Sample records for opisthobranchia gastropoda mollusca

  1. A comparative ultrastructural investigation of the cephalic sensory organs in Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Göbbeler, K; Klussmann-Kolb, A


    Cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) are specialised structures in the head region of adult Opisthobranchia involved in perception of different stimuli. The gross morphology of these organs differs considerably among taxa. The current study aims at describing the cellular morphology of the CSOs in order to reveal cellular patterns, especially of sensory epithelia, common for opisthobranchs. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterise the fine structure of the organs and to compare the CSOs of four different opisthobranch species. The cellular composition of the sensory system is conserved among taxa. The epidermal cells in sensory regions are always columnar and ciliated cells are frequently apparent. The sensory cells are primary receptors arranged in subepidermal cell clusters. They extend dendrites which penetrate the epithelium and reach the surface. Some of the dendrites bear cilia, whereas others only build a small protuberance. Processing of sensory information takes place in the peripheral glomeruli of all species. Moreover, few taxa possess additional peripheral ganglia at the base of their CSOs. The results of the present study might support other investigations indicating that the posterior CSOs are primarily involved in distance chemoreception, whereas the anterior CSOs might be used for contact chemoreception and mechanoreception.

  2. Descriptions of three new species of Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from South China Sea

    LI Baoquan; ZHANG Suping; LI Xinzheng


    Three new species of Family Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the South China Sea are described in the present paper. They are Ziba aglais sp. nov. B. LI & S. ZHANG, Neocancilla daidaleosa sp.nov. B. LI & X. LI, and Mitra holkosa sp. nov. B. LI. Their systematic positions are also discussed.

  3. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures.

    Horwitz, Rael; Jackson, Matthew D; Mills, Suzanne C


    Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species' life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient) and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C). Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality.

  4. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Mills, Suzanne C.


    Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species’ life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient) and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C). Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality. PMID:28168118

  5. The embryonic life history of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia under ambient and elevated ocean temperatures

    Rael Horwitz


    Full Text Available Ocean warming represents a major threat to marine biota worldwide, and forecasting ecological ramifications is a high priority as atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions continue to rise. Fitness of marine species relies critically on early developmental and reproductive stages, but their sensitivity to environmental stressors may be a bottleneck in future warming oceans. The present study focuses on the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia, a common species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Its ecological importance is well-established, particularly as a specialist grazer of the toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula. Although many aspects of its biology and ecology are well-known, description of its early developmental stages is lacking. First, a detailed account of this species’ life history is described, including reproductive behavior, egg mass characteristics and embryonic development phases. Key developmental features are then compared between embryos developed in present-day (ambient and predicted end-of-century elevated ocean temperatures (+3 °C. Results showed developmental stages of embryos reared at ambient temperature were typical of other opisthobranch species, with hatching of planktotrophic veligers occurring 4.5 days post-oviposition. However, development times significantly decreased under elevated temperature, with key embryonic features such as the velum, statocysts, operculum, eyespots and protoconch developing approximately 24 h earlier when compared to ambient temperature. Although veligers hatched one day earlier under elevated temperature, their shell size decreased by approximately 20%. Our findings highlight how an elevated thermal environment accelerates planktotrophic development of this important benthic invertebrate, possibly at the cost of reducing fitness and increasing mortality.

  6. Diversity of Indo-West Pacific Siphonaria (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Euthyneura).

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C; White, Tracy R


    Species of the limpet genus Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) are commonly found in the rocky intertidal, worldwide, except in the Arctic. In total, 205 species-group names are available and not permanently invalid. However, estimating the actual species diversity of Siphonaria has remained challenging, mainly because past authors have interpreted differently the variation of shell characters, resulting in different taxonomic accounts. Species diversity of Siphonaria is evaluated for the first time here based on DNA sequence data (three mitochondrial gene fragments: COI, 12S, and 16S) and a large sampling focusing on the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific (from eastern Africa to Hawaii): new sequences are provided for 153 individuals, 123 of which were collected from 93 locations throughout the Indo-West Pacific. In total, 41 species (molecular units) are recognized worldwide (31 from the Indo-West Pacific), all of which are strongly supported. Potential names are discussed for those 41 species, based on traditional taxonomy. The shells of 66 of the individuals from which DNA was extracted are illustrated: intra- and inter-specific variation is documented in detail and discussed in the light of new molecular results. It is shown that many species could hardly be identified based on the shell only, because the variation of shell characters is too high and overlaps between species. Geographically, no species is found across the entire Indo-West Pacific, where quite a few species seem to be endemic to restricted areas. The biogeography of Siphonaria in the Indo-West Pacific is compared to other groups.

  7. Two new species of Naticidae (Mollusca ,Gastropoda) from the coast of China

    ZHANG Suping


    Two new species of Naticidae (Mollusca,Gastropoda) collected from the coast of China are described:Cryptonaitca huanghaien- sis sp.nov.and Sinum vittatum sp.nov.The morphological characteristics between the new species were described and the relat- ed information was provided.The similarities and differences between the new species and related species were also compared and discussed.The new species Cryptonaitca huanghaiensis differed from Cryptonaitca hirasei and Cryptonaitca andoi in outer shape, operculum and radula.The new species Sinum vittatum is similar to Sinum japonicum (Lischke,1869),but the shell of the for- mer is flat-elliptical in shape,spire very small,slightly convex.While the latter is flat-globular in shape,apex light brown in col- or,without a brown band on the body whorl.The comparison results revealed that Cryptonaitca huanghaiensis and Sinum vittatum were two new species from the coast of China.Specimens studied were obtained from collections in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.

    Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup


    The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province.

  9. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette


    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmissi...

  10. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis.

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette


    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmission electron microscopy. Within the scope of the present study we investigated the myogenesis of premetamorphic, metamorphic, and juvenile developmental stages of the anaspidean opisthobranch Aplysia californica using fluorescence F-actin-labeling in conjunction with modern confocal laser scanning microscopy. We categorized muscles with respect to their differentiation and degeneration and found three true larval muscles that differentiate during the embryonic and veliger phase and degenerate during or slightly after metamorphosis. These are the larval retractor, the accessory larval retractor, and the metapodial retractor muscle. While the pedal retractor muscle, some transversal mantle fibers and major portions of the cephalopedal musculature are continued and elaborated during juvenile and adult life, the buccal musculature and the anterior retractor muscle constitute juvenile/adult muscles which differentiate during or after metamorphosis. The metapodial retractor muscle has never been reported for any other gastropod taxon. Our findings indicate that the late veliger larva of A. californica shares some common traits with veligers of other gastropods, such as a larval retractor muscle. However, the postmetamorphic stages exhibit only few congruencies with other gastropod taxa investigated to date, which is probably due to common larval but different adult life styles within gastropods. Accordingly, this study provides further evidence for morphological plasticity in gastropod myogenesis and stresses the importance of ontogenetic approaches to understand adult conditions and life history patterns.

  11. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan


    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases.

  12. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam


    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  13. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    S. Sen


    Full Text Available Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorded from Indian territory. But only basic information is known about their taxonomy and little is known of their population biology, ecology and their conservation status. In this paper, we briefly review status, threats and conservation strategies of land snails of India.

  14. 18S ribosomal DNA sequences provide insight into the phylogeny of patellogastropod limpets (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Won


    To investigate the phylogeny of Patellogastropoda, the complete 18S rDNA sequences of nine patellogastropod limpets Cymbula canescens (Gmelin, 1791), Helcion dunkeri (Krauss, 1848), Patella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, Cellana toreuma (Reeve, 1855), Cellana nigrolineata (Reeve, 1854), Nacella magellanica Gmelin, 1791, Nipponacmea concinna (Lischke, 1870), Niveotectura pallida (Gould, 1859), and Lottia dorsuosa Gould, 1859 were determined. These sequences were then analyzed along with the published 18S rDNA sequences of 35 gastropods, one bivalve, and one chiton species. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The results of our 18S rDNA sequence analysis strongly support the monophyly of Patellogastropoda and the existence of three subgroups. Of these, two subgroups, the Patelloidea and Acmaeoidea, are closely related, with branching patterns that can be summarized as [(Cymbula + Helcion) + Patella] and [(Nipponacmea + Lottia) + Niveotectura]. The remaining subgroup, Nacelloidea, emerges as basal and paraphyletic, while its genus Cellana is monophyletic. Our analysis also indicates that the Patellogastropoda have a sister relationship with the order Cocculiniformia within the Gastropoda.

  15. Thecosomata e Gymnosomata (Mollusca, Gastropoda da cadeia Fernando de Noronha, Brasil

    Larrazábal Maria Eduarda de


    Full Text Available The Mollusca Pteropoda from Fernando de Noronha Chain Northeastern Brazil were studied in order to know their taxonomy and distribution. Collections were carried out during the I Oceanographical Expedition of the REVIZEE Program (Live Resources of the Economical Exclusive Zone from August to September 1995. The studied area is located between 03°04'S-04°23'S and 32°19'W-36°26'W, comprising 35 stations. Sampling was performed through oblique hauls from 50m depth to surface and from 100 m depth to surface, with a Bongo net (300 and 500 µm mesh size, net diameter: 60 cm, that was equipped with a flow meter. Samples in a total of 99 were preserved, immediately, in buffered 4% formaldehyde. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the samples were performed based on total sample. The samples were analysed on a counting plate "Bogorov" type under a stereo microscope. A total of 8,258 organisms were identified belonging to: 8 families, 16 genera and 27 species. Limacina inflata (d´Orbigny, 1836 and Creseis virgula (Rang, 1828 were frequent and very frequent in the area outranking among the studied Pteropoda. The total density varied from 2.5 to 3,012.05 org.m-³. Highest richness was registered at the Continental Shelf and Slope with 1two species. The Pteropoda association showed higher differences between day and night collections. Limacina inflata caused this difference due to its higher density at night collections and it was independent of the depth, mesh size and temperature. Creseis virgula had its occurrence, mainly, during day time.

  16. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia

    Klussmann-Kolb Annette


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic data on opisthobranch gastropods we investigated the neuromuscular development in the nudibranch Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 using immunocytochemistry as well as F-actin labelling in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM. Results The ontogenetic development of Aeolidiella stephanieae can be subdivided into 8 stages, each recognisable by characteristic morphological and behavioural features as well as specific characters of the nervous system and the muscular system, respectively. The larval nervous system of A. stephanieae includes an apical organ, developing central ganglia, and peripheral neurons associated with the velum, foot and posterior, visceral part of the larva. The first serotonergic and FMRFamidergic neural structures appear in the apical organ that exhibits an array of three sensory, flask-shaped and two non-sensory, round neurons, which altogether disappear prior to metamorphosis. The postmetamorphic central nervous system (CNS becomes concentrated, and the rhinophoral ganglia develop together with the anlage of the future rhinophores whereas oral tentacle ganglia are not found. The myogenesis in A. stephanieae begins with the larval retractor muscle followed by the accessory larval retractor muscle, the velar or prototroch muscles and the pedal retractors that all together degenerate during metamorphosis, and the adult muscle complex forms de novo. Conclusions Aeolidiella stephanieae comprises features of the larval and postmetamorphic nervous as well as muscular system that represent the ground plan of the Mollusca or even the Trochozoa (e. g. presence of the prototrochal or velar muscle ring. On the one hand

  17. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon . Part 11. Doridacea of the families Chromodorididae and Hexabranchidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia,Nudibranchia), including additional Moluccan material

    Yonow, N.


    Twenty-one species belonging to the family Chromodorididae and one species of Hexabranchus (Hexabranchidae) are present in the 1990 Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition (RBE) collection. The 1996 Fauna Malesiana Marine Maluku Expedition (Mal) collected 43 lots of nudibranchs, mostly chromodorids: 17 sp

  18. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon (1990). Part 11. Doridacea of the families Chromodorididae and Hexabranchidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia,Nudibranchia), including additional Moluccan material


    Twenty-one species belonging to the family Chromodorididae and one species of Hexabranchus (Hexabranchidae) are present in the 1990 Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition (RBE) collection. The 1996 Fauna Malesiana Marine Maluku Expedition (Mal) collected 43 lots of nudibranchs, mostly chromodorids: 17 species were identified, six of which were not represented in the RBE collection. A total of 35 chromodorid species, belonging to nine genera, are described from Ambon and nearby localities. Four spe...

  19. Exotic molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia in Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil region: check list and regional spatial distribution

    A. Ignacio Agudo-Padrón


    Full Text Available A total of twenty-one exotic mollusc taxa were assessed for Santa Catarina State (SC, fifteen Gastropoda andsix Bivalvia (twelve terrestrial, five limnic/freshwater - three gastropods and two bivalves, and four marinebivalves. Of these, fourteen are confirmed as invasive species (nine terrestrial, three limnic/freshwater, andtwo marine.

  20. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

    Abraham Breure


    Full Text Available The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Z. quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = O. bensoni (Reeve, 1849; Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789; Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848; Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909; Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821; Bulimus (Eurytus corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007 and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  1. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin.

    Breure, Abraham S H


    The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Zebra quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = Orthalicus bensoni (Reeve, 1849); Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789); Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus) dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848); Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909); Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus) reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821); Bulimus (Eurytus) corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus) stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus) psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007) and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  2. Holoplanktonic Mollusca: development in the Mediterranean Basin during the last 30 million years and their future

    Janssen, A.W.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Goffredo, S.; Dubinsky, Z.


    A short introduction is given to the systematics and morphology of pelagic Gastropoda (Mollusca: Heteropoda and Pteropoda), also explaining some details of the animals’ particular way of life. The fossil record of these invertebrates is discussed briefly, followed by an overview of existing literatu

  3. Foraminiferans as food for Cephalaspideans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with notes on secondary tests around calcareous foraminiferans

    Cedhagen, Tomas


    species, Ammonia batavus and two agglutinating species, Ammoscalaria pseudospiralis and Ammotium cassis. The test (shell) material of the latter two species was sand grains (quartz). It was inferred that the gastropods avoid agglutinating foraminiferans as food. Many calcareous but not agglutinating...... purposes. It might, in species like Ammonia batavus, have become a kind of antipredatory device or mimicry. A predator might conceive such a species as an agglutinating species and neglect it. The secondary test is a delicate structure in most species and is easily destroyed by the rough sampling...


    Wilson, NERIDA G.; Healy, JOHN M.


    Sperm ultrastructure is examined in representatives of five genera of the nudibranch gastropod family Chromodorididae: (Chromodoris, Hypselodoris, Glossodoris, Risbecia and Pectenodoris) and the results compared with previous work on other gastropods, especially other nudibranchs. As chromodoridid phylogeny is still incompletely understood, this study partly focuses on the search for new and as yet untapped sources of informative characters. Like spermatozoa of most other heterobranch gastropods, those of the Chromodorididae are elongate, complex cells composed of an acrosomal complex (small, rounded acrosomal vesicle, and columnar acrosomal pedestal), a condensed nucleus, sub-nuclear ring, a highly modified mid-piece (axoneme + coarse fibres surrounded by a glycogen-containing, helically-coiled mitochondrial derivative) and terminally a glycogen piece (or homologue thereof). The finely striated acrosomal pedestal is a synapomorphy of all genera examined here, but interestingly also occurs in at least one dorid (Rostanga arbutus). Substantial and potentially taxonomically informative differences were also observed between genera in the morphology of the nucleus, the neck region of the mid-piece, and also the terminal glycogen piece. The subnuclear ring is shown for the first time to be a segmented, rather than a continuous structure; similarly, the annular complex is shown to consist of two structures, the annulus proper and the herein-termed annular accessory body.

  5. Embryonic development of nudibranch species (Mollusca:Opisthobranchia) in the Gulf of Thailand

    Pattira Kasamesiri; Shettapong Meksumpun; Charumas Meksumpun


    Objective: To find the possible way to predict the mode of embryonic development of nudibranchs, focusing on egg mass characteristics, embryonic development, and shell patterns of the veligers.Methods:The specimens were allowed to copulate and lay their egg masses under laboratory conditions. Embryonic development was monitored under a light microscope with a digital camera every day until hatching.Results:Eight species of nudibranch were collected in the eastern part of the Gulf of Thailand. that developed, except for Jorunna funebris, which had 1-4 larvae in each egg capsule. All the specimens had the same pattern of cell division and hatching into the water column during the veliger form. However, the species developed at different rates in each stage. Most of the species of nudibranch collected had a single larva in each egg capsule Conclusions: All species in the current study had planktotrophic development except Doriprismatica atromarginata, which showed lecithotrophic development. Based on embryonic development among the nudibranchs that showed planktotrophic development, Jorunna funebris appeared to be the most advantageous species for culture development with regard to utilization and conservation in the future.

  6. How well-known is the Cephalaspidean fauna (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in the Indo-Pacific region?

    Cedhagen, Tomas


    The gastropod group Cephalaspidea contains about 700 recent species worldwide. The status of the research on the group, indicated as the number of described species, in the tropical Indo-Pacific region is compared with other areas. The number ofspecies are 118 in the Indo-Pacific, 168 in Japan, a...

  7. Histochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the posterior esophagus of Bulla striata (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia).

    Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Oliveira, Elsa; Ferreira, Iris; Coelho, Rita; Calado, Gonçalo


    The posterior esophagus of Bulla striata, running from the gizzard to the stomach, was investigated with light and electron microscopy to obtain new data for a comparative analysis of the digestive system in cephalaspidean opisthobranchs. In this species, the posterior esophagus can be divided into two regions. In the first, the epithelium is formed by columnar cells with apical microvilli embedded in a cuticle. Many epithelial and subepithelial secretory cells are present in this region. In both, electron-lucent secretory vesicles containing filaments and a peripheral round mass of secretory material fill the cytoplasm. These acid mucus-secreting cells may also contain a few dense secretory vesicles. In the second part of the posterior esophagus, the cuticle is absent and the epithelium is ciliated. In this region, epithelial cells may contain larger lipid droplets and glycogen reserves. Subepithelial secretory cells are not present, and in epithelial secretory cells the number of dense vesicles increases, but most secretory cells still contain some electron-lucent vesicles. These cells secrete a mixture of proteins and acid polysaccharides and should be considered seromucous. The secretory cells of the posterior esophagus are significantly different from those previously reported in the anterior esophagus of this herbivorous species.

  8. Embryonic development of nudibranch species (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia in the Gulf of Thailand

    Pattira Kasamesiri


    Full Text Available Objective: To find the possible way to predict the mode of embryonic development of nudibranchs, focusing on egg mass characteristics, embryonic development, and shell patterns of the veligers. Methods: Eight species of nudibranch were collected in the eastern part of the Gulf of Thailand. The specimens were allowed to copulate and lay their egg masses under laboratory conditions. Embryonic development was monitored under a light microscope with a digital camera every day until hatching. Results: Most of the species of nudibranch collected had a single larva in each egg capsule that developed, except for Jorunna funebris, which had 1-4 larvae in each egg capsule. All the specimens had the same pattern of cell division and hatching into the water column during the veliger form. However, the species developed at different rates in each stage. Conclusions: All species in the current study had planktotrophic development except Doriprismatica atromarginata, which showed lecithotrophic development. Based on embryonic development among the nudibranchs that showed planktotrophic development, Jorunna funebris appeared to be the most advantageous species for culture development with regard to utilization and conservation in the future.

  9. Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Ítalo Braga de Castro


    Full Text Available Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT. These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT e o Trifenilestanho (TPT. Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta ebraea. De um total de 11 animais observados, duas fêmeas apresentaram imposex, provenientes da Praia do Pacheco no litoral do Ceará. Observou-se nesses indivíduos a presença de glândula de cápsulas, ovidutos e receptáculo seminal concomitantemente ao pênis o que caracteriza o imposex. Como o imposex só se manifesta em moluscos expostos a compostos organoestânicos tipicamente encontrados em portos, marinas, estaleiros e locais com grande fluxo de embarcações atribui-se a origem dessa contaminação provavelmente a um estaleiro localizado nas proximidades da área de coleta.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Liana K Jannotti-Passos


    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila, a mollusc intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, was sequenced and characterised. The genome size found for B. tenagophila was 13,722 bp and contained 13 messenger RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA. In addition to sequencing, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genome organization of B. tenagophila was analysed based on its content and localization of both coding and non-coding regions, regions of gene overlap and tRNA nucleotide sequences. Sequences of protein, rRNA 12S and rRNA 16S nucleotides as well as gene organization were compared between B. tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata, as the latter is the most important S. mansoni intermediate host in Brazil. Differences between such species were observed regarding rRNA composition. The complete sequence of the B. tenagophila mitochondrial genome was deposited in GenBank (accession EF433576. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships were estimated among 28 mollusc species, which had their complete mitochondrial genome deposited in GenBank, using the neighbour-joining method, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood bootstrap. B. tenagophila was positioned at a branch close to B. glabrata and Pulmonata molluscs, collectively comprising a paraphyletic group, contrary to Opistobranchia, which was positioned at a single branch and constituted a monophyletic group.

  11. Miscellaneous notes on Southern African Gastropoda Euthyneura (Mollusca)

    Bruggen, van A.C.


    SUMMARY The following new distribution records of southern African terrestrial molluscs seem to be of particular interest: Pupilla fontana (Krss.), Rachis jejuna (M. & P.), Guppya rumrutiensis (Prest.), Xerocerastus burchelli (Gray) (all four new for Rhodesia), Euonyma damarica Jaeck. (new for Cape

  12. Two new species of Enidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pupillacea) from Turkey

    Gittenberger, E.


    Two new species of Enidae, viz. Zebrina (Ramusculus) mienisi spec. nov. and Turanena tuccari spec. nov., are described from the Turkish provinces of Erzurum and Antalya, respectively. The former species is unknown anatomically and, therefore, its (sub)generic assignment is uncertain. The latter new

  13. New data on southern African Achatinidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    Bruggen, van A.C.


    Increasing knowledge of the genital anatomy of the species of the African land snail family Achatinidae has greatly improved our understanding of the delimitation of the species and the intricate interrelationships of the various taxa (Mead, 1950). The genitalia of many achatinids are still unknown

  14. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Reijnen, B.T.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Gittenberger, E.


    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two

  15. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)


    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two DNA markers, viz. CO-I and 16S, the phylogenetic relationships among all ovulid species of which these data are available are reconstructed. The provisional results suggest a dichotomy between the ...

  16. Phylogenetics, development, and Cenozoic paleontology of Buccinidae (Mollusca:Gastropoda)


    The buccinid gastropods (family Buccinidae) are a species-rich clade of mostly North Pacific taxa with an abundant fossil record that dates to the Cretaceous. Here, the evolution, systematics, and biology of fossil and extant members of this family are treated using a variety of analytical and methodological approaches. In chapter one, a new fossil species of Bruclarkia, an endemic eastern Pacific buccinid from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene, is described from the Astoria Formation of the...

  17. Recharacterization of Synapterpes (S. hanleyi (Pfeiffer (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Subulinidae

    Norma Campos Salgado


    Full Text Available Synapterpes (S. hanleyi (Pfeiffer, 1846 is characterized by anatomy, synonymy and geographical distribution. Shell and soft parts were studied and important taxonomic characters evaluated and illustrated. These studies give conditions to characterize the species and include it in the genus Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896 and distinguish S. hanleyi from the other species of Synapterpes s.s. known only by their shells, respectively from Brazil and Colombia: S.(S. coronatus (Pfeiffer, 1846 and S.(S. wallisi (Mousson, 1869.

  18. The Genus Theba (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Helicidae), Systematics and Distribution

    Gittenberger, E.; Ripken, Th. E.J.


    Our knowledge concerning taxonomy and zoogeography of the fossil and recent species of the helicid genus Theba is summarized and enlarged. The fossil T. arinagae spec. nov. is described from Gran Canaria. The recent T. andalusica spec. nov. and T. sacchii spec. nov. are described from the southernmo

  19. Keeping Nerves: Central Nervous System of the Interstitial Acochlidiid Parhedyle cryptophthalma (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    Joerger, Katharina; Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette


    Unusually well-preserved fossils of a Halicyne-like cycloid crustacean frequently occur in the early Late Triassic lacustrine clay bed at Krasiejów in Opole Silesia, southern Poland. Its gill-like structures form a horseshoe-shaped pair of units composed of numerous calcified blades with reverse ...

