cortinarius alboviolaceus, Cortinarius duracinus, Cortinarius orellanus, Cortinarius rapaceus, and Cortinarius subannulatus, in which 137 Cs was at 10,000 ~ 100,000 Bq kg -1 dry biomass (db) in 1994. Smaller activity concentrations were found in Cortinarius bivelus, Cortinarius bulliardii, Cortinarius cotoneus, Cortinarius largus, Cortinarius lividoviolaceus, Cortinarius purpureus, Cortinarius rufo-olivaceus, Cortinarius torvus, and Cortinarius venetus with levels at 1000 ~ 6000 Bq kg -1 db from 1992 to 1994, and further in Cortinarius anserinus, Cortinarius auroturbinatus, C. largus, Cortinarius praestans, Cortinarius purpurascens, Cortinarius scaurus, Cortinarius sebaceous, Cortinarius talus, and Cortinarius variecolor with activity concentrations at 100 ~ 600 Bq kg -1  db in 1994. All the data were calculated for dehydrated fungal material corrected back to the exact date samples of collection. The greatest activity concentrations of 137 Cs both in Italy (1992-1999) and Poland (1996-2010) were found in the popular Cortinarius caperatus, confirming its very high capacity of radiocaesium accumulation. Besides 137 Cs, the isotope 134 Cs was detected in some species from the Reggio Emilia. An average calculated ratio of activities of 134 Cs to 137 Cs referenced to 1986 was equal to 0.38 in mushrooms from the Reggio Emilia, and this value slightly differ from that specific for Chernobyl fallout, which was 0.54. It was calculated that 137 Cs originating from Chernobyl accident constituted about 68 % of the total activity concentration of the

  15. Characteristics of the regional human milk bank in Poland - donors, recipients and nutritional value of human milk

    Barbarska, Olga; Zielińska, Monika; Pawlus, Beata; Wesołowska, Aleksandra

    In case of shortage of breast milk despite proper lactation care or the poor state of the mother’s health, breast milk from human milk bank is recommended for feeding preterm infants This study retrospectively evaluated the first year of the operation of the Regional Human Milk Bank Data concerning donors was collected in the human milk bank during the cooperation. The clinical characteristics of the recipients was made on the basis of medical documentation from the Holy Family Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. Analysis of nutritional value was performed with the human milk analyzer (MIRIS AB) In the first year of activity, 45 voluntary donors established cooperation, donating from 650 to 32030 ml of human milk. The content of nutrients in milk provided by donors was variable - protein 0.4-1.5 g / 100 ml, fat 1.1-7.4 g / 100 ml, carbohydrates 6.3-7.9 g / 100 ml. The average length of using donated human milk was 4 days and the average volume of milk for one infant was 282 ml The donor profiles have a significant impact on the milk composition form HMB. The nutritional value can be improved by recruitment donors from mothers that gave birth prematurely and by beginning donation at earlier stages of lactation as soon as lactation is stabilized. In case of shortage of mothers own milk the immediate implementation of donors milk as a short-term support can significantly reduce the food intolerance incidence in the group of prematurely born infants

  16. Dietary habits and locus of control assessed in middle-school pupils from the Malopolska region of Poland.

    Gacek, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The formative years of adolescence are a crucial time for developing eating habits which, amongst other factors, are determined by personality traits. The aim of the study was to estimate eating behaviour in a group of middle school pupils according to gender and locus of control (LOC). Subjects were n = 200 boys and n = 200 girls, aged 14-16 living in the Malopolska region of Poland who were surveyed by questionnaire about their eating habits. A standardised Delta questionnaire, by Drwal, was used to assess LOC. Based on the median from the raw LOC scale scores, groups of boys and girls were thereby identified as having high internal (below the median) or high external (above the median) loci of control. The Chi2 test assessed the dependence between LOC and eating habits using PQStat software ver. 1.4.2.324 adopting values of p differences in certain eating behaviour have been found in middle school students that relate to their gender and LOC. The more rational and appropriate choices were taken by subjects with an internal LOC.

  17. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  18. Serum Concentrations of Selected Heavy Metals in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis from the Lublin Region in Eastern Poland

    Andrzej Prystupa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO report, alcohol is the third most significant health risk factor for the global population. There are contrary reports about heavy metals concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of selected heavy metals in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis living in the eastern part of Poland according to cirrhosis stage. The participants came from various hospitals of the Lublin region were enrolled. The study group included 46 male and 16 female patients. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease. High Performance Ion Chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb in serum samples. The concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cobalt were found to be significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. The serum concentration of cadmium was significantly higher in patients with advanced alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. We hypothesize that disorders of metabolism of heavy metals seem to be the outcome of impaired digestion and absorption, which are common in cirrhosis, improper diet, environmental and occupational exposure.

  19. Landscape management on post-exploitation land using the example of the Silesian region, Poland

    Myga-Piątek Urszula

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More and more often, post-mining and post-exploitation areas, which have been heavily transformed by man’s economic activities, are no longer a danger to the environment, but they enhance the monotonous urban-industrial landscape of a particular region and are instead its identifying value. Activities regarding the planning of landscape development are very difficult. This paper emphasizes some of the problems that result from legal barriers with regard to the concept of the more diversified management of post-mining areas as substantial forms of the landscape. In the process of the complex shaping of the natural environment in reclamation actions regarding post-mining areas geographers, biologists and architects have a large role to play.. Due to the fact that landscape management falls within the scope of interest and competencies of many stakeholders, such as: government, regional and self-government institutions, nature, monument and state forest protection authorities as well as the scientific community from various disciplines, it is very difficult to reach a consensus in this matter and to develop uniform operating procedures. The landscape management problems on postindustrial areas have been illustrated through the example of the region of Silesia. The cultural landscape of the region has been intensively developed in the last thousand years, but signs of human impact are much older, dating back to the pre-historical and early Medieval periods. The Silesia region is currently undergoing a major spatial reconstruction.

  20. Application of the Rural Development Index to Analysis of Rural Regions in Poland and Slovakia

    Michalek, Jerzy; Zarnekow, Nana

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to construct a multi-dimensional (composite) index measuring the overall level of rural development and quality of life in individual rural regions of a given EU country. In the Rural Development Index (RDI) the rural development domains are represented by hundreds of partial socio-economic, environmental,…

  1. Sulphate sulphur concentration in vegetable crops, soil and ground water in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from Plock oil refinery (central Poland)

    Mikula, W.

    1995-01-01

    Research was carried out in 1984-1990 in the region affected by the sulphur dioxide emission from one of the greatest oil refineries in Europe (Plock, central Poland). The sulphate sulphur concentration in the vegetable crops (red beet, carrot, parsley, bean, cabbage and dill), the soil and in ground water was defined in selected allotment gardens of Plock city and in a household garden located in the rural area about 25 km from the town. The highest amount of sulphur was found in the vegetable crops cultivated in the garden situated in the closest vicinity of the refinery. Sulphate sulphur contents harmful for plants (above 0.50 per cent d.m.) were noted in cabbage and carrot leaves in almost all the gardens (except one). The soil in all examined gardens was characterised by high sulphate sulphur concentration, which considerably exceeds the maximum amount admissible for light soil in Poland, i.e. 0.004 per cent d.m. The sulphate sulphur concentration in ground water in all the gardens exceeded the highest permissible content in drinking water in Poland. The sulphate sulphur content in the soil and ground water was not significantly dependent on the garden's distance from the refinery. Generally, the above normal sulphate sulphur concentrations occurred quite universally in the examined region and they concerned all the considered environmental components (vegetable crops, soil, ground water) and all the gardens. 22 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Analysis of chosen urban bioclimatic conditions in Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Poland

    Zimnol, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Due to the increasing urbanization, people spend more and more time in cities. Because of that fact during the last century the human bioclimatological approach had an important influence on the applied urban bioclimatology. The aim of the study was to analyze chosen thermal bioclimatic conditions in urban area of Upper Silesian Industrial Region in connection with the atmospheric circulation and air masses. The study was focused on the thermal conditions that are important for the bioclimatological research on human thermal comfort. They were the basis for making study on how to show the influence of the air masses and circulations types on frequency and variability of the chosen bioclimate indexes. That research was based on data (2004 - 2008) acquired by the Silesian University (Faculty of Earth Sciences) meteorological station located in the city of Sosnowiec (50°17'N, 19°08'E, h=263 m a.s.l.). The temperature measurements were made automatically every 10 minutes on the 2 meters above the ground level. Previous research showed that the station is a good representation of the local urban climate conditions in Upper Silesian Industrial Region. In the study the following air temperatures were taken into consideration: average day temperature, maximum day temperature, minimum day temperature and the average air temperature at 12 UTC. They were associated with atmospheric circulation types and masses typical for the region. Using the data mentioned above I conducted a classification to divide days into following objective categories: cool, cold, comfortable, hot, warm and very hot in the seasonal depiction. The final stage of the work was to find the answer to the following question: "When and how do the strong air masses and air circulations types modify bioclimatic conditions in the study area?" Answer to that question together with further results of the research will be presented on my poster.

  3. Population resources of an endangered species Salix lapponum L. in Polesie Lubelskie Region (eastern Poland

    Magdalena Pogorzelec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research, carried out in the years 2011–2013, aimed to evaluate Salix lapponum stands in the peat bogs of Polesie Lubelskie Region as well as to determine the condition of the population and the changes that have taken place since the 1950’s. An inventory carried out in 25 stands of S. lapponum known from the literature shows that the number of its stands has decreased by 80% in Polesie Lubelskie Region. In all the confirmed locations, a decrease in population numbers was also found in relation to the data known from the literature since the 1950’s. In the majority of the population locations that were considered to be extinct, there were no significant changes in habitat conditions, and ecological succession and changes in hydrological conditions could have been the cause of habitat changes only at a few sites. In the light of the study, the preservation of the S. lapponum population in Polesie Lubelskie seems to be impossible if appropriate active conservation measures are not taken immediately. Because area-based conservation, which covers most of the habitats of the studied species, does not bring the expected results, the possibility of ex situ conservation and enlargement of the populations existing in the natural environment in peat bog ecosystems in Polesie should be explored.

  4. Severity of work in opinions of rural women living in the Bieszczady region of south-eastern Poland.

    Pawlak, Halina; Petkowicz, Beata; Maniak, Barbara; Kuna-Broniowska, Izabela; Petkowicz, Jacek; Buczaj, Agnieszka; Maksym, Piotr; Nowakowicz-Dębek, Bożena; Gawda, Piotr

    2018-03-14

    The objective of the study was recognition of the opinions of rural women living in the Bieszczady region of south-eastern Poland, concerning their perception of the degree of severity of work. The study was conducted among the inhabitants of the Cisna commune. The basic research instrument was a questionnaire form containing 15 items. The study covered 101 women living in the Cisna commune in the Bieszczady. The self-reported degree of work load on a farm was analyzed among women who were occupationally active, and those who were not occupationally active. The effect of assistance from family members on the severity of work perceived by women was considered. The women in the study focused on agro-tourism, a few of them were engaged in agricultural work and the majority worked in household gardens. The study showed that occupationally active women work considerably longer, on average, and are the most loaded, compared to those not engaged in occupational activity. The mean daily time devoted to duties on a farm did not significantly differ between occupationally active and non-active women, and amounted to 380 and 320 minutes, respectively. The majority of women who were non-active occupationally evaluated their household chores as the highest work load. In turn, the women who undertook occupational activity assessed them as most burdensome, despite great help from their family. The body positions assumed while performing field work were: standing, standing-bent-over, and walking. The mean evaluations of work load while standing and standing-bent-over did not significantly differ, but affected the work load among women who, however, could not assess the severity of their work resulting from the body position assumed.

  5. Poland- Ukraine Relations

    Andrzej Szeptycki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland and Ukraine are the two biggest and most populated countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Because of their size, neighbourhood and position in the region the two countries have often been compared to France and Germany. Both countries are deeply interested in their mutual cooperation. Such situation steams from five factors: direct neighbourhood, common (albeit difficult history, attractiveness of the Polish labour market for the Ukrainians, membership of Poland in the Western structures, and last but not least, the Russian threat. Despite complimentary interests, both countries have difficulty to effectively develop their mutual relations and turn them into a real “strategic partnership”. These problems are due to the internal political and economic situation in Ukraine, limits imposed by the membership of Poland in the EU, Russian policy aiming at keeping Ukraine within its zone of influence and, finally, the EU reluctance to effectively engage in Ukraine.

  6. DETERMINANTS OF EARLY RETIREMENT TRANSITIONS OF TEACHERS IN POLAND. DOES REGIONAL HETEROGENEITY PLAY A ROLE?

    Katarzyna Kopycka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the literature on early retirement transitions by testing a line of explanations of this phenomenon in a specific context of public sector employment. It utilizes waves 2006 and 2007 of a longitudinal data set of employment histories of Polish teachers (SIO. Standard structural explanations of early retirement transitions, i.e. labor force restructuring and devaluation of human capital of older workers do not find support in the data. Multilevel logistic regression models show instead that the considerable variance in early retirement risks found in the data can to some degree be explained by labour mobility of prime aged teachers, supporting the thesis of a labor market as generational figuration. The analyses identify two early emploment groups among Polish teachers: 49–54, and 55–59 year olds. Whereas retirement transitions in the younger group are to a greater extent attributable to individual pull factors (like work commitment, regional variation plays a greater role in the older “early retirees” group indicating higher risks of involuntary early retirement in this group.

  7. Cadmium and lead contents in drinking milk from selected regions of Poland

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cadmium and lead are classified as toxic metals. Toxicity is attributed to the adverse effect on the human body, and therefore the content of these elements is analyzed in the environment and in food products. Studies conducted by many researchers indicate that more of cadmium and lead accumulate in products of plant origin, however, food products of animal origin are also not free from these compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the content of cadmium and lead in drinking milk originating from four selected milk producers from two different regions. Methods. A total of 28 milk samples were tested. The tested material was mineralized dry. To determine the content of the analyzed elements the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method was used. There were no significant differences in the content of heavy metals in the analyzed samples of milk. Results. None of the samples revealed the exceedance of the highest permissible level of these elements. Conclusions. Cadmium and lead content in tested drinking milk does not pose a threat to human health

  8. [Poland's syndrome].

    Slezak, R; Sasiadek, M

    2000-08-01

    Poland's syndrome consists of the variable clinical features, but always includes unilateral aplasia of the chest wall muscles and ipsilateral anomalies of upper extremity. The incidence of Poland's syndrome, reported by different authors ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 and is observed more frequently in males than in females with the right side of the body affected more often than the left. The etiology of this syndrome is still discussed. However most of described cases were sporadic, rare familial incidence of Poland's syndrome were also presented. Therefore different etiologic factors of the Poland's syndrome are taken into account: genetic, vascular compromise during early stages of embriogenesis but also teratogenic effect of environmental xenobiotics (e.g. cigarette smoking by pregnant women). The authors present also the case of 20-years old man with inherited bilateral syndactyly with the right side aplasia of major pectoralis muscle and face asymmetry. The familial history was negative in respect to the features, associated with Poland's syndrome.

  9. [Occurrence of Giardia species and genotypes in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, Poland].

    Solarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Giardia is the most common intestinal protozoan parasite found in humans and animals worldwide. Although it has been known for three hundred years, the nomenclature, taxonomy, host specificity, and pathogenicity of Giardia still arouse numerous controversies and ambiguities. Giardia is classified into six species, that are characterised by various ranges of hosts. The most dubious species is G. intestinalis, which includes a dozen or so genotypes, and only two of them (genotype A and B) have wide ranges of hosts, including humans. Moreover, in some genotype assemblages of G. intestinalis certain subgenotypes were distinguished and it was proven that in the same host species various subgenotypes of this parasite may occur. Bearing in mind the significant genetic heterogeneity of G. intestinalis and the fact that various genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are characterised by the broad or narrow host specificity, the data concerning the frequency of giardiosis occurrence are insufficient. It is necessary to use molecular biology techniques in order to define the genotype and/or the subgenotype of G. intestinalis that are found in humans and in certain animal species. Furthermore, since more and more pieces of evidence connected with a possibility of the sexual recombination of Giardia are gathered, it is unknown if genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are stable in time. The aim of this thesis was to define the frequency of Giardia occurrence in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, to identify species and genotypes of Giardia that occur in humans and animals, as well as to obtain an axenic culture of the chosen isolates of Giardia from animals and to compare the sequence of the beta-giardin gene fragment obtained from the DNA isolated from cysts and trophozoites in order to check if the axenisation of G. intestinalis leads to the selection of genotypes or if Giardia genotypes are stable in time. Altogether, 2183 faecal samples were examined for

  10. The Analysis of Trends in Socio-Economic Development of Poland and its Regions in the Period of the Country’s Membership in the European Union

    Semigulina Irina B. –

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The regional policy of the European Union aims to address issues of regional development associated with the decreasing of existing regional imbalances, preventing the emergence of regional imbalances, reducing the gap between the socio-economic indicators of development of various countries and regions, solving problems of territorial development, which are of priority for the development of modern Ukraine. The integration of Ukraine into the European community makes the matters of a detailed study of the EU experience and analysis of the key elements of its regional policy urgent. It also provides for the need to create Ukraine’s own regional policy taking into account the best European principles for the organization of management of regional and local development as well as the modernization of the local self-government system. Most appropriate for Ukraine is to use the best practices of regional policy of the EU member countries, which have successfully passed the transitional stage in their economic development and demonstrate stable positive transformations. Modern socio-political changes in Ukraine, which are accompanied by reforming the principles of local self-government and territorial organization of government at the local level, raise considerable interest on the part of state bodies and public organizations of our country to successfully carried changes in administrative-territorial system in combination with other structural reforms in Poland. Ukraine’s desire to integrate into the modern European Community makes it relevant to study the results of development of Poland and its regions, dynamics of changes in socio-economic indicators for the period of the country’s membership in the European Union

  11. On environmental problems in Poland

    Hinkel, H.; Kenez, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The book contains articles by five authors on the following subjects: General literature in German and Polish language on environmental problems in Poland; legal issues of environmental protection - laws for the protection and development of the environment; environmental health hazards - hazards at work; protection of the sea environment in the region of the Baltic Sea - pollution of the Baltic Sea; the water situation in Poland - the large-scale project 'Weichsel 2000'; the ecological situation of the lakes of Masovia; air pollution and its effects - the dying of Silesian forests; Chernobyl and the Polish reaction; the 27 ecologically endangered areas in Poland. (HSCH) [de

  12. Mycoplasma bovis infections and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. with different clinical manifestations in affected cattle herds in eastern region of Poland

    Szacawa Ewelina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of Mycoplasma bovis infection and co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle. The tested population was one in the eastern region of Poland containing 66 dairy cows and 23 calves showing different clinical signs and suffering from pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis. The incidence of M. bovis in co-infections with other Mycoplasma spp. was examined using serological traditional mycoplasma culture methods, and the molecular methods - PCR and polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR/DGGE. The PCR/DGGE method for detecting Mycoplasma spp. in cattle was used for the first time in Poland. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the affected cattle herds in the eastern region of Poland was 47.8% in calves and 19.7% in dairy cows. The direct detection and identification of M. bovis from nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR revealed that 56.5% of calves were positive, but all of the dairy cows were negative. The PCR/DGGE identified eight (34.8% instances of M. arginini and eight (26.1% instances of M. bovirhinis co-infecting with M. bovis in ten calves. The seroprevalence of M. bovis in the tested population was 33.7%. Any future attempts to control mycoplasma infections require an insight into the current epidemiological situation of M. bovis infection and its relationship to other mycoplasmas in causing clinical disease in cattle. Using these diagnostic methods we have demonstrated that mycoplasmal infections are often caused by multiple species of Mycoplasma and not just the primary M. bovis pathogen.

  13. Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Myxogastrea in Poland

    Salamaga Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Symphytocarpus trechisporus (Berk. ex Torrend Nann.-Bremek. is rare in Poland, known previously from only one locality. Sixty years after the original report, this paper presents two new localities of it in separate regions of Poland. Although S. trechisporus is recorded mostly on Sphagnum sp., the taxon does not seem to be attached to a specific substrate; rather it is associated with acidic habitats.

  14. The maturation rate of girls living in rich and poor rural regions of Poland before and after the transformation of 1989.

    Laska-Mierzejewska, T; Olszewska, E

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out whether the political and economic system transformation in Poland in 1989 had an influence on the rate of maturation of girls from various categories of the rural population in two regions, differing in wealth. The stratification of the villagers was based on the source of the family income (farmers, farmer-workers and non-farmers), on parents' education, and on the number of children per family. The age at menarche (AM) was used as biological indicator of living conditions. Rural girls aged 9.5-18.5 years were studied in 1987 in Leszno (L), a rich region (n = 2049), and in 1989 in Suwałki (S), a poor region (n = 2077). The study was repeated in 2001 in the same villages, the numbers of subjects amounting to 2440 and 2122, respectively. In the 1980s, AM in regions L and S amounted to 13.18 and 13.88 years, respectively, and was strongly related to social stratification. The earliest AM was found in daughters of non-farmers and the latest in the girls from farmers' families. In 2001, the acceleration in AM amounted to 0.14 years in the rich region and to 0.46 years in the poor region. The percentage of families owning a car, freezer, colour TV and automatic washing machine markedly increased and the education of parents improved. Such results are indicative of an improvement in the living standard of the groups investigated, but the villagers regard themselves as the losers as a result of the system transformation in Poland. Since the Polish population is considered as ethnically homogenous, the great differences in AM within the rural population, as well as the differences between the inhabitants of villages and large cities should be regarded as biological effects of social inequalities. Such differences indicate that Polish rural girls are far below the genetic potential for menarcheal age.

  15. Soybean diseases in Poland

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  16. The Effects of Liberalisation of the Passenger Railway Market on the Situation of Regional Rail Connections in Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria

    Taczanowski Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Liberalisation of railway market can be an important instrument for increasing the attractiveness of local rail services and consequently for making the railways more competitive with other means of transport, which could result in changing the modal share in the favour of railways. The differences in the railway liberalisation level as well as in the policies towards rail transport between Central and Eastern European countries are vast, hence the present situation and the future prospects of regional services are diverse. Whereas there is only one railway line in Slovakia which is not operated by the state railway company ZSSK, a few private local connections which complement a very dense network of ČD state railways are in service in the Czech Republic. Poland, by contrast, is a country where liberalisation of railway market is most advanced as several different companies are responsible for transport in the regions. However, the results of this large scale liberalisation are ambiguous as the positive effects (reopening of some lines are balanced by isolation of the new regional government-owned systems from each other. In Austria, by contrast, the existence of several private and regional government-owned local railways which are an indispensable part of the regional transport networks has contributed to maintain an effective transport system. Although the effects of liberalisation on the local railway networks can often be ambiguous, several cases from the Czech Republic, Austria and Poland show that privatisation and municipalisation may have a positive effect on the railway service as it has enabled to maintain the service on many sections which were at risk of closure. However, the most important condition of the effective transport development seems to be an active cooperation between the railway operators and the local governments as an expression of appropriate transport policy.

  17. Is the soil quality monitoring an effective tool in consumers' protection of agricultural crops from cadmium soil contamination?-a case of the Silesia region (Poland).

    Piekut, Agata; Baranowska, Renata; Marchwińska-Wyrwał, Ewa; Ćwieląg-Drabek, Małgorzata; Hajok, Ilona; Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta

    2017-12-16

    The monitoring of soil quality should be a control tool used to reduce the adverse health effects arising from exposure to toxic chemicals in soil through cultivated crop absorption. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the monitoring and control system of soil quality in Poland, in terms of consumer safety, for agricultural plants cultivated in areas with known serious cadmium contamination, such as Silesia Province. To achieve the objective, the contents of cadmium in soils and vegetables in the Silesia administrative area were examined. The obtained results were compared with the results of soil contamination from the quality monitoring of arable soil in Poland. The studies show a significant exceedance of the permissible values of cadmium in soil samples and the vegetables cultivated on that soil. The threat to consumer health is a valid concern, although this threat was not indicated by the results of the national monitoring of soil quality. The results indicated an unequal distribution of risk to consumers resulting from contaminated soil. Moreover, the monitoring systems should be designed at the local or regional scale to guarantee the safety of consumers of edible plants cultivated in the areas contaminated with cadmium.

  18. Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2014

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Piotrowska, Anna

    The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014. In the last three years in Poland, about 3000 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis of viral or bacterial etiology were recorded annually. Assessment of the epidemiological situation of meningitis and/or encephalitis in Poland in 2014, was based on the results of the analysis of epidemiological reports sent to the NIZP-PZH by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Preventive immunizations in Poland in 2014”. In 2014 in Poland 3488 cases of bacterial meningitis and/or encephalitis were recorded. Almost 61.3% of these were viral infections. In 2014, in comparison to 2013, a 1.1% increase in the number of cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis was observed and 91% with viral etiology.

  19. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  20. Photovoltaics in Poland

    Pietruszko, Stanislaw M.

    2003-01-01

    The legislative framework and financing possibilities for photovoltaics (PV) in Poland are presented. Barriers that exist or can be encountered in implementing PV technology in Poland are identified. This paper also discusses future prospects and possibilities for developing photovoltaics in Poland. Finally, the paper suggests ways to promote, disseminate, and deploy PV technology in Poland. (Author)

  1. Body fat levels in children in younger school age from rural areas living in Copper Mining Region in south-west Poland

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity as a civilization disease has been called the "epidemic" in the late twentieth century. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, which is the last time a major cause of death. In Europe and the United States, the number of overweight people exceeds now 50% of the population. The incidence of overweight and obesity continue to rise and this phenomenon is also observed in our country even in case of an early childhood. In Poland, percentage of very young school children (boys and girls who are overweight or obese amounts to about 15%. Obesity is particularly common among children from industrial environments living in highly developed countries. The aim of his study was to assess the level of fat in boys and girls from rural areas aged 7 to 10 from industrial environment. Material and methods. The study was carried out at six rural schools located in the copper mining region in south-west Poland in 2001. For the needs of the study use was made of existing results covering altogether 488 children of early school age – 261 girls and 227 boys. Measurements were taken of height, body mass, waist and hip circumferences. Body fat, body water and lean body mass were measured with Futrex. Respectively the BMI and WHR were calculated from measurements taken earlier. Results and conclusions. The BMI level is within the values of acceptable standard in majority of children. The percentage of children above the standard fluctuates within the limits of typical peers from other regions of the country and is about 15%. In boys obesity increases with age, in girls the values increase also, but they are of lower importance. Most of the examined children present an average level of total body fatness. A very small percentage of them exceeds the level considered as obese.

  2. Variability of morphological needle traits of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. among populations from mountain and lowland regions of Poland

    Łabiszak Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to examine interpopulational needle traits variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. from four mountain, one foothill and three lowland, natural populations located in Poland. This choice of locations was motivated by the presumed different origins of mountainous populations and the necessity to demonstrate how closely they are related to lowland populations. Variation in the studied populations was determined using seven morphological traits of needles: 1 - needle length, 2 - number of stomatal rows on the flat side of a needle, 3 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the flat side, 4 - number of stomatal rows on the convex side of a needle, 5 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the convex side, 6 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the left side and 7 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the right side. Biometric data were analysed statistically, and it was found that (i needle traits differentiate studied populations; (ii the postulated division of the population into two groups is reflected in the obtained results; and (iii a particularly strong relationship was found between two relict pine populations from the Pieniny (Sokolica, Kazalnica, Czertezik and Tatra Mts. (Wielke Koryciska, which may be the result of the common origins and history of these two populations

  3. Western blot banding pattern in early Lyme borreliosis among patients from an endemic region of north-eastern Poland.

    Flisiak, R; Wierzbicka, I; Prokopowicz, D

    1998-01-01

    Aim of this study was evaluation of Western blot banding patterns in different clinical forms of early Lyme borreliosis diagnosed in patients from north-eastern Poland, recognized as endemic for tick-borne diseases. Study was performed on serum samples of 48 patients with Lyme borreliosis and 26 healthy volunteers, as controls. Samples tested routinely for total antibody with enzyme immunoassay were subsequently analysed for specific antibodies with Western blot based on antigen extract of European strain of Borrelia burgdorferi. In patients, IgM antibodies were the most frequently directed against 41 kDa and 58 kDa antigens, whereas in control group only antibodies against 45 kDa and 58 kDa were present. Similar response was observed in respect to IgG antibodies. Evaluation of banding pattern in respect to clinical form of the disease revealed the highest prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-41 kDa antibodies in patients with erythema migrans and Lyme arthritis, and anti-58 kDa in neuroborreliosis patients, who had no anti-21 kDa antibodies. Relatively high frequency of IgG antibodies against 21, 30 and 93 kDa antigens was typical for neuroborreliosis. Bands count was significantly higher in different clinical forms of the disease than in controls, and it was the highest in neuroborreliosis. Combined analysis of Western blot results (IgM/IgG) enabled to achieve higher sensitivity (84%) and specificity (100%) than available with the most recommended EIA kits.

  4. Analysis of reworked sediments as a basis of the Palaeogene-Neogene palaeogeography reinterpretation: Case study of the Roztocze region (SE Poland)

    Margielewski, Włodzimierz; Jankowski, Leszek; Krąpiec, Marek; Garecka, Małgorzata; Hałas, Stanisław; Urban, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Radiometric K/Ar dating of glauconite and nanno- and micropaleontologic analyses of calcareous nannoplankton, foraminifers and dinoflagellates isolated from the Miocene rocks in the Polish part of the Roztocze region, a northeastern part of the fore-bulge of the Carpathian Foreland Basin System - CFBS), SE Poland, reveal that these strata contain numerous microfossils and glauconite grains of the Upper Eocene and Lower Oligocene age. Such occurrences clearly indicate that these materials were redeposited from the Upper Eocene and Lower Oligocene marine rocks that must have originally covered most of the Roztocze and the surrounding area. It is therefore proposed herein that the geographical extent of the boreal, epi-continental basin during the Eocene-Oligocene was much greater than previously considered. Moreover, it appears that this basin was connected with the back-bulge zone of the warm Carpathian Basin (originally a northern part of the Tethys Basin which since Eocene/Oligocene boundary remained isolated as the Paratethys Basin). Hence, it is unlikely that the Roztocze region was uplifted during the Palaeogene as part of the Meta-Carpathian Swell, as it was earlied hypothesized. Instead, the Roztocze Swell formed during the Sarmatian, in the last stage of the development of the fore-bulge structure in the foreland of the up-thrust Carpathian orogenic belt. Multiple redeposition of sediments is the reason that the absolute dating (K/Ar) of glauconite, as well as incomprehensive palaeontological analysis could result in erroneous stratigraphic and palaeogeographic interpretations.

  5. Anthropogenic impact of urban settlements on inorganic anions content in selected watercourses in the Subcarpathian Region of Poland.

    Kolebuk, Tomasz; Madej, Daniel; Pieniążek, Rafał; Bilek, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Legislation for environmentally protecting surface waters in Poland and the EU is considered a priority because of the large human impact on this environmental feature in both highly industrialised countries as well as those that are agriculturally well developed. The biggest threats are regarded as being sewage arising from economic, industrial and agricultural pollution along with rain water run-off from fields treated with fertilizers. One of the most characteristic indicators of pollution exposure in surface waters are inorganic anions which form the principal components of town sew- age and fertilizers. The estimate the effect that six selected sites of human settlement have on variously sized watercourses running through. The human environmental impact was based on determination of chlorides, nitrates and sulphates concentrations in such waters. Water samples were obtained from the following rivers and towns, respectively; the Nil in Kolbuszowa, the Mleczka in Przeworsk, the San in Jaroslaw, the Wislok in Rzeszow, the Bystrzyca in Olimpow and an unnamed watercourse in Niwiska. Sampling sites were chosen at 4-6 points along each watercourse for a given locality. Analyte levels were measured by ion chromatography using the Dionex ICS 1000 instrument. Mean chlorides concentrations were found to vary from 8.52 (±0.17, n=3) mg/L to 78.41 (±0.19, n=3) mg/L, mean nitrates were 6.76 (±0.00, n=3) mg/L to 23.97 (±1.50, n=3) mg/L and mean sulphates from 29.89 (±1.57, n=3) mg/L to 62.48 (±2.99, n=3) mg/L. The clearest environmental effect of settlements on watercourses were observed for the small to medium sized towns of Kolbuszowa, Przeworsk and Jaroslaw in the form of frequently elevated chlorides levels from sewage. By designating various sampling locations, along the watercourses for measuring the human environmental impact of nearby settlements, it is possible to identify sources of river pollution and thus take appropriate remedial action, as and when

  6. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2012.

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2012 compared to the previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews contained in the annual bulletins "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2012" (NIZP-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2013), reports from investigations obtained from the sanitary epidemiological stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2012 and earlier years is based on the data from the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were classified according to the case definition. In Poland in 2012, it was reported a total of 8 444 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis including 8 267 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 177 of extraintestinal one. The incidence was 21.9/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case met more than 94% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in 2011, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (69.4%) hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella remains. In outbreaks proportion of hospitalizations accounted for one third of the cases. Predominated children under the age of 5 years. Seven people died of salmonellosis. In 2012, it was reported 181 outbreaks caused by Salmonella in which 1 511 people still. They were mostly small family outbreaks. The most common etiological agent of salmonellosis in Poland is S. enteritidis, but slightly increases the percentage cases, for which no serologic type was determined. In 2012 it stood at 14%. This proportion was highest in the Pomorskie province and amounted to 58%. Keeping up for more than 10 years in the percentage of salmonellosis hospitalization rate at 70%, indicates underreporting of the disease in the country and mostly detection of the cases requiring hospital treatment. Growing proportion of

  7. The Use of Principal Component Analysis for Source Identification of PM2.5 from Selected Urban and Regional Background Sites in Poland

    Błaszczak, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The paper reports the results of the measurements of water-soluble ions and carbonaceous matter content in the fine particulate matter (PM2.5), as well as the contributions of major sources in PM2.5. Daily PM2.5 samples were collected during heating and non-heating season of the year 2013 in three different locations in Poland: Szczecin (urban background), Trzebinia (urban background) and Złoty Potok (regional background). The concentrations of PM2.5, and its related components, exhibited clear spatiotemporal variability with higher levels during the heating period. The share of the total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 exceeded 40% and was primarily determined by fluctuations in the share of OC. Sulfates (SO42-), nitrates (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) dominated in the ionic composition of PM2.5 and accounted together 34% (Szczecin), 30% (Trzebinia) and 18% (Złoty Potok) of PM2.5 mass. Source apportionment analysis, performed by PCA-MLRA model (Principal Component Analysis - Multilinear Regression Analysis), revealed that secondary aerosol, whose presence is related to oxidation of gaseous precursors emitted from fuel combustion and biomass burning, had the largest contribution in observed PM2.5 concentrations. In addition, the contribution of traffic sources together with road dust resuspension, was observed. The share of natural sources (sea spray, crustal dust) was generally lower.

  8. The Use of Principal Component Analysis for Source Identification of PM2.5 from Selected Urban and Regional Background Sites in Poland

    Błaszczak Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results of the measurements of water-soluble ions and carbonaceous matter content in the fine particulate matter (PM2.5, as well as the contributions of major sources in PM2.5. Daily PM2.5 samples were collected during heating and non-heating season of the year 2013 in three different locations in Poland: Szczecin (urban background, Trzebinia (urban background and Złoty Potok (regional background. The concentrations of PM2.5, and its related components, exhibited clear spatiotemporal variability with higher levels during the heating period. The share of the total carbon (TC in PM2.5 exceeded 40% and was primarily determined by fluctuations in the share of OC. Sulfates (SO42-, nitrates (NO3- and ammonium (NH4+ dominated in the ionic composition of PM2.5 and accounted together ~34% (Szczecin, ~30% (Trzebinia and ~18% (Złoty Potok of PM2.5 mass. Source apportionment analysis, performed by PCA-MLRA model (Principal Component Analysis – Multilinear Regression Analysis, revealed that secondary aerosol, whose presence is related to oxidation of gaseous precursors emitted from fuel combustion and biomass burning, had the largest contribution in observed PM2.5 concentrations. In addition, the contribution of traffic sources together with road dust resuspension, was observed. The share of natural sources (sea spray, crustal dust was generally lower.

  9. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region

    Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg -1 , 40 K-689 Bq kg -1 , 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg -1 , 235U-13.5 Bq kg -1 , 238U-50 Bq kg -1 and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg -1 .

  10. The NOD2 3020insC Mutation in Women with Breast Cancer from the Bydgoszcz Region in Poland. First Results

    Janiszewska Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The frameshift NOD2 gene mutation 3020insC is predominantly associated with Crohn's disease, but predisposes to many types of common cancers as well. We studied the frequency of this mutant NOD2 allele in 148 breast cancer women from the Bydgoszcz region in Poland. The NOD2 mutation was present in 8.8% of the patients. The mean age at breast cancer diagnosis of the mutation carriers was 43 years. We did not find any mutation in patients diagnosed with breast cancer after the age of 50 years. There was no association of the NOD2 mutation with a strong family history of breast cancer. On the contrary, the mutation frequency (11.4% was two times higher in women from families with a single case of breast cancer and with aggregation of other common types of cancer, especially digestive tract cancers. Low risk of breast cancer in the mutation carriers seems to be confirmed by finding the 3020insC mutation in three healthy parents of probands aged 73, 74 and 83 years, from three separate families.

  11. The impact of demographic factors, behaviors and environmental exposure to mercury content in the hair of the population living in the region of Lodz (central Poland).

    Marcinek-Jacel, Marta; Albińska, Jadwiga; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Szynkowska, Małgorzata Iwona

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to access the influence of different factors such as sex, age, fish consumption, hair dyeing or smoking habit on the content of mercury in human hair samples. The research was carried on 444 samples (102 males and 342 females) collected from the population of people living in the region of Lodz (central Poland). The content of mercury in human hair samples was determined using the Mercury Analyzer MA 3000 (Nippon Instruments, Japan). The obtained results were elaborated using Statistica ver. 10.0 software. The mean value of mercury in investigated human hair samples was found to be 0.174±0.137mg/kg. We observed the statistically significant correlations (p<0.05) between the content of Hg in hair of the studied population and factors such as gender, age, and fish consumption. However, no statistically significant differences were found in relation to cosmetic treatment such as hair dyeing or smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. APPLICATION OF LiDAR DATE TO ASSESS THE LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAP USING WEIGHTS OF EVIDENCE METHOD – AN EXAMPLE FROM PODHALE REGION (SOUTHERN POLAND

    M. Kamiński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Podhale is a region in southern Poland, which is the northernmost part of the Central Carpathian Mountains. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of landslides that threaten the local infrastructure. In an article presents application of LiDAR data and geostatistical methods to assess landslides susceptibility map. Landslide inventory map were performed using LiDAR data and field work. The Weights of Evidence method was applied to assess landslides susceptibility map. Used factors for modeling: slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainage density, faults density, lithology and curvature. All maps were subdivided into different classes. Then were converted to grid format in the ArcGIS 10.0. The conditional independence test was carried out to determine factors that are conditionally independent of each other with landslides. As a result, chi-square test for further GIS analysis used only five factors: slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainage density and lithology. The final prediction results, it is concluded that the susceptibility map gives useful information both on present instability of the area and its possible future evolution in agreement with the morphological evolution of the area.

  13. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region.

    Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

    2010-11-01

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg(-1), 40 K-689 Bq kg(-1), 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg(-1), 235U-13.5 Bq kg(-1), 238U-50 Bq kg(-1) and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg(-1).

  14. Poland and Global Threats

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  15. Science-Economy-Technology Concordance Matrix for Development and Implementation of Regional Smart Specializations in the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland.

    Smoliński, Adam; Bondaruk, Jan; Pichlak, Magdalena; Trząski, Leszek; Uszok, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The regional smart specializations include the innovative activities within a common science-economy-technology sector, which open the opportunities to gain a competitive advantage. The original procedure of science-economy-technology concordance matrix development on an example of smart specializations of the Silesian Voivodeship was presented in the paper. The procedure developed includes recognition of the research and economic components of the regional smart specialization and the connection between the economic components of the regional specialization and the technological innovation through the international patent classification. It also comprises recognition of key enabling technologies (KETs) and high technologies (of high R&D intensity) other than KET in the economic and technological dimensions of innovation as well as the high R&D intensity services in the economic dimension of innovation. The in-depth expert analyses with the application of the Delphi method were also taken into account. The methodological approach developed and the visualization method applied are both of cognitive and practical importance since they contribute significantly to the creation of efficient development policies, to the enhancement and facilitation of cross-sectoral cooperation, and to the focusing on the fields of key importance in terms of the competitive advantage of a region.

