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Sample records for opium

  1. The Opium Wars, Opium Legalization and Opium Consumption in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feige, Chris; Jeffrey A. Miron

    2005-01-01

    The effect of drug prohibition on drug consumption is a critical issue in debates over drug policy. One episode that provides information on the consumption-reducing effect of drug prohibition is the Chinese legalization of opium in 1858. In this paper we examine the impact of China's opium legalization on the quantity and price of British opium exports from India to China during the 19th century. We find little evidence that legalization increased exports or decreased price. Thus, the eviden...

  2. Opium the Best Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydenham was the leading English physician of the 17th century and probably to the present time. He was using a well tried remedy. It had been known by then for about 4000 years, frequently mentioned by Hippocrates, and recognized in use in medieval Europe where it probably came through Arabic traders and was well established in use in Paris by the 12th century (2. Professional concerns up to the time of Sydenham were not about addiction. As can be seen from his text, they were about whether the drug was available in adequate preparations, whether there was any difference between opium and other narcotics, particularly comparing the natural juice with "its artificial preparations" (1 (all of which he thought to be about equal in effect, whether it was stimulant or restorative and invigorating, and whether it was being properly used for all the conditions in which it could be helpful. Addiction, dependence and insanity are not mentioned, although the fact that it could occasionally promote excitement ("frenzy" was known.

  3. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacKerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  4. Religion is the Opium of the People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2015-01-01

    Marx is notorious for his claim that religion is the opium of the people and thus become famous as one of modern thought's most uncompromising critics of religion. In this article I look deeper into the philosophical connotations of Marx's opium metaphor by presenting and discussing other prominent...... thinkers' employment of similar metaphors. Thus, the article follows the trail of opium imagery in connection with different approaches to the criticism of religion. This leads to a discussion of the influence on Marx by G.W.F. Hegel, Bruno Bauer, Moses Hess, Ludwig Feuerbach and emphasizes the influence...... of Heinrich Heine and Immanuel Kant. The ensuing analysis of Marx's opium metaphor establishes thatMarx's thinking in A Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction is at a cross road. His dependence on German philosophy in 1843 is highlighted as the contextual background for...

  5. Religion is the Opium of the People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2015-01-01

    Marx is notorious for his claim that religion is the opium of the people and thus become famous as one of modern thought's most uncompromising critics of religion. In this article I look deeper into the philosophical connotations of Marx's opium metaphor by presenting and discussing other prominent...... thinkers' employment of similar metaphors. Thus, the article follows the trail of opium imagery in connection with different approaches to the criticism of religion. This leads to a discussion of the influence on Marx by G.W.F. Hegel, Bruno Bauer, Moses Hess, Ludwig Feuerbach and emphasizes the influence...... of Heinrich Heine and Immanuel Kant. The ensuing analysis of Marx's opium metaphor establishes thatMarx's thinking in A Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction is at a cross road. His dependence on German philosophy in 1843 is highlighted as the contextual background for...

  6. Religion is the Opium of the People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    2015-01-01

    of Heinrich Heine and Immanuel Kant. The ensuing analysis of Marx's opium metaphor establishes thatMarx's thinking in A Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction is at a cross road. His dependence on German philosophy in 1843 is highlighted as the contextual background for......Marx is notorious for his claim that religion is the opium of the people and thus become famous as one of modern thought's most uncompromising critics of religion. In this article I look deeper into the philosophical connotations of Marx's opium metaphor by presenting and discussing other prominent...... thinkers' employment of similar metaphors. Thus, the article follows the trail of opium imagery in connection with different approaches to the criticism of religion. This leads to a discussion of the influence on Marx by G.W.F. Hegel, Bruno Bauer, Moses Hess, Ludwig Feuerbach and emphasizes the influence...

  7. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase “Teriac” (raw opium) as a means of “antidote” a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  8. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-06-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption.

  9. The Opium Must Go Thru The Opium Must Go Thru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Flanders Rebello

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In The Opium Must Go Thru, Charles Potts' "potty" poetic prose puns away in an irreverential anti-civilization protest against everything that is new-old to sublime the old-new - but the dark and light of Yin and Yang are the same that bothered Shakespeare in his day. This book, as the drawings by Robert McNealy illustrate, is a mad socio-economic philosophic chess game. . . an intel lectual whooped up hippy riddle. You ask yourself if Potts is a brain or a bum. The words and the thought behind the words are an exasperating jumble, until you get the "beat" - the mood - maybe a couple of beers, a little "pot". . . No,that won't help because it's too haphardly logical "The water buffalo who bailed out the hot green house once turned to an underfucked cow and murmured "Nobody here understands what I say". And Potts can jump from this hurly-burly into crystal clear statements such as, "But the children can think circles around them. Children have always been the redeemers."

  10. Opium and Afghanistan: Reassessing U.S. Counternarcotics Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    worldwide from opium for medical purposes.12 Opium is also refined for use in legal prescription painkillers such as OxyContin and Vicodin.13 However...the Opium Production Challenge in Afghanistan: A License to Meet the World Shortage of Opiate-Derived Painkillers ,” The Senlis Council Drug Policy...Derived Painkillers ,” n.p. 75. Senlis Council, “Report Gives Green Light for Licensed Opium in Afghanistan to Provide Essential Medicines

  11. Opium Syrup Distribution, Limitation and Challenges

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    Mostafa Dahmardehei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is one of dilemmas in the current society. Formal statistics report of 2 million addict people in the country. Among important activities for addiction prevention and therapy is implementation of protecting treatment. Protecting treatments are done through Methadone, Buprenorphine and tincture-opium. Tincture-opium is a solution of 10 g morphine in one litter liquid containing 20% alcohol. The first report about using this medicine has been in 1994, in French in connection with successful therapy of 18 patients. A study in Australia, in 2004, proposed detoxification with tincture-opium in 15 migrated Vietnamese, in high dosage for therapy. In Iran, since 1384 many researches were done, which 34% responded the therapy appropriately; and in 1387, 130 people reached final treatment.

  12. OPIUM : optimal package install/ uninstall manager

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Christopher James

    2008-01-01

    Linux distributions often include package management tools such as apt-get in Debian or yum in RedHat. Using information about package dependencies and conflicts, such tools can determine how to install a new package (and its dependencies on a system of already installed packages. Using off-the-shelf SAT solvers, pseudo-boolean solvers, and Integer Linear Programming solvers, we have developed a new package-management tool, called Opium, that improves on current tools in two ways: (1) Opium i...

  13. Opium Withdrawal Delirium: Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi C.; Kumar, Ramesh; Sharma, Dinesh Dutt; Kanwar, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    Two patients with opium dependence developed delirium during abstinence. The delirium resolved completely within 48–58 hours of appropriate treatment. Caution needs to be exercised during opioid detoxification in timely detecting and treating potentially life-threatening condition like delirium. PMID:28138205

  14. IS OPIUM ADDICTION A RISK FACTOR FOR ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "S. M. Sadr Bafghi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a misconception among our people that opioids may prevent or have ameliorating effects in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. In this study we evaluated 556 consecutive male patients hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction (MI in city of Yazd, from May 2000 to October 2001 and compared the characteristics of opium addicts to non opium users. Prevalence of opium addiction in MI patients was 19% in comparison with 2-2.8% in general population. There were not any differences in prevalence of traditional risk factors between opium users and non-users. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 18.6 percent among opium users and 6.2 percent among non-opium users (unadjusted odd ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.7 to 2.7, P = 0.2. After adjustment for the differences in the baseline features (age and other risk factors, odds ratio increased to 2.2 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.9 to 5.1. It seems that opium addiction may work as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

  15. Perioperative status and complications in opium addicts in Western rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malviya, Ajay; Negi, Nitin; Mandora, Manish; Yadav, J K

    2011-10-01

    Opium addiction is rampant in Western Rajasthan and probably has the highest number of opium addicts in the world. The study envisages upon the presentation, diagnosis and various postoperative complications in surgically ill opium addicts vis-à-vis non addicts. The study is purported to benefit clinicians dealing with opium addict patients. The prospective cohort study was conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jodhpur between December 2004 and February 2006 and included cohorts of 71 opium addict and 50 non-addict patients admitted in various surgical wards. The study focused on presentation and the post-surgical complications encountered in these patients vis-à-vis others. The results thus obtained were evaluated statistically (mean±SD, SEM, two tailed t test, chi-square test), p value of <0.05 was considered as significant. A thorough comparative analysis revealed that opium addict patients had a significantly higher incidence of postoperative respiratory, cardiovascular, systemic and local complications. The requirement of analgesics and duration of hospital stay were also significantly higher as compared to control group. The work concludes that opium addicts suffer a much higher degree of postoperative morbidity as compared to non-addicts.

  16. The relationship of opium addiction with coronary artery disease

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    Mohammad Masoomi

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: We confirmed that the opium was an independent risk factor for CAD. Health managers and policy makers should try to aware general population and prepare many preventive pro-grams against substance abuse.

  17. Lead Toxicity Resulting from Chronic Ingestion of Opium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalili, Mohammad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED with lower abdominal pain and constipation. He related chronic ingestion of large amounts of opium. Physical examination showed mild abdominal tenderness and gingival discoloration. Diagnostic studies showed a mild hypochromic, microcytic anemia with basophilic stippling of the red blood cells. Abdominal imaging showed no intra-abdominal pathology. A diagnosis of lead toxicity was confirmed through serum lead levels. The patient was put on chelation therapy and his signs and symptoms started to resolve. As a comprehensive search for other sources of lead was unsuccessful, opium adulterants were considered as the culprit. Chemical analysis of the opium confirmed this. Contaminated drugs have been reported as a source of exposure to toxins such as arsenic or lead. While other reports deal with patients from clinics, this report illustrates lead toxicity from ingestion of contaminated opium in the ED.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:244-246.

  18. OPIUM USE IN TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER

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    A. Nourbakhsh

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Opium use is one of the most common forms of substance abuse in Iran and there are some evidence indicating it is a risk factor of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, so consideration of the high prevalence of smoking which is the most important risk factor of TCC of the urinary bladder among opium users is essential to assess the role of opium use as a possible risk factor of TCC. This study was done to evaluate the role of opium as a risk factor of TCC. A case-control study was performed on 255 individuals diagnosed with TCC of the urinary bladder by pathologic light microscopic examination of the tumor biopsies. Control population was chosen from individuals who had no history or presenting signs or symptoms of urinary problems. Case and control groups were matched by sex and age and also by cigarette smoking habits. Forty-one (18.1% of the cases and 12 (5% of controls were recognized to be opium users. Mantel-Haenszel analysis showed an odds ratio of 3.88, with 95% confidence interval of 1.99-7.57 and P value of < 0.001. Results indicate that opium use is a risk factor for TCC. The majority of opium users are also cigarette smokers, which is another important risk factor for TCC. Routine urine cytology and early evaluation in the patients presenting with any of the symptoms of urinary bladder malignancy by means of cystoscopy and urine cytology are highly recommended.

  19. Evolution of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Jörg; Facchini, Peter J; Geissler, René; Schmidt, Jürgen; Ammer, Christian; Kramell, Robert; Voigtländer, Susan; Gesell, Andreas; Pienkny, Silke; Brandt, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a group of nitrogen-containing plant secondary metabolites comprised of an estimated 2500 identified structures. In BIA metabolism, (S)-reticuline is a key branch-point intermediate that can be directed into several alkaloid subtypes with different structural skeleton configurations. The morphinan alkaloids are one subclass of BIAs produced in only a few plant species, most notably and abundantly in the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Comparative transcriptome analysis of opium poppy and several other Papaver species that do not accumulate morphinan alkaloids showed that known genes encoding BIA biosynthetic enzymes are expressed at higher levels in P. somniferum. Three unknown cDNAs that are co-ordinately expressed with several BIA biosynthetic genes were identified as enzymes in the pathway. One of these enzymes, salutaridine reductase (SalR), which is specific for the production of morphinan alkaloids, was isolated and heterologously overexpressed in its active form not only from P. somniferum, but also from Papaver species that do not produce morphinan alkaloids. SalR is a member of a class of short chain dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs) that are active as monomers and possess an extended amino acid sequence compared with classical SDRs. Homology modelling and substrate docking revealed the substrate binding site for SalR. The amino acids residues conferring salutaridine binding were compared to several members of the SDR family from different plant species, which non-specifically reduce (-)-menthone to (+)-neomenthol. Previously, it was shown that some of these proteins are involved in plant defence. The recruitment of specific monomeric SDRs from monomeric SDRs involved in plant defence is discussed.

  20. From holy war to opium war? A case study of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhand, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper examines the recent growth of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan. A detailed analysis of one village in Badakshan Province reveals profound changes in the local economy and social institutions. The paper describes two major shifts in the local economy: first, the switch from wheat to poppy cultivation; and second, the shift from the livestock trade to the opium trade. It then examines the underlying causes and impacts of the opium economy on social relations in the village. Although a case study of a community living on the margins of the global economy, it is argued that these changes have important implications for international policymakers. The emergence of the opium economy in north-eastern Afghanistan is symptomatic of new and expanding forms of trans-border trade associated with the restructuring of the global political economy.

  1. A comparative study of characteristics and risky behaviors among the Iranian opium and opium dross addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Sima; Azar, Mahyar; Behzadi, Ashkan Heshmatzade; Sedaghati, Mahsa; Panahi, Sepideh Akbari; Dehghan, Nasir; Honarbakhsh, Yasamin; Akasheh, Amirpoya; Tahoori, Armin; Wilson, Denis

    2011-03-01

    Iran ranks first per capita in the use of opiates, but we have little information about possible differences regarding the 2 most commonly used illicit drugs, namely opium and its dross (residue). This is a cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study about drug abuse and drug dependence in Iran was conducted from April 2006 to August 2008 in the prisons of 28 Iranian provinces, in the treatment centers, and in the streets. To pursue the objectives of this research, participants included 2979 opiate addicts including opium users (n = 2636) and dross users (n = 343), who were not significantly different by gender (P = 0.269) or age (P = 0.452). An anonymous questionnaire was completed through an interview that gathered sociodemographic characteristics and information about some high-risk behaviors. : By the end of the study, we concluded that dross addicts, in comparison with opium addicts, were mostly immigrants from rural areas to urban areas (P = 0.031 χ test, 95% confidence interval [CI]), mostly uneducated, illiterate, or semiliterate (P = 0.04 χ test, 95% CI), had illegal occupations (P = 0.048 χ test, 95% CI), were cigarette smokers (P < 0.000 χ test, 95% CI), and had experienced drug injections (P = 0.032 χ test, 95% CI) and drug overdose (P = 0.007 χ test, 95% CI). They also had a history of hospital admission within the preceding year because of drug overdose (P < 0.000) and a record of being arrested and jailed in the past year (P = 0.028 χ test, 95% CI). These results indicated the need for more intensive and effective care for the opioid addicts in Iran.

  2. Acute Intoxication by Transdermal Opium Application in Infants: Two Case Reports

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    Iraj Sedighi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute opium intoxication is one of the most common causes of poisoning in children in Iran. Although most cases are accidental, traditional misuse of opium for symptomatic therapy of various childhood diseases also contributes to high rate of opium intoxication in Iran. Cases: Here, we report two cases of opium intoxication in infants resulted from transdermal application of opium on burned skin. To our knowledge this is the first case report of intoxication from transdermal misuse of opium. Conclusion: Health care providers should be aware about signs and symptoms of opium intoxication in children. Opium intoxication should be suspected in each child with history of a recent burn injury that presented with decreased level of consciousness.

  3. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  4. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  5. Lethal Lullabies: A History of Opium Use in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Poppy extract accompanied the human infant for more than 3 millenia. Motives for its use included excessive crying, suspected pain, and diarrhea. In antiquity, infantile sleeplessness was regarded as a disease. When treatment with opium was recommended by Galen, Rhazes, and Avicenna, baby sedation made its way into early medical treatises and pediatric instructions. Dabbing maternal nipples with bitter substances and drugging the infant with opium were used to hasten weaning. A freerider of gum lancing, opiates joined the treatment of difficult teething in the 17th century. Foundling hospitals and wet-nurses used them extensively. With industrialization, private use was rampant among the working class. In German-speaking countries, poppy extracts were administered in soups and pacifiers. In English-speaking countries, proprietary drugs containing opium were marketed under names such as soothers, nostrums, anodynes, cordials, preservatives, and specifics and sold at the doorstep or in grocery stores. Opium's toxicity for infants was common knowledge; thousands of cases of lethal intoxication had been reported from antiquity. What is remarkable is that the willingness to use it in infants persisted and that physicians continued to prescribe it for babies. Unregulated trade, and even that protected by governments, led to greatly increased private use of opiates during the 19th century. Intoxication became a significant factor in infant mortality. As late as 1912, the International Hague Convention forced governments to implement legislation that effectively curtailed access to opium and broke the dangerous habit of sedating infants.

  6. Differentiation and comparison of raw, prepared and dross opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H Y; Kwok, S F

    1981-01-01

    Comparative studies involving colour tests, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) were made on raw, prepared and dross opium with a view to establishing means for their differentiation. Analysis of a large number of samples found in south-east Asia showed the typical patterns and results to be quite distinctive in the qualitative and quantitative aspects. The relative proportions of the major alkaloids in the two chromatographic systems were used to advantage in the comparison. Prepared opium was found to have a characteristic yellow fluorescent spot on the TLC plate when viewed under long-wavelength ultraviolet light. No positive marker was found for dross opium, its unusual features being the relatively high morphine and codeine content and the absence of narcotine, meconic acid and especially thebaine. Most of the prepared opium samples were found to have been made from a mixture of raw and dross opium. The modified hallucinogen reagent of Maunder was found to be a suitable alternative chromogenic spray in the TLC analysis.

  7. Poppies or Peace: The Relationship between Opium Production and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    absent actual force, most 39 poppy farmers become stuck in a debt cycle – a cycle Lu Saw advocates against in his Plea. Lu Saw, The Bondage of Opium...The Agony of the Wa People, A Proposal and A Plea (Raleigh: Center for the Public Domain), http://www.ibiblio.org/obl/docs/ BONDAGE . htm (accessed...

  8. The Comparison of Risky Decision Making in Opium Abuser and Healthy Matched Individuals

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    Vahid Nejati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risky decision making is one of the most basic mechanisms of impulsive and addictive behaviors. The purpose of present study was the comparison of risky decision making in opium abuser and healthy matched individuals. Method: In present cross sectional study, 50 opium abusers compared to 50 healthy who were matched on age and gender. Balloon Analogue Risk Taking Task was used for evaluation of risk taking in participant of both groups. Results: The results showed that opium abusers have had higher scores on number of plumbing balloon and exploded balloon in BART task than normal individuals. Conclusion: Opium abusers have higher risk taking than normal individuals.

  9. In Silico Retrieving of Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum L. Microsatellites

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    Masárová Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive tandem sequences were retrieved within nucleotide sequences of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. genomic DNA available in the GenBank® database. Altogether 538 different microsatellites with the desired length characteristics of tandem repeats have been identified within 450 sequences of opium poppy DNA available in the database. The most frequented were mononucleotide repeats (246; nevertheless, 44 dinucleotide, 148 trinucleotide, 62 tetranucleotide, 28 pentanucleotide and 5 hexanucleotide tandem repeats have also been found. The most abundant were trinucleotide motifs (27.50%, and the most abundant motifs within each group of tandem repeats were TA/AT, TTC/GAA, GGTT/AACC and TTTTA/ TAAAA. Five hexanucleotide repeats contained four different motifs.

  10. Opium Field Detection in South Oxfordshire Using SAR Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nick; Marino, Armando

    2011-03-01

    To-date the use of satellite imagery to monitor the growth of illicit crops such as marijuana, opium and coca has mostly been conducted using optical frequencies. However, it is well known that while optical imagery can be hampered by localised aerosols such as thin clouds, cirrus, haze and smoke, these do not present a problem for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In recent years a new generation of satellite borne sensors have also been equipped with enhanced polarimetric capabilities, which can potentially help with detecting and classifying different terrain types. For these reasons we believe it is useful to consider whether high resolution polarimetric SAR data can be applied to illicit crop detection.In this paper we present the results of an experiment whereby opium poppy fields were successfully detected in the south Oxfordshire region in the UK using RadarSat-2 quad-polarisation imagery. It should be noted that these crops are not being grown illicitly but instead are being cultivated for medicinal reasons in parts of the UK. It is interesting to note that the poppies cultivated for opium in the UK have white flowers rather than the more familiar red as can be seen from the photograph in Figure 1, which was taken 11 days earlier in the season compared to Figure 4 and Figure 5.

  11. Opium consumption and coronary atherosclerosis in diabetic patients: a propensity score-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Kianoosh; Masoudkabir, Farzad; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Alipour-Parsa, Saeed; Sheikh Fathollahi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Foroushani, Abbas; Hakki, Elham; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Eftekhar, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    There is a traditional belief among Eastern people that opium may have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes; thus, it is widely used among diabetic patients. We attempted to investigate the association of opium consumption with coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography in our center. Out of 1925 diabetic patients included in the study, 228 were opium users, and the remaining 1697 non-opium users were used as a pool of potential comparators. Propensity scores were used to match the 228 opium consumers with 228 matched comparators for age, sex, and smoking status. The Gensini score and extent score were respectively used to assess the angiographic severity and extent of CAD. The mean Gensini score (86.9 ± 62.7 vs. 59.6 ± 43.4, p opium user diabetic patients than in non-opium users. After adjustment for potential confounders, a dose-response relationship was observed between dose of opium and the Gensini score ( β = 0.27, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences between the routes of opium administration (inhalation vs. oral) regarding the severity and extent of CAD. In conclusion, exposure to opium in diabetic patients may be positively associated with the risk of CAD, and with the angiographically determined severity and extent of the disease. Furthermore, dosage of opium consumption may correlate with severity of CAD.

  12. The Impact of opium consumption on blood glucose, serum lipids and blood pressure, and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: Substance abuse has become a universal crisisin our modern age. Among illegal substances, opium and its derivatives have been ranked second in terms of usage after cannabis in the world. In many Asian regions, the use of opium enjoys a high social acceptance; hence, some common people and even medical practitioners believe that opium lowers blood glucose and pressure and treat dyslipidemia. How much this belief is scientifically justified? Method: The results of available studies on both humans and animals searched in different search engines up to mid-2016 were integrated (77 articles. Upon the findings we try to offer a more transparent picture of the effects of opium on the mentioned factors along with the probable underlying mechanisms of its action. Results: Taken together, a variety of evidences suggest that the consumption of opium has no scientific justification for amendment of these biochemical variables. The mechanisms proposed so far for the action of opium in the three above disorders are summarized at the end of the article. Short term effects seems to be mostly mediated through central nervous system (neural and hormonal mechanisms, but long term effects are often due to the structural and functional alterations in some body organs. Conclusion: Although opium may temporarily reduce blood pressure, but it increases blood glucose and most of blood lipids. Moreover its long term use has negative impacts and thus it aggravates diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Accordingly, it is necessary to inform societies about the potential disadvantages of unauthorized opium consumption.

  13. Unacceptable but Indispensable: Opium Law and Regulations in Guangdong, 1912–1936

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    Xavier Paulès

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During most of the period from 1912 to 1936, Guangdong Province was independent from the central government. The local authorities there were facing a dilemma regarding opium, as others were elsewhere in China. On the one hand, opium was considered the symbol of China’s weakness, and its suppression was a top priority; on the other hand, opium taxes represented an indispensable source of fiscal income. Some Guangdong power holders were truly committed to a suppression agenda, especially from 1913 to 1924. During this period, with the exception of a brief interlude from 1915 to 1916, opium laws were prohibition laws. Even if these laws were not always enforced with full vigor, the drug remained illegal in Guangdong. After 1924, opium was legalized, and the authorities openly ruled an opium monopoly. They came out with increasingly comprehensive regulations, which proved successful in increasing opium revenues. Yet, as this article makes clear, there was nothing like direct government control: traditional tax-farming arrangements with local opium merchants (though under stricter supervision remained the backbone of the monopoly. The article also pays attention to the influence of the Six-Year Plan (1935–1940 launched by the Nanking government. As a credible set of suppression laws, it appealed to the Guangdong progressive elites who were hostile to opium. They urged the local autocrat Chen Jitang to take similar action. Chen made attempts to launch his own plans for suppressing opium, but they were unconvincing and nothing concrete came out of them. This article suggests that, in order to obtain a better understanding of how easily Chen Jitang was driven out of power in the summer of 1936, it is necessary to take into account the significant contribution of the Six-Year Plan in undermining his legitimacy.

  14. Relationship between Opium Abuse and Severity of Depression in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Sepehrmanesh Zahra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOpium use in diabetic populations is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between opium use and severity of depression in Iranian diabetic patients.MethodsIn this case-control study, 642 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from those presenting at two outpatient clinics at the Akhavan Hospital in Kashan, Iran; of them, 600 diabetic patients were included in the study and divided into two groups: opium-abusers (150 patients and non-opium-abusers (450 patients. Clinical and demographic information was obtained through a detailed questionnaire. Depression symptomalogy and severity were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and a corresponding diagnosis was made based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, Text Revision, 2000 (DSM-IV TR criteria.ResultsThe mean depression score was higher in the opium abuse group than in the non-abuser group (29.27±1.44 vs. 18.29±1.31, P<0.001. In general, a significant association was found between opium abuse and depression among patients (odds ratio [OR], 4.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87 to 7.44; P=0.001. No significant relationship was found between dysthymia and opium abuse (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.18 to 1.192; P=0.155, while MDD was significantly higher in the opium abuser group (OR, 7.32; 95% CI, 5.20 to 12.01; P<0.001.ConclusionDepression is more frequent in opium-dependent diabetic patients, and its severity is also greater. Given these findings, opium-dependent diabetic patients should be advised about the increased risks of depression and related comorbidities.

  15. Utilization of opium poppy wastes as a fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A.; Cengiz, M.; Yayli, N. (KT University, Akcaabat-Trabzon (Turkey). Educational Faculty)

    1994-01-01

    Air dried and ground opium poppy stalks suspended in water containing sodium carbonate catalysts have been completely converted into liquid fuels and water soluble- chemicals at 573[degree]K in a 0.1 liter autoclave. Extractives and oil properties obtained from stalks and poppy seed were studied. Major components of the oil were linoleic acid (60.2%) and oleic acid (22.3%). Alcohol-benzene extractives of the stalks were 28.8% while ether solubility was 7.5%. 15 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. The results revealed statistically significant differences in cellular and nuclear size and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio between smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  17. Opium Consumption and Mid-Term Outcome of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Men

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    Ahmad Sharafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controversy persists over the potential benefits/harms of opium consumption in coronary heart disease. This study investigated the association between 12 months' major adverse cardiac events (MACE and pre-procedural opium consumption among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI.Methods: Retrospectively, 1545 consecutive men who underwent PCI between 21st  June 2009 and 20th June 2010 at Tehran Heart Center and were registered in the PCI Databank were entered into this cohort study. The occurrence of MACE, defined as cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and need for target vessel revascularization (TVR or target lesion revascularization (TLR, was compared between two groups of opium consumers and non-consumers in 350 (22.7% patients. Results: Sixty-four (0.86% patients expired within 12 months. After adjustment for potential confounders, analysis revealed that opium consumption had no significant relationship with 12 months' MACE [11(3.1% vs. 53(4.4%; p value= 0.286, among opium users vs. non users, respectively].Furthermore, the different components of MACE, including target vessel revascularization, target lesion revascularization, coronary artery bypass graft, and non-fatal myocardial infarction, were not significantly related to opium use.Conclusion: Pre-procedural opium usage in patients undergoing PCI was not associated with 12 months' MACE.

  18. Cholangiographic Features in Opium-Addicted Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Iran

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    Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Destructive and metabolic changes in hepatobiliary system have been demonstrated following opium use; however, cholangiographic features of bile ducts in opium-addicted patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction are not clearly determined. We described these differences and assessed the effects of opium use on postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography complications. Methodology. One hundred and nineteen patients with the diagnosis of sphinctre of Oddi dysfunction according to the Geenen-Hogan classification were studied. Eight patients were confirmed opium-addicted and others were nonaddicted. Change of serum amylase concentrations after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and clinical diagnosis of addicted and non-addicted patients were compared. Results. Serum concentrations of liver aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase were similar between the two groups. Serum concentration of amylase before endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was similar between them, whereas concentration of this enzyme was higher in nonaddicted ones after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Regarding pathologic changes in papilla, opium addiction group in comparison with control group statistically showed more tumoral features (25.0% versus 5.4% and ulcerated changes (12.5% versus 0.0%. Conclusions. Opium use can increase probability of papilla ulcerative and tumoral changes in patients with sphinctre of Oddi dysfunction. Postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography serum amylase level may be reduced following opium addiction.

  19. Degradation of morphine in opium poppy processing waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin Quan; Zhang, Jin Lin; Schuchardt, Frank; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate morphine degradation and optimize turning frequency in opium poppy processing waste composting, a pilot scale windrow composting trial was run for 55 days. Four treatments were designed as without turning (A1), every 5 days turning (A2), every 10 days turning (A3) and every 15 days turning (A4). During composting, a range of physicochemical parameters including the residual morphine degradation, temperature, pH, and the contents of total C, total N, total P and total K were investigated. For all treatments, the residual morphine content decreased below the detection limit and reached the safety standards after day 30 of composting, the longest duration of high temperature (⩾50 °C) was observed in A3, pH increased 16.9-17.54%, total carbon content decreased 15.5-22.5%, C/N ratio reduced from 46 to 26, and the content of total phosphorus and total potassium increased slightly. The final compost obtained by a mixture of all four piles was up to 55.3% of organic matter, 3.3% of total nutrient (N, P2O5 and K2O) and 7.6 of pH. A turning frequency of every ten days for a windrow composting of opium poppy processing waste is recommended to produce homogenous compost.

  20. Implementing harm reduction for heroin users in Afghanistan, the worldwide opium supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguet, Olivier; Majeed, Murtaza

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan has suffered decades of war, occupation and unrest. It is also the world's greatest producer of opium and drug production and trafficking account for a third of the total Afghan economy. Currently alongside the "War on Terrorism", the control and eradication of opium production and related trafficking is a main concern of the international community. However, this focus on supply reduction has meant scant attention has been paid to increasing drug use problems within the country; it is estimated there are up to 25,000 opium users and 20,000 heroin users in Kabul city. Drug use is often a response to war, poverty and under-development, however, street opium and heroin manufactured in the country are widely available, affordable and of high purity. This paper documents the efforts of non-governmental organisations to promote and develop harm reduction and treatment services for problem drug users in Afghanistan in this difficult context.

  1. [The use of opium in Roman society and the dependence of Princeps Marcus Aurelius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancas, Bruno; Borja Santos, Nuno; Patrício, Luís D

    2008-01-01

    Opium was known and frequently used in Roman society. Medical practice recognized its usefulness as an analgesic, soporific, anti-tussic or anti-diarrheic agent, as well as other currently unsupported uses with quasi-magical properties. It was additionally used as an ingredient in antidotes, panaceas and poisons. The authors present a non-exhaustive compilation of opium use according to medical doctors, writers and encyclopaedists of the time. Mythological and literary representations of the opium poppy reflected its diverse roles, being associated with prosperity and fertility, sleep, death and the underworld and with the art of medicine. Despite its free and routine use, there is no solid evidence of addiction, except the putative case of emperor Marcus Aurelius, consistently reported as one of the most likely cases of addiction to opium.

  2. Comparison of Emotion Recognition and Mind Reading Abilities in Opium Abusers and Healthy Matched Individuals

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    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.

  3. The Effects of Maternal Opium Abuse on Fetal Heart Rate using Non-Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikha, Fatemeh; Vahdani, Fahimeh Ghotbizadeh; Latifi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR) characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals. The participants received 500cc intravenous fluid containing dextrose and then non-stress test results were recorded for 20 minutes. Results: We found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. Fetal movements, variability, acceleration, and reactivity were significantly higher among addicted women (Pabusers compared with the healthy women. Abnormal variability or oscillations of addicted mothers (Pabuser group, mothers addicted to opium need specific prenatal care. PMID:27853327

  4. Opium and Afghanistan: Reassessing U.S. Counter-Narcotics Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    Opium is also refined for use in legal prescription painkillers such as OxyContin and Vicodin.14 However, Australia and France currently produce about...Shortage of Opiate-Derived Painkillers ,” The Senlis Council Drug Policy Advisory Forum, available from http://www.senliscouncil.net/documents...Counter-Narcotics, v. 75 “Rising to the Opium Production Challenge in Afghanistan: A License to Meet the World Shortage of Opiate-Derived Painkillers

  5. Is opium addiction a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Mohammad Reza; Ghandehari, Kavian

    2012-10-01

    The main source of studies about effects of opium consumption on heart and brain attacks originates from Iran Therefore the aim of the present study was to assess opium addiction as a probable influencing factor for ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two Cardiology and Neurology clinics in Eastern Iran in 2011. Diagnosis of Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and Ischemic Stroke (IS) was made by Cardiologist and Stroke Neurologist respectively. The influence of gender, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, oral and inhaled opium consumption on distribution of IHD and IS were evaluated. Five hundred fifty eight patients (307 females, 251 males) with mean age 56.2 years enrolled the study. On adjusted odds ratios of our whole 558 patients, only hypertension and diabetes had a significant influence on occurrence of IHD; (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000) respectively. Oral and inhaled routes of opium addiction did not have a significant effect on occurrence of IHD; [OR = 1.172, 95% CI = 0.624-2.203, P = 0.621] and [OR = 1.820, 95% CI = 0.811-4.085, P = 0.147] respectively. Hypertension and diabetes were significant risk factors of IS in our 558 patients at multivariate analysis; (P = 0.000, P = 0.020). Oral opium addiction was as significant protective factor of IS in our study group; OR = 0.211, 95% CI = 0.079-0.564, P = 0.002, while inhaled opium addiction did not have a significant effect on occurrence of IS in our patients at; OR = 1.760, 95% CI = 0.760-4.076, P = 0.187. Oral opium consumption is a protective factor of IS but not IHD. Inhaled opium addiction does not have a significant influence on occurrence of IS and IHD.

  6. The Fight to Ban Opium in the Soviet Areas of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    IN recent years, I visited some old Soviet Areas (established during the Second Revolutionary Civil War, 1927-1937) in Sichuan Province. Recalling the war with local people and singing Red Army and revolutionary songs of those years, I remember the folk songs about giving UP the opium habit. In order to establish and develop the revolutionary base in Sichuan, the Party and Red Army carried out a mass movement to ban opium, saving tens of thousands families from ruin.

  7. Lessons in ambivalence: The Shanghai Municipal Council's opium policies, 1906-1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-An; Du, Yilun

    2016-11-01

    Shanghai was considered to be a "capital of opium" in modern China, hence the history of opium in the city has received significant attention. In the Shanghai International Settlement, where Chinese and foreigners lived as neighbours, drugs were considered by the administration as both "trouble maker", and important financial resource. This paper explores how the Shanghai Municipal Council (SMC), the most senior governing body in the settlement, used its position to maximize political and economic profit from the trade and consumption of opium. The paper is based on documentary analysis of records of the SMC board meetings and other related material stored at Shanghai Municipal Archives. Interpretive approaches were used to analyze the shifting SMC strategies on opium consumption, the competing power relations and the way they were negotiated between actors with a stake in the region, including semi-colonialism and world systems analysis. With the dual purpose of preventing damage and enhancing municipal management, the SMC introduced a licensing system permitting the consumption and trade of drugs. However, the anti-opium policies of the late Qing government and the Anglo-Chinese 10 Year Agreement meant SMC had to shut down opium "houses" (opium dens) and "shops" (for the sale of opium to be consumed off the premises). Over almost a decade, the SMC shifted emphasis from political regulation of a social, recreational practice to maximizing financial benefit. In the process, SMC made full use of the opportunities it gained from a period of ambivalent Chinese and British power relations and local community rule. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quadriplegia due to lead-contaminated opium: a case report

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    Baigmohammadi MT

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Lead poisoning could be associated with gastrointestinal renal, hematologic complications and neurologic deficit."n"n Case report: The patient was an opium addict, forty one years old male, to hospital admitted with gastrointestinal signs, constipation, abdominal pain, severe weakness of upper and lower limbs without any sensory impairment and with anemia, leukocytosis, and slightly increased liver function tests. Serum level of lead was more than 200µg/dl. After treatment with dimercaprol (BAL, CaNa2EDTA for two five days sessions that followed with oral succimer for three days, signs and symptoms relieved, all laboratory tests became normal and blood level of lead reduced but the patient was discharged with quadriplegia. There was no fecal or urinary incontinence."n"n Conclusions: Because of irreversibility and severity of lead related neuronal injury, we should suspect to lead poisoning in each patient with neuronal involvement and concurrent GI and hematologic signs."n"n Keywords: Lead poisoning, motor palsy, opium, neuropathy, quadriplegia.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum Germplasm

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    Hari Shanker Acharya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The medicinal value of opium poppy (2n = 22, Papaver somniferum L. is due to presence of more than two dozen alkaloids. The genetic origin and diversity of cultivars used in the breeding collection is not fully known. To evaluate the genetic diversity of the 24 germplasm currently cultivated in the state to provide genetic information about heterogeneity, using RAPD and ISSR markers. Approach: Isolated genomic DNA was subjected to PCR amplification using either random or ISSR markers. The amplified fragments were scored and matrix was prepared. Jaccard similarity coefficients were calculated and dendogram was generated. Results: RAPD with 12 primers gave 46 scorable fragments out of which 32 bands were polymorphic (69.52% with 2.6 polymorphic band per primer, while in ISSR analysis 9 primer gave good amplification with DNA of 24 opium poppy germplasm. They gave 27 scorable polymorphic with 3.0 bends per primer. Dendrogram constructed revealed that the based on RAPD the germplasm cultivated comprised of one major group A and one minor group B, while two clusters of two germplasm each stands apart, on the basis of ISSR they fall into one major group A and one minor groups B, while one germplasm clusters of UOP-60 stands apart. Based on combined RAPD and ISSR analysis these germplasm were divided into 1 major group A and 3 minor group B, C, D whereas one genotype UOP-6 stood apart. Conclusion: These results showed that the majority of cultivated germplasm fall in one cluster and have low genetic diversity.

  10. The Construction and Validation of Opium Attitude Questionnaire among Guidance and High School Students

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    Ali Mohammad Rezaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was aimed to determine the validity and reliability of opium attitudes questionnaire. Method: 6108 of guidance school (3th grades and high school students filled the opium attitude questionnaire in all of the country. The validity of questionnaire assessed by group discrimination and confirmatory factor analysis method. Results: the results of group discrimination showed that the questions can be discriminated of past and current opium addicts and normal groups. On the basis of factor analysis results 5 factors extracted. These factors with consideration of literature review and loaded items content named: interest to consume, attitude to dangers, attitude to physiological effects, attitude to psychic effects, attitude to social effects to opium. Reliability of subscales examined by Cronbakh’s alpha. The minimum measure of reliability was 0.77 and maximum was 0.86. Altogether, the validity and reliability of questionnaire were satisfied. Conclusion: On the basis of present research results, opium attitude questionnaire is appropriate for assessing of students’ attitude to opium among guidance and high school students.

  11. Opium addiction and severity of coronary artery disease: A case-control study

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    Mohammad Masoumi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Determina-tion of the risk factors and high risk groups plays an important role in the prevention and controlling programs. The present study aims to determine the relationship between opium consumption and severity of CAD. Methods: In this hospital based case- control study, 299 patients who were candidates for coronary angiography from 2006 to 2007 were recruited. The patients′ history of opium addiction was taken. Based on their history, they were cate-gorized into three groups: non users, occasional users and current users. The relationship between opium addiction and severity of CAD was analyzed by a multiple logistic regression model, STATA v.10. Results: According to angiographic data, patients were divided into 3 groups: 84 patients (28.09% as non coronary artery disease, 81 patients (27.09% as mild CAD and the remaining 134 patients (44.82% as severe CAD. Univariate analysis showed that current opium users had higher odds of severe CAD compared with non users. Multivariate analy-sis showed a significant relationship between age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gender and severity of coronary artery stenosis. Conclusions: The findings indicated that current opium users - in comparison with non users - have a higher risk for severe CAD. But it is roughly confounded by other co- factors such as cigarette smoking, age and sex. A dose- response was noticed between the type of opium consumption and the severity of CAD.

  12. Opium addiction increases interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra in the coronary artery disease patients.

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    Habibollah Saadat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that opium addiction has immunosuppressant effects. Coronary artery disease (CAD is a condition resulted from atherosclerosis which is dependent on the immune response. PURPOSE: To evaluate plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1Ra in 30 patients with three-vessel coronary artery disease, ejection fraction of more than 35% and to evaluate their changes after prognostic treadmill test in 15 opium addicted and 15 non-addicted patients. METHODS: The participants underwent prognostic treadmill test and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1Ra (IL-1Ra were evaluated with ELISA method before, just after and 4 hours after the test. RESULTS: IL-1Ra (2183 pg/ml tended to decrease over time in the opium addicted group (1372 pg/ml after prognostic treadmill test and 1034 pg/ml 4 hours after that, although such decrease did not reach the statistical significance. IL-1Ra levels were significantly higher in opium addicted than in non addicted patients. Opium addiction had no significant effect on IL-6 changes. CONCLUSION: Consumption of opium in CAD patients is associated with higher IL-1Ra levels.

  13. Plausible Impact of Dietary Habits on Reduced Blood Sugar in Diabetic Opium Addicts with Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Najafi; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of opium on glycemic control in diabetics is a controversial issue, as some studies have shown glucose lowering effect of opium in diabetes while the results of other studies do not support this idea. The possible role of opioid peptides in the regulation of food intake has been previously investigated. However, there is no data available about relationship between opium using and dietary pattern. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the daily i...

  14. Medicinal aspects of opium as described in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, opium has been used as a base for the opioid class of drugs used to suppress the central nervous system. Opium is a substance extracted from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Its consumption and medicinal application date back to antiquity. In the medieval period, Avicenna, a famous Persian scholar (980-1037 AD) described poppy under the entry Afion of his medical encyclopedia Canon of Medicine. Various effects of opium consumption, both wanted and unwanted are discussed in the encyclopedia. The text mentions the effects of opioids such as analgesic, hypnotic, antitussive, gastrointestinal, cognitive, respiratory depression, neuromuscular disturbance, and sexual dysfunction. It also refers to its potential as a poison. Avicenna describes several methods of delivery and recommendations for doses of the drug. Most of opioid effects described by Avicenna have subsequently been confirmed by modern research, and other references to opium use in medieval texts call for further investigation. This article highlights an important aspect of the medieval history of medicine.

  15. Comparative Study of CNS Effects of Opium in Homeopathic Potencies with Pentazocine in Mice

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    Karandikar Y.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Opium is a drug being used in modern medicine as well as in homeopathy. Despite of the same source, both the pathies have different principles and indications. Opium is an alkaloid having main action on CNS. So in this study, we evaluated the effect of different dilutions of Opium in homeopathic potencies on CNS in mice and compared with that of Pentazocine. We divided forty mice of either sex into 7 groups (6c, 30c, 200c, 1 M, 0/1 LM, dispensing alcohol, Pentazocine. Test drugs were given orally. Different actions on CNS were evaluated by using Actophotometer for locomotor activity, Analgesiometer for analgesic activity and Straub test for opioid. Our result showed that pharmacological actions of Opium seen in modern medicine were not seen with different dilutions of Opium, in homeopathic potencies. 30c and 200c dilutions may be having secondary curative that is CNS stimulant action (reversal of CNS depression due to alcohol as per homeopathic principles.