  20. The sudden appearance of Aeolidiella glauca (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) in lake Greveliningen (S.W. Netherlands) in 1983 and 1984

    Dekker, R.


    In 1983 and 1984 a population of the nudibranch Aeolidiella glauca (Alder & Hancock, 1845) was found in the saline Lake Grevelingen (S.W. Netherlands). The number of specimens observed exceeds by far the total number previously recorded from the Dutch coast. Field observations on food intake suggest

  1. Sperm ultrastructure in the nudibranch genus Halgerda with reference to other Discodorididae and to Chromodorididae (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia).

    Fahey, Shireen J; Healy, John M


    Comparative sperm ultrastructure within the molluscan nudibranch genus Halgerda (Discodorididae) was examined for the first time using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), based on 17 of the 35 known species. In addition, observations on two other discodorids are made to facilitate outgroup comparison with Halgerda, including one species of Discodoris (D. boholiensis) and Asteronotus cespitosus (currently accepted as the closest sister taxon to Halgerda). Comparison was also made with some genera of the Chromodorididae in view of sperm similarities. Spermatozoa of all species examined were of the complex, helical, elongate ( approximately 300-400 micro m) type characteristic of most heterobranch gastropods. These cells exhibit the following discrete regions (in anteroposterior sequence) : an acrosomal complex (composed of a rounded, membrane-bound vesicle and a column-like pedestal); a solid, helical nucleus; an elongate, helical midpiece (composed of an axoneme and associated nine coarse fibers, an enveloping mitochondrial derivative of matrix, and paracrystalline materials and glycogen helix); an annular complex; and a short glycogen piece. Of these regions, the midpiece is by far the longest, occupying over 90% of the total sperm length. Comparison with other members of the radula-bearing cryptobranch dorids reveals several sperm similarities to other genera in the clade, particularly those of other Discodorididae and also with the Chromodorididae. Comparison with previously studied genera reveals noteworthy sperm differences within the Discodorididae. The most notable differences are the internal structure of the acrosomal pedestal (long and homogeneous in Halgerda, Discodoris; short and homogeneous in Asteronotus; long and finely striated in Rostanga; oblong with angular electron-lucent striations in Jorunna) and the internal structure of the glycogen piece. The pronounced helical keels of most Halgerda and Discodoris nuclei contrast with the weakly helical nucleus of Asteronotus. Sperm features alone do not provide a means of defining the genus Halgerda or the family Discodorididae nor do they support the monophyletic status of the caryophyllidia-bearing dorids. Important sperm characters such as the acrosome, nucleus, and midpiece can often still be determined from specimens that have been initially fixed in formalin, then stored in ethanol for extended periods of time (i.e., museum material). Of all sperm features, the mitochondrial derivative of the midpiece is the most resistant to long-term fixation : the survival of acrosomal, nuclear, and axonemal components is variable, presumably a factor of prefixation autolysis, varied primary fixation times and temperatures, formalin quality, and duration of alcohol storage.

  2. Some aspects of the family chromodorididae (opisthobranchia: nudibranchia) from brazil, with description of a new species


    Algunos aspectos sobre la familia Chromodorididae (Opisthobranchia: nidibranchia) de Brasil, con la descripción de una nueva especie. – En este trabajo se hace un estudio de los nudibranquios pertenecientes a la familia Chromodorididae Bergh, 1891 encontrados durante varias campañas de muestreo en el litoral de Río de Janeiro, São Paulo y Fernando de Noronha (Brasil); fue estudiado un total de ocho especies de esta familia con descripción de una nueva especie, Chromodoris paulomarcioi n.sp. E...

  3. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca - Bivalvia.

    Araujo, Rafael; de Jong, Yde


    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Mollusca-Bivalvia, data from 5 families (Margaritiferidae, Unionidae, Sphaeriidae, Cyrenidae, Dreissenidae) containing 55 species are included in this paper. European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbiculafluminea) and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissenapolymorpha). Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  4. The complete sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of the gadilid scaphopod Siphonondentalium lobatum (Mollusca).

    Dreyer, Hermann; Steiner, Gerhard


    Comparisons of mitochondrial gene sequences and gene arrangements can be informative for reconstructing high-level phylogenetic relationships. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Siphonodentalium lobatum, (Mollusca, Scaphopoda). With only 13,932 bases, it is the shortest molluscan mitochondrial genome reported so far. The genome contains the usual 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The ATPase subunit 8 gene is exceptionally short. Several transfer RNAs show truncated TpsiC arms or DHU arms. The gene arrangement of S. lobatum is markedly different from all other known molluscan mitochondrial genomes and shows low similarity even to an unpublished gene order of a dentaliid scaphopod. Phylogenetic analyses of all available complete molluscan mitochondrial genomes based on amino acid sequences of 11 protein-coding genes yield trees with low support for the basal branches. None of the traditionally accepted molluscan taxa and phylogenies are recovered in all analyses, except for the euthyneuran Gastropoda. S. lobatum appears as the sister taxon to two of the three bivalve species. We conclude that the deep molluscan phylogeny is probably beyond the resolution of mitochondrial protein sequences. Moreover, assessing the phylogenetic signal in gene order data requires a much larger taxon sample than is currently available, given the exceptional diversity of this character set in the Mollusca.

  5. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

    C.M. Kerchove


    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  6. Vitrinellidae (Marine Mollusca Gastropoda) from Holocene deposits in Surinam (Dutch Guiana)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.


    Five species of Vitrinellidae have been found in the Holocene shell ridges of Surinam. Of these, Vitrinella (Striovitrinella) cupidinensis,Cochliolepis surinamensis, and Solariorbis guianensis are new species, while Cyclostremiscus caraboboensis Weisbord is known from Pliocene beds in Venezuela and

  7. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Mardulyn, Patrick; Hardy, Olivier J.; Jordaens, Kurt; de Frias Martins, António Manuel; Backeljau, Thierry


    We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758), the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is characterized by extremely high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.999 ± 0.001), high nucleotide diversity (π = 0.013 ± 0.001), and neutral nucleotide diversity above the threshold of 5% (πsyn = 0.0677). Haplotype richness is very high even at spatial scales as small as 100m2. Yet, mtDNA hyperdiversity does not affect the ability of DNA barcoding to identify M. neritoides. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is best explained by the remarkably high mutation rate at the COI locus (μ = 5.82 × 10−5 per site per year or μ = 1.99 × 10−4 mutations per nucleotide site per generation), whereas the effective population size of this planktonic-dispersing species is surprisingly small (Ne = 5, 256; CI = 1,312–3,7495) probably due to the putative influence of selection. Comparison with COI nucleotide diversity values in other organisms suggests that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more frequently linked to high μ values and that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more common across other phyla than currently appreciated. PMID:27761337

  8. On Cyprian Helicellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Helicidae), making a new start

    Gittenberger, E.


    Our fragmentary knowledge concerning the Cyprian Helicellinae is revised and summarized, while new data are added. "Helicella (Xerotricha) conspurcata distinguenda" Haas, 1936, is a Helicopsis species that has to be called H. cypriola (Westerlund, 1889) as a consequence of the selection of a neotype

  9. A revision of Cerithidea (Cerithideopsilla) cingulata (Gmelin) and some related species (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.


    INTRODUCTION Engaged in the study of fossil shells belonging to Thiele's sectio Cerithideopsilla of the genus Cerithidea Swainson and deriving from plio-pleistocene beds in East Java, I failed to find a satisfying account on the recent species of this group. Therefore I resolved to examine as large

  10. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic ...

  11. Caribbean Bulimulus revisited: physical moves and molecular traces (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bulimulidae

    Abraham S.H. Breure


    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of Bulimulus species are studied, partly from localities within their known distribution range, partly based on interceptions where the material originates from localities where the species seem to be recently introduced and non-native. Molecular study of cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1 reveals the origin of some of these introductions, but is less conclusive for others. Four different methods for species delimitation were applied, which did not result in unambiguous species hypotheses. For a rapid identification of morphologically indistinct species, a more comprehensive database of sequences is needed.

  12. The aquatic molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda and Bivalvia of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park



    Full Text Available Till now 13 species of aquatic molluscs are known to inhabit the park area: 11 species of snails and 2 species of clams. Even included in the list the species of Grossuana and Radix balthica has to be studied anatomically for sure identification. Nine species are of conservation statute classified as "Least Concern" or "Vulnerable", and four does not have any statute. Three stygobiotic snail species are local endemics.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Séverine Fourdrilis


    Full Text Available We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758, the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is characterized by extremely high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.999 ± 0.001, high nucleotide diversity (π = 0.013 ± 0.001, and neutral nucleotide diversity above the threshold of 5% (πsyn = 0.0677. Haplotype richness is very high even at spatial scales as small as 100m2. Yet, mtDNA hyperdiversity does not affect the ability of DNA barcoding to identify M. neritoides. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is best explained by the remarkably high mutation rate at the COI locus (μ = 5.82 × 10−5 per site per year or μ = 1.99 × 10−4 mutations per nucleotide site per generation, whereas the effective population size of this planktonic-dispersing species is surprisingly small (Ne = 5, 256; CI = 1,312–3,7495 probably due to the putative influence of selection. Comparison with COI nucleotide diversity values in other organisms suggests that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more frequently linked to high μ values and that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more common across other phyla than currently appreciated.

  14. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London.

    Breure, Abraham S H; Ablett, Jonathan D


    The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908.As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented.

  15. [Morphobiochemical adaptations of Mediterranean Littorina punctata (Gmelin, 1790) (Mollusca, Gastropoda) to survival under supralittoral conditions].

    Aliakrinskaia, I O


    Behavioral and morphobiochemical adaptations of Littorina punctata to dwelling under supralittoral condi- tions are analyzed. A quantitative estimation of the hemoglobin content in the radular tissues of the mollusk is given.

  16. Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M


    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years.

  17. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F


    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods.

  18. The genus Alvania on the Canary islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda), part 2 [final part

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.


    Five Alvania species from the Canary Islands and the Madeira Archipelago are revised. A new species to science, A. johannae is described and for three species lectotypes are designated. Altogether 13 littoral alvaniids are presently known from this area. Doubtful records are enumerated and a list of

  19. Unusual micrometric calcite-aragonite interface in the abalone shell Haliotis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Chevallard, Corinne; Farre, Bastien; Meibom, Anders


    Species of Haliotis (abalone) show high variety in structure and mineralogy of the shell. One of the European species (Haliotis tuberculata) in particular has an unusual shell structure in which calcite and aragonite coexist at a microscale with small patches of aragonite embedded in larger calcitic zones. A detailed examination of the boundary between calcite and aragonite using analytical microscopies shows that the organic contents of calcite and aragonite differ. Moreover, changes in the chemical composition of the two minerals seem to be gradual and define a micrometric zone of transition between the two main layers. A similar transition zone has been observed between the layers in more classical and regularly structured mollusk shells. The imbrication of microscopic patches of aragonite within a calcitic zone suggests the occurrence of very fast physiological changes in these taxa.

  20. Family matters: The first molecular phylogeny of the Onchidorididae Gray, 1827 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia).

    Hallas, Joshua M; Gosliner, Terrence M


    Recent investigations into the evolution of the Onchidorididae using morphological based methods have resulted in low support for relationships among genera. This study aims to determine if molecular data corroborates recent morphological interpretations of the evolution of Onchidorididae. Five genetic markers: 16S, 18S, 28S, cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and histone 3 (H3), were sequenced from 32 species comprising Onchidorididae and five other families, three from Phanerobranchia and two from Cryptobranchia. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses; with both yielding similar topologies. Molecular analyses resulted in high support for the monophyly of the suctorian clade and the placement of the genera within Onchidorididae. However, the Onchidorididae forms a paraphyletic grouping due to the recovery of the Goniodorididae and the Akiodorididae nested within family. In addition, the placement of Corambe as the most derived member of Onchidorididae is contradicted by the present study. Rather it is sister to a large clade that includes Acanthodoris and the species traditionally placed in Onchidoris and Adalaria, now defined as Onchidorididae. We have chosen to maintain Corambidae as a distinct taxon (including Corambe and Loy), sister to Onchidorididae. We also maintain Goniodorididae, Akiodorididae and Calycidoridae (including Calycidoris and Diaphorodoris), which along with the Onchidorididae and Corambidae comprise the suctorian superfamily Onchidoridoidea. Ancestral character reconstruction also suggests that the formation of a gill pocket, a character that currently defines the Cryptobranchia, may have evolved multiple times from an ancestor that lacked the ability to retract its gills into a fully formed gill pocket. The diversity of gill morphology displayed by the Onchidoridoidea will help give new insight into the evolution of this complex character within the Nudibranchia.

  1. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Marlene T. Ueta


    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.

  2. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C.; Apte, Deepak; Bhave, Vishal; Joseph Comendador; Qua,ng, Ngô Xuân; Tan, Siong Kiat; Tan, Shau Hwai


    Abstract In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species Onchidium typhae Buchannan, 1800, Onchidium stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883), and Onchidium reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850). With the exception of a re-description of Onchidium typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935) and Onchidium nigrum (Plate, 1893) are regarded as junior synonyms of Onchidium stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species. PMID:27917062

  3. Gastropoda(Mollusca) of Huaibei Region%淮北市的螺类

    邓道贵; 金宏; 陈海峰



  4. Unraveling the evolutionary history of the Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) lineages in Greece.

    Psonis, Nikolaos; Vardinoyannis, Katerina; Mylonas, Moisis; Poulakakis, Nikos


    The land snails of the genus Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 that includes, in Greece, the (sub)genera Cattania, Josephinella and Thiessea, are highly diversified and present high levels of endemism. However, their evolutionary history is unknown and their taxonomy is complex and continuously revised. The aim of this study is to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the lineages of the genus Chilostoma distributed in Greece based on partial DNA sequences of two mitochondrial DNA (16S rRNA and COI) genes. Complete sequences of one nuclear gene (ITS1) representing the major mitochondrial lineages were also analyzed. The phylogenetic trees revealed three distinct major clades that correspond to the three (sub)genera. Several taxonomical incongruencies were made obvious, thus, raising questions about the "true" number of species in each clade, while rendering a taxonomic re-evaluation necessary. From a phylogeographic point of view, it seems that the three major phylogenetic clades were separated in the late Miocene. They started differentiating into distinct species during the Pliocene and Pleistocene through several vicariance and dispersal events.

  5. A new Taheitia species (Mollusca: Gastropoda Prosobranchia: Truncatellidae) from Irian Jaya

    Gittenberger, E.


    Shells and an operculum of Taheitia heinrichi spec. nov. are described from the Vogelkop area in western Irian Jaya. This new species, dedicated to the late Heinrich C. Kavelaars, is somewhat similar to T. orrae, known from the island of Biak.

  6. Deroceras saronicum spec. nov., eine neue Nacktschneckenart aus Griechenland (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae)

    Rähle, W.


    Deroceras saronicum spec. nov., probably belonging to the subgenus Deroceras s.str., is described. The species is known from the islands of Aegina and Moni (Saronic Gulf) and from the adjacent NE. Peloponnesus, Greece. It is compared with Deroceras maltzani (SIMROTH), a similar species from southern

  7. Dating and biogeographical patterns in the sea slug genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia).

    Hallas, Joshua M; Simison, W Brian; Gosliner, Terrence M


    Recent studies investigating vicariance and dispersal have been focused on correlating major geological events with instances of taxonomic expansion by incorporating the fossil record with molecular clock analyses. However, this approach becomes problematic for soft-bodied organisms that are poorly represented in the fossil record. Here, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships of the nudibranch genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 using three molecular markers (16S, COI, H3), and then test two alternative geologically calibrated molecular clock scenarios in BEAST and their effect on ancestral area reconstruction (AAR) estimates employed in LAGRANGE. The global temperate distribution of Acanthodoris spans multiple geological barriers, including the Bering Strait (∼5.32 Mya) and the Baja Peninsula (∼5.5 Mya), both of which are used in our dating estimates. The expansion of the Atlantic Ocean (∼95-105 Mya) is also used to calibrate the relationship between A. falklandica Eliot, 1905 and A. planca Fahey and Valdés, 2005, which are distributed in southern Chile and South Africa respectively. Phylogenetic analyses recovered strong biogeographical signal and recovered two major clades representing northern and southern hemispheric distributions of Acanthodoris. When all three geological events are applied to the calibration analyses, the age for Acanthodoris is estimated to be mid-Cretaceous. When the expansion of the Atlantic Ocean is excluded from our analyses, however, Acanthodoris is estimated to be much younger, with a divergence time estimate during the Miocene. Regardless of divergence estimates, our AAR suggests that Acanthodoris may have origins in the Atlantic Ocean with the Atlantic acting as a dispersal point to the northeastern Pacific. These results suggest that Acanthodoris exhibits a rare instance of western trans-arctic expansion. This study also shows that northeast Pacific specimens of A. pilosa should be regarded as A. atrogriseata and that A. serpentinotus should be regarded as a synonym of A. pina.

  8. A new Middle Miocene Niveria Jousseaume, 1884 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trivioidea) from Hungary

    Fehse, Dirk


    A new species of Niveria from the Middle Miocene (Badenian) of the Paratethys of Borsodbóta, Hungary is described. This species is characterized by its callused dorsum and dorsal depression. Niveria jozefgregoi sp. nov. is discussed with comparative species from the Badenian of Hungary, the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region, Florida and Recent species from Madeira and the Islas Galápagos.

  9. A Pyrenean Monacha species Monacha (Metatheba) Atacis spec. nov. (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata)

    Gittenberger, E.; Winter, de A.J.


    Monacha (Metatheba) atacis spec. nov. is described from the French NE Pyrenees. The status of Metatheba, hitherto known from Caucasia and Asia Minor only, as well as that of other Monacha "subgenera" is discussed.

  10. Rich and rare—First insights into species diversity and abundance of Antarctic abyssal Gastropoda (Mollusca)

    Schwabe, Enrico; Michael Bohn, Jens; Engl, Winfried; Linse, Katrin; Schrödl, Michael


    The abyssal depths of the polar oceans are thought to be low in diversity compared with the shallower polar shelves and temperate and tropical deep-sea basins. Our recent study on the gastropod fauna of the deep Southern Ocean gives evidence of the existence of a rich gastropod assemblage at abyssal depths. During the ANDEEP I and II expeditions to the southern Drake Passage, Northwestern Weddell Sea, and South Sandwich Trench, gastropods were collected by bottom and Agassiz trawls, epibenthic sledge, and multicorer, at 40 stations in depths between 127 and 5194 m. On the whole, 473 specimens, corresponding to 93 species of 36 families, were obtained. Of those, 414 specimens were caught below 750 m depth and refer to 84 (90%) benthic species of 32 (89%) families. Most families were represented by a single species only. The numerically dominant families were Skeneidae and Buccinidae (with 10 and 11 species, respectively), Eulimidae and Trochidae (with 9 species each), and Turridae (6 species). Thirty-Seven benthic deep-sea species (44%) were represented by a single specimen, and another 20 species (24%) were found at a single station, suggesting that more than two thirds of Antarctic deep-sea gastropod species are very rare or have a very scattered distribution. Of the 27 species occurring at two or more deep-sea stations, 14 were collected with different gear. Approximately half of the deep-water species are new to science or have been recently described. The present investigation increases the total number of recorded benthic Antarctic deep-sea gastropods (below 750 m) from 115 to 177. The previously known depth ranges have been extended, often considerably, for 31 species. The collected deep-sea gastropods comprise both eurybathic shelf species (29%) and apparently true deep-sea species (58%); some of the latter may belong to a so far unknown Antarctic abyssal fauna. Geographical ranges of the collected Antarctic benthic deep-sea gastropod species appear limited, and all these 84 species seem endemic to Antarctica south of the Polar Front. Comparing diversity and abundances based on epibenthic sledge samples, there is no clear relationship between Antarctic deep-sea gastropod abundance and species richness with depth. However, both Antarctic and adjacent deep-sea areas are still far from being adequately sampled to allow more comprehensive conclusions.

  11. Prestonellinae-validation of the name as a new subfamily of Bothriembryontidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea).

    Bruggen, A C Van; Herbert, David G; Breure, Abraham S H


    The affinities of the enigmatic South African land snail genus Prestonella Connolly, 1929 were discussed by Herbert (2007) and Herbert & Mitchell (2009), who showed, on the basis of morphological and molecular data, that the genus is referable to the superfamily Orthalicoidea. Currently, the three described species of Prestonella are the only known African representatives of this diverse superfamily. Earlier, van Bruggen (1978) had recognized that these species formed a distinct group and had placed them in the (new) family Prestonellidae. However, as noted by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005: 140), no diagnosis was provided by van Bruggen; the name Prestonellidae thus does not meet the requirements of ICZN Art. 13.1, and is not an available name. In this paper we will redress this issue, also taking into account more recent research which has shed light on the systematic position of this genus within the Orthalicoidea.

  12. Holoplanktonic mollusks (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Gulf of California, México

    Angulo Campillo, Orso; Aceves Medina, Gerardo; Avendaño Ibarra, Raymundo


    We compiled a checklist of holoplanktonic mollusks obtained from seven oceanographic surveys performed between 2005 and 2007 in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The checklist comprises five orders,15 families, 28 genera and 62 species, including 39 new records and two range extensions within the Gulf.

  13. Severnsia strombeulima n. gen. & sp. from Hawaii (Mollusca, Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Eulimidae).

    Geiger, Daniel L


    The malacofauna of Hawaii is rather well-known, owing to Kay (1979) and Severns (2011). Both works stand out because they include a large number of the generally under-represented micromollusks (<5 mm). Here a striking new genus and species of a microsnail is reported from that region.

  14. Caracterização da microbiota bacteriana de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)(Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Silva, Tatiana Maria da


    Devido a grande importância da microbiota no desenvolvimento de parasitas nos invertebrados, muitos estudos vêm sendo desenvolvidos para o melhor entendimento desta interação. Desta forma, a associação entre microrganismos e seus hospedeiros invertebrados, vetores de doenças, está se tornando cada vez mais evidente. Com base nisto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a microbiota bacteriana de caramujos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata, principal hospedeiro interm...

  15. Contribution to the knowledge of the terrestrial gastropods (Mollusca:Gastropoda from Vrachanska Planina Mountains



    Full Text Available Gastropods fauna from the Vrachanska Planina Mountains (= Vrachanska Planina, Northwest Bulgaria, as well it presents the up to now unpublished results of several research trips of the authors and further collectors in the region. In total 90 terrestrial gastropods species are now known from this mountain area. 78 species were published from the beginning of research in this area up to recently. 56 species were confirmed with new findings and 22 species were not found again while the courses of our investigations. 12 gastropod species are newly recorded for the range.

  16. The phylogenetic position of Neritimorpha based on the mitochondrial genome of Nerita melanotragus (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Castro, Lyda R; Colgan, D J


    This is the first report of the mitochondrial gene order and almost-complete DNA sequence of a representative of the Neritimorpha, the highest-ranking gastropod clade lacking such data. Mitochondrial gene order in Nerita is largely plesiomorphic. Its only difference from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris is a tRNA transposition shared by Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Genome arrangements were not informative enough to resolve the evolutionary relationships of Neritimorpha, Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. The sister-group taxon of Neritimorpha varied in sequence-based analyses. Some suggested that Neritimorpha is the sister group of Caenogastropoda plus Heterobranchia and some that Neritimorpha and Caenogastropoda are sister groups. No analysis significantly supported the hypothesis that Vetigastroda is more closely related to Caenogastropoda than is Neritimorpha.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda)


    We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758), the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hy...

  18. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  19. Caracoles terrestres (Mollusca: Gastropoda) de Iturbide, Nuevo León, México

    Correa Sandoval, Alfonso


    Catorce especies de caracoles terrestres son informadas del municipio de Iturbide, Nuevo León, México. El tipo de vegetación más rico en moluscos (11 especies) es el bosque de galería de Populus-Quercus-Juglans, con cobertura vegetal total y escasa pendiente. La distribución panamericana es el principal componente zoogeográfico Fourteen species of land snails are reported from the municipality of Iturbide, Nuevo León, México. The vegetation type with more species ( 1 1) is the Populus-Quer...