  16. Science-Economy-Technology Concordance Matrix for Development and Implementation of Regional Smart Specializations in the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

    Adam Smoliński

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The regional smart specializations include the innovative activities within a common science-economy-technology sector, which open the opportunities to gain a competitive advantage. The original procedure of science-economy-technology concordance matrix development on an example of smart specializations of the Silesian Voivodeship was presented in the paper. The procedure developed includes recognition of the research and economic components of the regional smart specialization and the connection between the economic components of the regional specialization and the technological innovation through the international patent classification. It also comprises recognition of key enabling technologies (KETs and high technologies (of high R&D intensity other than KET in the economic and technological dimensions of innovation as well as the high R&D intensity services in the economic dimension of innovation. The in-depth expert analyses with the application of the Delphi method were also taken into account. The methodological approach developed and the visualization method applied are both of cognitive and practical importance since they contribute significantly to the creation of efficient development policies, to the enhancement and facilitation of cross-sectoral cooperation, and to the focusing on the fields of key importance in terms of the competitive advantage of a region.

  17. Study on the concentration of airbone respirable asbestos fibres in rural areas of the Lublin region in south-east Poland

    Agnieszka Buczaj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the study was measurement of the concentrations of airborne asbestos fibres in the rural environment of the Lublin Region in south-east Poland. Methods. Measurements of concentrations of respirable asbestos fibres were carried out in the rural areas of the Lublin Region (Lublin and Włodawa counties for a period of 24 months. The studies were conducted on 3 farms with various technical conditions of asbestos-containing materials: Farm A – good technical condition of asbestos products, Farm B – poor technical condition, and Farm C – with no asbestos containing products and no such products in its direct vicinity (up to 500 m. On the selected farms, 3 samples on each were simultaneously collected at 3 measuring sites. During the period 2009–2011, a total number of 216 samples were collected on all farms. Sampling was performed using JSH 16,000 stationary aspirators, with air flow velocity of 16 l/min. and sampling time 60–80 minutes. The number of fibres on filters was determined using an optical phase contrast microscope. Results. The study showed that the mean concentration of respirable asbestos fibres on the farms examined was 296 fibres•m [sup]-3[/sup]. The highest concentrations were noted on Farm B was 529 fibres•m [sup]-3[/sup], on average; on farm A the mean concentration of respirable fibres was 328 fibres•m [sup]-3[/sup] , whereas the lowest mean concentration of airborne respirable asbestos fibres was noted on farm C, where there were no asbestos products (30 fibres•m [sup]-3[/sup] .

  18. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    Kuboń Maciej; Olech Elżbieta

    2018-01-01

    The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the ...

  19. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  20. How does the European Regional Development Fund finance energy efficiency and renewable investments in housing sector in Bulgaria, Poland and Romania?

    2009-11-01

    manage the funds or these are not compatible with / supplementary to the operational national schemes: - In Bulgaria, the programs implemented in cooperation with UNDP or EBRD are operational, unlike the operational programs financed from the Structural Funds. - In Poland, the national schemes and programs are more popular and efficient than Structural Funds. Structural Funds are useful for co-financing projects at national level but often create unjustified expectations. Only 1.24% of the EU's gross national income (GNI) is allocated to the EU budget. 45% of the GNI goes directly to national, regional and local public expenditure. The priorities and relevant mechanisms should be though first set up at these levels. The 45% of the EU's gross national income goes to national, regional and local public expenditure while the EU's budget (allocated partly to the EU programs and financial instruments such as the Structural Funds) represents only 1.24%. The EU funding is supposed to be supplementary to national funding; it's not supposed to replace it. Unless the clear objectives and strong political, legal and financial supporting mechanisms are set up at national, regional and local level (where the real political and financial potential lies), the European objectives and funding will always remain for Member States rather a burden than opportunity

  1. Economical aspects of milk processing industry under conditions of dispersed agriculture – study of a chosen region in Poland

    Ladislav Mura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low costs of raw material production in comparison with milk production costs in the EU-25 countries are strengths of the Małopolska dairy sector. Low costs of milk production result primarily from the extensive character of production on a majority of dairy farms, dispersion and outdated technologies, lower hygiene and veterinary standards and low remuneration for work in agriculture forced by high unemployment rate and lack of any other sources of income. Simultaneously the same factors are basic causes of low profitability of milk production and lack of funds for its modernization, thus being the main weaknesses of the Małopolska dairy sector. Small farms prevail among milk producers, which makes the structure of milk suppliers for processing greatly dispersed over the whole region. The dispersion most unfavourably affects raw milk quality and competitiveness of final dairy products.

  2. Trees as bioindicators of industrial air pollution during implementation of pro-environmental policy in Silesia region (Poland).

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Slawomir; Opała, Magdalena; Pawełczyk, Sławomira; Piotrowska, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of research conducted within the project entitled "Trees as bioindicators of industrial air pollutants during the implementation of pro-environmental policies in the area of Silesia" (acronym BIOPOL) is the reconstruction of climate changes and anthropogenic effects and monitoring of the influence of human activities related to industrial development and the introduction of pro-environmental policy. The analysis will concern the climatic and anthropogenic signals recorded in annual tree rings width of Scots pine and in the isotopic composition of wood and its compenents (such as alpha-cellulose and glucose). Only a few studies made a complex multiproxies analysis of the influence of industrial air pollutants on changes in the tree rings width and their isotopic composition in any selected region. In addition, research is usually for a period of industrial development, is a lack of analysis for the period of implementation of EU law and standards on air quality to Polish law. The research area are the forests close to 3 different industrial plants (chemical- nitrogen plants, steel mills, power plants), in Silesia, where operating companies have strategic importance for the region and country. By analyzing the structure of land in Silesia noted a significant advantage of forest land and agricultural land. A large percentage of forest land providing protection for residents in case of failure in any of the plants. A cloud of noxious fumes is possible in large part retained in the trees. Waste generated by the chemical industry, metallurgy and energy represent the largest proportion of waste generated in the region. Already in the beginning of 21stcentury, the Waste Management Plans for various cities in Silesia are set out various strategic objectives to 2015, including in the economic sector: the implementation of non-waste technology and less and the best available techniques (BAT), the introduction of the principles of "cleaner production". The BIOPOL

  3. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  4. Conventional and molecular methods in the diagnosis of community-acquired diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age from the north-eastern region of Poland

    Krzysztof Fiedoruk

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The high prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni suggests that the number of campylobacteriosis cases in Poland may be underestimated; this pathogen should be investigated routinely in children with diarrhoea. Moreover, C. difficile might be considered a causative or contributing agent of diarrhoea in 14.8% of children aged >1 year.

  5. Teaching Astronomy through e-learning in Poland: Astronomical Education in teacher training conducted by the Regional Teacher Training Center in Skierniewice

    Dabrowska, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Regional Teacher Training Centre (RTTC) in Skierniewice is one of 49 public, accredited institutions in Poland carrying out it statutory goals at the regional level. It has been operating since 1989 and is responsible for organizing of support of schools, institutions, networks of teachers for cooperation and self-education, organizing various forms of in-service training and disseminating examples of good practice. It also has rich experience in teaching by using modern Interactive Computer Technology (ICT) tools and e-learning platform. I present examples about teaching of Astronomical issues through teacher training both as hands on workshops as well as through e-learning. E-learning is playing an important role in organizing educational activities not only in the field of modern didactic but also in learning Science subjects. Teachers find e-learning as a very economical, easy and convenient way of learning and developing their knowledge and skills. Moreover, they are no longer afraid of using new ICT tools and programs which help them to cooperate with students effectively. Since 2011 RTTC in Skierniewice has been an organizer of many on-line in-service programs for teachers, in learning Science. Some of them are organized as blended-learning programs which allow teachers to participate first in hands on activities then continue learning on the Moodle platform. These courses include two 15 and 30-hours of Astronomical topics. Teachers have the opportunity to gain knowledge and receive materials not only about the Universe and the Solar System but also can learn to use tools like Stellarium, Celestia, WorldWide Telescope, Your Sky and other tools. E-learning modules consist of both publishing learning materials in various forms, eg. PowerPoint Presentations, Word & PDF materials, web sites, publications, working sheets as well as practical duties like participation in chats, forums, tasks, Wiki, group workshop. Teachers use these materials for extending their

  6. Sacral landscape and its influence on the tourism space development in the region (based on the example of Western Pomerania region NW Poland

    Tomasz Duda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formed through the centuries, cultural landscape of the region includes not only the material realm in the form of numerous historical buildings, monuments and other evidences of local society’s development, but also significant immaterial realm, which manifests itself in the form of spiritual heritage, faith, tradition, customs and language. Interesting, often unique in terms of religious and historical point of view, religious buildings, as well as traditional pilgrimage routes and local shrines are now undeniable qualities, shaping the touristic space of the region. The study of the tourism movement and a detailed valuation analysis of sacred objects showed that the wide ranging cultural tourism (with the significant participation of religious tourism is a great alternative to still popular, although in many places it is already too saturated, leisure tourism. The historical values and a multitude of interesting, often unique objects with proper promotional activity may contribute to the tourist interest of places that often have been overlooked. The main aim of this article is to show the spatial diversity of the phenomenon of religious tourism and valuation of the landscape in terms of its usefulness as an area of cultural tourism in the region, so far perceived through the prism of seaside leisure tourism. Valuation of facilities and pilgrim routes by way of grading point while enhancing statistical information on tourism, led to create an image (a map of the spatial diversity of the religious tourism phenomenon and its juxtaposition with other forms of tourism in the region. Thanks to this type of observations, in the future it will be possible to create a model showing the possibilities of alternative forms of tourism (including religious and cultural tourism to formulate the touristic space. This, for example, will allow to eliminate the problems associated with the seasonality of coastal and leisure tourism, offering a new, often

  7. POLAND`S OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Buczkowski Bogdan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the discussion of motives, determinants and effects of outward FDI of companies from emerging economies. We analyze the the scale, structure, geographical location and effects of Polish foreign direct investments as well as we prioritize their determinants. The interest of Polish companies in investing abroad has increased sharply over the last decade, due to the need to broaden the scale of business operations and geographical scope of their economic activities after the Poland`s accession to the European Union.

  8. Teaching anthropology in Poland

    Buchowski, M.; Červinková, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2016), s. 47-51 E-ISSN 2239-625X Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : teaching anthropology * Poland * pedagogy * educational anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology

  9. Poland health system review.

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  10. A retrospective assessment of the effectiveness of radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroid patients from 1997 to 2003 in the north-eastern region of Poland

    Budlewski, T.; Rogowski, F.; Szumowski, P.; Parfienczyk, A.; Sopotyk, A.; Kociura-Sawicka, A.; Abdelrazek, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The first clinical studies concerning treatment of hyperthyroid patients with 131-I date back as far as 1941. However, it was the following years that brought a wide application of these methods. In Podlasie region (north-eastern Poland) radioiodine treatment was first introduced in 1997. Hyperthyroidism in this region affects about 1.5% of population. The number of new patients is about 3,500 per year. Because iodine deficiency is high in this region, toxic nodular goitre rather than Graves' disease tends to be the main cause of hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was a retrospective analysis of the results of radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroid patients from 1997 to 2003. From 1997 to 2003, 4913 hyperthyroid patients underwent treatment with 131-I (131-I Polatom, Swierk) in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Medical University of Bialystok. The tested group included: 2106 patients with single solitary nodule, 1968 with multinodular goitre and 839 with Graves' disease. The diagnosis was made on the basis of physical examination and biochemical test results including TSH, fT4 and fT3. All patients had scintigraphic studies with 24 and 48 h uptake of 131-I. They also underwent ultrasound scans to enable assessment of the goitre size and to discover the nodules. All patients with nodules revealed by physical examination and ultrasound scans had biopsy performed under ultrasonographic control. The therapeutic doses of 131-I were calculated on the basis of iodine uptake, goitre size and an assumed absorbed dose. Marinnneli's formula was applied. The assumed absorbed doses were diversified according to the cause of hyperthyroidism and the size of goitre, and ranged from 80 to 350 Gy. In case of small goitres the absorbed doses varied from 80 to 100 Gy. In case of Graves' disease - from 80 to 150 Gy, in solitary nodules from 200 to 350 Gy. 131-I was given to patients orally in capsules. The administered therapeutic doses ranged from 200 mCi to 800 m

  11. Hepatitis E virus IgG seroprevalence in HIV patients and blood donors, west-central Poland

    Maciej Bura

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Wielkopolska Region in west-central Poland is an area hyperendemic for HEV infection. In this part of Poland, the exposure of HIV-positive persons to this virus is not greater than that of healthy blood donors.

  12. EXPANSION OF DIDYMOSPHENIA GEMINATA (LYNGBE) M. SCHMIDT (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) IN RUNNING WATERS IN S-E POLAND: NEW RECORDS IN THE PODKARPACIE REGION

    Teresa Noga; Jadwiga Stanek-Tarkowska; Anita Pajączek; Łukasz Peszek; Natalia Kochman

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays Didymosphenia geminata is one of the most frequently studied diatoms in the world, due to its massive development in most continents. In Poland, up to the 1990’s only a small number of specimens were recorded, from streams in the Tatra Mountains and the Dunajec River. D. geminata was found in 2007–2008 in the middle and upper sections of the Wisłok River, while in 2009 and 2011 it was also found in the Wisłoka, Ropa, Bielcza, and San. The cells belonged to one morphotype “geminata” a...

  13. Are antibiotics over-prescribed in Poland? Management of upper respiratory tract infections in primary health care region of Warszawa, Wola.

    Windak, A; Tomasik, T; Jacobs, H M; de Melker, R A

    1996-10-01

    Concern about the increasing numbers of multiple resistant strains resulting from over- and misuse of antibiotics is growing world-wide. A questionnaire based on two cases related to respiratory tract infections for which antibiotic prescription was disputable was sent to primary care physicians in the health care district of Warszawa, Wola, Poland. The prescription percentage for both cases was high, with a large variety in choice of antibiotic therapy made by the doctors. This finding was striking when compared with the more restrictive prescription behaviour of Dutch general practitioners. Moreover, this high prescription percentage was combined with other abundant activities. In the case of the patient with acute tonsillitis, 53% of the primary care physicians would have ordered additional tests, 94% would have advised bed-rest and 9% would have referred. In the sinusitis case, these figures were 88, 74 and 54% respectively. No correlations were found between choice of antibiotics and characteristics of the physicians such as age, gender, experience with working in primary health care or degree of specialization. In conclusion, the results of this small pilot study indicate that Polish first-contact doctors have an inadequate prescription behaviour in cases with upper respiratory tract infections. Our results underline the need for courses in pharmacotherapy within the postgraduate education course in family medicine recently introduced in Poland.

  14. To understand Poland / Joanna Bar

    Bar, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Uurimustest Poola igapäevaelu kohta Nõukogude perioodil : Wedel, Janine. The private Poland : an anthropologist look at everyday life ; Dziğiel, Leszek. Paradise in a concrete cage : daily life in communist Poland. Krak̤w, 1998

  15. Poland's Syndrome: A Case Report

    jen

    The Poland's anomaly was first described in 1841 by Sir Alfred Poland as a syndrome presenting with absence or underdevelopment of pectoralis ... He was the second child in a family of four. There was no familial history of similar .... hypoplasia: a middle degree of Poland syndrome. Acta Radiologica 1996; 37: 759-762. 8.

  16. EXPANSION OF DIDYMOSPHENIA GEMINATA (LYNGBE M. SCHMIDT (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE IN RUNNING WATERS IN S-E POLAND: NEW RECORDS IN THE PODKARPACIE REGION

    Teresa Noga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Didymosphenia geminata is one of the most frequently studied diatoms in the world, due to its massive development in most continents. In Poland, up to the 1990’s only a small number of specimens were recorded, from streams in the Tatra Mountains and the Dunajec River. D. geminata was found in 2007–2008 in the middle and upper sections of the Wisłok River, while in 2009 and 2011 it was also found in the Wisłoka, Ropa, Bielcza, and San. The cells belonged to one morphotype “geminata” and were characterized by high variability of size. It develops in mesotrophic, well-oxygenated, upper parts of flowing waters with rapid currents. It was most abundant below reservoirs on the San, Wisłok and Wisłoka.

  17. Water Management in Poland

    Wojciech Majewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current situation in Polish water resources management. Discussed here are measures taken by the Ministry of Environment to introduce a new water law, as well as reforms of water management in Poland. The state of water resources in Poland are described, and the actions needed to improve this situation, taking into account possible climate changes and their impact on the use of water resources. Critically referred to is the introduction by the Ministry of Environment of charges for water abstraction by hydro power plants, and adverse effects for the energy and water management sectors are discussed.

  18. New and rare species of anamorphic fungi for Poland

    Beata Czerniawska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of and disease symptoms caused by five fungal species parasitizing on plants of the Słowiński National Park and the Drawieński National Park (both located in north-western Poland are presented. Of the species, Ramularia celastri and Ascochyta irpina are new for Poland, and Ascochyta geraniicola, Phyllosticta caricis and Septoriella junci have earlier rarely been found in this country. Moreover, the latter three fungi were found on plants so far not reported in the literature to be their hosts. Finally, the known distribution of the fungi characterized in both Poland and the other regions of the world is presented.

  19. Pollution problems plague Poland

    Bajsarowicz, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Poland's environmental problems are said to stem from investments in heavy industries that require enormous quantities of power and from the exploitation of two key natural resources: coal and sulfur. Air and water pollution problems and related public health problems are discussed

  20. Nuclear Physics in Poland

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This will be a short presentation of low and high energy nuclear physics in Poland, its history, essential results, and the present status. Nuclear physics in Poland has a tradition of hundred years. Research started just after the discovery of radium and polonium by Polish-born Maria Sklodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Maria Sklodowska-Curie employed numerous Polish assistants in her Paris laboratory and supported radioactivity studies in Warsaw, her birth place, then under the occupation of tsarist Russia. In the first decades of the XXth century Poland was one of the leading countries in radioactivity studies. In the late 1930-ies a cyclotron was constructed in Warsaw and an ambitious 'Star of Poland' project was launched to study the cosmic rays. Unfortunately, the Second World War stopped all scientific activity in Poland. A large fraction of Polish physicists perished in the period 1939-1945. After the World War nuclear physics of low and high energy was rebuilt in Warsaw and Krakow. Already in 1952 Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski discovered the first hypernucleus. This important discovery was essential to understand the properties of numerous new particles found in cosmic rays. Polish physicists entered intensive collaboration with both CERN and Dubna and took part also in research at other centers in Europe (DESY, GSI, GANIL, Julich, SACLAY) and the United States (Fermilab). At present the research is concentrated in Warsaw and Krakow (the two largest centers), and smaller teams, mostly theorists, are also in Bialystok, Katowice, Kielce, Lublin, Lodz and Wroclaw. Several years ago a heavy ion cyclotron was built in Warsaw. Among the important discoveries made by Polish nuclear physicists one may mention the theoretical works on superheavy elements and the recent discovery of the two-proton radioactivity

  1. A cross-sectional serosurvey on hepatitis B vaccination uptake among adult patients from GP practices in a region of South-West Poland.

    Ganczak, Maria; Dmytrzyk-Daniłów, Gabriela; Korzeń, Marcin; Szych, Zbigniew

    2015-10-16

    Hepatitis B is a significant health burden in Poland with nosocomial transmission being the main source of infection. Therefore, HBV vaccination is widely recommended for those not covered by the national immunisation program. To assess the coverage and influencing determinants of HBV vaccination among adult patients attending GP clinics as well as to establish serological status in terms of HBV infection. Patients who were seen consecutively in March 2013 at four randomly selected GP practices located in Zgorzelec county, in south-western part of Poland, were invited to participate and complete questionnaires on socio-demographic data and other factors related to vaccination. A pilot study was done in one urban GP practice in the city of Gryfino (Gryfino county), the results have been included in the study. Patients' immunisation status was assessed basing on vaccination cards and anti-HBs titer with the use of third-generation testing methods. In addition, serum samples were assayed for anti-HBc total. Response rate: 99.3 %. Of 410 participants (66.1 % females, median age 56 years), 55.4 % (95%CI:50.5-60.1 %) were previously vaccinated; in those 11.5 % took 2 doses, 66.1 % - 3 doses,18.1 % - 4 doses. Elective surgery was the main reason (57.7 %) for HBV immunization, 4.8 % - were vaccinated due to recommendations by GPs. The multivariable logistic regression model revealed that living in a city (OR 2.11), and having a surgery in the past (OR 2.73) were each associated with greater odds of being vaccinated. Anti-HBc total prevalence among those unvaccinated was 13.6 % (95%CI:9.3 %-19,5 %), and 7.2 % (95%CI:4.4-11.8 %) among those vaccinated. Low HBV immunization coverage among adult patients from GP clinics and the presence of serological markers of HBV infection among both - those unvaccinated and vaccinated call for comprehensive preventative measures against infection, including greater involvement of family doctors. Although interventions should cover the

  2. Relevance of the EU Structural Funds’ Allocation to the Needs of Combating Air Pollution in Poland. Analysis of the Operational Programmes of Regions Threatened With Critical Air Pollution from Distributed Energy Sources

    Włodarski, Marcin; Martyniuk-Pęczek, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    Recent years, the European Environmental Agency, has been reporting air quality parameters in Poland, as the poorest among all the EU countries. Despite of adoption of the EU legislation on energy efficiency and energy performance of buildings, existing legal solutions occur insufficient in reducing air pollution in Polish regions. Lack of an effective schemes supporting complex thermal renovation of buildings, exchange of inefficient boilers, developing district heating based on clean and renewable fuels results in severe health problems and 40 000 of premature deaths related to air pollution. Availability of the EU structural funds may become a tremendous opportunity, especially for the residential sector, to conduct a massive scale modernization. Nevertheless, lack of a coordinated action involving all levels of governance may put the opportunity at risk. The article aims to answer the question on the readiness of the regional governments to effectively implement energy efficiency measures mitigating the problem of air pollution. Second objective is to analyse whether the Regional Operational Programmes allocating the ERDF funds to support specific development needs of the regions, have been constructed in a way that properly addresses the problems related to energy performance of residential buildings.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats from the south-west region of Poland and the detection of T. gondii DNA in goat milk.

    Sroka, Jacek; Kusyk, Pawel; Bilska-Zajac, Ewa; Karamon, Jacek; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Wojcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zajac, Violetta; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Rozycki, Miroslaw; Cencek, Tomasz

    2017-07-11

    Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite prevalent in animals and humans worldwide having medical and veterinary importance on account of causing abortion or congenital disease in intermediate hosts, including man. Since T. gondii has already been identified in the milk of goats, Capra aegagrus hircus (Linnaeus), the possibility of acquiring infection by ingesting unpasteurised goat milk should be taken into consideration. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the presence of T. gondii DNA in goat milk. First, 73 goats (females) from 36 farms located in Poland were examined serologically by direct agglutination test (DAT) to estimate the T. gondii serological status. Milk samples from 60 selected lactating females were examined for the presence of T. gondii DNA by Real time PCR and nested PCR (B1 gene). To estimate the clonal type of detected T. gondii, multiplex PCR was performed using 6 markers. In DAT, positive results were found in 70% of 73 goats. Among examined 60 milk samples, 65% were positive in Real time PCR and 43% in nested PCR. It is noteworthy that 11 samples positive in PCR were collected from seronegative goats. The multilocus PCR analysis mostly revealed the occurrence of genotype III, which is relatively rare in Europe. The recorded high prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in tested goats (70%), associated with a high prevalence of T. gondii DNA in goat milk samples (65%), indicates a potential risk of the parasite transmission through goat milk ingestion.

  4. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features

  5. POLAND AT CERN

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) POLAND AT CERN Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the «Poland at CERN» exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, buildin...

  6. [Migrant vaccinations in Poland].

    Sakowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    After the European Union accession in 2004, Poland has been perceived by foreigners as an attractive destination of their migration, and also as a popular transit country for people going further to the Western Europe countries. The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine is involved in the implementation of the international project PROMOVAX (Promote Vaccinations among Migrant Populations in Europe). The objective of the project is to promote immunizations among migrant populations in Europe. This article presents the up-to-date legal regulations that are effective in Poland, taking into account their relevance to the issue of vaccinations in migrant population. The analysis of the Polish legislation concerning this problem shows that there are no specific regulations addressed to migrant population staying in our country. This issue seems to be popular in the European Union, where immunization of migrants is given high priority. From the point of view of health care professionals it is important to be aware of the fact that EU open borders favor the increased flow of people between countries. The scale of migration from outside the EU to its member states also contributes to the increase in potential contacts between health care workers and migrants working in Poland.

  7. 10 October 2013 - D. Braun First Deputy Minister for Regional Development, Czech Republic, P. Styczeń Deputy Minister of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy, Republic of Poland and F. Palko State Secretary, Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development, Slovak Republic visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group Leader J. M. Jimenez and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    10 October 2013 - D. Braun First Deputy Minister for Regional Development, Czech Republic, P. Styczeń Deputy Minister of Transport, Construction and Maritime Economy, Republic of Poland and F. Palko State Secretary, Ministry of Transport, Construction and Regional Development, Slovak Republic visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group Leader J. M. Jimenez and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer

  8. MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF BANKRUPTCY OF ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Anna Bieniasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to analyse the phenomenon of enterprises’ bankruptcy in Poland in 2004-2013 and attempt to build regression models defining the relationship between the number of bankrupted companies and selected macroeconomic parameters of the national economy. The analysis is based on Coface Poland reports presenting the phenomenon of bankruptcy in Poland of branches, provinces, legal forms of companies and types of bankruptcy proceedings. Studies have shown that the greatest risk of bankruptcy refers to metals production and fabricated metal products enterprises, manufacture of food products and beverages, wholesale trade, construction, micro and small enterprises, enterprises under the age of 10 years and companies from Mazovia region, Silesia and Lower Silesia. The estimated parameters of the regression models showed that the number of bankruptcies in Poland is strongly determined i.a. by the number of registered companies, GDP growth, dynamics of changes in fixed capital formation and changes in foreign exchange rates.

  9. Distribution of Vulpia species (Poaceae in Poland

    Ludwik Frey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of four species of the genus Vulpia [V. myuros (L. C.C. Gmel., V. bromoides (L. S.F. Gray, V. ciliata Dumort. and V. geniculata (L. Link] reported in Poland has been studied. Currently, V. myuros and especially V. bromoides are very rare species, and their greatest concentration can be found only in the Lower Silesia region. The number of their localities decreased after 1950 and it seems resonable to include both species in the "red list" of threatened plants in Poland: V. myuros in the EN category, V. bromoides in the CR category. V. ciliata and V. geniculata are very rare ephemerophytes and their localities not confirmed during ca 60 years are of historical interest only.

  10. Marketing of organic products in southern Poland

    Kuboń Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an outline of the issue concerning formulation of a marketing strategy and the possibility of using the knowledge on consumers' preferences for organic development of farms and their products on the example of southern Poland. The paper analyses the distribution process of organic food in the aspect of developing innovative marketing strategies. The studies were performed in 50 organic farms and on the example of 100 respondents from the region of southern Poland. In the opinion of the surveyed representatives of the organic food producers, a competitive advantage of their offer depends the most on the health values, brand, reputation, and taste. Moreover, information on products and the form and place of their sale are significant. The analysis shows that the knowledge is the most eagerly obtained from the Internet. Thus, producers should publish their profiles and pages on social media and business portals.

  11. Drug Policy in Poland.

    Jahnz-Różyk, Karina; Kawalec, Pawel; Malinowski, Krzysztof; Czok, Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    We presented a general overview of the health care system as well as the pricing and reimbursement environment in Poland. Poland aims to ensure proper access to safe and effective medicines while reducing patients' share in treatment costs. Nevertheless, the co-payment for pharmacotherapy is still high (more than 60%). The key policymaker and regulator in the system is the Ministry of Health, which is supported by the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (Agencja Oceny Technologii Medycznych i Taryfikacji), responsible for evaluating applicant drugs, and the Economic Commission, responsible for negotiating the official sales prices and conditions for reimbursement with pharmaceutical companies (e.g., level of reimbursement and risk-sharing scheme agreements). The Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System dossier is obligatory for reimbursement application and includes the analysis of clinical effectiveness, economic analysis (with the threshold of quality-adjusted life-year established as no more than 3 times the gross domestic product per capita), and the analysis of budget impact. In Poland, only a positive list of reimbursed drugs is published and it is updated every 2 months. The following levels of reimbursement are in use: 100%, 70%, 50%, and lump sum (about €0.8). The first reimbursement decision is given for a period of 2 years only, the second for 3 years, and the third for 5 years. There is no separate budget or special legal regulations for orphan drugs. Generic substitution of drugs is desired but not mandatory. Physicians are not assigned with pharmaceutical budgets. The access to real-world data is limited; the only registers available are for drugs used in drug programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Clean air for Poland

    2003-01-01

    Coal power generation produces gases which pollute the environment and cause damage to vegetation and human health. Where alternative sources of energy are not economically viable, the only solution is to ensure that gas emissions are reduced to a minimum. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Department of Research and Isotopes to demonstrate a technology which will show Poland, and possibly other countries, a way to attain European emission standards without the need to compromise industrial growth. (IAEA)

  13. Effective Clusters as Territorial Performance Engines in a Regional Development Strategy - A Triple-Layer DEA Assessment of the Aviation Valley in Poland

    Karima Kourtit

    2017-08-01

    country. A new approach based on a triple-layer architecture will be adopted here, viz.: a quantitative comparative analysis of the 16 Polish ‘voivodships’ (main administrative regions in the country, at a NUTS-2 level, a benchmark analysis of the 25 counties (‘powiats’ within the Podkarpackie voivodship (at a NUTS-4 level, and an effective industrial cluster analysis on the basis of the individual aviation firms located in the Podkarpackie region. In each step an extended Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, characterised by a merger of a Slack-Based Measure (SMB and a super-efficiency (SE DEA, will be used in order to achieve an unambiguous ranking of the various regions or Decision Making Units (DMUs. The study will employ an extensive database on individual actors in the cluster, in combination with a broadly composed territorial-capital database for the areas under study. The paper will be concluded with some strategic policy lessons.

  14. POLAND AT CERN

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, b...

  15. POLAND AT CERN

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 17 October Nineteen companies will present their latest technology at the “Poland at CERN” exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, bu...

  16. POLAND AT CERN

    2000-01-01

    17 to 20 October 2000 Administration Building Bldg 60 - 1st floor 09h00 - 17h30 (Friday 09h00-12h00) Twenty companies will present their latest technology at the ´Poland at CERNª exhibition. The Polish industries will exhibit products and technologies, which are specifically related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: cryogenics and vacuum technologies, electric power and power electronics, heavy mechanical components, small and precision machined mechanical components, instrumentation, electrical and mechanical, electronics and software, power-control and fibre optic cables. The exhibition is being organised by the Technology Transfer Agency, Techtra Ltd under the auspices of the National Atomic Energy Agency, the State Committee for Scientific Research and the Ministry of the Economy. There follows: - the list of exhibitors. A detailed programme will be available in due course at: - your Divisional Secretariat, - the Reception information desk, building 33, - the exhi...

  17. Sulphur in Poland

    Seman Peter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Poland belongs to one of the last countries with native sulphur mining. Its history begun in 15th century. Deposit area of Tarnobrzeg re-presents 80% of all known sulphur reserves in this country. All of explored deposits in this area were created by metasomatic alteration of sulphur bearing limestones with sulphur mineralised liquids, which arised from melt gypsum. The average content is 25 - 30% of sulphur in Tarnobrzeg area. Considerable parts of deposits are created by calcite and native sulphur. Gypstone, baryte and stroncianite have only minera-logic occurencies. The extensive native sulphur deposits account for 88% of the country´s sulphur production. There were five sulphur mines in operation: Jeziórko, Grêbów, Machów I, Machów II and Basznia, but operations in Basznia were ended in 1992 and Machów and Machów II were liquidated. The sixth mine Osiek is currently producing. Only the Machów I mine operated an open-pit extraction and refining process, the other four mines producing sulphur using a modified Frasch method that gives elemental sulphur of up to 99,9% purity. Sulphur is an important export commodity with foreign sales totalling around 1.5 - 2.5 Mt/y. Modern benefication methods, which allowing to achieve sulphur from hydrocarbons, are causing decrease of native sulphur prices in the world and bringing about reduction of mining activities for this raw material in Poland.

  18. Radiation emergency planning in Poland

    Niewodniczanski, J [National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    The paper presents a schematic outline of the radiation emergency policy in Poland, rather from the point of view of logistics of the problem than discussing details of existing or proposed procedures. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig.

  19. Gender Pay Gap in Poland

    Oczki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...

  20. Rubella in Poland in 2013.

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. This can be achieved by carrying out the vaccination. Participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory test. In Poland, until 2003, national vaccination recommendation included a dose of rubella vaccine only for girls aged 13 years. Among men, the incidence of measles remained high creating a risk of infection of non-immune pregnant women which may lead to the development of congenital rubella syndrome in the child. To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2013, there was big epidemic of rubella in Poland--with 38,548 registered cases (6 times more than in 2012), incidence 84.4 per 100,000 (5 times higher than in the previous year). The highest incidence rate, regardless of gender and the environment, was observed among adolescents aged 15-19 years (911.6 per 100,000). The incidence of rubella in boys and men was significantly higher than the incidence in girls and women (181.4 versus 23.9). In 2013, two cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. Rubella epidemic which occurred in Poland in 2013 was the result of use in the past vaccination against rubella only for girls 13 years of age. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2013, only 0.2% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  1. Chickenpox in Poland in 2012.

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    A number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2012 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In 2012, 208 276 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The highest number of cases was reported in Śląskie voivodeship, the lowest in Podlaskie voivodeship. Mumps incidence was 540.5 per 100 000 and was higher than in 2011 (448.7). The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (7 611.5 per 100 000). The chickenpox incidence among men (570.7) was higher than among women (512.2). The incidence among rural residents (553.9) was higher than among urban residents (531.8). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 361. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 56 213. In 2012, there was an increase in the incidence of smallpox in Poland. This trend is continuing since 2004, which can be partly explained by improved surveillance of the disease.

  2. The influence of regional geological settings on the seismic hazard level in copper mines in the Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt Area (Poland

    Burtan Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current level of rockburst hazard in copper mines of the (LGOM Legnica- Głogów Copper Belt Area is mostly the consequence of mining-induced seismicity, whilst the majority of rockbursting events registered to date were caused by high-energy tremors. The analysis of seismic readings in recent years reveals that the highest seismic activity among the copper mines in the LGOM is registered in the mine Rudna. This study investigates the seismic activity in the rock strata in the Rudna mine fields over the years 2006-2015. Of particular interest are the key seismicity parameters: the number of registered seismic events, the total energy emissions, the energy index. It appears that varied seismic activity in the area may be the function of several variables: effective mining thickness, the thickness of burst-prone strata and tectonic intensity. The results support and corroborate the view that principal factors influencing the actual seismic hazard level are regional geological conditions in the copper mines within the Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt Area.

  3. The influence of regional geological settings on the seismic hazard level in copper mines in the Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt Area (Poland)

    Burtan, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The current level of rockburst hazard in copper mines of the (LGOM) Legnica- Głogów Copper Belt Area is mostly the consequence of mining-induced seismicity, whilst the majority of rockbursting events registered to date were caused by high-energy tremors. The analysis of seismic readings in recent years reveals that the highest seismic activity among the copper mines in the LGOM is registered in the mine Rudna. This study investigates the seismic activity in the rock strata in the Rudna mine fields over the years 2006-2015. Of particular interest are the key seismicity parameters: the number of registered seismic events, the total energy emissions, the energy index. It appears that varied seismic activity in the area may be the function of several variables: effective mining thickness, the thickness of burst-prone strata and tectonic intensity. The results support and corroborate the view that principal factors influencing the actual seismic hazard level are regional geological conditions in the copper mines within the Legnica-Głogów Copper Belt Area.

  4. Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Two Different Kinds of Regional Cheeses from Poland: Oscypek and Korycinski Cheese

    Aleksandra Ołdak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscypek and korycinski are traditional Polish cheeses, exclusively produced in Tatra and in Podlasie region, respectively, produced from raw, unpasteurized milk. The 29 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were isolated on MRS agar from 12 cheese samples and used as a material for study. The main purpose of the work was to assess the antimicrobial properties and recognition of selected strains for the unique antagonistic activity and preservation role in food. It has been found that the highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the case of L. monocytogenes strains; however, the level of that activity was different depending on the Lb. plantarum strain. Strains from oscypek produced broad spectrum, and a few strains isolated from korycinski cheese produced a narrow spectrum of antimicrobial compounds, other than organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the antagonistic activity shown by Lb. plantarum strains is connected with the source from which a given strain was isolated. Strains isolated from oscypek cheese represented stronger activity against L. monocytogenes, whereas strains isolated from korycinski cheese were more active against E. coli. Strains Lb. plantarum Os13 and Kor14 could be considered as good candidates for protective cultures to extend durability of food products.

  5. Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated from Two Different Kinds of Regional Cheeses from Poland: Oscypek and Korycinski Cheese

    Ołdak, Aleksandra; Rzepkowska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Oscypek and korycinski are traditional Polish cheeses, exclusively produced in Tatra and in Podlasie region, respectively, produced from raw, unpasteurized milk. The 29 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were isolated on MRS agar from 12 cheese samples and used as a material for study. The main purpose of the work was to assess the antimicrobial properties and recognition of selected strains for the unique antagonistic activity and preservation role in food. It has been found that the highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the case of L. monocytogenes strains; however, the level of that activity was different depending on the Lb. plantarum strain. Strains from oscypek produced broad spectrum, and a few strains isolated from korycinski cheese produced a narrow spectrum of antimicrobial compounds, other than organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the antagonistic activity shown by Lb. plantarum strains is connected with the source from which a given strain was isolated. Strains isolated from oscypek cheese represented stronger activity against L. monocytogenes, whereas strains isolated from korycinski cheese were more active against E. coli. Strains Lb. plantarum Os13 and Kor14 could be considered as good candidates for protective cultures to extend durability of food products. PMID:28626762

  6. Occurrence of immunosuppressive drugs and their metabolites in the sewage-impacted Vistula and Utrata Rivers and in tap water from the Warsaw region (Poland).

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Immunosuppresive therapy following organ transplant frequently includes treatment with tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid derivatives. These pharmaceuticals may enter the environment through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and may have a potentially harmful effect on aquatic biota. Tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid and their metabolites were measured at specific points of a large Polish river (Vistula), a smaller river (Utrata) and in tap water samples from the Warsaw region. Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, after solid phase extraction for water samples, or QuEChERS extraction for sediments. Residues of tacrolimus were below quantitation limits in both water and sediment samples. However, in water samples mycophenolic acid concentrations were measured at up to 180 ng L(-1) downstream of WWTP outfalls. No immunosuppressive drugs were detected in tap water. Concentrations of mycophenolic acid exceeded the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) value in some Polish surface water, and risk calculations predicted at least twice higher concentrations in some other countries of the European Union. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of these immunosuppressive drug concentrations in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The occurrence of Papaver rhoeas L. in agrocenoses of the buffer zone of the Roztocze national Park compared to other regions of Poland

    Czesława Trąba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to determine the environmental amplitude as well as the optimal conditions for the vegetation of Papaver rhoeas in the agrocoenoses of the Roztocze National Park's buffer zone, as compared to other Polish regions. The analysis is based on certain habitat and anthropogenic factors. Based on the author's own research and the data quoted in the literature, it has been found that Papaver rhoeas occurs in the associations and communities of the Caucalidion and Aperion alliances accompanying cereal and rape crops as well as in the Polygono-Chenopodion and Panico-Setarion alliances accompanying root crops. Papaver rhoeas demonstrates a large environmental scale, as its presence has been noted in low- and highlands, in foothills, in river valleys as well as on slopes. Moreover, it teams up with various types of soils (of a wide range of acidity, moisture as well as trophic and thermal conditions and complexes. Papaver rhoeas occurs most often and in the largest numbers in winter crops in the Lathyro-Melandrietum and Caucalidio-Scandicetum association which belongs to the Caucalidion alliance and in the Consolido-Brometum, Vicietum tetraspermae papaveretosum and V. t. consolidetosum association from the Aperion alliance. As far as root crops are considered, Papaver rhoeas shows up in the Lamio-Veronicetum politae association from the Polygono- Chenopodion alliance. It prefers chalky and Jurassic rendzinas containing CaCO3 and other fertile loam and loess soils which belong to wheat complexes, with their pH ranging from slightly acid to alkaline (Eutric Vertisols, chernozem, brown soil, alluvial soil and which are moderately moist, warm, medium-rich in nitrogen and with good soil biological activity. In the foothill areas, it dominates on alluvial soils in the river valleys; rarely has it been spotted on the slopes. Papaver rhoeas rarely occurs on the lightest sandy soils of the weak and very weak rye complexes and weak cereal

  8. The State of Development of Digital Libraries in Poland

    Gorny, Miroslaw; Catlow, John; Lewandowski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of development of Polish digital libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the establishment of the first digital library in Poland, the creation of the Wielkopolska Digital Library and other regional digital libraries. The organisational and technological solutions used…

  9. Absconditella fossarum and A. sphagnorum (Lichenes, Stictidaceae in NW Poland

    Mirosława Ceynowa-Giełdon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Absconditella fossarum, a species new to Poland, found on sands in the Noteć river valley and A. sphagnorum from the new stands found on peated shore of pure, forest lakes in the Tuchola Forest (Bory Tucholskie region.