  16. Neglected role of hookah and opium in gastric carcinogenesis : A cohort study on risk factors and attributable fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H.; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Boreiri, Majid; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Babaei, Masoud; Alimohammadian, Masoomeh; Samadi, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Emad; Delavari, Alireza; Islami, Farhad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Nikmanesh, Arash; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed an association between hookah/opium use and gastric cancer but no study has investigated the relationship with gastric precancerous lesions. We examined the association between hookah/opium and gastric precancerous lesions and subsequent gastric cancer. In a population-based co

  17. Neglected role of hookah and opium in gastric carcinogenesis : A cohort study on risk factors and attributable fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H.; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Boreiri, Majid; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Babaei, Masoud; Alimohammadian, Masoomeh; Samadi, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Emad; Delavari, Alireza; Islami, Farhad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Nikmanesh, Arash; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed an association between hookah/opium use and gastric cancer but no study has investigated the relationship with gastric precancerous lesions. We examined the association between hookah/opium and gastric precancerous lesions and subsequent gastric cancer. In a population-based

  18. A Case-Control Study of Effect of Opium Addiction on Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Azimzade-Sarwar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD and Myocardial Infarction (MI are one of the most important disease which cause mortality and morbidity. Opioid peptides and exogenous opioid such as morphine are known to exert an important cardiovascular effect. To study effect of opium addiction to incidence of MI. A Case-Control study was designed in Kerman university. 150 patients with MI was admitted to CCU and 150 matched patients admitted in surgical wards evaluate from cardiovascular risk factor and opium addiction. Analysis of data suggested no difference between two groups (P>0.05. But smoking OR = 2.45, hypertension OR = 2.65, Diabetes mellitus OR = 1.82 and Hypercholesterolemia OR = 3.16 were a risk factor for MI. Effect of opium in IHD has controversial. But recent of study defined that opioid peptides have a cardioprotective effect. Many exact and longitudinal studies should design for this purpose.

  19. Cloning and characterization of canadine synthase involved in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-03

    Noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy is thought to occur via N-methylcanadine, which would be produced through 9-O-methylation of (S)-scoulerine, methylenedioxy bridge formation on (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine, and N-methylation of (S)-canadine. Only scoulerine 9-O-methyltransferase has been functionally characterized. We report the isolation and characterization of a cytochrome P450 (CYP719A21) from opium poppy that converts (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine to (S)-canadine. Recombinant CYP719A21 displayed strict substrate specificity and high affinity (Km=4.63±0.71 μM) for (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine. Virus-induced gene silencing of CYP719A21 caused a significant increase in (S)-tetrahydrocolumbamine accumulation and a corresponding decrease in the levels of putative downstream intermediates and noscapine in opium poppy plants.

  20. The Effect of Opium Dependency of Parent (s on Offspring’s Spatial Learning & Memory in Adult Male Rats

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    Arezoo Saberi Moghadam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:As far as we know,there has been no report regarding the effects of opium addiction or dependency of both parents on the learning and memory process in offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the learning and memory changes of adult male offspring whose mothers, fathers and/or both parents had dependency to opium before and during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: All experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. Opium dependency was induced by daily injections of opium (10 mg/kg/SC, bid/10 d before mating. The presence of a vaginal plug was designated as gestation day. Treatment with opium continued through breeding and gestation until parturition. Spatial memory was tested in male offspring of control, saline and prenatal opium treated groups by a training trial and the probe test in the Morris water maze. Swimming escape latency in the maze and the ability to find the platform in the training trial were recorded. The time spent in the trigger zone and number of times the rats crossed the platform during the probe phase and swimming speed were measured. Results:Thedata revealed increased escape latency and a greater distance traveled to find the hidden platform in the offspring’s whose mother, father and /or both parents were exposed to opium. Crossings to target quadrant at probe trials was significantly reduced in all of the prenatal opium exposed offsprings. The swimming speed showed a significant increase in father and parent’s opium exposed offspring.  Conclusion:Prenatal opium exposure of either parent may cause deficits in spatial learning, but the precise mechanism(s remain largely unknown.

  1. Opium addiction and severity of coronary artery disease; a case-control study

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    Mohammad Massomi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. So, determination of the risk factors and high risk groups plays an important role in the prevention and controlling programs. The aim of present study was determine the relationship between the opium consumption and the severity of CAD. Methods: In this hospital based case-control study, we recruited 299 patients candidate for coronary angiography from 2006 to 2007.The history of opium addiction was asked in all subjects. According to the duration of opium consumption, we categorized the individuals into three groups, non-users, occasional users and currently-users .The relationship between opium addiction and severity of CAD was analyzed using logistic regression model. Results: we analyzed the data of 299 cases, which included 84 (28.09% as the control group, 81 (27.09% as non-significant and monovessel CAD and the remaining 134 (44.82% as multivessel CAD group. Univariat analysis showed that currently users had a higher odds of severity CAD in compare to control group with OR=2.06 (CI95% 1.22-3.49, P=0.007. Multivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, male gender and severity of coronary artery stenosis. Currently users had a higher odds of severity CAD in compare to the control group with the adjusted OR 1.82 (CI95% 0.93 – 3.58, P=0.08, but anymore wasn’t significant Conclusion: The findings indicated that currently opium users – in compare to non-users - have a higher risk for severe CAD .But it is roughly confounded by other co-factors such as cigar smoking, age and sex. We have seen a dose-response between the type of opium consumption and the severity of CAD, but the relationship was not significant.

  2. Randomized controlled trial of postoperative belladonna and opium rectal suppositories in vaginal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kristina; Yi, John; Wasson, Megan; Klauschie, Jennifer; Ryan, Debra; Hentz, Joseph; Cornella, Jeffrey; Magtibay, Paul; Kho, Roseanne

    2017-05-01

    After vaginal surgery, oral and parenteral narcotics are used commonly for pain relief, and their use may exacerbate the incidence of sedation, nausea, and vomiting, which ultimately delays convalescence. Previous studies have demonstrated that rectal analgesia after surgery results in lower pain scores and less intravenous morphine consumption. Belladonna and opium rectal suppositories may be used to relieve pain and minimize side effects; however, their efficacy has not been confirmed. We aimed to evaluate the use of belladonna and opium suppositories for pain reduction in vaginal surgery. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used belladonna and opium suppositories after inpatient or outpatient vaginal surgery was conducted. Vaginal surgery was defined as (1) vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension or (2) posthysterectomy prolapse repair that included uterosacral ligament suspension and/or colporrhaphy. Belladonna and opium 16A (16.2/60 mg) or placebo suppositories were administered rectally immediately after surgery and every 8 hours for a total of 3 doses. Patient-reported pain data were collected with the use of a visual analog scale (at 2, 4, 12, and 20 hours postoperatively. Opiate use was measured and converted into parenteral morphine equivalents. The primary outcome was pain, and secondary outcomes included pain medication, antiemetic medication, and a quality of recovery questionnaire. Adverse effects were surveyed at 24 hours and 7 days. Concomitant procedures for urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse did not preclude enrollment. Ninety women were randomly assigned consecutively at a single institution under the care of a fellowship-trained surgeon group. Demographics did not differ among the groups with mean age of 55 years, procedure time of 97 minutes, and prolapse at 51%. Postoperative pain scores were equivalent among both groups at each time interval. The belladonna and opium group used a

  3. Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran

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    Behrooz Hashemi Domeneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opium dependence is one of the most challenging health problems in the developing countries as well as Iran. Among several health problems due to opium dependence, there are limited reports indicating the presence of lead in opium. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood lead level (BLL in oral and inhalational opium dependents and its association with anemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 86 opium dependent patients who were referred to five large detoxification centers in Tehran city and 48 healthy individuals. BLL was assessed using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Multivariate analysis of variance and binary logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical assessment using SPSS version 18 for Windows. Results: The highest BLL was detected in oral opium dependent group (mean = 11.75, standard deviation (SD = 6.06 in comparison to inhalational opium dependent group (mean = 7.07, SD = 3.61 and healthy control group (mean = 6.05, SD = 1.83. Anemia was detected in 38% of oral-opium dependent and 43% of inhalational-opium dependent group. Age (odds ratio (OR: 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03-1.09 and opium dependence (OR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.69-7.59 were significant predictors of anemia in these patients (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed the higher BLL in opium dependents, especially with an oral form of consumption.

  4. Tectonic Scents – Elocutions on the Opium of Maison de Verre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    2017-01-01

    , hold a sensuous elocution that should be positioned in future architectural research, we ask ourselves? In the essay we pursue this sensuous potential through a semiotic study of the house and the commercial by David Lynch for Yves Saint Laurent’s controversial Opium fragrance filmed in the illusory...

  5. Straightforward analytical method to determine opium alkaloids in poppy seeds and bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P.K.H.; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Spanjer, Martien; Stoppelaar, de Joyce; Mol, Hans G.J.; Nijs, de Monique

    2018-01-01

    A straightforward method to determine the content of six opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine and narceine) in poppy seeds and bakery products was developed and validated down to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1 mg/kg. The method was based on extraction with

  6. Determination of relative response factors of the opium alkaloids with HPLC-DAD

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    Jelena Acevska

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a convenient method for determination of relative UV response factors (RRFs of morphine, codeine, thebaine, oripavine, noscapine and papaverine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC equipped with a diode array detector (DAD was presented. Pholcodine was selected as the reference compound for calculating the relative response factors of the alkaloids. The separation of all seven compounds was obtained with optimized gradient elution with high pH value of the mobile phase on a reversed phase column with bidentate C18-C18 bonding technology. The RRFs of the alkaloids were determinate by three different approaches: ‘regression analysis/mass concentration’, ‘regression analysis/molar concentration’and ‘detector sensitivity’ approaches. The ‘regression analysis/molar concentration’ approach gave the accurate approximation of the exact amount of the substance that enters in the detector and the statistically relevant calculation includes several points of different concentrations (at least five, which makes this approach most advantageous one. This method is suitable for quality assessment of the standardised opium dry extract, raw opium and standardised opium tincture by quantitative analysis of not only morphine and codeine as indicated in the respective European Pharmacopoeia monographs, but as well as the major impurities that originate from opium poppy Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae.

  7. The Provincial Magnate Prohibiting Opium---TAO Shu%严禁鸦片的疆臣领袖--陶澍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蒲清

    2015-01-01

    TAO Shu’s opium ban,his prohibiting opium acts,and the repeated consultation of LIN Zexu to him,prove that TAO Shu was the first provincial magnate conducting large -scale destruction of opium,and was the political leader advocating prohibiting opi-um.%陶澍的禁烟主张、禁烟行动,以及林则徐禁烟反复征询陶澍意见,证明陶澍是最早大规模销毁鸦片的封疆大吏,是主张严禁鸦片的政坛领袖人物。

  8. Characterization of three O-methyltransferases involved in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid produced in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and other members of the Papaveraceae. It has been used as a cough suppressant and more recently was shown to possess anticancer activity. However, the biosynthesis of noscapine in opium poppy has not been established. A proposed pathway leading from (S)-reticuline to noscapine includes (S)-scoulerine, (S)-canadine, and (S)-N-methylcanadine as intermediates. Stem cDNA libraries and latex extracts of eight opium poppy cultivars displaying different alkaloid profiles were subjected to massively parallel pyrosequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Comparative transcript and metabolite profiling revealed the occurrence of three cDNAs encoding O-methyltransferases designated as SOMT1, SOMT2, and SOMT3 that correlated with the accumulation of noscapine in the eight cultivars. SOMT transcripts were detected in all opium poppy organs but were most abundant in aerial organs, where noscapine primarily accumulates. SOMT2 and SOMT3 showed strict substrate specificity and regiospecificity as 9-O-methyltransferases targeting (S)-scoulerine. In contrast, SOMT1 was able to sequentially 9- and 2-O-methylate (S)-scoulerine, yielding (S)-tetrahydropalmatine. SOMT1 also sequentially 3'- and 7-O-methylated both (S)-norreticuline and (S)-reticuline with relatively high substrate affinity, yielding (S)-tetrahydropapaverine and (S)-laudanosine, respectively. The metabolic functions of SOMT1, SOMT2, and SOMT3 were investigated in planta using virus-induced gene silencing. Reduction of SOMT1 or SOMT2 transcript levels resulted in a significant decrease in noscapine accumulation. Reduced SOMT1 transcript levels also caused a decrease in papaverine accumulation, confirming the selective roles for these enzymes in the biosynthesis of both alkaloids in opium poppy.

  9. The opium poppy as a symbol of sleep in Bertel Thorvaldsen's relief of 1815.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekiner, Halil; Kosar, Muberra

    2016-03-01

    Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770-1844) is one of the most remarkable representatives of Neoclassicist sculptural art in Europe, which was largely inspired by the classical art and culture of Greek and Roman antiquity. A pair of marble reliefs, Night and Day, exhibited in the Thorvaldsen Museum (Copenhagen), marks the culmination of Thorvaldsen's relief art and is of particular interest to the history of sleep medicine. In the first relief, Night, an angel with her neck bent and eyes closed has two babies in her embrace and seems to be floating down in grief, with an owl hovering behind her. Her hair is also twined with opium poppies, the symbol of sleep and death in antiquity. Our findings suggest that this relief not only indicates a mythological association between the opium poppy and sleep but also has a strong connotation with the poppy's medicinal use for inducing sleep throughout the centuries.

  10. Investigating the Effects of Adding Fentanyl to Bupivacaine in Spinal Anesthesia of Opium-addicted Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Satari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spinal anesthesia in opium-addicted patients can be associated with many complications. Hence, this study aimed to investigate sensory and motor block characteristics, duration of postoperative analgesia, hemodynamic and side effects by adding Fentanyl to bupivacaine in spinal Anesthesia of opium-addicted patients. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 60 American society of Anesthesiology (ASA class I and II opium-addicted patients under spinal anesthesia in lower abdominal and lower limb operations were randomly classified into two groups of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl. Clinical symptoms, side effects, the duration of sensory and motor block, initiation of analgesia requirement and sensory block were assessed. Results: The study results indicated no significant difference between bupivacaine and bupivacaine-fentanyl groups in regard with demographic, side effects, blood pressure and heart rate, though a significant difference was observed in respiratory rate 5min, 10min, 45min, 75min and 90 min after block. Duration of sensory (100.33 to 138.83 and motor block (93.43 to 107.66 and , initiation of analgesia requirement (165.33 to 187.76 was significantly longer in bupivacaine-fentanyl, though initiation of sensory block (8.83 to 4.93 was significantly longer in bupivacaine. Conclusion: Addition of fentanyl to bupivacaine in spinal anesthesia increases the duration of sensory and motor block and initiation of analgesia requirement in opium-addicted patients and also decreases initiation of sensory block in these patients.

  11. Analysis of Taliban Revenue and the Importance of the Opium Trade to the Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    off following the Soviet withdrawal and refugees returned to claim their land, opium production and export finally became systematic.91 What...a compelling argument that sums up much of the factors Afghanistan offers to a civil war scenario, A state where the rule of law is weak might be...building government.238 Colonel Veneri, while watching three Afghan Army cadet trainers attempt to pump up a basketball with a faulty pump, surmised

  12. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  13. Acetylation serves as a protective group in noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Chen, Xue; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    We have characterized four sequential enzymes that transform 1-hydroxy-N-methylcanadine to narcotoline hemiacetal, completing our elucidation of noscapine biosynthesis in opium poppy. Two cytochromes P450 catalyze hydroxylations at C13 and C8 on the protoberberine scaffold, the latter step inducing ring opening and the formation of an aldehyde moiety. Acetylation at C13 before C8 hydroxylation introduces a protective group subsequently hydrolyzed by a carboxylesterase, which triggers rearrangement to a cyclic hemiacetal.

  14. Quality of Life, Social Desirability and Their Relationship in Opium Addicted Persons in Southeast of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Arab, Mansour; Kohan, Mehri; Ranjbar, Hadi; Arab, Nanaz; Rayani, Masoud; Mirrashidi, Salehe Sadat; Rafiei, Hossein; Amiri, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Addiction leads to many problems which may adversely affect addicted people, their families and impose health care agencies with many challenges. This study aimed to examined quality of life (QoL), social desirability and their relationship among opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran. Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2012 to January 2013, 123 addicted people were studied. Date collection tools were; checklist of demographic da...

  15. Cannabis and Opium Abuse Patterns and Their Associated Complications in a Sample of Young Iranians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Mohammad Ali; Asgary, Sedigheh; Shahrokhi, Shahnaz; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Shariatirad, Schwann

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of drug abuse has been reported to be up to 17.0% in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two frequently abused substances--cannabis and opium--in samples of the young population in Isfahan, Iran. In a survey done from January 2005 to December 2006, 537 individuals aged 13-20 years were recruited using a…

  16. Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Dermatoglyphic Characteristics of Opium Addicts with Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Omid; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Barzegar, Afsoon; Husein, Afzal; Malic, Claudia; Sheikhazadi, Elham; Saberi-Anary, Seyed Hossein

    2016-04-01

    Recreational drugs have a significant impact on the lives of drug users, their close families andfriends, as well as their society. Social, psychological, biological, and genetic factors could make a personmore prone to using recreational drugs. Finger and A-B ridges (dermatoglyphics) are formed during the firstand second trimesters of fetal development, under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Theaim of our study was to investigate and evaluate a possible link between dermatoglyphics and opium usage. The pattern of dermatoglyphics - finger and A-B prints - obtained from a group of opium users(121 patients) was compared to those obtained from a group of opium non-users (121 patients) from Birjand,Iran. The results were analyzed using chi-square, t and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that although A-B ridges of palms and fingers in our study group were highercompared to the control group, there was no significant difference between these groups. The only significantdifference was the fingerprint patterns of the left ring finger in the study group, which lacked the arch patternand had less loop patterns. The dominant type of fingerprint in the left ring finger was the whorl. In ouropium user group, the arch and loop fingerprint patterns were heterogeneous and significantly different incomparison with the control group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a genetic factor may increase the predisposition to recreational drugusage. Further research is required to confirm this possible impact of genetic factors on the addiction process.

  17. Opium trade and the spread of HIV in the Golden Crescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Syeda Ayesha; Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Abidi, Syed Hani; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Ali, Syed

    2017-07-21

    The Golden Crescent region of South Asia-comprising Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan-is a principal global site for opium production and distribution. Over the past few decades, war, terrorism, and a shifting political landscape have facilitated an active heroin trade throughout the region. Protracted conflict has exacerbated already dire socio-economic conditions and political strife within the region and contributed to a consequent rise in opiate trafficking and addiction among the region's inhabitants. The worsening epidemic of injection drug use has paralleled the rising incidence of HIV and other blood-borne infections in the region and drawn attention to the broader implications of the growing opiate trade in the Golden Crescent. The first step in addressing drug use is to recognize that it is not a character flaw but a form of mental illness, hence warranting humane treatment of drug users. It is also recommended that the governments of the Golden Crescent countries encourage substitution of opium with licit crops and raise awareness among the general public about the perils of opium use.

  18. Sprcial discussion: Future Roles for Tincture of Opium in Medical Intervention for Opioid Dependence Treads and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Opium tincture or tincture of opium (TOP, also known as Laudanum, is an alcoholic herbal preparation of opium. It is made by combining ethanol with opium latex or powder. After works of Paracelsus, the 16th century Swiss-German alchemist, who discovered that the alkaloids in opium are far more soluble in alcohol compared to water and named Opium tincture as Laudanum, this drug has been found a broad range of applications as the drug of choice for practically every ailment through 17th to 19th centuries. The early 20th century brought increased regulation of all manner of narcotics, including laudanum, as the addictive properties of opium became more widely understood. By the late 20th century, TOP's use was almost exclusively confined to treating severe diarrhea. During these thirty years, The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of opioid substitution therapy for the treatment of opioid addiction has been well documented by methadone and buprenorphine. Based on the idea of substitution therapy, TOP and slow releasing oral morphine (SROM have been proposed as the new alternatives. TOP could be used in three different ways in interventions for opioid dependency, first, as a supportive drug to reduce withdrawal syndrome during detoxification programs, second, as a substitution drug in long term maintenance, third, as a legal form of opioid drugs for harm reduction purposes. A little but growing evidences are supporting effectiveness of TOP for detoxification programs, in Iran, some preliminary open label studies showed effectiveness of TOP as a detoxifying drug in three to six month program, Now another open label study is evaluating TOP in a specific detoxification program with monthly evaluation and providing long term follow up after reaching to abstinence. There are a strong debate among the policy makers and clinicians on implementation of TOP in Iranian National Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities. In this article, We reviewed the proposed

  19. No association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility to opium sap dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saify, Khyber; Khalighinasab, Mohammad Rashid; Saadat, Mostafa

    2016-03-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC: 2.5.1.18) are a ubiquitous family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phase II metabolic isozymes. Genes encoding GSTM1 (OMIM: 138350), and GSTT1 (OMIM: 600436) are members of class mu and theta, respectively. The most common polymorphism in the GSTM1 is a deletion of the whole GSTM1 gene with a lack of enzyme activity. A homozygous deletion in the GSTT1 has also been reported (null genotypes of GSTT1). The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study was performed in Shiraz (southern Iran). In total, 71 males dependent to opium sap and 590 healthy males (as a control group) were included in this study. The genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were determined by PCR. Our data indicate that neither GSTM1 (OR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.47-1.27, P=0.325) nor GSTT1 (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 0.70-2.21, P=0.442) null genotypes significantly associated with the risk of opium sap dependence. There is no additive effect of the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in relation to the risk of dependency to opium sap. The present study indicated that the null genotypes of GSTT1 and GSTM1 are not risk factor for opium sap dependence.

  20. Genetic transformation via somatic embryogenesis to establish herbicide-resistant opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Peter J; Loukanina, Natalia; Blanche, Vincent

    2008-04-01

    A reliable genetic transformation protocol via somatic embryogenesis has been developed for the production of fertile, herbicide-resistant opium poppy plants. Transformation was mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens using the pCAMBIA3301 vector, which harbors the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (pat) gene driven by a tandem repeat of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the beta-glucuronidase (gus) structural gene driven by a single copy of the CaMV 35S promoter between left- and right-border sequences. Co-cultivation of explants and A. tumefaciens was performed in the presence of 50 microM ATP and 50 microM MgCl(2). Root explants pre-cultured on callus induction medium were used for transformation. Herbicide-resistant, proliferating callus was obtained from explants on a medium containing both 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). Globular embryogenic callus, induced by removal of the BA from the medium, was placed on a hormone-free medium to form somatic embryos, which were converted to plantlets under specific culture conditions. Plantlets with roots were transferred to soil, allowed to mature and set seed. Both pat and gus gene transcripts, and PAT and GUS enzyme activities were detected in the transgenic lines tested. Histochemical localization of GUS activity in T(1) opium poppy plants revealed transgene expression in most tissues of all plant organs. The protocol required 8-12 months to establish transgenic T(1) seed stocks and was developed using a commercial opium poppy cultivar that produces high levels of pharmaceutical alkaloids.

  1. Preparation and Application of an Immunoaffinity Column for Direct Extraction of Morphine and its Analogs from Opium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Hua QI; Jian Qiu MI; Xin Xiang ZHANG; Wen Bao CHANG

    2004-01-01

    A rapid, simple and accurate method using an immunoaffinity column (IAC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the analysis of the major alkaloids in opium is developed. The IAC was synthesized by coupling specific morphine polyclonal antibodies to CNBr-actived Sepharose 4B. The IAC showed high selectivity and obvious enrichment to morphine, codeine, dionin and thebaine. The extraction solution was analyzed by CE with β-cyclodextrin as an additive. Recoveries of the four alkaloids from PBS were between 93%-105% with RSD value less than 5.0%. The result showed that this method was practical for the determination of morphine analogs in opium.

  2. L'économie politique du pavot à opium dans le Triangle d'Or

    OpenAIRE

    Gutelman, Michel

    2003-01-01

    L'objet de cet article est de montrer comment l'expansion récente de la demande d'opium à des fins illicites favorise le développement de rapports de production capitalistes dans les régions montagneuses des « trois frontières » de Birmanie ; du Laos et de Thailande. La convergence de l'accroissement naturel des populations tribales et des luttes intestines en Birmanie raréfie les terres -- ce qui permettra de passer de l'agriculture itinérante à d'autres types culturaux. La manière do...

  3. Multivariate analysis in relation to breeding system in opium popy, Papaver somniferum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. is an important medicinal plant of great pharmacopoel uses. 101 germplasm lines of different eco-geographical origin maintained at National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow were evaluated to study the genetic divergence for seed yield/plant, opium yield/plant and its 8 component traits following multivariate and canonical analysis. The genotypes were grouped in 13 clusters and confirmed by canonical analysis. Sixty eight percent genotypes (69/101 were genetically close to each other and grouped in 6 clusters (II, III, IV, V, VIII, XII while apparent diversity was noticed for 32 percent (32/101 of the genotypes who diversed into rest 7 clusters (I, VI, VII, IX, X, XI, XIII. Inter cluster distance ranged from 47.28 to 234.55. The maximum was between IX and X followed by VII and IX (208.30 and IX and XI (205.53. The genotypes in cluster IX, X. XI, and XII had greater potential as breeding stock by virtue of high mean values of one or more component characters and high statistical distance among them. Based on findings of high cluster mean of component trait and inter-cluster distance among clusters, a breeding plan has been discussed.

  4. Relationships of dissociative disorders and personality traits in opium addicts on methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarinezhad, Alireza; Rajabizadeh, Ghodratollah; Shahriari, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major public health problem. Some believe that when dissociation fails to defend against emotional, physical, or sexual trauma, the person will find relief from unpleasant thoughts and emotions in opium use. On the other hand, personality disorders are considered as important predictors of treatment outcomes in drug abusers. Due to lack of adequate research in this regard, we evaluated dissociative disorders and personality traits of opium addicts on methadone treatment. This cross-sectional analytic study included 111 non-psychotic subjects on methadone treatment (case group) and 69 non-addicts (control group). After recording demographic characteristics, Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Millon Multiaxial Inventory III were applied to assess dissociative symptoms and clinical personality patterns of all participants. Dissociative symptoms were significantly more common in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.044). While hysterionic personality disorder was more frequent in the control group (P = 0.008), sadistic, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders were significantly more common in the case group (P = 0.008, 0.002, and 0.023, respectively). We found relations between history of drug dependence, dissociative symptoms, and personality disorders. Therefore, the mentioned disorders need to be kept in mind while planning addiction treatment modalities and identifying high risk groups.

  5. Opium and Opioid Abuse in Orthopedic Inpatients: A Cross Sectional Study in Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mosa Aghdashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During a cross-sectional study, patients who were admitted to the orthopedic department of the Urmia University of Medical Sciences were asked about opium/opioid abuse. Demographic characteristics, the pattern of consumption, the substance, the duration of the use, the duration of hospital stay and the cause of their injuries were recorded. Among 2,867 patients, 74 (2.5% patients (71 men and 3 women with the mean age of 38 were opium/opioid users. Most of the patients used opium through inhalation. The mean duration of the substance use was 7.4 years. The mean duration of hospital stay between the regular orthopedic patients and the opium/opioid abuser orthopedic patients was statistically significant. (P=000. Among four Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infected patients, three subjects were injection users and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV also infected two of them. Road traffic accidents (37.8%, and work related injuries (17.5% were the two most common reasons for the patient's injuries.

  6. Short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase catalyzing the final step of noscapine biosynthesis is localized to laticifers in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The final step in the biosynthesis of the phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid noscapine involves a purported dehydrogenation of the narcotinehemiacetal keto moiety. A short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR), designated noscapine synthase (NOS), that catalyzes dehydrogenation of narcotinehemiacetal to noscapine was identified in opium poppy and functionally characterized. The NOS gene was isolated using an integrated transcript and metabolite profiling strategy and subsequently expressed in Escherichia coli. Noscapine synthase is highly divergent from other characterized members of the NADPH-dependent SDR superfamily involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism, and it exhibits exclusive substrate specificity for narcotinehemiacetal. Kinetic analyses showed that NOS exhibits higher catalytic efficiency with NAD+ as the cofactor compared with NADP+. Suppression of NOS transcript levels in opium poppy plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing resulted in a corresponding reduction in the accumulation of noscapine and an increase in narcotinehemiacetal levels in the latex. Noscapine and NOS transcripts were detected in all opium poppy organs, but both were most abundant in stems. Unlike other putative biosynthetic genes clustered in the opium poppy genome, and their corresponding proteins, NOS transcripts and the cognate enzyme were abundant in latex, indicating that noscapine metabolism is completed in a distinct cell type compared with the rest of the pathway.

  7. The post-opium scenario and rubber in northern Laos: Alternative Western and Chinese models of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul T

    2009-09-01

    In the past few years rubber planting has spread rapidly throughout northern Laos, especially in Luang Namtha province that borders China. The impetus for this boom has come partly from the spiralling demand for rubber in China (now the world's largest rubber consumer), the high world prices for rubber, and China's promotion of overseas investment through its opium-replacement policy. These economic factors have converged with the desperate need of impoverished highlanders in northern Laos to replace opium as a cash crop as a consequence of a recent opium-eradication campaign and inadequate alternative development. This paper draws upon ethnographic and agro-economic research in northern Laos and neighbouring regions and reports of international development organisations operating in Laos. The rubber boom in northern Laos represents a fundamental clash between Western drug-oriented alternative development, on the one hand, and China's national economic strategies abroad and investment-led narcotics policy, on the other. China's opium-replacement policy has contributed to a type of unregulated frontier capitalism with socio-economic and environmental effects that threaten the principles and goals of alternative development and even to marginalise the role international development organisations in northern Laos.

  8. Effect of opium addiction on new and traditional cardiovascular risk factors: do duration of addiction and route of administration matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderi Gholam-Ali

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a belief among some society that opium has a number of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present investigation as a cross-sectional study was to assess this hypothesis. Several biochemical factors (Fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, HbA1C, CRP, Fibrinogen, Factor VII, SGOT, SGPT, Lpa, apo A and apo B were evaluated in opium-addicted men (case against non opium-addicted men(control. Three hundred and sixty opium-addicted men were divided into three groups according to the route of administration (Orally, Vafour and Sikh-Sang and each group was divided into four subgroups according to the duration of addiction (5 months, 1 year, 2 years and 5 years. Blood morphine concentration was measured by ELISA method. Results The results show that morphine concentration was significantly higher in orally administration. In all routes, there was a direct correlation between blood morphine concentration and period of addiction. Regardless to the period and route of administration, the level of HbA1C, CRP, factor VII, Fibrinogen, apo B, Lpa, SGOT, and SGPT were significantly higher in the case subjects as compared with controls and HDL-Cholesterol and apo a were significantly lower in the case subjects. Conclusion This study demonstrated the deleterious effects of opium on some traditional and new cardiovascular disease risk factors. These deleterious effects are related to the period of addiction and their levels are significantly increased after 2 years of addiction. Route of administration impresses cardiovascular risk factors and "Sikh-Sang" showed the worst effect.

  9. A survey of causes of the opium tendency and addiction in patients with the diagnosis of opium poisoning in Khorramabad educational hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghafar ali Mahmoudi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Less phenomenon, such as addiction has threatened the human societies. Despite the risks and complications of addiction, victims of this deadly trap are added every day. So we decided to study the causes of tendency to opium substances in patients with the diagnosis of drug poisoning and addiction in educational hospitals of Khorramabad city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive epidemiologic study on 100 patients diagnosed with addiction and intoxication with informed consent conducted in 2014. The research instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts, the first part of the information on individual characteristics and the second was to determine the factors associated with opioid use in patients, the questions in the field of employment, economic, educational, family and social factors. After data collecting, statistical analysis was performed. Results: 11 females and 89 males were studied, and the most frequent age group was 30-39 years. 81% were urban and 19% rural. Enjoyment and physical capacity for work, to get rid of the problems of life, relieve mental and neurological disorders, colored with bad friends, unemployment, low cost and availability of opiates, were the most common causes of fendency to substance use. Conclusion: Individual, familial, economic and social factors coordinated toward substance use. It is hoped that the results of this study to increase the awareness of officials and planners in the policy implementation and provide preventive and controlling measures to prevent addiction and its consequences.

  10. Plant science. Morphinan biosynthesis in opium poppy requires a P450-oxidoreductase fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Thilo; Kern, Marcelo; King, Andrew J; Larson, Tony R; Teodor, Roxana I; Donninger, Samantha L; Li, Yi; Dowle, Adam A; Cartwright, Jared; Bates, Rachel; Ashford, David; Thomas, Jerry; Walker, Carol; Bowser, Tim A; Graham, Ian A

    2015-07-17

    Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production.

  11. [Milk of paradise? Opium and opiates in nineteenth and twentieth century literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, D

    2007-08-01

    One cannot have an idea of this multifaceted theme without its medical and cultural-historical background. After a history of several thousand years as a remedy and consumer good, around 1800 this poppy drug was in the focus of public attention due to Brownianism, at first as an often self-prescribed unspecific remedy against physical and mental pain. Many representatives of the early Romanticism knew it from personal experience. However, it was the publication of Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821/1822) which made it a subject of international debate in accordance with the programmatic statements of writers of that epoque and corresponding to the antibourgeois attitude of these men. It became a motif of a counter-world experience and a subject and cause of lyric-subjective reflection as well as a possible premise of poetic creativity.

  12. The opium wars revisited as US forces tobacco exports in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T T; Winder, A E

    1990-06-01

    The tobacco industry has lobbied successfully to obtain the support of the United States government for opening Asian Markets to American tobacco products. This paper comments on two issues arising from these efforts: the development of an atmosphere of invasion and resistance to invasion in Asia; and the change in the image of the United States in Asian nations from that of a leader in health to that of an exporter of death. The threat of sanctions and the effects of the open market and United States tobacco company advertising in Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea are noted. Parallels are drawn between the opium wars a century and a half ago in China and the current threat of trade sanctions. Reacting to American policy, an Asia-Pacific Association for Control of Tobacco has been formed and linked with the US Coalition Against Smoking.

  13. Poisoned Opium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khair, Tabish

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the murder of a man for what he ate, Tabish Khair looks at how the darker aspects of ideologies and religions end up sanctioning brutality......In the wake of the murder of a man for what he ate, Tabish Khair looks at how the darker aspects of ideologies and religions end up sanctioning brutality...

  14. Opium alkaloid noscapine is an antitumor agent that arrests metaphase and induces apoptosis in dividing cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Keqiang; Ke, Yong; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Shanks, John; Kapp, Judith A; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Petros, John; Joshi, Harish C.

    1998-01-01

    An alkaloid from opium, noscapine, is used as an antitussive drug and has low toxicity in humans and mice. We show that noscapine binds stoichiometrically to tubulin, alters its conformation, affects microtubule assembly, and arrests mammalian cells in mitosis. Furthermore, noscapine causes apoptosis in many cell types and has potent antitumor activity against solid murine lymphoid tumors (even when the drug was administered orally) and against human breast and bladder tumors implanted in nud...

  15. Comparing the Early Maladaptive Schemas, Attachment and Coping Styles in Opium and Stimulant Drugs Dependent Men in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinifard, Seyed Mehdi; Kaviani, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Today, the society's need to find the roots of a few thousand-year old substance abuse and the drugs addiction crisis has increased to the extent that it has become a problem within our country. The problem of substance dependence is not only about drug abuse, but it is actually the interrelationship of the person and the dependency on drugs. This study aimed to compare early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, and coping styles in men dependent on opiates and stimulants in Kerman, Iran. This was a comparative descriptive study. The study population consisted of men dependent on opiates and stimulants who referred to addiction treatment clinics in Kerman. Therefore, 150 patients (75 opium addicted men and 75 men dependent on drugs) were selected. The participants completed the Young schema questionnaire-short form (YSQ-SF), adult attachment scale (AAS), and Young coping styles questionnaire (YCSQ). The research data were analyzed using independent t-test and SPSS software. Mean age of patients using opium was 27.9 ± 3.35 years and mean age of patients using stimulant drugs was 25.6 ± 3.41 years (18-60 years old). The results showed that there was no difference between the early maladaptive schemas and coping styles in men dependent on opium and stimulants. However, there was a significant difference between attachment styles in men dependent on opium and stimulants. The mean score of avoidant and ambivalent styles in men dependent on stimulants was higher. Knowledge on the distinctions of early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, and coping styles in substance abuse patients helps the therapists to conduct more effective treatment strategies tailored to the type of substance used in order to provide behavior modification.

  16. National Destiny dimmed by the Wreathing Opium Smoke%鸦片烟缭绕下的家国命运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗万富

    2016-01-01

    鸦片烟引发的社会问题伴随着清王朝始终,究其原因是内祸多于外患。清朝统治者基于财政考虑而制定的鸦片烟政策,是造成鸦片吸食由地方习俗转而成为政治痼疾,直至最终难以禁绝的重要原因。在关涉百姓生存质量的事情面前,为政者切忌卷入其中牟利,否则小者家破,大者亡国。%The social problems caused by opium went through the whole Qing dynasty .There are more domestic rea-sons than foreign ones .The opium policy ,adopted by Qing dynasty for financial reasons ,makes opium smoking a po-litical chronic illness from a local custom and finally can ’ t be eliminated.For issues connected with the people ’ s existence,the officials must not be involved to earn money;or,the family,even the country,will break.

  17. Detection of Verticillium wilt of olive trees and downy mildew of opium poppy using hyperspectral and thermal UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Madrid, Rocío; Navas Cortés, Juan Antonio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Landa del Castillo, Blanca Beatriz; Lucena León, Carlos; Jesús Zarco Tejada, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The present study explored the use of high-resolution thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery as indicators of the infections caused by Verticillium wilt (VW) in olive trees and downy mildew (DM) in opium poppy fields. VW, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, and DM, caused by the biotrophic obligate oomycete Peronospora arborescens, are the most economically limiting diseases of olive trees and opium poppy, respectively, worldwide. V. dahliae infects the plant by the roots and colonizes its vascular system, blocking water flow and eventually inducing water stress. P. arborescens colonizes the mesophyll, appearing the first symptoms as small chlorotic leaf lesions, which can evolve to curled and thickened tissues and systemic infections that become deformed and necrotic as the disease develops. The work conducted to detect VW and DM infection consisted on the acquisition of time series of airborne thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery using 2-m and 5-m wingspan electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in spring and summer of three consecutive years (2009 to 2011) for VW detection and on three dates in spring of 2009 for DM detection. Two 7-ha commercial olive orchards naturally infected with V. dahliae and two opium poppy field plots artificially infected by P. arborescens were flown. Concurrently to the airborne campaigns, olive orchards and opium poppy fields were assessed "in situ" to assess actual VW severity and DM incidence. Furthermore, field measurements were conducted at leaf and crown level. The field results related to VW detection showed a significant increase in crown temperature (Tc) minus air temperature (Ta) and a decrease in leaf stomatal conductance (G) as VW severity increased. This reduction in G was associated with a significant increase in the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI570) and a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence. DM asymptomatic leaves showed significantly higher NDVI and lower green/red index

  18. Opium as a Literary Stimulant: The Case of Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Neil

    2015-01-01

    In our era, the idea of a stimulant is synonymous with its biochemical properties. A stimulant, we think, is a substance that enhances the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. But in the eighteenth century, a new family of theories about the workings of stimulants took shape, based on exciting but erroneous assumptions. Proponents of these theories thought that many more diseases were "nervous" in origin than had previously been supposed. They hoped that the workings of the "nervous power" could be aided by the judicious use of stimulants and narcotics. Practitioners working within this broad "neuropathological" paradigm equated the workings of stimulation with those of gravity. Stimulation, they believed, was a kind of master principle in nature. Some hoped it would help refound medicine on Newtonian, mathematical lines. For patients, the most visible legacy of the neuropathological revolution was the abandonment of bloodletting or "cupping" and the increasingly widespread use of opium and alcohol in medical treatments. In this chapter, I explore the career of one of the most famous writers of the Romantic era, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) who had the misfortune to live through this therapeutic revolution. I describe the circumstances under which he came to take opiates and the development of his opinions about their effect on him.

  19. Atomic Structure of Salutaridine Reductase from the Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M.; Smith, Thomas J. (Danforth)

    2011-11-18

    The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of {approx}1.9 {angstrom} in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large 'flap'-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover.

  20. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Kantoglu, Omer [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06982, Kazan, Ankara (Turkey); Dilek, Filiz B., E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.t [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD{sub 5}/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm{sup -3}. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm{sup -3}. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  1. A comparative study of emotional intelligence in addiction to opium and non-addicted men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Preface:The aim of this study was to comparison between Emotional intelligence and its chip scales in addicted and non-addicted men. Method:Method of study was Sausal-Comparative. Sample include the One hundred and twenty (60 addiction to opium and 60 non-addicted. The addicted group sample was selected from among clients of Eskandari addiction treatment clinic and the non-addicted group was selected from among scholars and staff of state university settling in Tehran . sample groups were selected by Available Sampling Method. In order to assess the emotional intelligence and its chip scales for each subject, the Bar-On Emotional intelligence Test(version 90 question was administered. For input analysis statistical soft-ware(SPSS was aplyed and “t” independent-statistical test was applied to compare two groups. Finding:The results illustrat that addicted men have a meaningful difference in Emotional intelligence and chip scales of Problem Solving, self-Actualization, Emotional self-Awarness, self-Regard, Responsibility, Stress Tolerance, Reality Testing, Impulse Control, Flexability, Assertivencess, Happiness and Optimism, comparing with non-addicted men, but there is no meaningful difference between two groups, average in chip scale of Interpersonal Relationship .

  2. Maintenance Treatment with Opium Tincture: A Preliminary Qualitative Study of the Factors Related to Treatment entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Daneshmand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current preliminary study aimed to explore the reasons that a group of opiate-dependent patients reported for entry into opium tincture treatment (OTT.Through examinations of 52 qualitative focus group interviews with patients from six OTT centers and 10 health providers (in key informant interviews in Tehran, this study highlights the factors that participants reported as the reasons associated with entry into OTT. Quantitative data including demographic data and details of drug use were analyzed by using SPSS.v.18.0. Qualitative data was analyzed by using Atlas-ti software.86.5% of patients were male and 13.5% were female. The median age of patients was 39 yr. The most frequently reasons associated with entry into OTT included methadone misconceptions including dissatisfaction with taking methadone as a chemical medication, methadone dependence, and long duration of MMT. The other reasons included the recommendation of other people in treatment and OT-related characteristics and expectations including the herbal compound of OT, treating opiate craving and withdrawal symptoms, and improving general health.The study findings preliminarily showed the reasons associated with entry into OTT in a sample of treatment seekers. Longitudinal studies with more representative samples and follow-up stages are required to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of OTT as a maintenance treatment in comparison with methadone and buprenorphine. Patient-centered program and policy implications are discussed.

  3. Li Tangjie and the Opium War%李棠阶与鸦片战争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占西

    2016-01-01

    In his life,Li Tangjie has devoted his life to the study of theory and is famous for his moral role model.After the O-pium War,he was appointed to the Guangdong admirals of political science through the investigation in the local court,which continues the indefinite and incompetent generals and the fear of death that led to the failure of the war.He believes that the court,reward and punishment unknown with the wrong people,which is the main cause of the defeat and it advocated the les-sons with straighten arms to guard against the enemy again.%李棠阶平生潜心研究理学,以道德楷模闻名于世,对于战争的发生、发展给予了极大的关注。鸦片战争结束后,被任命为广东提督学政,通过在当地的调查,认为朝廷的战抚不定、将帅无能及清军贪生怕死导致战争的失败。他认为朝廷赏罚不明、用人不当是导致战败的主要原因,并主张吸取教训整饬军备,以防备敌人的再次入侵。

  4. Quality of life, social desirability and their relationship in opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Mansour; Kohan, Mehri; Ranjbar, Hadi; Arab, Nanaz; Rayani, Masoud; Mirrashidi, Salehe Sadat; Rafiei, Hossein; Amiri, Masoud

    2014-02-22

    Addiction leads to many problems which may adversely affect addicted people, their families and impose health care agencies with many challenges. This study aimed to examined quality of life (QoL), social desirability and their relationship among opium addicted persons in southeast of Iran. In a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2012 to January 2013, 123 addicted people were studied. Date collection tools were; checklist of demographic data, Iranian version of the 36-item short form QoL (SF-36) and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). While mean score of QoL was 60.4±29.5, mean score of social desirability were 14.2±3.7. Low, moderate and high levels of social desirability were observed in 4.9%, 90.2% and 4.9% of participants, respectively. Pearson's correlation were not significant between mean score of social desirability and mean score of QoL (p=0.969, r=0.004). Addicted participants of present study showed a moderate level of QoL and social desirability, without any significant relationship between QoL and social desirability. Further research is suggested in addicts with social and cultural differences.