  20. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    Bruggen, van A.C.


    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that jud

  1. Histofisiología del epitelio renal de helix aspersa (mollusca, gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    Sánchez Aguayo, Inmaculada


    La excreción es, por definición, la separación de los productos de desecho de los fluidos tisulares y corporales, y su eliminación del organismo. Además, se considera como el resultado de la filtración del líquido de la sangre, de la reabsorción de ciertos compuestos y de la secreción de sustancias en el interior de túbulos excretores. Los productos de desecho son el resultado del metabolismo celular. Aunque en general son productos finales de procesos catabólicos, también pueden incluir ...

  2. Size clines and subspecies in the Streptaxid Genus Gulella PFR. (Mollusca, Gastropoda pulmonata) in Southern Africa

    Bruggen, van A.C.


    CONTENTS 1. Introduction.................. 3 2. Systematic part................. 6 Gulella adamsiana................. 7 Gulella darglensis................. 14 Gulella elliptica................. 19 Gulella farquhari................. 27 Gulella infrendens................ 33 Gulella planti.............

  3. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Janine Oliveira Arruda


    Full Text Available Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  4. A new species of hydrobiid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae from central Greece

    Canella Radea


    Full Text Available A new minute valvatiform species belonging to the genus Daphniola Radoman 1973, Daphniola eptalophos sp. n., from mountain Parnassos, Greece is described. The new species has a transparent valvatiform-planispiral shell, wide and open umbilicus, grey-black pigmented soft body and head and a black penis with a small colorless outgrowth on the left side near its base. A comparative table of shell dimensions and a key to the species known for this endemic genus for Greece are provided.

  5. Present distribution of Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Slovak Republic

    Tomáš Čejka


    Full Text Available All published and known unpublished data on Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843 from the Slovak Republic are summarised. The Slovak distribution is restricted to the southern parts of the country close to the Danube, Morava, and Hron Rivers. Geographic and vertical distribution is described. The most of the localities are placed between 100 and 140 m a.s.l., the highest situated known record was in 277 m a.s.l. P. antipodarum inhabits slowly flowing rivers and different types of standing waters in Slovakia.

  6. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Marlene T. Ueta


    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.Shells of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied to determine morphometric variation. Samples were collected in the following municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Five measurements were taken from each shell: length and width of the shell, length and width of the aperture and lenght of the spire. Two ratios were also established: width/lenght of the shell and length of the aperture /length of the shell. The numbers of whorls and the length of the shell were also determined. Statistical tests (correlation coeficients, regression, and analysis of variance were used to compare the different samples. Also, com parisons of L. columella shells collected by us were made with those of L. columella, L. viator and L. cubensis from collections deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The results of these studies revealed that in most of the cases the snail populations of different areas were similar, showing constant proportions, but they diverged in their absolute dimensions. Data on aquatic environmental conditions (pH, alkalinity, hardness, and calcium concentration were also obtained. These Chemical factors were examined with respect to shell morphology. Our results revealed that only hardness of water was associated with the robustness of the shells.

  7. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  8. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon. Part 9. The Nassariidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Kool, H.H.; Strack, H.L.


    This paper lists all species of the family Nassariidae collected during the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon (1990). Altogether 47 species are reported, of which two, Nassarius maccauslandi and N. rotundus, are new for Indonesia. Four additional species from Ambon are known from collection

  9. The phylogeny and taxonomy of austral monodontine topshells (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochidae), inferred from DNA sequences.

    Donald, Kirsten M; Kennedy, Martyn; Spencer, Hamish G


    The systematics of topshells (family Trochidae) is currently unresolved: at present even the generic boundaries within this group are poorly defined. In this study, we used sequence data of two mitochondrial genes (16S and cytochrome oxidase 1, COI) and one nuclear gene (actin) to resolve the phylogeny of a closely related subgroup of the Trochidae, 30 species of largely Southern Hemisphere monodontine topshells. The phylogenies constructed revealed five well-supported generic clades: a South African clade (genus Oxystele Philippi, 1847), which lay basally to four internal Pacific clades (genera Chlorodiloma Pilsbry, 1889; Monodonta Lamarck, 1799; Austrocochlea Fischer, 1885; and Diloma Philippi, 1845). The molecular phylogenies constructed in this study shed light on previously unresolved relationships between different groups of topshells, allowing for the first time assignation (based on DNA sequence) of clearly defined, well-supported taxonomic and nomenclatural classification of monodontine topshells species. Austrocochlea crinita (Philippi, 1849), A. odontis (Wood, 1828), A. adelaidae (Philippi, 1849), and A. millelineata (Bonnet, 1864) are placed in the genus Chlorodiloma, which we resurrect from synonymy with Austrocochlea. The Japanese M. confusa Tapparone-Canefri, 1874 is treated as a separate species from M. labio (Linné, 1758). Melagraphia Gray, 1847 is synonymised with Diloma and its sole member, M. aethiops (Gmelin, 1791), along with A. concamerata (Wood, 1828), is transferred to that genus. The Juan Fernandez endemic D. crusoeana (Pilsbry, 1889) is synonymised with D. nigerrima (Gmelin, 1791). We find that morphologically cryptic species are not necessarily close genetically.

  10. Late Paleozoic subulitacea (mollusca:gastropoda), mass extinctions and the replacement of evolutionary faunas

    Erwin, D.H.


    Mesogastropod subulitaceans possess characteristics typical of active carnivores and occupied a trophic regime typical of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolutionary fauna. Despite occupying a vacant niche, subulitaceans are low in both diversity and abundance in late Paleozoic gastropod faunas. In addition, Paleozoic Archaeogastropoda and Mesogastropoda are taxonomically and functionally distinct from Mesozoic groups and display diversity dynamics typical of the Paleozoic evolutionary fauna, not the Mesozoic-Cenozoic fauna with which they were grouped by Sepkoski. Late Paleozoic gastropods are different from pre-Carboniferous taxa, but there is no preferential expansion of the major Mesozoic taxa, nor is there any pattern of exploitation of a major niche utilized by later groups but under-used by Paleozoic taxa. The high taxonomic level used Sepkoski's factor analysis neglects the finer scale of replacement and diversification. This distinct evolutionary behavior of Paleozoic gastropods may be typical of other taxa as well. It weakens the assertions of Kitchell and Carr and Sepkoksi and Miller that the replacement of evolutionary Fauna II by Fauna III began in the late Paleozoic and would have occurred even without the Guadelupian-Dzulfian mass extinction. Thus for gastropods at last, the Late Permian mass extinction did not merely speed up on ongoing process, but probably determined the evolutionary outcome.

  11. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae

    Benoît Dayrat


    Full Text Available In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species O. typhae Buchannan, 1800, O. stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883, and O. reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850. With the exception of a re-description of O. typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935 and O. nigrum (Plate, 1893 are regarded as junior synonyms of O. stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species.

  12. Streptaxidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata) of the Seychelles Islands, Western Indian Ocean

    Gerlach, J.; Bruggen, van A.C.


    The taxonomy of the species of the terrestrial carnivorous snail family Streptaxidae of the Seychelles archipelago is reviewed with the exception of the three species of the genus Priodiscus (vide Gerlach, 1995). All 18 species are restricted to the northern, granitic islands. This paper describes 1

  13. Quantification of midkine gene expression in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to cadmium

    Stillitano, Francesca; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Vanucci, Silvana


    The release of cadmium into many coastal areas represents a threat to ecosystems and human health; cadmium is carcinogenic in mammals and in both marine invertebrates and vertebrates. The use of molluscs to assess the ecologic risk associated with contaminants is strongly recommended on account of their ecological role and on their highly conserved control and regulatory pathways that are often homologous to vertebrate systems. We previously identified a midkine family protein in the limpet Patella caerulea; the midkine is a recently discovered cytokines family with unequivocal informative value on repairing injury and neoplastic processes in mammals. Here we report on midkine ( mdk) and α-tubulin ( α-tub) gene expression patterns in P. caerulea exposed to cadmium. Limpets, collected on two occasions from a breakwater at a marina (Tyrrhenian Sea) were exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. RNA was extracted from the viscera of unexposed and exposed specimens. Real time TaqMan RT-PCR was performed to measure the relative mdk and α-tub gene expression levels. A remarkable mdk over-expression was observed in all exposed animals with respect to unexposed ones; mdk over-expression was significantly higher in both treatments when compared with un-treatment (mean expression levels: 23- and 38-fold, for 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd treatment, respectively; ANOVA, for both P < 0.01). The study also indicates that the mdk up-regulation was significantly Cd-concentration dependent ( P < 0.05). A significant up-regulation of the constitutive α-tub gene was also observed in 1 mg l -1 Cd-treated animals (mean expression level: 4-fold; ANOVA, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence paving the way for the use of the midkine as a promising new biomarker of effect in the environment risk assessment policy.

  14. Habitat preferences of coral-associated wentletrap snails (Gastropoda: Epitoniidae)

    Gittenberger, A.; Hoeksema, B.W.


    Examination of about 60,000 scleractinian corals of the families Dendrophylliidae, Euphylliidae and Fungiidae for the presence of associated wentletrap snails (Gastropoda: Epitoniidae) revealed various ectoparasitic life history strategies. Twenty Indo-Pacific wentletrap species were found, which we

  15. De tweekleppigen van het Noordzeekanaal (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Haaren, van T.; Tempelman, D.


    The bivalves of the Noordzeekanaal (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In recent years, the macrobenthos of the Noordzeekanaal area, west of Amsterdam, has been surveyed intensively. The area consists of a main, brackish channel and a set of deep sea harbours. It was discovered that several bivalve species were pr

  16. De weekdieren van de Nederlandse brakwatergebieden (Mollusca)

    Kuijper, W.J.


    The molluscs of the brackish waters in the Netherlands (Mollusca) The Netherlands is a river delta rich in brackish waters. The organisms in these waters need to be adapted to extreme conditions, especially large fluctuations in chlorinity. However, several species occur optimally in this habitat. I


    Fahrner, A.; Haszprunar, G.


    The microanatomy and ultrastructure of the excretory system of an undescribed mesopsammic gastropod of the genus Hedylopsis have been examined by means of semithin serial sections, reconstructions, and transmission electron microscopy. The functional metanephridial system comprises a monotocardian heart with a single ventricle and auricle in a spacious pericardium as well as a single, large kidney. Podocytes in the auricular epicardium represent the site of ultrafiltration and formation of the primary urine, whereas the flat epithelium of the kidney with extensive basal infoldings, large vacuoles and the apical microvillous border indicates modification of the primary filtrate. Solitary rhogocytes (pore cells) represent additional loci of ultrafiltration with an identical fine-structure as those of the podocytes (meandering slits with diaphragms covered by extracellular matrix). The presence of podocytes situated in the epicardial wall of the auricle is regarded as plesiomorphic for the Opisthobranchia and is confirmed for the Acochlidia for the first time. Kidney and rectum both open into a small, yet distinct mantle cavity. Within the Acochlidia this condition represents a plesiomorphic character only known from one further Hedylopsis species until now. Special cells (here termed microvillous pit-cells) with a presumed absorptive function are interspersed between the epithelial cells of the mantle cavity. They are mainly characterized by a prominent invagination of the apical border with densely arranged, very large microvilli. The presence of a mantle cavity that has been lost in all other acochlidian genera supports the systematic placement of the Hedylopsidae at the base of the Achochlidia.

  18. Prosobrânquios terrestres do Brasil: Cyclophoridae: Neocyclotus (N. agassizi (Bartsch & Morrison, 1942 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda Land prosobranchs of Brazil: Cyclophoridae: Neocyclotus (N. agassizi (Bartsch & Morrison, 1942 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda

    Arnaldo C. dos Santos Coelho


    Full Text Available Studies on specimens from Brazil (States of Pernambuco and Alagoas were carried out in order to relate data about morphology of hard and soft parts o Nocyclotus (N. agassizi (Bartsh & Morrison, 1942.

  19. Primeiro registro de Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Planorbidae para a Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro First record of Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Planorbidae to Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro

    Sônia Barbosa dos Santos


    Full Text Available A malacological survey has been done by the sênior author in Ilha Grande, State of Rio de Janeiro, since 1996. Up to this date the only freshwater gastropods found were specimens of Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954. The snails were collected at a swampy area situated behind the late Penal Colony Cândido Mendes (Ilha Grande Prison.

  20. La Familia Trochidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda en el norte de Chile: consideraciones ecológicas y taxonómicas The trochidae family (Mollusca : Gastropoda in northern Chile: taxonomic and ecological considerations



    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la diversidad, y la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de los caracoles de la Familia Trochidae en el norte de Chile, mediante muestreos intermareales y submareales someros, realizados entre 1996 y 1999 entre Arica (18º S y Los Vilos (31º S, y de muestras de profundidad provenientes de la pesca de arrastre del camarón nylon, Heterocarpus reedi. En el norte de Chile, la Familia Trochidae está representada por cuatro géneros: Tegula y Diloma de distribución intermareal y submareal somero hasta los 20 m de profundidad, y Bathybembix y Calliostoma presentes en profundidades superiores a los 200 m. El género Tegula tiene seis especies (T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata y T. euryomphala distribuídas en sustratos rocosos intermareales y submarales someros. El género Diloma está representado por una especie, D. nigerrima, de distribución intermareal hasta pocos metros de profundidad. El género Calliostoma tiene dos especies C. chilena y C. delli, las que se distribuyen entre 200 y 750 m de profundidad. Finalmente, el género Bathybembix está representado por B. humboldti y B. macdonaldi distribuídas entre 200 y 1480 m de profundidad. Esta segregación batimétrica parece estar relacionada a las estrategias alimentarias de cada uno de los géneros de la familia Trochidae. Diloma y Tegula son herbívoros, las especies del género Bathybembix son alimentadoras de depósito y las de Calliostoma son carnívorasThis study reveals the diversity, and the bathimetric and latitudinal distribution of the snails of the Trochidae family members in northern Chile, throughout the analysis of all Trochidae gastropods entailed in intertidal and subtidal (from the `camarón naylon' fishery samples collected during 1996 and 1999 between Arica (ca 18º S and Los Vilos (ca 31º S. The Trochidae family in northern Chile have four genus: Tegula and Diloma that are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats, and Calliostoma and Bathybembix which occurr at dephts greather than 200 m. Tegula have 6 species: T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata, and T. euryomphala are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats. Diloma is a monospecific genus, whereas D. nigerrima is an intertidal species. The genus Calliostoma have two species C. chilena and C. delli occurring between 200 and 750 m depth and the Bathybembix with two species, B. Humboldti and B. macdonaldi, distributed between 200 and 1480 m depth. The bathimetric distribution of Trochidae shows a strong correlation with food strategy: Diloma and Tegula are herbivores, while Bathybembix species are deposit feeders and Calliostoma are carnivores

  1. Microanatomia e histologia do sistema digestivo de Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae: V. Glândula digestiva Microanatomy and histology of the digestive system of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae: V. Digestive gland

    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet


    Full Text Available The digestive gland of Phyllocaulis soleiformis is a compound tubular gland. The secretory tubules are made up of two main cell types: the digestive cells and calcic cells. The digestive cells are the most numerous, usually columnar, and exhibit three different functional stages: absorptive, secretory and excretory. These cells contain two cytoplasmic granules types and, in the excretory stage, most of the cell is occupied by a large vacuole. The calcic cells occursingly or frequently in groups of two or three, are triangular shaped and have distinct apical granules, and yet calcic histochemical detected granules. In addition, there is a third cell type, without characteristic cytoplasmic granules and which correspond to the undifferentiated cells. The excretory duets system are represented by anterior and posterior vestibules, which branche to form the duets, that communicate with the secretory tubules. These excretory duets are lined with a simple epithelium of ciliated columnar cells, followed by a layer of connective tissue with circular and longitudinal muscular fibers. Subepithelial mucous cells are present only in the vestibules.

  2. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

    Helena Matthews-Cascon


    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  3. New species of Thaumastus from Lagoa Santa region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimuloidea Nova espécie de Thaumastus da região de Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brasil (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimuloidea

    Meire Silva Pena


    Full Text Available A new species of Thaumastus (Thaumastus Martens, 1860, from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is described and illustrated, based on the morphology of the shell, jaw, radula and soft parts.Uma nova espécie de Thaumastus (Thaumastus Martens, 1860, do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, é descrita e ilustrada, com base na morfologia da concha, mandíbula, rádula e partes moles.

  4. Anatomia e microanatomia do sistema reprodutor de Rectartemon (Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Streptaxidae: complexo fálico Anatomy and microanatomy of the reproductive system of Rectartemon (Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Streptaxidae: the phallus complex

    Mônica Picoral


    Full Text Available It is described the anatomy and microanatomy of the phallus complex of Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann, 1868. The complex is composed by a phallus, a diverticle of the phallus and an epiphallus, where the deferens duct is thrown in: the retractor muscle is splitted in two parts, inserted into the region of the epiphallus through a smaller branch, and at the extremity of the diverticle, through a longer and thiner branch. The lumen of the phallus, epiphallus and diverticle have corrugations and thorns. On the phallus the thorns are arranged in a protuberance and disposed alternately in rows, ali with an aculeus form and with a chestnut collor point and a yellow basis.

  5. Investigation of the Diversity of Mollusca and Evaluation of Water Quality in Hengyang Reach of Xiangjiang River%湘江衡阳段软体动物多样性调查和水质生物学评价

    刘俊; 吴彦琼; 李静; 胡劲松; 李鹏; 刘运莲


    The species and diversity and faunal and distribution of molluscas in Hengyang reach of Xiangjiang River were studied after many years of dayuandu hydropower station built; and in virtue of diversity indexes of molluscas, water quality were evaluated. The result of the research showed that there were 45 species of mollusca in Hengyang reaches of Xiang River, which belong to 2 classes and 9 families and 18 genera. 30 species belonging to 11 genera in 6 families of Gastropoda were found, 15 specieses belonging to 7 genera in 3 families of Bivalvia were found. The mollusca was in Oriental realm. 26 species were endemic species in China, and Mekonia hunanensis was in endangered status (It has been listed in China Species Red List as an extinct species). Shannon index was used to evaluate water quality of Hengyang reaches of Xiang River. The result showed that the water quality in Dongzhou ialand and Hengshan county town belonged to clean water, the other 8 sampling sites water had been polluted slightly.%对衡山大源渡电站蓄水多年后的湘江衡阳段软体动物的种类组成、区系分布以及多样性进行了调查,并用生物多样性指数对湘江衡阳段水质进行了评价.调查结果表明,湘江衡阳段计有软体动物45种,分别隶属于2纲9科18属,其中腹足纲6科11属30种,双壳纲3科7属15种,其区系成分主要为东洋界类型;其中26种为中国特有种,且湖南湄公螺为濒危物种(被定为灭绝的物种).用软体动物的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')对湘江衡阳段进行水质生物学评价,研究结果表明,湘江衡阳段的水质除东洲岛和衡山县城为清洁水外,其余8个采样点的水质均受到了轻度污染.

  6. Thais (Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thaididae, a potential bioindicator of contamination by organotin northeast Brazil

    Ítalo Braga de Castro


    Full Text Available The use of antifouling paints containing the biocide compound tributyltin (TBT has been shown as an inductor of imposex in neogastropods mollusks. Imposex is characterized by the development of male features in females, mainly the appearance of a no functional vas deferens and penis. Samples of Thais rustica were collected in eight sites in the metropolitan area of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, and examined for occurrence of imposex, which was found in many females. The higher imposex levels were presented by samples from sites near city harbor.A utilização de tintas antiincrustrantes contendo o composto biocida tributilestanho (TBT tem induzido moluscos neogastrópodes ao imposex. O imposex é caracterizado pelo surgimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos, sobretudo, pênis e vaso deferente não funcionais em fêmeas desses moluscos. Foram coletadas amostras de Thais rústica em oito estações ao longo da costa da cidade de Natal no Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais foram analisados quanto a presença e o grau de imposex que apresentavam. Os níveis mais elevados de imposex foram observados na estação mais próxima ao porto.

  7. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil

    G. C. Zeidan

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex. The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  8. Imposex induction in Stramonita haemastoma floridana (Conrad, 1837 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Muricidae submitted to an organotin-contaminated diet

    Aline Fernandes Alves de Lima


    Full Text Available Marine organisms are affected by organotin compounds due to the cumulative, deleterious effects of these latter. The most evident and well known consequence of organotin contamination is imposex, a hormonal disruption that causes a superimposition of sexual male features in females of prosobranchia neogastropod molluscs such as Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Molluscs accumulate organotins mainly because of their poor ability to eliminate TBT and DBT from their tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze organotin uptake by ingestion experimentally, using uncontaminated subjects (S. haemastoma floridana fed with organotin-contaminated oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae. A total of 248 gastropods, distributed in 7 tanks with uncontaminated water and contaminated food, were used in this study, a control group being fed uncontaminated oysters. Every 15 days, the individuals of one of the tanks were examined for the presence of imposex. Development of imposex was measured using the VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indexes. The animals had already developed imposex within the first 15 days, all the indexes measured (RPLI, RPSI and VDSI having increased significantly with duration of exposure, indicating that the animals were probablycontaminated by the food and had accumulated the pollutant. New paths of imposex development were also observed.Organismos marinhos são afetados por compostos organoestânicos que causam uma série de efeitos deletérios aos mesmos. O mais conhecido efeito da contaminação por organoestânicos é o imposex. Esse fenômeno consiste na masculinização de fêmeas de moluscos neogastrópodes tais como Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Esses compostos tendem a se acumular em moluscos devido a sua baixa capacidade de eliminá-los. Um total de 248 indivíduos de S. haemastoma floridana foram coletados de uma população livre qualquer indício de imposex. Esses animais foram mantidos em 7 aquários, com aproximadamente 30 indivíduos cada, 1 desses aquários foi considerado como controle e os animas do mesmo alimentados com ostras obtidas de locais onde não se verificou a ocorrência de imposex em neogastrópodes nativos. Os animais nos outros 6 aquários foram alimentados com ostras obtidas em local onde a incidência de imposex entre os gastrópodes nativos revelou-se muito alta. A cada 15 dias, por um período total de 90 dias, os animais de um dos tanques eram retirados e analisados quanto à presença de imposex. Os níveis de imposex foram quantificados através da % de imposex e dos índices: RPLI, RPSI e VDSI. Observou-se a indução de imposex em S. haemastoma floridana através da dieta a partir de Crassostrea rhizophora e um aumento significativo dos índices com o decorrer do tempo de exposição. Os animais do aquário controle foram analisados ao fim do experimento não revelando qualquer indício de imposex.

  9. Bioindicator Thais carinifera (mollusca, gastropoda: imposex response and consequences along the Pakistan coast during the period from 1993 to 2012

    Nuzhat Afsar


    Full Text Available Abstract Endocrine mediated "imposex" phenomenon was investigated and recorded in the muricoid gastropod species Thais carinifera during the two decades from 1993 to 2012 at three (3 sites out of six (6 localities investigated along the Sindh and Balochistan coast, Pakistan. The VDS stages 1 to 4 were apparent in Thais carinifera. The intensity of imposex has remained comparatively low in the populations of harbours in close proximity to port Mohammad Bin-Qasim, namely; Old Korangi Fish Harbour (OKFH and New Korangi Fish Harbour (NKFH where shipping activities are sporadic as compared to those in Manora Channel and the adjoining Karachi Port area where intensive shipping activity is rather frequent. Target species found to be good bioindicators have shown a marked decrease over the prolonged study period. Investigations show that this decrease is solely due to globally imposed effective bans on tributyltin (TBT based antifouling paints over the past decade.

  10. Standardization of a Patella spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda) embryo-larval bioassay and advantages of its use in marine ecotoxicology.