  10. Mumps in Poland in 2012.

    Rogalska, Justyna; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps, introduced initially as recommended, from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease in Poland. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2012, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2012" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2012" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2012 was also used. In total, there were 2779 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2012. Incidence of mumps was 7.2 per 100 000 and it was higher by 7.5% in comparison with 2011 and lower by 19.4% in comparison to median for the years 2006-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (71.8 per 100 000). Incidence in women (5.9) was lower than in men (8.6). In 2012, 25 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2012 was 97.9%. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  11. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks removed from skin of people and circumstances of being bitten – research from the area of Poland, 2012–2014

    Edyta Gałęziowska

    2018-03-01

    Infestation of ticks infected with Lyme disease spirochete in this study proved to be variable and depend on the season, the area of tick attack and the region in Poland. The results of the study clearly show that ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi inhabit all regions of Poland. The results are consistent with National Institute of Hygiene data which indicates that Lyme disease cases are recorded in all regions of Poland.

  12. Chickenpox in Poland in 2013.

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    A large number of chickenpox cases, occurring especially in children, indicates the rationale for the use of chickenpox vaccinations. In Poland since 2002, chickenpox vaccination is included in the National Immunisation Programme as recommended. To assess epidemiological situation of chickenpox in Poland in 2013 in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH i GIS). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In 2013, 178 501 cases of chickenpox were registered in Poland. The incidence was 463.6 and was lower than in 2012 (540.5). The highest number of cases was reported in mazowieckie voivodeship, the lowest in podlaskie voivodeship. The highest incidence was recorded in children aged 4 years (6 545.1 per 100,000). The chickenpox incidence among men (491.7) was higher by 12.4% comparing to women (437.3). The incidence among rural residents (497.2) was higher than among urban residents (441.7). Number of cases hospitalized due to mumps was 1 184. Number of people vaccinated against chickenpox was 57 168. In 2013, there was decrease in the incidence of chickenpox [corrected] in Poland with small fluctuations. Since 2002 the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox increased. The increase in the number of people vaccinated against chickenpox would help maintain the downward trend in subsequent years.

  13. Rubella in Poland in 2014

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Rogalska, Justyna; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    In 2004, Poland has adopted the WHO goal of rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome prevention. The main target of the Programme is to stop transmission of the virus in the environment and prevention of congenital rubella in children. In Poland participation in the rubella elimination program requires clinical diagnosis of rubella cases and their confirmation with laboratory tests. Vaccination against rubella was introduced in 1987, initially only in 13 - year-old girls. Since 2003, single jab vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps is used (MMR vaccine for all children: primary vaccination at the age 13-15 months and a booster vaccination at the age of 10). To assess epidemiological situation of rubella in Poland in 2014, including vaccination coverage in Polish population. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014” (MP. Czarkowski, Warszawa 2014, NIZP-PZH, GIS). In 2014, there was a significant decrease in the number of rubella cases - with registered 5891 cases (in 2013 - 38 548 cases) - and a decline in incidence (from 101.1 per 100 000 to 15.3). The highest incidence, regardless of gender and the environment was observed in the age group 5-6 years (respectively 93.8 and 109.4 per 100 000). Similarly to 2013, rubella incidence of males was higher than the incidence in girls and women (20.0 versus 10.9). In 2014, no cases of congenital rubella syndrome were registered. The proportion of laboratory tests confirming/excluding rubella infection is still very low in Poland. In 2014, only 0.6% of rubella cases were laboratory confirmed.

  14. Mumps in Poland in 2013.

    Korczyńska, Monika Roberta; Rogalska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against mumps from 2003 is mandatory in Poland and given as two dose scheme with MMR vaccine (mumps, measles, and rubella). Earlier this vaccination was only recommended. Despite observed decline in mumps incidence for over a decade which is a result of conducted vaccinations, mumps is still a common childhood disease. To assess epidemiological situation of mumps in Poland in 2013, including vaccination coverage in Polish population, in comparison to previous years. The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletins "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2013" and "Vaccinations in Poland in 2013" (Czarkowski MP i in., Warszawa 2013, NIZP-PZH i GIS). Mumps cases were classified according to the criteria of surveillance case definition implemented in the European Union (Commission Decision of 28 April 2008 amending Decision 2002/253/EC). National Immunisation Programme for year 2013 was also used. In total, there were 2 436 mumps cases registered in Poland in 2013. Incidence of mumps was 6.3 per 100,000 and it was lower by 12.5% in comparison with 2012 and lower by 18.2% in comparison with median for the years 2007-2010. The highest incidence rate was observed among children aged 5 years (54.0 per 100,000). Incidence in men (7.5) was higher than in women (5.2). In 2013, 38 people were hospitalized due to mumps. Vaccination coverage of children aged 3 years in Poland in 2013 was 97.5% and it was lower by 0.4% in comparison with year 2012. Systematic execution of mumps vaccination in accordance with the National Immunisation Programme resulted in a significant decrease in the number of registered cases. Due to the high vaccination coverage further decline in the number of cases is expected.

  15. Radiation monitoring network in Poland

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland the radioactive contamination of the environment and food has been controlled since the early sixties by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SPSP). The service comprises a network of measuring stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (COPSP). Actually, there are 100 measurement stations. The main task of such station is systematic measurement of radioactivity level in samples of environment components and food. Nine stations of SPSP acting within meteorological stations, ten stations of low level air radioactivity measurements (Aerosols Sampling Stations-500) and eleven permanent monitoring stations (PMS) form the radiation monitoring warning system in Poland. (author)

  16. [Salmonellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Furman, Sylwia; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the epidemiology of salmonellosis in Poland in 2010. The study was based on data from: "the Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland 2010", information from laboratories based in sanitary stations, the forms of outbreaks investigations conducted by sanitary stations and data from Demographic Surveys Departament based in the Central Statistical Office. All cases were classified according to the case definition used by surveillance. A total of9 732 salmonellosis cases were reported in Poland. Among them 8 549 cases were intestinal and 183 were extraintestinal. The incidence rate was 25.5 per 100 000 inhabitants. Over 95% of cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was higher than in the previous two years, despite this an overall decreasing trend was observed in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. Cases of salmonellosis occurred primarily among children under 5-years old. There were no deaths reported due to salmonellosis. There is still a high percentage, about 70%, hospital admissions of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella. The percentage of hospitalization in outbreaks is almost two and a half times lower -29%. In 2010, 189 outbreaks caused by Salmonella were reported, affecting 1 662 people (almost 18% of all reported cases of intestinal salmonellosis). Most were small family outbreaks. Still the most common etiologic agent in Poland is S. Enteritidis. When compared with previous years, in 2010 there was an increase in the number of cases caused by S. Mbandaka, S. Infantis and S. Virchow. The number of screening tests for carriers among food handlers decreased by over 10% however the percentage diagnosed with positive result increased from 0.3% to 0.5%. Human salmonellosis is still a significant public health problem in Poland. The very high percentage (70%) of hospitalization, persisting for many years indicates that diagnosis and reporting ofsalmonellosis in Poland is

  17. Poland's energy, a special case

    Furfari, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    Poland, the sixth member state in terms of population (39 million inhabitants) and with the eighth largest GDP in the EU, stands out more and more clearly on the environmental front, especially as far as energy is concerned. One of the reasons may be that in terms of GDP/capita Poland comes only 23 out of 27... The only European economy to have grown every year over the last twenty years, it has given higher priority than elsewhere to promoting growth, to production cost reduction and to limiting increases in consumer prices. (author)

  18. Is Poland an Innovative Country?

    Chybowska, Dorota; Chybowski, Leszek; Souchkov, Valeri

    2018-03-01

    The potential for innovativeness is difficult to measure, though many have attempted to do so. In order to look at Poland's innovation potential, its current position and its opportunity to grow, compared with developing and developed countries, this study analysed the patent statistics of the Polish and European Patent Offices. Poland has been a member of the European Union for over a decade now. Therefore, we took into consideration the statistics for patent applications and grants for the last decade, up to the first quarter of 2016. The questions we wanted to answer concerned not only the technology fields that Poland patented its inventions in, but also the types of patent grantees and applicants. In order to determine why Poland is still considered to be only a moderate innovator by the Innovation Union Scoreboard, we also gathered information on Polish inventors abroad in 2015 and the first quarter of 2016, to see their number, technology fields, and types of patent grantees. Finally, we attempted to identify the main barriers that seem to inhibit Polish technology and innovation growth, despite significantly growing R&D intensities (up from 0.56 GDP and EUR 1,139 M in 2004 to 0.94 GDP and EUR 3,864 M in 2014).

  19. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  20. [Dysentery and amoebiasis in Poland in 2010].

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Dysentery as infective and contagious disease is registered by all EU and EFTA countries only as shigellosis according to etiological classification of the infectious diseases. The cases are also registered by ECDC. According to ECDC Report for 2006-2008 the incidence rate in Poland Sanitary Stations, send to the National Register of Infectious Diseases, evaluated, calculated and published by Department of Epidemiology National Institute of Public Health (NIZP-PZH) in Annual Bulletin "Infections and Intoxications in Poland in 2010", Warsaw NIZP-PZH and GIS (Chief Sanitary Inspectorate ) 2010. Laboratory data were collected as reports from all Regional Sanitary Laboratories send to NIZP-PZH Department of Bacteriology, data from epidemiological investigation of outbreaks including data from identification of Shigella strains obtained from the Reference Laboratory for Gram-negative Bacilli of NIZP-PZH Bacteriology Department. In 2010 thirty cases of shigellosis were registered (incidence was 0.08/100 000 inhabitants) the same number of cases and incidence was observed in 2009, nearly the same in 2008 - 33 cases (incidence 0.09). The numbers were lower than the median in 2004-2008 (64 cases, incidence 0.17/100 000). According to laboratory reports in all 16 Regional Sanitary Stations only 14 persons were Shigella positive, in spite that more than 600 000 were examined: 10 persons were infected by S. sonnei, 4 by S. flexneri. Only one strain of S. sonnei was isolated from a patient with diarrhea. It was in the Regional Sanitary Station laboratory of the małopolskie voievodeshaft. No one strain of S. boydii or S. dysenteriae was isolated. Most of the dysentery cases were examined by other laboratories than laboratories of sanitary epidemiological service. The obligation of private payment for bacteriological examination of suspected cases is one of reason that patient is treated with antibacterial drugs without determination of etiological agent of the infection. It

  1. Local energy policies in Poland and the Czech Republic

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Both the Czech Republic and Poland as former Communist countries, are transforming their economies from central planning to a free market. This applies equally to energy planning and because they are starting from the same point, they have come up with very comparable solutions despite strong cultural differences, so that the parallels are striking. This study analyzes the energy management in local authorities in Poland and the Czech Republic with the objective of better: identifying the current situation, identifying the opportunities for action both now and in an extended European Union, identifying the constraints that may hinder full integration of East European municipalities in European Union programmes, improve the integration of municipalities in the countries concerned in pan-European networks of municipalities interested in energy issues. The study reviews the powers and responsibilities of local authorities in the energy field and the institutional framework within which local authorities work. There are now 16 directly elected regional authorities in Poland and the local authorities have been restructured into two levels, the Powiad and the Gmina. Similarly, in the Czech Republic 14 elected regional authorities have been established. This document brings together 2 reports: the final report and the study report about the energy policies in Poland and in the Czech republic: structure of local government, general and institutional aspects, national political organisation, national administrative organisation, municipal role in production and distribution, regulation and planning, energy issues, energy management policies, specific aspects at local level etc... The conclusions from two review seminars (Jablonec nad Nison (Czech republic), 25-26 January 2001, and Bielsko Biala (Poland), 22-23 February 2001) and some fact files on 4 large Czech towns and 4 large Polish towns complete the study. (J.S.)

  2. Competitor localization and innovation activity of peripheral industrial systems in Poland

    Arkadiusz Swiadek

    2013-01-01

    Spatial proximity to competitors is an important factor in the acceleration of technological change in industrial systems in most developed countries, but is it also in Poland? The main objective of the study was to identify and evaluation the impact of distance from the nearest competitor on the innovative activity of selected peripheral regional industrial systems in Poland. Surveys conducted in the years 2007-11, including a group of 1 860 industrial companies in the five diverse and locat...

  3. Thyroid dose from 131 iodine of the population in Poland following the Chernobyl accident

    Krzesniak, J.W.

    1987-11-01

    The following studies were carried out in the period from 28 April to 20 June 1986 in the Central Laboratory of radiological Protection (C.L.O.R.) in Poland: atmosphere monitoring in the period from 28 April to 22 May evaluating 131 I environmental concentration with the percentage of iodine in elementary, aerosol and organic compound form; determination of thyroid dose in 1049 persons from mine regions in Poland [fr

  4. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2013.

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2013 compared to previous years. The main source of data for this study are statistical overviews included in annual bulletin "Infectious Diseases in Poland in 2013", information from sanitary station laboratories as well as forms of outbreak investigations obtained from the sanitary stations. Information on deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2013 and earlier years is based on the data of the Department for Demographic Research of Central Statistical Office. For the purpose of surveillance cases were qualified according to the current definition. In Poland in 2013, a total of 7 578 cases of zoonotic salmonellosis were reported including 7 407 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 171 of parenteral one. The incidence was 19,7/100 000. The criteria for a confirmed case were met by more than 96% of cases. The number of reported cases was lower than in previous year, reflecting the continued downward trend in the number of cases of salmonellosis in Poland. A very high percentage (more than 72%) of hospitalizations of people infected with zoonotic Salmonella continues. In the outbreaks the proportion of hospitalizations accounted only for 35% of all cases. Predominantly children below 5 years of age suffer from the illness. Salmonellosis was an indicated cause of death only in 10 of the cases. In 2013 179 outbreaks were reported, in which Salmonella was found to be the etiological agent. Majority of them were small household outbreaks and they cumulated for a total number of cases of 1 218. The most common species of Salmonella responsible for infection in Poland is S. Enteritidis. For many years, up to date a slight increase is observed in reported cases of the disease, but without known serotype of Salmonella. In 2013 it was 16% and (as in previous year) it was the highest in pomorskie voivodeship (58%). High percentage of

  5. Consequences of Chernobyl accident for Poland: Retrospective assessment after 10 years; Skutki katastrofy w Czarnobylu dla Polski: Ocena retrospektywna po 10 latach

    Jaskowski, J. [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The regional contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident has been presented. On this base the biological and medical consequences have been discussed. The neonatal mortality as well as cancer frequency for selected regional population in Poland have been analysed during the last decade. 10 figs, 20 tabs.

  6. OECD environmental performance reviews: Poland

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The review surveys the environmental conditions and environmental progress of Poland. It found that although most environmental targets were met Poland still faces challenges in complying with EU environmental laws. Topics covered are: environmental management; air, water and waste management; nature and biodiversity; economy and environment; sectoral integration: transport; and international co-operation. Top issues for conformity include pollution prevention, waste water treatment, waste management, biodiversity and landscape conservation, and climate protection. The review outlines 46 recommendations for the country to take in order to improve its environmental situation. Task areas include progressing toward meeting international environmental commitments and integrating environmental considerations in to economic policies through means such as improved rice signals, subsidy removal, and fiscal reforms.

  7. Asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland

    Wilk Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique set of physical and chemical properties of asbestos has led to its many industrial applications, such as roof coverings, textiles, rope, cord and yarn, paper, friction and composition materials, household product, acid-resistant filters, packing, insulation, and certain types of lagging, amongst others. In Poland asbestos-containing products were manufactured from raw materials imported mainly from the former Soviet Union, with production launched at the beginning of 20th century. According to Annex 4 to the Act of 19 June 1997 on the prohibition of the use of asbestos-containing products, there were 28 asbestos manufacturing plants in Poland located in 11 provinces throughout the country. The current survey was undertaken to enable asbestos manufacturing plants to be arranged, described and divided in order to contribute to further surveys.

  8. [Measles in Poland in 2003].

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2005-01-01

    In Poland 48 measles cases were registered in 2003 (0.13 per 100,000 population)--of which 65% were cases imported from Chechnya and Afghanistan. Measles outbreaks occurred in 3 centers for immigrants. In total, 31 cases were reported, of which 96.8% were unvaccinated, and 93.5% were under 15 years of age. Of 17 local cases, 5 (29.4%) cases occurred in unvaccinated persons, 3 (17.6%) in persons vaccinated with one dose and 7 (41.2%) in those vaccinated with two doses of measles vaccine (administered at the age of 13-15 months and 7 years). Among 12 vaccinated cases only one 2-year old child was recently vaccinated. The remaining cases were in the 3-7 and 10-24 age ranges. The most affected were infants (incidence 0.57 per 100,000), 1-year old (0.28) and 2-year old children (incidence 0.27). Cases among adolescents and adults over 15 years of age increased from 23.5% in 2002 to 47.1% in 2003. The increasing age of locally-acquired cases, together with constantly high immunization coverage indicates high effectiveness of vaccinations in Poland. Out of all reported cases 13 (38%) were hospitalized. There were no deaths due to measles in Poland in 2003. Poland participates in the WHO Measles Elimination Strategy. Presently, the most important is the maintenance of a sensitive and timely surveillance of measles and measles-compatible cases, with serologic confirmation of one rash-like illness per 100 000 population. The performance of the surveillance system is insufficient with only 55 measles-compatible cases reported in 2003 (15% of expected reports). Serologic confirmation of cases was also insufficient, with 22 cases (40.0%) confirmed by IgM ELISA test. These results indicate the need to maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  9. SMALL HYDRO PLANTS IN LAND USE SYSTEM PLANNING IN POLAND

    Anita Bernatek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower plants are present in the land use system planning in Poland. At the national level the important role of spatial planning in the development of renewable energy was highlighted, included small hydroplants. However, it seems that at the regional level this demand has not been realized. The necessity of developing small hydroplants as a renewable energy was highlighted, but negative environmental impact was not indicated. At local level legal instrument of small hydropower plants is specified.

  10. [Malaria in Poland in 2010].

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Poland in 2010 in comparison to previous years. The study included malaria cases that were collected and registered by the State Sanitary Inspection in 2010 in Poland. Data reported was verified, processed and published by National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. All cases were laboratory confirmed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction or rapid diagnostic tests outlined by the EU case definition. Differences in the distribution of demographic, parasitological and clinical characteristics, and incidence were analyzed. In 2010, a total of 35 confirmed malaria cases were notified in Poland, 13 more than 2009. All cases were imported, 49% from Africa, including 1 case with relapsing malaria caused by P. vivax and 2 cases of recrudescence falciparum malaria following failure of treatment. The number of cases acquired in Asia (37% of the total), mainly from India and Indonesia, was significantly higher than observed in previous years. Among cases with species-specific diagnosis 19 (63%) were caused by P. falciparum, 9 (30%) by P. vivax, one by P. ovale and one by P. malariae. The median age of all cases was 42 years (range 9 months to 71 years), males comprised 69% of patients, females 31%, three patients were Indian citizens temporarily in Poland. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were tourism (57%), work-related visits (37%), one person visited family and in one case the reason for travel was unknown. Sixteen travelers took chemoprophylaxis, but only three of them appropriately (adherence to the recommended drug regimen, continuation upon return and use of appropriate medicines). In 2010, there were no deaths due to malaria and clinical course of disease was severe in 7 cases. When compared with 2009, there was a marked increase in the number of imported malaria cases in Poland, however the total number of notified cases remained low. Serious

  11. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    ozone air quality zones. The adverse health effect associated with the ozone concentration is observed in every regions in Poland, very often during holiday time when high level episodes are occurred.

  12. The concentration of retail in Poland

    Michał Gazdecki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the processes of concentration taking place in retail in Poland. In spite of strong concentration processes, which took place after 2000, Poland still remains a country of dispersed retail structure. In the nearest years we can expect capital concentration (mainly takeovers in modern trade and contract concentration (for example, merchants’ societies in traditional trade.

  13. Poland's syndrome: radiologic findings

    Bazzi Junior, Joao Lourenco, E-mail: joaobazzijr@gmail.com [Clinica Via Imagem, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); Matta, Eduardo Simoes da [Pro Circulacao - Clinica de Angiologia, Cirurgia Vascular e Ecografia Vascular, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Luciano [Materclinica Materno Infantil, Xanxere, SC (Brazil); De Bortoli, Felipe Raasch [Universidade Catolica de Pelotas (UCPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Fac. of Medicine

    2012-05-15

    Poland's syndrome is a rare non-inherited congenital anomaly. The authors describe the classic radiologic findings of Poland's syndrome by reporting the case of a male four-year old patient with asymmetry of hands and chest, illustrating the fundamental imaging criteria for a conclusive diagnosis. (author)

  14. Social Inclusion of Foreigners in Poland

    Sowa-Behtane, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Poland has a relatively short history of immigration compared to other member states of the European Union. However, in recent decades, the number of foreigners in Poland has increased significantly. Intercultural relations may take the form of hostility, conflict, antagonism, segregation, separation, neutral co-presence, partial social…

  15. Income and its distribution in preindustrial Poland

    Malinowski, Mikołaj; van Zanden, Jan Luiten

    This article presents per capita GDP and income distribution estimates for preindustrial Poland. It is based on a social table for the Voivodeship of Cracow in 1578. Our evidence indicates that income in Poland was distributed more equally than in contemporary Holland. However, the extraction rate

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  17. Breeding avifauna of Niemodlin countryside (SW Poland during the years 2002-2007, and its changes over the last 56 years (1962-2007

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Niemodlin countryside (c. 300 km2 is situated in the south-western part of Opole Silesia, SW Poland. Forests occupy c. 40%, arable grounds – 1/3, and meadows and pastures – 7%. There are 31 fish-ponds with a total diked surface of 663 ha. The paper presents results of field investigations carried out during the years 2002-2007 and an analysis of changes in the breeding avifauna over the last 56 years. During the years 2002-2007, 123 breeding and 11 probably breeding bird species were recorded in this area. During the years 1962-2007 151 species were recorded as breeding residents; and additional five species – as probably breeding resident. The following species were recorded as breeding for the first time in 1962-2007: Haliaeetus albicilla, Larus canus, Motacilla cinerea, Saxicola torquata, Locustella luscinioides, Ficedula albicollis, Corvus corax and Carpodacus erythrinus. In the same period the following species became extinct: Podiceps nigricollis, Anas clypeata, Milvus milvus, and Tringa glareola. The following species increaed in numbers in 1962-2007: Coturnix coturnix, Grus grus, Columba oenas, Apus apus, Dryocopus martius, Dendrocopos medius, Motacilla cinerea, Saxicola torquata and Corvus corax. In the same period, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps grisegena, Ciconia ciconia, Aythya nyroca, Perdix perdix, Gallinago gallinago, Larus ridibundus, Tyto alba, Alcedo atthis, Picus viridis, Riparia riparia and Corvus cornix decreased in numbers. The areas with the highest concentration of rare and endangered species are postulated to be protected as nature reserves, landscape parks and other spatial forms of nature conservation.

  18. Radiation atlas of Poland 1997

    Jagielak, J.; Biernacka, M.; Henschke, J.; Sosinska, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection with support and commitment of the State Inspectorate for Environmental Protection carried out necessary surveys and collected materials which allowed to elaborate present edition of the Radiation Atlas of Poland (1997). Data presented in the form of maps provide readers with the information on the 137 Cs and natural radionuclides concentration in the environment. The average annual doses to the public from various sources of the ionizing radiation, e.g. doses from X-ray apparatus and radionuclides used in medical diagnostics or from the internal contamination of the human organism are also presented in the publication

  19. PLASMA-2013: International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas (Warsaw, Poland, 2-6 September 2013)

    Sadowski, Marek J.

    2014-05-01

    , Otwock, Poland—Chairman Dimitri Batani, Universite Bordeaux, France Sergio Ciattaglia, ITER, Cadarache, France Michael Dudeck, UPMC, Paris, France Igor E Garkusha, NSC KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine Zbigniew Kłos, CBK PAN, Warsaw Giorgio Maddaluno, ENEA Frascati, Italy Andrea Murari, EFDA JET, Culham, UK Józef Musielok, University of Opole, Poland Svetlana Ratynskaia, RIT, Stockholm, Sweden Karel Rohlena, IP CAS, Prague, Czech Republic Valentin Smirnov, Rosatom, Moscow, Russia Francisco Tabares, CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain Lorenzo Torrisi, University of Messina, Messina, Italy Jerzy Wołowski, IFPiLM, Warsaw, Poland Urszula Woźnicka, IFJ PAN, Cracow, Poland Local Organizing Committee Jerzy Wołowski—Chairman Paweł Gąsior—Secretary Zofia Kalinowska Ewa Kowalska-Strzęciwilk Monika Kubkowska Anita Pokorska Ryszard Panfil Joanna Dziak-Beme Conference website: http://plasma2013.ipplm.pl/

  20. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  1. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  2. [Measles in Poland in 2004].

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara; Paweł, Stefanoff

    2006-01-01

    In Poland 11 measles cases were registered in 2004 (0.03 per 100,000 population), of which 3 were cases imported from Chechnya. Of 8 local cases, 3 cases occurred in unvaccinated persons, 2 in persons vaccinated with one dose and 3 in vaccinated with two doses of measles vaccine (administered at the age of 13-15 months and 7 years). The most affected age groups were 1-year old children (0.29 per 100,000 population) and 6-year olds (0.25). Out of 11 reported cases 2 were hospitalized. There were no deaths attributed to measles. Poland participates in the WHO Measles Elimination Strategy. Presently, the most important is the maintenance of a sensitive and timely surveillance of measles and measles-compatible cases, with serologic testing of one suspect case per 100,000 population. The performance of the surveillance system was insufficient with only 44 measles-compatible cases reported in 2004 (12% of expected reports). Serologic confirmation of cases was also insufficient, with 5 cases confirmed in WHO accredited laboratory. These results indicate the need to maintain the high immunisation coverage and improve measles surveillance system.

  3. Free Electron Laser in Poland

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The idea of building a new IVth generation of light sources of high luminosity, which use accelerators, arose in the 80ties of XXth century. Now, in a numerable synchrotron and laser laboratories in Europe, there is carried out, since a couple of years, intense applied research on free electron lasers (FEL) [17,18]. Similarly, in this country, free electron laser in Poland – POLFEL [9] is, in a design, a coherent light source of the IVth generation, characterized by very short pulses in the range of 10-100fs, of big power 0,2GW and UV wavelength of 27nm, of average power 1W, with effective high power third harmonic of 9nm. The laser consists of a linear superconducting accelerator 100m in length, undulator and experimental lines. It generates a monochromatic and coherent radiation and can be tuned from THz range via IR, visible to UV, and potentially to X-rays. The linac works in quasi-CW or real-CW mode. It is planned by IPJ [9,10] and XFEL-Poland Consortium [16] as a part of the ESFRI [1] priority EuroFEL...

  4. [Malaria in Poland in 2009].

    Stepiń, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In Poland in 2009 were reported 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the EU case definition for the purposes of routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, including 1 case of recrudescence, 86% from Africa. In 18 cases P falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 2--P vivax, in 1--P ovale and 1 P malariae. Most cases occurred in the age group 21-40 years, there were 21 cases in males and 1 in female. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related visits (14 cases) and tourism (6 cases), one person who visited the family and in one case unknown reason for travel. Three persons used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 5 cases. Clinical course was severe in 7 cases of P falciparum malaria and medium-severe in one case. In 2009, there were no malaria deaths in Poland. Education on the prevention of malaria and pretravel health advising is still greatly needed.

  5. [Malaria in Poland in 2007].

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland in 2007 there were 11 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition reported through the routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, 82% from Africa, including 2 cases of relapse. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed in 7 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and P. vivax- in one case. The majority of cases were in the age group 35-45 (8 cases) and were males (10 cases). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related (5 cases) and tourism or family visits (4 cases). Approximately half of the cases for whom the information was available used malaria chemoprophylaxis during their travel. Clinical course was severe in one case of P. falciparum malaria and the person died of the disease. The decreasing trend in malaria incidence in Poland is likely related to incomplete reporting as tourist and professional travel to endemic areas has not decreased and there is no indication of wider use ofchemoprophylaxis.

  6. [Trichinellosis in Poland in 2010].

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Gołab, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Trichinellosis is still an epidemiological problem in Poland as well as in other countries in the European Union (EU). Across the EU, reporting cases oftrichinellosis is mandatory. In Poland, tirchinellosis is an endemic disease, occurring mainly in territories where it is customary to eat raw meat products prepared from pigs and wild boars. The aim of this work is to evaluate the epidemiological situation of trichinellosis in Poland in the year 2010 in comparison to previous years. Cases of trichinellosis infections were classified according to criteria contained in the definition approved by the European Committee on 28th April 2008 amending the decision 2002/253/EC, and was introduced in Poland in 2009. Case definitions used in are available at http://www.pzh. gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/inne/Def_PL2_Rob1 h.pdf. An infection was classified and reported as Trichinella spp. if the genus of Trichinella that caused the infection was not specified using molecular examination. In 2010 the number of registered human trichinellosis cases was similar to the average number of cases from the last several years, and it did not exceed 55 (the exceptions were in 2004 and 2007, when larger outbreaks occurred). In 2010, 51 Trichinella infections were registered, yielding an infection rate of 0.13 per 100 000 inhabitants. The infections occurred in 5 voivodeships (table 1). Using the criteria from the definitions, 41 cases were classified as probable and 10 were confirmed cases. Trichinella infections diagnoses were based on the presence of clinical symptoms and an epidemiological link. Serological diagnostic tests confirming the presence of Trichinella antibodies was performed in approximately 20% of the cases. Four individual cases were reported, along with 4 outbreaks in which a total of 47 people were infected? The infections were generally mild. Twenty-two infected persons were hospitalised (43%). Just like in previous years, no trichinellosis-related deaths were reported. The

  7. Local innovation systems in Poland - the beginning of the road

    Dziemianowicz Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local innovation systems (LIS constitute a relatively new term as usually the discussion about the systemic approach to innovation has focused on the level of countries, and most of all - regions. In this article an attempt was made to assess Polish municipalities from the perspective of their potential for development of local innovative systems. The performed factor analysis allowed characterization of five types of institution networks which may impact creation and development of LIS. The study was completed with case studies in selected voivodeship cities as centres of the highest concentration of institutions usually building local innovation systems, three of which were capitals of the poorest regions in Poland.

  8. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2015

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P.

    2017-01-01

    diagnosed C-type infections were reported to be 4,285 (11.1 / 100,000), an increase of 91.6% over the median of 2009-2013. Such a large increase in reported cases is related, inter alia to the introduction a new, more sensitive case definition in 2014. The incidence of Lyme disease has been on the rise in the last fifteen years. In 2015, 13,625 cases (35.4 / 100,000) were reported, which, with an insignificant decrease compared to 2014, gives rise to 49.1% over the median of 2009-2013. The downward trend in the incidence of tuberculosis (all forms of tuberculosis) is clearly persistent. In 2015, the incidence of this disease decreased compared to the previous year from 17.4 to 16.7 / 100,000. In 2015 were reported 1,281 cases of newly diagnosed HIV (3,33 / 100,000). It was an increase of 13.0%. The number of AIDS cases decreased by 13.5% compared to the previous year. Reported cases of malaria involve people who have been infected abroad in endemic malaria areas. In 2015 there were reported 29 such cases. None of the cases of diphtheria, chronic childhood paralysis, rabies and viral hemorrhagic fever except for dengue have been reported in 2015. There were reported 12 cases of dengue imported from endemic regions. In Poland in 2015 number of deaths from all infectious and parasitic diseases was 2,199. The share of deaths due to infectious diseases in the total number of deaths was 0.54% and mortality was 5.5 per 100,000 population. The majority of deaths were caused by tuberculosis and its consequences (25.7%) and intestinal infections caused by Clostridium difficile (23.2%).

  9. China’s Trade Policy Towards Central and Eastern Europe in the 21St Century, Example of Poland

    Drelich-Skulska Bogusława

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present China’s economic model and discuss, in this context, bilateral trade and investment relations between China and Poland. The analysis presented herein is based on the strategy of cooperation with countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as presented by China’s Prime Minister, and on the growing importance of Poland as a main partner of China in the Central and Eastern Europe region. The paper describes main premises of the Chinese economic model, followed by a diagnosis of Chinese economy. The authors analyze the main directions of China’s foreign cooperation, placing the emphasis on relations with Poland.

  10. What Determines State Capture in Poland?

    Stanisław Alwasiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the determinants of ex-ante state capture in Poland. Methodology: In order to establish the determinants of ex-ante state capture a logistic regression is estimated. Findings: The study shows that in Poland the majority of legal acts were passed with the aim to satisfy the interest of particular groups. Furthermore, the regression analysis shows that the likelihood of state capture increases during the period of higher economic growth and local elections. The likelihood of state capture, however, declines during presidential elections. The results we attribute to different interests of political parties in the period of local and presidential elections. Finally, we fi nd that the state capture increased over the years in Poland. Additionally, we show that the EU accession did not prevent state capture in Poland. In contrast, the fi nancial crisis of 2007 resulted in a wake-up effect and the likelihood of state capture declined in Poland. Research limitations: In the study we employ proxies for state capture, yet we assume that corruption is a widespread phenomenon in Poland. However, due to its nature corruption is very diffi cult to assess and measure. Originality: The study uses a unique dataset on ex-ante state capture that was identifi ed in the legal acts that have been passed in the period 1990–2011 in Poland.

  11. Sustainable Rural Development Policy in Poland – Environmental Aspects

    Mosiej Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses issues of sustainable development in rural areas in Poland from the perspective of natural resources management. Sustainable development of rural areas is the way of managing which links economic, social and ethical principles with ecological safety. This may be reached by proper management, directed on cautious usage of ecosystems’ self-controlling mechanisms, with the progress of science and technology. Agriculture in Poland is one of the most important sectors from an economic perspective and its importance is greater in Poland than in other countries in the EU. It has an influence not only on the social and economic situation of the rural population, but also on the natural environment, structure of landscape and biodiversity. From ecological point of view, functions of rural areas are not only being a place for production of food, resources for industry and green energy, but also supplying environmental goods such as protection of biodiversity and influencing air and water quality as well as landscape. The author presents ways to reduce the pressure of agricultural activities on water resources in the region, catchment and farm scale

  12. First steps of Poland in the nuclear power industry

    Guidez, J.

    2010-01-01

    Poland appears as a new-comer in the domain of nuclear power but in fact previous projects of nuclear power plants existed but were abruptly stopped in the afterwards of Chernobyl. Today almost 90% of the electricity produced in Poland comes from the combustion of coal and lignite. In january 2009 the Polish government decided to include nuclear power in the energy mix with an aim of a 15% share of the electricity production in 2030 and with the first nuclear plant operating in 2020. The path toward this aim is marked out as following. 2009-2010: drawing up of the legal frame, creation of the nuclear safety authority, drawing up of the list of potential sites, and launching of the public debate. 2011-2013: selection of the first site, of the pool of investors, of the reactor technology and the signature of the contract for the first plant. 2014-2015: obtention of the administrative agreements, elaboration of the technical project. 2016-2020: construction of the plant. The polish public opinion favours nuclear energy and there is a kind of competition between different regions to home nuclear power plants. In 2010 Poland signed various collaboration agreements with the Usa, France and South-Korea. Polish authorities are studying the pros and cons of the EPR (EDF - Areva), ABWR (GE/Hitachi) and AP1000 (Westinghouse) reactors. (A.C.)

  13. British auditors in Poland in the interwar period

    Jerzy Cieślik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of historical research on the operation of British accounting firm Whin-ney, Murray & Co in Poland before World War II. Based on our findings this was the only foreign ac-counting firm active in Poland at that time. Following their clients, British accounting firms expanded their operations abroad at the turn of the 19th century. During the 1920s and 1930s the number of audit assignments on the European continent increased rapidly, which necessitated the establishment of branches (offices in major European cities and industrial districts. Whinney, Murray & Co set up an office in Warsaw in 1932 taking into account its convenient location as a base for undertaking audit assignments throughout the Eastern European region. The Warsaw office concentrated initially on inter-national clients active in Poland but was also engaged in audits of Polish power plants and participated as financial advisor in the electrification program of Polish railways with involvement of British investors. Whinney, Murray & Co contributed to the development of Polish-British economic cooperation before World War II. Its representative was one of the founders of the Polish-British Chamber of Commerce established in Warsaw in 1933.

  14. Statement on the first research on digital startups in Poland

    Agnieszka Skala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present the results of the first study of Polish startups’ ecosystem as the first stage of a larger study of digital economy landscape in Poland. The first estimate of the number of Polish startups amounts to 2400 entities. The publication presents the first survey Polish startups that marks the beginning of cyclical studies on enterprises belonging to the digital economy in Poland. The study was conducted among 423 entities using an in-house questionnaire prepared based on the author’s own knowledge. Results are discussed. Startups most often consider themselves software producers who follow the SaaS model and operate in the following industries: mobile apps, e-commerce and Internet services. Nearly one in three startups achieve 50% annual revenue growth, while in one-fifth such growth exceeds 100%. Almost two thirds of Polish startups are financed exclusively from own funds. It is necessary to repeat and deepen the study in order to determining the significance of the digital industry in the economy of Poland and the CEE region. The originality of this work lies in taking this subject for the first time in Polish literature and in elaborating the proposition of a “startup” term’s definition.

  15. Nuclear power in Poland. Prospect and conditions

    Chwaszczewski, S.

    1995-01-01

    Poland started the works on construction of first nuclear power plant in 1992. The social protest as well as deep political and economical changes in Poland induced the decision of the Polish government to abandon the construction of the nuclear power plant in Zarnowiec. After the period of political and economical transformation, in 1992 Polish economy starts to grow up, also growth of the electric power consumption. Are there prospect for utilization in Poland the nuclear power plant? This work is devoted to analyse such question. The present structure of power and fuel materials in Poland were analysed and the possible direction of changes was shown for the period up to 2020 year. It was stated, that the economical development in Poland should be bound with the growth of the consumption of most effective fuel and energy. These fuel or energy should be imported to Poland. Therefore, the nuclear power should be treated as one of possible ways of the balance of electric power in Poland. Particularly, that it will be expected the special ecological conditions in the energy production in Europe. In the present work, was shown, that the nuclear power was discriminated in the analysis of the development of power and fuel system in Poland. The incorrect values of economical parameters concerning of the nuclear power plant was used in the analysing numerical programs. The investment costs, design time and fuel price for nuclear energy was analysed, and shown, that in the proper conditions, the cost of the electric energy produced in the nuclear power plant is compared with the costs of electric energy produced in the conventional power stations. In this work, the proposals of the basic nuclear and radiological safety standards for the nuclear power plant in Poland are shown. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Tree Growth and Climate Relationship: Dynamics of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Growing in the Near-Source Region of the Combined Heat and Power Plant During the Development of the Pro-Ecological Strategy in Poland.

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Opała, Magdalena

    Since the 1990s, the emission of pollutants was reduced in a majority of Polish and developing country factories whereas the level of energy production was similar to that prior to the 1990s. The conifer investigated in this study has grown for many years under the stress of industrial pollution. Despite this, the trees are preserved, to a large extent, sensitive to the natural climatic factors. We present a complex analysis of the climatic (sunshine, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind circulation) and anthropogenic factors influencing the radial increment dynamics of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the vicinity of the combined heat and power station in Łaziska (Poland). We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of growth reductions, the depth of reduction with respect to the distance from the emitter, the relationship between tree growth and climate during the industry development period and during proecological strategy application . Samples of carbon isotopic composition in pine needles from 2012 to 2013 were additionally determined. Pines series of 3 positions indicate that they have a similar sensitivity to most climatic elements of the previous and given year, but there is also a different rhythm between the studied populations of incremental growth of pines. The causes of diversity are due to the different types of habitat (site types) and industrial pollution. The variation in carbon stable isotopic composition in pine needles was connected with an increase of CO 2 .