  5. Comparing and the Relationship between Stress and Craving Usage in Addicted to Opium and Industrial Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Fatemeh Poor-seyed M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: According to the importance of stressful and impellent factors in severity of craving and after that treating successes, this study had done with purpose of examining the relationship between these factors with craving experience in addicted men in six groups (smoking of opium, inhalation of Heroin, smoking of Heroin, injection of Heroin, smoking of methamphetamine, smoking of crack. Method: In this descriptive-sectional study, 195 addicted men had referred to cold turkey centers in Rasht, during 10 months of 1389-1390 selected by available sampling method in six groups. Stress evaluation questionnaire of Markham and the questionnaire of instant craving drug of Franken and also profited by imaginary indexes of computer tests for severity of craving administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that there is a significant and positive relationship between the stress and cue induction craving, and the stress and instant craving. Also, it proved that there is a significant difference between different users in degree of stress, and inductive craving, and instant craving. The average of stress scores, cue induction craving and instant craving in testing groups of methamphetamine users were more than other groups. Conclusion: According to findings of this survey, stress can be an important predicting factor for craving degree in addicted men so, attention of these aspects resulted in selecting an appropriate treatment of psychology for controlling of craving which is the most important factor leading to relapse in substance abuse.

  6. Effects of opium consumption on coronary artery disease risk factors and oral health: Results of Kerman Coronary Artery Disease Risk factors Study a population-based survey on 5900 subjects aged 15-75 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Najafipour

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Opium abuse was associated with depression and low PA. No ameliorative effect was observed on hypertension, diabetes, and plasma lipid profile. Therefore, positive association of opium with depression and LPA and the incorrectness of belief on its ameliorative effect on three other important risk factors of CAD should be clearly highlighted in public health messages to the community.

  7. 论鸦片战争中的道光帝%On the Emperor Daoguang in Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白莎莎

    2015-01-01

    In studying the Opium War, people vulnerable to"traitor mode"effect, in the occasion of national crisis, is recog-nized as a national hero Lin, Qi Shan is hateful traitor. People are more concerned about the courtiers. However, the turning point for the history of Emperor Daoguang in the role less attention, he failed in the end what is the relationship between the Opium War? The author believes that the failure of the Opium War dynasty emperor to bear an important responsibility, the whole course of the war, as the monarch of a country's decision-making ability and leadership are exposed enormous prob-lems, from the side of the decline also reflects the Chinese at that time.%在研究鸦片战争时,人们易受“奸臣模式”影响,在民族危难之际,林则徐是公认的民族英雄,琦善是可恶的卖国贼。人们关注臣子较多。然而对道光帝在历史转折中担任的角色关注较少,他与鸦片战争的失败到底有何关系?笔者认为,道光皇帝对鸦片战争的失败负重要的责任,整个战争过程中,其作为一国之君的决策能力和领导力都暴露出极大问题,从侧面也反映了当时中国的衰落。

  8. CYP82Y1 is N-methylcanadine 1-hydroxylase, a key noscapine biosynthetic enzyme in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-01-24

    Noscapine is a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid investigated for its potent pharmacological properties. Although structurally elucidated more than a century ago, the biosynthesis of noscapine has not been established. Radiotracer studies have shown that noscapine is derived from the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine and has been proposed to proceed through (S)-N-methylcanadine. However, pathway intermediates involved in the conversion of N-methylcanadine to noscapine have not been identified. We report the isolation and characterization of the cytochrome P-450 CYP82Y1, which catalyzes the 1-hydroxylation of N-methylcanadine to 1-hydroxy-N-methylcanadine. Comparison of transcript and metabolite profiles of eight opium poppy chemotypes revealed four cytochrome P-450s, three from the CYP82 and one from the CYP719 families, that were tightly correlated with noscapine accumulation. Recombinant CYP82Y1 was the only enzyme that accepted (R,S)-N-methylcanadine as a substrate with strict specificity and high affinity. As expected, CYP82Y1 was abundantly expressed in opium poppy stems where noscapine accumulation is highest among plant organs. Suppression of CYP82Y1 using virus-induced gene silencing caused a significant reduction in the levels of noscapine, narcotoline, and a putative downstream secoberbine intermediate and also resulted in increased accumulation of the upstream pathway intermediates scoulerine, tetrahydrocolum-bamine, canadine, and N-methylcanadine. The combined biochemical and physiological data support the 1-hydroxylation of (S)-N-methylcanadine catalyzed by CYP82Y1 as the first committed step in the formation of noscapine in opium poppy.

  9. Opium consumption in men and diabetes mellitus in women are the most important risk factors of premature coronary artery disease in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Graili, Pooyeh; Salarifar, Mojtaba; Karimi, Abbas Ali; Darvish, Soodabeh; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin

    2010-05-14

    We performed this study to compare of CAD risk factors in young male and female in Iran. In an analytic cross-sectional study, two groups of patients were evaluated with and without Coronary artery disease. The result of study suggests that there is a relationship between CAD and diabetes mellitus, increasing level of LDL and lipoprotein A in women, While CAD in men had more relation with smoking and opium use. High prevalence and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in females and relatively high prevalence of opium consumption in males result in different premature CAD patterns.

  10. Opium: The Evolution of Policies, the Tolerance of the Vice, and the Proliferation of Contraband Trade in the Philippines, 1843-1908

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma N. Bamero

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research entitled “Opium: The Evolution of Policies, the Tolerance of the Vice, and the Proliferation of Contraband Trade in the Philippines, 1843-1908” presents a discussion of the opium trade in Asia, the commercial networks it created, the political ties it strengthened, and the social relations itfostered. It also aims to reconstruct an aspect of Philippine social history in the nineteenth century through the use of archival materials that bear witness to the distribution and exploitation of a substance which some people stillclassify as taboo. The poppy was not endemic to the Philippines but opium, its derivative substance, was known to numb pain and could induce a “natural high” that left one with feelings of ease and contentment. A more complete introduction to the drug necessitates a discussion of the way it was extractedand processed. It is a cash crop that does not require complex devices and is, therefore, within the reach of farmers and common folk. From the eighteenth to the nineteenth centuries opium became very popular among the Chinese who discovered that their markets were being flooded with it by the British sothat the latter could pay for the tea that they craved.The Spanish Bourbons, in an effort to boost Philippine economy, allowed the trading of this substance. Initially this was supervised by the officials of the Alcaiceria de San Fernando but in 1843 the meticulous examination of the country’s finances merited the creation of an opium revenuefarm through municipal franchising. Opium could only be used by the Chinese who were migrating in big groups. This paper presents the details of the monopoly contract, identifies some of the wealthier contratistas of the period, and discusses the consequences of such a commercial venture. Smuggling orcontraband trade proliferated and by way of illustration the events namely, the Scandal of 1843 and the Gunga Incident, have been narrated. The creation of an over

  11. Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schriemer David C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaver somniferum (opium poppy is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies. Results A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing, 427,369 expressed sequence tags (ESTs with an average length of 462 bp were generated. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93,723 unigenes, of which 23,753 were assigned Gene Ontology annotations. Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS of total protein extracts from cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 50 h facilitated the identification of 1,004 proteins. Proteins were fractionated by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and digested with trypsin prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Query of an opium poppy-specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database. Conclusions The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a

  12. Study and Comparison Between Personality Traits and Coping Strategies Among Opium Addicts (within the age of 30-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The research is looking into the study and comparison between personality traits and coping strategies and their relationship with one another among opium addicts within the age of 30-36. For this purpose, a research group comprising 50 opium addicts was selected with respect to control variables. In order to compare the results, 50 other individuals were selected as a observation group and with regard to control variables both groups were matched together. The five-factor personality trait inventory (NEO-FFI and the coping strategy inventory of Carver and Shearer were used. Moreover, in order to control the effects of depression and anxiety on personality traits, Beck’s test for anxiety and depression was used. The results indicated that without taking the effects of depression and anxiety into account, the addicts showed higher neuroticism trait but lower extraversion, agreeableness and conscientious traits. But when the effects of depression and anxiety were taken into account, the two groups showed a meaningful difference in the conscientious trait. Furthermore, addicts rarely use concentrated coping strategies and usually use non-effective strategies. Non-effective strategies had direct relationship with neuroticism and opposite relationship with conscientiousness.

  13. Gene actions for yield and its attributes and their implications in the inheritance pattern over three generations in opium poppy ( Papaver somniferum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BRIJ K. MISHRA; R. MISHRA; S.N. JENA; SUDHIR SHUKLA

    2016-09-01

    The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 ×NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5×NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1× NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2× NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits exceptthebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine. The seed and opium yield, and its contributing traits inherited quantitatively. The fixable gene effects (d) and (i) were lower in magnitude than nonfixable (h) and (l) gene effects. The estimates of heterosis werealso higher in comparison to the respective parents which suggested preponderance of dominance gene action for controlling most of the traits. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was marginally higher than those of genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. The traits thebaine, narcotine, morphine and opium yield had high heritability coupled with high genetic advance. The leaf number, branches per plant and stem diameter showed positive correlation with opium and seed yields. The selection of plants having large number of leaves, branches and capsules with bigger size would be advantageous to enhancethe yield potential.

  14. Combining ability of opium poppy genotypes over F1 and F2 generations of 8x8 diallel cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Yadav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining abilities for yield, its component traits and morphine content were examined in opium poppy tounderstand the inheritance pattern of these traits, and to identify genotypes suitable for genetic improvement of yield andmorphine content. The experiment comprising a total of 64 treatments (28 F1+28 F2 and 8 parents was evaluated in RBD. Theresults showed that most of the traits are governed by non additive gene action however additive gene action is also important.The parents BR-232, BR-245, BR-234 were found to be good general combiners for yield and its related traits and can beutilized in multiple breeding programs. SCA effects in relation to GCA effects of parents showed that most of the crosscombinations with high SCA effects involved high x high, high x low and low x low GCA combiners.

  15. Effectiveness of group cognitive therapy about opium addict complications on attitude of adolescents with drug dependent parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Hojjat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Statistics show that 30% to 40 % of  opium addicted fathers’ children are prone to substance abuse in the future. The present study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of cognitive therapy approach  to attitude changing of adolescents with substance dependent fathers. Materials and Methods:  In this controlled. field-trail randomized study. .data collection tool was “attitude to addiction questionnaire”. The study population was all male students in the first grade of high school in Maneh - Samalghan city. . Six sessions of group cognitive therapy based on the effectiveness of drug side-effects in drug-addicted fathers’ adolescent children’s attitude were held. The above-mentioned questionnaire was filled out before and after intervention. The obtained data  was fed into SPSS software (V: 16 using. Independent t-test .and paired t-test were used for analysis and P<0.05 was taken as the significant level. Results:  There were no significant differences between the two groups in pre-test regarding their attitude about drug abuse (P=.20%. Mean score variance from pre-test to post-test in the intervention group decreased, but in the control group, it showed a slight increase. This means that the intervention reduced the positive attitude towards drugs, but the changes were not statistically significant (p=0.57. Besides, among ten factors decisive in an individual’s attitude about addiction, only group cognitive therapy  was able  to decrease mean points of an individual’s attitude about drug abuse .. Significantly (P = 0.04. Conclusion: It was found that group cognitive therapy education about opium  addict complicationsdidn`t have a significant effect on the attitude of the students with addicted fathers. Thus, a change of adolescents’ attitude requires more research.

  16. Can Opium Use Contribute to a Higher Risk of Colorectal Cancers? A Matched Case-control Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad NAGHIBZADEH-TAHAMI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancers (CRCs including colon, rectum and anal cancers are the third most prevalent cancers in the world. There are strong evidence showing the risk of the cigarette smoking, alcohol use, low physical activity and some types of diets in CRCs; however, few studies explored the relationship between opium use and CRCs. This study aimed to investigate the association between opioid use and the incidence of CRCs. Methods: In a population-based matched case-control study in Kerman, Iran, 175 patients with colorectal cancers and 350 healthy controls (matched for age, sex, and place of residence were interviewed from Sep 2014 to Nov 2014. Opium and its derivatives, cigarette, alcohol, and diet use were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The use of opioids was associated with an increased risk of CRCs (adjusted odds ratio= 4. 5, 95% CI: 2. 4-8. 7. In addition, a dose-response relationship was observed between the cumulative use of opioids and the incidence of CRCs (with low use OR=3. 7; 95% CI: 1. 5-8. 6 and high use OR= 8. 0; 95% CI: 2. 9-21. 7. This dose-response relationship was also strong in patients with colon cancers, with OR= 3. 9 (95% CI: 1. 5-9. 9 and 9. 4 (95% CI: 3. 3-27. 0 for the low and high uses of opioids, respectively. Conclusion: Opioid use can lead to an increased risk of CRCs. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive policies to control the use of opioids.  

  17. Detection of a true breeding homeotic gene mutant Pps-1 with partially petaloid sepals in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) and its genetic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Om Prakash; Dubey, Mukesh Kumar; Khanuja, Suman Preet Singh

    2007-01-01

    A spontaneous true breeding homeotic gene mutant Pps-1 with distinct partial petaloid sepals was detected in the population of downy mildew (DM)-resistant elite accession I-14 during our studies for the identification of disease resistance sources in opium poppy. The trait was found to be stable and inherited truly in the subsequent generations. Genetic studies were carried out through systematic reciprocal crosses with the parental wild-type genotype I-14, and segregation pattern of phenotypic characteristics in F(1) and F(2) populations clearly indicated single recessive nuclear gene control of the mutant character. The studies have demonstrated that the mutant phenotype is due to mutations at the Pps-1 locus that possibly corresponds to B-class function (according to ABC model) with negative control function. The mutant Pps-1 being single-whorl homeotic mutant might greatly help in providing insight into mechanisms of flower development in opium poppy.

  18. The effect of pretreatment with clonidine on propofol consumption in opium abuser and non-abuser patients undergoing elective leg surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Jabbari Moghadam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clonidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, increases the quality of perioperative sedation and analgesia with a few side effects. This study was designed to assess the effect of clonidine premedication on the anesthesics used for elective below knee surgeries in opium abusers and non-abusers. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 160 patients were selected and assigned into four groups. Eighty patients among the opium abusers were divided randomly into clonidine and no clonidine groups, with 40 patients in each, and 80 among the non-abusers were again divided randomly into clonidine and no clonidine groups, with 40 patients in each group. All were anesthetized for elective orthopedic operation using the same predetermined method. The total administered dose of propofol and other variables were compared. Results: The total propofol dose in a decreasing order was as follows: Abuser patients receiving placebo (862 ± 351 mg, non-abuser patients receiving placebo (806 ± 348 mg, abuser patients receiving clonidine (472 ± 175 mg, and non-abuser patients receiving clonidine (448 ± 160 mg. Hence, a statistically significant difference was observed among the four study groups (P value for ANOVA = 0.0001. Conclusion: Adding clonidine as a preoperative medication decreases the patient′s anesthetic needs; this decrease was even more considerable on the anesthetic needs than the effect of opium abuse history on anesthetic dose.

  19. CYP719B1 is salutaridine synthase, the C-C phenol-coupling enzyme of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Andreas; Rolf, Megan; Ziegler, Jörg; Díaz Chávez, María Luisa; Huang, Fong-Chin; Kutchan, Toni M

    2009-09-01

    Morphine is a powerful analgesic natural product produced by the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Although formal syntheses of this alkaloid have been reported, the morphine molecule contains five stereocenters and a C-C phenol linkage that to date render a total synthesis of morphine commercially unfeasible. The C-C phenol-coupling reaction along the biosynthetic pathway to morphine in opium poppy is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450-dependent oxygenase salutaridine synthase. We report herein on the identification of salutaridine synthase as a member of the CYP719 family of cytochromes P450 during a screen of recombinant cytochromes P450 of opium poppy functionally expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells. Recombinant CYP719B1 is a highly stereo- and regioselective enzyme; of forty-one compounds tested as potential substrates, only (R)-reticuline and (R)-norreticuline resulted in formation of a product (salutaridine and norsalutaridine, respectively). To date, CYP719s have been characterized catalyzing only the formation of a methylenedioxy bridge in berberine biosynthesis (canadine synthase, CYP719A1) and in benzo[c]phenanthridine biosynthesis (stylopine synthase, CYP719A14). Previously identified phenol-coupling enzymes of plant alkaloid biosynthesis belong only to the CYP80 family of cytochromes. CYP719B1 therefore is the prototype for a new family of plant cytochromes P450 that catalyze formation of a phenol-couple.

  20. 关于鸦片战争对中国影响的研究综述%A Survey of the Impact of the Opium War on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鑫; 崔英杰

    2015-01-01

    The Opium War is the beginning of the modern history of China.make the beginning of the modernization process of China.The study of the Opium War has always been one of the important fields of the academic research. This paper briefly reviewed the impact of the Opium War on China from four aspects: political, economic, ideological and social life.%鸦片战争是中国近代史的开端,开启了中国的近代化进程。对鸦片战争的研究一直是学术界研究的重要领域之一。不忘惨痛历史,才能走向伟大复兴。文章拟从政治、经济、思想文化和社会生活四个方面简单综述鸦片战争对中国的影响。

  1. 客家古村落培田劝戒鸦片的启示%Revelation of Hakka Ancient Village Peitian's Persuasive Strategy in Quitting Opium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀菊

    2015-01-01

    吸食鸦片是晚清-民国时期面临的重要社会问题.鸦片毒害国人身心健康,破坏社会秩序.因此,如何劝戒鸦片成为亟需解决的问题.客家古村落培田在劝戒鸦片上从制度建设、文化教育、心理治疗等方面多有建树,是传统社会民间自治的集体智慧结晶,对现代社会具有积极的启示意义.%Opium, harmful for physical and mental health, and disruptive to social order, was a serious social problem confronted in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China. Therefore, it became urgent to admonish to quit opium. Hakka ancient villages, Peitian, made great achievements on persuading to quit opium in system construction, cultural education, psychotherapy and other aspects. These strategies are the collective wisdom of traditional autonomy of civil society, which has a positive revelation for modern society.

  2. Quantitative 1H NMR metabolomics reveals extensive metabolic reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Hans J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the altered regulation of other metabolic pathways. As a key component of our functional genomics platform for opium poppy we have used proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR metabolomics to investigate the interplay between primary and secondary metabolism in cultured opium poppy cells treated with a fungal elicitor. Results Metabolite fingerprinting and compound-specific profiling showed the extensive reprogramming of primary metabolic pathways in association with the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis in response to elicitor treatment. Using Chenomx NMR Suite v. 4.6, a software package capable of identifying and quantifying individual compounds based on their respective signature spectra, the levels of 42 diverse metabolites were monitored over a 100-hour time course in control and elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures. Overall, detectable and dynamic changes in the metabolome of elicitor-treated cells, especially in cellular pools of carbohydrates, organic acids and non-protein amino acids were detected within 5 hours after elicitor treatment. The metabolome of control cultures also showed substantial modulations 80 hours after the start of the time course, particularly in the levels of amino acids and phospholipid pathway intermediates. Specific flux modulations were detected throughout primary metabolism, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, nitrogen assimilation, phospholipid/fatty acid synthesis and the shikimate pathway, all of which

  3. The Environmental footprint of morphine: a life cycle assessment from opium poppy farming to the packaged drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Scott; Ou, Yanjun; Neff, Elise; Hapgood, Karen; Story, David; Mealey, Philip; McGain, Forbes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the environmental life cycle from poppy farming through to production of 100 mg in 100 mL of intravenous morphine (standard infusion bag). Design ‘Cradle-to-grave’ process-based life cycle assessment (observational). Settings Australian opium poppy farms, and facilities for pelletising, manufacturing morphine, and sterilising and packaging bags of morphine. Main outcome measures The environmental effects (eg, CO2 equivalent (‘CO2 e’) emissions and water use) of producing 100 mg of morphine. All aspects of morphine production from poppy farming, pelletising, bulk morphine manufacture through to final formulation. Industry-sourced and inventory-sourced databases were used for most inputs. Results Morphine sulfate (100 mg in 100 mL) had a climate change effect of 204 g CO2 e (95% CI 189 to 280 g CO2 e), approximating the CO2 e emissions of driving an average car 1 km. Water use was 7.8 L (95% CI 6.7– to 9.0 L), primarily stemming from farming (6.7 L). All other environmental effects were minor and several orders of magnitude less than CO2 e emissions and water use. Almost 90% of CO2 e emissions occurred during the final stages of 100 mg of morphine manufacture. Morphine's packaging contributed 95 g CO2 e, which accounted for 46% of the total CO2 e (95% CI 82 to 155 g CO2 e). Mixing, filling and sterilisation of 100 mg morphine bags added a further 86 g CO2 e, which accounted for 42% (95% CI 80 to 92 g CO2 e). Poppy farming (6 g CO2 e, 3%), pelletising and manufacturing (18 g CO2 e, 9%) made smaller contributions to CO2 emissions. Conclusions The environmental effects of growing opium poppies and manufacturing bulk morphine were small. The final stages of morphine production, particularly sterilisation and packaging, contributed to almost 90% of morphine's carbon footprint. Focused measures to improve the energy efficiency and sources for drug sterilisation and packaging could be explored as these are

  4. Total Differences of History and Geography Studies of China's Northwest Frontier around the Opium War%鸦片战争前后西北边疆史地研究的总体差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王富聪

    2012-01-01

    The history and geography studies of China's Northwest Frontier after the Opium War not only inherited the studies before the Opium War,but also changed in its purposes,methods,contents and information sources.All research purposes and contents around the Opium War emphasized the practical use.In research method and resource,the research before the Opium War laid stress on field survey,and the one after the Opium War emphasized textual research and had more extensive information sources.%鸦片战争后,西北边疆史地研究在学术研究的动因、方式、关注的内容、资料来源上与鸦片战争之前相比,既有继承,也有变化。在研究目的上继承了之前注重经世致用的一面,在研究方法上则没有延续文献考辨与实地考察相结合的方法,而是考证与论述相结合,在研究内容上关切现实和实事求是并重,在资料来源上呈现出多样性。

  5. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)—Effect of gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-04-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  6. Cell cycle arrest and apoptogenic properties of opium alkaloids noscapine and papaverine on breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadian, Saharolsadat; Vatankhah, Melody; Majdzadeh, Maryam; Kouhsari, Shide Montaser; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Previous report of the vast effectiveness of opium derivatives in cancer therapy is leading us to see possible effects of these derivatives on cancer stem cells in order to find new agent for cancer therapy. In this study, cells were stained for CSC markers and sorted by magnetic beads. CSCs exhibit the characteristic CD44(+)/CD24(-/low)/ESA(+) phenotype. Noscapine and papaverine (alkaloids) showed anti-proliferative activity on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. It was observed that noscapine has more cytotoxic effect on CSC derived from both cell lines compared with their parental cells. Papaverine has more cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 CSCs in comparison with parental cells, while CSCs population of MDA-MB-231 is more resistant to papaverine compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. Noscapine enhances apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 CSCs more than parent cells, while in MCF-7 CSCs the apoptosis is less than parent cells. Our results show that papverine is less active in terms of apoptotic effect on CSCs in both cell lines. Moreover, noscapine arrests MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 CSCs cell cycle at G2/M phase, while papverine arrests cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. It was suggested different mechanism for apoptotic cytotoxicity. The results of this study show possible specific effects of noscapine on these breast cell lines CSCs.

  7. 《救迷良方》与戒除鸦片烟毒%Jiu mi liang fang (Effective Prescriptions for Rescuing Addict) and quitting from opium addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘悦

    2008-01-01

    清代青浦著名医家何其伟,在鸦片烟毒泛滥、严重危害人民健康之际,应林则徐要求,秉着医家的责任感和同情心,辑录戒烟方论而成.这部现存最早的戒烟专著,理法方药齐备,对鸦片的危害、性味归经,瘾成过程及病机、瘾发症状等,均有较全面、正确的认识,指出戒烟需先立志坚定,以治心瘾,所载戒烟方药,经过了实践验证,当时流传甚广;所述戒烟思想和方法,一直为后世沿用,在民间广泛传播.%When opium was running rampantly and seriously damaging people's health in the Qing dynasty,in response to the request of Lin Ze-xu,He Qi-wei,a contemporary famous physician at Qingpu,based on his own professional responsibility and compassion,compiled Jiu mi liang fang (Effective Prescriptions for Rescuing Addict),the first extant monograph on quitting opium which includes the detriments of opium,its nature,taste and channel tropism,causes and pathogenesis of addiction,and the symptoms.He pointed out that the powerful will was essential.The prescriptions recorded in the book were effective through the proof of practice and very popular at that time.The thought and measures he mentioned are stillin use even now,and spread widely in the folks.

  8. Flooding of Opium during and influence in Modern Shaanxi%近代陕西烟毒的泛滥及影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亮

    2014-01-01

    After the invasion of western powers in modern times,Chinese society invaded a profound influence. Although Shaanxi away from the coast,it also caused serious social problem. Especially the opium began to appear and serious evil consequence,the traditional economic model of Shaanxi were impacted.In order to rake in money, warlords forced people to grow opium.It caused local agricultural production of decline.The development of national industry suffers from heavy damage.At the same time,because of opium serious evil consequence,Shaanxi social morality began to descend. People smoked led to harm the physical and mental health.%近代西方列强的入侵,对中国社会产生了深远的影响,远离沿海的陕西也未能例外,引发了严重的社会问题。特别是鸦片在陕的传入与蔓延,冲击了陕西地区传统的经济模式,加之军阀为敛财强迫民众种植鸦片,造成当地农业大幅减产,民族工业的发展遭到重创。同时,由于鸦片的泛滥,原本民风淳朴的陕西地区,社会风气急剧下降。民众吸食鸦片,危害了国民的身心健康。

  9. Dilated common bile duct in opium addicts with and without biliary symptoms --implication for research in AIDS cholangiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, S Y; Leong, C K; Pang, C W

    2003-05-01

    Opium addicts (OA) with no biliary symptoms have been shown to have dilated common bile duct (CBD). Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) without biliary drainage in such asymptomatic OA is hazardous. Hence it is not indicated unless there are clear clinical and laboratory evidences of biliary stasis. To show that even when matched with controls with the same clinical diagnosis of the biliary system, OA still have significantly larger CBD diameters and that OA with biliary symptoms should be treated no differently from non-OA with biliary symptoms. Seven OA (all Chinese males), four of whom had undergone ERCP (three for CBD stones and one for ampullary carcinoma), were compared, using t-test, to 7 age, sex, race and diagnosis-matched controls, four of whom had also undergone ERCP (three for CBD stones and one for ampullary carcinoma). When ERCP was not done, ultrasonography was used to assess the biliary system and measure the CBD diameter. The mean (SD) CBD diameters of OA and controls were 15.7 mm (5.65) and 8.3 mm (5.95) respectively (t = 2.399, p = 0.032). The mean (SD) weight of OA and controls were 55.8 kg (9.22) and 57.3 kg (9.21) respectively (t = -0.305, p = 0.763). Only two of the seven OA were born in China, the remaining five in Malaysia. OA do get CBD pathology like non-OA and if indicated there should be no qualms about performing ERCP in them. When matched for age, sex, race and clinical diagnosis, OA still have a significantly larger CBD despite no difference in body weight.

  10. 论抗战前国民政府的禁烟与外交%Anti-Opium and the Diplomacy of the National Government before the Anti-Japanese War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霆

    2014-01-01

    近代中国,烟毒泛滥,中国政府在国际场合备受责难和讥讽。抗战爆发前,国民政府的禁烟政策渐趋严厉,但租界及治外法权仍是制约禁烟的重要因素。国民政府试图利用禁烟收回民族利权,此举措虽未获成功,但国家形象却大为好转,国际地位亦明显提高,并成功地使日本在国际舆论中处于被动地位。%In modern China,opium rampancy was extremely serious,so Chinese government was blamed and satirized in the international occasions.Before the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War,the National Government anti-opium policies have became more and more se-vere,but the leased territory and extraterritoriality still are important factors to restrict the effect of anti-opium.The National Government tried to make use of anti-opium to recover na-tional rights.Although the policy was not very successful,the national image has been greatly improved and international status also obviously increased,and successfully makes Japan into a passive position in the international community.

  11. A Comparison of Blood-lead Level (BLL) in Opium-dependant Addicts With Healthy Control Group Using the Graphite Furnace/atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GF-AAS) Followed by Chemometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Amini, Ramin

    2012-08-01

    A comparison of oral/inhaled opium addicts with a healthy control group was investigated. Using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS) followed by chemometric analysis, sub-to-low µg L-1 concentrations of blood lead level (BLL) was detected in both the addict and the control groups. In this study, BLL of 78 subjects (Iranian volunteers) in two opium-addicted (patient group) and healthy control groups was evaluated. All the volunteers were men. The patient group was comprised of 39 patients who used opium orally or by inhalation with a mean age of 48.6 ± 7.3 years. The patient group was selected through systematic incidental sampling from 150 orally or by inhalation opium-addicted patients referred to Shariati Hospital located in Tehran .The control group (39 subjects) was matched with the patient group with regard to age and sex and with a mean age of 44.8 ± 5.6 years. The mean concentration of lead was found to be significantly lower (P = 0.0001) in control group (16.70 ± 12.51 μg/dL) compared to addicts (57.04 ± 46.03 μg/dL). When the addicts were divided into various age groups, there appeared to be a significant difference (p= 0.0451) in blood lead concentration as a function of age, however when the control group was considered, no difference was observed (P = 0.51). Also, a tendency (P = 0.048) towards increasing BLL with respect to BMI was observed due to drug consumption, but there was no significant variation between BLL concentration and BMI when the control group was considered (P = 0.35). It was observed that the BLL in opium-addicts was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. The mean difference of both groups was statistically significant.

  12. Moderate hypothermia and its effects in reducing the applied dose of anesthetics for patients with opium dependence in cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadomi, Reza Jalaian; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Alizadeh, Kambiz; Mottahedi, Behrooz; Rahdari, Ali; Sheybani, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients addicted to opium are experiencing awareness during coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) as a result of tolerance to anesthetics. Objectives This research was primarily intended to determine the potential diminishing effects of moderate hypothermia on anesthetic dosage and recall of anesthesia during the procedure. Methods In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, a total of 80 CABG candidates with known addiction to opium were divided into two groups: one normothermic (N) and the other moderately hypothermic (H), both undergoing induction as well as close monitoring from September 2014 to January 2016. The candidates were initially set for a target bispectral index (BIS) score of between 40 and 60. As the score rose to 60, an additional dose of propofol was administered, alongside rise in blood pressure and tear-shedding. To enhance the accuracy of our evaluation of anesthetic depth, we also used two questionnaires to test candidates’ recall filled with the assistance of a colleague 24 hours following surgery. Independent-samples t-test and chi-square test were used by SPSS v 18 for data analysis. Results Eighty patients were studied in two groups of normothermic (N) (n = 40) and hypothermic (H) (n = 40). Given similar demographic data as well as the duration of surgery, we arrived at a propofol dose of 122.52±13.11 cc for normothermic patients and 101.28±14.06 cc for hypothermic subjects (p=0.001). As for fentanyl, the total required sum came up to 39.60±21.04 cc and 31.72±5.81 cc for the above-mentioned groups in order (p=0.025). Moreover, the post-operative interview showed that there was no report of a patient with memory recall following surgery. Conclusions Moderate hypothermia can substantially reduce the need for anesthetics in patients with addiction to opium when undergoing CABG surgery. Trial registration This study is registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with registration number of

  13. Discussion about Some Problems of Dinghai Battles in Opium War%鸦片战争定海之战几个问题的商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗伟伦

    2000-01-01

    1840年7月,中英鸦片战争爆发,首战舟山。定海总兵张朝发殉国,舟山被占,次年2月收复。1841年9月26日起,英军再攻舟山,相持六昼夜,葛云飞、王锡朋、郑国鸿三总兵率部奋战,同日壮烈牺牲。这是鸦片战争中中国军民英勇抵抗英军最激烈的战役之一。舟山两次沦陷,时达五年多,当地军民的反英斗争,在鸦片战争史上占有突出地位。但在地方史的研究与宣传教育工作方面,存在一些问题。如双方兵力与伤亡情况,及其在同整个战争诸役相比较中所居的地位等问题,本文根据可靠史料与数据,提供商讨。%In July, 1840, when the Opium War broke out between China and Britain, the first battle took place in Zhoushan. In the following more than five years, Zhoushan Rad been captured by the British twice. The local army and people's fight against the British has an outstanding position in the history of the Opium War. However, in the study of the local history and in the aspects of propaganda and education,there are some problems about casualties of both armies and about the position compared with all the battles in the whole war, and so on. This paper, on the basis of reliable historical materials and data,put forward some problems, which I'd like to discuss with othe experts.

  14. Effect After the Opium War on China's Salt%鸦片战争以后对我国盐政的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐黎标

    2016-01-01

    In the long river of history, the court has dominated the salt of the franchise. Although the Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty, or in the different periods of the various dynasties, in the form of speciifc operations will vary, but by court ofifcials in charge of the salt is always the same. The reason for this is because salt is a matter of national use ". In order to increase in revenue, Shu pin ofifcial salt, salt ofifcials in charge of all pay attention to check the smuggling of salt. After the Opium War, the Qing government was forced to accept all of the peace terms put forward by the United Kingdom, on 29 August 1842 signed in modern history of China's ifrst unequal treaties, in English the Treaty of Nanking. This paper discusses since 1840 after the Opium War in China and the impact of salt.%在漫长的历史长河中,朝廷一直把持着我国食盐的专营权。尽管明代、清代,或是各个朝代的不同时期,在具体的运营形式上会有所不同,但由朝廷命官掌管盐务是始终不变的。之所以如此,是因为“盐课关乎国用”。为增加国课收入,疏销官盐,掌管盐务的官员们无不重视查缉私盐。鸦片战争以后,清政府被迫全部接受了英国提出的议和条款,于1842年8月29日签订了我国近代史上第一个不平等条约——中英《南京条约》。本文论述了自1840年鸦片战争以后对我国盐政的冲击和影响。

  15. Probes into the Reasons of Opium Flooding in Northeast China after The Mukden Incident%九一八事变后中国东北地区鸦片泛滥原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇; 刘成虎

    2013-01-01

    Japan’s invasion of China had plotted for a long time, its invasion of Northeast China and establishment of a puppet regime was a starting point of a series of aggressive wars. Japan also made the Northeast China as a “Proving Ground” of enslavement and colonization. In opium policy, due to the financial need in occupied territory, Japan increased consumption of opium by making full use of all means of politics, economy, diplomacy, etc., directly or indirectly, led to prolonged opium flooding and damage in the region. To expand opium consumption using the timing of the confusion of war, depositing their responsibilities to the puppet regime, making an excuse for opium monopoly, it was the modus operandi from the beginning that Japan occupied Taiwan after the Treaty of Shimonoseki, then the invasion of whole China after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, and till the outbreak of the Pacific War and the occupation of Southeast Asia. This paper is based on a large amount of historical materials in Japanese, which tracks down the causes of opium flooding in the Northeast China, and to clearly reveal the role of opium policy in Japan’s aggressive policies.%  日本侵华预谋已久,侵略东北和建立傀儡政权是其后发动一系列侵略战争的起点。同时又将东北地区作为日本进行大规模殖民、奴化政策的实验场。在鸦片政策方面,出于对占领地统治的财政需要,不惜动用政治、经济、军事、外交等政策手段扩大鸦片和毒品销售,直接和间接导致了东北的鸦片泛滥和毒害的长期化。通过战争混乱期扩大鸦片消费、将责任推诿于当地伪政权、以此制造事实鸦片专卖制的口实,是日本从马关条约后侵占台湾开始,直到七七事变后全面侵华、太平洋战争开始后全面侵略东南亚过程中惯用的手段。文章立足大量相关日本资料,对九一八事变后东北鸦片泛滥原因进行深入探讨,以更为清

  16. Disentangling Peronospora on Papaver: phylogenetics, taxonomy, nomenclature and host range of downy mildew of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum and related species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Voglmayr

    Full Text Available Based on sequence data from ITS rDNA, cox1 and cox2, six Peronospora species are recognised as phylogenetically distinct on various Papaver species. The host ranges of the four already described species P. arborescens, P. argemones, P. cristata and P. meconopsidis are clarified. Based on sequence data and morphology, two new species, P. apula and P. somniferi, are described from Papaver apulum and P. somniferum, respectively. The second Peronospora species parasitizing Papaver somniferum, that was only recently recorded as Peronospora cristata from Tasmania, is shown to represent a distinct taxon, P. meconopsidis, originally described from Meconopsis cambrica. It is shown that P. meconopsidis on Papaver somniferum is also present and widespread in Europe and Asia, but has been overlooked due to confusion with P. somniferi and due to less prominent, localized disease symptoms. Oospores are reported for the first time for P. meconopsidis from Asian collections on Papaver somniferum. Morphological descriptions, illustrations and a key are provided for all described Peronospora species on Papaver. cox1 and cox2 sequence data are confirmed as equally good barcoding loci for reliable Peronospora species identification, whereas ITS rDNA does sometimes not resolve species boundaries. Molecular phylogenetic data reveal high host specificity of Peronospora on Papaver, which has the important phytopathological implication that wild Papaver spp. cannot play any role as primary inoculum source for downy mildew epidemics in cultivated opium poppy crops.

  17. 鸦片战争期间克里水彩画中的舟山%Zhoushan in Watercolors of Cree during the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文洪; 史峰

    2016-01-01

    In July 1840 , the first Sino-British Opium War broke out and Zhoushan became the first Chinese island attacked by the British army .Edward Hodges Cree , a British army surgeon , detailed records of Dinghai Battle with diaries and brushes and what he saw and hear in Zhoushan , including main ports, buildings, customs and agriculture in Zhoushan Islands , as well as the troubled situation of Dinghai occupied by the British twice .In Cree’ s eyes, Zhoushan was China ’ s forefront of the British invasion but it was still beautiful even in the smoke of gunpowder .%1840年7月中英第一次鸦片战争爆发,舟山成为英国进攻的第一个中国岛屿。英国随军医生爱德华·霍奇斯·克里用日记和画笔,详细记载了鸦片战争定海保卫战的场景及他在舟山的所见所闻,主要内容包括舟山群岛的港口、建筑、风俗、农业,以及英军两次攻占定海并陷入困境的情况。在克里看来,舟山是英军侵略中国的前沿阵地,硝烟里的舟山依然美丽。

  18. Piracy and post-opium war introduction of steam ships%鸦片战争后的海盗问题与轮船的引进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉辰

    2015-01-01

    鸦片战争之后,中国沿海的海盗活动有了新的抬头,传统的反海盗手段无力解决这一问题。为此,宁波、上海船商率先购置轮船用于护航捕盗,而官方亦随后仿效。对轮船的运用大大加强了反海盗斗争的效力,也提高了清政府在中外联合反海盗行动中的地位。更重要的是,通过这种途径,轮船开始为中国所用,推动了近代化的进程。%After the opium war ,pirates frequent the Chinese coastal waters .Traditional measures fail to curb the piracy ,and the ship merchants in Ningbo and Shanghai purchase steam ships to navigate the waters and to have pirates readily captured .Government follows suit .Steam ships help with the conque‐ring of pirates ,and the Chinese modernization ,as w ell .

  19. Manipulating the Biosynthesis of Bioactive Compound Alkaloids for Next-Generation Metabolic Engineering in Opium Poppy Using CRISPR-Cas 9 Genome Editing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagoz, Yagiz; Gurkok, Tugba; Zhang, Baohong; Unver, Turgay

    2016-08-03

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated9 (Cas9) endonuclease system is a powerful RNA-guided genome editing tool. CRISPR/Cas9 has been well studied in model plant species for targeted genome editing. However, few studies have been reported on plant species without whole genome sequence information. Currently, no study has been performed to manipulate metabolic pathways using CRISPR/Cas9. In this study, the type II CRISPR/SpCas9 system was used to knock out, via nonhomologous end-joining genome repair, the 4'OMT2 in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), a gene which regulates the biosythesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). For sgRNA transcription, viral-based TRV and synthetic binary plasmids were designed and delivered into plant cells with a Cas9 encoding-synthetic vector by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. InDels formed by CRISPR/Cas9 were detected by sequence analysis. Our results showed that the biosynthesis of BIAs (e.g. morphine, thebaine) was significantly reduced in the transgenic plants suggesting that 4'OMT2 was efficiently knocked-out by our CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing approach. In addition, a novel uncharacterized alkaloid was observed only in CRISPR/Cas9 edited plants. Thus, the applicabilitiy of the CRISPR/Cas9 system was demonstrated for the first time for medicinal aromatic plants by sgRNAs transcribed from both synthetic and viral vectors to regulate BIA metabolism and biosynthesis.

  20. Trace and major element levels in rats after oral administration of diesel and biodiesel derived from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Laçine; Sözbilir, Nalan Bayşu

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated the toxic effects of diesel and biodiesel derived from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) oil seeds on the trace and major elements in kidney, lung, liver, and serum of rats. By the end of 21 days, trace and major element concentrations in kidney, lung, and liver tissues and the serum were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We observed that trace and major element levels in kidney, lung, and liver tissues and the serum changed. Especially, important differences were detected in trace and major element concentrations in kidney and lung tissues. In kidney tissue, the concentration differences of calcium, sodium, and zinc (Zn) were found between diesel and biodiesel groups. In lung tissue, the concentration differences of cadmium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, and Zn were found between diesel and biodiesel groups. Among the significant findings, Zn concentration in serum and liver tissue of diesel and biodiesel were different from control (p biodiesel group were similar to control group. Due to lesser toxicity of biodiesel, it could be considered as an alternate fuel.

  1. Methadone Detoxification Versus Traditional Gradual Decrease in the Consumed Amount of Refined Opium Dross (Shireh: The Preferred Method for Controlling Withdrawal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Farsinejad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of methadone detoxification with traditional method of gradual decrement in the abused amount of the refined opium dross (Shireh to control withdrawal syndrome in Shireh-addicted patients. Methods: In this study, two groups of Shireh addicts were compared. The first group was treated by methadone and the second group by gradual decrement in the amount of consumed Shireh. Those experiencing the adverse effects of the treatment were excluded from the study. Methadone dose was calculated based on the amount of the Shireh consumed and detoxification was performed during a 21-day period. In the second group, the amount of the consumed Shireh was gradually decreased within 21 days and some of the withdrawal symptoms were selected as indicators for patient evaluation. Results: A total of 35 patients (16 versus 19 patients in the first and second groups were evaluated. Their mean age was 43 ± 4 years and all were male. A statistically significant difference was found between these two groups in terms of severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms within the first five days and their duration after the 21st day of the onset of detoxification (P< 0.05. Conclusion: In comparison with methadone detoxification, traditional method of gradually decreasing the consumed amount of Shireh controls the severity and duration of withdrawal symptoms better in the course of detoxification.