    Pérez, Sara; Fernández, Nuria; Ribeiro, Pedro A


    The use of three limpet species, Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, Patella depressa Pennant, 1777 and Patella ulyssiponensis Gmelin, 1791 as model organisms in marine ecotoxicology has been evaluated. Initial laboratory experiments were aimed to standardize a biological test with embryos and larvae of Patella spp, establishing the percentage of normal trochophore larvae as endpoint. Before conducting in vitro fertilization, oocytes must be maturated artificially by incubation in an alkaline solution; therefore, alkalinizing agent, pH and time of eggs alkalinization were evaluated. Moreover, time of sperm activation, optimum sperm and oocytes concentration during fertilization, gamete contact time, use of stirring during the fertilization, egg concentration and incubation temperature were examined. Minimum sample size per treatment was also estimated. Exposure of oocytes for 10min to FSW alkalinized with NH4OH at pH 9.0, the use of undiluted sperm pre-activated during 45min and a concentration of 200 oocytesmL(-1), a gamete-contact time of 180min and egg incubation at 18°C during 24h at a concentration of 80 eggsmL(-1) were the conditions allowing maximal embryo-larval development success. With an error of 0.05, a sampling size ≥320 allows a 95% confidence in the estimate. This Patella spp. acute bioassay fulfills a number of important a priori requirements to be used in ecotoxicological studies. Nevertheless, in vitro fertilization requires considerable handling, which may lead to failure in fecundation. Such difficulties are also addressed, in order to facilitate the routine use of this protocol by other laboratories.

  11. Newly-discovered muscle in the larva of Patella coerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) suggests the presence of a larval extensor

    Damen, Peter; Dictus, Wim J.A.G.


    The development of the muscular system of the gastropod mollusc Patella has been thoroughly studied. As a result, two larval retractors, the main and accessory larval retractor, had been described in the larva of Patella. These muscles were supposed to be responsible for the retraction of the larval

  12. Annotated type catalogue of the Megaspiridae, Orthalicidae, and Simpulopsidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London.

    Breure, Abraham S H; Ablett, Jonathan D


    The type status is described for 65 taxa of the Orthalicoidea, classified within the families Megaspiridae (14), Orthalicidae (30), and Simpulopsidae (20); one taxon is considered a nomen inquirendum. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Helixbrephoides d'Orbigny, 1835; Simpulopsiscumingi Pfeiffer, 1861; Bulimulus (Protoglyptus) dejectus Fulton, 1907; Bulimusiris Pfeiffer, 1853. The type status of Bulimussalteri Sowerby III, 1890, and Strophocheilus (Eurytus) subirroratus da Costa, 1898 is now changed to lectotype according Art. 74.6 ICZN. The taxa Bulimusloxostomus Pfeiffer, 1853, Bulimusmarmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855, Bulimusmeobambensis Pfeiffer, 1855, and Orthalicuspowissianusvar.niveusPreston 1909 are now figured for the first time. The following taxa are now considered junior subjective synonyms: Bulimusmarmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Helix (Cochlogena) citrinovitrea Moricand, 1836; Vermiculatus Breure, 1978 = Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882. New combinations are: Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) Rochebrune, 1882; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) aequatoria (Pfeiffer, 1853); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) aquila (Reeve, 1848); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) badia (Sowerby I, 1835); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) caliginosa (Reeve, 1849); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) coagulata (Reeve, 1849); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853); Karaindentata (da Costa, 1901); Clathrorthalicusmagnificus (Pfeiffer, 1848); Simpulopsis (Eudioptus) marmartensis (Pfeiffer, 1855); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) nucina (Reeve, 1850); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) ochracea (Morelet, 1863); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) peaki (Breure, 1978); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846); Clathrorthalicusphoebus (Pfeiffer, 1863); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) polymorpha (d'Orbigny, 1835); Scholvieniaporphyria (Pfeiffer, 1847); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) purpurata (Reeve, 1849); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) quechuarum Crawford, 1939; Quechuasalteri (Sowerby III, 1890); Kuschelenia (Bocourtia) subfasciata Pfeiffer, 1853; Clathrorthalicusvictor (Pfeiffer, 1854). In an addedum a lectotype is being designated for Bulimulus (Drymaeus) interruptusvar.pallidus Preston, 1909. An index is included to all taxa mentioned in this paper and the preceding ones in this series (Breure and Ablett 2011, 2012, 2014).

  13. Annotated type catalogue of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in Australian museums, with a compilation of types in other museums.

    Breure, Abraham S H; Whisson, Corey S


    Type material of 41 Australian Bothriembryon taxa present in Australian museums is critically listed, indicating systematic issues that need to be resolved in further studies. Information on additional type material of 22 taxa in non-Australian museums is compiled. The seven fossil taxa known so far are included in this catalogue. Based on the current systematic position, 38 species are treated in this paper. Bothriembryon jacksoni Iredale, 1939, Bothriembryon notatus Iredale, 1939, Bothriembryon praecelsus Iredale, 1939 and Bothriembryon serpentinus Iredale, 1939 are elevated to species level. Bothriembryon gratwicki (Cox, 1899) is listed as status to be determined.

  14. Annotated type catalogue of the Bothriembryontidae and Odontostomidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London.

    Breure, Abraham S H; Ablett, Jonathan D


    The type status is described for specimens of 84 taxa classified within the families Bothriembryontidae and Odontostomidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the Natural History Museum, London. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus (Liparus) brazieri Angas, 1871; Bulimus broderipii Sowerby I, 1832; Bulimus fuligineus Pfeiffer, 1853; Helix guarani d'Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus (Tomigerus) ramagei E.A. Smith, 1890; Helix rhodinostoma d'Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus (Bulimulus) ridleyi E.A. Smith, 1890. The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Placostylus (Euplacostylus) cylindricus Fulton, 1907; Bulimus pyrostomus Pfeiffer, 1860; Bulimus turneri Pfeiffer, 1860. The following taxon is synonymised: Bulimus oblitus Reeve, 1848 = Bahiensis neglectus (Pfeiffer, 1847).

  15. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan


    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the o...

  16. Histology and Cytochemistry of the Neurosecretory Cells (NSC of the Freshwater Snail Lymnaea luteola (Lamarck Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Vijaya Kumar Kanapala


    Full Text Available Four types of neurosecretory (NS cells are noticed in the cerebral, pleural, buccal and pedal ganglion of the freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola. According to the size and staining properties they are classified as A, B, C and D type cells. These are giant cells, medium cells, small cells and smallest cells. Type ‘A’ cells are largest of the all cells and measures about 0.0600-0.0800 mm in diameter. The B cells are smaller than ‘A’ cells and are ranges from 0.035-0.040 mm in diameter. The ‘C’ and ‘D’ cells are smaller than the ‘A’ and ‘B ‘cells and more or less oval in shape. The histochemical observations reveal that the neurosecretory material is rich in carbohydrates, disulphides, sulfhydryl group, protein bound amino groups, glycoprotein and lipids.

  17. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis revealed a cryptic species and genetic introgression in Littorina sitkana (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Azuma, Noriko; Yamazaki, Tomoyasu; Chiba, Susumu


    We investigated mitochondrial and nuclear DNA genotypes in nominal Littorina sitkana samples from 2 localities in Eastern Hokkaido, northern Japan. Our results indicated the existence of cryptic species. In the analysis of partial mitochondrial Cytchrome b gene sequences, haplotypes of L. sitkana samples were monophyletic in a phylogenetic tree with orthologous sequences from other Littorina species, but were apparently separated in 2 clades. One included typical L. sitkana (CBa clade) samples, which formed a clade with an allopatric species, L. horikawai. The other, CBb, was independent from CBa and L. horikawai. Haplotypes of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene also separated into 2 clades. We additionally examined intron sequence of the heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) nuclear gene and identified 17 haplotypes. These were also separated into 2 clades, HSCa and HSCb. Among the examined Hokkaido samples, 60% of individuals were heterozygotes. However, each heterozygote consisted of haplotypes from the same clade, HSCa or HSCb, and no admixture of HSCa and HSCb haplotypes was observed. These results indicate reproductive isolation between the 2 clades. Among the genotyped Hokkaido samples, 93% of individuals had CBa + HSCa or CBb + HSCb genotypes, and 7% had CBb + HSCa genotypes. The discrepancy between the mtDNA and nuclear DNA haplotypes in a few individuals may have been caused by genetic introgression due to past hybridization.

  18. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Abraham Breure


    Full Text Available The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus ( Drymaeus tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus ziczac da Costa, 1898.The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847.New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837; Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835; Drymaeus (Drymaeus lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855; Drymaeus (Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844; Drymaeus (Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (K. culmineus edwardsi (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (K. gayi (Pfeiffer, 1857; Kuschelenia (K. tupacii (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus aquilus (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus caliginosus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus purpuratus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus quechuarum (Crawford, 1939; Naesiotus cinereus (Reeve, 1849; Naesiotus dentritis (Morelet, 1863; Naesiotus fontainii (d’Orbigny, 1838; Naesiotus orbignyi (Pfeiffer, 1846; Protoglyptus pilosus (Guppy, 1871; Protoglyptus sanctaeluciae (E.A. Smith, 1889.Type material of the following taxa is figured herein for the first time: Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus coriaceus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimulus laxostylus Rolle, 1904; Bulimus pliculatus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus simpliculus Pfeiffer, 1855.

  19. Taxonomic study on the family Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda) from the China's seas. Subfamilies: Imbricariinae and Cylindromitrinae


    Ninteen species of subfamilies Imbricariinae and Cylindromitrinae, family Mitridae, are recorded from the China's seas. Of which, one genus and six species are recorded for the first time from China' s seas, i.e., genus Ziba Adams H and Adams A, Cancilla (Cancilla)carnicolor, Ziba duplilirata, Z. insculpta, Neocancilla circula, Scabricola (Scabricola) desetangsii, Scabricola (Swainsonia) ocellata ocellata.

  20. Radix dolgini: The integrative taxonomic approach supports the species status of a Siberian endemic snail (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae).

    Vinarski, Maxim V; Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Schniebs, Katrin; Gofarov, Mikhail Yu; Kondakov, Alexander V


    The molecular techniques are the standard tool for the study of the taxonomic position and phylogenetic affinities of the lymnaeid genus Radix Montfort, 1810, and the majority of the European representatives of this taxon have been studied in this respect. However, a plethora of nominal species of Radix described from Northern Asia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) are still characterized only morphologically, raising some doubts concerning their validity. In this paper, we present the triple (morphological, molecular, and zoogeographical) evidence that there is at least one endemic species of Radix, Radix dolgini (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), widely distributed in Siberia and Western Mongolia. Phylogenetically, it is a sister species to the European R. labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) [=R. peregra auct.], and their common ancestor most probably lived in the Pliocene, nearly 3.25Myr ago. Our results assume the existence of an extended dispersal barrier for freshwater hydrobionts between Europe and Siberia in the Late Pliocene that may be important for biogeographical explanations. Three other nominal Siberian species of Radix: R. kurejkae (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), R. gundrizeri (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983), and R. ulaganica (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983) proved to be the junior synonyms of R. dolgini.

  1. Spatial diversity of rocky midlittoral macro-invertebrates associated with the endangered species Patella ferruginea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Tunisian coastline

    Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Fguiri, Hosni; Diawara, Moctar; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum


    The present study focuses on horizontal spatial variability of benthic macrofauna associated with Patella ferruginea. Thirty-six samples collected at 12 transects belonging to 4 midlittoral sites along the rocky Tunisian coastline, were examined. A total of 44 species belonging to 5 taxa were found. Multivariate analysis applied on gathered data did not show a horizontal spatial variability at small scale (between transects), but at large scale, between sites as well as sectors. Thus, three groups of communities were identified (GI: Korbous and El Haouaria; GIIa: Zembra Island and GIIb: Kelibia). The distribution of species abundance within these groups revealed that crustaceans were the most abundant taxon, due to the overwhelming dominance of Chthamalus stellatus. This substratum appeared to create favourable micro-habitats for the installation of molluscs including gastropods. Regarding the low diversity index ( H') and evenness ( J), they seemed to reflect a disturbance and a demographic unbalance within these communities. The heterogeneity of substrate surface, created by C. stellatus specimens appeared to be caused by various complex interactions established between the key components of these communities in particular suspension feeders, predators, herbivorous molluscs and macroalgae. Thus, the dynamic status of each of these communities is the result of these complex interactions.

  2. Recent expansion and relic survival: Phylogeography of the land snail genus Helix (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from south to north Europe.

    Fiorentino, V; Manganelli, G; Giusti, F; Ketmaier, V


    Little is known about the evolutionary history of Helix, despite the fact that it includes the largest land snails in the western Palaearctic, some of which (e.g. H. pomatia Linnaeus, 1758) are valuable human food. We compared two groups of Helix with apparently contrasting evolutionary histories: the widespread species H. pomatia and the group distributed along the Italian Apennine chain, a relatively unknown set of species with a restricted distribution over a range of altitudes. To reconstruct the evolutionary trajectories of these two groups, we analysed morphological (shell and genitalia) and molecular characters (mitochondrial and nuclear markers) in a total of 59 populations from northern and central Europe (H. pomatia) and along the Apennine chain (various species). We also reconstructed the phylogeny and the evolutionary history of the genus by combining our data with that currently available in the literature. We found that spatial changes did not merely imply fragmentation of populations, but also implied environmental changes (woodlands vs. grasslands) that may have triggered the observed phenotypic diversification. We also found that Anatolia is the ancestral range of Helix and is therefore an important area for the Palaearctic diversity. The results provide insights into the evolutionary history of species richness and more generally into the processes that may have shaped the distribution and diversification of these organisms across Europe and the peri-Mediterranean area.

  3. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Pupillacea. X. Eine Chondrula der Untergattung Eubrephulus auf dem Peloponnes (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Enidae)

    Gittenberger, E.


    A new Chondrula species is described, most probably belonging to the subgenus Eubrephulus, viz. Chondrula (Eubrephulus) peloponnesica spec. nov. The species is known from a single locality only, situated on the SE. Peloponnesus, Greece. Shells of the other two Eubrephulus species known are figured f

  4. Genetic structure of Onchidium "struma" (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Eupulmonata) from the coastal area of China based on mtCO I.

    Zhou, Na; Shen, Heding; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Bianna; Zheng, Pei; Wang, Chengnuan


    The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Onchidium "struma" were investigated using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO I) gene sequences. A total of 240 individuals representing 10 collection sites from across a large portion of its known range were included in the analysis. Overall, 42 haplotypes were defined and 97 polymorphic sites were observed. The O. "struma" populations had high haplotype diversity (0.9280) and nucleotide diversity (0.0404). We inferred that the early maturity and extensive survival habitat led to high genetic diversity of O. "struma" populations in China. Bayesian analysis and SAMOVA analysis showed significant genetic differentiation among populations and all populations were divided into two groups, (HK and HN) versus (GY, DF, CX, CN, ND and XM). The Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between geographic distance and genetic distance (r = 0.251; p = 0.058). Restricted gene flow caused by a shorter term pelagic veliger stage and limited dispersal potential were inferred to result in genetic differentiation among populations based on nested analysis. HK population might be an invasive species by artificial transplantation.

  5. Limitations of cytochrome oxidase I for the barcoding of Neritidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as revealed by Bayesian analysis.

    Chee, S Y


    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene has been universally and successfully utilized as a barcoding gene, mainly because it can be amplified easily, applied across a wide range of taxa, and results can be obtained cheaply and quickly. However, in rare cases, the gene can fail to distinguish between species, particularly when exposed to highly sensitive methods of data analysis, such as the Bayesian method, or when taxa have undergone introgressive hybridization, over-splitting, or incomplete lineage sorting. Such cases require the use of alternative markers, and nuclear DNA markers are commonly used. In this study, a dendrogram produced by Bayesian analysis of an mtDNA COI dataset was compared with that of a nuclear DNA ATPS-α dataset, in order to evaluate the efficiency of COI in barcoding Malaysian nerites (Neritidae). In the COI dendrogram, most of the species were in individual clusters, except for two species: Nerita chamaeleon and N. histrio. These two species were placed in the same subcluster, whereas in the ATPS-α dendrogram they were in their own subclusters. Analysis of the ATPS-α gene also placed the two genera of nerites (Nerita and Neritina) in separate clusters, whereas COI gene analysis placed both genera in the same cluster. Therefore, in the case of the Neritidae, the ATPS-α gene is a better barcoding gene than the COI gene.

  6. On some Vetigastropoda (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Plio-Pleistocene of the Philippines with descriptions of three new species.

    Helwerda, Renate Ariane; Wesselingh, Frank Pieter; Williams, Suzanne T


    We studied representatives of seven vetigastropod families in an extremely well-preserved Plio-Pleistocene mollusc fauna found in relatively deep water sediments (c. 200-300 m paleodepth) from the north-western Philippines. The fauna is systematically described and its paleoenvironmental and paleobiogeographical character is explored. Twenty-six species of gastropods were studied, three of which are described as new: Halystina conoidea n. sp., Calliotropis arenosa n. sp. and Ethminolia wareni n. sp. Four new combinations are proposed: Pseudotalopia taiwanensis (Chen, 2006), Solariella segersi (Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006), Zetela tabakotanii (Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006) and Ilanga konos (Vilvens, 2009). Fourteen species are known living. Most extant species nowadays occur around the Philippines. Two of the species also occur in Neogene deposits from western Pacific islands. The new fauna offers insights into the character of relatively deep water Indo-West Pacific mollusc faunas prior to the onset of the late Quaternary ice ages.

  7. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Ducrot, Virginie; Askem, Clare; Azam, Didier; Brettschneider, Denise; Brown, Rebecca; Charles, Sandrine; Coke, Maïra; Collinet, Marc; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas; Jach, Arne; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lacoste, Cédric; Le Page, Gareth; Matthiessen, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg; Rice, Lynsey; Roberts, Edward; Ruppert, Katharina; Davis, Jessica Elphinstone; Veauvy, Clemence; Weltje, Lennart; Wortham, Ruth; Lagadic, Laurent


    The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain Renilys® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608μgCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20±1°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68

  8. Opisthobranchs from the western Indian Ocean, with descriptions of two new species and ten new records (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Nathalie Yonow


    Full Text Available Seventy species of opisthobranchs are described in this work based on collections from the Persian Gulf, Socotra, Kenya, Zanzibar, Madagascar, La Réunion, Mauritius, the Seychelles, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. Ten species are newly recorded from the western Indian Ocean and four species are recorded in the scientific literature for the first time since their original descriptions. Two species are described as new: Cyerce bourbonica sp. n. from La Réand Doriopsilla nigrocera sp. n. from the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. Chromodoris cavae is removed from its synonymy with C. tennentana and redescribed from specimens from La Réunion, while several new synonyms are proposed for some commonly occurring species. Risbecia bullockii is recorded for the second time from the Indian Ocean and assigned to its correct genus.

  9. A Miocene molluscan faunule from Caucagua (Miranda State, Venezuela), with the description of a new species of Tryonia (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Macsotay, O.


    A molluscan faunule from the Miocene Cumaca Formation of the western margin of the Tuy Basin (Venezuela) is described. The fauna yields two species of freshwater snails and a single terrestrial snail species. Tryonia vivasi nov. spec. is described from the fauna, and its biogeographical significance

  10. Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites

    We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana, Gundlachia radiata Helisoma (= Planorbella) trivolvis, Melanoides tuberculata, Neritina punctulata, and Physa marmorata. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as Gundlachia radiata and Hel...

  11. Neosataria, replacement name for Sataria Annandale, 1920 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Bithyniidae), preoccupied by Sataria Roewer, 1915 (Arachnida: Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae).

    Kulkarni, Siddharth; Khot, Rahul


    The family Bithyniidae is represented in tropical Asia by the following genera, Bithynia, Digonistoma, Mysorella, Parabithynia, Emmericiopsis, Hydrobioides, Parafossarulus, Pseudovivipara, Sataria and Wattebladia (Dudgeon 1999; Pyron & Brown 2015).

  12. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana


    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  13. Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Eliane de Fátima Marques de Mesquita


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved by a thin conjunctive layer that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  14. Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium

    Vanucci, Silvana [Department of Animal Biology and Marine Ecology, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 S Agata, Messina (Italy)]. E-mail:; Minerdi, Daniela [Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 19, 50125 Florence (Italy); Kadomatsu, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nagoya Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mengoni, Alessio [Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 19, 50125 Florence (Italy); Bazzicalupo, Marco [Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 19, 50125 Florence (Italy)


    A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l{sup -1} Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability.

  15. On Trichia alpicola (Eder, 1921) from Switzerland (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Hygromiidae) and the spiral sculpture on its shell

    Gittenberger, E.; Neuteboom, W.H.


    The nominal taxon Fruticicola villosa var. alpicola Eder, 1921, is provisionally considered a separate Trichia species next to T. villosa. The hairs and the spiral sculpture on the shells of both species are illustrated.

  16. Two complete mitochondrial genomes from Praticolella mexicana Perez, 2011 (Polygyridae) and gene order evolution in Helicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Minton, Russell L.; Cruz, Marco A. Martinez; Farman, Mark L.; Perez, Kathryn E.


    Abstract Helicoidea is a diverse group of land snails with a global distribution. While much is known regarding the relationships of helicoid taxa, comparatively little is known about the evolution of the mitochondrial genome in the superfamily. We sequenced two complete mitochondrial genomes from Praticolella mexicana Perez, 2011 representing the first such data from the helicoid family Polygyridae, and used them in an evolutionary analysis of mitogenomic gene order. We found the mitochondrial genome of Praticolella mexicana to be 14,008 bp in size, possessing the typical 37 metazoan genes. Multiple alternate stop codons are used, as are incomplete stop codons. Mitogenome size and nucleotide content is consistent with other helicoid species. Our analysis of gene order suggested that Helicoidea has undergone four mitochondrial rearrangements in the past. Two rearrangements were limited to tRNA genes only, and two involved protein coding genes. PMID:27833437

  17. Description of a new species of the genus Arganiella Giusti & Pezzoli, 1980 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae from the Iberian Peninsula

    Ramos, M.ª A.


    Full Text Available A new species of Arganiella Giusti & Pezzoli, 1980, up to now a monotypic genus, thought to be endemic to the Italian Central Apennines, is described from the Iberian Peninsula. This new species, named Arganiella tartessica, is located in southwestern Spain, provinces of Huelva and Badajoz. In this paper, a detailed description of its morphological characters is given and new data of nervous system and ciliated areas in the cephalic region are provided.Se describe una especie ibérica de Arganiella Giusti y Pezzoli, 1980, un género que hasta ahora se consideraba monotípico y endémico de los Apeninos centrales italianos. Esta nueva especie, denominada Arganiella tartessica, ha sido localizada en el sureste español, en las provincias de Huelva y Badajoz. En este artículo se describen en detalle sus caracteres morfológicos y se presentan datos, hasta la fecha desconocidos en el género Arganiella, del sistema nervioso y de áreas ciliadas en la región cefálica.

  18. Anisospira velascorum, a new land snail from Mexico, with notes on the anatomy and histology (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Urocoptidae)

    Breure, A.S.H.


    During a collecting trip through southern and central Mexico (Breure, 1974) special attention has been paid to Bulimulidae and Urocoptidae. Among the material of urocoptids a new species has been found. Anisospira velascorum sp. n. (figs. 1-10, pl. 1) Description. — Shell up to 30.5 mm, 2.39 times a

  19. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan


    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the o......The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report...

  20. Identification of protein components of egg masses indicates parental investment in immunoprotection of offspring by Biomphalaria glabrata (gastropoda, mollusca).

    Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Adema, Coen M; Stout, Barbara A; Mobarak, Charlotte D; Loker, Eric S


    The macromolecules contributed by the freshwater gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, to developing offspring inside egg masses are poorly known. SDS-PAGE fractionated egg mass fluids (EMF) of M line and BB02 B. glabrata were analyzed by MALDI-TOF (MS and tandem MS). A MASCOT database was assembled with EST data from B. glabrata and other molluscs to aid in sequence characterization. Of approximately 20 major EMF polypeptides, 16 were identified as defense-related, including protease inhibitors, a hemocyanin-like factor and tyrosinase (each with possible phenoloxidase activity), extracellular Cu-Zn SOD, two categories of C-type lectins, Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP), aplysianin/achacin-like protein, as well as versions of lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability-increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) that differed from those previously described from hemocytes. Along with two sequences that were encoded by "unknown" ESTs, EMF also yielded a compound containing a vWF domain that is likely involved in defense and a polypeptide with homology to the Aplysia pheromone temptin. Further study of B. glabrata pheromones is warranted as these could be useful in efforts to control these schistosome-transmitting snails. Several of the EMF polypeptides were contained in the albumen gland, the organ that produces most EMF. Thus, parental investment of B. glabrata in immunoprotection of its offspring is indicated to be considerable.