  17. Hybrid corporate governance: a choice for Poland?

    Samól, Katarzyna A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research investigation is to consider the potential opportunities through which corporate governance may be developed to better suit the developing commercial culture within Poland. In order to do this, I formulate the following research questions: ‘What are the weaknesses of the Polish corporate governance system?’, ‘What changes should be made to corporate governance in Poland?’, and ‘Is a hybrid corporate governance model a choice for Poland?’ The concept of hybridisatio...

  18. Salmonellosis in Poland in 2014

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of salmonellosis in Poland in 2014 in comparison to the previous years. The evaluation was based on the data from the bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland 2014”, information from the laboratories of sanitary-epidemiological stations and reports from the epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of salmonellosis, sent by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, as well as the data from the Department of Demographic Studies of the Central Statistical Office. Cases were classified according to the definitions adopted in the UE. In 2014, a total number of 8 392 cases of salmonellosis derived from animals were reported, including 8 197 cases of intestinal salmonellosis and 195 cases of extraintestinal. The total incidence was 21.8/100 000. Almost 96% of the cases met the criteria for a confirmed case. The number of registered cases was, for the first time since many years, higher than in the previous year, but still lower than the median for 2008-2012. A very high percentage (approximately 70%) of hospitalizations remains among patients diagnosed with salmonellosis. Approximately 33% of all cases in outbreaks of salmonellosis were hospitalized. The highest incidence was among children under the age of 5 years. Salmonellosis was reported as the cause of death for 13 patients. In 2014 there were 171 outbreaks reported with Salmonella as an etiological agent. Majority of them were small outbreaks limited to the family in singular household, and the total number of cases in those outbreaks amounted to 1 229 people. In Poland the most common etiological agent of salmonellosis is (and have been for many years) S. Enteritidis. In 2014, the first time in many years, an increase was recorded in the annual number of cases of salmonellosis. A very high percentage of hospitalizations for salmonellosis cases indicates a relatively rare practice among GPs in ordering

  19. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases.

  20. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died.

  1. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    Piotrowski, J.; Piotrowski, A.

    2006-03-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1-xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapour phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapour phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. At present, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  2. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Anisiewicz Renata; Palmowski Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew stea...

  3. Materials of conference: Hydrogeological Problems of South-West Poland; Materialy konferencji: Problemy Hydrogeologiczne Poludniowo-Zachodniej Polski

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Hydrogeological problems of South-west Poland is the collection of conference papers held in Szklarska Poreba on 20-22 June 1996. The materials have been gathered in three topical groups: water quality problems in hydrological cycle, regional hydrogeology of South-west Poland, theoretical problems and research methods in hydrogeology. More of performed articles have a interdisciplinary character taking into account the precipitation and surface water quality and their influence on ground water features.

  4. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180. From l to r: Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  5. Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr Stanislaw Huskowski, Mayor of Wroclaw, Poland visiting the ATLAS magnet assembly hall, building 180 with Mr Carlo Lamprecht, State Councillor, Dr Stanislaw Huskowski and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson

  6. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF REVERSE LOGISTICS IN POLAND

    Agata Mesjasz-Lech

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the essence of reverse logistics and directions of physical and information flows between logistic network partners. It also analyses effects of implementation of the principles of reverse logistics in Poland in the years 2004-2007

  7. Country policy profile - Poland. December 2015

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Poland is 15%. Poland promotes renewable electricity through a quota system, tax relief and subsidies, as well as loans. There are three subsidy models and a loan scheme, which support heat generated from renewable energy sources. In dimension to transport renewable energy is promoted primarily by bio-fuels. The Republic of Poland established two programmes for renewable energy plants: a training programme, which is dedicated to installers in RES sector and certification system pertaining solar thermal installations. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Poland and was regularly updated (updated until December 2015)

  8. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  9. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  10. Punk and Anarchist Squats in Poland

    Donaghey, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Squats are of notable importance in the punk scene in Poland, and these spaces are a key aspect of the relationship between anarchism and punk. However, the overlap of squatting, punk, and anarchism is not without its tensions. This article, drawn from ethnographic research carried out between 2013 and 2014, explores the issues around punk and anarchist squats in Poland, looking at: criticisms levelled at punk squats by ‘non-punk’ squatting activists (e.g. Przychodnia in Warsaw); instances of...

  11. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

    Bojakowska I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  12. Lichens of the Holy Hill orthodox sanctuary in Grabarka (NE Poland

    Anna Matwiejuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Hill Grabarka is one of the most important orthodox sanctuaries in Poland. The sanctuary is situated in Podlasie region between Bug and Narew rivers. It grew in the shade of well developing (in the first centuries of the second millennium towns Mielnik and Drohiczyn. The most striking thing is that the church is surrounded by a forest of thousands of crosses brought by pilgrims. The study present 64 species of epiphytic, epixylic, epilythic and epigeic lichens. Among 64 lichen species 11 are considered to be threatened in Poland.

  13. Visit to the PMS-stations in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland

    Bargholz, Kim; Andersen, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Danish build automatic gamma-ray monitoring stations have been installed in the Baltic countries, Poland and Russia (Sct. Petersbourg region). The stations are designed for continously measure the gamma-radiation from the surroundings. The stations use the Windows NT 3.51 as operating system. Eac...

  14. Oyster-bioimmured ammonites from the Upper Albian of Annopol, Poland: stratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic implications

    Machalski, Marcin; Kennedy, William J.

    2013-12-01

    Machalski, M. and Kennedy, W.J. 2013. Oyster-bioimmured ammonites from the Upper Albian of Annopol, Poland: stratigraphic and palaeobiogeographic implications. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 545-554. Warszawa. Ammonites Mortoniceras (Subschloenbachia) sp. are preserved as attachment scars on the oyster shells from the topmost portion of the Albian succession at Annopol, Poland. These oyster-bioimmured ammonites show a closest affinity to the representatives of Mortoniceras (Subschloenbachia) characteristic of the upper Upper Albian Mortoniceras perinflatum Zone. No ammonites indicative of the uppermost Albian-lowermost Cenomanian Praeschloenbachia briacensis Zone are recorded. Thus, the hiatus at the Albian-Cenomanian boundary at Annopol embraces the latter zone. The presence (and dominance) of Mortoniceras in the upper Upper Albian ammonite assemblage of Annopol suggests that the representatives of this Tethyan genus could migrate into the epicratonic areas of Poland directly from the Tethyan Realm, via the Lwow (Lviv) region.

  15. Hepatitis A in Poland in 2014

    Polański, Piotr

    The aim of this article is to assess the epidemiological situation of hepatitis A in Poland in 2014 with the regard to the recent years. The assessment was conducted based on the results of the analysis of data from the bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and “Vaccinations in Poland in 2014”, as well as information from the individual cases questionnaires and reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of hepatitis A, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology in NIPH-NIH. In 2014 in Poland there were 76 cases of hepatitis A registered. Incidence per 100 000 inhabitants was 0.20, and in different voivodeships varied from 0.07 (in Dolnosląskie voivodeship) to 0.30 (in Małopolskie voivodeship). The incidence among male and female did not differ (and was 0.20/ 100 000). In 2014 despite the increase in the number of cases (comparing it to the previous year) no significant change in epidemiological situation of hepatitis A was observed. Poland is still regarded as a country of low endemicity of hepatitis A. In routine surveillance system there is no information concerning the professional affiliation of persons being vaccinated, whereas the vaccinations themselves are recommended in the Polish vaccination schedule. Particular attention should be directed towards the vaccinations of persons who take part in berries primal production, product of which Poland is a major exporter of in the EU. In the light of increasing number of international hepatitis A outbreaks (which could be characterized by the prolonged duration, as well as the high possibility of secondary cases appearing- especially in countries of low endemicity) the maintenance of high level routine surveillance in Poland gains importance. The latter could also contribute to the efficiency of epidemiological investigations in multistate outbreaks.

  16. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  17. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  18. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  19. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  20. New and interesting records of freshwater Verrucaria in Central Poland

    Beata Krzewicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Verrucaria madida is reported as new to Poland. Three other associated species, V. aquatilis, V. hydrela and V. rheitrophila, are compared. The known distribution in Poland and the ecology of these freshwater species are presented.

  1. IS INLAND SHIPPING NEEDED IN POLAND?

    Ryszard Rolbiecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, inland shipping plays only a mariginal role in transport needs fulfillment. Inland shipping has a share of mere 0,3% in goods transport modal split. The reason for this is poor and variable technical parameters of inland waterways together with adverse legal regulations. Different situation takes place in Western European countries, in which the development of this mode of transport is viewed as a way of road transport develop-ment restraint. In Poland, the need to move some of the volume from road transport to in-land shipping is specifically observed within marine ports surroundings. Because of their complex nature, the investments in inland shipping infrastructure would also be helpful in solving the current problems of water management. Inland waterways in Poland guaran-tee neither an adequate level of flood protection, nor the water needs fulfillment of do-mestic economy. When it comes to water reserves, Poland is one of the most deficient countries in Europe. Thus there is a need to invest in inland waterways in Poland.

  2. Kinetics of light-assisted physical ageing in S-rich arsenic sulphide ...

    Faculty of Physics, Opole University of Technology, Opole 45370, Poland. MS received 23 October 2015; ... constant τ are found to be dependent on the wavelength of incident photons and .... Figure 2. (Colour online) Left panel: H(t) kinetics of ...

  3. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Paweł Mąkosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  4. POLAND AND TRANSATLANTIC SECURITY - AN ENDURING ATLANTICIST?

    Kerry Longhurst

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 1990’s Poland pursued a security policy steered by Atlanticism and a close bond with the United States. Atlanticism shaped Warsaw’s choices on all key security issues during the past decade, but became particularly apparent after 9/11 when Poland lent its full support to the US-led war on terror. Whilst membership in the EU will affect the priorities and conduct of Polish security policy, it is argued here that the deep-seated nature of Atlanticism in Polish strategic culture , together with the broader implications of enlargement upon the EU’s foreign policy ambitions will ensure that Poland will remain a keen Atlanticist in the New Europe.

  5. Economic costs of electricity production in Poland

    Beeldman, M.; Solinski, J.

    1994-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the calculation of the economic costs of the production of electricity. This methodology is applied to assess electricity production cost in Poland by type of power station for the years 1995 and 2000. In addition, an overview is presented of the methods used by the OECD countries, particularly in the Netherlands. The main conclusions of the study are: 1) the real economic costs to generate electricity in Poland are about two times higher compared with the traditional book-keeping data; 2) the investment costs will become the most important cost component in the near future; and 3) there are considerables differences in production cost per kWh for the different types of power plants in Poland. 4 appendices, 14 refs

  6. Poland wants to thwart Russian gas

    Barbaux, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    The Polish authorities are doing everything in their power to block Nord Stream 2, the Russian natural gas pipeline project that will double (by 2019) Nord Stream 1 through the Baltic Sea. Gazprom's Nord Stream 2 (in which European companies such as Engie (France), Uniper and Wintershall (Germany), OMV (Austria) and Shell are involved) will poses a risk, according to Poland, to the gas supply of central European countries (and notably Ukraine). Poland also intends to stop all its gas imports from Russia after 2022 (end of the Yamal contract): the country is therefore developing its capacity to increase its own natural gas production and has just inaugurated a liquefied natural gas terminal on the Baltic Sea. A gas pipeline is also in project, that will link Norway to Poland. For power generation, the nuclear energy option is also studied

  7. History of pediatric neurology in Poland.

    Steinborn, Barbara; Józwiak, Sergiusz

    2010-02-01

    This review presents the past and the present of pediatric neurology in Poland. Pediatric neurology has its roots in Polish general neurology represented by many outstanding scientists. The founder of Polish school of neurology at the end of 19th century was Edward Flatau, known as the author of Flatau's law. The most famous Polish neurologist was Joseph Babiński, recognized for the first description of pathological plantar reflex. First Polish publication related to child neurology was Brudziński's report on a new meningeal symptom (the flexion of lower limbs during passive neck flexion with pain in neck). Contemporary child neurology in Poland was created by Professor Zofia Majewska after the Second World War. Now 10 academic centers of child neurology exist in Poland fulfilling educational, scientific, and therapeutic roles. Polish Society of Child Neurology was established in 1991 and now there are about 580 members, including 300 child neurologists.

  8. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Poland

    Kostrzewa, Karina; ); Piasecki, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable development principle was introduced into the legal system of Poland when the Constitution of the Polish Republic was adopted in 1997. Paradoxically, in Poland - one of the few countries in the world which have introduced the concept of sustainable development at the level of the Constitution, it is difficult to find a reference to it in the political debate. The national sustainable development strategy Poland 2025 has met no response among society and today it seems to be hardly remembered by anybody. An average citizen does not know the concept of sustainable development, or has a vague notion of it, often identifying it exclusively with environmental protection. Solving social problems (the labour market, education, health protection, equality of the sexes, etc.) is not associated with sustainable development whatsoever, and neither is engagement into achieving these development targets on the global scale

  9. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and

  10. Chernobyl 90Sr in bilberries from Poland

    Mietelski, J.W.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a detailed survey on the contamination of Polish forests 90 Sr activity concentrations were determined in bilberries. Elevated 90 Sr levels were found in several samples from north-eastern Poland. The calculated maximum 90 Sr surface contamination was 2 kBq*m -2 . The correlation between 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in bilberries was good for two sets of samples originating from two geographical areas of Poland indicating the local differences in radionuclide depositions from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  11. Population database on: D1S1656, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, D8S1179, D10S1248, D22S1045, D12S391, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, FGA, TH01, vWA loci included in NGM system based on one thousand unrelated individuals from Lodz region of Central Poland

    Renata Jacewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A population data obtained on the basis of sample of 1000 unrelated individuals of Polish ancestry living in Lodz region of Central Poland with use of fluorescent multiplex-PCR and capillary electrophoresis were presented. Evaluation included 15 polymorphic loci DNA – STR from NGM multiplex-PCR set, ie. D1S1656, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, D8S1179, D10S1248, D12S391, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, D22S1045, FGA, TH01, vWA. The allele frequency distribution and crucial statistical parameters for the investigated markers and the whole set were calculated. The compliance of the studied population with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, independence of inheritance and high parameters of the usefulness in forensic genetics have been demonstrated. The interpopulation comparison performed by the „neighbor-joining” method as well as multidimensional scaling depicted the genetic distances dividing the examined Polish population from other populations of Poland, Europe and the world.

  12. Illegality of international population movements in Poland.

    Okolski, M

    2000-01-01

    Until the beginning of the 1990s Poland did not receive foreign migrants. Thereafter, the situation changed dramatically. A large part of the inflow proved to be illegal migrants, many of whom were in transit to Western Europe. Although these movements gradually declined in the second half of the decade, some became increasingly identified with relatively sophisticated smuggling of people. Foreigners smuggled from the South to the West, together with the international criminal networks assisting them, became typical of the migratory movements of people in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1990s. This article seeks to describe illegal migration from the perspective of Poland, a country often perceived as a major transit area in the smuggling of persons to Western Europe. The conclusions draw on the findings of several surveys recently carried out in Poland. Basic concepts related to illegal migration are defined and juxtaposed, and various myths and stereotypes concerning it that most often stem from the paucity of empirical evidence are examined. Finally, the trends observed in Poland are interpreted within the larger context of contemporary European migration.

  13. [Poland: cholera to typhus, 1831-1950].

    Balinska, M A

    1999-12-01

    In this article devoted to Poland's direct and indirect role in the elaboration of contemporary international health structures and to her reputation as an epidemic reservoir of Europe, we consider how Poland came to be perceived as the cordon sanitaire of the West. Traditionally seen as upholding Western values, in the 19th and 20th centuries the country became increasingly associated with "Eastern plagues"-cholera and then typhus-coming from Russia and which could spread to the rest of Europe if Poland did not manage to contain them. When Poland was reconstituted as a nation-state in 1918, the new country won international recognition through her successful attempts to contain a typhus epidemic sweeping westwards from Russia. The Polish government convened the first European, League sponsored, health conference following the First World War. A Polish doctor, L. RAJCHMAN, was chosen to head up the League of Nations Health Organisation (forerunner of the WHO) and later (1946) founded UNICEF. Finally, we examine the key issue of exanthematous typhus in both world wars, exemplifying how a disease can come to be "ideologized", in this case by Nazi Germany. Typhus was the pretext used- in the name of "public health"-for segregating Polish citizens of Jewish origin and even killing them. Paradoxically, typhus was in the process of being eradicated when the war began and German policy of mass resettlements, sequestration, and starvation only spurred the epidemic they supposedly wished to control.

  14. Fruits contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident

    Kubik, M.; Michalczuk, L.; Dzieciol, U.; Bem, H.; Kusmierek, E.

    1996-01-01

    The content of Cs 137, Cs 134 and Ru 106 have been measured in samples of different fruits, mushrooms and honey taken from many farms selected at whole territory of Poland. The research has been carried out during the period of 1986-1991. The soils contamination in farms and forests area has been also done. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Control of rabbit myxomatosis in Poland.

    Górski, J; Mizak, B; Chrobocińska, M

    1994-09-01

    The authors present an epizootiological analysis of myxomatosis in Poland. The biological, physical and chemical properties of virus strains used for the production and control of 'Myxovac M' vaccine are discussed. The long-term stability, safety and efficacy of the vaccine are demonstrated. Laboratory experiments were confirmed in large-scale field observations.

  16. Rare and new Laboulbeniales from Poland. X

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a consecutive paper in the series concerning Polish Laboulbeniales, several species new for Poland are reported. Similarly as in the earlier papers of this series, all specimens were found by the author (if not otherwise indicated. The specimens are kept in the author's collection at the Mycology Laboratory of the Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.

  17. Post-accession economic development of Poland

    Witold ORŁOWSKI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the economic performance of Poland in the post-accession period. Poland joined the EU in 2004, after a long and difficult economic transition. The whole post-accession period could be divided into two sub-periods: the pre-crisis period of 2004-07, and the turbulent period of 2008-11. During the pre-crisis period, Poland recorded a fast growth, with a built-up of macroeconomic disequilibria. During the turbulent period, the economy was dealing successfully with the global financial crisis. The growth slowed down and the disequilibria were reduced. The paper discusses the growth patterns in the both sub-periods and tries to explain the factors that contributed to the good economic performance during the financial crisis. The astonishingly good economic growth results cannot be attributed to a single factor, but to a combination of many factors contributing at the same time. However, Poland has many valuable assets that may help in dealing with the further economic turbulences.

  18. Agrocybe putaminum (Agaricales, Basidiomycota, New for Poland

    Halama Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrocybe putaminum (Maire Singer, a species hitherto unknown in Poland, is reported from two localities in the southwestern part of the country, with descriptions and illustrations of the morphological characters of the newly collected basidiomata. The delimitation of A. putaminum is briefly discussed, and information on the ecology of the fungus and its world distribution is provided.

  19. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  20. Determinants of all cause mortality in Poland.

    Genowska, Agnieszka; Jamiołkowski, Jacek; Szpak, Andrzej; Pajak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate quantitatively the relationship between demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and medical care resources with all cause mortality in Poland. Ecological study was performed using data for the population of 66 subregions of Poland, obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The information on the determinants of health and all cause mortality covered the period from 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2010. Results for the repeated measures were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations GEE model. In the model 16 independent variables describing health determinants were used, including 6 demographic variables, 6 socio-economic variables, 4 medical care variables. The dependent variable, was age standardized all cause mortality rate. There was a large variation in all cause mortality, demographic features, socio-economic characteristics, and medical care resources by subregion. All cause mortality showed weak associations with demographic features, among which only the increased divorce rate was associated with higher mortality rate. Increased education level, salaries, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, local government expenditures per capita and the number of non-governmental organizations per 10 thousand population was associated with decrease in all cause mortality. The increase of unemployment rate was related with a decrease of all cause mortality. Beneficial relationship between employment of medical staff and mortality was observed. Variation in mortality from all causes in Poland was explained partly by variation in socio-economic determinants and health care resources.

  1. Wind energy market study Eastern Europe. Poland

    Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1994-04-01

    The main objective of the THERMIE Associated Measure WE05 is to study market conditions and estimate the market for wind power in Eastern Europe. This report describes the results of a study of the conditions in Poland, which has been concentrated on the following areas: wind energy potential in Poland; data concerning the present structure of the power production system including costs; payback prices, subsidies, etc. with relation to renewable energy sources, especially wind power; information on existing wine turbines and their production in Poland; possibilities for co-production of wind turbines by Polish and EC factories, and rules and legislation pertaining to the establishment of wind turbines and to power production by wind, eg regulations related to grid connection, safety and environment. According to existing data there are possibilities for using the wind potential in certain parts of poland. The wind data have to be improved if particular sites are considered for wind parks. The current official plans concerning the energy system have taken renewable sources into consideration, including wind power that is estimated to contribute ∼ 1 GWh by 2005-2010. Wind turbines may be connected to the public grid with due regard to the strength of the line. Presently, the owner has to pay all the costs, however, new rules are under consideration. The conditions for the connection and operation of wind turbines have to be discussed with the particular utility on an an-hoc basis. (EG)

  2. Museums in Cultural Tourism in Poland

    Krakowiak, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the museums, their potential and their significance for cultural tourism in Poland. Its aims are achieved through a presentation of registered national museums, ‘monuments of history’, museum buildings and the cultural activities undertaken by these institutions

  3. Assessment of atmosphere degradation step in Poland

    Skrzypski, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents characterization of the state of air pollution in Poland. It describes the size of emission and the size of concentration of dust and SO 2 and NO x pollution. It compares ascertained size of pollution the permissible concentration. It calls special attention to spatial differentiation of state of air pollution. (author). 26 refs

  4. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1998

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1998. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1997. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 33% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 13 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1998. (author)

  5. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1997

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1997. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1996. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 35% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 13 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1997. (author)

  6. Radioactive contamination of environment and food in Poland in 1996

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.; Wilgos, J.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the level of radioactive contamination in environmental and food samples was carried out in Poland in 1996. The results were compared to the data from the period 1985-1995. Since the Chernobyl accident gradual decrease of contamination level has been observed. The gamma dose rate and the contamination of air, fallout, tape and surface water were at the level of 1985. The only contamination enhanced in relation to pre-Chernobyl period was the content of cesium isotopes in soil and as a consequence food contamination was higher particularly milk and meat. At present, the source of additional dose is ingestion of artificial isotopes with food as a result of food contamination. No significant regional differences in the distribution of the level of cesium in food over the territory of Poland has been registered. Milk can be assumed as the main contributor of cesium to the diet, its share is about 40% of annual intake of cesium. The average effective dose equivalent, resulting from the contaminated food consumption, was estimated to be at the level of 14 μSv per capita of the Polish population in 1996. (author)

  7. Attempt of the evaluation of the food security in Poland

    Natalia Batko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The food security belongs to the group of needs which are perceptible by the man. It can be analyzed at the household, national, regional and global levels. In our times it is contending with different threats resulting among others from the population increase in the world, demand for the food, reducing aquatic resources, climate change, soaring prices and wasting food products. According to the FAO about 805 million people are undernourished. The study focused on determining the physical, economic availability and appropriate food quality on the Polish market from 2011 to 2013. The conducted examinations shows that Poland was self‑sufficient in supplying agri-food commodity, food expenditure of households remained stable and least failings stated in national and EU food available on our territory. The value engineering of the Global Index Food Security in 2014 was allowed to say that Poland is among a thirty of the best states ensuring the appropriate availability, the accessibility and the food quality in the country.

  8. Health policy programs realised in Poland in 2016-2017

    Kurowska, Patrycja; Królak, Anna; Giermaziak, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Health Policy Program (Program Polityki Zdrowotnej – PPZ) is a state policy tool for engaging local government units into the mechanism of granting provision of health services. Authors show areas in which self-governments most often took preventive health care actions and describe legislative changes in the Act on provision of health services. The aim of the article is to quantitative and qualitative statement of PPZ prepared in Poland in 2016 and 2017, as well as presenting changing legal situation in the scope of evaluation of these projects. Authors use descriptive method, presenting changes of legal status. The article includes data available in the Bulletin of Public Information by The Agency for Health Technology Assessment. 590 programs were analyzed (239 from 2016 and 351 from 2017). In 2016 – 67% of submitted programs were given a positive opinion and in 2017 – 71%. The most of positively evaluated PPZ submitted by local government units (53% in 2016; 47% in 2017) referred to prevention of infectious diseases by vaccines. On the basis of analyses conducted, significant differences were observed in the implementation of the PPZ in various regions of Poland. In the recent years a big improvement in the quality of planned self-government health programs is observed. It is suggested that due to the regulation defining the model of the health policy program and the model of the final report, this trend will continue.

  9. An analysis of selected cases of derecho in Poland

    Celiński-Mysław, Daniel; Matuszko, Dorota

    2014-11-01

    The paper analyses six cases of the derecho phenomena, which occurred in Poland between 2007 and 2012. The input data included reports on dangerous meteorological phenomena, SYNOP and METAR reports, MSL pressure maps, upper air maps at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, radar depictions and satellite images, upper air sounding plots and data from a system locating atmospheric discharges. Derechos are caused directly by the activity of mesoscale convective systems linked up with either, in winter, a cold front of a deep low-pressure system, or, in summer, with an area of wind convergence in a warm sector of a cyclone or with an articulated cold front which, moving within a low-pressure embayment, develops a very active secondary depression. It was found that southern and central Poland were the regions most frequently affected by derechos. Mid-level and high-level jet streams, augmented by high thermodynamic instability of air masses, were found to be conducive to the development of derechos.

  10. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  11. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Feasibility study

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Danish Ministry of Energy has granted financial aid to the preparation of a feasibility study necessary for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora.The overall objectives of the Feasibility Study are to: establish new efficient power capacity in the south-west region of Poland, increase the energy efficiency, reduce the impact on the environment, utilise the local natural gas available which cannot be used in the national gas grid and reduce the costs of energy supply.The specific objective of this feasibility study is to obtain the best possible financing of the erection of a new CPH plant in Zielona Gora. The plant shall be designed to utilise the local resources of natural gas and to supply heat to the district heating grid in accordance with long-term planning strategies. (EHS)

  12. [Workplace health promotion in public health policies in Poland].

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the author analyses how far in Poland the idea of workplace health promotion (WHP) does exist in the area of public health understood in its broadest sense. The analysis encapsulates the following issues: (a) the national legislative policy, (b) strategies, programs and projects concerning health issues launched or coordinated by the state or local administration, (c) grassroots initiatives for health promotion supported by local and regional administration, (d) civic projects or business strategies for health. In addition, the author emphasizes the marginalization of workplace health promotion and lack of cohesive policy in this field as well as, the fact that health problems of the working population arising from current demographic, technological, economic and social changes that could be dealt with through developing and implementing WHP projects are not yet fully perceived by public health policy makers.

  13. PRESENT STATUS OF MEDICAL EDUCATION IN POLAND.

    SELZER, A

    1965-04-01

    In the past few years medical education in Poland has undergone considerable change, particularly at the graduate and postgraduate levels, and has shown increasing Western influences. On the negative side, a physician who was trained in pre-war Poland and is now in the United States, noted mass production of physicians with modest clinical facilities and the preponderance of didactic lecturing over semi-individual instruction-conditions rather characteristic of most European medical schools. On the positive side were well-informed, up-to-date faculties and the thoughtful planning and organization of graduate and postgraduate medical education. The overall impression was a favorable one, but the system of schooling and of evaluation of students' work made it possible for indifferent students to progress to licensure.

  14. Policy of air protection in Poland

    Karaczun, Z.M.

    1995-01-01

    The changed political situation and recognition of the acute destruction of the natural environment in Poland have caused a series of actions aimed at preventing further deterioration of Polish environment. One of the most important events which took place in the last few years was the enactment by the Polish Parliament in May 1991 of the Act on the National Ecological Policy. The basic assumption of the new environmental policy is a declaration that sustainable development will in future direct economic development in Poland. The aim of the presented paper is to introduce existing policy of air protection and instruments which have been implemented to protect the air. Special attention is paid to legislation instruments, introduction and enforcement of proper economic mechanisms strengthening air protection and foreign policy aiming at increasing foreign assistance for this objective. Pollutants involved include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and particulates from industry and coal-fired power plants. 9 refs

  15. Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland

    Magdalena Wójcik-Jurkiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland The paper addresses the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reporting. The concept of CSR reporting is increasingly being discussed among practitioners and academics. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the trends of CSR reporting in Poland and to try to implement them in WIG 30 companies. The research confirmed the existing information chaos in these disclosures of socially responsible issues in various reports. An analysis of domestic and foreign literature has been performed which pointed to the multidimensionality of actions taken by companies in the context of CSR reporting. The research points to the need to apply standards regarding the disclosure of non-financial information in the form of reports for public limited companies.

  16. Institutional Change and Governance Indexes in Transition Economies: the case of Poland

    Pasquale Tridico

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the former communist countries, institutional change, i.e. transition towards market economy, is affected not only by introduction of law and formal institutions (change "by design", but also by social norms, old values and habits (informal institutions. I present an empirical paper focusing on transition of the Polish Economy. I used a questionnaire which was administered to a sample of about 1000 Polish firms in order to verify the impact of economic institutions on the "residual productivity". Throughout the questionnaire I built six governance indexes. Then I tested the impact of the governance indexes on the productivity of firms. I observed that the economic performance of the eastern regions of Poland, where governance indexes are worse than western, are poorer than that of the western regions of Poland

  17. District heating development, air quality improvement, and cogeneration in Krakow, Poland

    Manczyk, H.; Leach, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Krakow, Poland, is served by a district heating system that includes coal-fired electrical and heating plants and distribution networks and by approximately 200,000 residential coal furnaces. Cogeneration facilities were added in the mid-1970s to supply up to 40% of the regional peak electrical demand and to optimize energy extraction from the low-heating-value coal mined in the region. Several difficulties prevent the district from realizing the potential efficiencies of its technology: the poor condition of the distribution network, the lack of consumption control and metering devices, inadequate plant maintenance, and the lack of economic incentives for operator productivity and energy conservation by users. Environmental concerns have caused the local government and international agencies to plan major improvements to the system. This paper discusses the development of the district heating system, coal use in Poland, cogeneration facilities, environmental concerns and pollution control plans, and improvement strategies

  18. [Epidemiological studies on Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in north-west Poland].

    Ramisz, A; Eckert, J; Balicka-Ramisz, A; Bieńko, R; Pilarczyk, B

    1999-01-01

    The studies were carried out in 15 provinces of North-West part of Poland in the years 1994 - 1997 under a regime of strict laboratory safety regulation. The intestine of 1909 red foxes were examined for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis according to the method of Eckert et al (1991). The intestines were divided finto four to six sections and fifteen smears were prepared from each animal under study. Foxes infected with E. multilocularis were detected in 8 provinces. The average prevalence rate in these provinces was 1.20 per cent. Of special interest fis the finding in Slupsk and Gdafisk regions, where 9.6 per cent of foxes were infected with E. multilocularis. In comparison with some other European endemic regions the prevalence rates of E. multilocularis in Poland was low, except for the Stupsk-Gdańsk area.

  19. Recent Nitrogen Deposition In Poland Monitored With The Moss Pleurozium Schreberi

    Kapusta Paweł

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen was determined for Poland by moss biomonitoring. Nitrogen content was measured in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid. Mitt. sampled in 2010 from 320 sites evenly distributed throughout the country. Mosses (green parts contained an average 1.56% nitrogen. The result places Poland among the European countries most polluted by airborne nitrogen. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found in mosses from the central and southern parts of the country, and the lowest in samples from some eastern and northern regions. Multiple regression showed that this variability was due mostly to nitrogen emissions from agricultural and industrial areas (moss nitrogen was positively associated with the consumption of mineral nitrogen fertilizers and the magnitude of particulate pollution. Some details of the spatial variability of the nitrogen data indicate that local and regional point sources of pollution (e.g., chemical plants played an important role in shaping the nitrogen deposition pattern

  20. Atmospheric deposition in coniferous and deciduous tree stands in Poland

    Kowalska, Anna; Astel, Aleksander; Boczoń, Andrzej; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the transformation of precipitation in terms of quantity and chemical composition following contact with the crown layer in tree stands with varied species composition, to investigate the effect of four predominant forest-forming species (pine, spruce, beech, and oak) on the amount and composition of precipitation reaching forest soils, and to determine the sources of pollution in atmospheric precipitation in forest areas in Poland. The amount and chemical composition (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, and chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron aluminum, manganese, zinc, copper, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon contents) of atmospheric (bulk, BP) and throughfall (TF) precipitation were studied from January to December 2010 on twelve forest monitoring plots representative of Polish conditions. The study results provided the basis for the determination of the fluxes of pollutants in the forest areas of Poland and allowed the comparison of such fluxes with values provided in the literature for European forest areas. The transformation of precipitation in the canopy was compared for different tree stands. The fluxes of substances in an open field and under canopy were influenced by the location of the plot, including the regional meteorological conditions (precipitation amounts), vicinity of the sea (effect of marine aerosols), and local level of anthropogenic pollution. Differences between the plots were higher in TF than in BP. The impact of the vegetation cover on the chemical composition of precipitation depended on the region of the country and dominant species in a given tree stand. Coniferous species tended to cause acidification of precipitation, whereas deciduous species increased the pH of TF. Pine and oak stands enriched precipitation with components that leached from the canopy (potassium, manganese, magnesium) to a higher degree than spruce and

  1. Geo-products of urban areas: Silesian Metropolis, Southern Poland

    Chybiorz, Ryszard; Abramowicz, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Silesian Metropolis is located in the Silesian Voivodeship, in the most important industrial region in Poland. It consist of 14 cities with powiat rights, which create the largest urban center in Poland and one of the largest in Central and Eastern Europe. Almost 2 million people live in its territory. A large concentration of the population is associated with industrialization and especially with the development of the mining industry (Upper Silesian Coal Basin) and the processing industry (steelworks, textile industry) at the end of 19th century. One hundred years later, during the creation of the modern sectors of the economy, processes of metallurgy and mining restructuring have been started. Created mechanisms and conditions for development of post-industrial areas were consistent with the principles of sustainable development and had many new features, including cultural and touristic features. The Industrial Monuments Route was opened for the inhabitants and visitors in October 2006. The route joined the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) in 2010. Its most interesting mining attractions are located in Silesian Metropolis, and the most frequently visited object on the route is the Guido Historical Coal Mine in Zabrze and the Historical Silver Mine in Tarnowskie Góry. The project, which is realized in Zabrze, will provide for tourists a system of underground corridors, which were used for coal transportation in the 19th century. Visitors will be able to actively explore the work of miners, moving by underground boats, railway and suspension railway. Surface mines are also available for geotourists. The Ecological and Geological Education Center GEOsfera was created in a former Triassic quarry in Jaworzno. Although the area of the Silesian Metropolis is characterized by a very large devastation of the environment, the following objects were created (and are still created) on the basis of inanimate nature and they have a touristic value for the region

  2. Church unions and their consequences in Poland

    Antoni Mironowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox Christians in Poland have faced numerous attempts to be forced into union with the Roman Catholic Church, ranging from the thirteenth to the twentieth century. The first attempt at a union between the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church took place as early as the mid-thirteenth century. Another attempt at forcing the Orthodox Church into union with Rome took place during the reign of Ladislaŭ II Yagiello. The problem of church union returned in the reign of Alexander the Yagiellonian. When Ivan III rejected all projects for bringing the Florence such a union into practice, discussion on church union disappeared until the end of the sixteenth century. The mission of the papal legate, Father Antonio Possevino, to Ivan IV, had been intended to draw Moscow into the union, and its failure caused the papacy to concentrate its efforts on the Orthodox Church in Poland. The Ruthenian bishops’ obedience to the Pope was officially announced on the 8 October 1596. The decisions of the Uniate-Catholic synod were met with numerous protests from the Orthodox clergy and nobility. The larger part of the clergy and the faithful, together with bishops remained in the Orthodox camp. Despite the failure of the Brest Synod in fully uniting Orthodox and Roman churches, new union projects concerning the Orthodox Church in Poland continued to arise prior to the end of 18th century. The Vatican’s interest in the Orthodox Church in Central Europe was renewed at the end of the First World War. On April 1st, 1917, the Pope created the Congregation for the Oriental Churches which was responsibile for all issues relating to the activities of all the Eastern denominations. Despite aims at unification, attempts at church union have had a negative influence on the relations between the Roman Catholic and Polish Orthodox Church in contemporary Poland. The result of centuries of attempts at unification under the Pope has been fragmentation and division.

  3. Perspectives of the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    Krzyścin, J W; Narbutt, J; Lesiak, A; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Szkop, A; Wink, J; Czerwińska, A

    2014-11-01

    Statistical analysis of the daily course of exposures to TL-01 tube radiation for 93 psoriatic patients from the Medical University of Łódź during 20-day phototherapy shows that the dose of 1 J/cm(2) represents a unit of single exposure necessary for psoriasis healing. This value is converted to the antipsoriatic effective dose of 317.9 J/m(2) using the TL-01 lamp irradiance spectrum and the antipsoriatic action spectrum. It is proposed that the daily exposure of 317.9 J/m(2) serves as the standard antipsoriatic dose (SAPD) providing a link between the cabinet and the out-door exposures and it could be used for planning heliotherapy in Poland. A model is proposed to calculate ambient antipsoriatic doses for 3 h exposures around the local noon (9 am-12 am GMT) based on satellite measurements of ozone and cloud characteristics. The model constants are determined by a comparison with pertaining antipsoriatic doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometer in central Poland. It is found that 3 h exposures to solar radiation in the period 15 May-15 September provides the mean (2005-2013) doses in the range 2.7-3.1 SAPD over Poland. Thus, heliotherapy could be treated as an alternative to the cabinet phototherapy for almost 4 months. It seems that the most effective site for antipsoriatic heliotherapy is the south/east part of Poland (the Bieszczady Mountains). The heliotherapy could be carried out in existing national health centers equipped with the standard easy-to-use biometers for on-line monitoring of UV level and controlling duration of sunbathing to avoid erythema risks. It is even possible to control the antipsoriatic heliotherapy by a patient himself, using low-cost hand-held instruments measuring UV index. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta in central Poland

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  5. Development of Social Building Societies in Poland

    Anna Białek-Jaworska

    2004-01-01

    The article describes a genesis of Social Building Societies in Poland starting from National Housing Fund through Workers Housing Estates Society in 1934.1939, announcement of cheap building system in New Housing Order in 1993 to Barbara Blida's and Irena Herbst's legislative initiative leading to establish Social Building Societies in 1995. According to International Permanent Social Building Committee social housing consists in supply houses with fixed minimum standard of comfort and equip...

  6. LITERATURE REVIEW ON SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN POLAND

    Agnieszka Otreba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article depicts the most important aspects of social dialogue in Poland: definitions and dimensions of the term, basic research questions, dialogue partners and factors influencing the quality of social dialogue. The potential of subsequent research issues are advocated: institutionalized forms and bottom-up models of social dialogue, public policies aiming at enhancement of the analyzed process. Moreover, the social dialogue can be treated as a public policy itself.

  7. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta) in central Poland

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek; Maciej Ziułkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  8. Multicultural Leadership Strategies : case: Company X, Poland

    Khanh Ye Le, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims at studying multicultural leadership strategies which are used by the team leaders in Company X, Poland. Furthermore, this thesis examines how these strategies are implemented in daily management to prevent cultural conflicts. The study used deductive approach with the assistance of qualitative research method. Secondary data was collected from reliable books, articles and Internet while primary data was collected through observations and interviews. The literature f...