  2. Combination of electrochemistry with chemometrics to introduce an efficient analytical method for simultaneous quantification of five opium alkaloids in complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Jalalvand, Ali R; Goicoechea, Hector C; Gargallo, Raimundo; Skov, Thomas; Paimard, Giti

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, an analytical methodology based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and integration of three efficient strategies including variable selection based on ant colony optimization (ACO), mathematical pre-processing selection by genetic algorithm (GA), and sample selection (SS) through a distance-based procedure to improve partial least squares-1 (PLS-1, ACO-GA-SS-PLS-1) multivariate calibration (MVC) for the simultaneous determination of five opium alkaloids including morphine (MOP), noscapine (NOP), thebaine (TEB), codeine (COD), and papaverine (PAP) was used and validated. The baselines of the DPV signals were modeled as a smooth curve, using P-splines, a combination of B-splines and a discrete roughness penalty. After subtraction of the baseline we got a signal with a two-component probability density. One component was for the peaks and it was approximated by a uniform distribution on the potential axis. The other component was for the observed noise around the baseline. Some sources of bi-linearity deviation for electrochemical data were discussed and analyzed. The lack of bi-linearity was tackled by potential shift correction using correlation optimized warping (COW) algorithm. The MVC model was developed as a quinternary calibration model in a blank human serum sample (drug-free) provided by a healthy volunteer to regard the presence of a strong matrix effect which may be caused by the possible interferents present in the serum, and it was validated and tested with two independent sets of analytes mixtures in the blank and actual human serum samples, respectively. Fortunately, the proposed methodology was successful in simultaneous determination of MOP, NOP, TEB, COD, and PAP in both blank and actual human serum samples and its results were satisfactory comparable to those obtained by applying the reference method based on high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV).

  3. The comparison of Updating function of Working Memory in Three Groups of Substance Abusers (Heroin, Opium, Those Treated with Methadone and normal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamrezayee S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic use of opiates is associated with a wide range of neuropsychological deficits. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate one of the neuropsychological functions, updating function of working memory, in three groups, including substance abusers (heroin and opium, those under treatment with methadone, and normal controls. Methods:The method of this study was causal-comparative. Ninty individuals in three groups, including substance abusers (n = 30, those under treatment with methadone (n = 30, and normal controls (n = 30 were selected from people referred to the addiction treatment Clinics in Shiraz (2015 with the purposeful sampling method. All subjects were evaluated regarding working memory updating and self-reported mental effort scale and the results were analyzed by Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA test and Tukey post hoc test with SPSS software (version 23. Results:The results showed a significant difference between the three groups in the updating function of working memory; so that effectiveness and efficiency of processing in the normal group was better than the other two groups and the performance effectiveness and efficiency of processing in the group under methadone treatment was better than substance abusers group. conclusions:substance abuse has a negative effect on neurological function. Given that the group of methadone treatment had better performance in the updating function of working memory than the group of substance abusers, these results provide hope that the effects of examined drugs on working memory is not permanent and we can look for psychological interventions to treat these patients and prevent problems recurrence.

  4. A Historical Study of Opium abolition Movement in the Early period of PRC%新中国成立初期禁止烟毒运动的历史考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫宏伟

    2015-01-01

    新中国成立初期,历史上遗留的鸦片烟毒泛滥成灾。中共中央和中央人民政府对烟毒采取坚决禁止的方针政策,发动城乡人们参与禁烟禁毒斗争,使肆虐多年的种植、贩运、销售、吸食毒品的活动基本禁绝。禁止烟毒斗争作为一场深刻的社会教育和改造运动,对制造、贩运、销售、吸食毒品的犯罪活动给予沉重打击,净化了社会环境,稳定了社会秩序,巩固了新政权。%In the early period of New China, opium and its negative influence left over by history were rampant. Chinese government at that time took a severe measure to forbid this behavior, viz., the government launched a campaign against the opium activity, thus almost putting an end to this activity. And this campaign, a kind of social education and transformative movement, is a heavy blow to this kind of criminal activity, not only purifying the social environment, but keeping the society in good order, which, in turn, consolidates the new regime.

  5. Second Opium War and Foreign Envoys Staying in Beijing%第二次鸦片战争与外国公使驻京

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余典浩

    2012-01-01

    From the late 18th century,the western countries headed by Britain for expanding their business interests were continue to put forward the requirements of their envoys staying in Beijing.After the peace negotiation failing,then they forced China to yield by dual strategies of military aggression,intimidation and bribery in the second Opium War.The Qing government did not accept the demands for Envoys staying in Beijing voluntarily,and it was realized by both sides after many rounds of the "game" in the war.The Qing government clung the outmode thought in dealing with the requests,and did not choose traditional ideology and culture,so as to constantly injure national interests.In the war,the strength of the Qing government was weak and backward so that was constantly beaten,and was forced to sign the treaty of humiliation.A really weak country was not contributed to the equal diplomacy,and this lesson was worth to take warning.%从18世纪末起,以英国为首的西方国家出于扩展本国的商业利益,不断向中国提出公使驻京的要求。在和平交涉失败后,继而在第二次鸦片战中以军事侵略恫吓和利诱的"双重策略"迫使清廷屈服。公使驻京要求不是清廷自愿接受的,是双方在战争中经过多轮"博弈"之后才实现的。清廷在对待此要求时,思想上墨守陈规,不能正确取舍传统思想文化,以致不断误国;战争中清廷国力积弱,落后挨打,被迫签订屈辱的城下之盟,可谓弱国无外交,值得引以为戒。

  6. Japanese-Puppet Regime's Opium and Drug Policy in Occupied Hubei Areas During Anti-Japanese War%抗日战争时期日伪在湖北沦陷区的鸦片毒化政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旭阳

    2011-01-01

    During the period of Anti-Japanese War,for anesthetizing the thought and weakening the fighting will of Chinese people as well as plundering the economy of the occupied areas,the Japanese armies in the central China ordered the Puppet regime to carry out their crazy opium and drug policy.They legislated the use and monopoly of opium,and instigated the use and planting of opium.The Japanese and Puppet regime's opium and drug policy brought serious disasters to the Chinese people in occupied areas,and made them suffering the toxicity of opium while enduring the huge devastation of the war and the trample by the Japanese and Puppet regime.%抗日战争时期,华中日军为了麻醉沦陷区人民的思想,削弱人民的斗志,掠夺沦陷区的经济,指使湖北各级伪政府在沦陷区实行疯狂的鸦片毒化政策。他们制定法律,通过"鸦片专卖"使销售和吸食毒品合法化,同时,采取各种措施,鼓励民众吸毒,强迫民众种植鸦片。日伪的毒化政策,给湖北沦陷区造成了深重的灾难,使广大民众在经受战火摧残和敌伪蹂躏之后,又饱受烟毒之害。

  7. 浅析鸦片战争期间清廷的政治状况%Analysis of the Political Situation in the Qing Dynasty During the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪宁

    2014-01-01

    鸦片战争是中国近代史上的一场反侵略战争,它作为中国近代史的开端,重新开启了中国认识世界的大门,打破了中国“唯我独尊”的心理状态,同时也带来了重新认识世界的机会,所以鸦片战争在中国历史上占有重要的地位。鸦片战争的失败具有一定的必然性,与当时清王朝腐败的政治状况具有很大的联系,当时的政治状况给抵抗外来侵略增加了许多的阻碍,使屈辱失败的结局永远留在了中国的历史上。可从清王朝的皇权专制制度、“闭关锁国”的外交政策、官吏腐败的管理制度、民族歧视的政策等方面,对鸦片战争期间清廷的政治状况进行详细分析。%The Opium War was a war against aggression in China’s modern history,it served as the beginning of modern Chinese his-tory,and re-opened the door for China to understand the world.The failure of the Opium War is of certain inevitability,and the polit-ical conditions of prevailing corruption in Qing Dynasty has great link to it.The paper closely analyzes the political situation of Qing Dynasty during the Opium War from the aspects of the Qing Dynasty’s imperial autocracy,the implementation of the“closed door”for-eign policy for maintaining the country dignity,the management system with officials’corruption,and the policy of ethnic discrimina-tion.

  8. Studies of the Fu-Kang-Pian on Releasing the Opium Withdrawal Symptom and Signs%福康片对阿片类戒断症状疗效的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王有德; 王欣

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effectiveness of Fu-Kang-PianOn releasing the opium withdrawal symptom and signs in the drug abusers.Methods:123 heroin Addict victims were studied by observing the side effects of Fu-Kang-Pian quantitatively.Results:Fu-Kang-Pian had obvious effects in releasing the opium withdrawal symptoms and signs when the drug was cut. 100% abolition of the drug was achieved within 7 days of the Fu-Kang-Pian treatment.Most of the victims stopped within 4 days with different relieving effects to the relative victims.The side effects were mainly thirsty and eyes blurred.Conclusions:Fu-Kang-Pian was effective in releasing the opium withdrawal symptoms and signs with controllable side effects and low toxicity.%目的:观察中药福康片对阿片类成瘾者脱毒治疗的临床疗效。方法:对123例海洛因依赖者的戒断症状药物治疗前及治疗后及药物的不良反应采用评分量表法进行判定。结果:福康片能明显控制阿片类的常见戒断症状,7天内脱毒者达100%,尤以4天内为著,对各级戒断症状的效果相似。副作用主要表现为口干、眼花等。结论:福康片具有显著抗阿片类戒断症状的作用,具有治疗的时效作用特点,脱毒效率高,在适宜的剂量范围内不良反应轻,用药安全。

  9. 潘仕成与鸦片战争的武器捐造(上)%Weapon Produced by Pan-se-chen in the First Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭展鹏

    2014-01-01

    The British navy defeated the navy of Qing dynasty in the First Opium War,so the merchant Pan-se-chen produced the weapon himself. This paper does some research about Pan-se-chen’s weapon production process.%鸦片战争时期,清军不敌英军。潘仕成自行捐造武器,包括水雷、大炮、战船。文章围绕潘仕成捐造武器一事探究了某些具体细节,分析了他制造武器的思想根源以及武器制造为什么没有继续下去。

  10. « Frontiers and Wars: the Opium Economy in Afghanistan ». Journal of Agrarian Change, vol. 5, n° 42, 2005, pp. 191-216.

    OpenAIRE

    VAN ENGELAND, Anicée

    2007-01-01

    Cet article s’attache à décrire l’évolution de l’économie de l’opium en Afghanistan et examine les facteurs de résurgence depuis la chute des Talibans. L’A. analyse les causes historiques de la culture du pavot en relation avec les mouvements de frontières et les tentatives de cristallisation d’un État afghan ainsi que les échecs. Ces espaces de frontières que l’A. décrit comme non-étatiques dans le cas afghan ont facilité les trafics. L’A. analyse ensuite les dynamiques contemporaines de la ...

  11. 浅析鸦片战争清政府失败的主要原因%A Brief Analysis of the Main Reasons of Qing Govern-ment's Failure in the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维

    2013-01-01

      19世纪40年代的鸦片战争以中国的失败英国胜利而告终。本文着重从清朝封建制度的腐朽、政府官员的腐败、清军武器落后等三个方面阐述了中国失败的主要原因。%The 1940s Opium War ended with the failure of the Qing Government. This paper mainly interprets the main reasons from such three aspects as the decadent feudal system of the Qing Dynasty, the corruption of government officials, and the stereo-type Qing weapons.

  12. 论鸦片战争前后中国海关行商垄断制的演变%On the Evolution of Peddlery Monopoly of China Customs around the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘济华

    2013-01-01

    The peddlery monopoly was the China Customs clearance system around the Opium War .In the early days of Qing Dynasty ,the being -executed Guangzhou single port system was taken charge by the Thirteen Guilds to do the customs declaration for goods'import and export ,for management of related personnel ,carrying out purchasing license ,recruiting pilot and interpreter ,guaranteeing the customs declaration and goods sell ,ensuring the operation of inward journey after the entry of goods .In the end ,the peddlery monopoly was abolished due to the absolute monopoly and the lack of internal and external supervision ,and replaced by the consular declaration system . From it , we can have a general idea of the social system's corruption around the Opium War in Qing Dynasty .%行商垄断制是鸦片战争前后中国海关的报关制度,清朝前期实行的广州一口通商由广州十三行负责对进出口货物报关和对相关人员管理的垄断产生,实行购买许可证、聘请引水员和通事、保商报关销售商品、保商购买货物报关后返航等程序的运作,最后却由于绝对的垄断和形同虚设的监管制度致使行商垄断制被废除,为领事报关制度所取代,从中可以窥见清朝鸦片战争前后社会制度腐败一斑。

  13. Qing government's treatment of traitors during the Opium War%鸦片战争时期清政府处理汉奸问题措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金峰

    2011-01-01

    It's partly due to traitors' role that British army in the opium war was able to win one battle after another.Qing government was watchful of traitors' activities,and took various measures against traitors.However,Qing rulers did not have the sober awareness of its political corruption and the dramatic changes of interests between social strata,thus they failed to properly handle various kinds of social contradictions triggered by the invasion.The many measures to deal with traitors only issued orders in paper but malfunction in effect,adding another footnote to the failure in the Opium War.%鸦片战争时期,英军之所以能够屡战屡胜,汉奸作用不容小视。清政府对于汉奸活动极为重视,并注意采取多种措施处理汉奸问题,然而因为清朝统治者认识不清及晚清政治腐败等多种原因,尤其是清政府未能妥善处理外敌入侵时各类社会矛盾激化、社会各阶层利益关系剧烈变动的新形势,使得诸多处理汉奸问题的措施沦为具文而无法真正有效地发挥作用,为鸦片战争的失败添一注脚。

  14. Record of Tokyo Trial Court and Study of Japan Opium Aggression---Take"Manchukuo"as an example%东京审判庭审记录与日本对华鸦片侵略研究--以“满洲国”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩华

    2015-01-01

    东京审判庭审记录有关日本在“满洲国”实施鸦片侵略的犯罪证据,揭露了日本对华鸦片侵略的犯罪事实,是我们研究二战日本对华鸦片侵略的重要史料,翻译整理这部分史料,将有利于对相关的研究与利用,具有重要的意义。%The record evidence of a crime of Tokyo Trial court related to Japanese in the"Manchukuo"Imple-mentation of opium aggression, exposes Japan's opium facts of the crime of aggression, is important historical Japan's invasion of opium in World War II.Translation and finishment this part of the historical data will facilitate the use of the relevant research, which has important significance.

  15. Uma breve história do ópio e dos opióides Una historia breve del opio y de los opioides Opium and opioids: a brief history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Freire Duarte

    2005-02-01

    alcaloides del opio y las facilidades para el empleo de esas substancias por vía parenteral, hubo aumento del interés por el uso criterioso de los opioides en la área médica y del análisis de las consecuencias sociales de su uso abusivo. Se justifica, por lo expuesto, una revisión histórica del opio y de sus derivados. CONTENIDO: La evolución de los conocimientos sobre el opio, producto natural extraído del Papaver somniferum, y sobre los opioides, substancias naturales, semi-sintéticas y sintéticas extraídas del opio, bien como las principales referencias a esas substancias desde la Antiguedad fueron evaluadas. Fue enfatizado el progreso logrado desde los trabajos de Setürner que resultaron en el aislamiento de la morfina. Las averiguaciones acarreadas por otros autores en la busca de substancias sintéticas que presentasen ventajas sobre los productos naturales fueron mencionadas. La importancia del hallazgo de los receptores opioides y de sus ligantes endógenos fue subrayada. CONCLUSIONES: En el amanecer del tercer milenio, a despecho de las pesquisas realizadas con drogas analgésicas de otros grupos farmacológicos, los opioides continúan siendo los analgésicos más potentes, aunque su eficacia sea contestada en ciertos tipos de dolor. Los actuales conocimientos de Farmacología Clínica permiten seleccionar el opioide a ser administrado, considerando la enfermedad y las condiciones del paciente, en la busca de la mejor relación costo-beneficio.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In addition to their major influence on human behavior, opium and opioids have been used for a long time as sedative and analgesic drugs. As from the 19th century, with the isolation of opium alkaloids and easy parenteral administration of these substances, there has been increased interest in the judicious medical use of opioids and in the analysis of social consequences of their abuse, which has justified a historical review of opium and opioids. CONTENTS: Further understanding of

  16. 一个黄种白人眼里的鸦片战争和中国人形象%The Opium War and the Images of the Chinese in the Eyes of an Anglo-Chinese Writer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮炜

    2012-01-01

    Taking the Opium War as its theme, An Insular Possession by Timothy Mo, an Anglo- Chinese writer, vilifies and denigrates China and the Chinese.. Taking sides almost entirely with the British aggressors, Mo in his interpretation of historical materials leaves abundant signs of simply piecing together historical data so as to make up a story. This can only be explained by a profound identity anxiety on his part resulting from his hybrid parentage and confused sense of belonging.%英国作家毛翔青的《一片孤岛》以鸦片战争为题材,对中国和中国人进行了丑化。该作品在留下大量史料展示和拼凑痕迹的同时,几乎完全站在英国侵略者的立场上来阐释史料、营造故事,而造成这种结果的根本原因在于作者的混合血统和混杂认同所导致的一种深深的身份焦虑。

  17. 鸦片战争前汉口工商业发展特点%The Features of the Industrial and Commercial Development in Hankou City before the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠敏

    2015-01-01

    Because of the peasant uprising in the late of Ming dynasty and the early Qing dynasty,the flourishing industry and commerce in Hankou city,developing from the middle of the Ming dynasty,was destroyed and the social economic development suffered blows in the short period of time.Before the Opium War,Hankou city was developed rapidly with the effort of the local people.The new-estab-lishment of Hankou was not only the economic recovery,but also the sophisticated evolution of the social economic structure with the features of diverse development.%因明末清初农民起义战火的重创,汉口自明中期以来积累的卓著工商业成就转瞬灰飞烟灭,其社会经济发展在短期内遭受巨大挫折。鸦片战争前,通过当地商民戮力重建,汉口迅速发展到全盛阶段。汉口商镇的重新崛起不是简单的经济恢复,而是朝着社会经济结构更复杂层面演进,呈现出多元发展的特点。

  18. About the Accountability after the Opium War%根本之守与应时之变--鸦片战争后失事官员责任追究透视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞成

    2013-01-01

    鸦片战争结束后,清王朝并无我们期待的深刻反思。他们所进行的善后工作中一项重要的内容是战败责任追究,这包括道德拷问和法律责任追究两方面,这两者是王朝要坚守的根本。但承担责任的地方官员,对一场力量悬殊的中外战争中职守责任的理解与朝廷存在差异,同时他们更关注如何应对战后外部的压力和复杂的局面,要求朝廷能做一些变通。根本之守与应时之变的分歧构成战后政治变动的内在张力,并预示着整个晚清政局的走向。%After the Opium War, the Qing imperial court did not make penetrating self-examinations. After the war, the imperial court concentrated on investigating the responsibilities for the defeat of the war, both morally and legally. However, the local officials and the court had different opinions about the responsibilities for the defeat of the war where there was a great disparity in strength between the two sides. The local government officials concerned more about how to deal with the post-war pressure and the complicated situation. The disputes are the internal political tension that decided the situation in the late Qing after the war.

  19. 清代的虎门防御体系与第一次鸦片战争%Humen defense system in the Qing dynasty and the First Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华清; 朱西学

    2012-01-01

    到第一次鸦片战争前,清朝在珠江虎门出海口水道两岸先后建成了大角炮台、沙角炮台、威远炮台、镇远炮台、靖远炮台、横档炮台、永安炮台、巩固炮台、大虎炮台、炮台连同木排铁链、水底石堆、暗桩,在虎门水道构成了一个具有三重门户的防御体系,成为清朝最大最坚固的海防要塞。但这个防御体系在1841年的大角一沙角战役和上横档战役中被英国军队摧毁,战争失败的原因是多方面的,其主要原因还是这个防御体系存在诸多缺陷。%Before the First Opium War, the Qing dynasty had built, on both sides of Humen watercourse of Pearl River, Dajiao Fort, Shajiao fort, Weiyuan fort, Zhenyuan fort, Jingyuan fort, Hengdang fort,Yongan fort, Gonggu fort, Dahu fort. which constituted a triple portal together with the raft chains, underwater rock, piles, But the largest and most robust coastal defense fort of the Qing dynasty was destroyed by British troops in 1841 on Dajiao - Shajiao Campaign and Shanghengdang Campaign. Among the reasons for the failure of the war are the defects ofthe defense system.

  20. The Conceptual Difference of the Dialogues between China and the UK on the Eve of the Opium War%鸦片战争前夕中英交涉中观念的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠杰

    2012-01-01

    鸦片战争前夕,中英两国因制度、文化、观念等差异,导致在处理共同间题时交流不畅,双方的“对话”成了各自的“独白”。在国际体系上,中国的朝贡体系是一种尊卑有序的观念,英国所处的维也纳体系是一种平等原则。在国家类型上,中国是王朝统治,英国是民族国家。在治理模式上,中国注重人治,英国注重法治。在价值观念上,中国偏好集体主义,英国喜欢个人主义。在这种情况下,对话失败了,解决问题的最终方式走向了使用武力。%On the eve of the Opium War, the negotiations addressing the common problems between China and the UK were not unblocked. They had different institutions, cultures and concepts, and their dialogues were monologic. Chinese Tribute System reflected the concepts of superiority and inferiority in the foreign relations, while Britain within Vienna System had the principle of equality. China was a dynastic country, while Britain was a democratic state. China was ruled by man while Britain ruled by law. China preferred to collectivism, and Britain liked individualism and liberalism better. They could not be clearly known each other. In this context, the dialogues were failed. Then the final solution must be the use of military power.

  1. Preliminary Spreading of the Western Free Thought in China Before and After the Opium War%论鸦片战争前后西方自由思想在中国的初步传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周福振

    2012-01-01

    鸦片战争前后,一些西方传教士和中国的仁人志士开始把西方自由思想传播到中国,给中国人带来了与中国文化不太相符的东西。踏上中国土地的西方人虽然各有目的,但是他们或创办报刊,或设立学校,或兴办慈善事业,逐渐把西方的自由思想传入中国。魏源等中国人也注意到了西方的自由思想,并自觉不自觉进行宣传。这些自由思想是概括性的,但是为西方自由思想在中国的广泛传播创造了条件。%Occidental missionaries and advanced Chinese people began to spread the Western free thought to China before and after the Opium War which was not consistent with the Chinese culture.Occidental people coming to China had different purposes,but they founded presses,set up schools or organized charities,gradually spreading the Western free thought to China.Wei Yuan and people like him noticed the Western free thought,and consciously or unconsciously made propaganda.Though recapitulative,the spreading activities created the conditions for widespread promulgation of the Western free thought in China.

  2. Gentry Benevolence or Pursuit of Self-interest: The End of the Sino-British Opium Trade%绅士的慈悲还是利益的追逐?——中英鸦片贸易终结过程的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜色

    2012-01-01

    十八、十九世纪英国主导下的鸦片贸易给中国经济和社会造成了灾难性的影响,而英国商人及英属印度殖民政府却从鸦片贸易中获得了丰厚的利润。但是1907年英国却主动向清政府提议并达成了减少印度鸦片出口直至最终禁绝的《禁烟条件》。本文详细分析了鸦片贸易各方在十九世纪末二十世纪初经济、政治和社会结构的变动情况,认为英国国内产业升级带动对外贸易的转型,其国内新兴工业资本家力图扩大对华工业品输出,是导致英国主动停止鸦片贸易的根本原因。这不是绅士的慈悲,而是利益的追逐。%In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the opium trade between British India and China brought tremendous disasters to Chinese economy and society, while earning British government and businessmen huge profits. In 1907, however, British government proposed, and two countries agreed, to reduce and eventually terminate opium exports to China. This article examines the changes in the economic, political and social structures of Britain, India and China in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The author finds that the structural changes in British domestic industry led to similar changes in foreign trade. The aim of British industrial capitalists to expand their exports to China was the fundamental reason that British government curtailed opium exports to China.

  3. Securing Afghanistan’s Future Against Opium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    International Studies, 2007), 51. 38 Blanchard, Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy, 35. 39 Geoffrey Hayes and Mark Sedra , Afghanistan Transition Under...Geoffrey and Mark Sedra . Afghanistan: Transition Under Threat. Waterloo, Ontario: Centre for International Governance Innovation and Wilfrid Laurier

  4. The Military Defense Value of Modern Grand Canal--The Influence of Grand Canal Decline on the Two Opium Wars and the Sino-Japanese War in 1894%近代大运河的军事国防价值--大运河衰败对两次鸦片战争、甲午战争的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健

    2015-01-01

    The Grand Canal is the water passage for grain transport to the capital, going south to north through the Chinese inland, the life line of people and the flow of goods and materials, as well as the corridor of regional culture. At the same time, it is also an important military strategic pass of south and north. In history, it was the scene or associated area of several important military campaigns at home and abroad, thus it has the great function of military defense and logistic support. Since modern time, the failure of several big campaigns of Qing government was directly or indirectly related to this Grand Canal. In the First Opium War, Qing government did not recognize enough the military strategic position of the Canal, and was forced to sign the unequal agreement when the British forces controlled the strategic forts along the Grand Canal, and the water transport passage from south to north broke down; in the Second Opium War, though they set up the Grand Canal defensive line, the Qing forces was defeated as their defensive idea lagged behind; the failure of the Sino-Japanese War in 1894 was directly related to the function that the Grand Canal could not play the role of military equipment transport. Today, as the world cultural heritage, with perfect communication system, the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal should still be paid attention to in its transport function of golden water passage and military strategic value.%大运河是中国内陆贯穿南北的漕运水道,人流物流交通线,区域文化的廊道,同时,它也是一条极为重要的南北军事战略通道,历史上多次成为国内外重大军事斗争的发生地和关联区,许多重要的战争发生在京杭大运河沿岸,因此,它具有重要的军事防御和后勤保障功能。近代以来,清政府几次重大战役的失败都直接或间接与大运河有关。第一次鸦片战争中,清政府对大运河的军事战略地位重视不够,在英军控

  5. The Opium Taxes and Popular Revolt:Rural Crisis and Government Control in Su County in North of Anhui in 1930’s%烟捐与民变:1930年代皖北宿县乡村危机与政府控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱移山; 陈涛

    2015-01-01

    1932年皖北宿县因烟捐引发民变是20世纪30年代国民政府治下乡村危机频发的侧影。民变前,国家政权与乡村精英结合掌控乡村,而精英间为争夺乡村权力展开派系斗争,官民矛盾、绅民矛盾和绅士间矛盾尖锐。皖省政府依靠乡绅课征烟税,劣绅借机盘剥农民,绅民、官民矛盾激化。民变发生后,关系各方展开利益博弈,政府交替运用武力与怀柔之策控制民变,但无助于化解官民矛盾、绅民矛盾、官绅矛盾和乡绅不同派系间的利益纠葛,反致乡村危机在政府控制下被雪藏。乡村危机是国家政治、经济和社会等多元因素交互作用下产生的,并非如学界过往所认同的经济单线性诱致之结果。%In 1932,it was donated the 1930s rural crisis -prone silhouette under the rule of the National Government that popular revolt caused by the opium taxes in Su county of north Anhui.Before the popular revolt,the state power combined with the rural elite control of villages and rural elite competition for power among factions launched,the official and people’s contra-dictions,contradictions and gentry contradictions between gentlemen.An Hui provincial opium taxes levied rely squire,evil gentry took the opportunity to exploit farmers,gentry,officials and the public conflicts.China change occurs,the relationship be-tween the parties to expand the interests of the game,alternating the use of force and the government’s appeasement policy control civil commotion,but officials and the public contradictions,contradictions and gentry gentry nothing to resolve disputes, renvoi under the rural crisis forced the government was put on ice.Rural crises was the country’s political,economic and social factors such as multi -interaction was not,as previously acknowledged by scholars singlet induced economic results.

  6. Pharm GKB: Opium alkaloids and derivatives [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available derivatives (R05DA) Drugs And Small Molecules The following have been classified under this therapeutic category: codeine dextrometho...rphan hydrocodone methadone morphine EvidenceGene VA CHRNA3 VA CHRNA5 No related dr

  7. Afghan Opium, the Global Consensus and Regional Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    The international counter-narcotics consensus laid down in a comprehensive set of international treaties stipulates that there is a confluence of interest in suppression of illicit trade between consumer, transit and producer states. This article presents the outcome of legal sub-component of a m...

  8. Combating Opium in Afghanistan. Strategic Forum, Number 224, November 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    unconvincing, given the Taliban’s previous draconian crackdown on poppy production; however, desperation breeds strange bedfellows. Rampant drug...Depending on their location within Afghanistan, farmers may be able to plant two crops a year; many follow a poppy harvest with a cannabis crop. The

  9. Opium, petroleum and islamism. The crime Triad in Afghanistan; Opium, petrole et islamisme. La Triade du crime en Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafargue, F

    2003-07-01

    The geographical position of Afghanistan, at the crossroads of three main cultural areas, Turkish, Indian and Iranian, explains the unsteadiness of its history. Today, Afghanistan is the key position of Central Asia, a necessary path to dispatch the hydrocarbons of the Caucasus region, in particular from Turkmenistan, towards the harbors of the Indian Ocean or China. These political and oil stakes supply the present day chaos and are the constituents of Afghanistan's misfortune.

  10. Drug: D03444 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8112 Opiates D03444 Opium, powdered (JP16); Opium (U...LGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloids N02AA02 Opium D03444 Opium, powdered (JP16); Opium (USP)

  11. 鸦片战争前的鸦片贸易再研究%A Reconsideration of the Opium Trade before the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义雄

    2002-01-01

    鸦片战争前的鸦片贸易问题一向为中外研究者所重视,但因各种原因,迄今为止,对当时对华鸦片贸易状况的所有统计和描述都在不同程度上存在着不够准确、不够完整之处.鸦片战争前发行于广州的英文和保存了持续多年、即时公布的有关鸦片贸易的丰富资料,为重新统计1821-1839年期间各年度各种鸦片的贸易数量、价格和贸易额,从而比较完整、准确地显示这一时期的鸦片贸易状况提供了可能.综合前人的研究和新发现的资料,可知在鸦片战争前的18年中,平均每年有1万多箱鸦片输入和1000多万两白银被掠夺,这一数字虽不如以往有的研究所揭示的那么庞大,但已足以揭露鸦片贩子和其背后的利益集团的掠夺本性.

  12. Somatic Embryogenesis, Rhizogenesis, and Morphinan Alkaloids Production in Two Species of Opium Poppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdelmajid Kassem

    2001-01-01

    Morphine was only detected in aerial parts of Papaver somniferum album. Codeine and thebaine were detected in the rhizogenous but no embryonic callus. These results suggest that root organogenesis is causally related to alkaloid biosynthesis.

  13. Opium Addiction as a Novel Predictor of Atrial Fibrillation after Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Soleimani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is one of the most frequent complications after cardiac surgery. It occurs in approximately 20% to 35% of patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery and in more than 50% of patients after valve surgery (1. AF after cardiac surgery is a major cause of patients’ morbidity and mortality. Moreover, it can prolong hospitalization and increase health care costs in these patients (2.

  14. Bandits, borderlands and opium wars: Afghan state-building viewed from the margins

    OpenAIRE

    Goodhand, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The drugs economy has been an important part of the story of borderland transformation in Afghanistan. Because of drugs, borderlands are no longer marginal, but have become a resource to be exploited by the centre of the fragile state. This Working Paper explores the linkages between the drugs economy, borderlands and 'post conflict' state-building in Sheghnan, a remote district on the Afghan-Tajik border in the north-east Afghanistan. It does this through a fine grained historical analysis o...

  15. Entering WTO and the Opium War%加入WTO与鸦片战争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常松; 王殿阁

    2002-01-01

    @@ 2001年11月11日世界贸易组织(WTO)多哈会议批准了,按照有关法律程序,一个月后,中国正式成为WTO的第143个成员.面对这一举世瞩目的历史事件,我们不由自主地联想到"鸦片战争".

  16. 革命导师论鸦片战争%Revolutionary teachers expounding Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路芳

    2004-01-01

    1840年的鸦片战争,英国侵略者用大炮打开了中国的大门,革命导师马克思、恩格斯撰写了多篇文章,阐述了鸦片贸易的性质和鸦片战争发生原因,以及鸦片战争给中英两国带来的影响,对鸦片战争史的研究有重要指导意义.

  17. More mysteries of opium reveal'd: 300 years of opiates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R J; Tran, P B

    2000-08-01

    This year is the 300th anniversary of the publication of one of the first books written about opiates and their subjective effects. Since that time the influence of opiates in Western society has grown enormously, as has our knowledge of the mechanisms by which these drugs produce their effects. Wars have been fought over the use of opiates and the economies of several countries depend on their production. In this article, some aspects of the history and effects of opiates on the arts in particular are explored.

  18. Shanghai's Trade, China's Growth: Continuity, Recovery, and Change since the Opium Wars

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Keller; Ben Li; Shiue, Carol H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of China's trade performance from the 1840s to the present. Its focus is on Shanghai, the world's largest port, which began direct trade relations with Western nations starting in 1843. The paper finds that Shanghai had, and continues to have, an important role in China's trade structure. Applying the well-known gravity equation of trade for Shanghai's treaty port period, the paper shows that this relationship fits today's actual trade quite well when projected...

  19. Drug: D03866 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03866 Mixture, Drug Opium alkaloids and scopolamine injection (JP16); Weak opium alkaloid...s and scopolamine injection (JP16); Opium alkaloids hydrochloride - scopolamine hydrobromide hydrate ... Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8119 Others D03866 Opium alkaloids and scopolamine in...jection (JP16); Weak opium alkaloids and scopolamine injection (JP16) PubChem: 17397950 ... ...mixt; Opisco (TN) Opium alkaloids hydrochlorides [DR:D03445], Scopolamine hydrobromide [DR:D02071] Therapeut

  20. Drug: D06499 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8113 Opiate tinctures and extracts D06499 Opium ti...ICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloids N02AA02 Opium D06499 Opium tincture (JP16) CAS: 8008-60-4 PubChem: 47208155 NIKKAJI: J2.178.389G ...

  1. Drug: D03445 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03445 Drug Opium alkaloids hydrochlorides (JP16); Pan opin (TN) Papaver somniferum...kaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8114 Morphines D03445 Opium alkaloids hydrochlorides (JP16) PubChem: 17397585 ...

  2. The Opium Trade at Golden-star Anchorage Before and After the Opium War%鸦片战争前后金星门的鸦片贸易

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏雅丽

    2013-01-01

    位于广东珠江口西侧的金星门,在鸦片战争前后以其独特的地理位置和有利的条件,从19世纪20年代外国鸦片船的偶然碇泊所,发展到30年代外国鸦片船的固定碇泊所,四五十年代则成为广州市场甚至整个珠江三角洲市场鸦片的重要供应地.对金星门鸦片贸易的个案作较为深入的分析,对探讨鸦片战争前后中西关系的演变,有一定的学术价值.

  3. The Problem on the Circulation of Opium in Chinese Inland before the Opium War%鸦片战争前中国内陆的鸦片流通问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭剑波

    2003-01-01

    鸦片问题是中国近代史研究领域令人关注的课题,许多学者已对鸦片走私数量、中国吸食人数、白银外流数量等问题作过研究。但对鸦片战争前中国内地鸦片流通问题却语焉不详,缺乏有深度的研究。笔者主要根据档案资料拟作初步探讨。

  4. 鸦片战争前粤海关税费问题与战后海关税则谈判%Pre-Opium War Tariff Problems in Guangdong and the Post-Opium War Negotiations on Customs Tariff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义雄

    2005-01-01

    从17世纪末到鸦片战争前,广州口岸关税征收中的税费问题以及由此引发的中外争端,一直贯穿于以中英贸易为主体的中西贸易史中.在税费征取过程中形成的地方关税利益集团,滥用职权,中饱私囊,这不仅引起以英商为主的西方商人的长期抗争,也损及清政府的财政利益.鸦片战后清政府逐步接受英方协定关税的要求,以确保关税"有盈无绌".战后的订立,实际上是战前中外粤海关税费问题争端长期持续和演变的结果.

  5. Effects of Dextromethorphan on reducing methadone dosage in opium addicts undergoing methadone maintenance therapy: A double blind randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mehrdad; Zargar, Ali; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dextromethorphan (DM) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that may be useful during opiate addiction process, especially in reducing methadone consumption in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of DM on reducing methadone dose in MMT used to treat illicit opioid drug abuse. METHODS: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial was designed. Seventy two opiate abusers undergoing MMT were randomly divided into two groups. Participants in the intervention group were medicated by DM while those in the control group received placebo. After a 6-week follow-up, methadone consumption dosage, quality of life (QOL) and withdrawal symptoms were assessed and compared between the two groups by repeated measure ANOVA statistical test. RESULTS: The mean of methadone consumption in the DM and control groups were 62.7 mg/day (52.7-72.7) and 70.4 mg/day (60.4-80.4), respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups among the four evaluations made (F = 1.192, P = 0.279). There were not any significant differences in withdrawal symptoms between the two groups (P > 0.05). Total mean scores of QOL in the intervention and control groups were 84.8 (78.7-90.8) and 77.8 (71.8-83.7) (P > 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although DM might be useful for opioid dependence treatment, results of the current study did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Therefore, further studies exploring this possibility are needed. PMID:22973331

  6. Alkaloidy opium w toksykologicznej praktyce medyczno-sądowej Zakładu Medycyny Sądowej UJ CM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kłys

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Opiaty są uważane za najstarsze narkotyki znane w historii ludzkości. Na przestrzeni wieków, zmieniało się spojrzenie na problem narkomanii, tworzyły się wieloaspektowe obszary badawcze. Współczesna narkomania stanowi przede wszystkim problem społeczny i kliniczny, obejmując swym zasięgiem między innymi, ratownictwo w zatruciach i leczenie uzależnień. Z drugiej strony, jest to także problem wymiaru sprawiedliwości, realizującej zasadę trafnej represji w przypadkach kryminalnych (gwałty, rozboje, kierowcy, produkcja narkotyków i handel oraz konieczność monitorowania zgonów związanych z narkotykami. Możliwości badawcze we wszystkich przypadkach mające związek z narkomanią wzrosły wraz z wprowadzeniem i rozwojem niezwykle czułych i specyficznych metod analitycznych (GC-MS, LC/MS, HPLC/DAD, umożliwiających wykrywanie i identyfikację wieloskładnikowych mieszanin ksenobiotyków w złożonych matrycach biologicznych na niskim poziomie stężeń. Historia krakowskiego Zakładu Medycyny Sądowej sięga roku 1877, gdyż od tego czasu przechowywany jest materiał archiwalny. Pojedyncze zgony w wyniku zatrucia morfiną dotyczące głównie pracowników służby zdrowia były przedmiotem ekspertyz medyczno-sądowych od początku XX wieku, ale dopiero lata 1980-te przyniosły zapotrzebowanie na wielokierunkowe badania toksykologiczne opiatów oraz ich metabolitów w zróżnicowanym materiale biologicznym i nie biologicznym. Niniejsza praca jest specyficznym raportem z opublikowanych prac dotyczących badań nad opiatami w materiale krakowskiego Zakładu Medycyny Sądowej.

  7. Lessons from the First Opium War%鸦片战争失败原因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宗英

    2002-01-01

    清政府的闭关锁国政策是造成鸦片战争失败的原因,因为长期的闭关锁国,清朝统治者养成夜郎自大的文化优势心理和对西方科技的盲目排斥,而这正是鸦片战争失败的最直接原因.

  8. Effects of Dextromethorphan on reducing methadone dosage in opium addicts undergoing methadone maintenance therapy: A double blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Salehi

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Although DM might be useful for opioid dependence treatment, results of the current study did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Therefore, further studies exploring this possibility are needed.

  9. Fighting Afghanistan’s Opium Dependency as a Means of Disrupting Al Qaeda’s Illicit Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    taking a quick survey of the multidecade effort to combat the Latin American cocaine crisis one can better understand how this translates into the CN...on 2 December 1993, in a shootout with soldiers from the Bloque de Búsqueda, or Search Bloc (Bowden 2001, 249). Some of these successful programs

  10. Coercion, Cash-Crops and Culture: From Insurgency to Proto-State in Asia’s Opium Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Hodes and Sedra claim a more extensive Taliban extraction system that includes taxation of production, transportation, and processing,33 Turning to...33 Cyrus Hodes and Mark Sedra , The Search for Security in Post-Taliban Afghanistan (New York: Routledge, 2007), 39. 34 Martin Smith, Burma...104 Cyrus Hodes and Mark Sedra , The Search for Security in Post-Taliban Afghanistan (New York: Routledge, 2007), 26. 105 Giustozzi

  11. How to find non-dependent opiate users: a comparison of sampling methods in a field study of opium and heroin users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, D.J.; van Ginkel, P.; Benschop, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/aim The first aim is to better understand the potentials and limitations of different sampling methods for reaching a specific, rarely studied population of drug users and for persuading them to take part in a multidisciplinary study. The second is to determine the extent to which these

  12. "Un paysage hanté, intense comme l'opium". Ville et notion de paysage selon Siegfried Kracauer et Walter Benjamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    bykultur, filosofi, Walter Benjamin, Siegfried Kracauer, Berlin, Paris, landskab, begrebet bylandskab......bykultur, filosofi, Walter Benjamin, Siegfried Kracauer, Berlin, Paris, landskab, begrebet bylandskab...

  13. Balancing between sensitization and repression: the role of opium in the life and art of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iszáj, Fruzsina; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The creative process contains both conscious and unconscious work. Therefore, artists have to face their unconscious processes and work with emotional material that is difficult to keep under control in the course of artistic creation. Bringing these contents of consciousness to the surface needs special sensitivity and special control functions while working with them. Considering these mechanisms, psychoactive substance can serve a double function in the case of artists. On the one hand, chemical substances may enhance the artists' sensitivity. On the other hand, they can help moderate the hypersensitivity and repress extreme emotions and burdensome contents of consciousness. The authors posit how the use of opiates could have influenced the life and creative work of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

  14. Corruption is the main cause of the defeat in the Opium Wars%腐败是鸦片战争失败的主要原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼霞

    2002-01-01

    鸦片战争是西方列强对中国发动的第一次大规模侵略战争,这场战争由于清朝政治、军事的极端腐败,掌握战争领导权的封建统治者和本国的广大人民处于尖锐对立的地位,使我之所长不能发挥,敌人之短却得以避免,造成了战败的结局.

  15. Analysis of Japanese Scholars'Ideas about China during the Opium War%试析鸦片战争时期日本士人的中国观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔昆仑

    2011-01-01

    透过鸦片战争的失败,日本士人认识到晚清中国愚昧衰弱、自大保守,不复往日之盛.由此,敬畏中国的传统观念开始动摇,并开始产生轻视的心态,进而渐露觊觎中国的野心.鸦片战争遂成为近代日本蔑华侵华意识的源头之一.

  16. 第二次鸦片战争中的美国对华政策%The America's Polices in the Opium War Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸静

    2002-01-01

    在第二次鸦片战争中,美国扮演次要角色,追随英法,充当"免费搭便车的帝国主义",但又保持其独立性,不甘心小伙计的地位.文章主要论述美国在第二次鸦片战争中的对华政策并分析其现实原因和历史的、社会的,以至民族心理上的根源.

  17. ANALYSIS ON THE DELAY OF COPYING THE WEST AFTER THE OPIUM WAR%鸦片战后师夷新政被延误之探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴多智

    2007-01-01

    师夷新政缘何在第一次鸦片战争后未能即时兴起,原因很多.由于传统思想束缚第一次鸦片战争未能迅速激起民族危机感,同时道光帝认识的偏差和缺乏强有力政治力量的支持,以及财政上的捉襟见肘,使这场中国低层次学习西方的运动被延误了近20年.

  18. 侵华日军对南京的鸦片毒害%The Opium Poison against Nanjing People by Japanese Army

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许金生

    2004-01-01

    鸦片侵略是日本对华侵略的一个重要组成部分.本文在比较抗日战争全面爆发前后南京鸦片状况的同时,就鸦片流入南京的主要途径、尤其是鸦片等毒品泛滥的实态进行了考察,指出正是日军对贩毒销毒的积极参与和纵容,使南京由全国模范禁烟城市迅速沦为一个毒流泛滥的毒品之都.而日军鸦片统制的目的则在于:解决南京伪政府的财政问题,削弱南京人民的抗战能力.