    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  2. FMRFamide and related peptides in the phylum mollusca.

    López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B; Heimer de la Cotera, Edgar P


    FMRFamide is one of the well-known peptides studied within the phylum Mollusca. It was first isolated from the clam Macrocallista nimbosa during the end of the 1960s. Since then, a number of reports related to FMRFamide have been published from different experimental approaches, revealing that it and its related peptides (FaRPs) are implicated in a variety of physiological processes. As this year is the 30th anniversary since its discovery, this review focuses on diverse findings related to both FMRFamide and FaRPs in the phylum Mollusca.

  3. Studi Penilaian Ekosistem Mangrove Hasil Tanam Berdasarkan Keberadaan Gastropoda di Pulau Pramuka, Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta

    Yayan Mardiansyah Assuyuti


    Full Text Available The aims of mangrove replanted are to protect and good quality of coastal ecosystems and small islands, but it is have influenced to change of habitat and ecology function. This study conducted at Pramuka Island, Seribu islands, Jakarta, in June 2016. Data of gastropoda using 1 m2 square random sampling and divide depend on height are 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 m. The aims of study are to determine (i diversity, density, (ii vertical distribution, (iii size shell, (iv correlation of density with distribution, (v correlation of size shell with vertical distribution, (vi correlation of individual with height gastropoda, and (vii assessment of mangrove replanted depend on gastropoda. The species of Terebralia sp. and Littorina sp. are found in mangrove replanted. The total value of diversity and density of mangrove gastropoda are 0.6 and 31.3 ind/m2, respectively. Vertical distribution of gastropoda Terebralia sp. found in 0-1 m and Littorina sp. in 0-3 m. The density and individual of Terebralia sp. have high value and size shell largest than Littorina sp. Gastropoda found indicated that the mangrove ecosystem in Pramuka island is still young and is in a transition state.

  4. Two new records of Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) from China seas

    CHEN Zhiyun; ZHANG Suping


    This paper reports two species of the family Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda,Heterobranchia),Otopleura nitida (A.Adams,1854) and Rugadentia manzakiana (Yokoyama,1922).The former was from the South China Sea and the latter was from the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.The study was based on the collections deposited in the Marine Biological Museum,Chinese Academy of Sciences.This is for the first time that these species have been recorded in China seas.In the current contribution,we describe and illustrate these two species,and compare them with similar species.

  5. The Holocene and Recent marine Bivalve Mollusca of Surinam

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.


    As the preparation of an annotated check list of the marine Mollusca of Surinam (Dutch Guiana) will take some more years, it was thought appropriate to publish a preliminary report on the bivalves. This report consists of a list of 126 species with a few notes containing, i.a., the description of se

  6. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae in fjords and channels of southern Chile Patrones de distribución de larvas y asentamiento de Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae en fiordos y canales del sur de Chile



    Full Text Available The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development under natural conditions, mostly because early veligers have rarely been found in nature. This study is the first attempt to determine the spatial and temporal abundance and size patterns of C. concholepas larvae in their natural environment throughout all of their developmental stages until they settle. Weekly plankton samples were obtained at the surface and at 8 m depth in four locations in southern Chile in combination with temperature and salinity records in each location. Settlement was quantified using artificial substrates in all locations. We have observed that C. concholepas larval development occurs throughout the entire year in Chilean inland seas, with early veliger larvae being released mostly from August to March, reaching the competent stage around June to August, and settling between July and August. Thus, larvae appear to have a long planktonic development that can last between 6 and 12 months. Differences in local hydrology could affect larval development of C. concholepas in this region. Further oceanographic and ecological investigation is necessary in order to answer the questions and hypotheses originated from this studyConcholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae se distribuye entre las costas del sur de Perú y extremo sur de Chile. Prácticamente todos los estudios sobre este gastrópodo han sido realizados en costas expuestas, sin considerar los fiordos y canales del sur de Chile, a pesar de que estos representan

  7. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012



    Full Text Available The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey, Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain, Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece, Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey, Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece, Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece, Oxynotus centrina (Fish: Greece, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta , Stypopodium schimperi(Phaeophyta Siganus luridus and Stephanolepis diaspros (Fish Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Brachyura (Kyklades Archipelago,Greece, Cerithium scabridum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia: Anavissos: Greece and Cerithium renovatum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia:N. Κriti, Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusa: Rhodos Island, Greece, Abra tenuis (Mollusca Bivalvia: VouliagmeniLake, Greece Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Fish: Calabrian coast, Italy and Plocamopherus ocellatus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia:İskenderun Bay, Turkey.

  8. Diversity and taxonomy of Vietnamese Pollicaria (Gastropoda, Pupinidae

    Russell L. Minton


    Full Text Available Species in the genus Pollicaria (Gastropoda: Pupinidae are conspicuous members of the southeast Asian land snail fauna. Originally erected in 1856, both the genus and its constituent species have been reorganized multiple times with the most recent treatment published in 2013. Collections of Vietnamese Pollicaria during 2014 and 2015 raised questions of the utility of currently used diagnostic shell characters and identification keys in species identification. An examination of the authors’ collections, combined with museum specimens, suggested that at least three species of Pollicaria occur or have historically occurred in Vietnam. It is suggested that P. rochebruni is a senior synonym of P. crossei and treat both taxa as conspecific. A second species, P. mouhoti, was believed to only occur in Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand. A possible third species, based only on previous karyotypic work, is discussed. Our data further suggest that shell features such as color and size lack consistent utility in species-level identifications in Pollicaria.

  9. Types of Cenozoic Mollusca from Java in the Martin Collection of Naturalis

    Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.


    An updated type catalogue of the Martin Collection (fossil Mollusca, predominantly from the Cenozoic of Java, Indonesia) is presented. Type specimen data, updated locality data, and illustrations are given.

  10. Microanatomy and ultrastructure of the excretory system of two pelagic opisthobranch species (Gastropoda: Gymnosomata and Thecosomata).

    Fahrner, A; Haszprunar, G


    The microanatomy and ultrastructure of the excretory system of Pneumoderma sp. (Gymnosomata) and Creseis virgula Rang, 1828 (Thecosomata) have been investigated by means of semithin serial sections, reconstructions and transmission electron microscopy. The studies revealed a functional metanephridial system consisting of a heart with a single ventricle and auricle in a pericardial cavity and a single kidney in both species. Podocytes in the atrial wall of the pericardial epithelium are the site of ultrafiltration, whereas the flat epithelium of the kidney with numerous basal infoldings and a dense microvillous border on the luminal surface suggests modification of the ultrafiltrate. In Pneumoderma sp., additional loci of ultrafiltration with identical fine structure (meandering slits with diaphragms covered by extracellular matrix) occur in the solitary rhogocytes (pore cells). The presence of podocytes situated on the atrial wall in representatives of two higher opisthobranch taxa contradicts former ideas on the loss of the primary site of ultrafiltration in the ancestors of the Opisthobranchia.


    李德亮; 张婷; 余建波; 毛小伟; 王红权; 陈开健; 刘安民; 李祖军; 肖调义


    fluminea and Unio douglasiae were the dominant species. Both the mean density and biomass of Mollusca showed significant seasonal and temporal variations. These two parameters increased gradually as the sequence of Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. In a spatial scale, they showed a pattern of decreasing from Northeast to Southwest. CCA analysis showed that the relationship between Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), depth, electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature (T) and the community variance was more significant. Compared with 1960, the water quality of Datong Lake changed dramatically. The water alkalinity became much higher (7.0-7.5 vs 8.4-8.6); EC was 9 times than before (0.25-0.27 vs 2.17-2.56 mS/cm), and water type changed to reducibility from oxidizability. For Mollusca, Gyraulus albus, Segmentina nitida and Radix which preferred habitat of aquatic macrophytes, and Stenothyra divalis, Limnoperna lacustris and Solenaia oleivara which preferred lotic habitat disappeared. The dominant species of Mollusca have been changed from Lamellibranchia to Gastropoda. The results indicated that habitat destruction and overexploitation were the main factors affecting the Mollusca community in Datong Lake, and they are also the key problems for sustainable fishery in the future.

  12. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae

    Guilherme R. Gorni


    Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%. In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively. Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da fam

  13. With a little help from DNA barcoding: investigating the diversity of Gastropoda from the Portuguese coast


    The Gastropoda is one of the best studied classes of marine invertebrates. Yet, most species have been delimited based on morphology only. The application of DNA barcodes has shown to be greatly useful to help delimiting species. Therefore, sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 108 specimens of 34 morpho-species were used to investigate the molecular diversity within the gastropods from the Portuguese coast. To the above dataset, we added available COI-5P sequences of taxonomicall...

  14. Mitogenomics reveals two subspecies in Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Meng, Xueping; Shen, Xin; Zhao, Nana; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue; Cheng, Hanliang; Yan, Binlun; Dong, Zhiguo; Zhu, Xiaoling


    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in Zhangzhou (zz-mtDNA) was fully sequenced and compared with that in Rizhao (rz-mtDNA) in this study. A tRNA (tRNA (Met) ) located between tRNA (Ala) and cox1 genes was identified in zz-mtDNA but not in rz-mtDNA. The largest non-coding region (NCR; MNR) contained 11 copies 99nt tandem repeat sequences exclusively in rz-mtDNA, while the second largest NCR with 400 bp between tRNA (Ala) and tRNA (Met) in zz-mtDNA was absent in rz-mtDNA. Secondary structures of ZZ and RZ C. antiquata rRNAs are significantly different. The mitochondrial genomic characteristics clearly indicate that there are at least two subspecies in C. antiquata.

  15. Megafauna recovered from a cold hydrocarbon seep in the deep Alaskan Beaufort Sea, including a new species of Axinus (Thracidae: Bivalvia: Mollusca)

    Powell, C. L.; Valentich-Scott, P.; Lorenson, T. D.; Edwards, B. D.


    Several specimens of a new species of Axinus and a single well-worn gastropod columella provisionally assigned to the genus Neptunea (Buccinidae: Gastropoda: Mollusca) were recently recovered from at least two cores, the longest of which is 5.72 m long, from a large seafloor mound, informally named the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM). The CSM is located at 2,530 m water depth on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay and is a fluid explosion feature containing methane hydrate and methane-saturated sediments overlying a folded and faulted deep basin. Only two modern species of Axinus are currently known. Axinus grandis (Verrill & Smith, 1885) is a northern Atlantic species and the recently described species, A. cascadiensis Oliver and Holmes (2007), is only known from Baby Bare Seamount, Cascadia Basin, northeastern Pacific Ocean. Common fragments, single valves, and a single articulated specimen represent this new Axinus species. These shells were distributed over nearly the entire length of the primary core. All specimens show wear and (or) dissolution. The age of these specimens is unknown and no living representatives were encountered. The genus Axinus has a fossil record back to the early Eocene in England and the Paleocene and Eocene in Egypt. Biogeographically the genus appears to have originated in the Tethys Sea and became established in the Atlantic Ocean during the Eocene, spreading across the Arctic Ocean in the late Tertiary. With the opening of the Bering Strait in the latest Miocene or early Pliocene the genus Axinus migrated southwest into the northeast Pacific. Interestingly, hydrocarbon seep deposits are also present on the adjacent North Slope of Alaska in the Marsh Anticline at Carter Creek, Camden Bay. These rocks, the Nuwok beds, contain abundant Thracidae bivalve of the genus Thracia, but not Axinus, however the rocks also represent cold seep deposits. These rocks have been variously dated from Oligocene to Pliocene and the exact age

  16. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and food preferences of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Merambong shoal, Malaysia

    Husna, Wan Nurul Wan Hassan; Mazlan, Abd Ghaffar; Cob, Zaidi Che


    Laevistrombus canarium is one of the marine gastropod mollusks that have high commercial value, particularly in the aquaculture sector in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the feeding and food items of L. canarium at different ontogenetic stages (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) from Merambong shoals, Malaysia. Field observations on feeding activity were conducted, followed by detailed laboratory analysis on the stomach content. Five-minutes observations on randomly selected individuals were conducted at the field sampling site and their feeding activities were recorded with reference to age stage. Various shell sizes from each ontogenetic stage were randomly collected and quickly anaesthetized with ice and preserved in 10% formalin before being transported to the laboratory for stomach content analyses. Field observations showed that L. canarium mainly grazed on epiphytes occurring on seagrass (46.67%), followed by sediment surface (40%) and epiphytes occurring on macroalgae (13.33%). Stomach content analyses showed a significant difference (P Food items found in the conch stomach include diatoms, detritus, foraminifera, seagrass and macroalgae fragments, sand particles and shell fragments. The Index of Relative Importance (%IRI) indicates three main types of food dominated the three ontogenetic stages namely diatoms, sand particles and detritus. However, no significant difference (P >0.05) was detected between the three main food items (diatoms, sand particles and detritus) among the ontogenetic stages. Therefore, feeding activity revealed the role of the dog conch in the marine food network. While, classification of the types of food consumed by L. canarium through stomach content analysis determines the particular position of the gastropod in the food chain. Further studies are needed to provide a better insight between trophic relationships of L. canarium with marine ecosystem.

  17. On a collection of Peruvian Neniinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Clausiliidae), with a check-list and a provisional key to all the Peruvian species known

    Loosjes, F.E.; Loosjes-van Bemmel, A.C.W.


    An annotated list is given of all Neniinae collected in 1975 by Dr. A. S. H. Breure in Peru. The localities that have been visited are also listed, together with the Neniinae collected there. Pseudogracilinenia gen. nov. is described for P. huallagana (Pilsbry, 1949) (type-species) and P.jolyi (O. B

  18. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats


    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  19. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles


    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  20. The population genetic structure of Littorina littorea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along a pollution gradient in the Scheldt estuary (The Netherlands) using RAPD analysis.

    De Wolf, Hans; Blust, Ronny; Backeljau, Thierry


    The population genetic structure of the periwinkle Littorina littorea was analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Three primers, coding for six putative polymorphic loci were surveyed to infer the genetic structure of seven populations located along the heavily polluted Western (i.e. in order of decreasing pollution load W1, W2, W3 and R1) and the relatively clean Eastern Scheldt (E1, E2 and E3) estuary (The Netherlands). A genetic distance based UPGMA (Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) dendrogram revealed an estuary-related structuring, as Eastern and Western Scheldt sites formed two separate clusters. The Western Scheldt cluster was, however, much more heterogeneous, with three RAPD loci revealing a significant genetic heterogeneity compared to none when the Eastern Scheldt sites were compared. Overall mean heterozygosity levels were high, but did not reveal a difference between the estuaries. The current data (1) confirm the patterns of variation previously observed with electrophoretic analyses of esterases and (2) strongly support that these patterns of variation have a genetic basis, in the presence of intense gene flow. In addition, it is suggested that selection, rather than bottleneck effects, induced by the less favourable living conditions at W1, W2 and W3 are responsible for the genetic patterning.

  1. Single cell gel electrophoresis as a tool to assess genetic damage in Heleobia cf. australis (Mollusca: Gastropoda as sentinel for industrial and domestic pollution in Montevideo bay (Uruguay

    Silvia Villar


    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in aquatic organisms in polluted areas is an important issue because contamination may alter their health at sublethal levels. Although molluscs have been widely used to monitor water pollution, there are no records of in vivo genotoxicity studies. Heleobia cf. australis, is distributed in almost all Uruguayan coastal ecosystems, including highly polluted sites. The comet assay is a damage genetic biomarker based on the migration of negatively charged DNA fragments produced by mutagenic agents in individual cells. Live individuals were collected in the Montevideo Bay (impacted area and Laguna Garzón (control to analyze the presence of mutagenic agents in the former site through comet assay. Cells from organisms of the impacted area showed significantly higher levels of genetic damage than those obtained in the control population, measured by percentage of DNA in the tail. Although preliminary, this approach supports the idea that H. cf. australis could be used as a sentinel to evaluate the presence of mutagenic agents in estuarine environments, alerting to the impact of contamination in its early stages.

  2. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Pupillacea : XI. Speleodentorcula Beroni gen. & spec. nov. (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Orculidae) Aus einer Höhle in Euboea, Griechenland

    Gittenberger, E.


    A new troglobitic genus and species, viz. Speleodentorcula beroni gen. & spec. nov., is described from the island of Euboea, Greece. The species, known from a single cave only, is quite isolated systematically. According to the structure of its shell and the genitalia S. beroni should be classified

  3. Gastropoda animals of mollusca in Naozhou Island of Guangdong Province%广东硇洲岛的软体动物(Ⅰ)腹足类

    肖汉洪; 徐锦海; 何耀明; 李方满



  4. A new species of Tambja (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) from the Mediterranean Sea: description of the first species of the genus from the Balearic Islands and Malta

    Domínguez, M.; Pola, M.; Ramón, M.


    A new species of polycerid nudibranchs of the genus Tambja is described from Mallorca Island (Spain) and Malta. So far, only two species of Tambja had been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea with a distribution limited to southern Spain. With Tambja mediterranea sp. nov., the distribution of the genus in the Mediterranean Sea is extended, and the new species represents the first occurrence of Tambja at the Balearic Islands and Malta. Externally, the new species is mainly characterized by having ground orange-red colour, dorsum covered with rounded whitish tubercles, rhinophores red with whitish tips and three gill branches with orange-reddish rachis and whitish branches. In the present paper, external and internal features of T. mediterranea are described and compared with other species of the genus, especially with its most similar species, T. limaciformis. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and maximum likelihood) based on mitochondrial sequences (COI) show that T. mediterranea sp. nov. is sister to T. divae and that both species cluster together with T. limaciformis and T. amakusana with the maximum support.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy and molecular characterization of a new Haplosporidium species (Haplosporidia), a parasite of the marine gastropod Siphonaria pectinata (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Siphonariidae) in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Vea, Isabelle M; Siddall, Mark E


    Based on scanning electron microscopy and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), Haplosporidium tuxtlensis n. sp. (Haplosporidia), a parasite found in the visceral tissues of the false limpet Siphonaria pectinata (Linnaeus, 1758), is described. The spores are ellipsoidal (3.61 ± 0.15 µm × 2.69 ± 0.19 µm), with a circular lid (2.94 ± 0.5 µm) representing the operculum. The spore wall bears filaments occurring singly, or in clusters, of 2 to 8, fusing distally. Phylogenetic relationships of H. tuxtlensis n. sp. were assessed with other described species using the SSU rRNA sequence. Haplosporidium tuxtlensis n. sp. is sister taxon to Haplosporidium pickfordi Barrow, 1961. The morphological characteristics (spore wall structure, shape, size, and filament structure) and the unique host identity corroborate it as a new species. Additionally, this is the first record of Haplosporidia infecting striped false limpets in the Gulf of Mexico.

  6. Calyptraeotheres sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pinnotheridae), symbiont of the slipper shell Crepidula striolata Menke, 1851 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Ayón-Parente, Manuel; Hendrickx, Michel E


    Calyptraeotheres camposi sp. nov. is described from the Gulf of California, Mexico. The new species is close to C. granti (Glassell, 1933) and C. pepeluisi Campos & Hernández-Ávila, 2010 from the Mexican Pacific and to C. hernandezi Hernández-Ávila & Campos 2006 from the Western Atlantic. These four species feature a third maxilliped with a 2-segmented endopod palp and the exopod with unsegmented flagellum. Calyptraeotheres camposi sp. nov. differs from C. granti and C. hernandezi by having the eyes visible in dorsal view, the carapace with arcuate anterolateral margins, the dorsal, longitudinal depressions connected with the transversal depression, and the propodus of pereiopod 2 equal or slightly longer than the carpus. From C. pepeluisi it is distinguished by the absence of a transversal depression on the carapace and the longitudinal depressions not connecting, the carpus and propodus of the third maxilliped being sub-trapezoidal and sub-conical, respectively, in lieu of subrectangular, and the inner surface of the fixed finger nude instead of bearing short setae near the cutting edge and ventral margin.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of euthyneuran gastropods from sea to land mainly based on comparative mitogenomic of four species of Onchidiidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata).

    Sun, Bian Na; Wei, Luan Luan; Shen, He Ding; Wu, Hong Xi; Wang, Dong Feng


    We generated complete mitochondrial genome sequences data for 4 genera (Onchidium, Platevindex, Paraoncidium and Peronia) in Onchidiidae to construct a phylogenetic tree in conjunction with other 9 existing data among gastropods. The topology showed that the taxa clustered into two main groups of four species, one of which included Onchidium struma and the Platevindex mortoni, the other Paraoncidium reevesii and Peronia verruculata. The process in Pulmonata from sea to land in accordance with the evolution of respiratory organs from branchial gills to pulmonary cavity has been shown. This will also constitute a framework for phylogeny evolution analysis, systematic classfication of Onchidiidae and other euthyneurans (pulmonates and opisthobranchs).

  8. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic with an updated regional checklist for the family

    Ricardo Cordeiro


    Full Text Available Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., S. ermelindoi sp. n., S. netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  9. New records of Omalonyx matheroni (Pontiez & Michaud, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae for the São Paulo and Paraná States.

    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur


    Full Text Available Omalonyx matheroni is a succineid gastropod that lives on aquatic macrophytes and on emergent vegetation in the wetlands of inner deltas, lakes and dikes. Occurrences of this species were recorded in the municipalities of Ibitinga (SP and Paranaguá (PR, broadening its distribution southwards in South America. Until now this species had been recorded in Demerara (Guiana, Zanderij and Belwaarde (Suriname, Guiana Francesa, Peru, Limoncocha (Equador, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais (Brazil, as well as on the islands of Guadalupe and Trinidade.

  10. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

    Carmen Fuentealba


    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W, región de Aysén.The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp. is Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S; 72°27'40.65"W, Aysén region.

  11. Effect of pollution on some freshwater species. I. histochemical and biochemical features of lead pollution on some organs of Viviparus viviparus L. (Mollusca Gastropoda)

    Benedetti, I.; Benedetti, L.; Bolognani, L.; Bolognani Fantin, A.M.; Marini, M.; Ottaviani, E.


    Experimental lead pollution was studied in some organs (foot, mantle and digestive gland) of Viviparus viviparus L. The amount of lead contained after 48h, 96 h and one week of pollution were established using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. On the basis of physicochemical determination, it turns out that lead is mainly concentrated in the mantle. The biochemical tests (cholesterol, sulpholipids and phospholipids) were aimed at evaluating the lipids involved in the membranes. The histochemical research was carried out chiefly to evaluate the modifications of polysaccharides and proteins. Some hydrolytic enzymes (Na+ and K+ dependent ATPase) and some ooreductive enzymes (NADH+ and NADPH+ dependent diaphorases, D-lactate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase) were also tested. The digestive gland is the most severely damaged organ as proved by histomorphological and biochemical analyses.

  12. The Neotropical land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’

    Araujo, Rafael


    The land snails collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacifíco’ (CCP), a Spanish expedition to South and Central America from 1862–1866, are restudied and revised. The historical context of the expedition and the study of its collected material are described. Biographical data is given for the main persons involved. The land snails were previously studied by Joaquin Hidalgo between 1867 and 1893. A total of 3,470 specimens belonging to 211 species are treated in this paper. Of 34 species mentioned by Hidalgo is his catalogue, the corresponding material could not be located. Bulimus visendus Hidalgo, 1869 is now placed in the genus Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896, a new combination. PMID:28316885

  13. Activation of anaerobic metabolism in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Castro, Rosane N; Sant'Ana, Luiza D'Oliveira; Santos-Amaral, Luciana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Martins; Garcia, Juberlan; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho; Pinheiro, Jairo; Maldonado, Arnaldo


    The activity of lactate dehydrogenase and the concentrations of glucose in the hemolymph and of glycogen in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass of Biomphalaria glabrata experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis were evaluated. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the hemolymph concentrations of some carboxylic acids (oxalic, piruvic, lactic and succinic). After one, two and three weeks of infection, the snails were dissected to collect the hemolymph and separate the tissues. A significant reduction of the levels of glucose in the hemolymph was observed as of the first week of infection in relation to the control group. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of the infected group was significantly higher than the average of the control group. This increase was accompanied by a reduction of the levels of piruvic acid and an increase in the levels of lactic acid in the hemolymph of the parasited snails, confirming the acceleration of the anaerobic metabolism, necessary for the host to obtain energy and maintain its redox balance. In parallel, there was a decrease in the glycogen content of the storage tissues, with that reduction being significantly greater in the cephalopedal mass than the digestive gland, demonstrating that in this interaction system, the mobilization of glycogen was not sufficient to maintain and reestablish the normal glycemia of the infected snails.