  9. Lyme disease in Poland in 2015

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Chrześcijańska, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in Poland. Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete can occur in the whole country, which, according to ECDC, should be considered as an endemic area. Borrelia strains are transmitted to humans and certain other animals by Ixodes (1). Human infection is caused by saliva or tick vomit. Reservoir spirochete are numerous species of animals, mainly rodents. Lyme disease, due to its multifocal character, rich symptomatology and diagnostic problems, is a serious challenge for clinicians and epidemiologists The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of Lyme disease in Poland in 2015 in comparison to the previous years The descriptive analysis was based on data retrieved from routine mandatory surveillance system and published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2015” (2) Despite observed in recent years the tendency to growth of number of cases, in 2015 was marked by growth inhibition incidence of Lyme disease.In 2015, 13 625 cases were registered in Poland, ie by 0.7% less than in the previous year. The overall incidence in the country was 35.4 per 100 000 population - the highest was recorded in the Podlaskie voivodeship - 96.3 per 100 000 inhabitants. In 2015, 1905 (14%) people were hospitalized due to Lyme disease In 2015, for the first time in a few years, the growth rate of Lyme disease has been stopped. Registered 0.7% less cases than in the previous year. There is still a need for bringing awareness of the need for diagnostic laboratory testing according to recommendations, which will improve the accuracy of the diagnosis

  10. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  11. THE ASSESSMENT AND USE OF INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND

    Anna ANDRYKIEWICZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of Integrated Product Policy in Poland in the light of the European activities. It analyses the EU laws within this scope. It assesses the progress of LCA implementation, ecolabelling, ecotaxes, EMAS and green public procurement in Poland. It explains the reasons of slow IPP implementation in Polish organisations. It mainly refers to the distribution and promotion of ecolabelling, based on empirical research in Germany and Poland.

  12. Employment in Poland 2007: Security on flexible labour market

    Bukowski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Piotr; Koloch, Grzegorz; Baranowska, Anna; Magda, Iga; Szydlowski, Arkadiusz; Bober, Magda; Bieliński, Jacek; Zawistowski, Julian; Sarzalska, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    This Report is a third in the series Employment in Poland. It consists of four Parts, devoted to empirical analysis of the impact of macroeconomic shocks on EU New Member States labour markets‘ in 1996-2006; utilization of flexible forms of employment on Polish labor market, determinants of wages and wage inequalities in Poland; effectiveness of ALMP in Poland, respectively. In Part I, we present how the cyclical upturn propagated on Polish labour market in 2003-2007 and how the performan...

  13. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A.; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A.; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I.

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies. Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with conge...

  14. Batrachospermum atrum (Rhodophyta – first record in Poland

    Kowalski Wojciech A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives new data on the occurrence of Batrachospermum atrum (Hudson Harvey, a freshwater Rhodophyta species rare in Poland. It was found growing on stony bottom in a small stream in northwestern Poland; at this site it was associated mainly with Potamogeton nodosus Poir., green algae Cladophora glomerata (L. Kützing and Mougeotia sp. Its occurrence in Poland and some ecological data are discussed, and original photographs of the plant and its habitat are presented.

  15. Funding Innovation in Poland through Crowdfunding

    Katarzyna Kozioł-Nadolna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding innovative projects is one of the most serious problems faced by business owners in Poland. Therefore, due to the difficulties of obtaining external sources of financing, crowdfunding may constitute a new source of fundraising for innovative ventures. Therefore, crowdfunding – as a way of raising capital for projects – is the subject of the discussion in this article. The research aim of the article is to identify and evaluate crowdfunding platforms as well as the innovative projects carried out by these platforms in Poland in 2014-2016. The first part characterizes crowdfunding as a source of funding innovation and presents the nature of crowdfunding, its characteristics and models. The empirical part is based on inductive-deductive inference, desk research, i.e. the analysis of crowdfunding market in Poland in two research periods and a case study analysis. The article shows the results of the research on the Polish crowdfunding market in 2014-2016. The author also presents a case study of funding innovation on the Kickstarter.com platform by a Polish company Sher.ly.

  16. Moebius-Poland syndrome: A case report

    Mostapha Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Moebius es una sintomatología poco frecuente en la que los pares craneales sexto y séptimo están involucrados. Esta implicación resulta en parálisis facial. Se han descrito unos 500 casos en la literatura médica mundial y algunos de ellos han recibido tratamiento quirúrgico. Además el síndrome ha recibido otros nombres, tales como aplasia congénita nuclear, aplasia nuclear infantil, parálisis congénita oculofacial y diplejía facial. El síndrome de Poland es otra anomalía congénita muy poco frecuente de la pared torácica, caracterizado por ausencia unilateral parcial o total del músculo pectoral mayor y braquisindactilia ipsilateral. Sin embargo, el síndrome de Moebius-Poland es más raro, ya que el primer caso fue reportado recientemente en el año 2007 por Diego López de Lara et al. En este artículo se presentará este caso poco frecuente, que es una combinación entre ambos síndromes Moebius y Poland en un paciente masculino de tres meses de edad.

  17. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  18. System for analysing sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1997-01-01

    The National System of Sickness Absenteeism Statistics has been functioning in Poland since 1977, as the part of the national health statistics. The system is based on a 15-percent random sample of copies of certificates of temporary incapacity for work issued by all health care units and authorised private medical practitioners. A certificate of temporary incapacity for work is received by every insured employee who is compelled to stop working due to sickness, accident, or due to the necessity to care for a sick member of his/her family. The certificate is required on the first day of sickness. Analyses of disease- and accident-related sickness absenteeism carried out each year in Poland within the statistical system lead to the main conclusions: 1. Diseases of the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems accounting, when combined, for 1/3 of the total sickness absenteeism, are a major health problem of the working population in Poland. During the past five years, incapacity for work caused by these diseases in males increased 2.5 times. 2. Circulatory diseases, and arterial hypertension and ischaemic heart disease in particular (41% and 27% of sickness days, respectively), create an essential health problem among males at productive age, especially, in the 40 and older age group. Absenteeism due to these diseases has increased in males more than two times.

  19. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from animals and feed in Poland

    Wasyl, D.; Sandvang, D.; Skov, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    of XbaI and BlnI digest showed high genomic similarity between the strains and confirmed clonal spread of S. Typhimurium infections. Plasmid profiling allowed further differentiation of the strains. We have, therefore, confirmed the appearance of S. Typhimurium DT104 showing genome integrated integron......-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Poland. These findings are significant for public and animal health risks and document the dissemination of DT104 epidemic strains into new geographical regions....

  1. Radioactive contamination of the forests of southern Poland and Finland

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.; Barszcz, J.; Greszta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium and ruthenium radioactivity in chosen parts of forest ecosystems in Finland and Southern Poland are presented and compared. Measurements were performed with a low-background gamma-rays spectrometer with the Ge(Li) detector. The maximum caesium 137 activity in litter from Poland is 2.5 kBq, in that from Finland 3.9 kBq, in spruce needles it is 0.4 kBq (Poland), 0.9 kBq (Finland) and in fern leaves it is as high as 15.9 kBq per kg of dry mass in one sample from Poland. (author)

  2. Additions to the biota of lichenized fungi of Poland

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of five lichenized fungi from Poland are provided. Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta, Lecanora quercicola, Rhizocarpon superficiale and Strigula ziziphi are new to Poland. Of these, Strigula ziziphi is reported also as new to Central Europe and Hypotrachyna afrorevoluta as new to the Carpathians. Additionally, Thelenella muscorum var. octospora is recorded from its second locality in Poland as new to the Polish Carpathians. Hypostictic acid chemosyndrome has been noticed for the first time in European (Poland and South American (Bolivia populations of Rhizocarpon superficiale.

  3. Poland-Mobius syndrome in an infant girl.

    Al-Mazrou, Khalid A; Al-Ghonaim, Yazeed A; Al-Fayez, Abdulrhman I

    2009-01-01

    Mobius syndrome is a rare condition of unclear origin, characterized by a unilateral or bilateral congenital facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction, which is frequently associated with limb anomalies . Poland described a condition in which there was unilateral absence of pectoralis major muscle and ipsilateral syndactyly. The combination of Poland-Mobius syndrome is rare, with an estimated prevalence 1:500 000. We describe a case of Poland-Mobius syndrome in association with congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility. To our knowldge, this is the first report of such an association between Poland-Mobius syndrome and congenital bilateral vocal fold immobility.

  4. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) inhabiting Poland.

    Dolka, I; Giżejewska, A; Giżejewski, Z; Kołodziejska-Lesisz, J; Kluciński, W

    2017-09-26

    Adiaspiromycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by saprophytic fungi Emmonsia spp. (type Ascomycota) occurring especially in small free-living mammals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of histopathological lesions asscociated with adiaspiromycosis in the Eurasian beaver inhabiting Poland. In order to evaluate the presence of natural adiaspiromycosis we systematically investigated beaver populations from north-eastern Poland for adiaspores in the lungs. This study reveals for the first time the presence of pulmonary adiaspiromycosis of Eurasian beaver in Poland. As far as we know, there is no published data regarding pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in human patients in Poland.

  5. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  6. Intake of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po with food in Poland

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Chrzanowski, E.; Dembinska, S.

    1997-01-01

    Intake with food and water of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po was determined for an adult population in regions of central, northern and northeastern Poland. The content of radionuclides was determined in the daily diet and, in the central region, also in foodstuffs and drinking water. The annual intake with foodstuffs was estimated on the basis of their average annual consumption. The 226 Ra intake in northeastern Poland was approximately 17% higher than the overall average, correlating well with the higher concentration of this radionuclide in the soil. The 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio was close to unity in the continental regions, whereas at the Baltic Sea coast it was approximately 1.5. The latter value can be ascribed to a larger consumption of fish for which the 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio was found to be approximately 10. In central Poland the largest intake of 226 Ra was with flour and vegetables (contribution approx. 60%), the largest intake of 210 Pb was with flour and meat (approx. 50%) and the largest intake of 210 Po was with fish (approx. 34%). From the intake and dose coefficient, annual effective doses were calculated. The dose from 210 Pb and 210 Po was approx. 54 μSv year -1 , and the dose from 226 Ra was approx. 4 μSv year -1

  7. Toward rubella elimination in Poland: need for supplemental immunization activities, enhanced surveillance, and further integration with measles elimination efforts.

    Zimmerman, Laura; Rogalska, Justyna; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Haponiuk, Marzena; Kosek, Adam; Pauch, Ewa; Plonska, Elzbieta; Veltze, Daniel; Czarkowski, Miroslaw P; Buddh, Nilesh; Reef, Susan; Stefanoff, Pawel

    2011-07-01

    All Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region have endorsed rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) prevention. However, Poland has continued high levels of reported rubella. We reviewed rubella incidence in Poland since 1966 and analyzed national aggregated surveillance data from the period 2003-2008 and case-based data from 4 provinces from the period 2006-2008. We described CRS cases since 1997 and assessed maternal receipt of vaccine. We reviewed national vaccination coverage from 1992 through 2008. Since 1966, rubella outbreaks have occurred every 4-6 years in Poland. Aggregate and case-based data from the period 2003-2008 indicate that rubella virus transmission has occurred across wide age ranges (from continues. To achieve rubella elimination, supplemental immunization activities among adolescent boys are needed, as is integration with measles elimination efforts. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  8. Contribution to the lichen biota of the Stawy Milickie nature reserve and its adjacent area (Lower Silesia, southwestern Poland

    Edyta Kaźmierska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of lichenological investigations conducted in the eastern part of the Stawy Milickie nature reserve and its buffer zone (Barycz Valley, southwestern Poland. The study area is a famous waterfowl refuge, consisting of several fishpond complexes, together with adjacent forests, meadows, and villages. In total 72 lichen taxa were recorded, growing on bark and branches of trees and shrubs, stumps, wood, soil, and anthropogenic rock substrates (mortar, concrete, bricks, etc.. Six species, namely Evernia prunastri, Flavoparmelia caperata, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Parmelina tiliacea, Physconia distorta, and Pleurosticta acetabulum, are threatened in Poland. As represented by single young thalli, they indicate the recent improvement of environmental conditions. The lichen biota of the study area is typical for the lowland regions of western and southwestern Poland.

  9. The prospects for limiting emissions from road transport: a case study for the Middle Odra and Poland

    Dzikuć, Maciej; Dzikuć, Maria

    2018-02-01

    The article presents selected aspects related to emissions that arise during road transport. These impurities are an important component of low emission, which is generated at a height of up to 40 m from the ground level. Low emission in the Middle Odra Region and throughout Poland is a serious problem. Low emission has a significant share in total emissions in Poland, where the air is one of the worst in the EU. The problem of low emission concerns not only highly urbanized areas, but also places where the industry is less developed and the number of inhabitants falling on average per square kilometre is less than in the rest of Poland. An example of such an area is the Middle Odra, which additionally features the highest forest cover in the country (more than 50%). The paper highlights the main causes of road transport emissions and points out the need to take action that can significantly help reduce this phenomenon.

  10. Radioactivity assessment of some building materials from Little Poland Region

    Bogacz, J.; Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Mazur, J.; Loskiewicz, J.; Swakon, J.; Tracz, G.

    1994-01-01

    In the paper are presented the results of building materials analysis connected with radiation protection. The concentration of natural radioactive elements (K, U, Th), and the values of f 1 and f 2 coefficients are measured for these materials. The values for ceramic building materials and for cellular concretes are composed. The utility of f 2 parameter is unformally discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  11. The relationship between social capital and regional competitiveness in Poland

    Bronisz, U.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article aims at presenting different approaches to the phenomenon of social capital The concept of social capital is ambiguous and that is why we will highlight a number of definitions of this notion. The central attention of the paper focuses on the relationship between social capital and

  12. Concentration of caesium isotopes in foodstuffs in Poland

    Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Muszynski, W.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the sources of the radioactive doses obtained by people resulting from the radiological contamination of the environment, is the transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion. Radioactive isotopes in foodstuffs appear as a result of nuclear activities on the globe, mainly because of nuclear explosion and, recently, after the Chernobyl accident. Since the early sixties the network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination in Poland systematically controlled all kinds of important food products. Radiochemical methods and gamma spectrometry has been used to determination the activity of radioactive isotopes. This contribution reports of the determination of 134 Cs and 137 Cs concentration in milk, meat, vegetables, fruits, cereals and 'forest products' during period 1985-1999. In 1985 the average 137 Cs level was below 1 Bq/kg (except forest products). Moreover, no regional differences were observed the whole territory of Poland. After the Chernobyl accident situation changed completely. Average activity of 137 Cs in milk was 25 Bq/l in May 1986, 20-25 Bq/kg in beef and 10-15 Bq/kg in pork (summer months). Also fruit picked up in June and July was contaminated, mainly currents. The contamination of vegetables was less important. The activity of cesium isotopes in forest mushrooms and wild game were much higher than in other tested foodstuffs. From the 1987 level of radioactive contamination was decreasing gradually. In 1999 the activity of 137 Cs of vegetables, cereals, fruit was on level as it has been in 1985 as for meat and milk it is higher. Level of radiocesium in 'forest products' is still high. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radiocesium was on level 0.088 mSv in 1986 and 0.006 mSv in 1999. (author)

  13. Morphometric differentiation of Corex ligerica Gay in Poland

    Lech Urbaniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material involved 7 Carex ligerica Gay populations which were cultured in standardised conditions in a greenhouse before their spikes were collected for morphological studies. Four characters reflecting size of male and female glumes, selected from particular spikes were examined. Mahalanobis distances for each pair of populations were calculated and their significance was estimated using Hotellings T2 statistics. Dendrite was constructed on the basis of shortest Mahalanobis distances while Euclidean distances provided grounds for hierarchy grouping. The result obtained from a multivariate analysis indicated a definite interpopulation variability within the species. All of the examined populations were found to differ significantly on the grounds of Mahalanobis distances. The dendrograms manifested the distinct character of the populations originating from regions around the lower course of the Vistula river - 5 (Toruń-Wrzosy, 3 (Tychnowy, 2 (Piaski and 6 (Kadyny, not noted before. Moreover, similarity of two geographically distant populations, the population 1 (Złotoria from the Central Poland and the population 4 (Szumiłowo from the western part of the country, attracted attention, as well as the individual character of the population 7 (Kopanica originating from the southernmost location. From the point of view of historical geography of plants, the obtained differentiation pattern may represent sequele of migration in the postglacial period, which crossed the area of Poland along multiple distinct pathways. The obtained results point to importance of culturing plants in uniform conditions of a greenhouse, which permits to describe genetic variability unbiased by modifying effects of the environment.

  14. A new record of Typha shuttleworthii (Typhaceae in Poland

    Nobis Marcin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new locality of Typha shuttleworthii W.D.J. Koch & Sond. in Poland. The species was found in wet roadside ditch in Kryg village near Gorlice (ATPOL grid square EG09. The distribution map of the species in Poland is provided.

  15. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  16. Rinodina degeliana: a corticolous lichen species overlooked in Poland

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Rinodina degeliana in Poland are described. The morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of the species are discussed and characters that help to differentiate R. degaliana from similar lichens are presented. The species is relatively frequent in lime-hornbeam forests of northern and central Poland.

  17. Dimensions of health among the elderly in Poland and Croatia

    Knurowski, T.; Lazic, D.; van Dijk, J.P.; Geckova, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the WHO definition of health, we aimed at exploring the model of health and identifying the most important dimensions of health among the elderly in two Central European countries: Poland and Croatia. Randomly chosen elderly aged 65-85 from Krakow (Poland) and from Zagreb and some

  18. Mercury in precipitation at an urbanized coastal zone of the Baltic Sea (Poland).

    Saniewska, Dominika; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bełdowski, Jacek; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2014-11-01

    Wet deposition is an important source of metals to the sea. The temporal variability of Hg concentrations in precipitation, and the impact of air masses of different origins over the Polish coastal zone were assessed. Samples of precipitation were collected (August 2008-May 2009) at an urbanized coastal station in Poland. Hg analyses were conducted using CVAFS. These were the first measurements of Hg concentration in precipitation obtained in the Polish coastal zone. Since Poland was identified as the biggest emitter of Hg to the Baltic, these data are very important. In the heating and non-heating season, Hg concentrations in precipitation were similar. Hg wet deposition flux dominated in summer, when the production of biomass in the aquatic system was able to actively adsorb Hg. Input of metal to the sea was attributed to regional and distant sources. Maritime air masses, through transformation of Hg(0), were an essential vector of mercury in precipitation.

  19. Flora and vegetation of walls in the town of Krosno Odrzanskie (Poland

    Boratynskji, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The flora and vegctation of walls in Krosno Odrzanskie (West Poland is described based on field research conducted in 1999 and 2000. The vascular flora consists of 96 species from 35 families. Predomination of apophytes and plants capable of vegetation propagation was obscrved. i> Asplenietum trichomano-rutae-murariae and Cymbalarietum murales are reported for the first time from this region of Poland.

    A partir del trabajo de campo realizado entre 1999 y el 2000 se describe la flora y la vegetación de las paredes en Krosno Odazanskie (Polonia Occidental. 96 especies de 35 familias constituyen la flora vascular. Predominan los apófilos y plantas capaces de reproducirse vegetativamente. Las asociaciones Asplenietum trichomano-rutae-murariae y Cymbalarietum murales se citan por vez primera para esta región de Polonia.

  20. Acidity of tree bark as a bioindicator of forest pollution in southern Poland

    Grodzinska, K

    1977-05-01

    pH values and buffering capacity were determined for bark samples of five deciduous trees (oak, alder, hornbeam, ash, linden), one shrub (hazel) and one coniferous tree (scots pine) in the Cracow Industrial Region (southern Poland) and, for comparison, in the Bialowieza Forest (northeastern Poland). The correlation was found between acidification of tree bark and air pollution by SO/sub 2/ in these areas. All trees showed the least acidic reaction in the control area (Bialowieza Forest), more acidic in Niepolomice Forest and the most acidic in the center of Cracow. The buffering capacity of the bark against alkali increased with increasing air pollution. The seasonal fluctuations of pH values and buffering capacity were found. Tree bark is recommended as a sensitive and simple indicator of air pollution.

  1. Acidity of tree bark as a bioindicator of forest pollution in southern Poland

    Grodznska, K

    1976-01-01

    PH values and buffering capacity were determined for bark samples of 5 deciduous trees (oak, alder, hornbeam, ash, linden), one shrub (hazel) and one coniferous tree (scots pine) in the Cracow industrial region (southern Poland) and for comparison in the Bialowieza Forest (north-eastern Poland). The correlation was found between acidification of tree bark and air pollution by SO/sub 2/ in these areas. All trees showed the least acidic reaction in the control area (Bialowieza Forest), more acidic in Niepolomice Forest and the most acidic in the center of Cracow city. The buffering capacity of the bark against alkali increased with increasing air pollution. The seasonal fluctuations of pH values is recommended as a sensitive and simple indicator of air pollution.

  2. [Medical student curriculum in psychiatry in Poland].

    Bilikiewicz, A

    1999-01-01

    The author describes present medical student curricula in psychiatry in Polish medical schools based on the questionnaire sent to all the lecturers of the subject in Poland. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the schedule of lectures, seminars and classes (the list of topics) as well as the number of hours of the forms of activities like interpersonal training, discussion groups, internship, etc. We also asked on which year of studies the course in psychiatry took place. The questionnaire included our request to describe the level of integration of psychiatry and other pre-clinical and clinical subjects as well as to enclose a recommended reading list (handbooks and other items of literature). The last question dealt with the problem of assessment of lectures and classes by students. The results of the questionnaire reveal great differences in the curricula of psychiatry in various schools in Poland. The differences lie both in the courses and the number of hours devoted to teaching psychiatry (in most schools it was 120 hours or less). In 7 schools students learn psychiatry in the 6th i.e. the last year of their studies. In 2 schools lectures in psychiatry are given in the th year. In Kraków and Gdańsk the courses in psychiatry consist of 150 and 160 hours respectively. The author proposes unification of the curricula in psychiatry concerning both the number of hours of classes and lectures, and topics as well as introducing the diagnostic and classifying criteria ICD-10 (WHO) since Poland is going to join EU.

  3. THE E-HEALTH SYSTEMS IN POLAND

    Zdzisław PÓLKOWSKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are disruptive technologies that have caused major changes in health system in Poland. Current digital economy is driven by modern information and new IT tools, which offer hospitals, doctors and patient access to any type of information, regardless of its form of existence, storage type or geographical location. These tools encourage the development of new activities, health services. The purpose of this article is to analyze the the current state of development of e-services in Poland in the context of nowadays health system. In the first part of the paper, the authors present various programmes, which enable the access to the medical services and patients’ data online. The next part of the paper is devoted to examining the technical aspects of the said programmes and presenting their advantages as well as the areas which might be improved.The last part of the work will be focused on the websites of the selected health institutions. According to the authors, WWW services provide much information on how the process of computer systems are being implemented, what data the services include and the capacity of the equipment as well as the software, human resources and the knowledge in this sphere. Moreover this section highlights the latest trends in e-health with particular emphasis on aspects such as the use of private and public cloud computer and t heir integration with web sites of health institutions. This study brings its contribution to the understanding of the change of health system in Poland behavior by using a new perspective e-health systems and IT tools above by doctors, officers and patients.

  4. Coal and its perspectives in Poland

    Locatelli, C.

    1993-01-01

    The seminar held in Warsaw by the CIFOPE from 23 to 25 november 1992 was centered around the restructuring of the coal industry and its implications for the Polish economy in the context of the current deep-running economic reforms. Partly based on French experience, this seminar shed some light on long-term problems for Poland like the kind of industrial policy that will be needed to avoid desertification problems, the need for price reform in the pursuit of profitability, and the networks and financial aids needed to restructure on such a large scale, considering that coal is a key sector in the Polish economy

  5. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern

  6. Chara strigosa A. Braun (Characeae in Poland

    Andrzej Hutorowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chara strigosa is reported from several lakes in Poland. The finds were published by Izabella Dąmbska in 1966, but have not been recognised internationally, presumably because Dąmbska's article was published in a local paper in Polish. We give a short description of Charetum strigosa first described by Dąmbska. One of the lakes with C. strigosa is reported with luxuriant growth of a blue-green bacteria common in water blooms. There is a need to survey these lakes in order to prevent an increasing eutrophication.

  7. Auriculariopsis albomellea (Agaricales, Schizophyllaceae new for Poland

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the taxonomy, ecology, general distribution and threatened status of Auriculariopsis albomellea Bondartsev Kotl. (Basidiomycetes. In Europe it is known only from Czech Republic, France, Sweden and Ukraine, in Africa from Canary Islands, in North America from Canada and United States. In Poland the fungus was found for the first time in NE part of the country, in a pine forest, on dead twigs of Pinus sylvestris. Habitat and distribution of this saprobic fungus in Africa, Europe and North America are described, list of synonyms and important references are cited, Polish name is proposed.

  8. Market of venison meat in Poland

    GÓRECKA JUSTYNA

    2012-01-01

    In the Polish Hunting Association (an organization of hunting) associated more than one hundred thousand hunters. Only in 2009/2010 was shot more than 41 thousand deers, more than 162 thousand roe deers and more than 196 thousand wild boars. By shooting such quantity the wildlife animals was generated approximately 12-14 thousand tons of venison meat. The market prices of game meat in Poland are on a relatively high level, which translates into a limited interest this product in retail. Avera...

  9. Prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis in central Poland, 2010-2014.

    Brola, Waldemar; Sobolewski, Piotr; Flaga, Stanisław; Fudala, Małgorzata; Szczuchniak, Wiktor; Stoiński, Jan; Rosołowska, Anita; Wójcik, Jacek; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Ryglewicz, Danuta

    2016-08-11

    Comprehensive epidemiologic data for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Poland are limited. The aim of this cross-sectional population-based study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of MS in the Swietokrzyskie Region (central Poland). This study identified MS cases every year between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. The study area population on the prevalence day (December 31, 2014) was 1,263,176 (646,506 women and 616,670 men). A total of 1462 patients with a clinically definite diagnosis of MS according to McDonald's criteria (2005), recorded in the Polish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, were considered for estimation of crude, age- and sex-specific prevalence, and incidence. The overall crude prevalence rate of confirmed MS patients was 115.7/100,000 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 111.2-121.4). A significantly higher prevalence was recorded in females (159.6/100,000; 95 % CI, 151.1-165.3) than in males (69.7/100,000; 95 % CI, 62.4-77.3) (P < 0.001). Age-adjusted rates for the Polish and European Standard Population were 109.8/100,000 (95 % CI, 105.4-114.8) and 106.6/100,000 (95 % CI, 101.1-111.2), respectively. The female/male ratio was 2.4. The mean annual incidence was 4.2/100,000 (95 % CI. 3.7-4.4). The incidence and prevalence of MS in the Swietokrzyskie region confirm that central Poland is a high risk area for MS. Compared with previous epidemiologic studies from Poland, the prevalence of MS has increased during recent years.

  10. Economic policy instruments for the control of air pollution in Poland

    Bates, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The World Bank is analyzing the role of economic policy instruments for the control of air pollution in Poland, in cooperation with Polish and international experts. The first stage, covering Poland as a whole, was recently completed, jointly financed with the U.S. E.P.A. and the Government of the Netherlands. The second stage, now under way, will extend the analysis into a specific regional framework. Stage 2 is financed by the World Bank, the Polish Government, and the U.K. Environment Know-How Fund. Air Pollution in Poland is overwhelmingly caused by energy production and uses, due to the fact that the Polish economy depends heavily on coal and lignite. At present, vehicles contribute less to total emissions than do coal burning and industrial processes, although they account for 25-35% of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and lead; and the concentrated in areas of high population density. The paper shows how economic, technical and meteorological modelling can be used, to reach conclusions about cost-effective strategies for the control of emissions and the improvement of ambient air quality. A simulation approach is presented, to compare alternative policy instruments, in terms of their impact on emissions and control costs for Poland as a whole. The main instruments considered are open-quotes command-and-controlclose quotes regimes (C ampersand C) and economic incentives, namely fuel taxes, emissions taxes and emissions trading. Next, the paper describes how the analysis is being extended, to link emissions with ambient air quality, using air dispersion modelling, based on a case study for Krakow. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the importance of sound economic policies for air quality management, the costs of alternative standards, C ampersand C approaches versus economic incentives, a practical strategy to develop an effective role for emissions taxes and trading, and the regional differentiation of policy instruments

  11. December insolation and ultraviolet B radiation are associated with multiple sclerosis mortality in Poland

    Wojciech Cendrowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of environmental factors (EF determining the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (SM is the subject of current investigations. Objective: To establish association between duration of insolation along with intensity of ultraviolet B (UVB radiation and mortality rates for SM in Poland. Method: The study was based on assemblage of 2172 SM persons (M – 878, F – 1294 who died in Poland in the years 2004–2008. Regional previous duration of insolation was measured in hours, intensity of UVB radiation was monitored in minimal erythema dose units (MED, ozone concentration in the ground layer of atmosphere was recorded in µg/m3 . Measurements of insolation, UVB radiation and ozone concentration were performed at provincial stations and territorial sites of the State Environmental Monitoring. EF were correlated to provincial crude mortality rates (CMR for MS. Correlational test by Pearson was used in the study. Demographic data were obtained from the Central Statistical Office, information on EF was received from the Institute of Meteorology and the Institute of Environmental Protection. Results: Annual, average, crude MR for MS per 100,000 inhabitants in Poland was 1.12 (SD 0.14. In northern part it amounted to 1.20 (SD 0.18 and in southern part reached 1.03 (SD 0.11. Significant inverse correlation was found between previous minimal duration of insolation in December and CMR for SM in the country: r = -0.518, p = 0.044. Borderline significance of inverse correlation was established between minimal intensity of UVB radiation in December and crude death rates for SM in Poland: r = -0.478, p = 0.060. CMR for SM in northern Poland was accompanied not only by lower UVB radiation level, but also by slower spring increase and autumn faster decrease of radiation. No significant correlation was ascertained between the ground atmospheric ozone concentration or the annual number of days with ozone concentration above 120 µg/m3 and MS

  12. Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Andrzej; Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe. This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years. Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season

  13. Selected aspects of environmental protection in Poland

    Obarska-Pempkowaik, Hanna; Bolt, Adam

    2001-01-01

    Environmental deterioration in Poland particularly in 1970's, was a result of an incorrect investment policy and indifferent attitude to the principles of the preservation of nature. Water resources, as part of the environment were affected accordingly. Shortage in water resources is caused by deterioration activity of the industrial, the progressing urban development, overconsumption caused by low prices of water and low status the legislation connected with the natural environment. The European integration processes going on make it necessary to adapt the Polish standards and technological solutions in the sphere of the environmental protection to the standards required by the European Union. The destroyed natural environment cannot secure living at a relatively high standard. Hence the concept of ecological safety based on the conviction that there is no high quality J. life without a high quality of the surrounding environment' has more followers. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the nature and scope of water pollution in Poland with an emphasis on current threats to water quality, with achievements in last decade and background of other European countries. (Original)

  14. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  15. Energy policies of Poland: 1994 survey

    1995-01-01

    This survey, conducted in co-operation with the Polish Government as a follow-up to the 1990 IEA Survey of Energy Policies of Poland, is intended to support Polish authorities responsible for designing measures and setting targets for energy policy. Another purpose is to report on progress made since 1990 in adapting the Polish energy sector to the requirements of a market economy. The survey documents and analyses recent developments in energy supply and demand, the energy pricing situation as of late 1994, Poland's energy supply security, the structure of the energy industries and the evolving relationship between the Government, public enterprises and private companies in the energy sector. It also looks at developments and initiatives in energy end-use efficiency and outlines the considerable environmental problems caused by energy production and use. The analysis points to areas where there is a need for further measures, comments on the Government's present policies and makes recommendations for the future. (authors). 41 figs., 51 tabs

  16. Combating illegal nuclear traffic - Poland's experience

    Smagala, G.

    1998-01-01

    International non-proliferation efforts have been taken to reduce the risk related to nuclear materials and radioactive sources. The physical security of nuclear facilities to prevent acts of sabotage or terrorism and to protect nuclear materials against loss or seizure is an essential element of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Iraq case and the end of the Cold War have influenced the development of co-operation and openness in many countries. Poland due to: - its geolocation, - a growing number of post Chernobyl contamination transports and - high risk to become a transit country in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources, initiated deployment of the fixed installation instruments at the border check-points. Since the end of 1990 to now 103 such devices have been installed. Broader involvement in combating illicit nuclear trafficking of Border Guards, Customs Services, Police and Intelligence Security has been noticed. Paper presents Poland's experience in implementing national prevention measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risk and in detecting capabilities against illicit nuclear traffic. (author)

  17. Selected Determinants of Mezzanine Financing in Poland

    Robert Golej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A very significant form of company activity determining its development and even survival is innovation activity. Raising capital for the implementation of innovation is an important but not the only factor in the introduction of innovation. Characteristics of innovation, and in particular the risk of failure, make for a significant difficulty in obtaining external financing, particularly from third parties, which is an obstacle to their development and implementation. The subject of discussion in the article is the hybrid formula mezzanine type of financing innovative projects implemented both in start-up companies and in already well established companies. The purpose of the article is to discuss the possibilities and to perform an analysis of the practices followed by mezzanine funds in Poland in respect to the innovation activities of Polish companies. Research presented in the article was conducted on the basis of information on investments performed by mezzanine funds in Poland. Of particular importance for the innovativeness of the economy is to have companies from the SME sector, and therefore we also carried out research in this group. Innovations are often initiated in special purpose companies, start-up, etc., that operate in the SME sector. Therefore, the financing of innovation cannot be ignored as a thread of innovation in SMEs. The study involved interviews in several companies in the sector. The study concerned the possibilities of financing innovation involving mezzanine, knowledge of hybrid forms of financing, preparedness for hybrid financing. Studies are not representative, but are rather sounding a view to clarify any further research. Hypothesis: mezzanine financing, utilizing its specific benefits, is increasingly used to finance the gap in the financing of innovation, in particular special purpose companies in the SME sector. So the hypothesis raises two strands of research. The first concerned the financing of innovation

  18. Challenges for developing national climate services – Poland and Norway

    Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the challenges for developing national climate services in two countries with high fossil fuel production – Poland (coal and Norway (oil and gas. Both countries, Poland and Norway, have highly developed weather services, but largely differ on climate services. Since empirical and dynamical downscaling of climate models started in Norway over 20 years ago and meteorological and hydrological institutions in Oslo and Bergen have been collaborating on tailoring and disseminating downscaled climate projections to the Norwegian society, climate services are now well developed in Norway. The Norwegian Centre for Climate Services (NCCS was established in 2011. In contrast, climate services in Poland, in the international understanding, do not exist. Actually, Poland is not an exception, as compared to other Central and Eastern European countries, many of which neither have their national climate services, nor are really interested in European climate services disseminated via common EU initiatives. It is worth posing a question – can Poland learn from Norway as regards climate services? This contribution is based on results of the CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland project, carried out in the framework of the Polish – Norwegian Research Programme. The information generated within the Polish-Norwegian CHASE-PL project that is being broadly disseminated in Poland can be considered as a substitute for information delivered in other countries by climate services.

  19. Exploratory wine consumer behavior in a transitional market: The case of Poland

    Renata Schaefer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates exploratory behavior among wine consumers in Poland where the country's wine culture is in a state of rapid change. This study investigates the extent to which demographics, values, and wine preferences relate to exploratory behavior.Data obtained from 198 Polish wine consumers was used in the analysis. Exploratory behavior was measured using the VARSEEK scale adapted to wine. Other measures included the Schwartz Value Inventory, wine knowledge and involvement, and measures relevant for wine purchasing behavior. Demographic variables were also used to profile consumers.The findings show that Polish wine consumers’ level of exploratory behavior is not related to demographics, but is influenced by personal values. The consumers who were most likely to engage in exploratory behavior valued creativity, fun, and risk taking and were less concerned about behaving properly. They also had more global outlook as they were more likely to purchase wine in other countries and desired more wines from regions outside Poland.The findings are useful for wine marketers when developing strategies for wine consumers in transitional markets based on their unique needs and expectations.This is the first known research conducted in Poland focusing on wine consumers’ exploratory behavior and subsequent wine preferences. Keywords: Polish wine market, Consumer behavior, Exploratory behavior, Consumer segmentation

  20. Seasonal trends in hypertension in Poland: evidence from Google search engine query data.

    Płatek, Anna E; Sierdziński, Janusz; Krzowski, Bartosz; Szymański, Filip M

    2018-01-01

    Various conditions, including arterial hypertension, exhibit seasonal trends in their occurrence and magnitude. Those trends correspond to an interest exhibited in the number of Internet searches for the specific conditions per month. The aim of the study was to show seasonal trends in the hypertension prevalence in Poland relate to the data from the Google Trends tool. Internet search engine query data were retrieved from Google Trends from January 2008 to November 2017. Data were calculated as a monthly normalised search volume from the nine-year period. Data was presented for specific geographic regions, including Poland, the United States of America, Australia, and worldwide for the following search terms: "arterial hypertension (pol. nadciśnienie tętnicze)", "hypertension (pol. nadciśnienie)" and "hypertension medical condition". Seasonal effects were calculated using regression models and presented graphically. In Poland the search volume is the highest between November and May, while patients exhibit the least interest in arterial hypertension during summer holidays (p Google.

  1. Nuclear power component in foresight on energy in Poland

    Szczurek, J.; Chwaszczewski, S.; Czerski, P.; Luszcz, M.

    2007-01-01

    On behalf of Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the first technology foresight study on future developments in the energy sector is being conducted in Poland. The study aimed to identify energy-related technologies, scenarios, and a mix of energy sources and infrastructure developments that will ensure security of energy supply for Poland. This paper provides a short description of the methodology applied as well as preliminary results and findings of all subtasks of the foresight study referring to the perspective of nuclear power option in Poland, embracing a time horizon of 24 years. (author)

  2. New Localities of Rare Liverworts in the Central Poland

    Staniaszek-Kik Monika

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports new localities of four liverwort species, i.e., Fossombronia foveolata Lindb., Gymnocolea inflata (Huds. Dumort., Leiomylia anomala (Hook. J.J. Engel & Braggins and Odontoschisma denudatum (Mart. Dumort., found in Central Poland. The new sites are situated in peat bog habitats and swamp forest in the depression cone of lignite opencast mine near Bełchatów in Central Poland. All of the reported species are very rare and have only few localities in Central Poland.

  3. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  4. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  5. Geography of Electoral Volatility in the Warmia and Mazury Voivodeship of Poland

    Tarasov Ilya N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the impact of administrative reforms on the electoral volatility in the Warmia and Mazury voivodeship of Poland. The administrative reforms resulted in the formation of a new territorial organization of power. Using three large administrative units of Poland as an example, the authors analyse the experience of the formation of a geographic region by merging several politically diverse territories. The merger took place in a changing political environment. It inevitably affected the strategy and tactics of the development of local self-governance. The formation of the region has been going on in such a manner that differences in the electoral preferences and political behaviour of the urban population (the regional metropolis and the periphery remain unchanged. Having performed the index analysis and a comparative analysis of the electoral data, the authors conclude that the consistency of administrative decisions on the formation of the region and the electoral performance have been weakening over time. During the initial phase, the electoral volatility was mainly due to the sluggishness and inertia of the previous territorial organization. After the phase of stabilization, the electoral volatility indices in different geographical areas changed due to a combination of social and political factors. The authors show that the ‘looseness’ of the Polish party system affect the electoral volatility in the region more than institutional decisions of the administrative reforms.

  6. Comparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Poland and Denmark for Road Construction in Relation to Wildlife and Nature Protection : Report for Poland

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Adrados, L. C.; Briggs, L

    Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212......Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A. DANCEE M124/031-0212...