  19. Changes in Fujian Ocean Shipping Industry after the Opium War%鸦片战争后福建海洋航运业的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖大珂

    2002-01-01

    鸦片战争后,西方航运业侵入福建,压倒了福建传统的航运业,不仅垄断了福建的远洋航运业,而且还控制了沿海航运.尽管旧式的帆船业出现了凋零,但是福建的海洋航运业并未因此消亡,新的民族轮船航运业应运而生,顽强地生存、发展.

  20. 贸易失衡的罪恶战争——鸦片战争再解读%LOOK BACK OPIUM WAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建伟

    2009-01-01

    @@ 一、中国茶征服不列颠 说到鸦片,必先说茶. 茶在中国,历史悠久.陆羽说,茶之为饮,发乎神农氏.欧洲人首次知道"茶",是在1550年.1606年,第一箱中国茶叶通过荷兰东印度公司运抵阿姆斯特丹,也是中国茶第一次到达欧洲.

  1. On the Western Musical Instruments Introduced to china Before the Opium War%鸦片战争前传入中国的西洋乐器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧灵

    2003-01-01

    鸦片战争前,一些西洋乐器被西方传教士陆续带到了中国.虽然它们的种类、数量不多,影响范围不大,但在中西音乐文化交流中占有重要的地位.本文分别介绍的管风琴、钢琴、小提琴、竖琴等乐器就是其中较具代表性的几类乐器.

  2. 抗战时期日本对中国社会的毒化政策%Japan's Opium Policy to China During the Anti-Japanese War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶锋

    2006-01-01

    日本帝国主义在抗日战争时期出于经济、政治和军事等方面的原因,采取了各种各样的手段对中国社会实行了惨无人道的鸦片毒化政策,给中国的社会经济和人民生活造成了巨大的灾难.

  3. The second opium war brings us thinking%第二次鸦片战争给我们带来的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正权

    2010-01-01

    学习历史的社会功能在于以史为鉴、启发智慧、面向未来,即不能沉缅于过去,而要构筑历史通向现实、通向未来的渠道,使人能够透析人生,洞悉社会.这也是英国哲学家、作家和科学家弗兰西斯·培根竭力倡导的"读史使人明智"的理由.

  4. The issue of prisoners of war during the Opium War%鸦片战争时期的战俘问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞成

    2004-01-01

    战俘问题一直是人类文明史上一个值得关注的问题:不同文明冲突过程中,如何对待和处理战俘,体现着冲突双方的观念、相互认知和交往方式.鸦片战争史研究中,战俘问题一直是被忽略的战争组成部分.鸦片战争时期战俘的获取、处置、交涉,以及其中反映出的观念,是我们了解这场战争的一个侧面,也是由此观察清王朝的一个视角.

  5. How to find non-dependent opiate users: a comparison of sampling methods in a field study of opium and heroin users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, D.J.; van Ginkel, P.; Benschop, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/aim The first aim is to better understand the potentials and limitations of different sampling methods for reaching a specific, rarely studied population of drug users and for persuading them to take part in a multidisciplinary study. The second is to determine the extent to which these d

  6. 近代国际法与林则徐禁烟%Modern Law of Nations and Lin Zexu's Working Against Opium- smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫明; 王黎明

    2005-01-01

    1839年广东禁烟期间,林则徐引进近代国际法用以指导禁烟运动.从禁烟政策的必要性到禁烟政策的可行性,再到禁烟文书的拟制以及禁烟策略的形成,均表明国际法对禁烟运动提供了适时而重要的法律援助.林则徐将世界流行的近代国际法与厉行禁烟这一民族使命有机结合起来,首开近代公法外交之先风,在一定程度上开创了晚清外交的新局面.

  7. An Introduction to Some Newly Found Lin Zexu's Papers during the Opium War%林则徐鸦片战争时期佚文评介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义雄

    2011-01-01

    在各种中外历史文献中,仍有不少林则徐佚文未被注意.中保存的,即为一篇极重要的林氏佚文.该书收录的林则徐其他文件,亦具研究意义.和中保存了10件以上的林则徐公牍英译件.此外,卫三畏中收有林则徐致英国女王照会初稿.

  8. Drug: D03872 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 08301] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8119 Others D03872...r08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloids N02AA55 Oxycodone, combin

  9. Drug: D02101 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8115 Codeines D02101 Codeine phosphate hydrate (JP16); Co... EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkaloids and derivatives R05DA04 Codeine D02101 Codeine phosphate hydrate (JP16);

  10. Drug: D04336 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 03] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05F COUGH SUPPRESSANTS AND EXPECTORANTS, COMBINATIONS R05FA Opium... derivatives and expectorants R05FA01 Opium derivatives and mucoly

  11. Drug: D04340 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available COLD PREPARATIONS R05F COUGH SUPPRESSANTS AND EXPECTORANTS, COMBINATIONS R05FA Opium... derivatives and expectorants R05FA02 Opium derivatives and expectorants D04340 Dextromethorphan hydrobromide - potassium cresolsulfonate mixt PubChem: 17398062 ...

  12. Modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission by morphine in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Moleman (Peter)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractThe pleasant effects of opium were already known 6000 years ago and opium has been used for medical purposes for at least 3500 years. Opium, and its r.1ain constituent morphine, evoke a feeling of well-being and always relieve pain of any origin, in other words, a perfect analgesic and e

  13. Drug: D03863 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03863 Mixture, Drug Opium alkaloids and atropine injection (JP16); Opium alkaloids hydr...ochloride - atropine sulfate hydrate mixt; Opiato (TN) Opium alkaloids hydrochlorides [DR:D03445], Atro...pine sulfate [DR:D02069] Therapeutic category: 8119 Injection Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br0

  14. The Voice for "Waging War on Opium Trade by Opium Trade" during the Late Qing and the Irrationality of Modern Economic Nationalism%晚清"鸦片商战"观与近代经济民族主义的非理性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘增合

    2005-01-01

    经济民族主义是晚清以来民族主义充分彰显的一个领域,"鸦片商战"则是近代经济民族主义观念的重要形式.鸦片战争以后,清廷无法有效地禁绝外来鸦片.民间人士为抵制外国鸦片入侵,纷纷主张弛禁土产鸦片,扩张罂粟种植面积.这种观念不但表现在一般士大夫身上,而且清廷重臣、地方官员也不乏其意,域外人士与国内士绅声气相求,世俗报刊与教会媒介均有相关言论刊布.作为一种非理性的经济民族主义观念,"鸦片商战"给晚清社会和国家造成的负面影响难以估量.

  15. 中国传统外交思想近代转型的初次实践——鸦片战争前夕禁烟运动中的"具结"析论%Guaranty in banning opium smoking and trafficking before the first Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅

    2007-01-01

    为了深入了解中国近代意义外交观念的形成,外交思想从传统向近代的转变,通过对林则徐在禁烟过程中倡导并坚持的"具结"方式的分析,认为:在禁烟斗争中,林则徐不仅围绕"具结"与义律(Charles Elliot 1801-1875)展开了较量,同时尝试运用近代外交理念处理对外交涉.但是由于时代的局限,林则徐尚不清楚真正意义上的近代国际交往,出现了策略及认识上的失误.因此,如何有效地捍卫国家主权,进行对外斗争,成为中国人民必须面对的新挑战.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10720-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) BGBV-aae37f05.b1 Snail_EST_pSMART Biomphalaria gl... 38 0.004 2 ( FG612470 ) stem_S086_C06.SEQ Opium poppy... stem cDNA library P... 32 0.004 3 ( FG605739 ) stem_S001_F08.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 32 0.00...4 3 ( FG606058 ) stem_S005_E09.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 32 0.004 3 ( FG613261 ) stem_S096_C09.SEQ Opium... poppy stem cDNA library P... 32 0.004 3 ( FG611387 ) stem_S072_B09.SEQ Opium... poppy stem cDNA library P... 32 0.004 3 ( FG613260 ) stem_S096_C08.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P

  17. 338 cases of opium addicts insist on methadone maintenance treatment effect analysis%338例阿片类药物成瘾者美沙酮维持治疗的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贠赟; 周东生; 杨洁

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To describe the effect of the patient with methadone maintenance treatment adhere to treatment more than one year in Kaifeng city. Methods:Survey carried out face to face with 338 patients who participate in the maintenance treatment in from February 2009 to June 2013 and get treatment for more than one year. Collect and analyze the information of demographic,drug addic-tion situation,social and family situation,criminal. Results:There were 279 males(82. 5% )and 59 females(17. 5% )in the 338 survey respondents. Their average age was(40. 7 ± 6. 7)years. Most of them were unemployed. Their primary education was junior high school. After treatment,90. 2% of the patients felt better than before,76. 9% of the governed feel little or no drug addiction, Crime rate fell to 28. 1% from the 45. 6% ,the relationship with their families increased from 23. 1% to 54. 4% ,a good relationship with drug addicts increased from 78. 7% down to 35. 5% . Conclusion:Methadone maintenance treatment clinics on the curative effect does make treatment in better health. can really make the patients to reduce crime. Reduce interaction with drug addicts,strengthen communication with family,but it play a very small role in restoring social functions,in future we should increase publicity,social sup-port to help solve the issues of life skills and employment.%目的:了解开封市美沙酮维持治疗门诊患者坚持治疗1年以上的治疗效果。方法:对开封市美沙酮维持治疗门诊2009年2月一2013年6月入组参加维持治疗,且治疗时间超过1年的患者共338人进行面对面问卷调查,并收集一般人口学、药物成瘾情况、社会家庭情况、违法犯罪情况等信息进行分析。结果:在338名调查对象中其中男性279人(82.5%),女性59人(17.5%);年龄(40.7±6.7)岁,无业、初中及以下文化程度为主。通过治疗,90.2%的患者感到身体精神好转,76.9%的受治者感到基本或完全没有毒瘾,犯罪率由45.6%降至28.1%,受治者与家人关系良好的比例由23.1%升高至54.4%,与毒友关系良好的比例由78.7%降至35.5%。结论:美沙酮维持治疗门诊在疗效上确实能使受治者身体状况好转。在社会效果上能一定程度上减少犯罪、减少与毒友的交往、加强与家人的沟通,但在恢复社会功能方面改善不大,今后应该加大宣传力度,得到社会支持帮助他们解决生活技能和就业问题。

  18. 野罂粟总生物碱及提取物对人淋巴细胞的遗传毒理作用%Study on the influence of wild opium poppy alkaloid and its extract on lymphocyte toxicological effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖桂芝; 刘朝晖; 王栋; 宁志芬; 冯立新; 马晓明; 卜玲

    2002-01-01

    目的:探讨野罂粟总生物碱(TAPN)及提取物对人遗传物质的毒理效应.方法:采用细胞培养技术,检测TAPN及提取物对人外周血淋巴细胞姐妹染色单体互换(SCE)率.结果:TAPN0.003mg及0.005mg组与空白对照组无差异(P>0.05),TAPN其他浓度组及提取物各浓度组均能诱导人淋巴细胞SSCE频率升高.结论:TAPN及提取物各浓度组与SCE之间虽存在着明显的剂量效应关系,但TAPN在正常使用剂量内不会引起人遗传物质的毒性效应.

  19. 利用DNA ITS2条形码序列鉴定植物大麻和罂栗%Identification of cannabis, opium poppy using ITS2 barcoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炳轲; 杨雪莹; 裴黎; 张颖; 徐小玉; 涂政

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析毒品原植物大麻、罂粟及其混伪品植物rDNA的ITS2序列信息,探索鉴定大麻、罂粟及其混伪品的新方法.方法 采用PCR法扩增ITS2序列,双向测序后运用CodonCode Aligner、MEGA5.1软件进行数据处理,计算种内种间K2P距离,构建系统聚类树(NJ树).结果 大麻、罂粟的种内K2P遗传距离为0,大麻、罂粟及其混伪品之间的最小K2P距离为0.187.NJ树表现出明显的单系性.结论 利用DNA ITS2条形码序列有可能鉴定出毒品原植物大麻、罂粟.

  20. To test morphine component in urine from the opium poppy species of medicine%服用含罂粟壳药物尿液中阿片类物质的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈楠

    2003-01-01

    @@ 部分止咳中成药物含有罂粟壳成分,罂粟壳进入人体后代谢产物的主要成分有可待因、吗啡、蒂巴因和罂粟碱等.其中的吗啡成分与吸食毒品海洛因后的最终代谢产物相同.吗啡胶体金检测技术主要应用于针对海洛因吸毒者的尿液中吗啡的检测,但也对服用止咳药物正常人产生阳性结果.

  1. 鸦片战争至辛亥革命的贵州民族研究%The analysis of Guizhou ethics groups from the period of Opium War to The Revolution of 1911

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁泽红

    2012-01-01

    本文主要从外国传教士及学者与贵州民族研究、客籍文士及黔中文人与贵州民族研究、地方志与贵州民族研究等视角,论述了鸦片战争至辛亥革命的贵州民族研究.

  2. "李秀成公文"及"鸦片战役文牍"新证%New Proof of "Li Xiu-Cheng's Dispatches" and "Documents on the Opium War"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳和城

    2000-01-01

    @@ (一) 罗家伦先生1926年6月从欧洲游学归国,带回了一批在伦敦、巴黎等地购得的中国近代史料及千余册书籍.同年8月,他在上海将两包原属清政府两广总督衙门所藏外交文件--"鸦片战役文牍",请张元济先生审定编目(参见1998年第6期《档案与史学》拙文《张元济与"鸦片战役文牍"》).

  3. On the Ideological Foundation of Guangdong People's Fight Against the Aggression Around the Opium War%论鸦片战争时期广东民众反侵略斗争的原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘荣新

    2006-01-01

    鸦片战争时期,广东民众反侵略斗争的浪潮不断,是什么原因促使他们进行着如此长时间和形式多样的斗争?显然,义愤情绪、保卫权益的思想要求和华夏中心主义是促使他们行动起来的重要思想基础.

  4. About Strategy of Emperor Xian Feng against Foreigner in Second Opium War%第二次鸦片战争中咸丰帝制夷方略浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔国才

    2005-01-01

    第二次鸦片战争期间,咸丰帝在抵制列强侵略过程中采取了一系列"制夷"方略:抚剿兼施、用民剿夷和以夷制夷.由于阶级局限,加之国势衰颓,"制夷"方略终难奏效.

  5. 论鸦片战争前后的"更法"与"借法"%On "Political Reform" and "Making Use of the Foreign Way" before and after the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐松荣

    2006-01-01

    在鸦片战争前后的特定历史背景下,揭开了晚清改革的序幕.从"更法",即变更旧制、整顿旧法开始,在新形势下又转向"借法",即学习和取法西方.学习、借法西方从上、下两个层面展开,从而引发了太平天国运动和洋务自强运动.

  6. 鸦片战后清朝统治者对外国侵略者的态度和心理%The Qing Dynasty Rulers' Attitude and Psychology towards Foreign InvadersAfter the Opium Wars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳

    2002-01-01

    鸦片战后清朝统治者对外国侵略者的态度和心理是复杂和矛盾的.这些复杂和矛盾的心理对清廷的内外政策产生了重大影响,致使清廷的内外政策也矛盾重重,清廷矛盾重重的内外政策不可能把中国带上富强之路.

  7. 明至清代鸦片战争前中医外科学的重大成就%Important Achievements in Chinese Surgery in Ming and Qing Dynasties before the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊兵

    2001-01-01

    从外科实践、外科理论、外科学派3个方面阐述明清时期中医外科所取得的重大成就。这一时期,我国中医外科强调实践,不断提出新理论和新观点,并产生了外科学派。

  8. The Qing Government's Attitude and Policy Towards Trading with Britain Before the Opium War%鸦片战争前清政府对待中英贸易的态度与政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢甲志

    2006-01-01

    鸦片战争前,在所有同中国进行国际贸易的国家中,英国占据首位.清政府由于观念上的落后,颁布了许多苛刻的限制措施,这些措施引起英商的强烈反弹,成为鸦片战争爆发的一个重要因素.

  9. Did the British Dump Goods to China after the Second Opium War%第二次鸦片战争后英国向中国"倾销"商品了吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹流芳

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1856-1860年,英法联军发动了侵略中国的第二次鸦片战争.通过战争,联军达到了"进一步扩大侵略权益,打开中国市场"的目的.随后,以英国为首的"西方资本主义国家掀起了向中国倾销商品,掠夺原材料的狂潮"(参阅上册,第16页).

  10. The patriotic endeavors of the Chinese youth during the Opium War%论鸦片战争时期中国青年的爱国主义斗争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马庚存

    2004-01-01

    鸦片战争严重影响了中国近代历史的进程,给中国青年带来深重的灾难.为挽救民族危亡,爱国青年英勇反对英国入侵,并开始向西方学习.鸦片战争时期的中国青年表现了可贵的爱国主义精神.

  11. On the Issue of Common People Serving as Traitors during the Opium War%鸦片战争时期平民充当汉奸问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘攀

    2003-01-01

    本文主要探讨了鸦片战争时期汉奸所起的恶劣作用,以及平民充当汉奸的原因.鸦片战争时期,沿海一带平民从奸的原因是复杂的.既有经济、政治方面的原因,也有思想意识方面的因素.

  12. 第二次鸦片战争结束后中外交涉四题%Four Problems of Chinese and Western Negotiation after the Second Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开玺

    2003-01-01

    第二次鸦片战争期间的中外关系与交涉,史学界的相关论文、论著已多有论列,但第二次鸦片战争结束后有关的中外交涉却少有论说。笔者择其有代表性的四个具体问题,略作分析,以便人们更准确地认识当时的中外关系。

  13. 梁廷枏《夷氛闻记》及其鸦片战争史研究%A Review of Liang Ting-nan's YIFEN WENJI and Its Significance to the Opium War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恩维

    2009-01-01

    梁廷枏记录、分析鸦片战争爆发的原因、经过及其影响,寻求御敌制夷之法,弘扬抵抗精神,体现了强烈的爱国思想.以当时人记当时事,兼具私史和当代史的二重性质,具有引领清代史学变迁的学术史意义.

  14. On the "Transformation" View of the Westernization School and China's Coastal Defense Construction in the Wake of the Opium War%洋务论者的"变局"观与海防建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚东玲

    2003-01-01

    鸦片战争爆发后,清朝内外局势发生重大变化.以李鸿章为代表的洋务派认为,面对"变局"形势,中国应该大力开展以近代化海军与海防设施为中心的海防建设,其"变局"观的发展与清朝海防建设的实施有重要的因果关系.

  15. Analysis of American China Policy Before and after the Second Opium War%第二次鸦片战争前后美国对华政策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建

    2008-01-01

    第二次鸦片战争前后是美国对华政策的过渡时期,在此之前其奉行的是孤立主义的外交方针,而在此期间其政策则反复多变,过渡性的特点十分明显.这种过渡为其后它倡行"合作政策"打下了基础.

  16. The influence of Opium War to the Guangdong coast resident immigrate%论鸦片战争对广东沿海居民移民的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李事明

    2010-01-01

    本文结合广东省人口、自然环境和自然经济解体、战争连连、清政府移民政策转变等社会背景,以及西方列强对劳动力的需求等几个方面阐述了鸦片战争对广东移民高潮的影响.

  17. 第二次鸦片战争时期中美赔偿问题论略%Brief on the Problem of Compensatory between China and American during the Second Opium Wars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘劲松

    2007-01-01

    中美两国政府间第一次大规模的赔偿问题发生在第二次鸦片战争期间。但长期以来这一问题并没有引起人们的足够重视。了解这次赔偿问题对认识和把握第二次鸦片战争时期,以至早期中美关系无疑都具有重要意义。

  18. 民国时期甘肃鸦片生产规模的数量分析%Analisis on the Amount of the Production Scale of Opium in Gansu in the Time of MinGuo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志龙

    2002-01-01

    分析民国时期甘肃鸦片的种植面积、鸦片的亩产量及鸦片税收发现,鸦片的种植和生产是当时甘肃农村经济的重要组成部分,当时的甘肃财政对鸦片生产的依重相当巨大,这也是近代甘肃社会经济发展滞后的重要原因之一.

  19. Afghanistan: Nation or Narco State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    famous for aspirin, came up with a name for the awe-inspiringly powerful painkiller based on the German word heroisch, meaning heroic. It would...Through interaction with opiate receptors in the brain , opium and heroin may well have an inherent biological logic that makes their mass abuse a...produces opium alkaloid: "…the plant has developed opium simply to ensure humans maintain it in cultivation, an elaborate and incredibly ingenious

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12479-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 ( FE967608 ) PLATE_T3_040_B02_03DEC2004_014 Opium poppy elicit... 48 0.81 1 ( FE967348 ) PLATE_T3_037_C08_01DEC2004_060 Opium... poppy elicit... 48 0.81 1 ( FE965144 ) PLATE_T3_013_D03_23NOV2004_025 Opium poppy elicit

  1. 辩护与谴责:试析近代来华传教士的中外冲突观——以鸦片战争和鸦片贸易为中心%Defense and Condemnation: Analysis of the Views of Foreign Missionaries in Modern China for the Conflicts between China and other Countries— An Examination Centering on the Opium War and the Opium Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2011-01-01

    鸦片战争和鸦片贸易,是近代中外冲突中的重要事件.鸦片战争起因于鸦片贸易,而战争的结果又促进了鸦片在中国的泛滥.近代来华传教士把战争和贸易看成了截然不同的两个事件,对战争的辩护丝毫没有影响他们对贸易的谴责.这种矛盾的认识态度具有内在的统一性.

  2. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Phoenix "It's Never Been Like That", Opium Flirt "Vibratiooni Sessioon", Mobb Deep "Blood Money", Roy Orbison "Thev Essential", Depoo "Amazing", Bardi Johannsson "Haxan", Honeymunch "Bunch"

  3. Drug: D01481 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rants 2242 Codeines D01481 Dihydrocodeine phosphate (JP16) 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloid...c Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloid

  4. Drug: D00842 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8114 Morphines D00842 Morphine su...3] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloids N02AA01 Morphine D00842 Morphi

  5. Common Challenges, Common Responses: Fighting Narcotics as a Harbinger of International Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Popular and elite attitudes towards the production and trade in opium and its derivatives have undergone drastic changes over the last two hundred years. Introduced to the region as a cash crop by colonial powers controlling its international trade routes, opium had become by the mid 20th century...

  6. Drug: D03869 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44], Ipecac [DR:D03868] Therapeutic category: 8119 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 8 Nar...D03869 Mixture, Drug Opium ipecac powder (JP16); Dover's powder (TN) Opium [DR:D034

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01439-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ll... 44 7.6 1 ( FG611521 ) stem_S073_H03.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... ...44 7.6 1 ( FG611323 ) stem_S071_D07.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 44 7.6 1 ( FG244298 ) CBYB2786.b1

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11349-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10891 ) stem_S066_A01.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 34 0.56 2 ( EK235622 ) 1095460198483 Global-Oce...an-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1... 42 0.56 2 ( FG613423 ) stem_S098_D06.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 34

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02018-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0 1 ( DW539183 ) EST_ssal_rgb2_3602 rgb2 Salmo salar cDNA clone ss... 44 5.0 1 ( FG612312 ) stem_S083_D08.SEQ Opium... poppy stem cDNA library P... 44 5.0 1 ( FG608321 ) stem_S033_G09.SEQ Opium

  10. Dicty_cDB: SLH749 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A, clone SSM443. 448 e-122 1 ( FG607393 ) stem_S022_C12.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 50 0.069 1 ( ....27 1 ( FG611075 ) stem_S068_C04.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 48 0.27 1 ( CS374673 ) Sequence 776

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15982-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 13 3 ( AR549966 ) Sequence 5097 from patent US 6747137. 50 0.014 2 ( FG612396 ) stem_S085_C10.SEQ Opium... poppy stem cDNA library P... 38 0.014 2 ( FG608048 ) stem_S030_E05.SEQ Opium poppy st

  12. Drug: D02175 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8119 ATC code: N02AA05 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloid...herapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloid

  13. Drug: D05462 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tagonists Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloid...assification [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloid

  14. Environ: E00017 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00017 Opium (USP) Crude drug Morphine [CPD:C01516], Codeine [CPD:C06174], Papaveri...ne [CPD:C06533], Noscapine [CPD:C09592] Papaver somniferum [TAX:3469] Same as: D03444 Papaveraceae (poppy family) opium extract Major component: Morphine [CPD:C01516] CAS: 8008-60-4 ...

  15. Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-24

    fungal herbicides, also has been discussed. Opium poppy-specific mycoherbicide has been developed with U.N., U.K., and U.S. support at the Institute...Accumulated Wealth and Shifting Markets: The Story of Opium Poppy Cultivation in Badakhshan 2000-2003,” Agha Khan Development Network, January 2004

  16. Drug use and harm reduction in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Opium has been cultivated in Afghanistan since 1100 A.D., although production has steadily increased since 1979. Currently, Afghanistan produces three-quarters of the global opium supply, with injection drug use and HIV currently following the opium trade route through Central Asia. Although systematic studies are lacking, heroin use appears to be on the rise in Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to briefly provide historical background and current statistics for drug production and use in Afghanistan, to discuss the new government's policies towards problem drug use and available rehabilitation programs, and to assess Afghan harm reduction needs with consideration of regional trends.

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03706-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1.6 1 ( FG603520 ) PF_T3_53R_B11_15AUG2003_093 Opium poppy root cDNA... 46 1.6 1 ( FG599750 ) PF_T3_05R_A07_25JUL2003_063 Opium... poppy root cDNA... 46 1.6 1 ( FG599510 ) PF_T3_02R_D10_24JUL2003_074 Opium poppy root c

  18. Drug: D07848 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05D COUGH SUPPRESSANTS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS WITH EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkalo...ids and derivatives R05DA11 Dimemorfan D07848 Dimemorfan

  19. Drug: D08579 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05D COUGH SUPPRESSANTS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS WITH EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkalo...ids and derivatives R05DA10 Thebacon D08579 Thebacon hyd

  20. Drug: D01036 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05D COUGH SUPPRESSANTS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS WITH EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkal...oids and derivatives R05DA07 Noscapine D01036 Noscapine

  1. Drug: D03876 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8119 Others D03876 Morphine hydrochloride hydrat...category: 8119 ATC code: N02AG01 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloid

  2. Drug: D07384 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkaloids and derivatives R05DA06 Normethadone D07384 Nor...303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05D COUGH SUPPRESSANTS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS WITH E

  3. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging of Opioid Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Absalom, Anthony; Visser, Anniek; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; De Vries, Erik FJ; Van Waarde, Aren; Luiten, Paul GM

    2014-01-01

    The opioid system consists of opioid receptors (which mediate the actions of opium), their endogenous ligands (the enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins, dynorphin, and nociceptin), and the proteins involved in opioid production, transport, and degradation. PET tracers for the various opioid recepto

  4. The neuropsychological impacts of addictive drugs on the addicts in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Seyed Mahmoudi

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: The current study confirmed that opium and Norjizak abusing had destructive effects mainly in the functions of specific brain regions supporting memory, learning, and executive functions. However, methadone can minimize these negative effects.

  5. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by morphine, confirmed by positive patch test and lymphocyte transformation test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardaun, Sylvia H.; de Monchy, Jan G.

    Morphine, an opium alkaloid, frequently causes side effects such as hyperhidrosis and facial flushing, but serious cutaneous adverse drug reactions are seldom observed. Best known are Urticaria, erythema, and pruritus; sometimes pseudoallergic anaphylactoid reactions, and blisters are reported.

  6. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis caused by morphine, confirmed by positive patch test and lymphocyte transformation test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardaun, Sylvia H.; de Monchy, Jan G.

    2006-01-01

    Morphine, an opium alkaloid, frequently causes side effects such as hyperhidrosis and facial flushing, but serious cutaneous adverse drug reactions are seldom observed. Best known are Urticaria, erythema, and pruritus; sometimes pseudoallergic anaphylactoid reactions, and blisters are reported.

  7. Forma odezhdõ - v tsvetotshek / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2003-01-01

    Tatjana Tridvornova organiseeritud lilleballist Tallinnas. Algas lillekleitide defileega Saku Suurhallis ja jätkus lillekleitide konkursiga klubis Opium. Žürii koosseis. Võitja on läti florist Druvis Ciritis lillekleidiga "Puudutus"

  8. Drug: D07385 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05D COUGH SUPPRESSANTS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS WITH EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkaloi...ds and derivatives R05DA08 Pholcodine D07385 Pholcodine

  9. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opioids, sometimes called narcotics, are a type of drug. They include strong prescription pain relievers, such as ... tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid. Some opioids are made from the opium plant, ...

  10. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging of Opioid Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Absalom, Anthony; Visser, Anniek; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; De Vries, Erik FJ; Van Waarde, Aren; Luiten, Paul GM

    2014-01-01

    The opioid system consists of opioid receptors (which mediate the actions of opium), their endogenous ligands (the enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins, dynorphin, and nociceptin), and the proteins involved in opioid production, transport, and degradation. PET tracers for the various opioid

  11. Pop / Maria Ulfsak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulfsak, Maria, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Mando Diao "Never Seen the Light of Day", Joyce & Tutty Moreno "Samba Jazz & Outras Bossas", Neil Young "Chrome Dreams II", John Fogerty "Revival", Opium Flirt "Tehislend", Joni Mitchell "Shine", Serj Tankian "Elect the Dead"

  12. Lainetab, ei laineta, lainetab... / Kati Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Kati, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Kiwa kureeritud noortenäitus "NO Wave" galeriis Vaal 9. juunini. Avamisel esines bänd Opium Flirt. Graafiline disainer Risto Kalmre. Pikemalt Ott Pilipenko installatsioonist "Surmatants" ja Jevgeni Zolotko tööst

  13. Pop / Maria Ulfsak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulfsak, Maria, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Mando Diao "Never Seen the Light of Day", Joyce & Tutty Moreno "Samba Jazz & Outras Bossas", Neil Young "Chrome Dreams II", John Fogerty "Revival", Opium Flirt "Tehislend", Joni Mitchell "Shine", Serj Tankian "Elect the Dead"

  14. Vsepobezhdajushtshaja strast / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Professionaalsete lilleseadjate võistlusest "Lillekleit 2003" Tallinnas klubis Opium. Võitis läti lilleseadja Druvis Ciritise lillekleit "Puudutus", II koha sai Irmen Laving ja III koha Heiki Põder. Rikkalikult illustreeritud

  15. Forma odezhdõ - v tsvetotshek / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2003-01-01

    Tatjana Tridvornova organiseeritud lilleballist Tallinnas. Algas lillekleitide defileega Saku Suurhallis ja jätkus lillekleitide konkursiga klubis Opium. Žürii koosseis. Võitja on läti florist Druvis Ciritis lillekleidiga "Puudutus"

  16. 25 CFR 140.19 - Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall not keep for sale, or sell, give away, or use any opium, chloral, cocaine, peyote or mescal bean, hashish or Indian hemp or marihuana, or any compound containing either ingredient, and for...

  17. Auditory sensitivity in opiate addicts with and without a history of noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Rawool

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several case reports suggest that some individuals are susceptible to hearing loss from opioids. A combination of noise and opium exposure is possible in either occupational setting such as military service or recreational settings. According to the Drug Enforcement Agency of the U.S. Department of Justice, prescriptions for opiate-based drugs have skyrocketed in the past decade. Since both opium and noise independently can cause hearing loss, it is important to know the prevalence of hearing loss among individuals who are exposed to opium or both opium and noise. The purpose of this research was to evaluate auditory sensitivity in individuals with a history of opium abuse and/or occupational or nonoccupational noise exposure. Twenty-three men who reported opiate abuse served as participants in the study. Four of the individuals reported no history of noise exposure, 12 reported hobby-related noise exposure, 7 reported occupational noise exposure including 2 who also reported hobby-related noise exposure. Fifty percent (2/4 of the individuals without any noise exposure had a hearing loss confirming previous reports that some of the population is vulnerable to the ototoxic effects of opioids. The percentage of population with hearing loss increased with hobby-related (58% and occupational noise exposure (100%. Mixed MANOVA revealed a significant ear, frequency, and noise exposure interaction. Health professionals need to be aware of the possible ototoxic effects of opioids, since early detection of hearing loss from opium abuse may lead to cessation of abuse and further progression of hearing loss. The possibility that opium abuse may interact with noise exposure in determining auditory thresholds needs to be considered in noise exposed individuals who are addicted to opiates. Possible mechanisms of cochlear damage from opium abuse, possible reasons for individual susceptibility, and recommendations for future studies are presented in the article.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09144-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 46 3.2 1 ( FG600195 ) PF_T3_09R_H05_25JUL2003_033 Opium poppy root cDNA... 46 3....2 1 ( FG600182 ) PF_T3_09R_G04_25JUL2003_020 Opium poppy root cDNA... 46 3.2 1 ( EY027481 ) JGI_CAOH2477.rev

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10526-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( FG989234 ) GLLCR01TF JCVI-SOY1 Glycine max cDNA 5', mRNA seq... 46 1.1 1 ( FE967887 ) PLATE_T3_043_A11_15NOV2004_095 Opium...rsifo... 44 4.4 1 ( FE964946 ) PLATE_T3_011_C01_23NOV2004_011 Opium poppy elicit... 44 4.4 1 ( CP000102 ) Me

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13435-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nom... 50 0.079 1 ( FG607144 ) stem_S019_C11.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 48 0.31 1 ( FG603382 ) P...F_T3_51R_F04_14Aug2003_022 Opium poppy root cDNA... 48 0.31 1 ( FF635596 ) G825P572FH2.T0 Acorn worm normali

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13981-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available i cDNA clo... 34 4.4 3 ( AC181946 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-1008B10, W... 38 5.8 6 ( FG606827 ) stem_S014_E07.SEQ Opiu...m poppy stem cDNA library P... 42 7.6 2 ( FG612501 ) stem_S086_F07.SEQ Opium poppy

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06789-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in l... 36 3.1 2 ( FG605755 ) stem_S001_H01.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 40 3.2 2 ( BZ145777 ) CH...25000 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-29-01-01-1... 34 3.4 2 ( FG610160 ) stem_S057_B10.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA l

  3. Cutting the Link Between Drugs and Terrorists: Countering Major Terrorist-Financing Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    try to fill these gaps of the terrorist narcotic interactions by providing a model which could offer a reasonable solution for cutting the links...consumption. In addition to undermining economic and social development, the use of these drugs has brought misery to thousands of people and contributed...consists of nine stages: extracting the morphine from raw opium, separating the morphine solution from the water-insoluble opium components, treatment

  4. The anti-cancer activity of noscapine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Massoud; Rahimi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh

    2009-01-01

    Noscapine is an isoqiunoline alkaloid found in opium latex. Unlike most other alkaloids obtained from opium latex, noscapine is not sedative and has been used as antitussive drug in various countries. Recently, it has been introduced as an anti-mitotic agent. This drug can be used orally. When the resistance to other anti-cancer drugs such as paclitaxel manifests, noscapine might be effective. Therefore, noscapine and its analogs have great potential as novel anti-cancer agents.

  5. The Influence of the Rate of Value between Silver and Copper Cash on the China and Foreign Trade during the Decade after Opium War%关于鸦片战后10年间银贵钱贱影响下中国对外贸易问题的商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪敬虞

    2006-01-01

    1961年彭泽益先生发表了他的具有开创性的论文,1983年该文收入他的论文专集.本文是作者根据上个世纪80年代阅读彭先生大作时所做的一些读书笔记整理而成的,本文认为影响中国白银汇价短期波动的直接因素是中国对外贸易的收支状况,而中国白银汇价长期变动的最后根据是国际金银市场的供需状况.白银汇价的变动也对中国的对外贸易产生了一定的影响;而银贵钱贱现象则在一定程度上加强了中国工农结合的小农经济对机制洋货的抵制;最后,鸦片战后10年间,西方国家用以平衡其与中国贸易的主要工具,仍然是走私进口的鸦片.

  6. 论中国近代军事后勤体制建设--从鸦片战争到甲午战争%On Rear-Service System Building in China's Modern Military (From the Opium War to the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗绪安; 方新兵

    2004-01-01

    鸦片战争以来,为了对内镇压太平天国运动、对外抗击西方列强侵略,清政府逐步引进、进而自制近代武器装备.近代武器装备的运用导致近代后勤体制逐步建立:专业的后勤机构出现,后勤人员与作战部队分离,军费筹措及消费途径改变.军事后勤体制逐步由古代转变到近代.

  7. 鸦片战争可否称为商业战争--一个研究性学习的案例及教学反思%Can The Opium War Be Called Commercial War--From Original Version to Version and Discussing with Ma Zhibin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋碧勇

    2005-01-01

    @@ 编者按:本刊2003年12期发表了张、蔡二位老师《鸦片战争也应有"维护商业"性质》一文,引起众多人士的关注,至今也没有平息.湖北公安县车胤中学蒋老师不仅以此为题搞了一堂研究性学习课,而且进一步提出了教材为"蓝本"还是"文本"的问题.实质上,一字之差体现出截然不同的教学理念.一线教师在思考这个问题,为中学历史教学服务的办刊者、教材的编写者,是不是也应该认真思考?

  8. On Reasons of the Disordered Escape of Qing Army in Opium War --Taking Humen War as an Example%鸦片战争中清军临阵溃逃原因研究--以虎门战役为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜伟; 张建华; 王自云

    2005-01-01

    1840年6月,中英鸦片战争爆发,中国战败.其中原因虽然很多,但是清军大规模临阵溃逃,毫无战斗力却是中国战败的主要原因之一.本文试图从军事纪律、军队风气、将领、士兵心理等几个方面来探讨清兵临阵溃逃的原因.

  9. Identifying with Heroes by Authority and Among the People in the Case of Hailing's Death during the Opium War%从海龄之死看鸦片战争时期官方与民间的英雄认同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连银

    2006-01-01

    海龄由于其不恰当的军事手段,导致矛盾激化,矛盾聚焦于海龄在京口的活动、死亡方式.围绕其死亡方式,各方争端不断,持续长久.争端方对此各执一词,镇江人利用流言否认海龄殉节,与官方直接对立.争端折射出官方与民间在认同上的差异.

  10. 近代中国社会变革的历史洞察——读《鸦片战争与近代中国》及其它%A Review on 'The Opium Wars (1840-1842) and Modern China'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁立春; 刘曼容

    2002-01-01

    @@ 近期再读萧致治先生所著《鸦片战争与近代中国》,感触甚深,受益良多。古人云:“十年磨一剑”,这正是该书的真实写照。它是先生40年来研究中国近代历史的部分成果,也是其40年来学术研究的一次总结。全书53万多字,分为五编,收录了……

  11. Reciprocal Evolution of Opiate Science from Medical and Cultural Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, George B; Pilonis, Nastazja; Ptacek, Radek; Kream, Richard M

    2017-06-13

    Over the course of human history, it has been common to use plants for medicinal purposes, such as for providing relief from particular maladies and self-medication. Opium represents one longstanding remedy that has been used to address a range of medical conditions, alleviating discomfort often in ways that have proven pleasurable. Opium is a combination of compounds obtained from the mature fruit of opium poppy, papaver somniferum. Morphine and its biosynthetic precursors thebaine and codeine constitute the main bioactive opiate alkaloids contained in opium. Opium usage in ancient cultures is well documented, as is its major extract morphine. The presence of endogenous opiate alkaloids and opioid peptides in animals owe their discovery to their consistent actions at particular concentrations via stereo select receptors. In vitro expression of morphine within a microbiological industrial setting underscores the role it plays as a multi-purpose pharmacological agent, as well as reinforcing why it can also lead to long-term social dependence. Furthermore, it clearly establishes a reciprocal effect of human intelligence on modifying evolutionary processes in papaver somniferum and related plant species.

  12. "Vintage meds": a netnographic study of user decision-making, home preparation, and consumptive patterns of laudanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2015-04-01

    Reviews have commented on rising clandestine manufacture of opiate drug solutions for injecting, and to a lesser extent for oral use. Very little is known about user attempts to culture poppy seeds, widely available on the internet for manufacture of long acting medium-high potency oral solutions, both as poppy seed tea or as opium tincture (laudanum). A netnographic research methodology aimed to provide online consumer insight into user sourcing and decision influences, experiences of home manufacture of laudanum, utilization of opium tincture recipes, and consumptive patterns. A systematic internet search was conducted using the terms: "Laudanum," "Opium tincture," and "Tincture of Opium" in combination with "forum." Following screening of 810 forum threads with exclusion criteria and removal of duplicates, 75 fora threads on 6 online drug fora were analyzed using the empirical phenomenological psychological method. Four themes were generated. Findings illustrated the underpinning of user reminiscing about Victorian use of standardized laudanum, long duration shelf life, and medicinal use for opiate withdrawals with intentions to prepare. Preparation of famous recipes and use of authentic storage bottles boosted nostalgia. Participants appeared well versed in kitchen chemistry processes. Discussions centered on type and amount of alcohol used, use of additives to promote palatability and intoxication effect, homogenization of poppy seeds, and double extraction using opium tincture. Lack of detail available on intoxication experiences, with tentative dosage advised. Development of targeted and credible "counterpublic" harm reduction initiatives situated within online consumerism of communal drug knowledge is warranted.

  13. 全球化视野中的中国近代经济与国家命运——评仲伟民《茶叶与鸦片:十九世纪经济全球化中的中国》%China's Modern Economy and National Destiny from the Perspective of Globalization:A Review on Tea and Opium:China in the Process Economic Globalization in the Nineteenth Century by Zhong Weimin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁贤勇

    2011-01-01

    是全球史研究的一部力作,也是对国际史学界关于全球史研究的一个呼应.该著体现了全球史研究中最基本的理路,通过中西间茶叶与鸦片的交换、传播,以描述19世纪全球共同的发展进程,和"被全球化"时代的中国;该著巧妙地选择茶叶与鸦片两宗商品在中西间的传播、对全球经济关系的作用以及对中国的影响进行研究,揭示出两个国家截然相反的历史命运,丰富了我们对近代国家命运的认识.该著不仅是国内全球史研究的一个范例,也是对近代中国成为国际原料市场,诸如蚕丝、棉麻等研究的经典范例.

  14. Design and implementation of an automated liquid-phase microextraction-chip system coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Payán, María D Ramos

    2014-01-01

    . The composition of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) and carrier was optimized in order to achieve reasonable extraction performance of all the five alkaloids. With 1-octanol as SLM solvent and with 25mM sodium octanoate as anionic carrier, extraction recoveries for the different opium alkaloids ranged between...... 17% and 45%. The extraction provided high selectivity, and no interfering peaks in the chromatograms were observed when applied to human urine samples spiked with alkaloids. The detection limits using UV-detection were in the range of 1-21ng/mL for the five opium alkaloids presented in water samples...

  15. Connections between Marxism and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Régio Bento

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research we shall verify the influence of Nicaraguan experience on breaking the paradigm under which religion and religious actors would be more associated to status quo preservation rather than its rupture. According to our work hypothesis, in Nicaragua religion was not the opium of the people, used for its social anesthesia, but the promoter of social changes, and through international diffusion of this experience, mainly in the context of socialist countries, the alliance between laic and Christian socialists in Nicaragua promoted also a shift in the traditional hermeneutic paradigm which reduced religion to the permanent condition of opium of the people.

  16. Drug: D02205 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02205 Drug Ethylmorphine hydrochloride hydrate (JP16); Ethylmorphine hydrochloride... dihydrate; Ethylmorphine hydrochloride (TN) C19H23NO3. 2HCl. H2O 403.1317 404.328 D02205.gif Analgesic [DS:...6] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8114 Morphines D0220...5D COUGH SUPPRESSANTS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS WITH EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkaloids and derivatives R05DA01 Ethylmorphine D0220...HER OPHTHALMOLOGICALS S01XA Other ophthalmologicals S01XA06 Ethylmorphine D02205

  17. Analysis of coagulation tests, proteins C and S, and plasma fibrinogen in addicts and non-addicts with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Moloudi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the high incidence of drug addiction in the society and high prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD in opium users, this study was conducted to evaluate the coagulation tests and plasma levels of proteins C and S, and fibrinogen in opium users with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD. The results indicated that the plasma level of fibrinogen in addicted patients was higher than that of non-addicted patients (p=0.001, but the findings of coagulation tests and proteins C and S levels revealed no significant difference between groups.