  14. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae

    Pradeep Kumar


    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol and Carum carvi (limonene on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene. These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  15. Current knowledge on population studies on five continental molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State (SC, Central Southern Brazil region

    A. Ignacio Agudo-Padrón


    Full Text Available Although still very scarce, available knowledge on population studies on continental (land and freshwatermolluscs in the territory of Santa Catarina State is shortly analyzed and discussed. Based on the IUCN“Restricted Distribution” criterion, a total of 54 nominal species, including 31 terrestrial gastropods, 15freshwater gastropods and 8 limnic bivalves, were considered strong candidates as threatened taxa. Out of allthese endangered species, only 5 limnic forms (2 gastropods and 3 bivalves were previously analysed, in someway, at population level.

  16. Trachycystis montissalinarum spec. nov., a new charopid from the Soutpansberg complex in the Northern Province, South Africa (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Charopidae)

    Bruggen, van A.C.


    A new species of Trachycystis s.l. (Charopidae) from the Hanglip Forest in the Soutpansberg complex in the Northern Province of South Africa is described. Absence of anatomical data precludes more precise classification. The shell is characterized by a spirally sculpted apex and a somewhat irregular

  17. Progress in the systematics of Neritidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Cycloneritimorpha)%蜑螺科软体动物系统分类学研究进展

    陈志云; 连喜平; 谭烨辉; 张素萍


    Gastropods from the family Neritidae are generally euryhaline in tropical and subtropical regions and occur in marine, brackish, and freshwater systems. Neritids generally inhabit the middle to upper intertidal zones along the coast. They are used as models for research on adaptive radiation or regional species diversity patterns across the marine tropics. This paper presents a review and prospects of systematic studies on the family Neritidae. Neritids can be extremely polymorphic as the shells of some species possess a wide variety of colors and patterns. Consequently, multiple names have been created and many are now considered synonyms or mistaken identities; this situation has complicated efforts to revise the entire family. Such taxonomic irregularities have, in part, resulted in the lack of a comprehensive study on Neritidae. Systematic studies on Neritidae in China are seldom conducted. Previous reports cannot completely reveal the true species biodiversity in Chinese waters. Intensive sampling of neritid species in the future is urgently required. Moreover, taxonomy should not only rely on morphology but also on the combination of anatomy and molecular biology to enrich our understanding on their marine fauna and biodiversity in the China seas and to promote systematic studies on Neritidae.%蜑螺科是一类广盐性腹足类动物,主要分布在热带和亚热带海域,是潮间带底栖生物群落的重要组成部分之一,该科动物为探讨物种适应辐射及热带海域生物多样性模式提供了重要研究材料。本文对蜑螺科的国内外系统分类学研究现状和趋势进行了回顾与展望。蜑螺类动物为适应不同生境而进化出多样的贝壳形态,仅依据外部形态很容易产生误导或错误鉴定,因此蜑螺科的分类系统以及一些种属的有效性仍存在争议。我国缺乏系统的蜑螺科分类学研究,已报道的种类还不能完全反应中国海实际的物种数。未来需强化标本采集,在传统形态学分类的基础上,借助分子生物学和解剖学等手段,明确中国海蜑螺科种属组成和区系特点,进而完善蜑螺科的系统分类学研究。

  18. Vector ecology of human schistosomiasis in south India and description of a new species of the genus Ferrissia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Planorbidae

    Anbalagan Sankarappan


    Interpretation & conclusion: Our results showed the distribution, habitat preference and seasonality of limpets, and recommend the detection of Schistosoma from limpets as well as human samples by use of molecular tools.

  19. On the only Greek Sphincterochila species, two Libyan close relatives, Cerigottella subgen. nov., and an extended diagnosis of the Sphincterochilidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    Gittenberger, E.


    From Greece, based on conchological characters, a single, endemic Sphincterochila species has been reported about a century ago. Its occurrence is still thought to be restricted to the islet of Andikithira. The structure of the genitalia, hitherto unknown, demonstrates that it concerns a separate sp

  20. Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca : Gastropoda by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica

    Bargues M.D.


    Full Text Available Fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica is the vector-borne disease presenting the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution known. F. hepatica shows a great adaptation power to new environmental conditions which is the consequence of its own capacities together with the adaptation and colonization abilities of its specific vector hosts, freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae. Several lymnaeid species only considered as secondary contributors to the liver fluke transmission have, however, played a very important role in the geographic expansion of this disease. Many of them belong to the so-called "stagnicoline" type group. Stagnicolines have, therefore, a very important applied interest in the Holarctic region, to which they are geographically restricted. The present knowledge on the genetics of stagnicolines and on their parasite-host interrelationships is, however, far from being sufficient. The present paper analyses the relationships between Palaearctic and Nearctic stagnicoline species on the base of the new light furnished by the results obtained in nuclear rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and corresponding phylogenetic studies of the lymnaeid taxa Lymnaea (Stagnicola occulta, L. (S. palustris palustris (topotype specimens and L.(S. p. turricula from Europe. Natural infections with F. hepatica have been reported in all of them. Surprisingly, ITS-2 length and G C content of L. occulta were similar and perfectly fitted within the respective ranges known in North American stagnicolines. Nucleotide differences and genetic distances were higher between L. occulta and the other European stagnicolines than between L. occulta and the North American ones. The ITS-2 sequence of L. p. turricula from Poland differed from the other genotypes known from turricula in Europe. The phylogenetic trees using the maximum-parsimony, distance and maximum-likelihood methods confirmed (i the inclusion of L. occulta in the branch of North American stagnicolines, (iii the link between the North American stagnicolines-L. occulta group with Galba truncatula, and (iii the location of the L. p. turricula genotype from Poland closer to L. p. palustris than to other European L. p. turricula genotypes. The Palaearctic species occulta is included in the genus Catascopia, together with the Nearctic species catascopium, emarginata and elodes. The results suggest a potential of transmission capacity for C. occulta higher than that of other European stagnicolines or Omphiscola glabra. The relatively low genetic distances between C. occulta and G. truncatula and the clustering of both species in the same clade suggest that C.occulta may be potentially considered as the second lymnaeid intermediate host species of F. hepatica in importance in eastern and northern Europe, and probably also western and central Asia, after G. truncatula. L. p. turricula may be considered as a potential secondary vector of F. hepatica, at a level similar tot that of L.p. palustris.

  1. Catalog of the recent taxa of the families Epitoniidae and Nystiellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) with a bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature.

    Brown, Leonard G; Neville, Bruce D


    This catalog includes 1,487 names recent genera, subgenera, species, subspecies, varieties, and forms that have been referred to the families Epitoniidae and Nystiellidae as well as a bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature associated with these names. For the names covered herein, we make a determination of whether the name is an available name, as that term is defined in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature ("ICZN") and, based on a review of the literature listed in the bibliography, indicate whether the taxon is a potentially valid name or a probable synonym. This catalog includes not only includes a list of names, but also includes information on type material, type localities and species' geographic, bathymetric and size ranges. We also suggest generic assignments for many of the species level taxa listed in this work. We herein designate Scalaria acuta J. Sowerby, 1812, to be the type species of Clathrus Agassiz, 1837, designate Scalaria raricostata G.B. Sowerby II, 1844b, to be the type species of Variciscala de Boury, 1909a, designate Turbiniscala sexcosta Jousseaume, 1912, to be the type species of Turbiniscala de Boury, 1909a, and designate Scala dubia 'G. B. Sowerby II' de Boury, 1912b to be the type species of Foliaceiscala de Boury, 1912b. 

  2. Die Nacktschneckengesellschaften in NW-Deutschland (Gastropoda: Milacidae, Boettgerillidae, Limacidae, Agriolimacidae, Arionidae): ein Ergebnis der NRW-Kartierung

    Kappes, H.; Kobialka, H.


    Slug assemblages in NW Germany (Gastropoda: Milacidae, Boettgerillidae, Limacidae, Agriolimacidae, Arionidae): a result of the mapping survey of Northrhine-Westphalia. This survey provides information on inter-specific associations of slugs on a regional data base. Most of the data originate from th

  3. A honeycomb composite of mollusca shell matrix and calcium alginate.

    You, Hua-jian; Li, Jin; Zhou, Chan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yao-guang


    A honeycomb composite is useful to carry cells for application in bone, cartilage, skin, and soft tissue regenerative therapies. To fabricate a composite, and expand the application of mollusca shells as well as improve preparing methods of calcium alginate in tissue engineering research, Anodonta woodiana shell powder was mixed with sodium alginate at varying mass ratios to obtain a gel mixture. The mixture was frozen and treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to generate a shell matrix/calcium alginate composite. Calcium carbonate served as the control. The composite was transplanted subcutaneously into rats. At 7, 14, 42, and 70 days after transplantation, frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by DAPI, β-actin, and collagen type-I immunofluorescence staining, and observed using laser confocal microscopy. The composite featured a honeycomb structure. The control and composite samples displayed significantly different mechanical properties. The water absorption rate of the composite and control group were respectively 205-496% and 417-586%. The composite (mass ratio of 5:5) showed good biological safety over a 70-day period; the subcutaneous structure of the samples was maintained and the degradation rate was lower than that of the control samples. Freezing the gel mixture afforded control over chemical reaction rates. Given these results, the composite is a promising honeycomb scaffold for tissue engineering.

  4. LARVAS DE DIGENEA EN Melanoides tuberculata (GASTROPODA: THIARIDAE EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA Larval stages of digenea from Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae in Medellín, Colombia


    Full Text Available Se describen las larvas de digeneos que se obtuvieron en Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae, molusco dulceacuícola del que se colectaron 125 especímenes en el lago del Jardín Botánico Joaquín Antonio Uribe de Medellín. En el laboratorio se individualizaron y se estimuló la emisión cercariana con una fuente luminosa. El 9,6 % de los caracoles emitió cercarias. Los moluscos emisores se sacrificaron para obtener los demás estadios larvarios. Las larvas se montaron al microscopio, se midieron y luego se dibujaron. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron establecer la presencia de Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae y de dos Philophthalmidae. Uno de estos es primer registro para Colombia. Se confirma la sensibilidad de M. tuberculata a infecciones por digeneos, así como la especificidad de los filoftálmidos por moluscos hospedadores de la superfamilia Cerithioidea.The larvae of two trematodes found in the freshwater mollusk Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae are described. 125 snails from the Medellin’s Botanical Garden Joaquín Antonio Uribe were collected. In the laboratory, each individual was placed alone and stimulated with light in order to have cercaria emission. 9.6% of the snails released cercariae. These were separated in three morphologies. From each one, 15 individuals were measured and drawn. Photographs were taken. Based on their morphological characteritics the presence of Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae was determined. The other two morphologies were classified in the family Philophthalmidae. One of them constitutes the first register for Colombia. The sensibility of M. tuberculata to infections by digeneans, and the specificity of the family Philophthalmidae to mollusk hosts of the superfamily Cerithioidea are confirmed

  5. Anti-ulcer potentials of phylum mollusca (tropical snail) slime

    Nwodo NJ; Okonta J M; Ezugwu CO; Attama AA


    Objective:The effectiveness of the slimy substance in snail to regenerate and repair damaged areas on its body/shell lead to this investigation.Methods:The anti-ulcer'property of snail slime extracted from phylum mollusca (tropical snail)from the giant African snail Archachatina marginata (Fam.Arionidae)was investi-gated using histamine,stress and indomethacin-induced ulcers.The solubility profile of extract was investiga-ted in different solvents and at different temperatures.Chemical analysis was carried out to determine the types of constituents present in the slim,while acute toxicity test was carried out to evaluate its profile of toxicity. The effect of the snail slim on gastrointestinal motility was investigated in mice,while the guinea pig ileum was used to study the effect of the extract on contraction produced by acetylcholine and histamine.The snail slime contained copious quantity of protein,with varying amounts of simple sugars,carbohydrates and fats.The slime was not soluble in most common solvents and increases in temperature,did not appear to increase its sol-ubility.Results:The result further indicated that although the snail slime exhibited significant (P <0.05)an-ti-ulcer induced by stress and histamine,it was most potent against ulcer induced by indomethacin.The snail slime potently inhibited gastrointestinal movement in mice in a dose-dependent manner;however,it was not a-ble to inhibit contraction induced by acetylcholine and histamine in guinea pig ileum.Conclusion:The snail mucin possesses potent antiulcer properties without any toxic effect.The mechanism responsible for the anti-ul-cer property may not be postulated with certainty but cytoprotective and anti-spasmodic activities are most likely to be involved.

  6. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto


    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  7. Complexo Littorina ziczac (Gmelin (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda no litoral fluminense: análise morfométrica, distribuição vertical e bioquímica The Littorina ziczac (Gmelin complex (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda in the Rio de Janeiro coast: morphometric analysis, vertical distribution and biochemistry

    Ricardo Silva Absalão


    Full Text Available The Littorina ziczac (Gmelin, 1791 species complex was studied in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The occurrence of three species was confirmed, through the analysis of penis morphology: L. ziczac (Gmelin, 1791, L. lineata d'Orbigny, 1841 and L. lineolata d'Orbigny, 1840. There is a correlation between the morphology of the penis and shell shape, thus it was possible to make a discrimination model based in conchologic data, with an efficiency of 75%. However, this model cannot be applied to others samples that weren't included in its formulation, due to phenotypic plasticity of the shell caused by biotic and abiotic factors. In the 9 areas studied L. lineolata was always the most abundam species. No vertical stratification in the distribution of the species was verified. From the nine enzymatic systems examined, only Pgi, Pgm e Mpi, presented identifiable patterns and no diagnostic locus was identified in any species. Nevertheless, S and I suggest the individualization of L. ziczac and L. lineata,respectively.

  8. Lista preliminar de los Punctoideos de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, con descripción de dos especies nuevas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora Preliminar list of the Punctoidea from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with description of two new species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora

    Sergio Eduardo Miquel


    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista parcial de gasterópodos terrestres Punctoideos del "Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata" (São Francisco de Paula, Estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (CPCN-PM. Esta lista incluye siete especies, dos de ellas son nuevas. El CPCN-PM se localiza entre los 600 y 950 m de altitud; presenta clima templado superhúmedo a húmedo, lluvias de 2.250 mm anuales y temperatura promedio anual de 14,5ºC; están presentes tres regiones fitoecológicas principales, floresta ombrófila mixta, floresta ombrófila densa y sabana. Los taxones hallados son: Rotadiscus amancaezensis (Hidalgo, 1869, Lilloiconcha tucumana (Hylton Scott, 1963, Radiodiscus cuprinus Fonseca & Thomé, 2000, Radiodiscus tenellus Hylton Scott, 1957, Radiodiscus promatensis sp. nov., Zilchogyra gordurasensis (Thiele, 1927 y Zilchogyra zulmae sp. nov. La conchilla de R. promatensis sp. nov. es muy pequeña, casi plana, con ombligo muy desarrollado, abertura reniforme, con estrías espirales en la teleoconcha y 58-62 costillas axiales en el último anfracto. La conchilla de Z. zulmae sp. nov. es troquiforme alta, con cinco anfractos con fuertes y espaciadas costillas axiales (25-38, ombligo amplio y perspectivo y abertura subcircular angulosa. La fauna de gasterópodos carópidos del CPCN-PM tiene tres especies conocidas sólo del área (R. cuprinus, R. promatensis sp. nov. y Z. zulmae sp. nov., una, que se distribuye también en Paraguay (R. tenellus y tres (L. tucumana, R. amancaezensis y Z. gordurasensis, comunes a otras áreas de América del Sur, principalmente la región de las Yungas.The partial list of the land snails Punctoidea from the "Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata" (São Francisco de Paula, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (CPCN-PM is presented herein. This list includes seven species, two of them new. The CPCN-PM is located between 600 and 950 m of altitude; it has a temperate super humid to humid climate, with 2,250 mm of annual rainfall and means annual temperature of 14.5ºC; three main phytoecological regions are present -mixed ombrophile forest, dense ombrophile forest and savanna. The taxa found are: Rotadiscus amancaezensis (Hidalgo, 1869, Lilloiconcha tucumana (Hylton Scott, 1963, Radiodiscus cuprinus Fonseca & Thomé, 2000, Radiodiscus tenellus Hylton Scott, 1957, Radiodiscus promatensis sp. nov., Zilchogyra gordurasensis (Thiele, 1927 and Zilchogyra zulmae sp. nov. The shell of R. promatensis sp. nov. is very small, almost flat, with very wide umbilicus, reniform aperture, teleoconch with spiral striae and 58-62 axial ribs on the body whorl. The shell of Z. zulmae sp. nov. is trochiform elevated, with five whorls with strong and widely spaced axial ribs (25-38, wide and perspective umbilicus and sub circular angled aperture. The charopid gastropod fauna from the CPCN-PM has three species known only from there (R. cuprinus, R. promatensis sp. nov. and Z. zulmae sp. nov., another one with previous known distribution only in Paraguay (R. tenellus and three common species (L. tucumana, R. amancaezensis and Z. gordurasensis with distribution in other South American areas -mainly Yungas forests.

  9. Sistema reprodutor de Gundlachia concentrica (Orbigny e Gundlachia moricandi (Orbigny, como subsídio para a taxonomia de Ancylidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata Reproductive system of Gundlachia concentrica (Orbigny and Gundlachia moricandi (Orbigny, as subsidy for the taxonomy of Ancylidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Fernanda Pires Ohlweiler


    Full Text Available The reproductive system of Gundlachia concentrica (Orbigny, 1835 and Gundlachia moricandi (Orbigny, 1837 are described. The following structures distinguished the specimens of those species: ovotestis, seminal vesicle, tubular prolongation of dorsoposterior region of uterus and duet of the copulation pouch.

  10. Crystallization in organo-mineral micro-domains in the crossed-lamellar layer of Nerita undata (Gastropoda, Neritopsina).

    Nouet, Julius; Baronnet, Alain; Howard, Lauren


    Crossed-lamellar shell microstructure consists of a sophisticated arrangement of interspersed lamellae, which is very commonly found in Gastropoda or Bivalvia shell layers. Its smallest constitutive microstructural units are usually described as sub-micrometric fibers, or rods, and form very ordered and regular patterns. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging confirms the presence of even smaller building units in the form of organo-mineral granules, and we further investigate their internal structure within aragonite crossed-lamellar internal layer of Nerita undata (Gastropoda, Neritopsina) shell. Their coalescence may have controlled anisotropically the propagation of the crystallographic coherence through this complex microstructure, as suggested by the propagation of the microtwinning pattern between neighboring granules.

  11. Systematic notes on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia), and descriptions of a new species and a new subspecies

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.


    In 1959, Mr. A. Hoogerwerf obtained a number of small Mollusca from the gizzard of a godwit (Limosa spec.) shot near Koerik, West Irian, New Guinea, that eventually came into my hands for identification. Though the specimens clearly belonged to a species of the genus Mesodesma (Mactracea, fam. Mesod

  12. Cenozoic Molluscan types from Java (Indonesia) in the Martin Collection (Division of Cenozoic Mollusca), National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Winkler Prins, C.F.


    An inventory of type material in the ‘Martin Collection’ at the Division of Cenozoic Mollusca of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands has been made. In total 1842 lots containing over 5700 type specimens of 912 species were encountered. The status of the types is outlined.

  13. The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph


    We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

  14. No Evidence for a Culturable Bacterial Tetrodotoxin Producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida

    Lauren R. Salvitti


    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a potent neurotoxin found in the tissues of many taxonomically diverse organisms. Its origin has been the topic of much debate, with suggestions including endogenous production, acquisition through diet, and symbiotic bacterial synthesis. Bacterial production of TTX has been reported in isolates from marine biota, but at lower than expected concentrations. In this study, 102 strains were isolated from Pleurobranchaea maculata (Opisthobranchia and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes. Tetrodotoxin production was tested utilizing a recently developed sensitive method to detect the C9 base of TTX via liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry. Bacterial strains were characterized by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. To account for the possibility that TTX is produced by a consortium of bacteria, a series of experiments using marine broth spiked with various P. maculata tissues were undertaken. Sixteen unique strains from P. maculata and one from Stylochoplana sp. were isolated, representing eight different genera; Pseudomonadales, Actinomycetales, Oceanospirillales, Thiotrichales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, and Vibrionales. Molecular fingerprinting of bacterial communities from broth experiments showed little change over the first four days. No C9 base or TTX was detected in isolates or broth experiments (past day 0, suggesting a culturable microbial source of TTX in P. maculata and Stylochoplana sp. is unlikely.

  15. No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida).

    Salvitti, Lauren R; Wood, Susanna A; McNabb, Paul; Cary, Stephen Craig


    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin found in the tissues of many taxonomically diverse organisms. Its origin has been the topic of much debate, with suggestions including endogenous production, acquisition through diet, and symbiotic bacterial synthesis. Bacterial production of TTX has been reported in isolates from marine biota, but at lower than expected concentrations. In this study, 102 strains were isolated from Pleurobranchaea maculata (Opisthobranchia) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes). Tetrodotoxin production was tested utilizing a recently developed sensitive method to detect the C9 base of TTX via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bacterial strains were characterized by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. To account for the possibility that TTX is produced by a consortium of bacteria, a series of experiments using marine broth spiked with various P. maculata tissues were undertaken. Sixteen unique strains from P. maculata and one from Stylochoplana sp. were isolated, representing eight different genera; Pseudomonadales, Actinomycetales, Oceanospirillales, Thiotrichales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, and Vibrionales. Molecular fingerprinting of bacterial communities from broth experiments showed little change over the first four days. No C9 base or TTX was detected in isolates or broth experiments (past day 0), suggesting a culturable microbial source of TTX in P. maculata and Stylochoplana sp. is unlikely.

  16. With a little help from DNA barcoding: investigating the diversity of Gastropoda from the Portuguese coast.

    Borges, Luísa M S; Hollatz, Claudia; Lobo, Jorge; Cunha, Ana M; Vilela, Ana P; Calado, Gonçalo; Coelho, Rita; Costa, Ana C; Ferreira, Maria S G; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O


    The Gastropoda is one of the best studied classes of marine invertebrates. Yet, most species have been delimited based on morphology only. The application of DNA barcodes has shown to be greatly useful to help delimiting species. Therefore, sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 108 specimens of 34 morpho-species were used to investigate the molecular diversity within the gastropods from the Portuguese coast. To the above dataset, we added available COI-5P sequences of taxonomically close species, in a total of 58 morpho-species examined. There was a good match between ours and sequences from independent studies, in public repositories. We found 32 concordant (91.4%) out of the 35 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) generated from our sequences. The application of a ranking system to the barcodes yield over 70% with top taxonomic congruence, while 14.2% of the species barcodes had insufficient data. In the majority of the cases, there was a good concordance between morphological identification and DNA barcodes. Nonetheless, the discordance between morphological and molecular data is a reminder that even the comparatively well-known European marine gastropods can benefit from being probed using the DNA barcode approach. Discordant cases should be reviewed with more integrative studies.

  17. Structure and composition of the septal nacreous layer of Nautilus macromphalus L. (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Dauphin, Yannicke


    The nacreous layer of Mollusca is the best-known aragonitic structure and is the usual model for biomineralization. However, data are based on less than 10 species. In situ observations of the septal nacreous layer of the cephalopod Nautilus shell has revealed that the tablets are composed of acicular laths. These laths are composed of round nanograins surrounded by an organic sheet. No hole has been observed in the decalcified interlamellar membranes. A set of combined analytical data shows that the organic matrices extracted from the nacreous layer are glycoproteins. In both soluble and insoluble matrices, S amino acids are rare and the soluble organic matrices have a higher sulfated sugar content than the insoluble matrices. It is possible that the observed differences in the structure and composition of the nacreous layers of the outer wall and septa of the Nautilus shell have a dual origin: evolution and functional adaptation. However, we have no appropriate data as yet to answer this question.