  7. INVENTORY IN POLAND - CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS

    O. Kemp

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Poland poddavalsya inventory changes. His origins are taking beginning in late and early vosemnadtsatoho devyatnadtsatoho century, when Polish state zahvatchyky sozdaly The first kadastrovыe otchetы. Austria, Prussia and Russia sozdalytry kadastrovыe system, three yspolzuyuschye system recovery country yzmerenyya.Vo TIME 1918 - 1939 Manuscript kadastrovыe bыly oriented work on the creation edynoy nalohovoy system for vsey territory of the country. After the war bыly zavershenы work. Modernization of the cadastre prodolzhalas in the direction Increase the accuracy and quality of data. At present Time Inventory Accounting vkljuchaet buildings, premises and plots zemelnыh, as well tesno svjazana with zemelnыm registers / ypotekoy. Information, soderzhaschayasya in Nam, everybody yspolzuetsya participants in the control nedvyzhymostyu (surveyors, otsenschykamy, brokers and upravlyayuschymy nedvyzhymostyu, courts and admynystratyvnыmy authorities zanymayuschyhsya territorial-prostranstvennыm Planning. Polskoy origins cadastral area. The first records of kadastrovыh measurement bыly sdelanы 4.5 million. Years ago. Poland was once zaklyuchalas Business surveyor in oblahorazhyvanyy. At the end trynadtsatoho century bыla Created rank post of High - korolevskyy podkamernыy, tasks kotorogo All selskohozyaystvennыe and lesnыe uhodya bыly ohvachenы oblastyu pochvovedenyya, classification of land osushchestvljaetsja edynoobrazno for vsey country on grounds ofytsyalnoy classes tablytsы land. THIS classification talk at kachestve and soil fertility. Class is determined on a 6-point scale (8 to pahotnыh land. This allows us to Compare Quality of land in any point of the country. By law dolzhna bыt yspolzovana in the Economic Planning and spatial statistics population in sudebnom and administrative razbyratelstve. All ofysы ymeyut access for cadastre data bases online free. Chastnyya Faces and company mogut Require info sobstvennoy REAL

  8. Poland: biomedical ethics in a socialist state.

    Szawarski, Zbigniew

    1987-06-01

    In one of a Hastings Center Report series of four country reports, a professor of ethics discusses the Polish approach to ethical issues in health care. Szawarski begins by outlining five factors that influence the practice of medicine in Poland: a socialist form of government, the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, an ongoing economic crisis, the legacy of the Nazi death camps, and a lack of formal instruction in biomedical ethics. He then discusses three current ethical concerns of physicians, patients, and the public: regulation of physician conduct, abortion, and in vitro fertilization. There is little formal public debate of the issues, however, and physicians seem committed to upholding traditional medical codes of ethics without analyzing underlying moral principles and justifications.

  9. PRISON EDUCATION IN POLAND: SPECIFICS AND CHALLENGES

    Daria Becker-Pestka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems presented in the text refer to the education of convicts in Poland. It has been based on current Polish legal regulations, statistical data and specialist literature. The problems which refer to the education of convicts in Poland are regulated by the Act of 6th June 1997, the Executive Penal Code, the Act on the Education System and executive acts to the above-mentioned regulations. The current situation in the labour market requires people to acquire education and to improve their qualifications. People without education, who are excluded from the access to professional development and in-service training, find themselves in an extremely difficult situation. The lack of qualification and vocational skills usually leads to exclusion from the labour market. People who serve their sentences in prisons find themselves in a particularly difficult situation, because their lack of education may push them back into crime. A very positive tendency that may be observed in Poland is a growing demand for prison education. Convicts may acquire knowledge and raise their qualifications at various levels and in various fields. They may follow the curricula at the level of a primary or secondary school; they may pass their Matura certificate and, after the consent of relevant authorities, they can continue their education at the university level. Convicts may also learn a new profession, change their professional qualifications or acquire new additional skills during specialist courses. The qualifications acquired in this way shall meet current demand in the labour market, and convicts may find employment after they leave prisons. Education allows them to improve their self-esteem and self-reliance, to catch up with any deficiencies and to work on their self-discipline. At the same time, education offers opportunities to expand knowledge, to return to the society and to the labour market. It is important for convicts to obtain opportunities for

  10. CERN accelerator school: Introductory course in Poland

    2006-01-01

    For the first time since the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) was set up, the 'Introduction to Accelerator Physics' course was held in Zakopane, Poland. This course was organised together with the National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw, and the AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, and was held from 1-13 October 2006 at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. The course was very well attended with 113 participants representing 26 different nationalities. Although most of the participants originated from Europe, some students came from countries as far away as Canada, China, India and North America. The intensive programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars given by local Polish lecturers, 5 tutorials where the students were split into four groups, a poster session where students could present their own work and 7 hours of guided and private study. The participants appreciated these study periods, which encouraged collaboration and knowledge-sharing in solving problems and gave them the opportunity to get t...

  11. Rheumatology training in Poland vs. United Kingdom

    Karina Lazarewicz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating the quality of Rheumatology specialty training, it can be useful to explore similarities and differences between countries. In this article we compare the training in the UK and Poland. The two training programmes are similar in length and in the competencies that must be achieved, although they do have significant differences in the way the training is structured. The UK-based system is more out-patient based, which can be advantageous, as after completion of training the doctor is more confident in treating common rheumatological problems. On the other hand, having exposure to paediatric rheumatology and orthopaedics like one has in Polish-based training, despite a short placement time, is definitely beneficial for the trainee in gaining all-round knowledge. In conclusion, each system has its merits and can be further enhanced by observing how junior doctors are sub-speciality trained in different countries.

  12. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of lichenicolous fungi collected in 129 localities in Poland in the years 1968 and 1970-2003 are reported in the paper. They are as follows: Athelia arachnoidea (Berk. Jülich, Tremella cladoniae Diederich et M.S. Chrst., T. hypogymniae Diederich et M.S. Chris., T. lichecola Diederich, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw., Polycoccum superficiale D. Hawksw. et Miądlikowska, Nectria lecanodes Ces., Pronectria erythrinella (Nyl. Lowen, Cortocifraga fuckelii (Rehm D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., C. peltigerae (Nyl. D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. et Roum., Lichenoconium erodens M.S. Christ. et D. Hawksw., L. lecanorae (Jaap D. Hawksw., L. pyxidatae (Oudem. Petrak et Sydow, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Lindsay Petrak et Sydow, Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw., Illosporium carneum Fr., Karsteniomyces peltigerae (P. Karst. D. Hawksw. and Taeniolella beschiana Diederich.

  13. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Poland

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Mid-2016 Poland revamped its national support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources, started to phase out a certificates-backed renewable electricity quota scheme, and put in place a feed-in tariff/feed-in premium (FiT/FiP) system in place with the support levels being determined by approved tender bids. Furthermore, a fiscal and soft loan instrument is used for supplementary support. Three subsidy instruments and a soft loan instrument are deployed for the promotion of renewable heat. Renewable energy in transport is promoted through a bio-fuels quota scheme

  14. Mycorrhiza of Dryopteris carthusiana in southern Poland

    Juliusz Unrug

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The research on mycorrhiza of Dryopteris carthusiana from natural sites and those contaminated by heavy metals (Niepołomice Forest, both on lowlands and mountainous areas in Poland, was carried out. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum-type was higher in ferns growing on tree stumps than in specimens developing directly on the soil. Additionally, an increase in mycorrhiza intensity and arbuscular richness with the rising ground humidity was observed. In comparison to natural sites, mycorrhizas from the areas contaminated by heavy metals were much less developed and the roots were often infected by parasites. Two morphotypes of mycorrhizal fungi have been described The most common was a fine endophyte (Glomales.

  15. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  16. Calibration procedures for mammography dosemeters in Poland

    Gwiazdowska, B.; Ulkowski, P.; Tolwinski, J.; Bulski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent tumour in women and the effectiveness of the treatment depends dramatically on the early detection of the disease. That is the reason why in Poland the mammography control examinations are strongly supported by the Centre of Oncology. In Poland there are over 400 mammography units which account for about 300,000 examinations per year. An investigation performed by the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw at about 100 mammography facilities proved that in most cases the doses absorbed by the patients could be reduced without decrease of image quality. This is one of the reasons why the Polish Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) dealing mainly with calibration of radiotherapy dosemeters is extending its activities and therefore new facilities and equipment adapted for calibration of mammographic dosemeters have been installed. The mammography dosimetry calibration equipment is permanently installed in the same laboratory room where the radiotherapy dosemeters are calibrated. A base of a mammography unit no longer in clinical use, together with its movable system has been adapted to handle ionization chamber holders. An X-ray tube with a 50 kV high frequency generator was also installed. The tube, a Varian type OEG-50-2, (designed for laboratory applications) with molybdenum anode of an anode angle 23,7 deg. and with a large focus, effective size approximately 5 mm 2 , has an inherent filtration of 0,25 mm beryllium. It is installed in a housing with 2mm lead shielding; a cone shaped beam is formed by a system of three collimators

  17. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  18. Civil Military Relations and Defense Reform in Poland

    Tomaszycki, Marek

    2006-01-01

    .... From the beginning, these changes in the European order included security problems. This paper describes changes in the national security of Poland since 1989 with a focus on the Polish Armed Forces (PAF...

  19. Privatization and Corporate Governance in Poland: Problems and Trends

    Piotr Kozarzewski

    2006-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problems of the impact of privatization on corporate governance formation in Poland. It discusses the dilemmas of choosing a model for privatization and corporate governance, legal background, mechanisms of corporate governance formation depending on a privatization method applied, and the evolution of these structures in the course of systemic transformation in Poland. The Author comes to the conclusion that the processes of privatization and corporate governance ...

  20. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    Józef Paska

    2015-01-01

    One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland), NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA), ...

  1. Cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland

    W. Sroka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of cooperative business models in steel enterprises in Poland. The starting point is the presentation of the concept of business models, which is defined as a way of doing business based on cooperation between enterprises. This paper presents two collaborative business models, namely outsourcing and alliance networks, comparing the theoretical assumptions with the results of research carried out in steel enterprises in Poland.

  2. Test of the Bank Lending Channel: The Case of Poland

    Yu HSING

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the bank lending channel for Poland based on a simultaneousequation model consisting of demand for and supply of bank loans. The three-stage least squares method is employed in empirical work. This paper finds support for a bank lending channel for Poland. Expansionary monetary policy through a lower money market rate or open market purchase of government bonds to increase bank reserves/deposits would increase bank loan supply.

  3. Estimation of weights for the Monetary Conditions Index in Poland

    Andrzej Toroj

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we follow the econometric approach to assess relative importance of real interest rate and real exchange rate for the monetary conditions in Poland, quantified as weights for Monetary Conditions Index (MCI). We consider both single- and multiple-equation specifications proposed in the literature with an application to Poland. Although MCI is nowadays broadly considered a rather obsolete indicator in monetary policy conduct, we argue that the econometric framework used for this ...

  4. Do Cooperative Banks Really Serve Agricultural Sector in Poland?

    Zawojska, Aldona; Siudek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the potential of cooperative banks for serving agricultural sector in Poland and to identify the areas with the most development potential. We discuss the transformation process in the cooperative banking system under market economy, and in particular investigate importance of cooperative banks for farms' financing on the basis of our survey of banks. Moreover, the role of cooperative banks in transmission of Government policy supporting farm sector in Poland...

  5. Puccinia scillae (Uredinales, a new species for Poland

    Małgorzata Ruszkiewicz-Michalska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rust species new for Poland, that affects the ornamental plant Scilla siberica Haw. The distribution of the fungus and its host plants, both introduced and native in Europe, have been investigated. The data from neighbouring countries indicate that the parasite has been probably overlooked in Poland till now. There is a possibility, however, that the species is currently spreading in central and north-eastern Europe.

  6. Soft restructuring process in metallurgical enterprises in Poland

    B. Gajdzik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the range and outcomes of soft restructuring in metallurgical enterprises in Poland. The term ‘soft restructuring’ applies to changes in metallurgical enterprises’ employment policy during the period of political transformation in Poland. Steelworks performance under the market economy conditions demanded introducing changes in staff resources. Changes referred both to the staff structure as well as employees’ skills and gradual engaging of the staff in building the steelworks’ competitive advantage.

  7. Zoonotic microsporidia in dogs and cats in Poland.

    Piekarska, Jolanta; Kicia, Marta; Wesołowska, Maria; Kopacz, Żaneta; Gorczykowski, Michał; Szczepankiewicz, Barbara; Kváč, Martin; Sak, Bohumil

    2017-11-15

    This study investigated the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic concerns of microsporidia in household dogs and cats in Poland. A total of 126 (82 dogs and 44 cats) fecal specimens were analyzed for the presence of specific DNA of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. using a nested PCR protocol amplifying the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. Microsporidia were found in 10 (7.9%) out of the 126 examined stool samples. Of the 82 dogs, 4 (4.9%) and 2 (2.4%) were positive for E. bieneusi (genotypes D and PtEbIX) and Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II, respectively. Of the 44 cats, 4 (9.1%) were positive for E. bieneusi (genotypes PtEbIX and eb52). Additionally, one cat (2.3%) was concurrently infected with E. bieneusi (PtEbIX) and E. cuniculi (genotype II). Considering that all detected microsporidia in dogs and cats have been previously associated with human microsporidiosis, companion animals may be a potential source of microsporidia infections in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Development of the System of Mining Education in the «Kingdom of Poland» in the XIX Century

    Anton B. Mokeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the history of mining and technical education in the «Kingdom of Poland» in the XIX century. These western lands became part of the Russia by the decision of the Congress of Vienna in 1814-1815, which summarized the European wars of the allies against Napoleon. The Government embarked on the systematic development of the industry of the «Kingdom of Poland». The mining industry in this region was developed very well, but lacked local specialized educational institutions for the training of relevant personnel. On the basis of archival materials the author shows the process of organizing educational institutions that train personnel for the booming mining industry of this region. The first educational centers begin to appear immediately after joining Russia, however, difficult political events that began in the region from the 20s of XIX century interrupted the process of formation and development of mountain education in the «Kingdom of Poland» for several years. But in the second half of the XIX century it would again become a topical issue for the region. Particular attention is paid to the history of Dombrowa Mining School, which was established in 1889. The main purpose of this school was to prepare the mine managers and factory preachers to the needs of the mining industry in this region of the «Kingdom of Poland». Mining School in Dombrowa existed until the beginning of the First World War.

  9. Radiation oncology training in Poland: results of a national survey (2007)

    Niemiec, M.; Kepka, L.; Lindner, B.; Bujko, K.; Lindner, B.; Maciejewski, B.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to evaluate the quality of training in radiation oncology in Poland in relation to the ESTRO recommendations, and to learn motivations, level of satisfaction, complaints, suggestions and career plans of radiation oncologists.The detailed questionnaire was addressed to radiation oncologists from all centres in Poland who have been certified as specialists after 1990. Of the 212 approached, 103 radiation oncologists responded to the questionnaire (49%). In general, 40% of respondents declared that the majority of tutors/supervisors devoted sufficient time to their training (60% in academic, 28% in regional centres); 60% had access to the literature, and 50% to the internet. The number of treated patients during the training period ranged from 10 to 3000 (median: 375). 69% of the respondents completed a training in another Polish oncology centre (median duration - 2 months), 21% underwent such training abroad, 55% attended international courses/ conferences. Respondents from academic centres had access and attended national and/or international training more often than those from regional centres. Financial matters have been listed as a major obstacle for out-door training by 93% of respondents. 64% of respondents were pleased or rather pleased with the general quality of training, and the remaining 36% were unsatisfied (these mainly from regional centres). Considering career plans, 72% respondents wanted to continue practice at their employing institutions; however 24% have declared a wish to continue their career abroad. This first national survey has shown some weak points in radiotherapy training in Poland, mainly the quality differences between the departments in favour of academic centres. Some of the problems can and should be solved by the Polish Society of Radiation Oncology, others need legislation changes and decisions at the level of the Ministry of Health. (authors)

  10. Real Estate Appraisal in Central-Eastern Europe: Comparative Analysis of Poland and Slovakia

    Adamuscin Andrej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The countries in Central-Eastern Europe have been subjected to dynamic economic changes. Researchers from Poland and Slovakia study the history of the creation of and rules by which the real estate appraiser’s profession functions. They also present the methodological basics for property appraisals. The original value of this article is a comparative analysis depicting the similarities and differences occurring in the research area, in two countries from the same region of Europe. The analysis may also influence the methodological discussions of specialists concerning the correctness and purpose of certain approaches, methods or techniques of property appraisal.

  11. The current state of the creation and modernization of national geodetic and cartographic resources in Poland

    Doskocz Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All official data are currently integrated and harmonized in a spatial reference system. This paper outlines a national geodetic and cartographic resources in Poland. The national geodetic and cartographic resources are an important part of the spatial information infrastructure in the European Community. They also provide reference data for other resources of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI, including: main and detailed geodetic control networks, base maps, land and buildings registries, geodetic registries of utilities and topographic maps. This paper presents methods of producing digital map data and technical standards for field surveys, and in addition paper also presents some aspects of building Global and Regional SDI.

  12. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    Teresinska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bozena; Krolicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Miroslaw

    2014-01-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  13. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  14. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening program in Poland.

    Jawien, A; Formankiewicz, B; Derezinski, T; Migdalski, A; Brazis, P; Woda, L

    Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently recommended by several vascular societies. In countries where it has been introduced the prevalence of AAAs differed greatly and was mainly related to cigarette smoking. The screening program also had an enormous impact on the decrease of AAA ruptures and reduced mortality rate. These facts have led to the introduction of the first screening program for AAAs in Poland. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of AAAs among men aged 60 years and older undergoing ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta. A single ultrasonography of the abdomen was performed to assess the aorta from the renal arteries to the bifurcation and the diameter of the aorta was measured at its widest point. The cut-off value for determining an aortic aneurysm was set at a diameter of ≥ 30 mm. All ultrasonography measurements were performed by physicians in outpatient departments throughout the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province. Additionally, each subject had to fill out a questionnaire with demographic data, smoking habits, existing comorbidities and familial occurrence of AAAs. The study was conducted from October 2009 to November 2011. The abdominal aorta ultrasound examinations were carried out in 1556 men aged 60 years and older. The prevalence of AAA in the study population was 6.0 % (94 out of 1556). The average age of the men was 69 years (SD 6 years, range 60-92 years). In the study population 55 % of the men smoked or had smoked and 3 % were aware of the presence of AAAs in family members. There were three risk factors significantly associated with the presence of AAAs: age (p < 0.05), smoking (72.3 % vs 53.9 %, p = 0.004) and family history of AAAs (9.6 % vs 2.7 %, p = 0.017). The prevalence of AAAs among men in Poland is higher than in other European countries and the USA. The screening program for AAAs is an easy and reliable method for detecting early stages of the disease and

  15. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland

    Teresinska, Anna [Institute of Cardiology, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Birkenfeld, Bozena [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Szczecin (Poland); Krolicki, Leszek [Warsaw Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Dziuk, Miroslaw [Military Institute of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-10-15

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes

  16. Nuclear Physics in Poland 1996-2006

    Broda, R.; Dobaczewski, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Palacz, M.; Styczen, J.

    2007-12-01

    This Report is a result of the Polish Nuclear Physics Network (PNPN) action having as objective the mapping study of the basic and applied research in this domain in Poland. In the often employed slang it constitutes one of the '' deliverables '' of the EWON (East-West Outreach) Network, operating within the I3- (Integrated Infrastructure Initiative) EURONS, one of the Nuclear Physics projects in the Six Framework Programme (FP6). However, although prepared within the nuclear structure EURONS framework, this mapping study also reports on the activities in the hadron physics in Poland (organized in the FP6 within a second Nuclear Physics project I3-Hadron Physics) as well as in Nuclear Theory and Applications of Nuclear Physics. The Report contains references to activities and published papers from the last ten years: 1996 - 2006. In some cases also slightly older data are included, if necessary, for the completeness of the reported subjects. The Report is organized as follows. After the information on Polish Nuclear Physics Network (a part of the EWON Network), a few overview papers describe the main domains of the PNPN scientific activity. The contents of these papers were previously presented during the NuPECC meeting, held in Krakow June 9, 2006. A number (89) of more detailed contributions (together with appropriate references) emanating from various research groups follows the review articles. Some of the contributions provide concise summaries of wide research activities. Other authors preferred to report separately or individually on narrower topics. Most of the presented activities were conducted within the international collaborations. However, the adopted policy was that only Polish researchers are indicated as authors of the contributions, whereas the international collaborations are reflected by (all) authors of cited publications. The Polish Nuclear Physics Long-Range Plan prepared recently by the Nuclear Physics Committee of the National Atomic Energy

  17. Supply chain and innovation activity in transport related enterprises in Eastern Poland

    Giuseppe Ioppolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  Background: One of the development strategies uses R&D activity as the main source of innovation, which is often carried out in cooperation with other units, but in particular in the supply chain, and therefore applies to cooperation between enterprises and their customers and suppliers. The aim of the study was to identify the variable determinants of the impact of the character of relationships among enterprises and their suppliers and customers on their innovative performance, within regional industrial systems and to define the constraints for a model regional structure of innovation network tailored to the needs of Poland and its regions. Methods: 167 enterprises belonging to the transport sector and operating in the area of Eastern Poland took part. In order to determine the impact of relationships with suppliers and customers on innovation activity, models based on probability analysis - probit models - were used. Results: It can be clearly stated that the cooperation of industrial enterprises in the transport sector with customers and suppliers activates innovation activity and its specified attributes. However, the probability varies depending on the test variable adopted. Conclusions: The cooperation with suppliers and customers is the cognitive aspect in the development of innovation activity in industrial enterprises representing the transport-related sector. Such cooperation has a stimulating effect on expenditures on innovation activity and on the implementation of innovative solutions in the field of technological innovation (products and processes.  

  18. Chinese Tourists in Cracow, Poland: Their Profile, Expectations, and Perceptions

    Guszkiewicz Paulina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism, benefiting many destinations worldwide. Even if for Poland it is not an important source market yet, the Polish authorities have undertaken some marketing activities in China. The main aim of the paper is to explore the profile, motivations, and perceptions of the Chinese tourists visiting Cracow. The secondary aim is to check the effectiveness of the marketing efforts dedicated to the Chinese market undertaken by Poland since 2010. Material and methods. Data for the study (n = 100 were collected using a paper survey in English carried out among mainland Chinese tourists in Cracow in 2015. Results. The Chinese usually visit Poland for the first time, often in transit. They are prompted by the information found online and by word of mouth. Their main reasons to come are tradition, culture, historical sites, landscapes, and low costs. These expectations are well fulfilled, and the tourists′ overall satisfaction is very high. The Chinese find Poland to be different from other Western European countries. For them, Poland is a remarkable, traditional, safe, and developing country. Yet, their knowledge about the destination is limited. The main problem encountered is the language barrier, both online and once on site. The marketing efforts undertaken by Poland in the Chinese market have had weak and ambivalent effects. Conclusions. In order to attract Chinese tourists, there is a need to intensify expenditure not only on promotion (mainly online but also on the removal of language-based communication problems. There is also scope for expanding the tourist offer dedicated to Chinese tourists - both in Poland and in cooperation with other Central European countries.

  19. Presentation of the Polish family in primers used in the Second Republic of Poland (in Poland between the two World Wars

    KATARZYNA KOCHAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interwar period was a time of great significance in the history of the Polish nation. It was characterised by immense enthusiasm because of Poland's newly regained independence, however, the country wrestled with many post-partition problems. One of them was, for instance, a lack of a cohesive administration system resulting from regional administrative differences among the Polish partitioned territories. The main task for education, also in need of adjustment to the new circumstances, was to standardise its system because of the dissimilar educational procedures available in the Second Republic. The new social, political and economic situation also required up-to-date syllabuses and corresponding textbooks. Hence, 31 primers were published in the interwar period. Their reading texts dealt with various thematic fields; they were, for example, associated with the subject of the family as being close to the children's experience and feelings.The present paper aims at comparing if, and to what extent, the portraits of families presented in the primers were adequate to real models of families in the interwar Poland.

  20. Constraints on Development of Wind Energy in Poland due to Environmental Objectives. Is There Space in Poland for Wind Farm Siting?

    Hajto, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Zdzisław; Bidłasik, Małgorzata; Borzyszkowski, Jan; Kuśmierz, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate spatial effects of adopting environmental criteria for wind farm siting, i.e., the criteria related to the settlement system and those with regards to landscape values. The set of criteria was elaborated on the basis of literature and experience-based knowledge. Some of the criteria selected are legally binding. The analyses were carried out with the use of GIS tools. Settlement areas with 1000 and 2000 m wide buffer zones, and the areas with the highest landscape values, were assumed as particularly sensitive receptors to wind farm impacts. The results show significant constraints on wind farm siting in Poland. Although the constraints are regionally diversified, they concern 93.9 % of the total country area (1000 m buffer zone) or 99.1 % (2000 m buffer zone). Presumably even greater constraints would be revealed by an additional detailed analysis at a local level. The constraints on wind farm siting in Poland cannot be decreased, because of both social attitudes and demand for appropriate environmental standards, which should be taken into account in spatial and energy policies at all decision making level.

  1. Liandratite from Karkonosze pegmatites, Sudetes, Southwestern Poland

    Matyszczak, Witold

    2018-06-01

    The chemical composition of liandratite, U6+(Nb,Ta)2O8, was determined from material collected in Niobium, Yttrium, Fluorine type (NYF) pegmatites of the Karkonosze intrusion (Sudetes, SW Poland). Liandratite occurs mainly as rims, up to 40 µm thick, and fracture infillings in fergusonite-(Y) and other Nb-Ta-Ti minerals. Its formation was related to the fluid-driven alteration of primary minerals by three potential mechanisms: (i) direct replacement of a primary mineral by liandratite; (ii) breakdown of the primary mineral to liandratite and a product with the composition of minerals of the pyrochlore group; (iii) multistage alteration, which involved: removal of A-site cations (mostly Y + REE with the exception of U4+) and formation of phases with the composition of pyrochlore group minerals; then crystallization of U-, Bi-, Pb-rich pyrochlores and their replacement by liandratite. The chemical compositions of liandratite formed by the breakdown of different primary minerals are also different, mainly in their U, Ti and Nb contents. Excess Ti, relative to the U6+Nb2O8 end-member, is incorporated into the structure together with additional U. The Ti content of liandratite, and partially through this the U content, are dependent on the nature of the precursor mineral.

  2. Radioactive Contamination of Agricultural Products in Poland

    Muszynski, W.; Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological contamination of the environment is caused by nuclear activities on the globe: nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion is one of the sources of doses obtained by people. To assess the doses received by humans the intake of isotopes with daily diet was defined. The concentration of radionuclides in foodstuffs was determined. The network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination systematically controls all kinds of important agricultural products such as milk, meat, vegetables, fruit, cereals and forest products: mushrooms, blueberries etc. Measurement stations involved in food monitoring act within Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations, Veterinary Hygiene Units and Chemical-Agricultural Stations. All activities are co-ordinated by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection. The level of activity of caesium isotopes has regularly been monitored in collected samples originating from different administrative districts of Poland. Since 1994 the 134 Cs concentration has been below the detection limit. The activity of 137 Cs has been measured to determine long-term effect of the accident on the contamination of milk, meat and other foodstuffs. (orig.)

  3. Development trends in mining technologies. [Poland

    Sikora, W

    1983-01-01

    Research programs on underground black coal mining in Poland are discussed. It is assumed that no major technology changes will take place by the year 2000. Second generation of mining technologies will be used after the year 2000. The following technologies of the second generation are discussed: in-situ gasification, chemical coal disintegration, manless hydraulic mining with hydraulic transport. Research programs on technologies of the second generation should guarantee their commercial and economic use by the year 2000. The following targets for research programs aimed at increasing productivity, reducing mining cost, reducing labor and increasing safety in mining, covering the next 2 decades are comparatively evaluated: increasing advance rate of longwall faces, increasing machine time of integrated face systems by at least 20%, improving design of powered supports for eliminating rock falls, development of heavy-duty face systems for longwall mining with hydraulic stowing, development of face systems for mining thick coal seams on their whole thickness, slice mining thick coal seams with artificial roofs, bidirectional longwall mining by shearer loaders, use of more elastic and reliable mining systems.

  4. External quality audits in radiotherapy in Poland

    Bulski, W.; Rostkowska, J.; Kania, M.; Gwiazdowska, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw is a continuation of the Radiation Measurements Laboratory created in 1937, following the suggestions of Marie Curie, the founder of the Institute. The present SSDL is a member of the WHO/IAEA international network and is periodically audited by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The SSDL is in charge of the calibration of all radiotherapy dosimeters in Poland, and it also co-ordinates all activities carried out in radiotherapy quality assurance programmes nation-wide. The External Audit Group (EAG) was set-up according to the recommendations of the IAEA, as a part of the SSDL. The EAG is in charge of the management of the project and organization of the TLD measurements. The SSDL takes the responsibilities of the metrological aspects of the programme. The results of the efforts, aimed at the development of a quality audit programme and methodology in radiotherapy, are presented

  5. Science popularization and European citizenship in Poland

    Jacek Piotr Szubiakowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea to link European citizenship and science education is surely new and uncommon in Poland, but we think, as SEDEC project, that can enrich both the panorama of science popularization outside and inside school system. I checked carefully curricula for every stage of school education looking for the topics concerning the developing of the European citizenship. I found that they are usually connected to the history, geography and some activities developing of the knowledge about generally defined citizenship. The spare topics connected directly to the science are present especially in grammar school curriculum. They may be divided into three groups: exploiting the common heritage, common object of interest and scientific community respectively. In that paper I would like to show how the activities in each of the group may influence the EU citizenship developing process. I am going to emphasize the good choice of science as a context or a medium for EU citizenship education. It may be an important point especially in Central Europe. Additionally I would like to present some auxiliary events that are enable through the external educational resources such as museum and planetarium.

  6. The Development of Explosive Metalworking in Poland

    Babul W.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The author coordinated the research in Poland by the collaboration with civil and military scientific and research centres. In result they elaborated detonation process of spraying coats designed and constructed stands equipped with detonative devices, they also elaborated the techniques of basic coating parameter measurement and built devices for commercial and scientific services. In the research the author's achievements within the range of explosive welding have been used. The experience of the scientific teams was very effective. It was observed that many phenomena that take place in the processes of detonative layer coating and explosive welding are the same. In order to obtain a required connection the plastic strain of the connected material surfaces has to be achieved and cumulative flows have to be formed. There are a similar range of the connecting process conditions and the mechanisms of plastic strain. The highest connection strength is obtained when an intermediate zone is formed. The zone has to be composed of the two connected materials. The intermediate layer is formed as a result of mechanical alloying of the materials due to large plastic strain. The plastic strain leads to forming meta-stable phases that have properties of pseudo solid solution, chemical compounds, intermetallic phases and fragmentation corresponding to nanomaterials and amorphous states.

  7. Poland: A Dark Side of Church Cultural Policy

    Szocik Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultural policy of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland is incorporated into state-run cultural policies. The organs of public authority enforce the objectives of Church regardless of Church’s actual ability to influence the society. It should be pointed out that the secularization of religion in Poland is frequently misinterpreted and usually equated with its deprivatization. It is worth mentioning that Catholicism is the dominant religion of the country and the Roman Catholic Church has hold a special position in Poland and play a major role in the country’s social and political life. In practice, however, Polish society appears to be religiously indifferent. This paper proves that the official, state-run cultural policy in Poland is based on favoritism of the Roman Catholic Church, regardless of Church’s actual ability to wield influence on society. Thus, there is a variety of implicit and explicit cultural policies implemented by the authorities to support Church. This work also aims at addressing the question of social attitudes to women, especially the one concerning the UN and EU law embracing women’s rights, until recently still not implemented in Poland. This paper further explores some peculiarities of this topic as an example of a specific outcome of Church cultural policy and its impact on both the past and present-day society.

  8. First Laboratory Confirmation of Salmonid Alphavirus Type 2 (SAV2 Infection in Poland

    Borzym Ewa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify the genotype of Polish isolates of salmonid alphaviruses (SAV and to find the origin of the virus. Samples for virus isolation included the kidneys, spleen, and liver pooled from 10 fish. A typical cytopathic effect was observed after inoculation of samples on cell lines. Total RNA was extracted from cell culture supernatant and submitted to RT-PCR with primers amplifying two informative regions of the genome: a conserved region in the E2 gene and a variable region in the nsP3 gene. The sequences revealed that the strain from Poland belonged to subtype SAV 2, indicating a very strong genetic identity with isolates from Italy and France.

  9. Poland's Services Trade with the European Union During the Preaccession Period

    Dariusz Mongiało

    2004-01-01

    The fact that, since 1 May 2004, Poland has the status of European Union member involves certain consequences for Poland's competitiveness in the international services trade market. What competitive position will Poland finally occupy among the EU countries in the postaccession period will to a large extent depend on Poland's present position in the services trade with the EU countries. So, the paper tries to present, on the basis of the most recent available statistical data published by th...

  10. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  11. Pedestrian Safety in Road Traffic in Poland

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Mackun, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Every third road accident in Poland involves a pedestrian as a participant or, most of the time, a casualty. Pedestrian accidents are usually the result of complex situations and the outcome of a number of factors related to driver and pedestrian behaviour and road infrastructure. Safety depends largely on how well the traffic condition is perceived and on visibility in traffic. The paper presents the results of analyses of methodologies for systematic studies of pedestrian behaviour and pedestrian-driver relations. The effects of the location of the site, type of cross-section and other selected parameters on pedestrian and driver behaviour are demonstrated. The analyses showed that pedestrians are most often put at risk by too long pedestrian crossings, vehicles going too fast around pedestrian crossings, lack of proper sight distance and poorly lit or unlit pedestrian crossings. The reason for such defective infrastructure is that planners, designers, contractors and maintenance services are not receiving any support from design, marking and maintenance regulations for pedestrian traffic. In addition, the Road Traffic Law is not restrictive enough when it comes to drivers’ obligations towards pedestrian safety. Polish design regulations allow long pedestrian crossings up to four lanes in one direction or three lanes in two directions irrespective of traffic control and speed limits. Pedestrian crossings should be kept at a maximum of three lanes. There is nothing in the design regulations about the required driver-pedestrian sight distance. Neither does the Road Traffic Law help engineers with that. It is legal to park vehicles within 10 m of a pedestrian crossing which does not guarantee the necessary sight distance. Drivers must be able to see a pedestrian waiting or stepping onto the crossing from a distance that will help them come to a stop safely. It is safer to follow the principle of providing adequate pedestrian sight distance. Recommendations for

  12. Water Quality and Management Changes Over the History of Poland.

    Szalinska, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries distinguished by a long and colorful past. Undergoing numerous turbulent socio-economic changes forced by the course of history, Poland is now one of the member states of the European Union. Experiencing low water quantity and high contamination levels in surface waters, Poland is following other EU countries in the effort to reach a "good" water status. Herein are presented impacts of changes in Polish history on water legislation, management, and research, as well as explanations for the perceptible split between engineering and scientific approaches to the aquatic issues. Drawbacks caused by unsatisfactory state research funding for the sciences and division of the water related contemporary scientific interests are also discussed.

  13. Geographical distribution of 90Sr contamination in Poland

    Gaca, P.; Mietelski, J.W.; Skwarzec, B.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results on determination of 90 Sr in bilberry and cowberry leaves (Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the use of these plants as bio-monitors of radiostrontium contamination in Poland. Radiostrontium was determined by mean of liquid scintillation spectrometry preceded by radiochemical separation using Sr-resin and 85 Sr tracer. The approximate map of 90 Sr contamination of Poland is presented. The activity ratio between 90 Sr and obtained earlier data for 137 Cs in the same samples is discussed. The enhancement of radiostrontium content observed in northeastern Poland seems to be the trace of hot-particles fallout from initial Chernobyl cloud, which passed over Polish territory toward Scandinavia. (orig.)

  14. THE TRADE POSITION OF POLAND IN THE ICT SERVICES SECTOR

    Sylwia Talar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes analysis and assessment of trade in the ICT services performance of Poland. This study is looked at the trade position, essentially on the basis of the share in the world ICT services exports, revealed comparative advantage (RCA, and trade coverage ratio. It also identifies trends of the world trade in the ICT services. The statistics are derived from the basis of UNCTAD and Eurostat. International trade in the ICT ser-vices sector has specific characteristics and the interpretation of results of this trade is to take account of the particular nature of the ICT services. Poland is currently not revealed comparative advantage in the ICT services exports, but has had positive balance. Practically all trade indicators for Poland show very strong growth, which indicate a significant improvement in its ICT services trade position.

  15. Extreme Precipitation in Poland in the Years 1951-2010

    Malinowska, Miroslawa

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of extreme precipitation, including the dominant trends, were analysed for eight stations located in different parts of Poland for the period 1951-2010. Five indices enabling the assessment of the intensity and frequency of both extremely dry and wet conditions were applied. The indices included the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10), maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD), maximum 5-day precipitation total (R5d), simple daily intensity index (SDII), and the fraction of annual total precipitation due to events exceeding the 95th percentile calculated for the period 1961-1990. Annual trends were calculated using standard linear regression method, while the fit of the model was assessed with the F-test at the 95% confidence level. The analysed changes in extreme precipitation showed mixed patterns. A significant positive trend in the number of days with precipitation ≥10mm·d-1 (R10) was observed in central Poland, while a significant negative one, in south-eastern Poland. Based on the analysis of maximum 5-day precipitation totals (R5d), statistically significant positive trends in north-western, western and eastern parts of the country were detected, while the negative trends were found in the central and northeastern parts. Daily precipitation, expressed as single daily intensity index (SDII), increased over time in northern and central Poland. In southern Poland, the variation of SDII index showed non-significant negative tendencies. Finally, the fraction of annual total precipitation due to the events exceeding the 1961-1990 95th percentile increased at one station only, namely, in Warsaw. The indicator which refers to dry conditions, i.e. maximum number of consecutive dry days (CDD) displayed negative trends throughout the surveyed area, with the exception of Szczecin that is a representative of north-western Poland.

  16. Tenant mix structure in shopping centres: some empirical analyses from Poland

    Bartłomiej Marona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to find an ideal tenant mix structure for the current shopping centres in Upper Silesian Urban Area Region in Poland, taking under consideration consumer preferences and behaviour. Research Design & Methods: Apart from literature review, empirical research is based on a survey questionnaire. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was applied in the analysis of the data collected. Findings: The research confirmed that to a great extent the valid tenant mix structure in the surveyed shopping centres meets with friendly attitude of customers. However, there are areas where improvement can increase the visitors’ satisfaction. Moreover, it was proven that shopping remains the main reason for customers’ visits in shopping centres, in spite of extending the offer of this type of places with new functions. Implications & Recommendations: Real estate managers are recommended to take actions aiming at increasing competitiveness on the market via the extension of the proposed shopping offer and their adjustment to customers’ expectations. For the managers, the results of the conducted research suggest lack of the necessity for radical transformations, and transforming Polish shopping centres into facilities of the fourth and fifth generation, which is slow in Poland, is, as it turns out, not necessarily expected, since customers identify shopping centres mainly with their traditional function. Contribution & Value Added: The proposed research model and findings can serve as a useful lens within the research of tenant mix structure in shopping centres in other parts of the Poland.

  17. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    Józef Paska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  18. Challenges of coal conversion for decarbonized energy in Poland

    Sciazko, Marek; Jalosinski, Krzysztof; Majchrzak, Henryk; Michalski, Mieczyslaw; Tymowski, Henryk; Witos, Tadeusz; Wroblewska, Elzbieta

    2010-09-15

    Carbon dioxide is considered to be the main challenge for the coal-based power generation as well as for any other industrial application of coal. Poland's energy sector is primarily based on coal combustion that covers almost 90% of demand. Future development of that sector depends on the restriction on value of carbon dioxide emission or trading allowances. There are two main technological approaches to development of new coal based generation capacity, namely: gasification and pre-combustion capture; supercritical combustion and post-combustion capture. The current situation in development of three this type projects in Poland is presented.

  19. ESO Science Outreach Network in Poland during 2011-2013

    Czart, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    ESON Poland works since 2010. One of the main tasks of the ESO Science Outreach Network (ESON) is translation of various materials at ESO website, as well as contacts with journalists. We support also science festivals, conferences, contests, exhibitions, astronomy camps and workshops and other educational and outreach activities. During 2011-2013 we supported events like ESO Astronomy Camp 2013, ESO Industry Days in Warsaw, Warsaw Science Festival, Torun Festival of Science and Art, international astronomy olympiad held in Poland and many others. Among big tasks there was also translation of over 60 ESOcast movies.

  20. The integration of Poland into the European Union

    FAUCOMPRET, Erik; KONINGS, Jozef

    2001-01-01

    Poland was among the first Eastern European countries to apply for membership of the European Union. In view of Poland’s tragic history and the economic liberalisation that has taken place since 1989, we believe that the EU should adopt a generous approach toward its application. Unfortunately it looks as if the EU wants Poland to conform with all its laws before it can join. Our research suggests that the EU should pursue an open trade, labour and investment policy. Poland’s membership will ...