  18. Drug: D02271 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02271 Drug Morphine hydrochloride hydrate (JP16); Morphine hydrochloride trihydrat...ceptor agonists/antagonists map05032 Morphine addiction Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] ...8 Narcotics 81 Alkaloidal narcotics 811 Opium alkaloids 8114 Morphines D02271 Morphine hydrochloride hydrate...US SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloids N02AA01 Morphine D02271 Morphine hydroch...loride hydrate (JP16) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Analgesics Opioid Analgesics, Long-acting Morphine D02271 Morphine

  19. Drugs of abuse and tranquilizers in Dutch surface waters, drinking water and wastewater: Results of screening monitoring 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, N.G.F.M.; Dijkman, E.; Bijlsma, L.; Emke, E.; van de Ven, B.M.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; de Voogt, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the surface waters of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, twelve drugs that are listed in the Dutch Opium act were detected at low concentrations. They are from the groups amphetamines, tranquilizers (barbiturates and benzodiazepines) opiates and cocaine. During drinking water production, most compounds

  20. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810 in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%, more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education, and employed (>70%. The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69% and crystalline heroin (24%. The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%, crystalline heroin (28%, cannabis (16%, amphetamines (15%, and other drugs (33%. Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men.

  1. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against

  2. Chronic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Dilatation: Sonographic Screening in the Patients with Opioid Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, H.; PourGholami, M.; Fathollah, Sheikh [Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    One of the best known side effects of using opium is spasm of the sphincter of Oddi, which may increase the diameter of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Ultrasound is the first imaging modality used for evaluating the biliary system because it is commonly available and noninvasive. The principal objective of this study was to measure the common bile duct (CBD) diameter via ultrasonography in opium addicts and to evaluate the relation between the CBD diameter and the period of addiction. This research was an analytical-cross sectional study that was done on 110 opium addicts that were admitted to a drug treatment center. The diameter of the CBD in these cases was measured by ultrasonography and the results were analyzed with other factors like age, the period of addiction and the laboratory findings. According to the findings, there is a significant increase in the range of the CBD diameter in comparison with normal bile ducts. Also, the mean diameter of the CBD in the different age groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) and there was a significant relation between the CBD diameter and the period of addiction (p < 0.001, r = 0.74); so, with the increased length of the addiction period, the mean CBD diameter increases. Opium addiction is one of the factors that causes extrahepatic bile duct dilatation, so in these cases, if no obstructing lesion was found on ultrasound examination and the serum bilirobine and alkaline phosphatase levels are normal, then further evaluation is not needed.

  3. Chinese Women Soldiers: A History of 5,000 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin

    1994-01-01

    Describes the role of women in the Chinese military during four eras: (1) the ancient period; (2) the post Opium War period; (3) 1949-present; and (4) today's women in the Chinese military. Includes a full-page chart indicating women warriors in ancient China. (CFR)

  4. Ethnic Conflict and CENTCOM Policy for the Central Asian Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    than half of the 14 basic conclusions apply to the US view of Central Asia: • Rapid advances in info/ biotechnology will create new vulnerabilities for...security, economic conditions, and growing world demand for illegal drugs. This demand takes Central/South Asian cannabis , opium, and heroin and

  5. Ethnic Conflict and US Central Command Policy for the Central Asian Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    US view of Central Asia: • Rapid advances in information/ biotechnology will cre­ ate new vulnerabilities for US security. 10 ETHNIC CONFLICT • New...South Asian cannabis , opium, and heroin and distributes it into Russia/Western Europe.51 Since de­ vout Muslims do not use drugs, CAS drugs are

  6. Morphine more fine? Its effects in critically ill newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H.P. Simons (Sinno)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe pharmacist Sertürner first isolated morphine from opium in 1803 and named it after Morpheus, the god of dreams in Greco-Roman mythology. Ever since, it has been one of the most frequently used drugs to relieve pain, for a variety of age groups. In our days, however, there is still de

  7. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against illeg

  8. Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-25

    April 2005. In addition to the cases of Haji Bashir Noorzai and CRS-19 47 Marcus W. Brauchli, “Pakistan’s Wild Frontier Breeds Trouble — Drugs, Terrorism...the seizure of “2.4 metric tons of heroin, 985 kilograms of morphine base, three metric tons of opium gum, 152.9 metric tons of cannabis , and 195

  9. A Total War on Drug Cartels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    undermine the Western culture. From the National Liberation Army in Colombia and Venezuela protecting cannabis and opium poppy laboratory operations, to...to proceed with any actions to guarantee greater success and to mitigate possible failures. Thorough knowledge breeds familiarity and permits empathy

  10. The Paradoxical and Unintended Effects of the War on Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    of coca leaves; 2) heroin, derived from the opium poppy; and, 3) marijuana and hashish from the cannabis plant. Cocaine and crack come into the U.S... Jamaica , and Belize. Hashish is principally produced in Lebanon, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Morocco. 7 2 Demand-Supply A basic economic principal is that

  11. United States Department of State Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    targets for worldwide reduction or elimination of the cultiva- tion, production, and commercial-scale import of cocaine, opium, heroin, mari- juana ...international sanctions against state sponsors of terrorism and urges their strict enforcement. State presses state spon- sors to abandon their support for

  12. The Rise of Women's Modern Schooling in Late Qing China (1840-1911)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    The rise of women's modern schooling in late Qing China was deemed to be, by the historical trend of modern China, a progress that coincided with China's modernization and national self-strengthening movement after the humiliating defeat of the Opium War. This article is an examination of this process from 1840 to 1911, which had undergone three…

  13. Chinese Guilds from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Centuries: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll-Murata, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese merchant and craft associations that are most similar to European guilds originated in the late sixteenth century. They started to proliferate from the mid-eighteenth century onward and, after the intercession of the Taiping rebellion and the Opium Wars, their numbers soared from the mid

  14. Engaging the Insurgent in Negotiation: Lessons from Northern Ireland Applied to Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    convictions. Bobby Sands election in 1981 to Parliament during his Maze Prison Hunger Strike protest for special category status and his subsequent...security for drug runners , levy taxes on farmers, offer protection from government eradication programs, assist opium brokers and laboratory

  15. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  16. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Vietnam: Tap Chi Cong San, No. 10, October 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    illiteracy are still very serious problems in many localities. Recently, negative phe- nomena such as gambling , the use of opium, and corrupt...who are out of work. There are 26,500 people who drive pedicabs, 15,000 people who repair bicycles, and thousands of people who sell lottery tickets

  17. Taxonomy of Plant Genetic Resources – Use of Morphological, Molecular and Phytochemical Data in Order to Verify Existing Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lohwasser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy of plant genetic resources is an important input in characterising and evaluating cultivated plants and it is essential for identification and documentation of the diversity of genebank collections. In former times taxonomical determination was based only on morphological characters. Nowadays, new molecular and chemical methods and techniques are available for providing additional information. As examples of the interaction of morphological, molecular and phytochemical data, investigations of a parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nyman, Apiaceae and an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., Papaveraceae collection of the German genebank are demonstrated. 220 parsley and 300 opium poppy accessions were cultivated and described morphologically. In addition, the molecular distance and the phylogenetic relationship of the accessions were performed with molecular marker analysis. Essential oil compound and content for parsley and the content of the five main alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine for opium poppy were measured with GC (gas chromatography and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. For parsley the results of the three methods support the existing taxonomy partly, a separation of root and leaf parsley was confirmed. However, the taxonomy of opium poppy should be revised because molecular and chemical data do not verify the morphological results. But nevertheless taxonomy of cultivated plants is an important tool to describe the variability of plant genetic resources.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10387-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1093015537142 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-35-01-01-1... 46 1.3 1 ( FG600026 ) PF_T3_08R_A10_25JUL2003_080 Opi...um poppy root cDNA... 46 1.3 1 ( EW991615 ) LJGD-L7_G03 Adult female Lutzomyia long

  19. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quesada-Moraga

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae, endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing. The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  20. Drug: D00848 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available WITH EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkaloids and derivatives R05DA09 Dextromethorphan D00848 Dextromethorphan hyd...R:br08303] R RESPIRATORY SYSTEM R05 COUGH AND COLD PREPARATIONS R05D COUGH SUPPRESSANTS, EXCL. COMBINATIONS

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14379-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available M901007 ) rc44a09.y1 Meloidogyne hapla egg pAMP1 v1 Meloido... 46 0.77 1 ( FG6096...89 ) stem_S051_D09.SEQ Opium poppy stem cDNA library P... 46 0.77 1 ( FE583594 ) CAXG15607.fwd Amphioxus Bra

  2. The Human Terrain System: Operationally Relevant Social Science Research in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Regional strategic appraisals; • The nature of land warfare; • Matters affecting the Army’s future; • The concepts, philosophy, and theory of strategy...216 Conclusions ..........................................................218 5. Theory and Practice...was a form of development intervention which offered subsidies, seed, and fertilizers to farmers who replaced lucrative opium cultivation from

  3. Marketed New Drug Delivery Systems for Opioid Agonists/Antagonists Administration: A Rapid Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani, Hoda; Pardakhty, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Novel drug delivery systems for controlled-release of opioid agonists as a long time painkillers or opioid antagonists for opium, heroin, and alcohol addiction are under development or in clinical use today. In this article, the field of “new drug delivery systems” is momentarily reviewed from the viewpoint of the marketed opioid agonists/antagonists dosage forms today.

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DRUG INTOXICATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cheraghali M. Taymori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional drug intoxication is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. In order to study the epidemiological pattern of childhood drug poisoning in Golestan province, all cases diagnosed with poisoning from 1997 to 2002 in the only pediatric hospital in province were recruited. During this period 563 cases of poisoned children were hospitalized in Taleqani hospital, of these 305 cases were due to drug poisoning. Opium was responsible for more than half of the poisoning cases, and 91% of deaths, among drug intoxicated children. Metoclopramide, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants were among the other frequent causes of poisoning. Neurological symptoms were the most prominent symptoms of poisoning and more than 80% of cases showed some neurological symptoms. Mortality rate among the cases was 3.6% and of total of 11 deaths, 10 were poisoned with opium. About 61% of cases were hospitalized between 24-48 hrs. Most of the poisoning cases in young children were unintentional and in many cases, their parents played a critical role in their intoxication. This role specially is crucial in infants and children under one year of age. Parents in Golestan province use opium widely for symptomatic treatment of routine illnesses in their young children and overdose of opium may cause severe intoxication and even death of the child.

  5. RJHS V2(4)ver12.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-08-17

    Aug 17, 1991 ... restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. ... times. The bonds that first united them were religion ... about poisons, including arsenic and opium since 3000 .... causes her to take any poison or other noxious thing ...

  6. Tsvetotshnaja skazka / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Tatjana Tridvornova organiseeritud lilleballist Tallinnas. Algas lillekleitide defileega Saku Suurhallis ja jätkus lillekleitide konkursiga klubis Opium. Žürii koosseis. Osalejad Eestist, Lätist ja Soomest. Võitja on läti florist Druvis Ciritis lillekleidiga "Puudutus"

  7. Students and Drugs at NCSU: 1977-1978 Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Earl H.

    A survey conducted in 1977 at North Carolina State University on drugs was designed to measure usage rates for four types of drugs: marijuana, hallucinogens (such as LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin); amphetamines and barbituates; and narcotics (heroin, opium, and morphine). The questionnaire was also designed to determine student attitudes on…

  8. Comparing the Patriotic Ideas of Lin Zexu and Ye Mingchen%林则徐与叶名琛的爱国思想比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松

    2012-01-01

    In the First Opium War,Lin Zexu,an Imperial Commissioner,destroyed opium in Humen against foreign oppression and thus was honored as the national hero.During the Second Opium War,Ye Mingchen,another Imperial Commissioner,was defeated and captured.Comparing what they did,people had different comments upon them.However,comparing what they did before and after the two Opium Wars,it is claimed in this paper that as government high rank officials both of them were patriotic and Ye Mingchen was misjudged.%在第一次鸦片战争中,林则徐作为钦差大臣,虎门销烟,反抗侵略,被称为民族英雄。在第二次鸦片战争中,钦差大臣叶名琛因亚罗号事件,城破被俘,为世人所唾弃。两人的后世评价可谓大相径庭,有些偏错。文章通过对叶名琛和林则徐在两次鸦片战争前后的表现进行比较,认为林、叶二人作为封疆大吏都具有典型的爱国思想,后人对其不同评价有失公正。

  9. A Brief History of American Drug Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musto, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of drug control in the United States from the extensive consumption of opium, heroin, and cocaine before World War I to the popularity of marijuana and LSD during the 1960s. Discusses public concern over drug use that seems to peak following periods of widespread drug use that is linked to foreign influences. (DK)

  10. The Rhetorical Situation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garret, Mary; Xiao, Xiaosui

    1993-01-01

    Reviews and redefines a concept known as the "rhetorical situation" through an examination of the political discourse of China during the 19th-century Opium Wars. Arrives at three alterations to the "rhetorical situation" concerning the role of the audience, the role of the culture's discourse tradition, and the interactive and organic nature of…

  11. Tombs Of Pig Tails in Wenchuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANGDAINBANJOR; LANGDAINNORBUCERING

    2004-01-01

    Editor's Note: The year 2002 marks the 100th anniversary of the Tibetan battle against British invaders in Gyangze. Celebrations remind the writers of people sent to fight British invaders during the Opium War of 1840-1842,who would never return to where they were born and brought.

  12. Drug abuse in China: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Fang, Yuxia; Wang, Xi

    2008-06-01

    Following British importation of opium to China in 1760s, the use and production of the drug in China increased dramatically. This situation was aggravated after the failure of Opium Wars that occurred between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China with the aim of forcing China to import British Opium; this war made China open the door to a free flowing opium trade, with disastrous social and public health consequences. The subsequent rise of the new China created drug-free atmosphere by strict legislation and punishment, in which drug use greatly decreased. However, in the context of governmental reform and the open-door policies of the 1980s, drug abuse has re-emerged as a major public health problem. Today, drug abuse is highly linked to the spread of HIV/AIDS and to drug-related crimes in China. To combat the severe drug problem facing the nation, the Chinese government has adopted the Methadone Maintenance Treatment program, a multi-faceted therapeutic approach that aims to reduce the health and social problem induced by drug epidemics. In addition, traditional Chinese medicine, including herbal therapy and acupuncture, both found to be effective in the prevention of relapse and causes few side effects, making them useful for the treatment of opiate addiction. With continuous application of these therapies and managements that have been proved to be effective in harm reduction in the western countries, we believe that drug abuse and its related problems in China will be brought under control.

  13. 纳络酮对外伤性脑梗死患者神经功能损伤的治疗作用%Effect of naloxone on injured nerve in traumatic cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background:As antagonist of opium receptor,naloxone was used in detoxification of alkaloida opii at first, but in the last ten years,it was also in emergency treatment of toxical shock by alcohol or hypnotic,spinal injury, coma, ischemic stroke,et al.and a satisfying effect was achieved.

  14. Uus Multiphonic Rodent

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Tartus tegutsenud eksperimentaal-rock-duo Opium Flirt Eestisse jäänud liige Erki Hõbe (paarimees Ervin Trofimov tegutseb Ungaris) annab välja oma teise sooloalbumi nime all Multiphonic Rodent, heliplaadi "Astral Dance" esitluskontsert toimub 5. veebruaril Tallinnas baaris Juuksur

  15. CTC Sentinel. Volume 1, Issue 6, May 2008. Abu Yahya al-Libi’s Human Shields in Modern Jihad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    goods trade transiting FATA and has benefited mainly 6 Cyrus Hodes and Mark Sedra , “Chapter Two: Spoiler Groups and the Anti-Government Insurgency...600 Jundullah active and ready suicide cadre in Karachi.12 TTP 9 Cyrus Hodes and Mark Sedra , “Chapter Three: The Opium Trade,” Adelphi Papers 47

  16. 75 FR 69462 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... the company's physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 952(a) and... schedule II: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to...

  17. 77 FR 35057 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Rhodes Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... the company's physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws, and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 952(a) and...: Drug Schedule Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the...

  18. 77 FR 55503 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambrex Charles City, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... company's physical security systems, verification of the company's compliance with state and local laws... Phenylacetone (8501) II Opium, raw (9600) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company plans to import the... 1, 1971. DEA has investigated Cambrex Charles City, Inc. to ensure that the company's registration...

  19. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for opiates and hashish for markets around the world, as well as for precursor chemicals moving into... pushed into settled areas of the country's Northwest Frontier Province, such as the Peshawar Valley and... monitoring of poppy cultivation sites. Diversion of licit opium crops into illegal markets continues despite...

  20. The Role of Civil Affairs in Unconventional Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Mister Pop 246. 68 Schanche, Mister Pop, 247. 69 Schanche, Mister Pop, 247. 31 market . The farmers who took Pop’s advice lost out on a year of opium...Burhanuddin Rabbani and Ahmad Shah Massoud, the Islamic State of Afghanistan established under the 1992 Peshawar Accord

  1. Noscapine comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Dang, Thu-Thuy T; Facchini, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Noscapine is a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid, which represents a class of plant specialized metabolites within the large and structurally diverse group of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Along with the narcotic analgesic morphine, noscapine is a major alkaloid in the latex of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) that has long been used as a cough suppressant and has undergone extensive investigation as a potential anticancer drug. Cultivated opium poppy plants remain the only commercial source of noscapine. Despite its isolation from opium more than two centuries ago, the almost complete biosynthesis of noscapine has only recently been established based on an impressive combination of molecular genetics, functional genomics, and metabolic biochemistry. In this review, we provide a historical account of noscapine from its discovery through to initial investigations of its formation in opium poppy. We also describe recent breakthroughs that have led to an elucidation of the noscapine biosynthetic pathway, and we discuss the pharmacological properties that have prompted intensive evaluation of the potential pharmaceutical applications of noscapine and several semi-synthetic derivatives. Finally, we speculate on the future potential for the production of noscapine using metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in plants and microbes.

  2. Afghan Special Mission Wing: DOD Moving Forward with $771.8 Million Purchase of Aircraft that the Afghans Cannot Operate and Maintain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    the world’s opium comes from Afghan fields, and Afghanistan is a major producer of hashish, a drug produced from cannabis . Intelligence indicates...decision making through research and analysis. Its research is commissioned by global clientele including government agencies, foundations, and

  3. Marketed New Drug Delivery Systems for Opioid Agonists/Antagonists Administration: A Rapid Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Hoda; Pardakhty, Abbas

    2016-04-01

    Novel drug delivery systems for controlled-release of opioid agonists as a long time painkillers or opioid antagonists for opium, heroin, and alcohol addiction are under development or in clinical use today. In this article, the field of "new drug delivery systems" is momentarily reviewed from the viewpoint of the marketed opioid agonists/antagonists dosage forms today.

  4. Drug: D02146 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available N02AA59 Codeine, combinations excl. psycholeptics D02146 Acetaminophen - codeine phosphate mixt PubChem: 7849207 ... ...(ATC) classification [BR:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloids

  5. Intelligence Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific Region: Establishing a Framework for Multilateralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Ya Ba ( crazy drug), also as “horse drug.” In previous years, the opium poppy product growth was related to the deforestation problem in Northern...mentioned that humanitarian and medical aid personnel should con- sider “externalities” such as the “fear factor.” For example, even the mention of smallpox

  6. Total Synthesis of Naloxone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wen-Xiang; WANG Jian-Ying; XU Ming

    2003-01-01

    @@ Naloxone (1) is one of the 14-hydroxyl substituted opium antagonists which are valuable medications for treat ment of opiate abuse, opiate overdose, and alcohol addiction. Here, the total synthesis of naloxone was described. We selected 2,6-dihydroxynaphalene (2) as the starting material.

  7. Drug Abuse. A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Souver, F. Gerald; Plunkett, Thomas G.

    This booklet is concerned with providing information on drug abuse. A brief history of drug traffic and today's problem begin the pamphlet. The second part discusses the identification of drugs including opium, heroin, and marihuana. The next section is concerned with non-narcotic drug abuse, including Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) mascaline,…

  8. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), ...

  9. Production of Pharmaceuticals from Papaver Cultivars In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    A methodology to clonally proliferate Iranian poppy (Papaver bracteatum Lindl.) and opium poppy (P. somniferum L.) shoots is presented employing an in vitro hydroponics system (i.e., automated plant culture system (APCS)). Temperature had a profound effect on growth and alkaloid production after 8-...

  10. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    Use for Addicts .................................................... 34 Figures Figure 1. Map of World Drug Majors in FY2009...cannabis resin, coca leaf, cocaine, heroin, and opium. Psychotropic substances include ecstasy,2 LSD ,3 amphetamine, and methamphetamine. Examples of other...methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine). 3 LSD is the street name for lysergic acid diethylamide. 4 The most recent international effort to estimate the value of

  11. The Narcotics Emirate of Afghanistan: Armed Polities and Their Roles in Illicit Drug Production and Conflict 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    shorter grow-cycle than food crops like wheat, allowing farmers to double-crop with livestock fodder, such as maize following the opium harvest...networks, drug traffickers, and foreign inoculators in the Arab Gulf is search of financial assistance and sustainability.189 The Taliban was at odds

  12. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  13. Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    deployed some two dozen troops to Iraq who served under Polish command and carried out water- purification , demining, and medical activities. They...one-fifth of opium and heroin produced in Afghanistan are transited through Central Asia to markets in Russia and Central Europe. Most of these

  14. "Demografic characteristics of opioid addiction in patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi M.H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to some previous reports prevalence of addiction estimated to be 3٪ in Iran. One of the most important key points about addiction is the identification of predisposing factors for starting substance use. False general believes can play important roles in this regard. This study evaluated the demographic characteristics of opioids addiction and the visions of them about the effect of opioids on their cardiac diseases. Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study intended to evaluate situation of opiate dependency among 1329 CABG patients in Yazd Afshar hospital based on criteria of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, Fourth edition (DSM-IV.Data were collected from each subject by a self report questionnaire and structured interview and was analyzed using chi-square and ANOVA and MC nemar test. P<0.05 was determined significant. Results: The data were gathered from 1329 CABG patients (945 men and 384 women. In addition 131 patients (9.9% containing 127 men (98.9% and 4 women (1.1% were opium dependent based on DSM-IV criteria. Mean age of opium dependent group was significantly higher than non-dependent patients (58.5 ± 10.08 VS 50.7 ± 10.15 (P= 0.000. Opium was the most common used substance (96.9% and inhalation was the preferred pattern of use (52.7%. Majority of addicted patients were simple workers (44%. Based on educational levels, 57.2% of opium dependents have had primary education (under high school. Eighty two (62.5% of addicted groups believed that after starting opium, their cardiovascular function and chest pain had been improved. Although before starting opium use 58 (44.6% of them have had this belief Conclusion: The prevalence of opium addiction in CABG patients is relatively high, and the majority of addicted patients are on this belief that opiates have positive effects on improvement of their chest pain and cardiovascular function. Because the effects of opioids on chest pain are

  15. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy - V. Analgesics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological treatment of pain has very ancient origins, when plant-derived products were used, including mandrake extracts and opium, a dried latex obtained from Papaver somniferum. In the XVI and XVII centuries opium came into the preparation of two compounds widely used for pain relief: laudanum and Dover’s powder. The analgesic properties of extracts of willow bark were then recognized and later, in the second half of the XIX century, experimental studies on chemically synthesized analgesics were planned, thus promoting the marketing of some derivatives of para-amino-phenol and pyrazole, the predecessors of paracetamol and metamizol. In the XX century, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were synthesized, such as phenylbutazone, which was initially considered primarily a pain medication. The introduction on the market of centrally acting analgesics, such as tramadol, sometimes used in the treatment of rheumatic pain. is quite recent.

  16. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Ujváry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began to spread beyond their traditional geographical and cultural boundaries. The aim of the present paper is to briefly summarize recent findings on the psychopharmacology of the most prominent psychoactive natural products. Current knowledge on a few lesser-known drugs, including bufotenine, glaucine, kava, betel, pituri, lettuce opium and kanna is also reviewed. In addition, selected cases of alleged natural (or semi-natural products are also mentioned.

  17. La marine impériale dans l’expédition de Chine

    OpenAIRE

    histoire, Jiang TianyueDoctorant en; Duplaix, Université normale de Pékin. Article corrigé et condensé par Alexandre Sheldon-; SHD., chercheur au

    2014-01-01

    L’auteur étudie le développement de la présence navale française dans les mers de Chine durant les guerres de l’opium. Si le soutien aux missions lui apparaît comme un prétexte pour ne pas laisser la Grande-Bretagne gagner seule des avantages en Chine, la marine impériale est la condition du succès de l’intervention. The author examines the development of the French naval presence in the seas of China during the Opium Wars. If supporting the [religious] missions seems an excuse not to let ...

  18. Elton Romeo Smilie, the not-quite discoverer of ether anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Martha E; Meyer, Marlene R; Alston, Theodore A

    2010-01-01

    Like William T.G. Morton, Elton Romeo Smilie (1819-1889) was raised in Massachusetts, attended medical school in New England, practiced dentistry there, strove for clinical invention, and moved to Boston. In October 1846, both announced that inhaled ethereal preparations achieved reversible insensibility in surgical patients. Smilie published a report in the Boston Med Surg J 3 wk before Bigelow used that forum to broadcast Morton's Ether Day. Smilie's preparation was an ethereal tincture of opium, and, as he mistakenly believed the opium to be volatile and important, he ceded priority to Morton for ether anesthesia. The two authors collaborated on chloroform, but Smilie soon headed off in the Gold Rush to California. It is tempting to speculate that Charles T. Jackson and Morton were indebted in part to Smilie.

  19. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujváry, István

    2014-01-01

    Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began to spread beyond their traditional geographical and cultural boundaries. The aim of the present paper is to briefly summarize recent findings on the psychopharmacology of the most prominent psychoactive natural products. Current knowledge on a few lesser-known drugs, including bufotenine, glaucine, kava, betel, pituri, lettuce opium and kanna is also reviewed. In addition, selected cases of alleged natural (or semi-natural) products are also mentioned.

  20. The Prevalence of Substance Use among Bandar Abas Azad Islamic University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mardani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Substance abuse is one of the most important problem and disease in current century that produced wide worry in the entire world. The solving of addiction among young and educated population is more important issue. The current research was aimed the study of the prevalence rate of the substance use (included: opium, alcohol, cigarette, Hubble bubble among Bandar Abas azad Islamic university students. Method: In this cross sectional study 310 university students were selected by stratified random sampling. For gathering data the prevalence substance use questionnaire was used. Results: The findings showed the start age was 22-25 years old. Also, prevalence rate of cigarette, Hubble bubble, opium, and alcohol were higher in boy students in comparison of girl students. The rate of difference was significant by run of chi square analysis. Conclusion: Sex, the history of substance use in family member, and friends were risk factors of substance use.

  1. [Autoantibodies to glutamate and GABA in opiate addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrile, L A; Fomina, V G; Nevidimova, T I; Vetlugina, T P; Batukhtina, E I; Savochkina, D N; Zakharova, I A; Davydova, T V

    2015-01-01

    Blood serum from 129 patients with opium addiction at different stages of the disease and 63 donors (control group) was examined for the presence of autoantibodies to the exciting and inhibitory amino acids glutamate and GABA. It was shown enhanced production of autoantibodies to glutamate and GABA. Dependence of the level and frequency of detec- tion of autoantibodies to glutamate and GABA on the stage of the disease was revealed.

  2. Basic Military Justice Handbook. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    beyond the extent to which the victim consented, the battery will be unlawful. For example, a football player, by entering the game, consents to such...physical contact as is customary in a football game. A football player doesn’t consent, however, to being bashed over the head with a crowbar. 6...to result in physical or psychological dependence, but they do have a recognized medical use in the United States. Opium, ampheta- mine, cocaine , and

  3. Diameter of common bile duct: what are the predicting factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: This was a study to determine the correlation between the common bile duct (CBD diameter and demographic data, fasting, and the history of opium addiction.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 375 patients (>16 years old including 219 females and 156 males. They had no evident hepatobiliary or pancreatic disease and underwent abdominopelvic ultrasonography for measurement of their CBD diameter. Ultrasound (US was performed to measure CBD diameter at the porta hepatis (proximal part and behind the head of the pancreas (distal part. Correlation coefficients for the association between CBD diameter and predictive factors were calculated. t-test was applied to compare the means between the groups.
    RESULTS: The mean CBD diameter (1 standard deviation, in proximal and distal parts were 3.64 mm (±1.2 and 3.72 mm (±1.2, respectively. The CBD diameters (proximal and distal were significantly (P<0.05 correlated with age (r = 0.55 and 0.54, respectively, BMI (r = 0.25 and 0.27, respectively and portal vein diameter (r = 0.24 and 0.22, respectively. Distal diameter of CBD was significantly larger in opium addicts (5.66 ± 2.65 in comparison with non addicts (3.68 ± 1.17, P = 0.04.
    CONCLUSIONS: CBD diameter associates with age, BMI, portal vein diameter and opium addiction. CBD dilatation, if it can not be explained by age, opium usage or large BMI, should be evaluated further to rule out obstruction.
    KEY WORDS: Common bile duct, predicting factors, ultrasonography.

  4. Terrorist Precursor Crimes: Issues and Options for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    alleged Al Qaeda operatives offered the first firm indication of a link between the terrorist network and drug trafficking”- Liz Sly, “Opium Cash Fuels... Jensen were convicted for their role in a $25 million dollar weapons-for-drugs deal to provide material support for Autodefensas Unidos de Colombia...organization. Ruiz received a life sentence for his role in the drugs for weapons plot, Puerta and Jensen received 15 and 14 years respectively.40

  5. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-09

    edibles, is very alert indeed in apprehending those who adulterate alcoholic beverages . Regarding the aid issue the U.S. administration ensured He...border belt. After cutting the poppy bud, opium juice is derived which is processed by the crudest to more sophisticated In Girdi Jungle brown heroin is...stan, Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Iraq, Iran, Kurdistan, stan. According to a report published by our immigra- Thailand , Sri Lanka, and Burma. Uganda

  6. Drug: D01506 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01506 Drug Dimemorfan phosphate (JP16); Astomin (TN) C18H25N. H3PO4 353.1756 353.3...n [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 22 Respiratory organ agents 222 Antitussives 2229 Others D01506 Dimemor...BINATIONS WITH EXPECTORANTS R05DA Opium alkaloids and derivatives R05DA11 Dimemorfan D01506 Dimemorfan phosp

  7. Shifting Drug Policy: The Politics of Marijuana in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Bonnie and Charles Whitebread relate these fears of social bias in The Marijuana Conviction: From this instinctive classification of marihuana with...opium, morphine, heroin, and cocaine flowed the entire set of factual supports on which narcotics prohibition rested. Marihuana was presumed to be...mind with crime, particularly of a violent nature, the association applied also to marihuana , which had a similar reputation in Mexican folklore

  8. [Analysis of two year heroin seizures in the Liege area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denooz, R; Dubois, N; Charlier, C

    2005-09-01

    The results of heroin analysis from seizures in the Liege area during the last two years are presented in this article. Between January 2003 and January 2005, 50 samples were analysed in the Laboratory of Clinical Toxicology and Forensic Toxicology of the University of Liege. Mean heroin concentration was 14,7%. Noscapine and papaverine, other opium alcaloïds, were simultaneously present with heroin. As diluents, we only identified caffein and acetaminophen.

  9. Establishment and optimization of cell growth in suspension culture of Papaver bracteatum: a biotechnology approach for thebaine production

    OpenAIRE

    FARJAMINEZHAD, Reza; Nasser ZARE; ASGHARI-ZAKARIA, Rasool; Farjaminezhad, Manoochehr

    2013-01-01

    Iranian poppy (Papaver bracteatum) is an important medicinal plant that is the main source of the opium alkaloids codeine, morphine, and thebaine. To establish an efficient protocol for cell suspension culture and growth, the effects of different plant growth regulators (2,4-D, NAA, BAP, and kinetin) on callus induction and cell suspension culture of Iranian poppy were evaluated. The maximum percentage of callus induction (86.67%) and fresh weight of callus were obtained in MS medium suppleme...

  10. Supporting U.S. Stretegy for Third World Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    especially cocaine, heroin, and cannabis , now unwittingly fund what has been referred to as paramilitary criminality—vast, continent-spanning, rich...defend it. Its absence becomes a source of popular discontent, a breeding ground for disaffection and violence. Often its presence becomes the very...the part of the United States government to encourage foreign governments to eradicate cannabis , coca, and opium poppies, and to promote alternative

  11. Low-Intensity Conflict: Implications for USSOUTHCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    militaries in return for favors and protection breed corruption at every level. Regional governments must either say no to narcotics and the ancillary...corruption that it breeds or they must eventually say no to democracy. Where narcotics prosper, the political institutions are undermined. Where the...faced with numerous challenges. Worldwide produc- tion of opium, coca leaf, and cannabis exceeds that consumed by drug abusers. Markets, processing

  12. On the Ground in Afghanistan: Counterinsurgency in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Baluchi Valley, Uruzgan, 2006–2009 140 Deh Rahsaan Valley, Uruzgan Province, 2009 149 Maps and Figures ix ABP Afghan Border Police ADT agribusiness ...example, in Nan- garhar Province, the Army battalion, provincial reconstruction team, agribusiness de- velopment unit, and counternarcotics team worked... agribusiness development team (ADT) took a backseat role to support a strong provincial governor’s plan to eliminate opium poppy cultivation in Nangarhar

  13. [X-ray diffraction spectrum of heroin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Kan, J; Yuan, B

    1999-06-01

    In this paper, practical measured X-ray diffraction spectra of heroin and opium are given and the parameters of each diffraction peak of the heroin are listed. The heroin belongs to orthorhombic crystal system; the basic vectors of the primitive cell are: a = 8.003, b = 14.373, c = 16.092 x 10(-10) m. As compared with the standard spectra of pure heroin and sucrose, the main doped additive checked by us, is sugar affirmatively.

  14. MEXICAN DRUG CARTELS AND TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS, A NEW ALLIANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    insatiable appetite for drugs has enabled cartels to expand market share and significantly profit despite the government’s attempts at 7...limiting the amount of drugs coming into the U.S. A 2012 United Nations (UN) report estimates that worldwide illicit drug trade profits at least $322...role in Afghanistan’s poppy and opium market , the FARC is deeply imbedded in the cocaine trade in Colombia, and more recently al- Qaeda has been linked

  15. An Evaluation of Bioregulators/Modulators as Terrorism and Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    brain should have receptor sites for alkaloids from the opium poppy led to the discovery of a family of natural painkillers , the endorphins (from...traced in human body. In each case a clandestine application of such substances can lead to death - "killing without a trace". Although the use of...the possibility for direct delivery of toxin or bioregulator to the human target or they could be used to transfer the toxin or bioregulator genes to

  16. Genetic and Phenotypic Analyses of a Papaver somniferum T-DNA Insertional Mutant with Altered Alkaloid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Yoshimatsu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro shoot culture of a T-DNA insertional mutant of Papaver somniferum L. established by the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes MAFF03-01724 accumulated thebaine instead of morphine as a major opium alkaloid. To develop a non-narcotic opium poppy and to gain insight into its genetic background, we have transplanted this mutant to soil, and analyzed its alkaloid content along with the manner of inheritance of T-DNA insertion loci among its selfed progenies. In the transplanted T0 primary mutant, the opium (latex was found to be rich in thebaine (16.3% of dried opium by HPLC analysis. The analyses on T-DNA insertion loci by inverse PCR, adaptor-ligation PCR, and quantitative real-time PCR revealed that as many as 18 copies of T-DNAs were integrated into a poppy genome in a highly complicated manner. The number of copies of T-DNAs was decreased to seven in the selected T3 progenies, in which the average thebaine content was 2.4-fold that of the wild type plant. This may indicate that the high thebaine phenotype was increasingly stabilized as the number of T-DNA copies was decreased. In addition, by reverse transcription PCR analysis on selected morphine biosynthetic genes, the expression of codeine 6-O-demethylase was clearly shown to be diminished in the T0 in vitro shoot culture, which can be considered as one of the key factors of altered alkaloid composition.

  17. Winning the war on drugs in Mexico? Toward an integrated approach to the illegal drug trade

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Garces, Alfonso.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The illegal drug trade has been present in Mexico since the beginning of the twentieth century when prohibition of the opium trade started. Since then, the social harm of the illegal drug trade in all its forms has been constantly increasing. Today, the most obvious example of the social harm of the illegal drug trade in Mexico is drug-related crime. As a result, Mexican authorities have launched a frontal attack against the drug cartels ...

  18. Functional Characterization of 4?OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gurkok, Tugba; Ozhuner, Esma; Parmaksiz, Iskender; ÖZCAN, Sebahattin; Turktas, Mine; İPEK, Arif; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Okay, Sezer; Unver, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes...

  19. Functional Characterization of 4´OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tugba eGurkok; Esma eOzhuner; Iskender eParmaksiz; Sebahattin eÖzcan; Mine eTurktas; Arif eIpek; Sezer eOkay; Turgay eUNVER

    2016-01-01

    Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes...

  20. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  1. Strategic Challenges during Changing Times: A Prioritized Research Program, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Colombia , and Ecuador, thousands of Latin American farmers have entered the lucrative coca growing business and its related and even more lucrative...Guatemala. The opium poppy has also been introduced to South America- Colombia in particular. Unless a suitable alternative is found, these farmers may...governments will increase during the next five years. These threats stem from rampant overpopulation , socioeconomic inequalities, poverty, weak

  2. The DTIC Review. Volume 3, Number 1, Terrorism, Peacekeeping, and Operations Other Than War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    fighting overpopulation , AIDS, drug smuggling and envi- endanger our citizens, ronmental degradation, ensure that future generations of 3 Americans will...the long run. Despite recent setbacks in Colombia , narcotics traffickers show no signs of scaling down their level of activity. Their use of payoffs...production in Afghanistan hasskyrocketed since 1990 and Colombia has surpassed Mexico asthe largest producer of opium in the Western Hemisphere

  3. Preservice Drug Usage Among Naval Recruits: A 5-Year Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    depressants , and 6 percent used narcotics. Fisher noted wide differences Lmonp the services, with Army and Marine Corps personnel reporting nearly...collections.’ The drop of 4 percentage points reported in the use of peyote, psilocybin , and mescaline between 1971 and 1975 resulted in a significant overall...significant increase in usage of amphetamines and barbiturates, a significant decrease in peyote/ psilocybin /mescaline and opium/codeine[i and no

  4. Informal Imperialism and the 1879 Hesperia Incident : Containing Cholera and Challenging Extraterritoriality in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    FUESS, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Informal empire is a classical term of diplomatic history to designate the British role in East Asia after the Opium Wars. This paper looks at informal imperialism more broadly to question the interaction of foreign powers and their citizens with and within Japan. It argues for a contested complexity of the extraterritorial arrangements such that Japanese independence was not only advocated against foreign imperialism but partly with the support of imperial powers and their nationals, accordi...

  5. 试论中美《望厦条约》“双赢”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛莉娟

    2011-01-01

    after the First Opium War, there was a short argument over the issues of Sino-American trade ties! The key point of disagreement between U. S Congressmen was whether America would obtain equal commercial privilege as other west power had, or American interest must be bestowed by Chinese Emperor, or it should be defined by a dignified treaty like Sino-British Nanjing Treaty.

  6. Total biosynthesis of opiates by stepwise fermentation using engineered Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAGAWA, Akira; Matsumura, Eitaro; Koyanagi, Takashi; Katayama, Takane; Kawano, Noriaki; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Sato, Fumihiko; Minami, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Opiates such as morphine and codeine are mainly obtained by extraction from opium poppies. Fermentative opiate production in microbes has also been investigated, and complete biosynthesis of opiates from a simple carbon source has recently been accomplished in yeast. Here we demonstrate that Escherichia coli serves as an efficient, robust and flexible platform for total opiate synthesis. Thebaine, the most important raw material in opioid preparations, is produced by stepwise culture of four ...

  7. The Dragon’s Rise from the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    TERMS China, Century of Humiliation, Boxer Rebellion, Opium Wars, Confucius, People’s Liberation Army Navy, Alfred T. Mahan 16. SECURITY...dynasty (206BC-220AD) due to Buddhism and Daoism gaining popularity.122 In the Song dynasty (950AD-1279AD), Confucianism saw a 116Joseph Adler ...Confucianism in China Today,” Kenyon College, April 14, 2011, http://www2.kenyon.edu/Depts/Religion/Fac/ Adler /Writings/Confucianism%20Today.pdf (accessed

  8. Late Qing Social Divisions and Social Stratification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChiYunfei,; ZhaoBaohua; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    Following the Opium Wars of the mid19th century, structural changes arose in Chinese society which accelerated drastically during the last decade of the Qing regime (1644-1911 ). In these 10 years, as new policies were introduced, three groups of people emerged: a new type of intellectuals; a new social stratum of gentry from the old-styled mandarin and scholar-officials;

  9. JPRS Report, China: Qiushi (Seeking Truth), No. 24, 16 December 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    colonists and bullied and invaded by imperialism. There were the two Opium Wars, war between China and France, the Jiawu War, the War Against the Eight...off. They have no holidays and they contribute their youth and their vigor to the socialist construction of Huaxi. The members of the party...with a high suicide rate. Under the capitalist system where everyone has to work and labor for all they are worth, efficiency is naturally high

  10. Pattern of Illegal Drug Use in Women Referred to Substance Abuse Control Clinic in Fasa, Iran (2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad mehdi Naghizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Women’s role as a consumer or as a person who is facing with risks is so important in studies of substance abuse. However, major studies on this field aimed at studying on male population. Therefore, the aim of this study described the pattern of using illegal drugs among women belong to substance abuse control clinic of  Fasa city (south of Iran.Materials & Methods: This cross sectional study as a census was done on all authorized substance abuse treatment centers in Fasa in summer 2011. Information about demographic data, types of drugs, method of using, duration of addiction and onset age was extracted from the files of self-referred women. Results: There were 88 women in Fasa substance abuse treatment centers who were 2.8% of all registered patients. The Mean age of drug onset was 30.8±11.8 years. 62 persons (70.5% used opium and 55 persons (62.5% used Opium sap which were indicated thatthese two drugs were the two common ones among addicted women. With the average of 9.4±7.1 years, Opium had the longest duration of use. There is only one woman who had used injection during the last month. Two of the women had sexual relationship out of the family in the last month in which one of them had the unsafe contact as well.Conclusion: Presently, the pattern of drug abuse among women in Fasa is traditional and is based on the opium derivatives. However, according to the increasing rate and changes in drugs type, monitoring the behavior of drug abuser can have an effective role on the improvement of health in a community.

  11. Finding the Balance to Combat a Hybrid Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Russell W. Glenn adds to Hoffman’s definition by stating, “a hybrid threat may employ political, military, economic, social , and information means, as...bud of the plant. Besides illegal opium, the poppy is used in the production of morphine . 134Department of Defense, JP 1-02, Department of Defense...consideration of the people through continuous interaction , but also supported building a rapport with the people, and promoting security through a

  12. A new antiproliferative noscapine analogue: chemical synthesis and biological evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaly, Peter E.; Abou El-Magd, Rabab M.; Churchill, Cassandra D. M.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; West, F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxel-resistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and t...

  13. Noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, sensitizes leukemic cells to chemotherapeutic agents and cytokines by modulating the NF-κB signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Bokyung; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2010-01-01

    Noscapine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, was recently reported to exhibit activity against a variety of cancers through a poorly understood mechanism. Because the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) has been linked with inflammation, survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis in tumors, we hypothesized that noscapine mediates its effects by modulating the NF-κB activation pathway. We found that noscapine potentiates apoptosis induced by cytokines an...