  18. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem


    Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) Sevinç KAPAN, Sinem KABASAKAL, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department In this study, paleontology and stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary units around south of the Dardanelles have been examined using Gastropoda and Bivalvia fauna. In the investigation area, the base of the sediments that belongs to Neogene, consist of the volcanics which are formed with basalts, andesites and tuff. Neogene begins unconformity with basal conglomerate which are formed with basalt and tuff gravels. The measurable thickness of the Neogene sediments is approximately 200meters in total. First fossiliferius level which consist of Lymnocardium (Euxinicardium) nobile Sabba has showed similarities with the Pontian (Late Miocene) fauna of the Eastern Paratethys. The existence of Melanopsis and Psidium species indicate that the basin has been brackish water feeding by fresh water in the Early Pliocene. Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linne), Theodoxus (Calvertia) aff. imbricata Brusina, Theodoxus (Calvertia) licherdopoli scriptus (Stefanescu), Viviparus mammatus (Stefanescu), Valvata (Valavata) sulekiana Brusina, Valvata (Cincinna) crusitensis Fontannes, Hydrobia cf grandis Cobalcescu, Hydrobia ventrosa Monfort, Melanopsis (Melanopsis) cf. bergeroni Stefanescu, , Melanopsis (Melanopsis) sandbergeri rumana Tournouer, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma anili Taner, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma amaradica Fontannes, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) lanceolata Neumayr, Amphimelania fossariformis (Tournouer), Melanoides tuberculata monolithica (Bukowski), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller), Planorbarius thiollierei (Michaud), Potamida (Potamida) craiovensis craiovensis (Tournouer), Potamida (Potamida) berbestiensis (Fontannes), Unio pristinus davilai Porumbaru, Unio subexquisitus Jatzko, Anadonta zmaji

  19. Izolované populace praménky Bythinella austriaca (Frauenfeld, 1857 (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae v okolí Prahy

    Luboš Beran


    Full Text Available This paper completes the knowledge of an occurrence of Bythinella austriaca (Frauenfeld, 1857 (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae in surroundings of Prague – capital of the Czech Republic. However, this species is not rare in the eastern part of the Czech Republic, sites on north-western otskirts of Prague are isolated far from the main distribution area. Altogether, 63 sites potentially suitable for B. austriaca were investigated in this area, and occurrence of this species was confirmed in 11 of them. B. austriaca was found in springs, rivulets and small brooks, more numerous populations were found in springs. Historical occurrence data in this area were compared with results of research done in 2003, 2006 and 2010. Actual situation of this species in Prague surroundings is problematic and survival of some populations is not guaranteed.

  20. A new freshwater snail genus (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda from Montenegro, with a discussion on gastropod diversity and endemism in Skadar Lake

    Vladimir Pesic


    Full Text Available Karucia sublacustrina a new species of freshwater snails (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda is described based on material collected from Skadar Lake (Montenegro, Albania. The new species belongs to monotypic genus Karucia gen. n. The shell morphology and body shape of the new genus resembles Radomaniola Szarowska, 2006 and Grossuana Radoman, 1973, from which it differs in the larger shells with relatively slim and a slightly, but clearly shouldered body whorl. The number of gastropods from Skadar Lake basin tallies now 50 species. The adjusted rate of gastropod endemicity for Skadar Lake basin is estimated to be 38%. By compiling faunal and taxonomic data we also aim to provide information of relevance as to conservation efforts.

  1. Identification of Shell Colour Pigments in Marine Snails Clanculus pharaonius and C. margaritarius (Trochoidea; Gastropoda.

    S T Williams

    Full Text Available Colour and pattern are key traits with important roles in camouflage, warning and attraction. Ideally, in order to begin to understand the evolution and ecology of colour in nature, it is important to identify and, where possible, fully characterise pigments using biochemical methods. The phylum Mollusca includes some of the most beautiful exemplars of biological pigmentation, with the vivid colours of sea shells particularly prized by collectors and scientists alike. Biochemical studies of molluscan shell colour were fairly common in the last century, but few of these studies have been confirmed using modern methods and very few shell pigments have been fully characterised. Here, we use modern chemical and multi-modal spectroscopic techniques to identify two porphyrin pigments and eumelanin in the shell of marine snails Clanculus pharaonius and C margaritarius. The same porphyrins were also identified in coloured foot tissue of both species. We use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to show definitively that these porphyrins are uroporphyrin I and uroporphyrin III. Evidence from confocal microscopy analyses shows that the distribution of porphyrin pigments corresponds to the striking pink-red of C. pharaonius shells, as well as pink-red dots and lines on the early whorls of C. margaritarius and yellow-brown colour of later whorls. Additional HPLC results suggest that eumelanin is likely responsible for black spots. We refer to the two differently coloured porphyrin pigments as trochopuniceus (pink-red and trochoxouthos (yellow-brown in order to distinguish between them. Trochopuniceus and trochoxouthos were not found in the shell of a third species of the same superfamily, Calliostoma zizyphinum, despite its superficially similar colouration, suggesting that this species has different shell pigments. These findings have important implications for the study of colour and pattern in molluscs specifically, but in other taxa more


    唐以杰; 林炜; 陈明旺; 钟诚; 杜晓捷


    对海陵岛沿海软体动物进行了采集调查,共鉴定180种,分属 60科. 其中双壳纲20科86种,占总数47.77%,腹足纲38科92种,占总数51.11%,多板纲1科1种,占总数0.56%,头足纲1科1种,占总数0.56%. 分析表明,其区系特点以南海亚热带-热带种和东海-南海亚热带种为主要成分.

  3. The recent apple snails of Africa and Asia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae: Afropomus, Forbesopomus, Lanistes, Pila, Saulea): a nomenclatural and type catalogue. The apple snails of the Americas: addenda and corrigenda.

    Cowie, Robert H


    Ampullariidae are freshwater snails predominantly distributed in humid tropical and sub-tropical habitats in Africa, South and Central America and Asia. This catalogue is concerned only with the non-fossil Old World species, the majority of which are placed in the genera Pila and Lanistes, with a few species in Afropomus, Forbesopomus and Saulea. Pila occurs in Africa and Asia, Lanistes, Afropomus and Saulea only in Africa and Forbesopomus only in Asia. New World taxa were catalogued in a previous publication. The taxonomy of the group is heavily based on shell morphology but the true number of valid taxa remains unknown, pending revisionary work. This catalogue provides the rigorous nomenclatural base for this future work by bringing together all the available and unavailable genus-group and species-group names that have been applied to Recent Asian and African ampullariids, indicating their current nomenclatural status (species, subspecies, synonyms, etc.). Fossil taxa are not included. The catalogue lists 21 published genus-group and 244 published species-group names of Old World ampullariids, excluding 25 names that are incertae sedis and cannot be definitively determined as Old or New World. Of these 265 Old World names, five genus-group and 104 species-group (including 30 infraspecific) names are currently valid. There are 16 genus-group synonyms, 118 species-group synonyms and four species-group homonyms that are not treated as junior synonyms. Also listed are five unavailable family-group, one unavailable genus-group and 18 unavailable species-group names, and a number of unpublished names from museum labels. The catalogue provides bibliographic details for all published names, locations of type material, details of type localities and geographic distributions as far as can be ascertained given the confused state of the taxonomy. The catalogue is a work of nomenclature; it is not a revisionary work of taxonomy. Additional details and corrections to the earlier catalogue of the apple snails of the Americas are provided. No new names are proposed. Seven apparently new combinations are introduced, all with the genus Pila Preston: complicata Reeve, dira Reeve, major Germain (described as a variety of ovata Olivier), major Germain (described as a variety of speciosa Philippi), obvia Mabille, pallens Philippi, turbinoides Reeve.

  4. Revision of the dwarf cannibal snails (Nata s.l.) of southern Africa-Nata s.s. and Natella (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Rhytididae), with description of three new species.

    Herbert, David G; Moussalli, Adnan


    This paper represents the second part of our revisionary studies on the rhytidid fauna of southern Africa. The species discussed belong to the taxon Nata s.l. in which we recognise two genus-level lineages, Nata s.s. and Natella with six (three new) and one species respectively. We update the species-level taxonomy extensively in the light of new molecular and morphological data, and provide a comprehensive revision of all species, including keys. Detailed comparative morphological observations are provided for the distal reproductive tract, pulmonary cavity, mantle edge, radula and suprapedal gland. In addition, we present a summary of biological and ecological data including information on habitat preferences, feeding, prey items and mating behaviour. Although the two genera are well circumscribed in terms of both internal anatomy and molecular data, shell morphology is highly conserved, and species discrimination using shell characters alone is difficult. We have discovered three undescribed species within Nata and there is evidence that further research of a phylogeographic nature may uncover additional cryptic diversity. The geographic distributions of the species are discussed in relation to regional vegetation patterns and, as with the larger cannibal snail radiation, the Albany Thicket Biome emerges as a focus of endemism. Observations on the conservation status of all species are provided.New species: Nata aequiplicata sp. nov., Nata erugata sp. nov. and Nata watsoni sp. nov. Revised status: Natalina caffrula Melvill & Ponsonby, 1898 is transferred to the genus Nata and thought to be a synonym of Nata dumeticola (Benson, 1851).

  5. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in mollusca species and assessment of potential risks to human health.

    Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed


    Along the Alexandria coast of the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea, five edible species of bivalve molluscs and one gastropoda species (Mactra coralline, Ruditapes decussates, Paphia undulate, Venerupis rhomboids, Crista pectinata and Coralliophila meyendorffi) were analyzed for content of metals (Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Cobalt and Nickel) in the muscle and in the sediments where they live. The potential health risks of metals to humans via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimated daily intake and target hazard quotient. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were obtained between tissue concentrations for all pairs of metals, with the exception of Cadmium. Significant positive correlations were also obtained for the concentrations of Cd and Ni in tissues of all studied species relative to their concentrations in surface sediments. However, correlations between tissue and sediment concentrations for Chromium, Lead and Cobalt were negative. Ruditapes decussates and C. meyendorffi had the highest values for the summed target hazard quotient and may pose a potential risk to local inhabitants through their consumption in the diet. The potential risk would arise from exposure to high tissue concentrations of Cd and Pb, which exceeded published guidelines for safety of seafood products in some cases. Chromium contributed a considerable fraction of the total target hazard quotient for all metals combined, but did not exceed the published guidelines. Cobalt and Ni did not contribute greatly overall to the target hazard quotient, except in the case of Ni in V. rhomboids.

  6. Comparative analysis of chromosome counts infers three paleopolyploidies in the mollusca.

    Hallinan, Nathaniel M; Lindberg, David R


    The study of paleopolyploidies requires the comparison of multiple whole genome sequences. If the branches of a phylogeny on which a whole-genome duplication (WGD) occurred could be identified before genome sequencing, taxa could be selected that provided a better assessment of that genome duplication. Here, we describe a likelihood model in which the number of chromosomes in a genome evolves according to a Markov process with one rate of chromosome duplication and loss that is proportional to the number of chromosomes in the genome and another stochastic rate at which every chromosome in the genome could duplicate in a single event. We compare the maximum likelihoods of a model in which the genome duplication rate varies to one in which it is fixed at zero using the Akaike information criterion, to determine if a model with WGDs is a good fit for the data. Once it has been determined that the data does fit the WGD model, we infer the phylogenetic position of paleopolyploidies by calculating the posterior probability that a WGD occurred on each branch of the taxon tree. Here, we apply this model to a molluscan tree represented by 124 taxa and infer three putative WGD events. In the Gastropoda, we identify a single branch within the Hypsogastropoda and one of two branches at the base of the Stylommatophora. We also identify one or two branches near the base of the Cephalopoda.

  7. Catalogue of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Pimenta, Alexandre Dias; Monteiro, Júlio César; Barbosa, André Favaretto; Salgado, Norma Campos; Coelho, Arnaldo Campos Dos Santos


    A curatorial revision of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) revealed the existence of 518 lots of type specimens (holotypes, neotypes, syntypes and paratypes) for 285 names of molluscan taxa from 88 families, including 247 gastropods, 30 bivalves, three cephalopods and five scaphopods. A total of 106 holotypes and one neotype are deposited in the MNRJ. Type material for ten nominal taxa described as being deposited in the MNRJ was not located; the probable reasons are discussed. Some previously published erroneous information about types in the MNRJ is rectified. A total of 37 type specimens are illustrated.

  8. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo


    Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

  9. Hard and soft anatomy in two genera of Dondersiidae (Mollusca, Aplacophora, Solenogastres).

    Scheltema, Amélie H; Schander, Christoffer; Kocot, Kevin M


    Phylogenetic relationships and identifications in the aplacophoran taxon Solenogastres (Neomeniomorpha) are in flux largely because descriptions of hard parts--sclerites, radulae, copulatory spicules--and body shape have often not been adequately illustrated or utilized. With easily recognizable and accessible hard parts, descriptions of Solenogastres are of greater use, not just to solenogaster taxonomists, but also to ecologists, paleontologists, and evolutionary biologists. Phylogenetic studies of Aplacophora, Mollusca, and the Lophotrochozoa as a whole, whether morphological or molecular, would be enhanced. As an example, morphologic characters, both isolated hard parts and internal anatomy, are provided for two genera in the Dondersiidae. Five species are described or redescribed and earlier descriptions corrected and enhanced. Three belong to Dondersia: D. festiva Hubrecht, D. incali (Scheltema), and D. namibiensis n. sp., the latter differentiated unambiguously from D. incali only by sclerites and copulatory spicules. Two species belong to Lyratoherpia: L. carinata Salvini-Plawen and L. californica (Heath). Notes are given for other species in Dondersiidae: L. bracteata Salvini-Plawen, Ichthyomenia ichthyodes (Pruvot), and Heathia porosa (Heath). D. indica Stork is synonymized with D. annulata. A cladistic morphological analysis was conducted to examine the utility of hard parts for reconstructing solenogaster phylogeny. Results indicate monophyly of Dondersia and Lyratoherpia as described here.

  10. Evolutionary relationships among squids of the family Gonatidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) inferred from three mitochondrial loci.

    Lindgren, A R; Katugin, O N; Amezquita, E; Nishiguchi, M K


    The oceanic squid family Gonatidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) is widely distributed in subpolar and temperate waters, exhibiting behavioral and physiological specializations associated with reproduction. Females of several species undergo muscular degeneration upon maturation; origins of this complex morphogenic change are unknown, hindering our understanding of ecological and morpho-physiological adaptations within the family. To provide further information regarding the evolutionary relationships within Gonatidae, three mitochondrial loci (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) were analyzed for 39 individuals representing fourteen gonatid and six outgroup cephalopod species. In addition to elucidating relationships among gonatids, molecular data provided more information than morphological data for problematic specimens. Although some data sets are incongruent or have low nodal support values, combined molecular analysis confirms the presence of gonatid groups previously established by morphological characteristics (i.e., possessing radular teeth in seven longitudinal rows and muscular mantle tissue). These characteristics are basal to taxa possessing radular teeth in five longitudinal rows and less muscular mantle tissue, indicating that the derived forms are those species exhibiting physiological adaptation such as tissue degeneration upon maturation and egg brooding.

  11. Polyplacophora (Mollusca from reef ecosystems and associations with macroalgae on the Coast of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil

    Monica Dorigo Correia


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian marine molluscs, especially Gastropoda and Bivalvia, are relatively well studied. However, information on the class Polyplacophora is more scarce, particularly on reef-dwelling forms. This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze aspects of polyplacophorans from reef ecosystems and their associations with macroalgae on the coast of Maceió (state of Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. The study area included five coral reefs at Ipioca, Ponta do Prego, Ponta do Meirim, Riacho Doce and Ponta Verde, as well as two sandstone reefs, located in Guaxuma and Sereia. The samples were obtained by snorkelling along the intertidal and subtidal reef zones to a depth of up to five meters during low tides, between 2009 and 2011. In addition, the chitons associated with three macroalgae of the Ponta Verde coral reef were studied based on collections made over 12 years (from the summer of 1998 to the winter of 2009. Three replicates with an area of 25 cm2 were collected from each of the following species of macroalgal phytals: Amphiroa fragilissima (Rhodophyta, Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta and Dictyota cervicornis (Phaeophyta. A total of 715 individuals (110 juveniles and 605 adults were identified, including Acanthochitona terezae Guerra, 1983, Ischnochiton striolatus (Gray, 1828 and Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby II, 1840. Acanthochitona terezae was found for the first time in the area. Ischnochiton striolatus was the most abundant species in the reef ecosystem and in association with macroalgae. The greatest number of individuals of all three polyplacophorans identified (adults and juveniles was found on the phytal A. fragilissima.

  12. Dos nuevas localizaciones para España de Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae, hospedador intermediario de Schistosomiasis urinaria

    Martínez-Ortí, A.


    Full Text Available Two new locations in Spain of Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae, intermediate host of urinary Schistosomiasis Two new populations of the planorbid snail species Bulinus truncatus were found in Spain in 2014. The first consisted of shells only, found in the lagoon of Villena (province of Alicante, which had dried up at the beginning of the 19th century. This finding is of important biogeographic interest because it links the presence of this species in northern Catalonia with its detection in southern Andalucia as this species had not been found previously in the regions of Murcia or Valencia. The second population was found in El Ejido (province of Almeria, and thousands of living specimens were found here. This allowed a complete shell characterisation and molecular assessment by means of sequencing the cox1 gene of the mitochondrial DNA genome, which showed 100% homology with sequences of other populations of the same snail species available in the GenBank. The finding of B. truncatus in Almeria is of additional value given the applied importance of this planorbid species as a vector of urinary Schistosomiasis, thus representing a risk of introduction and autochthonous transmission of the disease in Spain, as has occurred in other southern European countries in the past and recently.

  13. The Complete Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Chamberednautilus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.


    Background: Mitochondria contain small genomes that arephysically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as amodel system for understanding the processes of genome evolution.Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported formore than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased towardvertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yetuncharacterized. Results: The mitochondrial genome of a cephalopodmollusk, the Chambered Nautilus, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5 percentA+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. Itcontains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs, with 15 on oneDNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can bederived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca:Polyplacophora) by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes andtranspositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in thedistribution of nucleotides between the two strands. There are an unusualnumber of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known;however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew,suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication.One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-likesequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand,but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at thebeginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of theproduct of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure.Conclusions: Nautilus sp. mtDNA contains an expected gene content thathas experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split betweencephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number ofnon-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often aregenerated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. Thisappears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrialtRNAs restores

  14. Unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania

    Masteller, E.C.; Maleski, K.R.; Schloesser, D.W.


    The purpose of this study was to determine species composition and relative abundance of unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania 1990-1992. This information was compared with data from the only other extensive survey of unionids in the bay conducted in 1909-1911 (Ortmann 1919) to assess changes over the 80 years preceding the present study. A total of 1,540 individuals representing 18 species were collected in 1990-1992. Five relatively common species (between 7 and 42% of total individuals), six uncommon species (2 and 6%), and seven rare species (<1%) were found. The rare species were Anodontoides ferussacianus, Lasmigona costata, Ligumia recta, Ptychobranchus fasciolaris, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa, Strophitus undaulatus, and Truncilla donaciformis. Five of the species found in Presque Isle Bay (Leptodea fragilis, Ligumia nasuta, Potamilus alatus, Quadrula quadrula, and Truncilla donaciformis) are listed as critically imperiled and one species (Truncilla truncata) as extirpated in the State of Pennsylvania by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. Comparisons between unionid populations in 1909-1911 and 1990-1992 indicate few substantial changes occurred during the past 80 years. A total of 22 species were found; 21 in 1909-1911 and 18 in 1990-1992. Seventeen species were found in both studies, an additional four in 1909-1911 and one in 1990-1992. The relative abundance of 11 of the 17 species found in both studies remained stable (i.e., common or uncommon) over the past 80 years. Only four species listed as uncommon in 1909-1911 were listed as rare in 1990-1992. However, the invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is considered a threat to the continued existence of the entire Unionidae fauna in Presque Isle Bay, a unique habitat of the Great Lakes.

  15. Purification and characterization of two endo-beta-1,4-glucanases from mollusca, Ampullaria crossean.

    Li, Yan-Hong; Guo, Rui; Yin, Qiu-Yu; Ding, Ming; Zhang, Si-Liang; Xu, Gen-Jun; Zhao, Fu-Kun


    Two novel endo-beta-1,4-glucanases, EG45 and EG27, were isolated from the gastric juice of mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, by anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, gel filtration and a second round of anion exchange chromatography. The purified proteins EG45 and EG27 appeared as a single band on sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular mass of 45 kDa and 27 kDa, respectively. The optimum pH for CMC activity was 5.5 for EG45 and 4.4-4.8 for EG27. The optimum temperature range for EG27 was broad, between 50 degrees and 60 degrees; for EG45 it was 50 degrees. The analysis on the stability of these two endo-beta-1,4-glucanases showed that EG27 was acceptably stable at pH 3.0-11.0 even when the incubation time was prolonged to 24 h at 30 degrees, whereas EG45 remained relatively stable at pH 5.0-8.0. About 85% of the activity of EG27 could be retained upon incubation at 60 degrees for 24 h. However, less than 10% residual activity of EG45 was detected at 50 degrees. Among different kinds of substrates, both enzymes showed a high preference for carboxymethyl cellulose. EG45, in particular, showed a carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolytic activity of 146.5 IU/mg protein. Both enzymes showed low activities to xylan (from oat spelt) and Sigmacell 101, and they were inactive to p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside, salicin and starch.

  16. pH-Dependent Stability of EGX, A Multi-functional Cellulase from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean

    Wen-Ying LI; Ji WANG; Yan-Hong LI; Ming DING; Gen-Jun XU; Lan-Ying LIU; Fu-Kun ZHAO


    The cellulase activity and stability of EGX, a multi-functional cellulase previously purified from the mollusca Ampullaria crossean, was systematically studied under different pH. The pH induced conformation and stability change of EGX have been investigated by using the intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence and CD spectrum. It has been found that the conformation and activity of this cellulase were strongly dependent on the pH. EGX was stable for both the enzyme activity and the conformation from pH 5.6 to pH 7.4. As shown by intrinsic and ANS fluorescence, no red shift of emission maximum occurred and a negligible intensity change was observed at pH 5.6-7.4. The activity of EGX remained about 80% in pH 5.6-7.4 and obviously decreased out of side the pH range. Urea-induced changes in EGX at pH 5.4 and pH 8.0 were measured by intrinsic fluorescence and CD spectrum. At pH 5.4, a significantly red shift of emission maximum occurred when the concentration of urea was 5 M compared to the concentration was 3 M at pH 8.0. The α-helix at pH 5.4 was 40.51% in the absence of urea and 31.04% in the presence of 4 M urea. At pH 8.0 the α-helix was 7.23% in the presence of 4 M urea. The data indicated that EGX was much susceptible to urea-induced unfolding at pH 8.0 and much stable at pH 5.4. The greater pH dependent stability of EGX may allow the enzyme to adequately catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials under natural or industrial extreme conditions.