  1. Viral hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland.

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2011-07-01

    In medical terms, occupational diseases are defined as health disorders specifically associated with the working environment of people and their occupational activity. From the medical and legal perspectives, the vast majority of European countries consider particular diseases to be of occupational origin if they are mentioned in the current list of occupational diseases and caused by exposure to factors in the working environment that are harmful to health. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cases of viral hepatitis certified as an occupational disease in Poland during 1979-2009. This article presents the medical, economic, and legal aspects of the epidemiology of hepatitis as an occupational disease in Poland. Publically available statistical data on certified occupational diseases in Poland and data contained in individual "occupational disease diagnosis cards" (based on data used in Poland statistical form), regarding certified cases of hepatitis among health care professionals, which were collected by the Department of Occupational Hygiene of the Polish Public Health Service, were analyzed in this study. In Poland, the highest number of cases of hepatitis certified as an occupational disease was observed in 1987. A gradual reduction in the number of cases of hepatitis as an occupational disease has been noted since then. Currently, hepatitis C as an occupational disease is certified more frequently than hepatitis B. In Poland, the number of women with hepatitis certified as an occupational disease is higher than that of men. However, among health care professionals, particularly nurses, this difference is insignificant because women outnumber the men. The existence of such a situation is due to the significant quantitative predominance of women over men among medical personnel, especially among nurses. Immunization of health care professionals against the hepatitis B virus (HBV), introduced in Poland in 1988, was an important factor

  2. Technical and Economic Aspects of Low Emission Reduction in Poland

    Dzikuć, M.; Łasiński, K.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the problem of excessive air pollution in Poland caused mainly by low emission. The emission arises in result of heating flats by means of old and energetically inefficient heating installations. In Poland and Bulgaria the inhaled air is of the worst quality out of all EU countries. The paper presents economic and technical problems related to low emission occurring during the combustion of solid fuels in local boiler houses. Furthermore, the most significant economic issues, connected with the reduction of low emission are discussed, as well as technological possibilities of efficient reduction of the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. Conclusions are presented at the end of the article.

  3. An overview of occupational voice disorders in Poland

    Ewa Niebudek-Bogusz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.

  4. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  5. Contemporary Determinants of the Development of Socio-Economic Regions

    Czyż Teresa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effect on the development of socio-economic regions in Poland of contemporary external determinants considered at the European and the world scale. It consists of two parts. The first gives a description of the main general processes that are external determinants of regional development today: modernisation changes, globalisation, metropolitanisation, and European integration. Part two is empirical in character and seeks to find regional manifestations and effects of those determinants in Poland, and to establish how they influence regional income and spatial differences in its value.

  6. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  7. Adult Learning Development in Poland in the 20th Century

    Boiarska-Khomenko, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a retrospective analysis of adult learning development in Poland in the 20th century. Based on the study and analysis of historical and pedagogical literature, normative documents of the official bodies of Polish government, the periodical press of the 20th century, several stages of adult learning development, in the…

  8. An updated distribution of Solidago × niederederi (Asteraceae in Poland

    Pliszko Artur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an updated map of the distribution of Solidago ×niederederi, a natural hybrid between S. canadensis and S. virgaurea, in Poland is presented using the ATPOL cartogram method. A compiled list of 55 localities of the hybrid within 40 cartogram units (10-km squares is provided and its negative impact on S. virgaurea is highlighted.

  9. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Developing low carbon policies for road transport in Poland

    Kok, R.; Rahman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of work done for the World Bank to develop low carbon policies for road transport in Poland. Here, we outline the development of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, develop a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on social-economic-, infrastructure-, car market, vehicle

  11. New evidence of Ursus minims from the territory of Poland

    Wagner, Jan; Lipecki, G.; Krawczyk, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2008), s. 78-80 ISSN 0038-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Ursus minimus * Pliocene * dentition * Rebielice Królewskie (Poland) Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  12. Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella (lichenized Ascomycota found in Poland

    Paweł Czarnota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two hepaticolous fungi, Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella rarely recorded in Europe have recently been found in Polish Western Carpathians. Both species are also reported here for the first time from Poland. Notes on their taxonomy, ecology and distribution are provided.

  13. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation after Stroke in Poland 2010

    Opara, Jozef A.; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging…

  14. Hypoxylon terricola Miller a new species for Poland

    Wanda Truszkowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxylon terricola Milter, known from a single collection in Michigan in USA and three sites in Southern France, has been found in Poland; isolated from the soil under Dactylis glomerata L. culture and from the dishwater of the roots of D. glomerata L. groving in the vicinity of the spruce (Picea abies (L. K a r s t mountainers forest.

  15. Gender Relations, Education and Social Change in Poland.

    Watson, Peggy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the following issues in Poland: formal gender equality during state Socialism; public provision of child care; the domestic division of labor; women's educational careers; women's labor market position; gender inequalities in social consciousness; separation between public and private domains; and transition from a society to civil…

  16. The Institutional Implications of the Unfair Terms Directive in Poland

    Mańko, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I focus on the institutional implications of the EU Unfair Terms Directive (93/13) in Poland in the broader context of the welfare state model prevalent in that post-socialist EU Member State. I depart from the assumption that there is, in principle, a link between the intensity of the

  17. Distribution of Chara braunii Gmellin 1826 (Charophyta in Poland

    Jacek Urbaniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and ecology of Chara braunii Gmellin 1826 in Poland is described, based on herbaria collections, literature data and own investigations. Maps showing the distribution of Ch. braunii are presented, as well as a list of localities with brief descriptions of the habitats. Additionally, some remarks on the distribution limit in the northern hemisphere are given.

  18. Molecular characterization of Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus from Poland

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Oers, van M.M.; Ziemnicka, J.; Lipa, J.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The turnip moth, Agrotis segetum (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), is an important pest insect in Europe, Asia, and Africa. We have genetically characterized and classified a nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from A. segetum larvae in Poland (AgseNPV-P). The restriction pattern of AgseNPV-P was distinct from an

  19. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  20. Traffic safety developments in Poland : a research note.

    Oppe, S.

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in traffic safety in Poland. There is a feeling that the rapid growth of traffic should be accompanied by additional efforts to improve traffic safety, in order to stop the corresponding increase in fatalities and serious accidents. To set realistic

  1. The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland

    LASTOVETSKA ROKSOLANA ORESTIVNA

    2015-01-01

    The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland is analyzed in the article. Based on historical data the vector autoregression model (VAR) was built to examine the effects of the sharp rise in the volume of remittances outflows. The model results are presented for the next macroeconomic indicators: GDP, inflation, interest rate and exchange rate.

  2. The Rights and Duties of Family in Poland.

    Organisation Mondiale Pour l'Education Prescolaire, Warsaw (Poland).

    This paper presented at the 1977 meeting of the World Organization of Preschool Education (OMEP), reviews legal acts concerning the family in Poland; specifically the family law, the custodial law, and the matrimonial property law. Subjects discussed include: (1) legal protection of the family; (2) social protection of the family; (3) principles…

  3. Professional Training of Specialists in International Marketing in Poland

    Zukowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program…

  4. Undergraduate Medical Education in Poland: Variations on the Soviet Theme

    Missett, James R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Poland has centralized academic and administrative control over the medical academies, combined the training of medical students with that of dental and pharmacy students, equalized admission ratios for men and women, and provided relatively generous stipends for its medical students. (Editor/PG)

  5. A DECADE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN POLAND

    Lipska, Iga; McAuslane, James Neil; Leufkens, Bert; Hövels, Anke

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to illustrate and provide a better understanding of the role of health technology assessment (HTA) processes in decision making for drug reimbursement in Poland and how this approach could be considered by other countries of limited resources. METHODS: We

  6. Equity Block Transfers in Transition Economies : Evidence from Poland

    Trojanowski, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Paper investigates valuation effects of share block transfers and employs agency theory to explain the determinants of block premia. A sample of transactions from Poland is used to measure benefits and costs of ownership concentration. Block premia are found to be substantially lower than in

  7. PPP projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia

    Anna TOMOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper informs about public – private partnerships projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia, describing various modes of capital entry. The PPI database of the World Bank is used. Advantages of PPP schemes are discussed for further development of infrastructure sectors.

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SCHMALLENBERG VIRUS IN EUROPEAN BISON ( BISON BONASUS) IN POLAND.

    Kęsik-Maliszewska, Julia; Krzysiak, Michał K; Grochowska, Maria; Lechowski, Lech; Chase, Christopher; Larska, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an emerging arbovirus in Europe, is an important pathogen in domestic ruminants; however, its impact on free-ranging wild ruminants is not well studied. Three hundred and forty-seven serum samples collected between 2011 and 2016 from 302 European bison ( Bison bonasus) from 12 different sites in Poland were tested for the presence of SBV antibodies. In addition, 86 sera were collected between 2013 and 2016 from three species of cervids for testing for SBV antibodies. After the first detection of the virus in Poland in October 2012, the proportion of SBV-seropositive European bison reached 81% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.1-85.8%), whereas in cervids seroprevalence was 34% (95% CI: 23.5-43.9%). There was an increase in seroprevalence in European bison from 2012 to 2014. Biting midges ( Culicoides spp.), the primary vectors of SBV, were monitored entomologically for the identification of the biting midge populations and virologically for SBV infections in the Białowieża Forest region, which contains the world's largest European bison population. We detected SBV by PCR in 3% of Culicoides pools from 2015. In addition, seven fetal brain samples from European bison or cervids were tested and were negative for SBV RNA. Our results indicate a high seroprevalence with reduced transmission of SBV in subsequent years in the European bison populations and lower seroprevalence in cervids.

  9. {sup 131}I age-dependent inhalation dose in Southern Poland from Fukushima accident

    Brudecki, K.; Szufa, K.; Mietelski, J.W. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland)

    2017-03-15

    A general method for calculating doses absorbed from isotopes released in nuclear accidents is presented. As an example, this method was used to calculate doses for inhabitants of Southern Poland due to inhalation of {sup 131}I released due to the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. {sup 131}I activity measurements in the air of that region provided the basis for the study. The proposed model is based on a complex biokinetic model for iodine merging the Leggett model developed in 2010 with the human respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This model is described here, and it is demonstrated that resulting dose estimates are consistent with those obtained using the ICRP methodology. Using the developed model, total doses were calculated for six age groups of both genders, for gaseous and aerosol fractions alike. The committed effective dose, H{sub 50}, for an adult man reached 16 nSv, which is lower than 0.001% of the background dose. The dose for the thyroid of an adult reached 0.33 μSv, which corresponds to circa 0.0007% of the dose to the population of Southern Poland after the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident. (orig.)

  10. The Wild Bees Andrena gallica Schmiedeknecht, 1883 and Andrena assimilis Radoszkowski, 1876 (Apoidea: Andrenidae in Poland

    Motyka Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wild bees Andrena assimilis Radoszkowski, 1876, and Andrena gallica Schmiedeknecht, 1883, are morphologically very similar species and by some authors they are treated as one taxon – A. assimilis. Some other authors treat A. gallica as a subspecies of A. assimilis, others assert that both A. gallica and A. assimilis are valid species. After analysing the morphological features, we confirm that they should be treated as two distinct species. The following characters help to separate A. gallica from A. assimilis: in the case of females – the colouration of the stigma and veins in the forewing, in the case of males – the microsculpture of the surface of the metasomal terga, the punctation of terga II–III, and the width of the edeagus. Andrena gallica was reported in Poland in the first half of the twentieth century from the following regions: Baltic Coast, Kraków-Wieluń Upland, Małopolska Upland, and Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland. Due to the synonymy, these records were included in the distribution of A. assimilis. After more than 50 years, the occurrence of A. gallica in Poland has been confirmed. The new record of the species is reported based on the specimen collected in Kampinos National Park (Mazovian Lowland. In 2004, one male was collected on fallow land. Water pan-traps (Moericke traps were used to do the collecting. Diagnoses of both species, data on their biology, as well as distribution, are provided.

  11. The use of network analysis in the process of delimitation as exemplifi ed by the administrative division of Poland

    Borowska-Stefańska, Marta; Wiśniewski, Szymon

    2017-12-01

    The cognitive aim of this study is to point to the optimum number of local government units and the optimum boundaries of spatial units in Poland with the assumption of minimizing the cumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. The methodological aim, in turn, is to present the use of the ArcGIS location-allocation tool for the purposes of delimitation processes as exemplifi ed by administrative boundaries in Poland. The rationale for the implementation of this study is that number and the boundaries of units of all levels of Poland's current territorial division are far from optimum in the light of minimization of accumulated theoretical travel time to all settlement units in the country. It may be concluded that it would be justifi able to increase the number of voivodships from the current number of 16 to 18. Besides it would be necessary to introduce modifi cations in relation to units with regional functions. In contrast, the number of districts and communes should be reduced. A continuation of this research may go in the direction of including analysis of public transport network in the research, creating in this way a multimodal set of network data. This would illustrate, apart from the potential itself resulting from the infrastructure, also the actually existing connections.

  12. Role of the Health Promotion Foundation in tobacco control and capacity building among healthcare professionals in Poland

    Kinga Janik-Koncewicz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the first summit of world tobacco control leaders in Central and Eastern Europe, held in 1990 in Kazimierz in Poland, the inadequate engagement of medical professionals in helping people to quit smoking was identified as one of the main problems of the region. The Health Promotion Foundation was established in 1992 to co-ordinate the anti-tobacco movement in Poland and to implement the resolutions of Kazimierz. The Foundation initiated actions to introduce anti-tobacco legislation in Poland passed by the Polish Parliament in 1995. It was one of the first legislative acts in the world to recommend tobacco dependence treatment. The Foundation also took active part in the preparation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and was one of the contributing authors of Article 14. The Foundation has also engaged in competence building among healthcare providers. It has trained thousands of Polish doctors and nurses using a core, nation-wide tool: the Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Tobacco Dependence. Finally, the Foundation engaged in activities to increase cessation drug availability, e.g. by conducting research, disseminating knowledge on, and promoting cytisine. Since the 1990s millions of Poles quit smoking, also thanks to the Foundation’s comprehensive activities. Further work is now focused on developing effective ways to engage greater numbers of medical doctors in the treatment of tobacco dependence and building innovative technologies supporting them and people who want to quit smoking.

  13. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  14. The steps to forming a joint venture IPP in Poland

    Allen, Z.; Colligan, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    Poland represents the largest market in Central Europe with 38 million people and an installed electrical generating capacity of about 32 gigawatts. Since 1989, when the process of governmental restructuring along free market principals began, the allure to IPP developers has been evident, but is of yet unrealized. The natural model for IPP development in Poland would seem to be joint ventures with Polish generating companies. These enterprises already have sites, franchises, and a going business to contribute to a joint company. There are a number of reasons why so few deals have been concluded in Poland to date, and a number of barriers still exist that tend to hamper the realization of project finance funded power joint ventures. But, these barriers are not insurmountable. Overcoming them in the context of a joint venture relationship with a domestic partner requires patience, work, and an ability to bridge the gaps between the realities of working in a post-Communist environment and the practicalities of structuring projects that can be financed in the international capital markets. The new Energy Law in Poland establishes a framework for a viable private sector power generation business. But the enabling regulations are yet to be published or approved. There is still effective political risk on account of the uncertainty this creates. Pressure is mounting on the Polish Government, especially due to its expressed interest in joining the EU, to get the power sector to operate on private sector terms, if not in private hands. The trends are pointing in the direction of increased market driven policies and practices. The conclusion is that, despite the delays of the past, independent power projects will start to happen in Poland on a joint venture basis, with increasing frequency in the next years.

  15. High energy physics in Poland: the first 50 years

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    High energy physics in Poland started in 1933 when Stanislaw Ziemecki and Konstanty Narkiewicz-Jodko performed measurements of the latitude effect for cosmic rays. Subsequently, experiments with cosmic rays were carried out in balloon flights in a deep salt mine. Other Polish pioneers in this field were Ignacy Adamczewski, Czeslaw Bialobrzeski, Marian Miesowicz, Szczepan Szczeniowski and Jan Wesolowski. The ambitious 'Star of Poland' project of a stratospheric balloon flight to study cosmic rays up to an altitude of 30000 meters was not successful, first because of the fire accident and then of the outbreak of World War II. The destruction of laboratories during the war has slowed down the development of high energy physics in Poland by at least twelve years. However, in the late forties Marian Miesowicz started important cosmic ray studies in Cracow. In 1952 research using nuclear emulsions was initiated in Warsaw by Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski. Two years later Marian Miesowicz and Jerzy Gierula began similar research in Cracow. In the late fifties Aleksander Zawadzki in Lodz started comprehensive studies of extensive air showers. Already in 1963 the number of experimental and theoretical papers on high energy physics published in Poland exceeded 100. Strong experimental and theoretical groups have been established in Cracow, Lodz and Warsaw. To supplement research with emulsions and bubble chambers the construction of electronic detectors for on-line experiments has been instituted. Thus, in the early eighties Polish high energy physicists were ready to participate in large projects such as DELPHI at LEP and ZEUS and H1 at HERA. The discovery of hypernuclei by Danysz and Pniewski in 1952 may be regarded as the most important achievement of physics in post-war Poland. (author). 108 refs, 26 figs, 1 tab

  16. Tuberculosis in homeless persons in Poland.

    Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Kuś, Jan; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Siemion-Szcześniak, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The fall in rates of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries has been accompanied by the concentration of cases in the social risk groups including homeless persons. Comparison of TB features in homeless persons and in non-homeless patients. TB cases reported to National TB Register in Poland in whom information about the social status was available (the data about the social status were collected obligatorily in the years 2004-2013 only) were analysed. The results of DSTs were obtained from laboratory records and were available for the cases reported since 2010. Treatment outcome after 12 months was analysed for the cases registered between 2004-2012. The significance (Si) of the differences in proportions was assessed with chi-square test. Phomeless persons (HP) and 72,989 other patients (OP) with TB were included. In the group of HP, there was a greater proportion of males in comparison with OP (90.5% vs. 66.3%) (Si). The mean age of HP was 49.8 years (SD±10.9); of OP-52.9 years (SD±17.5) (Si). 16.6% of HP and 10.4% of OP were previously treated for TB (Si). The previous treatment was adequate in 62.2% of HP and in 85.8% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was in 98.0%, extrapulmonary TB in 2.0% of HP and, respectively, in 92.5% and 7.5% of OP (Si). Pulmonary TB was confirmed by culture in 76.3% of HP and in 64.5% of OP (Si). Sputum smears were positive in 70.7% of HP and in 62.5% of OP (Si). Caseous pneumonia occurred in 2.7% of homeless subjects and in 1.1% of OP (Si); infiltrative TB in 95.5% of HP and in 97.5% of OP (Si). Resistance to isoniazid was observed in 2.9% of HP and in 3.1% of OP; to rifampicin in 0.0% of HP and in 0.2% of OP; to isoniazid and rifampicin in 0.4% of HP and in 0.8% of OP. These differences were not Si. Treatment success rate among HP was 44.1%; default rate 24.8%; 4.0% of HP died from tuberculosis; 3.2% died from other causes; 5.2% were transferred and their outcomes were unknown; 0.4% were still on treatment; 0.4% had treatment failure; in 17

  17. Atmospheric particulate mercury at the urban and forest sites in central Poland.

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    Particulate mercury concentrations were investigated during intensive field campaigns at the urban and forest sites in central Poland, between April 2013 and October 2014. For the first time, quantitative determination of total particulate mercury in coarse (PHg2.2) and fine (PHg0.7) aerosol samples was conducted in Poznań and Jeziory. The concentrations in urban fine and coarse aerosol fractions amounted to mercury concentrations. A strong impact of meteorological conditions (wind velocity, air mass direction, air temperature, and precipitation amount) on particulate mercury concentrations was also observed. In particular, higher variation and concentration range of PHg0.7 and PHg2.2 was reported for wintertime measurements. An increase in atmospheric particulate mercury during the cold season in the study region indicated that coal combustion, i.e., residential and industrial heating, is the main contribution factor for the selected particle size modes. Coarse particulate Hg at the urban site during summer was mainly attributed to anthropogenic sources, with significant contribution from resuspension processes and long-range transport. The highest values of PHg0.7 and PHg2.2 were found during westerly and southerly wind events, reflecting local emission from highly polluted areas. The period from late fall to spring showed that advection from the southern part of Poland was the main factor responsible for elevated Hg concentrations in fine and coarse particles in the investigated region. Moreover, September 2013 could be given as an example of the influence of additional urban activities which occurred approx. 10 m from the sampling site-construction works connected with replacement of the road surface, asphalting, etc. The concentrations of particulate Hg (>600.0 pg m(-3)) were much higher than during the following months when any similar situation did not occur. Our investigations confirmed that Hg in urban aerosol samples was predominantly related to local

  18. Anthropogenic impacts in North Poland over the last 1300 years - A record of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and S in an ombrotrophic peat bog

    De Vleeschouwer, Francois; Fagel, Nathalie; Cheburkin, Andriy; Pazdur, Anna; Sikorski, Jaroslaw; Mattielli, Nadine; Renson, Virginie; Fialkiewicz, Barbara; Piotrowska, Natalia; Le Roux, Gael

    2009-01-01

    Lead pollution history over Northern Poland was reconstructed for the last ca. 1300 years using the elemental and Pb isotope geochemistry of a dated Polish peat bog. The data show that Polish Pb-Zn ores and coal were the main sources of Pb, other heavy metals and S over Northern Poland up until the industrial revolution. After review of the potential mobility of each element, most of the historical interpretation was based on Pb and Pb isotopes, the other chemical elements (Zn, Cu, Ni, S) being considered secondary indicators of pollution. During the last century, leaded gasoline also contributed to anthropogenic Pb pollution over Poland. Coal and Pb-Zn ores, however, remained important sources of pollution in Eastern European countries during the last 50 years, as demonstrated by a high 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio (1.153) relative to that of Western Europe (ca. 1.10). The Pb data for the last century were also in good agreement with modelled Pb inventories over Poland and the Baltic region.

  19. PRODUCT RETURNS MANAGEMENT IN THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY IN POLAND

    Anna Maria Jeszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to identify and define on the basis of the literature the principal external and organizational factors and check to what extent they affect the efficiency of returns management as well as any resultant savings. The author proposes a conceptual model which correlates the results of returns management as well as savings with the main determinants identified on the basis of the literature. Then, in the operationalisation phase of the model, the dependent and independent variables were defined in the form of constructs. In accordance with the adopted model, individual constructs were measured based on standardised interviews. Materials and methods:  The results of returns management and any savings generated by this process are affected by certain determinants which are described in the literature. The adopted model included external factors, such as the cooperation of retailers with logistics operators and suppliers, the exchange of information in the supply chain, and organizational behaviour (experience of employees; as well as organizational factors related to the flow of information and IT systems. Due to financial and organisational restrictions, the originally planned representative sample of retail chains was limited to the regions of Wielkopolska and Lubuskie. In the end, 105 interviews were analysed. Results:  The results obtained in the research sample confirm assumptions about the possible potential savings that can be achieved as a result of appropriately conducted corporate policies in the area of reverse logistics. A correlation was also revealed between the experience and competencies of staff and the efficiency of returns management. Conclusions: Research into the factors affecting the efficiency of returns management and any savings resulting from returns management policies have not been conducted in Poland to date. The present study contributes to the growing trend of research into the

  20. Local-scale analysis of temperature patterns over Poland during heatwave events

    Krzyżewska, Agnieszka; Dyer, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Heatwaves are predicted to increase in frequency, duration, and severity in the future, including over Central Europe where populations are sensitive to extreme temperature. This paper studies six recent major heatwave events over Poland from 2006 through 2015 using regional-scale simulations (10-km grid spacing, hourly frequency) from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to define local-scale 2-m temperature patterns. For this purpose, a heatwave is defined as at least three consecutive days with maximum 2-m air temperature exceeding 30 °C. The WRF simulations were validated using maximum daily 2-m temperature observations from 12 meteorological stations in select Polish cities, which were selected to have even spatial coverage across the study area. Synoptic analysis of the six study events shows that the inflow of tropical air masses from the south is the primary driver of heatwave onset and maintenance, the highest temperatures (and most vulnerable areas) occur over arable land and artificial surfaces in central and western Poland, while coastal areas in the north, mountain areas in the south, and forested and mosaic areas of smaller fields and pastures of the northwest, northeast, and southeast are less affected by prolonged periods of elevated temperatures. In general, regional differences in 2-m temperature between the hottest and coolest areas is about 2-4 °C. Large urban areas like Warsaw, or the large complex of artificial areas in the conurbation of Silesian cities, are also generally warmer than surrounding areas by roughly 2-4 °C, and even up to 6 °C, especially during the night. Additionally, hot air from the south of Poland flows through a low-lying area between two mountain ranges (Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains)—the so-called Moravian Gate—hitting densely populated urban areas (Silesian cities) and Cracow. These patterns occur only during high-pressure synoptic conditions with low cloudiness and wind and without any active fronts

  1. Content of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the leaves of coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L. in Poland

    Artur Adamczak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L. is a common species, widely used in European and Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory diseases. However, raw material from this plant contains hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The aim of the study was to determine the variability of the level of PAs (senkirkine and senecionine in leaves of coltsfoot originated from natural populations in Poland. In the phytochemical analysis, 20 samples of T. farfara were used. This plant material was obtained from the Garden of Medicinal Plants in Plewiska near Poznań and originated from different regions of Poland. Coltsfoot leaves were harvested in the middle of July of 2010 and then dried at room temperature. The alkaloid content was detected using the HPLC-DAD method. The amount of PAs in leaves of T. farfara changed in a wide range from 0.06 to 1.04 μg g−1 of dry matter (DM. The content of senkirkine and senecionine was positively correlated (r = 0.68, P = 0.001. There was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of PAs as well as leaf weight and water content in leaves of T. farfara. Our results showed that a medium-sized leaf of coltsfoot (0.33 g DM may contain from 0.02 to 0.34 μg of PAs (on average 0.14 μg. The level of PAs was not associated with the region of Poland, but phytochemical similarity of samples was usually visible at the local scale. Coltsfoot leaves are characterized by a high variability of the content of toxic PAs, much higher than in the case of the main active compounds, especially flavonoids and mucilage. This phytochemical variability is mainly genetically determined (samples came from a garden collection, and it can be increased by environmental factors. Our investigations indicate that Polish natural populations of T. farfara may provide raw material with a low level of toxic PAs.

  2. [The role of bioethics committees in the systems protecting scientific biomedical research participants in France and in Poland].

    Czarkowski, Marek; Sieczych, Alicja

    2013-08-01

    Bioethics committees are along with ethic regulations and rules of law one of three main pillars in the system of protection of scientific biomedical research participants. Although principal directives for bioethics committees are established by international guidelines, detailed regulations may differ in particular states. The aim of this article was to compare two bioethic committees systems: French and Polish one. Historical beginnings of the bioethics committees system in France and in Poland are briefly mentioned, Subsequently, the networks of bioethics committees in both countries are compared. Although the number of bioethics committees (Research Ethic Committees) in both countries is comparable, the procedure of their establishment varies. French committees are based on administrative division of the country and divide on regional and interregional committees. In Poland, bioethics committees are established by medical universities, medical research and development units or regional chambers of physicians and dentists. In France there is no equivalent of Appeal Bioethics Committee, however one could appeal from the negative bioethics committee's opinion. The composition of French bioethics committees is more diverse and half of the members are not related to medical professions. Members of French committees are named on indefinite term by headmaster of Regional Health Agency after having been chosen in competition for the post. In Poland members are called on three-year-term but the rotation of members is not overwhelming since there is no limit of terms for one member. French legal solutions seems more secure for scientific bioethics research participants. For this reason, a detailed research on legislation in other countries is necessary before introducing any new regulations in Polish law.

  3. Temporal and spatial complementarity of wind and solar resources in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Jurasz, Jakub; Wdowikowski, Marcin; Kaźmierczak, Bartosz; Dąbek, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the concept of temporal and spatial complementarity of wind and solar resources in Lower Silesia (south-wester Poland). For the purpose of our research we have used hourly load and energy yield from photovoltaics and wind turbines covering period 2010-2014. In order to assess the spatial complementarity we have divided the considered voivodeship into 74 squared regions with maximal area of 400 km2. The obtained results indicate an existence of temporal complementarity on a monthly time scale and a positive correlation between load and wind generation patterns (also on a monthly time scale). The temporal complementarity for hourly time series in relatively low but has potential to smooth the energy generation curves.

  4. ANALYSIS OF TENDENCIES IN AGRIBUSINESS NETWORKING COOPETITION IN POLAND AND IN THE PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Waldemar BOJAR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper following the case of Spain, Greece, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Lithuania and Poland development tendencies of SME agri-food networking organizations in the light of coopetition were presented. Supporting development of those organizations using the EU funds is to ensure sustainable development of rural areas and it is attempted to defy domination of huge food processing and distributing corporations through integration and strengthening market power of agricultural producers. It results from the analysis that important role in new the EU member countries are played by endogenous factors as institutional undergrowth and low social capital level, what deteriorates the development of SME networks in those countries. Experience of Andalusia region in Spain benchmarked to organizations in new the EU member countries can give desired effects in the scope of improvement of co-operation with public sector, product marketing and promotion and also in facing expectations of consumers for safe and healthy food in international markets.

  5. New and interesting species of lichens from xerothermic habitats in NW Poland

    Anetta Wieczorek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on the occurrence of lichens in xerothermic grasslands, representing a great mycological peculiarity of the NW part of Pomerania, Poland. The 12 examined specimens of six species originated from fieldwork carried out in 2011–2014 in the nature reserves Brodogóry, Stary Przylep, Bielinek, Wrzosowiska Cedyńskie, Prof. Adam Wodziczko Nature Reserve in the Wolin National Park, and an old chalk excavation site on Wolin Island. Within the study sites, four lichen species were recorded as a new to Western Pomerania: Agonimia gelatinosa, Collema cristatum, Dermatocarpon luridum, and Leptogium subtile. The other two species, Collema auriforme and C. flaccidum, are rarely observed in the studied region.

  6. Soil Contamination at the Historical Zn-Pb Ore Mining Sites (Southern Poland

    Aleksander-Kwaterczak U.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of metals analyses in soil profiles sampled at two 18/19th century mine shafts of the Trzebinia lead-zinc ore mining region in southern Poland are presented. Waste dump sites located at these shafts exhibit initial pedogenesis with clear differences in zinc and cadmium content between soil horizons which changes in depth across each of the investigated dump. The highest metal concentrations occur in horizons containing excavated ore-bearing Triassic dolomites, soils buried beneath are less polluted whereas, initial A0 soil horizons are virtually unpolluted. Relatively low downward metal migration in profiles to the horizons underlying the dumps is related to alkaline pH of soils. Migration appear to be important in the more acidic soils of outer zones in the two dump sites overgrown either with coniferous and deciduous trees.

  7. Family socio-economic profile and private spending on educational goods and services in Poland

    Magdalena Rokicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to theory, educational goods and services have an important impact on a child’s human capital. Although the majority of educational services in Poland are delivered within a public education system, various educational costs are borne by parents. This paper looks at the socio-economic determinants of private spending on education, including fees, private tutoring and courses, educational goods and materials, and the internet. The analysis was performed using the Polish Household Budget Survey for 2009 and 2010. Results from a logit regression suggest that disposable household income per capita and parental level of education, especially mother’s level of education have the greatest impact on spending on educational goods and services. This was true for all analysed categories of expenditure. Regional disparities and community size were an important factor especially with regards to spending on private tutoring and additional courses.

  8. Functioning of the direct subsidies system in Poland and other European Union countries

    Renata Marks-Bielska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to present the functioning of the direct subsidies system in Poland. Given the profitable nature of this instrument the particular attention has been paid to the disposal of funds received by agricultural producers in the region of Warmia and Mazury in the form of subsidies. There is no doubt that the direct payments represent an important aid instrument supporting agriculture within the frameworks of the first pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy. The survey revealed that subsidies have significantly contributed to the improvement of financial condition of farms. Funds received in the form of direct payments have been mainly spent on financing current expenditures and to purchase means of production used in the farms (72.88%.

  9. Physical Investment Financing: The Cases of Poland and Latvia

    Żak Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present and compare the major sources of financing of physical investments in Poland and Latvia and to attempt to identify their determinants. The subject of the diagnosis is the corporate sector in Poland and i Latvia in the years 2005-2015.The article uses methodology, developed by C. Mayer, J. Corbett and T. Jenkinson, that is based on the net sources of finance. The financial data analysed in the article come from the capital and financial accounts, constituting the element of the integrated system of national accounts. Assuming that in a given period of time, the sources of finance (revenue are equal to their use (expenditure, it is possible to estimate the structure of financing of physical investments in the corporate sector. The practical dimension of the analysis should be viewed as an indication for identifying changes in the area of financing of physical investments in enterprises in the two countries.

  10. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation post Stroke in Poland 2010

    Opara, Jozef; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Rationale -The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early poststroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments......? Aims - Growing costs of health care are encouraging healthcare planners to look for new organizational solutions of services which could enable rehabilitation as early as possible after disease onset. Early post-stroke rehabilitation consists of many elements that provide for early onset rehabilitation...... and its continuation after discharge from stroke unit. Participants - Two questionnaires evaluating neurorehabilitation of people who underwent stroke was designed and distributed: first to 221 neurological wards and second to 154 rehabilitation departments in Poland. Design - We asked about delay before...

  11. Possible consequences of severe accidents at the Lubiatowo site, Poland

    Seibert, Petra; Philipp, Anne; Hofman, Radek; Gufler, Klaus; Sholly, Steven

    2014-05-01

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is under consideration in Poland. One of the sites under discussion is near Lubiatowo, located on the cost of the Baltic Sea northwest of Gdansk. An assessment of possible environmental consequences is carried out for 88 real meteorological cases with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. Based on literature research, three reactor designs (ABWR, EPR, AP 1000) were identified as being under discussion in Poland. For each of the designs, a set of accident scenarios was evaluated and two source terms per reactor design were selected for analysis. One of the selected source terms was a relatively large release while the second one was a severe accident with an intact containment. Considered endpoints of the calculations are ground contamination with Cs-137 and time-integrated concentrations of I-131 in air as well as committed doses. They are evaluated on a grid of ca. 3 km mesh size covering eastern Central Europe.

  12. Beyond convergence: Poland and Turkey en route to high income

    Martin Raiser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts the policy reform experiences of Poland and Turkey en route to high income. For both countries, globalization has presented unprecedented opportunities to catch up, unleased by integration into European and global markets and the establishment of macroeconomic discipline. These opportunities were reinforced by the creation of economic institutions to strengthen competition and support private entrepreneurship, catalyzed by the convergence process with the European Union. Both Poland and Turkey have shown resilience following the 2008 global crisis, but continued success will require renewed structural reform measures. Dealing with the challenging of aging while at the same time finding a way to sustain productivity growth through greater domestic innovation is shaping Poland’s policy agenda. Turkey's structural and demographic potential as well as its strategic location between the markets of Europe and Asia offers attractive value proposition to investors, which could be further enhanced with improvements in business regulations and economic governance.

  13. Tax wedge in Croatia, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Greece

    Marin Onorato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the tax burden on labour income in Croatia, Austria, Greece, Hungary and Poland in 2013. The Taxing Wages methodology has been applied to hypothetical units across a range of gross wages in order to calculate net average tax wedge, net average tax rate, as well as other relevant indicators. When it comes to single workers without children, the smallest tax wedge for workers earning less than the average gross wage was found in Croatia, while Poland had the smallest tax wedge for above-average wages. Due to a progressive PIT system, the tax wedge for a single worker in Croatia reaches 50% at 400% of the average gross wage, equalling that of Austria, Greece and Hungary. Tax wedges for couples with two children show a similar trend.

  14. Morphometric comparison of pumpkinseed (Centrarchidae populations in Poland

    Grzegorz Zięba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of morphometric differentiation between two populations of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus inhabiting distinctively different habitats in north-west Poland was examined. Fish were collected at sites that differ in water temperature and hydrology – an ambient temperature, urban pond vs an artificially-heated drainage channel, respectively. In principal component analysis, the first and second components, which accounted for 40% and 11 %, respectively, of the variability between the habitat types, revealed that the observed differences were related to head and body dimensions, with specimens from the heated site having generally larger heads, higher bodies, and longer anterior components. Larger body size is normally associated with greater survival in unnatural and highly variable environments. This study was funded by the National Science Centre, Poland (decision No DEC-2011/01/D/NZ8/01807.

  15. Poland - seaborne bulk trade hampered by rising transport costs

    Beechener, J

    1991-12-01

    The article considers trade development in major dry bulk commodities, coal, cement, iron ore and grains. Aspects covered for coal are production and exports. All coal mines in Poland are state owned. Coal production has fallen from an annual output in excess of 190 mta in the late 1980s, to under 150 mt in 1990. Output for 1991 is forecast at around 142 mt. Exports have also declined from 36 mtce in the late 1980s to an estimated 20 mt in 1991. Various factors are cited for the changing fortunes of Poland's coal industry but the most significant is the introduction of market forces to a previously centrally planned economy. Topics discussed for coal include: restructuring the coal industry for privatisation; eliminating subsidies; and export destinations. 5 tabs., 6 photos.

  16. The sex reform movement and eugenics in interwar Poland.

    Gawin, Magdalena

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the relations between a liberal group of sex reformers, consisting of writers and literary critics, and physicians from the Polish Eugenics Society in interwar Poland. It illustrates the paradoxes of the mutual co-operation between these two groups during the 1930s and analyses the reason why compulsory sterilisation was rejected by politicians. From the early 1930s two movements began to forge an alliance in Poland: the sexual reform movement which advocated freedom of the individual, and eugenics, which called for limiting the freedom of the individual for the collective good. This paper draws attention to several issues which emerged as part of this collaboration: population politics, the relationship between reformers, eugenicists and state institutions, and the question of how both movements--eugenics and sexual reform--perceived the question of sexuality, birth control and abortion. It will also focus on those aspects of their thinking that led to mutual co-operation.

  17. DIFFERENTIATION OF WELFARE OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN POLAND IN 2012

    Krystyna Hanusik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research in focus was the material welfare of households. In particular, there were analysed the level and differentiation of the welfare of rural households in 2012, after more than twenty years of developing of market economy in Poland. In addition, there was examined the relationship between income, consumer spending and household equipment and the level and differentiation of measures of the welfare distinguished by the criterion of the main sources of income of households groups. In the study both econometrical and statistical analysis was used. The study was based on primarily source of information coming from the panel study of household budgets conducted by the Central Statistical Office, as well as the data contained in the statistical yearbooks of the Republic of Poland.

  18. Participative environmental management and social capital in Poland

    Hunka, Agnieszka; De Groot, Wouter T

    2011-01-01

    with a ubiquitous top-down approach taken by institutional decision-makers. The paper addresses this problem from the perspective of social capital theory. A study of administrative culture and decision-making processes shows the way decisions are currently made. We also propose a way to achieve more participative......Eastern European countries, such as Poland, are often used as exemplary in social capital studies. Upon entering the European Union, the low social capital level in Poland posed problems with implementing new regulations, particularly in the environmental policy field. Environmental issues often...... present a high degree of complexity – and European legislation requires multi-stakeholder involvement in decision-making processes. Thus, the dilemma: on the one hand, there is a demand to engage and consult many actors; on the other hand, low social capital contributes to an administrative culture...

  19. Distribution of Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae in Poland

    Ewa Szczęśniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Azolla filiculoides has been an ephemeral plant in Poland since the end of the 20th century. In the last 15 years this species appeared in 5 locations in south-west Poland. Habitat and plants of two populations became destroyed, three other still exist. A. filiculoides occurs in eutrophic or even polluted water where it forms dense mats, up to 10 cm thick. It stays sterile and propagates only in a vegetative manner. Frost resistance of Lower Silesia populations is higher than reported so far; fern may winter and rebuild the population after frost reaching 22oC. Size of the populations is changeable during the vegetation season. A. filiculoides occurs in water habitats and plant communities in which it substitutes Lemna minor.

  20. Microbeam X-ray analysis in Poland - past and future

    Kusinski, J

    2010-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of electron beam X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) in Poland. Since the introduction by Prof. Bojarski of EMPA over 45 years ago, tremendous advances in methodologies and in instrumentation have been made in order to improve the precision of quantitative compositional analysis, spatial resolution and analytical sensitivity. This was possible due to the activity of Applied Crystallography Committee at the Polish Academy of Sciences, as well as the groups of researches working in the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (Gliwice), the Technical University of Warsaw, the Silesian Technical University (Katowice), the AGH-University of Sciences and Technology (Krakow), and the Institute of Materials Science and Metallurgy Polish Academy of Sciences (Krakow). Based on the research examples realized by these teams, conferences, seminars and congresses organized, as well as books and academic textbooks issued, the evolution of electron beam X-ray microanalysis in Poland is demonstrated.