  14. Engineering biosynthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D.

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. Here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. Our work provides str...

  15. Trial of Tramadol Plus Gabapentin for Opioid Detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Ziaaddini, Hassan; Ziaaddini, Ahmad; Asghari, Neda; Nakhaee, Nozar; Eslami, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Substance abuse or drug addiction is one of the most important health issues in every society, which can lead to physical and mental problems. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of tramadol plus gabapentin versus methadone use in the treatment of opiate withdrawal. Patients and Methods: Consenting male subjects who fulfilled the DSM-4 criteria for opiate dependence syndrome (opium, residue, and heroin) were randomly assigned in two groups to receive tramadol plus...

  16. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  17. Evaluation of spinal anesthesia blockade time with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, with or without sufentanil, in chronic opioid users: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sadeghi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The primary outcome of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding sufentanil to hyperbaric bupivacaine on duration of sensory blockade of spinal anesthesia in chronic opioid users in comparison with non-addicts. Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia were allocated into four groups: group 1 (no history of opium use who received intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine along with 1 mL saline as placebo; group 2 (no history of opium use who received intrathecal bupivacaine along with 1 mL sufentanil [5 µg]; group 3 (positive history of opium use who received intrathecal bupivacaine along with 1 mL saline as placebo and group 4 (positive history of opium use who received intrathecal bupivacaine along with 1 mL sufentanil [5 µg]. The onset time and duration of sensory and motor blockade were measured. Results: The duration of sensory blockade in group 3 was 120 ± 23.1 min which was significantly less than other groups (G1 = 148 ± 28.7, G2 = 144 ± 26.4, G4 = 139 ± 24.7, p = 0.007. The duration of motor blockade in group 3 was 145 ± 30.0 min which was significantly less than other groups (G1 = 164 ± 36.0, G2 = 174 ± 26.8, G4 = 174 ± 24.9, p = 0.03. Conclusions: Addition of 5 µg intrathecal sufentanil to hyperbaric bupivacaine in chronic opioid users lengthened the sensory and motor duration of blockade to be equivalent to blockade measured in non-addicts.

  18. Functional Characterization of 4′OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gurkok, Tugba; Ozhuner, Esma; Parmaksiz, Iskender; Özcan, Sebahattin; Turktas, Mine; İPEK, Arif; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Okay, Sezer; Unver, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes...

  19. Functional Characterization of 4´OMT and 7OMT Genes in BIA Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tugba eGurkok; Esma eOzhuner; Iskender eParmaksiz; Sebahattin eÖzcan; Mine eTurktas; Arif eIpek; Sezer eOkay; Turgay eUNVER

    2016-01-01

    Alkaloids are diverse group of secondary metabolites generally found in plants. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), the only commercial source of morphinan alkaloids, has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times. It produces benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA) including the narcotic analgesic morphine, the muscle relaxant papaverine, and the anti-cancer agent noscapine. Though BIAs play crucial roles in many biological mechanisms their steps in biosynthesis and the responsible genes...

  20. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

    2011-07-14

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle).

  1. Giving Lip Service with an Attitude: North Korea’s China Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    border human trafficking , polygamy, underage sex slavery, illegal opium production in the mountains, drug smuggling from Manchuria to the North...often tear families apart, put human lives in danger and outside the law, and tend to result in a drama of personal disappointment, abuse, and loss...they do nothing to remedy the situation because it suits their parochial interests just fine. On a national level, underground human traffic to China

  2. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began t...

  3. Detection and accumulation of morphine in hair using GC–MS

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Khajuria; Biswa Prakash Nayak

    2016-01-01

    Background: The detection of drugs ingested by humans by analyzing hair samples for their presence is now one of the imperative techniques in the field of forensic toxicology. A number of cases pertaining to the abuse of opium or its derivatives have been registered under the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act over the last few years. Objective: This study was conducted with the objective of detecting the levels of morphine accumulated in the human hair over a period of ...

  4. Sherlock Holmes and anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, J R

    1988-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's first Sherlock Holmes adventure, A Study in Scarlet, was published 100 years ago. Between 1887 and 1927 he wrote 56 short stories and four novels about his fictional detective. Episodes in the adventures which relate to anaesthetic drugs are described. Use of the drugs was criminal in the case of chloroform, opium, and curare; therapeutic in the case of morphine; and recreational when Holmes himself used cocaine.

  5. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    OpenAIRE

    Davis C

    2014-01-01

    Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive ...

  6. Advising China, 1924-1948: The Role of Military Culture in Foreign Advisory Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    qualified instructors, curbing illiteracy, reducing opium addiction , and obtaining modern military manuals were chief hurdles to clear, particularly in...Brigade. That brigade, known as the “ Salt Troop,” protected the Nationalist regime’s monopoly over the salt trade.96 Chinese alumni from West Point...VMI, and other US schools commanded Salt Troops, which US attaché Lieutenant Colonel Drysdale labeled the most “most efficient” troops in all of

  7. Effectiveness of Coping Skills Education Program to Reduce Craving Beliefs among Addicts Referred To Addiction Centers in Hamadan: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ahmadpanah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors affecting relapse of addiction is craving beliefs of substance use. The goal of the present study was assessment of the effectiveness of coping skills education program to reduce craving beliefs among opium addicts.In a randomized controlled trial, during September 2011 to August 2012, 70 opium addicted men referred to the Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center in Hamadan, western Iran were assigned to intervention group (receiving coping skills education program and control groups. The study information was analyzed using SPSS software.Regarding craving beliefs for continuing drug use, the two groups had similar scales at the beginning of interventional program, while the level of these beliefs was significantly reduced in the intervention group (P= 0.002, but not in the control group (P= 0.105. Also, a significant correlation was also revealed between taking advantage of the educational program and increase awareness of the signs of relapse in the intervention group (P=0.003 that was not revealed in the control (P= 0.174. On the other hand, executing coping skills education program led to reducecraving beliefs and improve knowledge towards signs of relapse.Our findings demonstrate positive impact of coping skills education program after detoxification process on decrease of craving beliefs among opium addicts.

  8. The Comparison of Attention Biases to Opiates in Substance Dependent and Treated Clients of Therapeutic Clinics and Narcotics Anonymous Memberships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Enayat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the attention bias about tempting incentives related to opium materials in treated, addicted and normal people. Duration of consumption and treating were also considered. Method: In this causal-comparative study population was all addicted people who were referred to the rehabilitation offices, addiction treatment clinic, rebirthing centers and Narcotics Anonymous of East Azerbaijan. This study consisted of five groups of men, including addicted to opium materials which are divided into two groups namely: long consumption period and people with short consumption period, also, treated people including long term treated and short term treated, and a normal control group. Altogether, 103 selected people were studied. Sample groups were similar in terms of age, education, and sex. For measuring attention bias towards tempting stimuli related opiates, a words recognition test was used. This test included three subtests and one recognition test. The recognition scores for the three categories of words were measured. Results: The findings indicated that there was a difference in attention against opium material incentives between control group and the mild and severe consumers groups. Also there were significant differences between treated people with the short time distance and control group, and control group had less temptation and biases in comparison to the other groups. Finally, those who have mild consumption are threatened more in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: The findings have applied implications.

  9. The study of suspicious cases to body smuggling in Loghman Hospital 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseinian Moghadam H

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available One method of drug smuggling is body packing or body stuffing, placement of narcotics (opium, heroin, hashish, … inside intestinal tract for transfer from city to city or country to country. Estimating of the methods for transferring, content of packets, packaging, cause of death and results of diagnostic and therapeutic methods can effectively decrease the number of body packer and law execution. This study is case series by randomized sampling. Several parameters such as sex, age, marital status, addiction, job, level of education, type of opioids and their weight and number of packets, result of abdominal X-ray, surgery needs, were collected from April 1999 to December 2000. Through this period of time, 32 male smuggler who had swallowed drug packets were detained. The average age was 41 years (max=62, min=20. The minimum weight of the opium carried by this smugglers was below 20 gram and maximum weight was 1000 grams (median=360 grams. The minimum number of packets were one packet and maximum number of packets were 54 (median=10 packets. In 84 percent of body smugglers the content of packets was opium, 13 percent was heroin and 3 percent was hashish. From the cases, 81 percent of smugglers were addicts themselves. Death occurred in 7 cases from which 3 were after surgery.

  10. Intraspecific taxonomy of plant genetic resources – Important for differentiation of medicinal and aromatic plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohwasser, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy of plant genetic resources is an important input in characterising and evaluating cultivated plants and essential for identification and documentation of the diversity of genebank collections. In former times taxonomical determination was based only on morphological characters. Nowadays, new molecular and chemical methods and techniques are available for providing additional information. As examples, investigations of parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nyman, Apiaceae and opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L., Papaveraceae collections of the German genebank are demonstrated. In addition to morphological description, the molecular distance and the phylogenetic relationship of the accessions were performed with molecular marker analysis. Essential oil compound and content for parsley and the content of the five main alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine for opium poppy were measured with GC (gas chromatography and HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography, respectively. For parsley the results of the three methods support the existing taxonomy partly, a separation of root and leaf parsley was confirmed. However, the taxonomy of opium poppy should be revised because molecular and chemical data do not verify the morphological results. But nevertheless taxonomy of cultivated plants is an important tool to describe the variability of plant genetic resources.

  11. The Useage of Opioids and their Adverse Effects in Gastrointestinal Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, MahmoudReza; Sohrabi, MasourReza; Zamani, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Opium is one of the oldest herbal medicines currently used as an analgesic, sedative and antidiarrheal treatment. The effects of opium are principally mediated by the μ-, κ- and δ-opioid receptors. Opioid substances consist of all natural and synthetic alkaloids that are derived from opium. Most of their effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion result from suppression of neural activity. Inhibition of gastric emptying, increase in sphincter tone, changes in motor patterns, and blockage of peristalsis result from opioid use. Common adverse effects of opioid administration include sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dependency and tolerance, and respiratory depression. The most common adverse effect of opioid use is constipation. Although stool softeners are frequently used to decrease opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, however they are not efficacious. Possibly, the use of specific opioid receptor antagonists is a more suitable approach. Opioid antagonists, both central and peripheral, could affect gastrointestinal function and visceromotor sensitivity, which suggests an important role for endogenous opioid peptides in the control of gastrointestinal physiology. Underlying diseases or medications known to influence the central nervous system (CNS) often accelerate the opioid’s adverse effects. However, changing the opioid and/or route of administration could also decrease their adverse effects. Appropriate patient selection, patient education and discussion regarding potential adverse effects may assist physicians in maximizing the effectiveness of opioids, while reducing the number and severity of adverse effects. PMID:24829664

  12. Opioid Use and Tobacco Smoking in Patients With Rheumatic Diseases

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    Shakibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rheumatic diseases are chronic diseases, which may be associated with severe and debilitating pain. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of tobacco and opioid use among rheumatic patients. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 1042 patients referred to a major rheumatology clinic of Kerman city, in south east of Iran, were interviewed. Patients were divided into seven groups of disease, including rheumatoid arthritis (330 persons osteoarthritis (313 persons, systemic lupus erythematosus (149 persons, back pain (146 persons, spondyloarthropathies (62 persons, Behcet’s disease (25 persons, and scleroderma (17 persons. The questionnaire consisted of demographic variables, disease-related variables (e.g. duration of disease, the severity of pain on the VAS scale and use of opioids and tobacco based on self-reporting. Results The mean age of the patients was 49.3 ± 15.0 years and mean disease duration in the whole sample was 7.1 ± 5.1 years. Opium consumption was reported by 104 persons (9.9%, codeine, by 185 persons (17.7%, cigarette smoking by 49 persons (4.7% and waterpipe smoking by 34 persons (3.3%. Conclusions In this study, codeine consumption is the most frequently used substance. The consumption of opium is not much different from the general population. Also, the rate of cigarette and waterpipe smoking was less than that in the general population. The prevalence of opium use and tobacco smoking was higher in men than in women. There was no significant relationship between type of rheumatic diseases, disease-related variables, and substance use.

  13. Lifetime Pattern of Substance Abuse, Parental Support, Religiosity, and Locus of Control in Adolescent and Young Male Users

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    A Farhadinasab

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: In the current study, pattern of substance abuse among adolescence and early adulthood that have experienced one or more substances was assessed, and also parental support, religiosity, and locus of control were measured."nMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hamadan City, Iran in 2006. All subjects were selected from Hama­dan City (urban area, Iran based on snowball sampling method. Participants were males who used alcohol and illicit drugs in their life (n=398, completed a self-administered questionnaire."nResults: Approximately half of the participants were used to smoke, drink, take marijuana and/or use opium regularly, and one in ten had taken ecstasy or heroine in the last weeks. Tobacco and alcohols were most common substance as a gateway and consequently marijuana and opium were the next substances. Initiation age result for using substance was ages 13 to 18 years. More than 90% classified as group who suffering familial support, 60.8% as low level of religiosity, and 51.5% of partici­pants was external locus of control."nConclusion: Our findings were similar to western countries pattern except that for opium. The high rate substances use by adoles­cents and changes in pattern of use suggests that all drug use need to be taken into account when addressing adoles­cents' substance use. Moreover, research is needed to identify possible mechanisms underlying the association between binge drug uses in the vulnerable groups.

  14. Frequency of Pathological Changes in Lungs of Bodies with Positive Postmortem Toxicology Results for Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mostafazadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of drug abuse in Iran has dramatically changed in recent years, turning from the traditional opioids [opium, opium dross, and refined opium dross (Shireh] into drugs with newer forms. The present study is aimed at investigating the frequency of pathological changes in the lungs of bodies with positive postmortem toxicology results for narcotics and psychotropic substances autopsied in the forensic dissection hall of Tehran, Iran [the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (LMO]. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 153 bodies, which had been referred to the LMO with positive results in postmortem toxicology for narcotics and psychotropic substances. Results: We found that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were used more in men than women. Moreover, the average age of death due to drug use was 36 years old. In addition, methamphetamine was the mostly-used type of substances, and smoking was the most widely used method to use the drugs. Besides, the dominant consistency and color of the lungs of half of the bodies investigated were elastic brown-gray. Moreover, the most common pathologic changes observed in the lungs of the bodies investigated were congestion and edema. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of pathological changes in the lungs of the examined bodies and congestion, edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage, the results of the present study can be particularly effective in determining the drug use and the resultant death in the absence of any previous records and/or a negative result of toxicology.

  15. [Historical study of seven cases of delirium tremens in Spain in the first half of the XIX century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde López, V J; Plaza Nieto, J F; Macias Fernández, J A; Losmozos Sánchez, J A

    1995-01-01

    The authors in the introduction provide an schematic historical scope of reference about the spaniard and european psychiatry from the XVIIIe to the XIXe century. They described the first seven clinical cases of Delirium found by them and published by spaniard physicians in the first half of the XIXe century. They revised mainly the clinical sintomatology, course and evolution, and went into deep detail in the hygienic-dietetical and pharmacological therapeutics used in this period, specially several galenic preparations of opium, tartarus emeticus, cremor, etc. Serapio Escolar y Morales (1808-1874) described the first clinical case of Delirium Tremens in 1839 in a 28 year old man, raising the differential diagnosis between intermittent fever, epilepsy and meningitis, and proposed a useless antiflogistic treatment (bleeding, leeches, poultice) and opium. The second case was described by an anonymous author (J.M.S.Z.) in 1845 in a 42 year old man. Francisco Castellvi y Pallares (1812-1879), in 1845, published another case in a 34 year old male, with an adequate description of the natural history of the disease, healing in 19 days with high doses of watery opium extract. The fourth clinical case was described by R.C.B. in 1846 in a 60 year old man with "alcoholic chorea", "ataxis fever" being the only one with a mortal outcome, treated also with opiates which he did not agree with. The fifth and sixth cases were published by Uliberry in 1847 in two males, 38 and 36 years old respectively. The seventh and last case was described in 1848 by F. Paula Barea, having to highlight the nosological, nosographical and evolutive perspectives in 3 clinical periods and a fourth of convalescence, the treatment differences and the etiopathogenical considerations. Included are 9 tables, 2 graphics and 29 bibliographical references.

  16. The relationship between aggression rates and drugs abuse among posttraumatic stress disorder patients

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    Faezeh Tatari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress disorder, whose prevalence was 2-15%. PTSD is associated with mood, anxiety, personality and substance use disorders (SUD. The substance user patients with PTSD have more problems, and severity of symptoms is more than non-substance users with PTSD patients. These patients may be nervous, aggressive, and restless and their function will be affected in many aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between aggression levels and substances use among PTSD patients. Methods: Among patients with PTSD referred to Kermanshah Farabi Hospital in 2011,182 cases were selected and their aggression levels were assessed by Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The aggression levels in PTSD patients with and without SUD were compared. Result: The highest frequencies were in middle-aged (81.1%, males (91.8%, married (77.5% and poor economic status (63.2% patients. Substances using was higher among married patients and the most abused substances was opium. Substances consumption was higher among patients with lower socioeconomic status and opium and amphetamines were the most abused substance. Most PTSD types were related to after-war events (70.3%. Mean of total aggression was higher in SUD. Rate of total aggression was higher in patients using opium. Conclusion: Compared to those without PTSD, individuals with this disorder are more likely to have aggression. Patients with concurrent PTSD and SUD suffer from more severe complaints and show worse treatment outcomes compared with patients with either disorder alone.

  17. Unambiguous characterization of analytical markers in complex, seized opiate samples using an enhanced ion mobility trace detector-mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuni, Peter; Romanov, Vladimir; Binette, Marie-Josée; Zaknoun, Hafid; Tam, Maggie; Pilon, Pierre; Hendrikse, Jan; Wilson, Derek J

    2014-11-04

    Ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS)-based trace-compound detectors (TCDs) are powerful and widely implemented tools for the detection of illicit substances. They combine high sensitivity, reproducibility, rapid analysis time, and resistance to dirt with an acceptable false alarm rate. The analytical specificity of TCD-IMS instruments for a given analyte depends strongly on a detailed knowledge of the ion chemistry involved, as well as the ability to translate this knowledge into field-robust analytical methods. In this work, we introduce an enhanced hybrid TCD-IMS/mass spectrometer (TCD-IMS/MS) that combines the strengths of ion-mobility-based target compound detection with unambiguous identification by tandem MS. Building on earlier efforts along these lines (Kozole et al., Anal. Chem. 2011, 83, 8596-8603), the current instrument is capable of positive and negative-mode analyses with tightly controlled gating between the IMS and MS modules and direct measurement of ion mobility profiles. We demonstrate the unique capabilities of this instrument using four samples of opium seized by the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA), consisting of a mixture of opioid alkaloids and other naturally occurring compounds typically found in these samples. Although many analytical methods have been developed for analyzing naturally occurring opiates, this is the first detailed ion mobility study on seized opium samples. This work demonstrates all available analytical modes for the new IMS-MS system including "single-gate", "dual-gate", MS/MS, and precursor ion scan methods. Using a combination of these modes, we unambiguously identify all signals in the IMS spectra, including previously uncharacterized minor peaks arising from compounds that are common in raw opium.

  18. Multimorbidity: Epidemiology and Risk Factors in the Golestan Cohort Study, Iran: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Batoul; Alimohammadian, Masoomeh; Yaseri, Mehdi; Majidi, Azam; Boreiri, Majid; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Feizesani, Akabar; Pourshams, Akram; Abnet, Christian C; Brennan, Paul; Dawsey, Sanford M; Kamangar, Farin; Boffetta, Paolo; Sadjadi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-02-01

    Advances in medicine and health policy have resulted in growing of older population, with a concurrent rise in multimorbidity, particularly in Iran, as a country transitioning to a western lifestyle, and in which the percent of the population over the age of 60 years is increasing. This study aims to assess multimorbidity and the associated risk factors in Iran. We used data from 50,045 participants (age 40-75 y) in the Golestan Cohort Study, including data on demographics, lifestyle habits, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric indices. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of 2 or more out of 8 self-reported chronic conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, liver disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, tuberculosis, and cancer. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between multiple different factors and the risk factors. Multimorbidity prevalence was 19.4%, with the most common chronic diseases being gastroesophageal reflux disease (76.7%), cardiovascular diseases (72.7%), diabetes (25.3%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (21.9%). The odds of multimorbidity was 2.56-fold higher at the age of >60 years compared with that at risk of multimorbidity included non-Turkmen ethnicity, low education, unemployment, low socioeconomic status, physical inactivity, overweight, obesity, former smoking, opium and alcohol use, and poor oral health. Apart from advanced age and female sex, the most important potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, including excess body weight and opium use, and opium user, are associated with multimorbidity. Policies aiming at controlling multimorbidity will require a multidimensional approach to reduce modifiable risk factors in the younger population in developing countries alongside adopting efficient strategies to improve life quality in the older population.

  19. The effects of gabapentin on methadone based addiction treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Mohsen Saber; Alavinia, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Gabapentin is a potentially useful drug in alleviating the hyperexcitatory painful states in the control of opiate dependence in acute detoxification and the stabilization phase. This study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of gabapentin adds-on methadone therapy on lowering the methadone. This randomized double blind controlled clinical trial conducted at an outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Sixty patients using opium, opium extract and heroin were randomly assigned to two groups (34 in treatment group and 26 in control group); one group was prescribed combination of methadone (40-120 mg) and gabapentin (300 mg) as group A, and the other group was given methadone (40-120) and placebo as group B. The subjects were followed up for three weeks after intervention. There were 60 outpatients including 51 males with the mean age of 40.9±9.2. Daily dose and cumulative dose of methadone during the treatment was found to be significantly higher in group B (73.8±19.5 mg daily vs. 58.9±11 mg daily and cumulatively 1550.7±409.7 mg vs. 238.3±238.2 mg, p= 0.001). When the patients were stratified based on the kind of abused drug, the methadone dose was seen to be significantly reduced in the opium addicted patients in the group A. Group A showed more withdrawal symptoms whereas the most common complain of group B was sedation particularly during the first three days. The results showed that gabapentin is an effective adds-on therapy when is added to methadone. This drug leads to relief of withdrawal symptoms and lower methadone consumption.

  20. Profile of People Who Inject Drugs in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Gholamrezaei, Maryam; Razaghi, Emran Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    The marked shift in the patterns of drug use in Iran, from opium smoking to injecting drug use, has led to serious health-related outcomes. This study was designed to explore characteristics of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tehran, Iran. Nine hundred and four PWID were recruited from treatment and harm reduction facilities, as well as drug user hangouts in public areas in Tehran. Participants were interviewed using the Persian version of the World Health Organization Drug Injecting Study Phase II questionnaire. The median age at the time of the first illegal drug use, at the time of the first injection and current age was 20, 24 and 32, respectively. In more than 80% of the cases, the first drug used was opium. The transition from the first drug use to the first drug injection occurred after an average of 6.6 and 2.7 years for those who had started drug use with opium and heroin, respectively. Two-thirds of the participants shared injecting equipment within the last 6 months. Difficulty in obtaining sterile needles and thehigh cost of syringes were reported as the major reasons for needle/syringe sharing. Approximately 80% of community-recruited PWID reported difficulties in using treatment or harm reduction services. Self-detoxification and forced detoxification were the most common types of drug abuse treatment in alifetime. Despite a dramatic shift in drug policy in Iran during the past few years, wider coverage of harm reduction services, improvement of the quality of services, and education about such services are still necessary.

  1. Students' attitudes and practices towards drug and alcohol use at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodati, A R; Shakurie, S K; Nazari, M; Raufie, M B

    2007-01-01

    This questionnaire survey examined attitudes and practices towards alcohol and drug use among male university students living in a dormitory at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran. Of 173 students, about one third (32%) had tried alcohol or drugs at least once in the last 6 months: 16% had tried alcohol, 6% cannabis, 6% opium and 2% heroin. Sixteen students (9%) reported they were abusing alcohol and 16 (9%) other illicit drugs, with 2 using drugs by injection. Many students believed that smoking and drug and alcohol use in the dormitory created disruption and an unpleasant atmosphere.

  2. Role of the family in drug abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartikeyan S

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple random survey of 9863 population out of the total 70,000 population is one slum pocket of Bombay revealed drug dependence in 104 persons. Out of 104, 83.65% smoked ′brown sugar′ 10.68% used cannabis and 5.77% opium. Most of the addicts (95.2% belonged to large families. Family history of alcoholism and drug abuse was present in 41.35%. Parental deprivation was additional contributing factor in 30.7%.

  3. GOOD DRUG POLICY IS GOOD PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kasia Malinowska-Sempruch

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction At present, there is a myriad of contradictions between international illicit drug policy and good, evidence-based public health policy. Largely to blame are the unrealistic goals which policymakers set themselves ten years ago when Pino Arlacchi, the Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), announced plans to create a drug-free world' and to eliminate or significantly reduce the illicit cultivation of the coca bush, the cannabis plant and the opium poppy by the year 2008[1].

  4. Buprenorphine for cancer pain: is it ready for prime time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Buprenorphine (BUP) is a semisynthetic derivative of the opium alkaloid thebaine found in the poppy Papaver somniferum. Its chemical structure contains the morphine structure but differs by having a cyclopropylmethyl group. Buprenorphine is a potent µ opioid agonist. Buprenorphine undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver and gut. The development of a transdermal BUP formulation in 2001 led to its evaluation in cancer pain. This article provides the practitioner with an update on the current role of BUP in cancer care. It highlights data suggesting effectiveness in various types of cancer pain. The article reviews pharmacology, routes of administration, adverse effects, drug interactions, and cost considerations.

  5. Sex Differences and the Effects of Stress on Subsequent Opioid Consumption in Adult Rats Following Adolescent Nicotine Exposure: A Psychopharmacologic Examination of the Gateway Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-18

    from opium. Also included in this class of drugs are synthetic (e.g., methadone and fentanyl) drugs that have actions which mimic the effects of morphine...small molecule with a pKa of7.7 and it has a short half-life (approximately 3.7 hours). Fentanyl has a high lipid solubility and, therefore, it crosses...behaviors, opioid receptors, and dopamine synthesis . Neuropharmacology, 36(2), 251-259. Ba-ttig, K. (1981). Smoking and the behavioral effects

  6. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Morphine and Related Alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Noritaka

    Morphine, an alkaloid isolated from the opium poppy, has been widely used as an analgesic, and has been a fascinating synthetic target of organic chemists. After the first total synthesis reported in 1952, a number of synthetic studies toward morphine have been reported, and findings obtained in such studies have greatly contributed to the progress of synthetic organic chemistry as well as medicinal chemistry. This review provides an overview of recent studies toward the total synthesis of morphine and related alkaloids. Work reported in the literature since 2004 will be reviewed.

  7. РОБЕРТ ХАРТ И КИТАЙСКИЕ МОРСКИЕ ТАМОЖНИ

    OpenAIRE

    Бугрова, М.

    2006-01-01

    In the middle of the 19th century the Western powers made attempt to "open" China and triggered off "opium wars". As an aftermath of it the new organization of Chinese Maritime Customs was established at the head of General Inspector, R.Hart. Their activity was so efficient that subsequently the mentioned pattern was used in other treaty ports. The system of Maritime Customs had to ensure the full collection of dues in treaty ports owing to innovations and convince Chinese authorities to open...

  8. 我国近代高等科学教育的历史回顾及启示%A Historical Review and Inspiration to Modern Higher Scientific Education of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 王巍

    2012-01-01

    Through reviewing the development process of the China's higher education during the Opium War and the founding of new China, the paper analysis the characteristics of the development of China's modem higher scientific education, and gets inspiration from them.%通过对鸦片战争至新中国成立期间我国高等科学教育的发展历程的回顾,分析了我国近代高等科学教育发展的特点,并从中得到启示。

  9. Path of Chinese institutional modernization

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Ganeswar

    2009-01-01

    We see the progress today that China has developed a treasure of modernity in terms of its World figure both in economic development and its strong military power with countless path of ups and downs in the past. We are more concerned with the historical study of its institutional modernization than a mere philosophical debate over its development and can discuss its various levels of struggle for ‘Substitute Modernity’2 since mid-19th century(the two opium wars) to till date.

  10. TREASURE HUNT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A Chinese NGO aims to develop a model for recovering Chinese cultural treasures overseas On May 9, the first group of Chinese collectors taking part in an "Overseas Treasure Hunting Activity" arrived back in Beijing after a one-week trip to Japan. On their visit to Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto and Osaka, they found about 20 rare Chinese cultural relics of significant value. Since the Opium War in 1840, large quantities of Chinese treasures have been taken abroad. According to statistics from the China ...

  11. Drug Control in Fragile States: Regional Cooperation and Differing Legal Responses to the Afghan Opiate Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    The explosive growth of opium and heroin production in Afghanistan has had grave implications for global trafficking and organised crime. The European Union pursues a policy to stop the inflow of illicit narcotics closer to their source and this presentation outlines the challenges encountered......-narcotics agencies of the region as caused by a plethora of legal obstacles in the respective national penal and administrative codes, as well as an insufficient legal basis for regional collaboration. These premises could not be validated on the ground. The legal framework in the region is adequate and no legal...

  12. Assessing the Efficiency Level of Separation Centers Dormitories related to the separation center for students with addicted parents that lack competency to take care of their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molouk Khadem Ashkezari

    2003-08-01

    The collection of data in this research was carried out through indexing, filling questionnaires, interviews as well as direct As far as the mental health of abusers is concerned, 12.5 percent of abusers were healthy and 87.5 percent were suspicious of mental disorder. Moreover, a meaningful relationship was observed between drug abuse in prison and disorders, physical pains, obsession, depression and psychosis. Based on the results, opium was the major drug used in prisons. High-risk behaviors were also observed among prison inmates.

  13. Interpretação matemático-física dos efeitos de ultradiluições em Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rosmeri Terezinha Batirola da

    2006-01-01

    Foi avaliada a ação de ultradiluições sobre a planta medicinal margaridinha (Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski) quantificada pela assimilação de CO2. As preparações homeopáticas (ultradiluições) testadas foram Apis mellifica nas dinamizações 1CH a 12CH durante 10 minutos; Carbo vegetabilis, Camphora, Aconitum e Opium nas dinamizações 6, 12 e 30CH no decorrer de 15 minutos; e, Sulphur nas dinamizações 6 e 30CH, sem e com magnetização, durante 15 minutos. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na c...

  14. Noscapine targets EGFRp-Tyr1068 to suppress the proliferation and invasion of MG63 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Jiang, Linlin; Ren, Zhaozhou; Wang, Guangbin; Wang, Jiashi

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor, usually arises in the metaphysis of long bones. Amplification and mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene represent signature genetic abnormalities encountered in osteosarcoma. Noscapine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Recently several studies have suggested its anti-cancer effect in melanoma, ovarian cancer, gliomas, breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for its anti-cancer effect still remains unclear. In this paper, we found the mechanism of noscapine effectively suppressed proliferation and invasion of MG63 cell line by inhibiting the phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream pathway. PMID:27830833

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Antitumor Alkaloid from Poppy Capsules (Papaver somniferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bulduk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Noscapine, a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been used in the treatment of various cancer types. Its low-toxicity profile has increased attention to this alkaloid. With regard to increasing demand for this compound, we developed a new method for isolation of noscapine from dried capsules of Papaver somniferum. Noscapine was successfully isolated from poppy capsules for the first time and the purity of the isolated compound was determined to be over 99.59% by HPLC analysis. The structure of noscapine was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR, elemental analysis, and HR-ESI-MS methods.

  16. A Lady’s Tailette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    THE young lady in the photo is attending to her toilette. About 130 years ago, ladies like her sat unhurriedly before their dressing table every day to have themselves elaborately made up. It was their necessary daily work. At that time, old China was on the verge of turbulence and change. After its failure in the Opium War in 1840, the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) was in decline. Moreover, the invasion of the great worldpowers and the introduction of capitalism was shaking the foundations of the feudal empire. Though the ladies in the photo still dressed in tidy lace-edged garments and wore their hair in smooth buns, we can

  17. Genetic toxicology of abused drugs: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J H; Lin, L F

    1998-11-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted on abused drugs, most focus on the problems of addiction (dependence) and their neurotoxicities. Now accumulated data have demonstrated that the genotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity of abused drugs can also be detrimental to our health. In this review, commonly abused substances, including LSD, opiates (diacetylmorphine, morphine, opium and codeine), cocaine, cannabis, betel quid and khat, are discussed for their potential genotoxicity/carcinogenicity. The available literature in the field, although not as abundant as for neurotoxicity, clearly indicates the capability of abused drugs to induce genotoxicity.

  18. The Golden Crescent and HIV/AIDS in Central Asia: deadly interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyrer, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan has become the world's largest producer of illicit opiates. Opium and its derivative heroin are widespread substances of use, abuse and dependency in Central Asia. The region is currently undergoing expanding HIV epidemics driven largely by needle sharing among people who use drugs, in contexts where public health interventions to reduce the harms associated with substance use are limited by policy, law and legalistic and repressive approaches to drug users. Evidence-based approaches to drug treatment are lacking or limited in multiple states. Urgent reform is needed. The massive volumes of Afghan's illicit opiate exports are having serious impacts on the health of the region.

  19. Victorian naturalists in China: science and informal empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fa-ti

    2003-03-01

    This paper discusses the research of British naturalists in China during the period between the Opium War and the collapse of the Qing dynasty (1839-1911). China was defeated in the Opium War and forced to open treaty ports for trade with the Westerners. The foreign powers, particularly Britain, imposed upon the Qing government treaties, concession leases, favourable trade conditions, legal privileges and so on to reduce its political autonomy. In the shadow of the informal empire, not only did the British have more freedom to travel in China, first at the treaty ports and later in the interior, but they successively established diplomatic , commercial and missionary institutions in dozens of Chinese cities. The most important of them - the British Consular Service, the Chinese Maritime Customs and the Protestant missionary organizations - provided the talent and infrastructure for natural historical research and became networks for scientific information. The research into China's natural history epitomized the characteristics of British research on China in general: it engaged in collecting and circulating an ever-increasing amount of information and aimed at producing 'factual' and 'useful' knowledge about China. The paper modified current literature on scientific imperialism, which has dealt primarily with the colonial context, by examining the role of nineteenth-century British imperial science in the context of informal empire.

  20. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. The Frequency of High-Risk Behaviors Among Iranian College Students Using Indirect Methods: Network Scale-Up and Crosswise Model

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    Kazemzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Since the direct questions usually underestimate the frequency of sensitive behaviors, indirect methods can be used to estimate the frequency of some risky behaviors such as illicit drug use, sexual behaviors especially where these behaviors are highly stigmatized. Objectives In the current study, we indirectly estimated the prevalence of some risky behaviors among college students using two indirect methods: network scale-up (NSU and crosswise model (CM. Patients and Methods Having recruited 563 students from one of Iran’s major medical universities, the prevalence of opium and drug use, alcohol consumption, relationships with the opposite sex (RWOS,and extra/pre-marital sex (EPMS were estimated using two indirect methods. Results The estimated prevalence using the CM and NSU were alcohol consumption (16.8% vs. 8.1%, opium use (2.2% both, methamphetamine use (7.2% vs. 1.2%, taking tramadol without medical indications (14.8% vs. 4.8%, RWOS (42.3% vs. 31.9%, and EPMS (12.4% vs. 7.1%. Conclusions Lower estimations in the NSU method might be due to the transmission barrier, which means that students were not fully aware of the high-risk behaviors of their close friends. Nonetheless, it seems that these risky behaviors were more or less common among Iranian college students.

  2. A Household Study on the Prevalence of Substance Misuse in Tehran: The need for other methods to estimate the prevalence

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    Mehdi Nassr

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Substance misuse is a major public health threat in Iran. The total number of addicts in Iran is estimated to be between 700,000 and 4,000,000. A few limited household studies on the prevalence of substance misuse have been performed in Iran. Method: The residents of the sixth district of the municipality of Tehran who were over the age of 15 were selected as the study population. The sample size was 2,705. The instrument of the study was face-to-face interviews. Results: 184(6.8% of the subjects had used at least one substance in their lives and 142(5.2% used a substance during the month before the interviews. 132(4.88%, 10(0.37%, 3(0.11%, 5(0.19% and 4(15% of the subjects reported the use of alcohol, opium, opium residue, heroin, and cannabis respectively during the month before the interviews. Conclusion: The estimate and profile of substance use are different from other methodologies. This household study indicated lower than expected prevalence of opioids and higher than expected alcohol use. Indirect estimation methods are probably more appropriate for the prevalence studies of substance misuse in Iran.

  3. Characterization of a Single Chain Fv Antibody that Reacts with Free Morphine

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    Kazuhisa Sugimura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An immune phage library derived from mice, hyperimmunized with morphine-conjugated BSA, was used to isolate a single-chain Fv (scFv clone, M86, with binding activity to morphine-conjugated thyroglobulin (morphine-C-Tg but not to codeine-, cocaine-, or ketamine-conjugated Tg. Surface plasmon resonance analysis using a morphine-C-Tg-coupled CM5 sensor chip showed that the Kd value was 1.26 × 10−8 M. To analyze its binding activity to free morphine and related compounds, we performed a competitive ELISA with M86 and morphine-C-Tg in the absence or presence of varying doses of free morphine and related compounds. IC50 values for opium, morphine, codeine, and heroin were 257 ng/mL, 36.4, 7.3, and 7.4 nM, respectively. Ketamine and cocaine exhibited no competitive binding activity to M86. Thus, we established a phage library-derived scFv, M86, which recognized not only free morphine and codeine as opium components but also heroin. This characteristic of M86 may be useful for developing therapeutic reagents for opiate addiction and as a free morphine-specific antibody probe.

  4. Study Of Morphological Changes Of Uterine Horn Of Surri Mouse Depended To Morphine Before Puberty And DuringPuberty

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    Shadkhast M

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available : Morphine is the most important alkaloid of opium family which is found as much as ten percent in opium, and is in two types the sulfate morphine and the hydrochloride morphine."nMaterials and Methods: In this study morphological changes of uterus of surri mice due to oral consumption of sulfate morphine were studied. It was shown that, female surri mice following gradually increasing of morphine to water (0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml were depended to morphine. Female surri mice were classified in two age groups before puberty and depended to morphine during puberty. Each age group took morphine for 21 days. After finishing the period, the mice anesthetizing were weighted, then were anesthetizing and uterus was studied the length, width and apparent features."nResults&ConcIusion: In this study it was distinguished that length and width of uterine horn, between experimental and control groups, were significant (P< 0.01. Morphological changes such as anemia, the thinness and fragitidily walls of uterus and filiformity of uterine horns were observed."n"n"n"n"n"n 

  5. Epidemiology of Oral Cavity Cancers in a Country Located in the Esophageal Cancer Belt: A Case Control Study

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    Babak Saedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As one of the most common cancers among head and neck malignancies, cancer of the oral cavity probably has some variations in countries with a high prevalence of esophageal cancer.  Materials and Methods: Patients with oral cavity cancer who were treated at two tertiary referral centers from January 1999 to January 2009 were included in this study. In addition to demographic data, information regarding personal and family history of head and neck cancer, use of dentures, presence of immune deficiency, consumption of alcohol, and incidence of cigarette smoking was collected. Additionally, a history of opium usage was obtained from the participants in this study. Moreover, an appropriately matched control group was selected for comparisons between the risk factors.   Results: A total of 557 patients were entered into this study over a 10-year period, of whom 219 (39.3% were female and the remaining 338 (60.7% were male. The tongue was the most common site of cancer and 9% of the patients had a history of opium abuse, but more than half of the patients did not have any recognized risk factors. The incidence and stage of cancer had a significant relationship with cigarette smoking (P= 0.013.   Conclusion: Tongue cancer in non-smokers is the predominant pattern of oral cavity cancer in Iran.

  6. L’échec mondial de la lutte antidrogue : quelles leçonspour l’Afghanistan ?

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    Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available L’Afghanistan a vu sa production d’opium doubler entre 2002 et 2008, malgré un changement de régime à Kaboul, le soutien politique et l’aide politique et économique de la communauté internationale, et l’adoption de diverses mesures antidrogue. L’histoire du contrôle international des drogues en Asie est riche d’autres nombreux échecs de la lutte antidrogue et témoigne aussi de quelques succès. Autant de leçons dont les autorités afghanes et la communauté internationale pourraient s’inspirer à l’avenir.Afghan opium production doubled between 2002 and 2008 in spite of a regime change in Kabul, the political support and military and economic aid of the international community, as well as counternarcotics measures. The history of international drugs in Asia is rich in counternarcotics failures, despite a few successes. Such past experiences are lessons to be learned for the Afghan authorities and the international community.

  7. Perceived harmfulness of substance use: A pilot study

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    Siddharth Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harm ratings of substances help in understanding the perception toward substance use and formulating policies. Evidence of such harm ratings by substance users and their caregivers provides a clearer perspective of those who experience and observe such harm closely. Materials and Methods: Substance users and their caregivers were recruited from the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre of PGIMER, Chandigarh. Sociodemographic details of the subjects were noted. The subjects were then asked to rate a list of psychoactive preparations according to the harms they thought the preparation caused. The list of substances was developed taking into consideration substance commonly encountered in the geographical area. The harm ratings were transformed on a scale of 0-100. Results: All subjects were males and majority of them were educated above 10 th standard, were not employed and belonged to urban background. Most of them had taken psychoactive substances in their lifetimes but were currently abstinent. Most of the subjects endorsed intravenous drugs as the most harmful, followed by heroin. Beer and chewable tobacco considered the least harmful substances. Greater degree of education was associated with lower harm rankings for heroin, cannabis, dextropropoxyphene, and raw opium; while urban residence was associated with greater harm ratings for cannabis and raw opium. Differences in the harms were perceived for different preparations of the same active compound for alcohol and nicotine. Conclusion: Harm ratings of substances can be a useful guide while formulating policies and allocating resources. Need for further research extending this pilot study is emphasized.

  8. Maternal and Neonatal Complications of Substance Abuse in Iranian Pregnant Women

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    Maryam Hosseinnezhad-Yazdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals. Women who reported using opium, heroin, crack, cannabis or methamphetamine were compared with women with no reported history of drug abuse for obstetric complications and prenatal morbidity and neonatal mortality. From 100,620 deliveries substance abuse was recorded for 519 women giving a prevalence of 0.5%. Opium was the most prevalent substance abused followed by crack (a mix of heroin and amphetamines. The exposed group had significantly more obstetric complications including preterm low birth weight and postpartum hemorrhage than the non-exposed group. The exposed group had significantly worse prenatal outcomes including more admissions to intensive care unit and higher infant mortality than the non-exposed group. None of the women in the exposed group was on methadone treatment at time of delivery. Risks of maternal and neonatal complications were increased in substance using pregnant women, especially preterm birth and low birth weight. We recommend a multidisciplinary team to provide methadone maintenance therapy for substance using pregnant women and urinary screen of all pregnant women presenting to hospital.

  9. Clinical Research on Detoxification with Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; XIN Yu-hu; ZONG Lei; IHAO Shan-xiang; LI Shen; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To confirm the effects of acupuncture, and Chinese medicines in controlling the withdrawal symptoms from the opium-like drugs. Method 96 heroin-dependent subjects were divided into four groups,which were treated respectively by western medicine (Agroup), acupuncture (B group), Chinese herbs (Cgroup), and acupuncture & Chinese herbs (D group).Before, during and after treatment, the concentration of serum testosterone and prolactin, and immune functions (serum CD3+ 、CD4+ 、CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ ) were tested.Results After treatment, the concentration of serum testosterone in A and B group were higher than before and during treatment, and in C and D group, during treatment were higher. In the four groups, the concentration of serum prolactin before treatment was the highest. The levels of CD3+、CD4+、 CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ were lowest before treatment and highest after treatment. Conclusion Acupuncture and Chinese medicines effective in relieving spasm and pain can control the opium-like drug withdrawal symptoms to different degrees, especially acupuncture. However, acupuncture cannot ease the withdrawal symptoms completely. Acupuncture does not strikingly cooperate with the Chinese medicines effective in relieving spasm and pain (including M-receptor antagonists). In detoxification, the Jiaji points are the primary ones and symptom-based points the secondary ones.