  1. Multifunctionality of Organic Farming: Case Study from Southern Poland

    Śpiewak Ruta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to answer the question whether organic farming, which is developing in some parts of Poland, can be considered as a form of multifunctional farming and contribute so to non-commodity functions and the process of change in a particular territory of given areas. The analyses are based on data obtained from 2013 of several points in the south of Poland representing a cluster of organic market oriented farmers. The results show that namely market organic farming may serve as multifunctional one, but only under certain conditions and for a specific type of farming. Through specific functions, organic farming facilitates the changes, primarily on a local scale. The existence of a strong integrated organic farming sector might influences development and change, resulting in not only the improvement of economic welfare of organic farmers, but also of whole local communities, strengthening the bonds amongst them, mobilising the social resources.

  2. Masculist Groups in Poland: Aids of Mainstream Antifeminism

    Katarzyna Wojnicka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role masculist groups currently play in fostering resistance to feminist-influenced efforts to advance the autonomy and equality of women in Poland, where the strong influence of the Polish Catholic Church continues to shape attitudes and actions in professional, governmental and civil society spheres. The paper argues that Polish public discourse since 1989 has been strongly dominated by antifeminist rhetoric advanced by masculist groups. This rhetoric is not only used in the media and in political discourse; it also influences legislation and thus hinders efforts to secure a satisfactory level of equality for women, evidenced in struggles over abortion reform, the Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women, and the trivialisation of rape. The findings of the paper are based on qualitative social research on men’s social movements in Poland between 2009 and 2012 and on qualitative media discourse analysis of articles published between 2009 and 2014.

  3. Big Words, Little Results: the Chinese Investments in Poland from the Political Perspective

    Michał Lubina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017 statistics showed that Chinese Foreign Direct Investments (FDI in Poland for 2016 amounted to a more than half of all Chinese FDI in Poland for the 2000–2016. Yet the overall amount of Chinese FDI remains modest in comparison with Western Europe or even with Hungary. Despite much proclaimed Sino-Polish rapprochement in 2015–2016 and high hopes for OBOR/BRI initiative in Poland, cooperation with China has not been a breakthrough for Poland in terms of economic results. There have not been ground-breaking Sino-Polish projects and Polish government’s desire to strengthen ties with China loosened in late 2016/early 2017 (though it may revive now.There are several reasons for that, from the perception of Poland as non-attractive for majority Chinese investments, via lack of overall Polish strategy of attracting these investors to discrepancies of economic interests between Poland and China.

  4. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF OLDER PEOPLE IN POLAND – SELECTED ISSUES

    Różański, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the issues of educational activity of the elderly in Poland. Defining the term “old age” and drawing attention to the issue of human adaptation to old age were the starting points of the discussion. Next, the most important issues concerning the activity of seniors were raised. Further discussed were the conditions and objectives of the educational activity of older people. An attention was also drawn to the role of institutions, promoting education and culture, in ...

  5. Music in Nazi-Occupied Poland between 1939 and 1945

    Naliwajek-Mazurek Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The paper is a survey of research on music in territories of occupied Poland conducted by the author in recent years, as well as a review of selected existing literature on this topic. A case study illustrates a principal thesis of this essay according to which music was used by the German Nazis in the General Government as a key elements of propaganda and in appropriation of conquered territories as both physical and symbolic spaces.

  6. Music in Nazi-Occupied Poland between 1939 and 1945

    Naliwajek-Mazurek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a survey of research on music in territories of occupied Poland conducted by the author in recent years, as well as a review of selected existing literature on this topic. A case study illustrates a principal thesis of this essay according to which music was used by the German Nazis in the General Government as a key elements of propaganda and in appropriation of conquered territories as both physical and symbolic spaces.

  7. Assessment of cyanobacteria impact on bathing water quality in Poland

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of bathing water is of key importance for bathers’ health, mainly due to the fact, that each year millions of people use bathing sites as places for recreation and sport activities. Most of the bathing sites are of adequate quality of water, but still there are cases of health risk because bathing water is polluted. One of the main health risk factor in bathing water are cyanobacteria and their blooms. Cyanobacteria are microorganisms of morphological features of bacteria and algae. They live in colonies, which in large quantities show up as streaks, dense foam on the water surface. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of cyanobacteria blooms on health regarding bathing water quality in Poland. Materials and methods: Assessment covered all bathing sites in Poland supervised by Polish National Sanitary Inspection (PIS in the period from 2007 to 2009. The base was data collected during bathing water monitoring conducted by PIS and their formal decisions of bathing bans introduced in response to revealed bathing water pollution. Results and discussion: The results of assessment indicate, that about one-fourth of all bathing bans in Poland was due to cyanobacteria blooms. Conclusions: Every fifth bathing sites located on artificial lake or water reservoir and every tenth on the sea bathing sites were polluted. Average period of bathing ban due to cyanobacteria blooms in Poland varies. Relatively the shortest bathing bans were observed on the sea bathing sites (no longer than one week on average. Much longer were bathing bans on lakes and artificial lakes (one month on average.

  8. Radon-enriched spring waters in the South of Poland

    Kozlowska, B.; Hetman, A.; Dorda, J.; Zipper, W.

    2001-01-01

    A method for determination of 222 Rn in natural water samples which involves a Wallac 1414 Win Spectral α/β liquid scintillation counter is described. Samples were collected from springs in health resorts in the Sudety Mountains in Poland. Half of the studied water samples were radon enriched with an activity concentration higher then 74 Bq/l. Seasonal variations of 222 Rn in these waters are under investigation. The method introduced is very convenient and elegant for radon activity measurements.

  9. Professional Training Of Specialists In International Marketing In Poland

    Żukowski Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Polish experience in training specialists in international marketing in the context of globalization and integration processes has been studied. A range of theoretical resources, namely Market Entry Strategy for Poland; the articles dedicated to international marketing and economy development (W. Grzegorczyk, M. Viachevskyi, M. Urbanetst); program specifications and structures at Polish universities, namely University of Lodz and Collegium Civitas, have been analyzed. It has been defined that...

  10. Hepatotoxic cyanobacterial blooms in lakes of northern Poland

    Mankiewicz, J.; Komárková, Jaroslava; Izydorczyk, K.; Jurczak, T.; Tarczynska, M.; Zalewski, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2005), s. 499-506 ISSN 1520-4081 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004 Grant - others:MIDI-CHIP(PL) EVK2-CT1999-00026, EVK2-2002-00546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : cyanobacteria * cyanotoxins * N-Poland lakes * recreational water * PPIA * HPLC Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.215, year: 2005

  11. Volvariella surrecta - a new species in the mycoflora of Poland

    Dorota Celka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Volvariella surrecta (Knapp Sing. (Pluteaceae in Poland. Its fruit bodies were found on 20 October 2000 in an oak-hornbeam wood in the southern part of Pomań. The parasitic V. surrecta grew on decaying sporophores of Lepista nebularis and Melanoleuca brevipes. The article also describes the macroscopic and microscpic characteristics of the discovered specimens.

  12. Emigration preferences and plans among medical students in Poland

    Krajewski-Siuda Krzysztof

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared.

  13. Environmental aspects of hard coal mines closure in Poland

    Chaber, M.; Krogulski, K.; Gawlik, L.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental problems that arise during the closure processes of hard coal mines in Poland are undertaken in the paper. The problems of changes in water balance in rock mass are described with a stress put on underground water management. Regulation concerning ground reclamation and utilisation and removal of existing heat and power plants which after the mines closure will continue to supply surrounding consumers are stressed and the possible solutions are shown. 13 refs

  14. Erysiphales of the Drawski Landscape Park (NW Poland

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the presentation of results of a 3-year investigation on the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales in the Drawski Landscape Park (north-western Poland. The list of occurrence of members of Erysiphales presented includes 31 next species and 15 species found on plants not mentioned in the previous paper. Additionally, the occurrence of the powdery mildew fungi in 12 permanent plots with nine plant associations was presented and compared.

  15. MONETARY POLICY RULE FOR POLAND – RESULTS FOR VARIOUS SPECIFACTIONS

    Pawel Baranowski

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse monetary policy rules for Poland. We estimate models based on the proposition of Taylor, augmented with interest rate smoothing. We deal with the case of instantaneous as well as forward-looking relationship between interest rate and inflation. In the latter case, the proposition of data-rich reaction function was also considered. The evidence show that Polish monetary authority reaction to inflation is strong, contrary to the output gap. In addition, we fou...

  16. Implementing inflation targeting regimes: The case of Poland

    Gottschalk, Jan; Moore, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper assesses the prospects for the new Polish monetary policy strategy of inflation targeting. Regarding the general requirements for implementing an inflation targeting strategy it appears that Poland has made sufficient progress in reducing fiscal dominance and hardening budget constraints. The paper also finds that the exchange rate has played a dominant role as a policy instrument, with the linkages between the short-term interest rate and inflation remaining unclear. Given this un...

  17. Imagining Nuclear Future in Socialist Poland. Plans and Dreams

    Kůželová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2017), s. 35-54 ISSN 0023-589X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04902S Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Poland * Czechoslovakia * nuclear energy Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  18. A DECADE OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN POLAND.

    Lipska, Iga; McAuslane, Neil; Leufkens, Hubert; Hövels, Anke

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate and provide a better understanding of the role of health technology assessment (HTA) processes in decision making for drug reimbursement in Poland and how this approach could be considered by other countries of limited resources. We analyzed the evolution of the HTA system and processes in Poland over the past decade and current developments based on publicly available information. The role of HTA in drug-reimbursement process in Poland has increased substantially over the recent decade, starting in 2005 with the formation the Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (AOTMiT). The key success factors in this development were effective capacity building based on the use of international expertise, the implementation of transparent criteria into the drug reimbursement processes, and the selective approach to the adoption of innovative medicines based on the cost-effectiveness threshold among other criteria. While Poland is regarded as a leader in Central and Eastern Europe, there is room for improvement, especially with regard to the quality of HTA processes and the consistency of HTA guidelines with reimbursement law. In the "pragmatic" HTA model use by AOTMiT, the pharmaceutical company is responsible for the preparation of a reimbursement dossier of good quality in line with HTA guidelines while the assessment team in AOTMiT is responsible for critical review of that dossier. Adoption of this model may be considered by other countries with limited resources to balance differing priorities and ensure transparent and objective access to medicines for patients who need them.

  19. Market Report : The high-voltage transmission market in Poland

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    In order to meet the accession requirements for membership to the European Union, Poland is currently restructuring its energy sector, and the initiative to privatise the electric power industry to full competition by 2005 is on course. This report describes the opportunities for foreign investors and suppliers of electrical equipment and services, particularly at this time when power demand is growing, the power grid infrastructure is ageing and obsolete components must be replaced. The total installed capacity in Poland is about 33,000 megawatts. This includes all installations of power plants and combined heat and power plants. An investment of $23 billion is anticipated by 2010 in order to modernize the electricity power industry and to meet the growing energy demand. Polski Siece Elektroenergetyczne, S.A. (PSE) is the state-owned company which controls Poland's high-voltage transmission grid. It operates a 220 kilovolt and 40 kV grid and holds the monopoly on acquiring and transmitting electricity in the country. Poland maintains grid interconnections with several other European countries and is looking to expand its network. Opportunities for Canadian suppliers lie in the areas of high-voltage power transmission equipment and services. Other opportunities lie in commercial prospects in sales of equipment and services. The report includes a section on international competition, and the Canadian position for both private- and public-sector companies. A section on market logistics describes distribution channels, market-entry considerations, import regulations, and export credit risks. A list of key contacts and support services is included with this report. refs., tabs.

  20. Attitudes towards conscientious objection among community pharmacists in Poland

    Piecuch, Anna; Gryka, Malwina; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Council Resolution 1763 (2010), “The right to conscientious objection in lawful medical care”, provoked a discussion among Polish pharmacists on the necessity for granting them the right to refuse to dispense medicinal products which invoke conscientious objection. Objective To explore attitudes of Polish pharmacists towards the conscience clause. Setting Pharmacies with public e-mail addresses in various parts of Poland (Lower Silesia Province, Mazovia Province, Kuyav...

  1. Metadata Harvesting in Regional Digital Libraries in the PIONIER Network

    Mazurek, Cezary; Stroinski, Maciej; Werla, Marcin; Weglarz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to present the concept of the functionality of metadata harvesting for regional digital libraries, based on the OAI-PMH protocol. This functionality is a part of regional digital libraries platform created in Poland. The platform was required to reach one of main objectives of the Polish PIONIER Programme--to enrich the…

  2. First record of Stenopelmus rufinasus Gyllenhal, 1835 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae from Poland

    Wanat Marek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stenopelmus rufinasus, a North American weevil introduced to Europe along with the invasive aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides, has been recorded from Poland for the first time. Its locality is a natural oxbow lake of the River Odra in Wrocław, the only city in Poland where A. filiculoides has been repeatedly recorded over the last dozen years. The diagnostic characters of this weevil species, its biology, current distribution in Europe and its prospects in Poland are discussed.

  3. The Politics and Policy of U.S. Bases in Poland: A Political-Military Analysis

    2012-12-01

    After its short-lived existence in the years 1918 -1939, Poland once more fell victim to the machinations of its powerful neighbors. The German and...Polish sovereignty on November 11, 1918 , Poland enjoyed its independence for period of 21 years.22 The new Poland was integrated within the French...Czech Republic as well as adding additional SM-3 interceptor site in Romania and an additional radar site in Turkey.81 However, “By wishing to avoid

  4. Social attitudes towards atomic energy in Poland in the period of 1989-1996

    Latek, S.

    1996-01-01

    The public opinion on the atomic energy and its future development in Poland have been discussed on the base of four inquiring actions results carried out in Poland in 1989, 1991, 1994 and 1996. The general conclusion was that public acceptance for nuclear power generation in Poland was rather low however the attitudes towards the subject differed very much between groups of people with selected features being investigated e.g. age, sex, education. 4 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Environmental regulatory reform in Poland: lessons for industrializing economies

    Brown, H.S.; Angel, D. [Clark University, Worcester, MA (USA). George Perkins Marsh Institute

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines the environmental regulatory reform in Poland during the 1990s and uses the findings to consider the extent to which elements of successful regulatory systems are transferable across national boundaries. Drawing on five case studies of privatized firms, a mailed questionnaire, and policy and institutional analysis, it investigates how Poland developed an effective system for managing industrial pollution while also achieving considerable socioeconomic progress. The fundamental legitimacy of the regulators and regulatory process, the availability of information about firms and regulatory intents, and the capacity for case-specific decision-making are among the key explanatory factors. The study also shows how in Poland a good 'fit' between regulatory institutions and policies on one hand and their social context on the other hand has evolved, and how it contributes to the effectiveness of the regulatory system. Industrializing economies can indeed simultaneously pursue environmental protection and socioeconomic welfare, but elements of a proven regulatory system cannot be automatically adopted among countries and cultures. Learning from each other's experience must be sensitive to the cultural and institutional context of each regulatory system. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Geographical analysis of the Uredinales flora of Poland

    Tomasz Majewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the Polish flora of the order Uredinales is based on a simultaneously published descriptive elaboration (M a j e w s k i 1977, ms. The information on the Uredinales flora of Poland has been compared as far as possible with the data obtained from the analysis of the flora of sever al other countries in Europe with a different type of vegetations. In a chapter devoted to the statistics of the flora of Polish rust fungi the number of genera and species of these fungi in Poland is discussed, as well as their life cycles and host plants. The distribution of Uredinales in Poland is analysed on the basis of the A r w i d s s o n - D u r r i e u classification modified by the author, and particular attention is paid to the depedence of the range of the fungus on its life cycle and the occurrence of the host. Changes in the flora a result of its synantropization are also considered. The Polish Uredinales are divided into several groups on the basis of range, and example of their distribution involving historical factors are discussed.

  7. Monetary policy change of the Central bank of Poland

    Kraś Ireneusz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Bank of Poland is an institution which, in conjunction with the government is responsible for the implementation of country’s economic policy reinforces its democratic character. Provisions of its operation are governed by the Constitution of The Republic of Poland and by the Act on the National Bank of Poland. To this end, the objective of the present research is to analyse the proposed amendments in the Act on the NBP. The latter concerns the amendment procedures, term of office and the rotations and numbers of Monetary Policy Council. The remaining part of the analyses is dedicated to the issue of dismissal of a MPC’s member in conjunction with the prohibition of occupying other positions, the adoption of the NBP’s financial statements and the separation of instruments of monetary policy’s instruments for stability of domestic financial system. Introduced changes in the proposed draft reduce the independence of the NBP while making it more subject to the Cabinet. Following the result of further consultations on the draft of Act on the NBP, provisions which reduce the independence of the NBP shall be partially removed.

  8. REPORTING OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN SMES SECTOR IN POLAND

    B. Kotowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Poland and worldwide, corporate social responsibility has a growing interest of managers, business institutions, investors and the government. Thus, it becomes progressively determinant of corporate governance and priority in building a comprehensive development strategy. CSR is used by large companies. However, this does not mean that SMEs sector companies operate less responsible than large one. Each enterprise, regardless of size, operates in a specific social surroundings and market environment, which are affected by different groups of stakeholders. They may affect enterprise reinforcing effect on - contribute to its success or failure. It is therefore important that the managers should be able to identify social groups in the enterprise and its environment and respect their claims, needs, rights and expectations. The aim of this paper is to show the application of CSR by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland and the manner of result presentation. This article lists tools of corporate social responsibility, examples of practices and research results in the SMEs sector in Poland.

  9. Present state of the telecommunications market in Poland

    Zielinski, Andrzej

    2003-10-01

    This statement shortly describes the changes in the telecommunication market that have taken place in the last 12 years, during the socio-economical transformation in Poland. It concerns economical, legal and technical problems related to the development of the telecommunications in Poland based on the principles of the market economy. Especially it is related to the commercialization of this sector, what has been a result of the changes of the principal law ruling the national economy including changes ot the telecommunication law. Changes of the law enabled the creation of the commercial company Polish Telecom and opened the way to the privatization of this company. Due to the changed law the way to the step-by-step liberalization and de-monopolization process has been also opened in Poland. It has caused fully digital modernization of telecommunication network, introduction new services such as cellular communications and Internet services, as well as rapid development of the market, what has expressed in multiplication of number of subscribers of stationary telephony, creation of the big cellular market and new increasing Internet market. The statemnet also refers to present difficulties in development of this market and as well as to the prospects for the future developments.

  10. The Roman Catholic parish in Poland as the local community

    Mariański Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman Catholic Church a parish is the smallest legal unit and it is the milieu for religious, social, and cultural activities for a group of people joined together in a geographical area. The purpose of this article is a sociological study examining the Catholic parish in Poland as a local community. Today a parish along with its community is exposed to social change and to myriad forces characteristic of the postmodern culture. In Poland two opposite forces characterize the life of a parish community: on the one side, secularization and individualization, and on the other side, socialization and evangelization. The subjective dimension of a local community, which is related to identification of people with a local parish, along with social bonds with the parish as a local community, are discussed in the first two sections of the article. In subsequent sections some issues related to common activities, membership in movements, religious communities, and Catholic associations within the parish will be presented. While the agency of people in the parish community is theoretically acknowledged, it is still not fully implemented. The discussion is based on the data obtained from major public opinion institutes in Poland.

  11. Nuclear Poland? The second approach after 20 years

    Sawicki, L.; Gołębiewski, T.; Fornalski, K.W.; Gadja, D.

    2015-07-01

    Poland’s plan for reorganization of its energy mix is to construct several nuclear reactors (2 NPPs with number of units depending on reactor type) of total capacity 6000 MW. It is assumed that energy from NPPs will provide up to 19% of the electricity production in Poland after 2035. Currently there is no nuclear power plant in operation. The previous nuclear programme was canceled in 1990. Almost 20 years later Polish government has undertaken second attempt to construct first NPP by adoption of The Polish Nuclear Power Program in January 2014. Since that moment were started intensive preparations to implement many legal regulations related to future nuclear industry in Poland e.g. Atomic Law amendment. In the same year the Owner’s Engineer was chosen by the main investor PGE S.A. Following “nuclear” a lot of Polish Universities launched studies connected with the subject to ensure employees for deployment and sustaining of nuclear technologies in Poland. This paper describes the rationale staying behind the government decision, present situation of Polish energy market and current work status. (Author)

  12. Characteristics of large thermal energy storage systems in Poland

    Zwierzchowski, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    In District Heating Systems (DHS) there are significant fluctuations in demand for heat by consumers during both the heating and the summer seasons. These variations are considered primarily in the 24-hour time horizon. These problems are aggravated further if the DHS is supplied by a CHP plant, because fluctuations in heat demand adversely affect to a significant degree the stable production of electricity at high overall efficiency. Therefore, introducing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) would be highly recommended on these grounds alone. The characteristics of Large (i.e. over 10 000 m3) TES in operation in Poland are presented. Information is given regarding new projects (currently in design or construction) that apply TES technology in DHS in Poland. The paper looks at the methodology used in Poland to select the TES system for a particular DHS, i.e., procedure for calculating capacity of the TES tank and the system to prevent water stored in the tank from absorbing oxygen from atmospheric air. Implementation of TES in DHS is treated as a recommended technology in the Polish District Heating sector. This technology offers great opportunities to improve the operating conditions of DHS, cutting energy production costs and emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere.

  13. Men and Women Wage Differences in Spain and Poland

    Aleksandra Matuszewska-Janica

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Men and women wage differences is a widely discuss topic in the literature. Some authors point the fact that size of gender wage gap (GPG is not the same across wage distribution. GPG ratio is accelerating at the top of it. Thus, the main goal of presented study is to analyse impact of outliers (top earners on the values of GPG ratio and results of its decomposition. In addition we compare outcomes obtained for Spain and Poland. Elimination outliers from the sample will reduce values of men and women wage gap ratios not only in unadjusted form but in adjusted form as well. Study is based upon the Eurostat’s Structure of Earnings Survey (SES individual data in respect of 2014. In the paper we discuss results of Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition (in extension proposed by Oaxaca and Ransom obtained for Spain and Poland. Obtained results indicated two points above all. Firstly, although unadjusted GPG ratios for Spain and Poland differ significantly, the adjusted GPG ratios are at the same level (about 15%. Such situation shows the real men and women wage differences are at the same level in both countries. This is an additional indication that women situation on Polish labour market in similar to the Spanish one. Secondly, after elimination of outliers the values of GPG measures (in adjusted and unadjusted form decreased, as was expected. These falls came to approximately 3 p.p. It can be considered as significant change.

  14. SOCIAL MEDIA IN POLAND – GREAT POTENTIAL UTILIZED BY FEW

    Michael SEDKOWSKI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media are very popular around the world. More and more people adopt this method of communication, as it brings instant and effective ways to stay in touch with ones relatives, coworkers, brands and products. Poland is no exception, as all major brands of the social sphere have decided to prepare localized versions of their product for the Polish market. One could say that Poland is following the global trends very accurately as Facebook has dominated the market and pushed out the indigenous services Brands and corporation utilize the medium to get in touch with their consumers. On the other side, there are public institutions like universities, local governments , that should be interested in getting in touch with people, as reaching out to one’s potential customers has never been easier. This is happening, but on a very small scale and many attempts fail. In this paper, Author explores the possible reasons behind the situation and attempts to form a prognosis for the market of social media in Poland.

  15. Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium caprae strains isolated in Poland.

    Krajewska-Wędzina, Monika; Kozińska, Monika; Orłowska, Blanka; Weiner, Marcin; Szulowski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Anusz, Krzysztof; Smith, Noel H

    2018-03-10

    Bovine tuberculosis (bovine TB, bTB) is caused by bovine bacilli: Mycobacterium bovis and M caprae The studies conducted in Poland, in the National Bovine Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory in the Department of Microbiology of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy, show that animal tuberculosis in Poland is also caused by M caprae We here describe the identification and genotypic assessment of 52 isolates of M caprae obtained from Polish cattle and wild animals over the last five years. We show that strains isolated from bison have significant genotypic diversity and are distinct compared with the genotypes of strains isolated from cattle. Similarly, isolates from cattle herds can be highly genotypically variable. Formal designation of the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is controversial in Poland; there is a gap in veterinary legislation with regard to bTB and no explicit mention of M caprae causing tuberculosis in animal. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS IN POLAND – AN ATTEMPT TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY*

    Ruta Śpiewak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural organizations play an important role in political decision-making at the local, national, and EU levels. However, it is diffi cult to estimate to what extent the size of public transfers to the Polish countryside is a direct eff ect of these organizations’ activity. The same question applies to farming privileges, which are much more numerous than those for other social groups in rural areas. One of the reasons for this stems from the fact that agricultural organizations in Poland have rarely been examined. The aim of this article is therefore to obtain a structured picture of agricultural organizations in Poland and to search for relations between their legal forms and statutory goals. The main types distinguished here include farmers’ trade unions, employers’ organizations, agribusiness organizations (agribusiness federations and unions, and associations. Taking into consideration the number of members and the thrust of activities, including impact on agricultural policy, the most important agricultural organizations in Poland seem to be the trade unions and agribusiness organizations. The substantive diff erence between them lies in their stated goals. Trade unions primarily indicate goals of a social nature. Federations of agribusiness organizations strive to support their members and promote policy changes, while agribusiness organizations work for the development of specialized farms.

  17. The influence of educational research on education in Poland

    Okoń, Wincenty

    1981-06-01

    There is no need nowadays to convince people that modern education cannot function properly without the help of scientific research, and especially of pedagogical research. It is true that there still appear many pedagogical works `inflated by wind', as Comenius expressed it more than three hundred years ago, and these publications may even acquire a temporary popularity. But the general trend towards the development of pedagogy as a discipline based on research has been established for quite some time and is constantly gaining strength in the developed countries. Concurrently, pedagogical disciplines have had increasing influence on the development of education. The question of how these disciplines have developed in Poland and how they have influenced the educational system calls for a broader review, such as to allow one to draw conclusions on how to harmonise more effectively the domain of educational research with that of education. Such a review is the aim of the present paper. The following issues are considered: the functions of educational research, the kinds of educational investigations conducted in Poland, ways of disseminating their findings, and the organisation of research in Poland. The paper ends with a discussion of some of the more important conclusions reached.

  18. DIRECTION OF INVESTMENTS AND SOURCES OF FUNDING ON HOTEL MARKET IN POLAND

    Anna Semmerling

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hotel market in Poland is related to trends on touristic market. This sector is developing dynamically, in Poland as in the whole world. In the years 2001-2014 numbers of hotels in Poland increased double. Most of new hotels are 4 and 5 stars. Important for new objects is building conference centres and SPA, which makes touristic season longer. Main source of finances hotel investments in Poland are own sources and EU funds. Crucial importance is the franchise. Forecasts for hotel market are really great. Till 2017 the count of tourists, who take advantage of hotels, should still increase.

  19. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  20. The mechanism for migration in Poland.

    Rykiel, Z

    1988-01-01

    The author reviews neoclassical theories and models of migration. The mobility theory, which concerns the impact of local labor markets on migration, is discussed in the Polish context. A general model of the regional labor market and a multicausal model are developed to explain the patterns of internal migration. The period of a managed economy (1949-1980) is contrasted with the period since the implementation of a new economic system in 1983.

  1. Comparison of direct outflow calculated by modified SCS-CN methods for mountainous and highland catchments in upper Vistula Basin, Poland and lowland catchment in South Carolina, U.S.A

    A. Walega; A. Cupak; D.M. Amatya; E. Drozdzal

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare direct outflow from storm events estimated using modifications of original SCS-CN procedure. The study was conducted in a mountainous catchment of Kamienica River and a highland catchment draining Stobnica River located in Upper Vistula water region, both in Poland, and a headwater lowland watershed WS80 located at the Santee...

  2. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  3. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    Marcin Bryła

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice, triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006 was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN, DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05 any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B, enniatin B1 (Enn-B1, enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1, 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A, 70

  4. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of

  5. Climate reconstructions from tree-ring widths for the last 850 years in Northern Poland

    Heinrich, Ingo; Knorr, Antje; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Wazny, Tomasz; Slowinski, Michal; Helle, Gerhard; Simard, Sonia; Scharnweber, Tobias; Buras, Allan; Beck, Wolfgang; Wilmking, Martin; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Tree-ring based temperature reconstructions form the scientific backbone of the current debate over global change, and they are the major part of the palaeo data base used for the IPCC report. However, long temperature reconstructions derived from temperate lowland trees growing well within their distributional limits in central Europe are not part of the IPCC report, which is an essential gap in the international data base. It appears that dendroclimatological analysis at temperate lowland sites was so far difficult to perform mainly for three reasons: diffuse climate-growth relationships, the lack of long chronologies due to absence of sufficient numbers of long-living trees and the potential loss of low-frequency signals due to the short length of the sample segments. We present two robust multi-centennial reconstructions of winter temperatures and summer precipitation based on pine and oak tree-ring widths chronologies from northern Poland, where so far no long tree-ring based reconstructions were available. We compared the new records with global, hemispherical and regional reconstructions, and found good agreement with some of them. In comparison, the winter temperature of our reconstruction, however, did not indicate any modern warming nor did the summer precipitation reconstruction suggest any modern 20th century changes. In a second step, we measured cell structures and developed chronologies of parameters such as cell wall thickness and cell lumen area. We used our new method (Liang et al. 2013a,b) applying confocal laser scanning microscopy to increment core surfaces for efficient histometric analyses. We focused on samples covering the last century because meteorological data necessary for calibration studies were available for direct comparisons. It was demonstrated that the correlations with climate were strong and different from those found for tree-ring widths (e.g., N-Poland oak-vessel-lumen-area-chronology with previous September-to-December mean

  6. Uranium and radium-226 in the environment of the post-uranium mining areas in Poland

    Kardas, M.; Suplinska, M.; Ciupek, K. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The work carried out under the project NCBiR - 'Technologies Supporting Development of Safe Nuclear Power Engineering'; Task 3: Meeting the Polish nuclear power engineering's demand for fuel - fundamental aspects. Depending on location, environmental components may have different concentration levels of radionuclides. Main source of uranium and radium in the natural environment is atmospheric precipitation of the material resulting weathering and erosion of older rocks, enhanced due to human activity by fertilizers used in agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. The waste heaps and dumps, especially derived from post-uranium mining and phosphate fertilizer industry are the another source of uranium and radium in the environment. Our studies include post-uranium mining areas (inactive mines and waste dumps) and those adjacent meadows and grassland at the area of the Giant Mountains (Karkonosze Mountains) in the south-west Poland. Samples of soil and mineral material from mine shafts, water samples from ponds, streams and small rivers and vegetation samples (grass, alfalfa, birch leaves) were analyzed. Also, similar samples from agricultural regions of Poland were examined as a reference level. Uranium isotopes were determined by radiochemical method (ion exchange and extraction) and activity measurement using alpha spectrometry. Concentration of {sup 226}Ra was determined radiochemically using emanation method. For the validation of the method, determinations of uranium isotopes and radium-226 in reference samples were performed. Depending on location, the different levels of activity concentration of analyzed radionuclides were detected. Samples from the mine shafts and dumps, both water and soil, were characterized by the activity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra even by several orders higher than outside of those areas. The concentrations of the radionuclides in the areas located in further distances from mine and dumps are similar to

  7. Comparing Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Poland and Denmark for Road Construction in Relation to Wildlife and Nature Protection : Synopsis

    Sienkiewicz, J.; Briggs, L; Elmeros, M.

    Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A.......Project : Fauna Passages under Selected Roads in Poland - Education, Monitoring and Construction - Part A....

  8. The debt management in time of crisis: survey evidence from Poland and Silesia

    Joanna Błach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of the article is to present partial results of the research project conducted in Poland and Silesia aiming at analyzing changes in the financial condition of non-financial companies in time of financial crisis. This article presents the results of the project’s part which was related to the analysis of debt management and capital structure decisions. Methodology/methods: The research findings are based on the authors’ research method with the application of financial ratio analysis and financial statements as basic tools. The observations are conducted with regard to Poland and are a subject for the comparative analysis of the pre- and post-crisis state. The analyzed period covers years 2006–2010. Scientific aim: The paper aims at revealing the consequences of debt management and capital structure decisions in time of global financial crisis with regard to companies as the representatives of the real sphere of the economy. Findings: In general, the result of the researches indicate that in 2007 and 2008 as a crisis observation and in 2009–2010 as the post-crisis observation there were no significant changes of the debt management reflected in the capital structure and the level of financial risk. The differences were observed only with regard to the level of long-term debt implementation. Conclusions: The research findings bring a valuable and original perspective for analysing the impact of financial crisis on the debt management decisions reflected in the changes of companies’ capital structure. These results might be applied in the cross-country comparative studies aiming at analysing changes in the financial situation of the companies operating in different countries and regions, finding similarities and explaining differences.

  9. Problems associated with the emissions limitations from road transport in the Lubuskie Province (Poland)

    Dzikuć, Maciej; Adamczyk, Janusz; Piwowar, Arkadiusz

    2017-07-01

    According to the report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on the list of 50 cities with the most polluted air in Europe as many as 33 are located in Poland. All the cities that are on the list exceed the maximum concentration of dust recommended by WHO at least three times. In the Lubuskie Province there is a very serious problem of maintaining good air quality. The air in Poland is among the most polluted in the European Union and this also applies to less-industrialized areas, such as Lubuskie, where the concentration levels of substances hazardous to human health and the environment are recorded as exceeded. One of the main factors affecting the poor air quality in the region is road transport. It is not just a problem near roads with heavy traffic, but also applies to the cities, where there is a large movement of cars, which are often old and do not meet current environmental standards. This article aims to identify the main sources of low emission from road transport and identify potential solutions to help reduce emission from this sector. The actions aimed at limiting low emission from road transport can bring a significant positive ecological effect. The aim of this article is to review one of the main sources of low emission in the province of Lubuskie, which is transportation. Moreover, the authors of the paper indicate the main problems associated with the emission coming from road transport and describe the possibilities for opportunities to reduce pollution from this sector. In addition, the article presents the three-scenario simulation of annual emissions from passenger cars that could take place in 2020.

  10. Health inequalities among rural and urban population of Eastern Poland in the context of sustainable development.

    Pantyley, Viktoriya

    2017-09-21

    The primary goals of the study were a critical analysis of the concepts associated with health from the perspective of sustainable development, and empirical analysis of health and health- related issues among the rural and urban residents of Eastern Poland in the context of the sustainable development of the region. The study was based on the following research methods: a systemic approach, selection and analysis of the literature and statistical data, developing a special questionnaire concerning socio-economic and health inequalities among the population in the studied area, field research with an interview questionnaire conducted on randomly-selected respondents (N=1,103) in randomly selected areas of the Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie and eastern part of Mazowieckie Provinces (with the division between provincial capital cities - county capital cities - other cities - rural areas). The results of statistical surveys in the studied area with the use of chi-square test and contingence quotients indicated a correlation between the state of health and the following independent variables: age, life quality, social position and financial situation (C-Pearson's coefficient over 0,300); a statistically significant yet weak correlation was recorded for gender, household size, place of residence and amount of free time. The conducted analysis proved the existence of a huge gap between state of health of the population in urban and rural areas. In order to eliminate unfavourable differences in the state iof health among the residents of Eastern Poland, and provide equal sustainable development in urban and rural areas of the examined areas, special preventive programmes aimed at the residents of peripheral, marginalized rural areas should be implemented. In these programmes, attention should be paid to preventive measures, early diagnosis of basic civilization and social diseases, and better accessibility to medical services for the residents.

  11. The effects of sex, age, season and habitat on diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in northeastern Poland.

    Kidawa, Dorota; Kowalczyk, Rafał

    2011-07-01

    The diet of the red fox Vulpes vulpes was investigated in five regions of northeastern Poland by stomach content analysis of 224 foxes collected from hunters. The red fox is expected to show the opportunistic feeding habits. Our study showed that foxes preyed mainly on wild prey, with strong domination of Microtus rodents, regardless of sex, age, month and habitat. Voles Microtus spp. were found in 73% of stomachs and constituted 47% of food volume consumed. Other food items were ungulate carrion (27% of volume), other mammals (11%), birds (9%), and plant material (4%). Sex- and age-specific differences in dietary diversity were found. Adult males and juvenile foxes had larger food niche breadths than adult females and their diets highly overlapped. Proportion of Microtus voles increased from autumn to late winter. Significant habitat differences between studied regions were found. There was a tendency among foxes to decrease consumption of voles with increasing percentage of forest cover. Based on our findings, red foxes in northeastern Poland can be recognized as a generalist predators, consuming easily accessible and abundant prey. However, high percentage of voles consumed regardless of age, sex, month, or habitats may indicate red fox specialization in preying on Microtus rodents.

  12. Directions of development for areas with unfavourable conditions for agricultural production, an example of the podlaskie voivodeship (Poland

    Kazimierz Niewiadomski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the directions of development of rural areas, primarily agricultural areas of the Podlaskie voivodeship, which in light of current criteria has been qualified almost entirely as problem area (ONW. Results presented are culmination of research related to issues of problem areas primarily in the area of the Podlaskie voivodeship by the author of the herewith paper during last few years. In conclusion to the results of the research it can be said that the primary direction of the development of rural areas in the Podlaskie voivodeship will be modern, large-scale farms able to adjust to current conditions, in particular environmental and soil conditions. In problem areas these will be mostly farms focusing on production of cattle and milk, developing production based on very high share of grassland areas. Complementary role in relation to conventional agriculture will be fulfilled by farms developing organic farming and agro-touristic farms. More intensive development of conventional tourism in rural areas can be expected once new tourism products and services have been developed. Assessment of the current economic development parameters of the Podlaskie voivodeship does not point at the convergence with other regions and possibility of decreasing the distance between the Podlaskie voivodeship and average results for Poland in the near future. However, some positive trends in terms of convergence with other regions in Poland can be observed in agriculture, primarily due to relatively good results in production of cattle and milk.

  13. Development integration via real and technological convergence. Experience of Poland and conclusions for Ukraine

    Michał G. Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes main achievements, losses and gains during the first decade of Poland's membership in the EU, while also aiming at development of suggestions for the Polish economic policy in the years to come, as well as draws conclusions for Ukraine, which has now elected the strategy of international economic cooperation. The first part of the paper presents an empirical analysis of Poland's both real and technological convergence with the developed EU countries. These data show that since 1994, as the process of Poland integration with the EU commenced, our country significantly reduced the income and technology gap as compared to the EU. During the financial crisis, Poland 'felt' better than most European countries. In the second part of the paper we attempt to answer the question as to the current conditions of Polish economy development. It is demonstrated that Poland's economic success was due to multiple factors such as endogenous and exogenous, historical and those derived from present events. However, it can be assumed that integration with the EU has been an important positive factor in development of Poland during recent 20 years. Great importance was also vested in the implementation of economic reforms in Poland as well as in policy of the government, although not faultless. The last section of the paper identifies problems now faced by the EU and individual member states, including Poland as regards future years till 2020

  14. A Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Output Level and Growth in Poland and Western Economies

    Osiewalski, J.; Koop, G.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper uses Bayesian stochastic frontier methods to measure the productivity gap between Poland and Western countries that existed before the beginning of the main Polish economic reform. Using data for 20 Western economies, Poland and Yugoslavia (1980-1990) we estimate a translog stochastic

  15. Ownership, intra-industry trade and factor intensities: the case of Poland 1993-2002

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between intra-industry trade (IIT) for foreign, private domestic and public domestic companies in Poland and the size of multinational activity measured by the stock of FDI. Using a unique database on imports and exports from companies in Poland 1993...

  16. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  17. Additional effective dose equivalent for adults and children in Poland as the result of mushroom consumption

    Jasinska, H.; Kozak, K.; Mietelski, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data of caesium radioactivity in samples of various mushrooms collected all over Poland from 1986 to 1989 are presented. Nearly 80 samples from Poland and a few samples from Austria and USSR were analysed. The effective dose equivalents for adults and children caused by the consumption of one mass unit of dried mushrooms for each sample were estimated. (author)

  18. Ground deposition of long-lived gamma emitters in Poland from the Chernobyl accident

    Krolas, K.; Kubala, M.; Sciezor, T.

    1986-12-01

    Activity composition was measured for the soil contaminated with the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Soil samples were collected at various areas of Poland. A map showing the 137 Cs deposit distribution was drawn for the most contaminated southern part of Poland. 9 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  19. Poland’s Role in European and World System of States 1979-2007

    2008-06-01

    idCategory=34&idsub=180&id=10887&t=US+anti- missile+defense%3A+The+view+from+Poland [Accessed October 29, 2007]. 174 Tabassum Zakaria and Chris Borowski...files/bueros/china/04642.pdf [Accessed April 14, 2008]. Zakaria, Tabassum and Borowski, Chris. “Poland says U.S. shield a ‘foregone conclusion

  20. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…