  10. Economic-Social Analysis of Global Illicit Drug Trade

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    Salahedin Ghaderi

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Political unstability, less respect to the role of law, low life standards and suitable conditions for poppy/coca cultivation, have all affected on growing illicit drug international trafficking. Colombia is the center for global cocaine industry. Colombians had to use ship in the Carribean but now they pass Mexico where the costs are half of using ship. Mexican traffickers permit that the domestic poppy plants turned into herion, Colombian cocaine transited to USA and methamephtamine manufactured and distributed. Golden triangle in southeast Asia is one of the major regions for opium poppy cultivation. This region has seen many guerrilla warfare for selling illicit drugs especially in Myanmar. Manufactured hroin is usually dealt in Thailand. Golden Crescent region in southwest Asia has a suitable climate for opium poppy cultivation which provides necessay money for purchasing needed weapons by rival groups in northwestern border provinces of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Nigeria is one of the main centers for transporting heroin from Golden Crescent and cocaine from Brazil. Dominics run cocaine trade in New York and New England and Afro-American criminal organizations conduct heroin trading in big cities such as New york, Detroit, Chicago, Phila Delphia and Washington. Street trading of illicit drugs is mainly done by cultural or commanding gangs. Illicit drug traffickers apply many methods to laundering their profits including money exchange, smurfs, electronic transferring, and faced firms (the firms that are only registered.

  11. 林则徐与海神祭祀%Lin Ze-xu and Sacrifice to the God of Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱慧

    2013-01-01

    Lin Ze-xu is a progressive thinker and great patriot in the history of modern China, and is a devout theist at the same time. He led the splendid action of destroying opium stocks in Humen Beach, which is a glorious page in Chinese history, moreover, he left us a famous immortal literary piece, a Funeral Oration to the God of Sea, declaring to the world our Chinese people’s decision to ban opium and refuse drugs.%林则徐是中国近代进步的思想家和伟大的爱国主义者,同时他也是一位虔诚的有神论者。他领导的轰轰烈烈的虎门销烟在中国历史上留下了光辉的一页,也为我们留下了不朽名篇《祭海神文》,向世界宣告了中国禁烟和拒毒的决心。

  12. Literary investigation on the origin of poppy and other narcotics Research Articles

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    Lim Chung San

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to developing orally administered analgesics and locally injected pharmacopuncture analgesics like opioids. Methods : Literary investigation on the origin of poppy (Papaver somniferum L and other narcotics was conducted to examine the potential of developing orally administered analgesics and locally injected pharmacopuncture analgesics. Opium is a gum-like mass derived from air-dried white fluid of immature fruit of the poppy. Opium contains approximately 20 types of alkaloids including morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine and others. Natural opioids and synthetic alkaloid derivatives are the constituents of opioid analgesics and their effects and side-effects depend on the peculiarities of receptors. An extreme caution is required in the selection of proper dosage, proper analgesic types, and indications for successful pain management. Results and Discussion : With the enactment of "Narcotic control protocol", herbs such as cannibis and poppy are no longer available for use by Korean medicine doctors, and these doctors are faced with difficulty in managing severe pain in the clinical environment. A systematic consideration is inevitable for overcoming the limitation on these analgesics.

  13. Assessment of Substance Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents’: Integration of Self-Control into Extended Parallel Process Model

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    K Witte

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a urinary rapid immuno-chromatography test for opium and marijuana. Results: The results of the study show that 6.9% of students used drugs (especially opium and marijuana and also peer pressure was determinant factor for using drugs. Moreover the EPPM theoretical variables of perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy with self-control are predictive factors to behavior intention against substance abuse. In this manner, self-control had a significant effect on protective motivation and perceived efficacy. Low self- control was a predictive factor of drug abuse and low self-control students had drug abuse experience. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an integration of self-control into EPPM can be effective in expressing and designing primary preventive programs against drug abuse, and assessing abused behavior and deviance behaviors among adolescent population, especially risk seekers

  14. For peace and pain: the medical legitimisation of Afghanistan's poppy crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaran, Amir; Boozary, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Since the overthrow of the Taliban in 2001, there has been an overall increase in illicit opium production in Afghanistan and mounting human losses. The United Nations has attributed 1 million human deaths to Afghan opiates over the past decade. As the war in Afghanistan nears a crucial mark, the NATO coalition forces and Afghan people can no longer afford the same ineffective counternarcotics strategy. This commentary proposes a strategic revision that reframes Afghanistan's poppy problem as an opportunity for global public health. Specifically, The Afghan poppy crop could be repurposed away from illicit drug production, and towards manufacturing licit opioid analgesics to address unmet needs for pain palliation, particularly for diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer in the developing world--that is, illegal opium could be converted into legal pain medicine, solving two problems at once. We present a supply-and-demand that illustrates how this useful exchange could be made, and discuss the political opposition that now stands in the way and perpetuates the unsatisfactory status quo in Afghanistan.

  15. The Comparision of Social Anxiety Disorder and Shyness in Addicted and Non-Addicted Men

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    Anari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare social anxiety disorder and shyness in addicted and non-addicted men. Method: The method of this study was causal-comparative research and the sampling done by purposive sampling. However, 30 men who were addicted to opium and were referred for the first time to Arak Behzisti self report center were selected. Then, 30 paired samples of non-addicted men who had not any addiction history in their life selected as a comparison group and Henderson/Zimbardo Shyness Questionnaire (2001 and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (1981 were administered in both groups. In SPSS software data was analyzed by running of independent samples t test. Results: the results showed that addicted men had reported higher scores in shyness and social phobia disorder in comparison to non-addicted men. Conclusion: With consideration of results it can be concluded that people with shyness and social anxiety disorder, use opium to reduce social anxiety and avoidance. Clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of substance abuse should be considered.

  16. Isolation and identification of unique marker compounds from the Tasmanian poppy Papaver somniferum N. Implications for the identification of illicit heroin of Tasmanian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Luke R; Skopec, Jana; McCluskey, Adam

    2008-03-05

    Tasmanian opium accounts for 25% of the world's legal supply of opium straw, and in 1998-99 sufficient numbers of flower pods (66,013) to manufacture ca 500 kg of heroin were stolen. Whilst the heroin signature program has been developed to determine the origin of heroin from other key producers, no such signature currently exists for Tasmanian derived heroin. Tasmanian poppies contain a unique alkaloid, oripavine, which is the source of 'marker' impurities in illicit heroin produced from Tasmanian poppy straw. Treatment of oripavine (500mg) under Thiboumery and Mohr heroin processing conditions, followed by simple evaporative workup afforded 613 mg of a dark orange residue, which upon extensive chromatographic purification yielded oripavine 3-acetate (2) 22 mg; 3-acetyl-N-acetyldesthebaine (3) 35 mg; 3-acetyl-6-methoxy-4,5-epoxyphenanthrene (4) 5.8 mg; 3,4-diacetyl-6-methoxyphenanthrene (5) 27 mg; and 3,4,6-methoxy-5-[2(N-methylacetamido)]ethylphenanthrene (6) 52 mg. Compounds (2-6) are derived from oripavine and are unique to heroin derived from the Tasmanian poppy Papaver somniferum N. Analysis of illicit heroin samples seized from Turkey, Pakistan, Columbia and Myanmar did not reveal any of the aforementioned marker compounds. We have, however, identified four of these marker compounds (3-6) in seized heroin samples from Australia suggesting that they are of Tasmanian origin. Complete details of the isolation and identification of these compounds are provided.

  17. Biochemistry and occurrence of O-demethylation in plant metabolism

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    Jillian Hagel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Demethylases play a pivitol role in numerous biological processes from covalent histone modification and DNA repair to specialized metabolism in plants and microorganisms. Enzymes that catalyze O- and N-demethylation include 2-oxoglutarate (2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases, cytochromes P450, Rieske-domain proteins and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent oxidases. Proposed mechanisms for demethylation by 2OG/Fe(II-dependent enzymes involve hydroxylation at the O- or N-linked methyl group followed by formaldehyde elimination. Members of this enzyme family catalyze a wide variety of reactions in diverse plant metabolic pathways. Recently, we showed that 2OG/Fe(II-dependent dioxygenases catalyze the unique O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy, which provides a rational basis for the widespread occurrence of demethylases in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism.

  18. [William Wilkie Collins: medicine as an aid for enriching the creation of fiction literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda C, Marcelo

    2011-10-01

    William Wilkie Collins (WWC) is a well-known prolific and innovative English writer of the Victorian age. After 150 years he is still being extensively read and all his main works are translated into Spanish. Furthermore, WWC has been acclaimed by famous writers such as JL Borges and TS Eliot as one of the best story-tellers of all times, and a master of the complexities of the plot of stories. WWC mentioned on his works many innovator aspects of medicine, demonstrating an uncanny power of observation and real interest in science. Notoriously, WWC described posttraumatic epilepsy, the clinical effects of opium, the introduction of people with sensorial deficits, such as blindness and deafness, as main figures in his novels. WWC also showed an interest in the management of mental disorders and the use of music as a potential therapy. In this review, we comment these interesting aspects of the creative work of this genius of the fiction literature.

  19. Clinical Manifestations of the Opiate Withdrawal Syndrome

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    Faniya Shigakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, substance abuse is one of the most serious problems facing our society. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical manifestations of the opiate withdrawal syndrome (OWS. The study included 112 patients (57 women and 55 men aged from 18 to 64 years with opium addiction according to the DSM-IV. To study the clinical manifestation of OWS, the special 25-score scale with four sections to assess severity of sleep disorders, pain syndrome, autonomic disorders, and affective symptoms was used. Given the diversity of the OWS symptoms, attention was focused on three clinical variants, affective, algic and mixed. The OWS affective variant was registered more frequently in women, while the mixed type of OWS was more typical of men.

  20. 14-Amino-4,5-Epoxymorphinan Derivatives and Their Pharmacological Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John W.; Husbands, Stephen M.

    14-Hydroxy-7,8-dihydromorphinone (oxymorphone) and its derivatives (oxycodone, naloxone, naltrexone) have become among the most important clinical agents to have been produced from opium. 14-Aminocodeinone and its 7,8-dihydro and morphinone derivatives are of more recent origin thanks to the work of Professor Gordon Kirby and his collaborators. The 14-amino parent compounds have proved of limited interest but their 14-acylamino- and 14-alkylamino derivatives have been extensively studied. The 4'-substituted cinnamoylamino-17-cyclopropylmethyl-7,8-dihydronormorphinones, C-CAM and M-CAM are the best available selective MOR irreversible antagonists and the related dihydrocodeinone MC-CAM, 4'-chlorocinnamoylamino-17-cyclopropylmethyl-7,8-dihydronorcodeinone, is a long-acting MOR partial agonist with extended MOR-pseudoirreversible antagonist activity that could be a candidate for pharmacotherapy of opiate abuse/dependence.

  1. Impact of Spouse's Opiate Dependence on the Partner's

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    Roya Noori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the influence of drug dependency on sexual function of wives of opium addicts.Materials and methods: In a cross-sectional study, 150 wives of opiate dependent men were assessed for the impact of drug addiction. Sociodemographic factors like age, educational level, job, marital duration and having child were evaluated. Sexual function was measured using relationship and sexuality scale (RSS. Results: Approximately 73% of the participitants were sexually active with having at least one intercourse in the last 2 weeks, and approximately half of the participitants had unsatisfied intercourse. About ninety percent reported negative effect of the addiction on their sexual life. After the spouse addiction, sexual desire, ability to reach orgasm and frequency of sexual intercourse were decreased in 73%, 64% and 67.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The wives of opiate addicts believe that their sexual function has been impaired by the addiction of their husbands.

  2. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, U. E-mail: ugo@ansto.gov.au; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A

    2004-08-01

    After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  3. Album di famiglia

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    Riccardo Donati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In un articolo del 1821 dedicato al grande satirico tedesco Jean Paul, Thomas de Quincey – il celebre autore di Confessions of an English opium-eater, libro amatissimo da Baudelaire e Poe – asseriva che «[...] in ogni atto dell'umore umoristico c'è un influsso di natura morale: raggi, diretti e rifratti, generati dalla volontà e dagli affetti, dall'indole e dal temperamento, penetrano in ogni umorismo; e da qui deriva che l'umorismo è di carattere diffusivo, pervadendo un intero corso di pensieri». Un'osservazione che mi pare consentanea al panorama tracciato da Giancarlo Alfano ne L'umorismo letterario. Una lunga storia europea, volume dove...

  4. Pain Disorder, Hysteria or Somatization?

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    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain used to be a simple issue. It was caused by physical injury or disease and the sufferer had to rest and take opium. That was about two hundred years ago. A few scattered commentators from Jeremiah (Lamentations I:12-13 to Montaigne (1 had the idea that emotion could cause pain or influence it. The development of anatomical knowledge, closely followed by physiology and then pathology, produced a dilemma. There were many pains that could not be explained by the most modern physical methods of the nineteenth century. Hodgkiss (2 has tersely labelled the problem as "pain without lesion". The nineteenth century solution lay in a diagnosis of hysteria.

  5. Del ficticio entusiasmo: el mercado de las drogas en el tránsito ala prohibición en chile. 1920 - 1960.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fernández Labbé.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the circulation of substances like cocaine, morphine, opium, and marijuana (cannabis sativa in Chile between 1920 and 1960. It underscores the development of circuits and organizations involved in the production, importation, and traffic of legally-and medically-regulated substances as well as the implementation of laws and institutions charged with regulating them. In this way, the article analyzes the role played by doctors and pharmacists in the constitution of an illegal market for drugs and the emergence of specialized traffickers and police organizations dedicated to persecuting them. All this occurred in the context of a legal system that tolerated the regulated prescription of these substances and that, at the same time, witnessed the continual violation of these norms.

  6. Neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal in addicted patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Babhadiashar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphine is one of the most potent alkaloid in opium, which has substantial medical uses and needs and it is the first active principle purified from herbal source. Morphine has commonly been used for relief of moderate to severe pain as it acts directly on the central nervous system; nonetheless, its chronic abuse increases tolerance and physical dependence, which is commonly known as opiate addiction. Morphine withdrawal syndrome is physiological and behavioral symptoms that stem from prolonged exposure to morphine. A majority of brain regions are hypofunctional over prolonged abstinence and acute morphine withdrawal. Furthermore, several neural mechanisms are likely to contribute to morphine withdrawal. The present review summarizes the literature pertaining to neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal. Despite the fact that morphine withdrawal is a complex process, it is suggested that neural mechanisms play key roles in morphine withdrawal.

  7. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, Recep [Ministry of Education, Projects Coordination Unit, Ankara (Turkey); Cetinkaya, Selim [Gazi Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar [Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  8. On the Measurement of Morphine Level and Determination of Consumption of Different Drugs in People’s Urine at Different Ages through High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed shahabi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Morphine is one of the important narcotics which constitutes one of the alkaloid and opium components. If this substance is prepared defectively, it will appear in a variety of colors. Therefore, it is not possible to identify this substance by its color. Method: In this study, drug addicts were invited to take urine tests. After morphine extraction from urine samples by chromium toxicity method, different standard concentrations were injected into HPLC device and the resultant diagrams were analyzed. Then, some changes were made into the methodology for the optimality of measurement process and morphine determination in human urine. Results: It was found that the amount of morphine available in the urine samples was measureable through high-performance liquid chromatography and the amount of impurities added to drugs could be determined. Conclusion: This method can be used for diagnosis.

  9. Can coffee help fighting the drug problem? Preliminary results of a Brazilian youth drug study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darcy R LIMA; Gladis B FLORES; Femanda ANDRADE

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION At different times and at different places many plants have been domesticated, and the development of agriculture was an intensification by man of his food extractive process. Simultaneous to the agricultural development, the selection of psychotropic plants has always been one of the most tempting and determined activities of mankind in its history. Behaviorally active drugs have captured and control human behaviour in susceptible individuals. Nowadays the most consumed plants worldwide are legal ones such as coffee and tobacco and illegal ones such as cocaine, opium and cannabis. And little is known about the potential of plants as new and major sources of drugs, foods, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, herbal medicines and soft drinks, among other profitable/healthy byproducts.

  10. Variazione poetica, metamorfosi, ibridazione linguistica: scritture del corpo e identità in trasformazione nell'opera di Tawada Yōko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Eugenio Barbieri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A recurring theme in the work of Japanese writer Tawada Yōko is metamorphosis, intended first and foremost as body transformation, as the introduction in the story of an element of magic, and used to question the monolithic notion of identity in the global dimension of migrant citizenship. On the other hand linguistic metamorphosis - i.e. morphological, grammatical and syntactical hybridization between Japanese and German language - is another strategy frequently used by the writer to improve her textual expressive potential.This paper aims at presenting a brief analysis of the use of metamorphosis, both in its narrative and linguistic dimension, with reference to Tawada Yōko's Das Bad (1989, Opium für Ovid (2000 and Abenteuer der Deutschen Grammatik (2010.

  11. 清代理学的特点%Characteristics of lixue in Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚书铎

    2007-01-01

    The lixue理学(learning of the Neo-Confucian principles) of the Qing Dynasty followed the tradition of lixue in the Song,Yuan and Ming dynasties,but it had its own characteristics.First,there was no primary direction and core train of ideas.Second,there was no creativity and the emphasis was made on ethics.Third,after the Opium War,the lixue of the Qing Dynasty was influenced by Western culture,partly resisting and partly integrating with the latter.Fourth,the tradition of Neo-Confucianism of the Song Dynasty and the tradition of the Confucianism of the Han Dynasty co-existed and had disputes with each other,but also learned from each other.

  12. Engineering biosynthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D.

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. Here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. Our work provides structural validation of the secoberberine intermediates and the description of the narcotoline-4′-O-methyltransferase, suggesting this activity is catalysed by a unique heterodimer. We also reconstitute a 14-step biosynthetic pathway of noscapine from the simple alkaloid norlaudanosoline by engineering a yeast strain expressing 16 heterologous plant enzymes, achieving reconstitution of a complex plant pathway in a microbial host. Other engineered yeasts produce previously inaccessible pathway intermediates and a novel derivative, thereby advancing protoberberine and noscapine related drug discovery. PMID:27378283

  13. Australian heroin seizures and the causes of the 2001 heroin shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiggens, John

    2008-08-01

    This paper uses Australian heroin seizure data, along with estimates of the size of the Australian heroin market to evaluate the impact of drug law enforcement on the 2001 Australian heroin shortage from the percentage of the market seized. It also critically examines international heroin production trends and published reports on the causes of the Australian heroin shortage. Its conclusion is that previous studies may have overstated the success of drug law enforcement and that the most likely explanation for Australia's 2001 heroin shortage was a significant decline in heroin production world-wide, due to a general move away from heroin production in the countries of Southeast Asia and the prohibition on opium growing by the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

  14. Rewriting the history of Chinese families in nineteenth-century Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The nineteenth-century Chinese population in Australia was made up mostly of men, drawing many commentators to the conclusion these men faced an absence of family life, resulting in prostitution, gambling, opium use and other so-called vices. Recent research has, however, expanded and complicated our knowledge of Chinese families in New South Wales and Victoria, particularly concerning the extent to which Chinese men and white Australian women formed intimate relationships. This article traces the origins of the misconceptions about Chinese families in nineteenth-century Australia, and considers how new directions in scholarship over the past decade are providing methods for enlarging our knowledge. It argues that instead of being oddities or exceptions, Chinese-European families were integral to the story of Australia's early Chinese communities.

  15. Complete biosynthesis of opioids in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanie, Stephanie; Thodey, Kate; Trenchard, Isis J; Filsinger Interrante, Maria; Smolke, Christina D

    2015-09-04

    Opioids are the primary drugs used in Western medicine for pain management and palliative care. Farming of opium poppies remains the sole source of these essential medicines, despite diverse market demands and uncertainty in crop yields due to weather, climate change, and pests. We engineered yeast to produce the selected opioid compounds thebaine and hydrocodone starting from sugar. All work was conducted in a laboratory that is permitted and secured for work with controlled substances. We combined enzyme discovery, enzyme engineering, and pathway and strain optimization to realize full opiate biosynthesis in yeast. The resulting opioid biosynthesis strains required the expression of 21 (thebaine) and 23 (hydrocodone) enzyme activities from plants, mammals, bacteria, and yeast itself. This is a proof of principle, and major hurdles remain before optimization and scale-up could be achieved. Open discussions of options for governing this technology are also needed in order to responsibly realize alternative supplies for these medically relevant compounds.

  16. Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry in routine analysis of confiscated drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, Tiina J; Flink, Anu; Haapala, Markus; Laakkonen, Ulla-Maija; Aalberg, Laura; Ketola, Raimo A; Kostiainen, Risto

    2011-07-15

    A comprehensive study was made, where desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) was applied to the direct analysis of confiscated drugs and pharmaceuticals of various forms and matrices. The analyzed samples included herbal products [Catha edulis (khat), Psilocybe mushrooms, opium and Spice], designer drugs in tablet and powder form [e.g. meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), 3-fluoromethamphetamine (3-FMA), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and methylone], and anabolic steroids in oil and tablets. The analyses were performed with ion trap mass spectrometer in MS and MS(2) modes and the obtained spectra were compared with GC-MS results. Contamination of the mass spectrometer was avoided by careful adjustment of the distance of the sample from the mass spectrometer inlet. DAPPI proved to be a fast and specific analysis technique, which does not require any sample preparation, and which therefore suits well to this type of forensic analysis.

  17. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough.

  18. How Corruption Blunts Counternarcotic Policies in Afghanistan: A Multiagent Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Armando; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed M.; Łatek, Maciej M.

    We report the results of multiagent modeling experiments on interactions between the drug industry and corruption in Afghanistan. The model formalizes assumptions on the motivations of players in the Afghan drug industry, quantifies the tradeoffs among various choices players face and enables inspection of the time, space and level of supply chain in which one can expect positive and negative impacts of counternarcotic policies. If reducing opium exports is one measure of effectiveness for NATO operations in Afghanistan, grasping the links between corruption and the drug industry should provide a better picture of the second-order interactions between corruption and investment in improving the governance quality, in deploying security forces tasked with eradication and interdiction and in programs to enhance rural livelihoods.

  19. 编年史视角下的日本在华鸦片贸易%"Imperial Japanese"Drug Trafficking in China:Historiographic Perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    若林正(加拿大); 王山峰(译)

    2014-01-01

    This historiographic study places "imperial Japanese"opium operations -largely run through Chi-nese collaborator regimes-in the context of postwar Japanese scholarly debates on World War Two in Asia .This approach may seem circuitous and convoluted .Why not just describe the opium operations directly .Three factors necessitate this tactical detour .First, not all "imperial Japanese"were ethnic Japanese;colonial peoples such as Koreans and Taiwanese also plied the drug trade in their capacity as Japanese imperial subjects .Second , this topic suffers acute neglect in Japan today owing to a form of postwar political correctness that warrants as much attention as the wartime opium operations themselves .Third, such ideological constraints on historical scholarship warp our understanding of Japanese aggression in China -including the role played by colonial subjects .Below, I briefly out-line the geopolitical contours of "imperial Japanese"opium operations on the Asian continent from 1895 to 1945 , and then tackle the prickly issue of why academic historians in postwar Japan feel a need to portray Chinese and Ko -reans solely as victims of a "Fifteen-Year War"between 1931 and 1945 .In other words , it is hoped that this study of Japanese drug trafficking will also unlock other doors .%二战期间日本在华的毒品走私,很大程度上是通过日本在华的协作者,即汉奸政权开展的,这也是绝大多数日本学者在战后讨论此问题时一个大的语境,这一研究路径看起来似乎有些迂回复杂。为什么不直接研究鸦片贸易呢?有三个方面的因素证明迂回研究的必要性。第一,并非所有的“日本人”都是种族上的日本人,日本殖民下的朝鲜人和台湾人也充当了日本在华鸦片走私的工具。第二,这一问题在战后政治正确的框架下未获得研究许可并被严重忽略了。第三,正因为有上述意识形态方面的强制,历史学者对于日本侵

  20. The development of modern new Confucianism%现代新儒学的发展历程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小敏

    2015-01-01

    This article from the new Confucianism since the opium war, the three generation of "new Confucianism" point of view, through to the selected representative thoughts to comb to simple introduction to the development of new Confucianism, this paper briefly describes the modern new Confucianism development status in different periods.%本文从鸦片战争以来的新儒学谈起,采用"新儒家三代说"的观点,通过对所选取的有代表性的人物思想进行梳理来对新儒学的发展历程进行简单介绍,简述了现代新儒学在不同时期发展状况.

  1. Total biosynthesis of opiates by stepwise fermentation using engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Akira; Matsumura, Eitaro; Koyanagi, Takashi; Katayama, Takane; Kawano, Noriaki; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Sato, Fumihiko; Minami, Hiromichi

    2016-02-05

    Opiates such as morphine and codeine are mainly obtained by extraction from opium poppies. Fermentative opiate production in microbes has also been investigated, and complete biosynthesis of opiates from a simple carbon source has recently been accomplished in yeast. Here we demonstrate that Escherichia coli serves as an efficient, robust and flexible platform for total opiate synthesis. Thebaine, the most important raw material in opioid preparations, is produced by stepwise culture of four engineered strains at yields of 2.1 mg l(-1) from glycerol, corresponding to a 300-fold increase from recently developed yeast systems. This improvement is presumably due to strong activity of enzymes related to thebaine synthesis from (R)-reticuline in E. coli. Furthermore, by adding two genes to the thebaine production system, we demonstrate the biosynthesis of hydrocodone, a clinically important opioid. Improvements in opiate production in this E. coli system represent a major step towards the development of alternative opiate production systems.

  2. Sociocultural perspective of substance use in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H K

    1996-01-01

    The present communication focuses on a sociocultural perspective of substance use in a pluralistic and diverse culture. India has a history of use of plant products, viz., cannabis, opium, and home-brewed alcoholic beverages, within a defined sociocultural framework over five millennium. Cross sectional epidemiological studies in the field of substance use in different parts of India show that certain social groups are more "vulnerable" to substance use. Caste, religion, and local customs and traditions play a significant role in the choice of drugs, their consumption, and their control in rural/semiurban populations. The intercultural barriers are diminishing in urban populations, and even alien drugs like heroin have been introduced. The social and cultural implications of the traditional vis-a-vis the altering drug use scene are discussed at length.

  3. Drug: D08234 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08234 Drug Morphine tartrate; Morphine Tartrate (TN) (C17H19NO3)2. C4H6O6 720.2894...215] hsa04080(4988) Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction map07224 Opioid receptor agonists/antagonists map05032 Morphine...R:br08303] N NERVOUS SYSTEM N02 ANALGESICS N02A OPIOIDS N02AA Natural opium alkaloids N02AA01 Morphine D08234 Morphine... tartrate USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Analgesics Opioid Analgesics, Long-acting Morphine D08234 Morphine...ein-coupled receptors Rhodopsin family Opioid mu-opioid receptor [HSA:4988] [KO:K04215] Morphine [ATC:N02AA01] D08234 Morphine

  4. The historical role of demographic change in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z

    1996-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Opium War, Britain coerced the Manchurian government into signing three treaties under which Britain occupied and leased the territory of Hong Kong and established colonial rule in the region. The rapid development of Hong Kong over the past 30 years has resulted in an increase of the territory's population from 5650 in 1841 to 6,149,000 at the end of 1994. Hong Kong now ranks fourth among the global financial centers, sixth in global foreign exchange reserve, and eighth among the world's trade systems, with per capita output of US$21,760. Demographic change and an exceptional development model were instrumental in building Hong Kong into what it has become. This paper discusses successful demographic transformation as the milestone of Hong Kong's social development, population growth as the basis of the Hong Kong government's economic strategy, and a modernized population management system as an important condition for the smooth transition of Hong Kong.

  5. Engineering biosynthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D

    2016-07-05

    Noscapine is a potential anticancer drug isolated from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum, and genes encoding enzymes responsible for the synthesis of noscapine have been recently discovered to be clustered on the genome of P. somniferum. Here, we reconstitute the noscapine gene cluster in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to achieve the microbial production of noscapine and related pathway intermediates, complementing and extending previous in planta and in vitro investigations. Our work provides structural validation of the secoberberine intermediates and the description of the narcotoline-4'-O-methyltransferase, suggesting this activity is catalysed by a unique heterodimer. We also reconstitute a 14-step biosynthetic pathway of noscapine from the simple alkaloid norlaudanosoline by engineering a yeast strain expressing 16 heterologous plant enzymes, achieving reconstitution of a complex plant pathway in a microbial host. Other engineered yeasts produce previously inaccessible pathway intermediates and a novel derivative, thereby advancing protoberberine and noscapine related drug discovery.

  6. A Papaver somniferum 10-gene cluster for synthesis of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Thilo; Gazda, Valeria; He, Zhesi; Kaminski, Filip; Kern, Marcelo; Larson, Tony R; Li, Yi; Meade, Fergus; Teodor, Roxana; Vaistij, Fabián E; Walker, Carol; Bowser, Tim A; Graham, Ian A

    2012-06-29

    Noscapine is an antitumor alkaloid from opium poppy that binds tubulin, arrests metaphase, and induces apoptosis in dividing human cells. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway will enable improvement in the commercial production of noscapine and related bioactive molecules. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the exclusive expression of 10 genes encoding five distinct enzyme classes in a high noscapine-producing poppy variety, HN1. Analysis of an F(2) mapping population indicated that these genes are tightly linked in HN1, and bacterial artificial chromosome sequencing confirmed that they exist as a complex gene cluster for plant alkaloids. Virus-induced gene silencing resulted in accumulation of pathway intermediates, allowing gene function to be linked to noscapine synthesis and a novel biosynthetic pathway to be proposed.

  7. The Survey Two Decades of Prevalence Studies among Iran University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sarrami

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the main purpose of this research was to collect and survey the prevalence studies of drug misuse and psychotropic drugs that have been done sporadically among university students from 1374 to 1392. Up to now, no survey of data has been done on these researches. Method: library has been the method of this research and 37 researches were analyzed. Findings: methodologically, the results show that many prevalence studies are with major faults. Conclusion: the studies show that less attention has been given to prevalence studies of drug addiction and useful interventions in university students. However, the rate of addiction during 2 decades has been stable cigar, hookah take the first and second places and alcohol, opium, hashish and heroine come respectively.

  8. A microbial biomanufacturing platform for natural and semisynthetic opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thodey, Kate; Galanie, Stephanie; Smolke, Christina D

    2014-10-01

    Opiates and related molecules are medically essential, but their production via field cultivation of opium poppy Papaver somniferum leads to supply inefficiencies and insecurity. As an alternative production strategy, we developed baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a microbial host for the transformation of opiates. Yeast strains engineered to express heterologous genes from P. somniferum and bacterium Pseudomonas putida M10 convert thebaine to codeine, morphine, hydromorphone, hydrocodone and oxycodone. We discovered a new biosynthetic branch to neopine and neomorphine, which diverted pathway flux from morphine and other target products. We optimized strain titer and specificity by titrating gene copy number, enhancing cosubstrate supply, applying a spatial engineering strategy and performing high-density fermentation, which resulted in total opioid titers up to 131 mg/l. This work is an important step toward total biosynthesis of valuable benzylisoquinoline alkaloid drug molecules and demonstrates the potential for developing a sustainable and secure yeast biomanufacturing platform for opioids.

  9. Opiate addiction and the entanglements of imperialism and patriarchy in Manchukuo, 1932-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Norman

    2005-01-01

    In the Japanese colonial state of Manchukuo, opiate addiction was condemned by officials and critics alike. But the state-sponsored creation of a monopoly, opium laws, and rehabilitation programs failed to reduce rates of addiction. Further, official media condemnation of opiate addiction melded with local Chinese-language literature to stigmatise addiction, casing a negative light over the state's failure to realise its own anti-opiate agenda. Chinese writers were thus transfixed in a complex colonial environment in which they applauded measures to reduce harm to the local population while levelling critiques of Japanese colonial rule. This paper demonstrates how the Chinese-language literature of Manchukuo did not simply parrot official politics. It also delegitimised Japanese rule through opiate narratives that are gendered, consistently negative, and more critical of the state than might be expected in a colonial literature.

  10. Design and implementation of an automated liquid-phase microextraction-chip system coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Payán, María D Ramos; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-03-01

    An automated liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) device in a chip format has been developed and coupled directly to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 10-port 2-position switching valve was used to hyphenate the LPME-chip with the HPLC autosampler, and to collect the extracted analytes, which then were delivered to the HPLC column. The LPME-chip-HPLC system was completely automated and controlled by the software of the HPLC instrument. The performance of this system was demonstrated with five alkaloids i.e. morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine as model analytes. The composition of the supported liquid membrane (SLM) and carrier was optimized in order to achieve reasonable extraction performance of all the five alkaloids. With 1-octanol as SLM solvent and with 25 mM sodium octanoate as anionic carrier, extraction recoveries for the different opium alkaloids ranged between 17% and 45%. The extraction provided high selectivity, and no interfering peaks in the chromatograms were observed when applied to human urine samples spiked with alkaloids. The detection limits using UV-detection were in the range of 1-21 ng/mL for the five opium alkaloids presented in water samples. The repeatability was within 5.0-10.8% (RSD). The membrane liquid in the LPME-chip was regenerated automatically between every third injection. With this procedure the liquid membrane in the LPME-chip was stable in 3-7 days depending on the complexity of sample solutions with continuous operation. With this LPME-chip-HPLC system, series of samples were automatically injected, extracted, separated, and detected without any operator interaction.

  11. Poppy APETALA1/FRUITFULL orthologs control flowering time, branching, perianth identity, and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Ambrose, Barbara A; Litt, Amy

    2012-04-01

    Several MADS box gene lineages involved in flower development have undergone duplications that correlate with the diversification of large groups of flowering plants. In the APETALA1 gene lineage, a major duplication coincides with the origin of the core eudicots, resulting in the euFUL and the euAP1 clades. Arabidopsis FRUITFULL (FUL) and APETALA1 (AP1) function redundantly in specifying floral meristem identity but function independently in sepal and petal identity (AP1) and in proper fruit development and determinacy (FUL). Many of these functions are largely conserved in other core eudicot euAP1 and euFUL genes, but notably, the role of APETALA1 as an "A-function" (sepal and petal identity) gene is thought to be Brassicaceae specific. Understanding how functional divergence of the core eudicot duplicates occurred requires a careful examination of the function of preduplication (FUL-like) genes. Using virus-induced gene silencing, we show that FUL-like genes in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) function in axillary meristem growth and in floral meristem and sepal identity and that they also play a key role in fruit development. Interestingly, in opium poppy, these genes also control flowering time and petal identity, suggesting that AP1/FUL homologs might have been independently recruited in petal identity. Because the FUL-like gene functional repertoire encompasses all roles previously described for the core eudicot euAP1 and euFUL genes, we postulate subfunctionalization as the functional outcome after the major AP1/FUL gene lineage duplication event.

  12. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Mohammad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  13. A Systematic Review on Status of Lead Pollution and Toxicity in Iran; Guidance for Preventive Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Karrari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers,and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been amajor of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea,Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted andindustrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studiesevaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  14. Iranian Illicit Drug Market A Glance at Tehran’s Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Raeeis Dana

    2003-11-01

    To examine Iranian drug market, we have reviewed opium prices in Afghanistan and drug transition routes into the I. R. of Iran where some part of transited drugs are exported to Europe and United States of America. Owing to the fact that transited drugs are entering Iran via two border provinces namely Sistan and Baluchistan and Khorassan, and these two provinces have different conditions for drug traffickers, the price and type of transited drugs are varied in each region. In this study, changes in illicit drug prices in entering points (affected by internal situation of Afghanistan, price fluctuations inside the country and main factors of such changes are studied. Meanwhile, factors which influence over prices and their added value are explored on this basis, there is a regression which estimates the number of those who are active in illicit drug supply inside the country by using the rate of arrestees. The performance of anti-drug agencies is also appraised and there would be an estimation of total funds allocated by these agencies to illicit drug campaign, prevention and treatment. As a consequence, it is determined that the average cost spent for per kg of seized drugs is equal to opium average price. Another matter is drug distribution pattern in Tehran that is estimated through a comparative collation between illicit drug prices and some household consuming goods. It shows the rate of consumed drugs by an addict in comparison to consumed goods.Finally, the performance of rehabilitation centers and addicts’conditions icluding gender, education, income, occupation, marital statute and housing in ational as well as Tehran levels are studied.

  15. Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors in an Urban and Peri-urban Setting, Kerman, Southeastern Iran (KERCADR Study: Methodology and Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Navadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article was to present the sampling and measurements methods and the main preliminary findings of the KERCADR cohort study (first round in an urban and peri-urban setting, Kerman, southeastern Iran2009-11. Method: 5900 (3238 female people aged between 15 to 75 years were recruited in the household survey by non-proportional to size one-stage cluster sampling. Trained internal specialists, general practitioners, clinical psychologists and dentists have assessed the study subjects by person-assisted questionnaires regarding different NCD risk factors including cigarette and opium smoking, physical activity, nutrition habits, anxiety, depression, obesity, hypertension and oral health. Blood samples were also collected for determining FBS, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglyceride. Weighted standardized prevalence estimates were calculated by STATA 10 survey analysis package. Results: The participation rate was more than 95% in all subgroups. Cigarette smoking (18.4% vs. 1.2%, opium use (17.8% vs. 3.0% and triglyceridemia (16.1% vs. 12.0% were significantly higher among men than women. In contrast, women were presented with higher level of sever anxiety (29.1% vs. 16.7%, obesity (16.8% vs. 9.2%, low-physical activity (45.1% vs. 39.2% and uncontrolled diabetes (60.2% vs. 31.0%. More than 68% of all subjects have presented with moderate to severe gingival index scores. Conclusion: The first round of the KERCADR cohort with sufficient sample size and response rate provided precise estimates for the main clinical and para-clinical NCD risk factors. These evidences need to be translated into public health interventions and monitored in the next rounds of the cohort.

  16. Factors Associated with Anxiety in Premature Coronary Artery Disease Patients: THC-PAC Study

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    Seyed Hesameddin Abbasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety may negatively affect the course of coronary artery disease (CAD. The aim of this study was to assess which factors are associated with anxiety in young adults with CAD. A cohort of individuals with premature coronary artery disease was formed between 2004-2011, as the Tehran Heart Center's Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis Cohort (THC-PAC study. Patients (men≤45-year-old, and women≤55-year-old were visited between March 2013 and February 2014. All participants were examined, and their demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. Then, all participants filled in the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Logistic regression models were used to identifying factors related to anxiety in both sexes. During the study, 708 patients (mean [SD] age: 45.3 [5.8] y, men:48.2% were visited. Anxiety was present in 53.0% of participants (66.0% of women and 39.0% of men. The logistic regressions model showed that the associated factors for anxiety in men were opium usage (OR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.09-3.27, positive family history (OR=1.49, 95% CI:0.94-2.35, and creatinine serum level (OR=1.17, 95% CI:1.05-1.303; and in women were major adverse cardiac events (MACE during follow-up (OR=2.30, 95% CI:1.25-4.23, hypertension (OR=1.71, 95% CI:1.07-2.73 and the duration of CAD (OR=0.99, 95% CI:0.98-1.00. In premature CAD patients, the determinants of anxiety seem to be different in each sex. Opium usage, positive family history of CAD, and creatinine serum levels in men, and MACE, hypertension, and duration of CAD in women appear the relevant factors in this regard.

  17. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrari, Parissa; Mehrpour, Omid; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  18. Effect of Cryoanalgesia on Post Midsternotomy Pain and Paresthesia Following CABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hosseini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Control of post thoracotomy pain is particularly important in prevention of post operative respiratory complications. Several methods are proposed for control of postoperative pain. Cryoanalgesia by freezing of intercostal nerves is able to providing long term pain relief in post operative period which probably results in cutaneous sensory changes. Methods: This clinical trial study was done on 124 patients who underwent CABG surgery. Patients were randomly divided in two groups; control group (group I and study group (group II. In study group cryoanalgesia was applied intraoperatively on the intercostal nerves. All of the patients received appropriate analgesia on demand in postoperative period. Pain in LIMA harvesting site and sternum was measured by visual analogue pain score before discharge, one and three months following cryoanalgesia. In all of the patient’s, presence of paresthesia was evaluated. The amount of administered analgesics (narcotic, opium, indomethacin was noted daily. Data of this investigation was analyzed and evaluated using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: Pain score of sternum was higher in study group before discharge and was lower at one and three months after operation than the control group that was statistically significant (P=0.01. Pain score of LIMA region before discharge was higher, at one month post operation was equal and at three months post operative was lower than the control group (P=0.045. Use of morphine and opium was lower (P=0.017 and use of indomethacin was higher in the cryoanalgesia group that was statistically significant (P=0.001. Incidence of paresthesia was lower in the study group (P=0.001. Conclusion: It is proposed that cryoanalgesia is a safe and effective method for reduction of pain and paresthesia and need for analgesics following CABG operation.

  19. Factors Associated with Anxiety in Premature Coronary Artery Disease Patients: THC-PAC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim; Sadeghian, Saeed; Karimi, Abbasali; Saadat, Soheil; Peyvandi, Flora; Jalali, Arash; Davarpasand, Tahereh; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Shahmansouri, Nazila; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Lotfi-Tokaldany, Masoumeh; Amiri Abchouyeh, Maryam; Ayatollahzade Isfahani, Farah; Rosendaal, Frits

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety may negatively affect the course of coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to assess which factors are associated with anxiety in young adults with CAD. A cohort of individuals with premature coronary artery disease was formed between 2004-2011, as the Tehran Heart Center's Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis Cohort (THC-PAC) study. Patients (men≤45-year-old, and women≤55-year-old) were visited between March 2013 and February 2014. All participants were examined, and their demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. Then, all participants filled in the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Logistic regression models were used to identifying factors related to anxiety in both sexes. During the study, 708 patients (mean [SD] age: 45.3 [5.8] y, men:48.2%) were visited. Anxiety was present in 53.0% of participants (66.0% of women and 39.0% of men). The logistic regressions model showed that the associated factors for anxiety in men were opium usage (OR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.09-3.27), positive family history (OR=1.49, 95% CI:0.94-2.35), and creatinine serum level (OR=1.17, 95% CI:1.05-1.303); and in women were major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during follow-up (OR=2.30, 95% CI:1.25-4.23), hypertension (OR=1.71, 95% CI:1.07-2.73) and the duration of CAD (OR=0.99, 95% CI:0.98-1.00). In premature CAD patients, the determinants of anxiety seem to be different in each sex. Opium usage, positive family history of CAD, and creatinine serum levels in men, and MACE, hypertension, and duration of CAD in women appear the relevant factors in this regard.

  20. The Value of Lin Changyi's Shoot Eagle Building Poetry in Poetry History%林昌彝《射鹰楼诗话》的诗史价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其泰

    2012-01-01

    Lin Changyi is one of remarkable historical characters at the time of the Opium Wars in Fuzhou. He is not only a poet and scholar but also a famous patriotic personage. Shoot Eagle Building Poetry is a valued literary criticism works. It also records the Opium Wars and promotes heroic spirit of the Chinese people. The value of this works lies in emphatically recording the judicious judgment of some intelligent people in the period of Emperor Daoguang. Explaining and reviewing its value of poetry history still has deep meaning of enlightening in many aspects now.%林昌彝是鸦片战争时期福州一位值得纪念的历史人物,他不仅是诗人、学者,更是著名的爱国志士。所著《射鹰楼诗话》是一部值得重视的文学批评著作,而同时又是一部及时收录记载鸦片战争诗篇、弘扬中国人民英勇精神的诗史。其诗史价值,还在于着重记载了道光年间海内一批有识之士对现实社会问题的卓识,再现了这批经世派人物的精神风貌。阐释和重温这部名作的诗史价值,在今天仍有多方面的深刻启示意义。