  17. Nacre and false nacre (foliated aragonite) in extant monoplacophorans (=Tryblidiida: Mollusca)

    Checa, Antonio G.; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín; González-Segura, Alicia; Sánchez-Navas, Antonio


    Extant monoplacophorans (Tryblidiida, Mollusca) have traditionally been reported as having an internal nacreous layer, thus representing the ancestral molluscan condition. The examination of this layer in three species of Neopilinidae ( Rokopella euglypta, Veleropilina zografi, and Micropilina arntzi) reveals that only V. zografi secretes an internal layer of true nacre, which occupies only part of the internal shell surface. The rest of the internal surface of V. zografi and the whole internal surfaces of the other two species examined are covered by a material consisting of lath-like, instead of brick-like, crystals, which are arranged into lamellae. In all cases examined, the crystallographic c-axis in this lamellar material is perpendicular to the surface of laths and the a-axis is parallel to their long dimension. The differences between taxa relate to the frequency of twins, which is much higher in Micropilina. In general, the material is well ordered, particularly towards the margin, where lamellae pile up at a small step size, which is most likely due to processes of crystal competition. Given its morphological resemblance to the foliated calcite of bivalves, we propose the name foliated aragonite for this previously undescribed biomaterial secreted by monoplacophorans. We conclude that the foliated aragonite probably lacks preformed interlamellar membranes and is therefore not a variant of nacre. A review of the existing literature reveals that previous reports of nacre in the group were instead of the aragonitic foliated layer and that our report of nacre in V. zografi is the first undisputed evidence of nacre in monoplacophorans. From the evolutionary viewpoint, the foliated aragonite could easily have been derived from nacre. Assuming that nacre represents the ancestral condition, as in other molluscan classes, it has been replaced by foliated aragonite along the tryblidiidan lineage, although the fossil record does not presently provide evidence as to

  18. Comparative mitogenomic analysis reveals cryptic species: A case study in Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Shen, Xin; Meng, Xue Ping; Chu, Ka Hou; Zhao, Na Na; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue


    The Chinese surf clam Mactra chinensis Philippi, 1846 is a commercially important marine bivalve belonging to the family Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). In this study, the M. chinensis mitochondrial genomic features are analyzed. The genome has 34 genes on the same strand, lacking atp8 and both trnS (trnS1 and trnS2) as compared with the typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The A+T content of M. chinensis mitochondrial genome is 63.72%, which is slightly lower than that of M. veneriformis (67.59%) and Coelomactra antiquata (64.33% and 64.14% for the samples from Ri Zhao, Shandong Province, and Zhang Zhou, Fujian Province, China, respectively) in the same family. There are 22 NCRs in the M. chinensis mitochondrial genome, accounting for 12.91% of the genome length. The longest NCR (1,075bp in length) is located between trnT and trnQ. A TRS (127bp×8.15) accounts for 96.3% (1,035/1,075) of this NCR. The occurrence of TRS in NCR is shared by the two Mactra mitochondrial genomes, but is not found in the two Coelomactra mitochondrial genomes. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 12 PCGs of 25 bivalve mitochondrial genomes shows that all seven genera (Mactra, Coelomactra, Paphia, Meretrix, Solen, Mytilus, and Crassostrea) constitute monophyletic groups with very high support values. Pairwise genetic distance analyses indicate that the genetic distance of C. antiquata from the two localities is 0.084, which is greater than values between congeneric species, such as those in Mactra, Mytilus, Meretrix, and Crassostrea. The results show that the C. antiquata from the two localities represent cryptic species.

  19. An SCD gene from the Mollusca and its upregulation in carotenoid-enriched scallops.

    Li, Xue; Ning, Xianhui; Dou, Jinzhuang; Yu, Qian; Wang, Shuyue; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin


    Carotenoids are a diverse group of red, orange, and yellow pigments that act as vitamin A precursors and antioxidants. Animals can only obtain carotenoids through their diets. Amongst the carotenoids identified in nature, over one third are of marine origin, but current research on carotenoid absorption in marine species is limited. Bivalves possess an adductor muscle, which is normally white in scallops. However, a new variety of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), the 'Haida golden scallop', can be distinguished by its adductor muscle's orange colour, which is caused by carotenoid accumulation. Studying the genes related to carotenoid accumulation in this scallop could benefit our understanding of the mechanisms underlying carotenoid absorption in marine organisms, and it could further improve scallop breeding for carotenoid content. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids, which enhance carotenoid absorption. Here, the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the SCD gene from the Yesso scallop (PySCD) were obtained. The PySCD gene consisted of four exons and three introns, and it contained a 990-bp open reading frame encoding 329 amino acids. It was ubiquitously expressed in adult tissues, embryos and larvae of both white Yesso scallops and 'Haida golden' scallops. Although the expression pattern of PySCD in both types of scallops was similar, significantly more PySCD transcripts were detected in the 'Haida golden' scallops than in the white scallops. Elevated PySCD expression was found in tissues including the adductor muscle, digestive gland, and gonad, as well as in veliger larvae. This study represents the first characterisation of an SCD gene from the Mollusca. Our data imply that PySCD functions in multiple biological processes, and it might be involved in carotenoid accumulation.

  20. Purification and Characterization of Two Endo-β-1,4-glucanases from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean

    Yan-Hong LI; Rui GUO; Qiu-Yu YIN; Ming DING; Si-Liang ZHANG; Gen-Jun XU; Fu-Kun ZHAO


    Two novel endo-β-1,4-glucanases, EG45 and EG27, were isolated from the gastric juice of mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, by anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, gel filtration and a second round of anion exchange chromatography. The purified proteins EG45 and EG27 appeared as a single band on sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular mass of 45 kDa and 27 kDa,respectively. The optimum pH for CMC activity was 5.5 for EG45 and 4.4-4.8 for EG27. The optimum temperature range for EG27 was broad, between 50 ℃ and 60 ℃; for EG45 it was 50 ℃. The analysis on the stability of these two endo-β-1,4-glucanases showed that EG27 was acceptably stable at pH 3.0-11.0 even when the incubation time was prolonged to 24 h at 30 ℃, whereas EG45 remained relatively stable at pH 5.0-8.0. About 85% of the activity of EG27 could be retained upon incubation at 60 ℃ for 24 h. However,less than 10% residual activity of EG45 was detected at 50 ℃. Among different kinds of substrates, both enzymes showed a high preference for carboxymethyl cellulose. EG45, in particular, showed a carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolytic activity of 146.5 IU/mg protein. Both enzymes showed low activities to xylan (from oat spelt) and Sigmacell 101, and they were inactive to p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside, salicin and starch.

  1. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone


    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts of Solemya velum say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    Eisen, J. A.; Smith, S W; Cavanaugh, Colleen Marie


    The protobranch bivalve Solemya velum Say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) houses chemoautotrophic symbionts intracellularly within its gills. These symbionts were characterized through sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA coding regions and hybridization of an Escherichia coli gene probe to S. velum genomic DNA restriction fragments. The symbionts appeared to have only one copy of the 16S rRNA gene. The lack of variability in the 16S sequence and hybridization patterns within and b...

  3. Nyctemeral variations of magnesium intake in the calcitic layer of a Chilean mollusk shell ( Concholepas concholepas, Gastropoda)

    Lazareth, Claire E.; Guzman, Nury; Poitrasson, Franck; Candaudap, Frederic; Ortlieb, Luc


    Mollusk shells are increasingly used as records of past environmental conditions, particularly for sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstructions. Many recent studies tackled SST (and/or sea-surface salinity) tracers through variations in the elementary (Mg and Sr) or stable isotope (δ 18O) composition within mollusk shells. But such attempts, which sometimes include calibration studies on modern specimens, are not always conclusive. We present here a series of Mg and Sr analyses in the calcitic layer of Concholepas concholepas (Muricidae, Gastropoda) with a very high time-resolution on a time window covering about 1 and a half month of shell formation, performed by Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The selected specimen of this common Chilean gastropod was grown under controlled environmental conditions and precise weekly time-marks were imprinted in the shell with calcein staining. Strontium variations in the shell are too limited to be interpreted in terms of environmental parameter changes. In contrast, Mg incorporation into the shell and growth rate appear to change systematically between night and day. During the day, Mg is incorporated at a higher rate than at night and this intake seems positively correlated with water temperature. The nightly reduced Mg incorporation is seemingly related to metabolically controlled processes, formation of organic-rich shell increments and nocturnal feeding activity of the animals. The nyctemeral Mg changes in the C. concholepas shell revealed in this study might explain at least part of the discrepancies observed in previous studies on the use of Mg as a SST proxy in mollusk shells. In the case of C. concholepas, Mg cannot be used straightforwardly as a SST proxy.

  4. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Nautilus macromphalus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda

    Boore Jeffrey L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria contain small genomes that are physically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as a model system for understanding the processes of genome evolution. Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased toward vertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yet uncharacterized. Results The mitochondrial genome of the bellybutton nautilus, Nautilus macromphalus, a cephalopod mollusk, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5% A+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains the 37 genes that are almost universally found in animal mtDNAs, with 15 on one DNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can be derived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes and transpositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in the distribution of nucleotides between the two strands, and analysis of this yields insight into modes of transcription and replication. There is an unusual number of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known; however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew, and there are several identical sequence elements at these junctions, suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication. One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-like sequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand, but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at the beginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of the product of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure. Conclusion Nautilus macromphalus mtDNA contains an expected gene content that has experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split between cephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an

  5. Discussion on candidate species of gastropoda organisms in toxicity testing%腹足纲动物毒性测试候选物种的研究

    郑师梅; 周启星; 熊红霞


    随着对内分泌干扰物在腹足纲动物中危害性的关注,软体动物污染生态问题逐渐受到重视.基于该研究方向现有进展,就几种典型腹足纲动物作为化学品测试受试生物的候选物种进行了论述,认为4种前鳃亚纲生物(新西兰泥蜗、鱼盘螺、福寿螺和铜锈环棱螺)和1种肺螺亚纲生物(静水椎实螺)具有生态意义,可以作为标准受试生物来发展.相对于其他国外学者提议的4种生物,我国学者提议的铜锈环棱螺具有本土意义,在化学品毒性测试过程中应该受到重视.在以上论述基础上,对腹足纲动物毒性测试今后研究的发展方向进行了展望.%With an attention to the hazard of endocrine disrupters on gastropoda organisms, the pollution-ecological problem of mollusks is being concerned gradually. Based on the current progress in the research area, several typical gastropoda organisms were discussed as the candidate species of testing organisms in the toxicity testing of chemicals. In view of their ecological significance, the four candidate prosobranchia species (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Valvata piscinalis, Pomacea lineate and Bellamya aeruginosa) and one pulmonata organism (Lymnaea stagnalis) were suggested to develop as the standard testing organisms. Compared with the four other organisms proposed by foreign scholars, Bellamya aeruginosa proposed by Chinese scholars is of indigenous significance. Thus, attentions should be paid to the species in the toxicity testing of chemicals. On the basis of above discussions, the aspects of research on gastropoda organisms as candidate species in the toxicity testing in the future were prospected.

  6. Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Borredà, V.


    Full Text Available Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata We describe a new endemic limacid slug, Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus n. sp. and we compare it with the nearest species, particularly with Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis, another Balearic endemism. Characteristic features of this new species include its small size, translucid and smooth body, and totally grey dorsum with no bands or spots. The reproductive system shows a well developed vas deferens surrounded by the distal part of prostatic gland, a thin penial retractor muscle, swollen prostate and small distal genitalia. The recent redescription of Limax majoricensis by Wiktor et al. (2007 is discussed and we consider that these authors refer to G. benjaminus n. sp., and so we dessign the neotype of Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis.

  7. New location for Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium and its distribution in the Iberian Peninsula

    Dana, Elías D.


    Full Text Available This paper reports a new population of Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae found in the province of Almería (Southeast Spain. B. truncatus is an intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the trematode which causes urinary schistosomiasis in humans. Individuals were identified to species level by double-nested PCR, resulting in 100% homology. This population is located under the driest climate conditions of the Iberian Peninsula. Data on the distribution of this species in the Iberian Peninsula was gathered and is provided in this paper. Improved knowledge of the distribution of Bulinus truncatus is key to assess the risk of new outbreaks of schistosomiasis in the Iberian Peninsula.En este trabajo se reporta una nueva población de Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae en la provincia de Almería (Sureste de España. Se trata de una especie que presenta considerable interés tanto zoológico como epidemiológico por su papel como hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma haematobium, responsable de la esquistosomiasis urogenital humana. Los ejemplares fueron determinados a nivel específico mediante PCR doble anidada, con un 100% de homología. Se trata de la población localizada más al Sureste y en condiciones de mayor aridez en la península Ibérica. Se recopilaron los datos de presencia publicados para conocer su distribución en la península. El conocimiento de la distribución de Bulinus truncatus es una pieza clave para evaluar el riesgo de nuevos focos de esquistosomiasis en la península Ibérica.

  8. Divergencia intraespecífica y código de barras de ADN en Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae

    Pedro Romero


    Full Text Available El DNA barcoding es un análisis que se basa en la comparación de distancias genéticas para identificar especies utilizando principalmente un segmento del gen Citocromo C Oxidasa I (COI. Los retos para la identificación surgen al estudiar grupos que presentan gran diversidad genética como los moluscos. Por ello, los objetivos de nuestra investigación fueron estimar la divergencia intraespecífica en el molusco terrestre amazónico Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae y evaluar la utilización de los códigos de barras de ADN en la identificación molecular de esta especie. Las secuencias de nucleótidos fueron comparadas con las bases de datos Genbank y BOLD (Barcode of Life Data Systems. Se realizó un análisis de distancia genética mediante Neighbour Joining. Systrophia helicycloides presentó dos grupos de haplotipos con distancias genéticas intraespecíficas mayores a 4%. También se observó una superposición entre las distancias intraespecíficas y las interespecíficas. La gran divergencia intraespecífica puede estar relacionada a la rápida variación del genoma mitocondrial, la distribución poblacional de los moluscos la cual permite el aislamiento y diferenciación genética, y la presencia de polimorfismos ancestrales. Los perfiles COI enviados a la base de datos BOLD son los primeros registros para esta especie y permitieron diferenciar a Systrophia helicycloides de otras especies. Estos perfiles corroboran la gran variación que ocurre en el genoma mitocondrial de moluscos terrestres por lo que la asignación de especies en este grupo precisa de la combinación entre los valores de divergencia genética, la evaluación de sitios informativos y los estudios de taxonomía convencional.

  9. Species composition and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City%上海市医学贝类物种组成及其分布

    郭云海; 吕山; 顾文彪; 刘和香; 吴缨; 张仪


    Objective To investigate the species diversity and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City. Methods From August 2012 to October 2013,all kinds of habitats in 8 districts and counties in Shanghai City,namely Jiading,Qingpu, Baoshan,Minhang,Songjiang,Jinshan,Chongming,Pudong,were selected for the field survey according to the distribution characteristics of the river system,and all the specimens of medical mollusca in the investigation sites were collected and classi⁃fied by morphological identification. Meanwhile,the species composition,habitats as well as the fauna of the medical mollusca collected were analyzed. Results A total of 5 211 specimens were collected,which belonged to 2 classes,14 families,18 gen⁃era and 25 species,including Oncomelania hupensis hupensis,Pomacea canaliculata,Parafossarulus striatulus,Alocinma longicornis,Physa acuta,Galba pervia,Hippeutis cantori,etc. The species numbers of medical mollusca in Chongming,Jin⁃shan,Pudong new area and Qingpu districts(counties)were 22,22,21 and 20,respectively,which were more than those of other areas. The habitat analysis suggested that the species numbers in the river and wetland were the most,both of which were 14 species. The main faunas of the medical mollusca in Shanghai were the cosmopolitan and oriental species. Conclusions The freshwater gastropod species are paucity in Shanghai City,but almost of them can be served as the intermediate hosts of certain parasites to transmit snail⁃related parasitic diseases,so the surveillance of medical mollusca should be strengthened.%目的:调查上海市医学贝类物种多样性及其分布。方法于2012年8月至2013年10月,根据水系分布特点,对上海市嘉定、青浦、宝山、闵行、松江、金山、崇明岛和浦东新区等8个区(县)各类生境进行现场抽样调查,采集医学贝类标本。所获标本经形态学鉴定分类,并对物种组成、生境及区系分布等进行

  10. Identification of several cytoplasmic HSP70 genes from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and their long-term evolution in Mollusca and Metazoa.

    Kourtidis, Antonis; Drosopoulou, Elena; Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chintiroglou, Chariton C; Scouras, Zacharias G


    The HSP70 protein family consists one of the most conserved and important systems for cellular homeostasis under both stress and physiological conditions. The genes of this family are poorly studied in Mollusca, which is the second largest metazoan phylum. To study these genes in Mollusca, we have isolated and identified five HSP70 genes from Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) and investigated their short-term evolution within Mollusca and their long-term evolution within Metazoa. Both sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggested that the isolated genes belong to the cytoplasmic (CYT) group of the HSP70 genes. Two of these genes probably represent cognates, whereas the remaining probably represent heat-inducible genes. Phylogenetic analysis including several molluscan CYT HSP70s reveals that the cognate genes in two species have very similar sequences and form intraspecies phylogenetic clades, differently from most metazoan cognate genes studied thus far, implying either recent gene duplications or concerted evolution. The M. galloprovincialis heat-inducible genes show intraspecies phylogenetic clustering, which in combination with the higher amino acid than nucleotide identity suggests that both gene conversion and purifying selection should be responsible for their sequence homogenization. Phylogenetic analysis including several metazoan HSP70s suggests that at least two types of CYT genes were present in the common ancestor of vertebrates and invertebrates, the first giving birth to the heat-inducible genes of invertebrates, whereas the other to both the heat-inducible genes of vertebrates and the cognate genes of all metazoans. These analyses also suggest that inducible and cognate genes seem to undergo divergent evolution.

  11. Species Composition and Fauna of Mollusca in Seven Star Islands%七星列岛软体动物种类组成与区系

    余海; 阙伟伟; 陆京明; 周化斌; 张永普


    The resources of mollusca in Seven Star islands are investigated during November 2012 to November 2013 and a total of 102 species of Mollusca are collected. Among them, 61 belong to Gastropods, 25 to Bivalves, 9 to Cephalopda, 6 to Polyplacophora and 1 to Scaphopoda. The mollusca is divided into the following four groups as far as the fauna:34 hiroatsu and widespread species are distributed from the coastal China;56 sub-tropical species in the East China Sea and South China Sea; 9 tropical species in the South China Sea; 2 warm temperate species in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and Northern East China Sea and 1 species is undefined. The faunal character pertains to Chinese-Japanese sub-region, subordinating to Indo-Western-Pacific realm.%2012年11月至2013年11月期间,对七星列岛的软体动物种类进行调查,共发现软体动物102种,其中腹足纲61种,双壳纲25种,头足纲9种,多板纲6种,掘足纲1种。就区系而言,分布于我国沿岸的广温广布种34种,分布于东海和南海的亚热带种56种,南海的热带种9种,渤、黄海延伸到东海北部的暖温带种2种,1种未确定。区系性质属于印度-西太平洋区的中国-日本亚区。

  12. Caracterización molecular de diferentes morfos de Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae mediante microsatélites

    David P.


    Full Text Available M. tuberculataes un molusco asiático invasor de ecosistemas tropicales y subtropicales. En Amé-rica, su uso como control biológico ha sido probado en el desplazamiento de poblaciones deBiomphalaria spp. (Mollusca: Planorbidae, hospedadores intermediarios de Schistosoma mansoni(Trematoda: Digenea. A su vez, M. tuberculataes una especie que presenta gran plasticidad feno-típica, reconociéndose varias entidades morfológicas (morfos a lo largo de su rango de distribu-ción. Este trabajo pretende identificar la combinación de alelos microsatelitales característicos de10 morfos americanos. En este orden de ideas, se realizó una extracción de ADN con bufferValsecchi y baño María 90-95ºC (5-15’; se hizo una PCR utilizando primers específicos para M.tuberculata, y finalmente un análisis de secuencias microsatelitales con un secuenciador automá-tico.

  13. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa.

    Graf, Daniel L; Jones, Hugh; Geneva, Anthony J; Pfeiffer, John M; Klunzinger, Michael W


    The freshwater mussel family Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) has a disjunct trans-Pacific distribution in Australasia and South America. Previous phylogenetic analyses have estimated the evolutionary relationships of the family and the major infra-familial taxa (Velesunioninae and Hyriinae: Hyridellini in Australia; Hyriinae: Hyriini, Castaliini, and Rhipidodontini in South America), but taxon and character sampling have been too incomplete to support a predictive classification or allow testing of biogeographical hypotheses. We sampled 30 freshwater mussel individuals representing the aforementioned hyriid taxa, as well as outgroup species representing the five other freshwater mussel families and their marine sister group (order Trigoniida). Our ingroup included representatives of all Australian genera. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from three gene fragments (nuclear 28S, COI and 16S mtDNA) using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference, and we applied a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with fossil dates to estimate node ages. Our analyses found good support for monophyly of the Hyriidae and the subfamilies and tribes, as well as the paraphyly of the Australasian taxa (Velesunioninae, (Hyridellini, (Rhipidodontini, (Castaliini, Hyriini)))). The Hyriidae was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of all other Recent freshwater mussel families. Our molecular date estimation supported Cretaceous origins of the major hyriid clades, pre-dating the Tertiary isolation of South America from Antarctica/Australia. We hypothesize that early diversification of the Hyriidae was driven by terrestrial barriers on Gondwana rather than marine barriers following disintegration of the super-continent.

  14. The influence of fish cage culture on δ13C and δ15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca).

    Benedito, E; Figueroa, L; Takeda, A M; Manetta, G I


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ13C and δ15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filterer C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ13C and δ15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ13C and δ15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem.

  15. Thermal dependency of shell growth, microstructure, and stable isotopes in laboratory-reared Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Isono, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Irie, Takahiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Mori, Chiharu; Sato, Mizuho; Sato, Kei; Sasaki, Takenori


    We experimentally examined the growth, microstructure, and chemistry of shells of the bloody clam, Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia), reared at five temperatures (13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) with a constant pCO2 condition (˜450 μatm). In this species, the exterior side of the shell is characterized by a composite prismatic structure; on the interior side, it has a crossed lamellar structure on the interior surface. We previously found a negative correlation between temperature and the relative thickness of the composite prismatic structure in field-collected specimens. In the reared specimens, the relationship curve between temperature and the growth increment of the composite prismatic structure was humped shaped, with a maximum at 17°C, which was compatible with the results obtained in the field-collected specimens. In contrast, the thickness of the crossed lamellar structure was constant over the temperature range tested. These results suggest that the composite prismatic structure principally accounts for the thermal dependency of shell growth, and this inference was supported by the finding that shell growth rates were significantly correlated with the thickness of the composite prismatic structure. We also found a negative relationship between the rearing temperature and δ18O of the shell margin, in close quantitative agreement with previous reports. The findings presented here will contribute to the improved age determination of fossil and recent clams based on seasonal microstructural records.

  16. Molecular inference of phylogenetic relationships among Decapodiformes (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) with special focus on the squid order Oegopsida.

    Lindgren, Annie R


    Squids, cuttlefish and bobtail squids comprise the molluscan superorder Decapodiformes (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Although these animals exemplify the morphological and ecological diversity seen in Cephalopoda, no previous study has focused resolving decapodiform relationships, particularly within Oegopsida, a large order comprised of pelagic squid. To further clarify the phylogenetic history of Decapodiformes, and Oegopsida in particular, molecular data for five genes (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, Histone H3, 16S rRNA, COI) was collected for 90 taxa representing all major lineages and families and evaluated using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analysis. Although ordinal relationships were sensitive to analytical method, several conclusions can be inferred: the pelagic order Myopsida is closely related to the benthic sepioids, whose relationships were ambiguous, and Bathyteuthoidea is distinct from Oegopsida. Within Oegopsida several clades are consistently recovered, some with previous morphological support (e.g. chiroteuthid, lepidoteuthid, histioteuthid families) while others suggest novel relationships (e.g. Architeuthidae+Neoteuthidae). This study, with its broad coverage of taxa, provides the first in-depth analysis of Decapodiformes with special focus on the morphologically and biogeographically diverse Oegopsida, confirms several sister-taxon relationships, and provides new hypotheses of cephalopod evolution in the open ocean.

  17. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Juan Francisco Araya


    Full Text Available Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided.

  18. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    Joseph L Sevigny

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra, two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa. In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda

  19. Extensive mitochondrial genome rearrangements between Cerithioidea and Hypsogastropoda (Mollusca; Caenogastropoda) as determined from the partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA of Cerithidea djadjariensis and Batillaria cumingi.

    Kojima, Shigeaki


    Partial nucleotide sequences ( approximately 8000 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA of two cerithioidean gastropod species-Cerithidea djadjariensis and Batillaria cumingi-were determined. The order of mitochondrial genes (eight protein genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and nine transfer RNA genes) was identical between these two species. and remarkably different from the previously reported order in other gastropods. The results indicate that the genome structure of the common ancestor of Cerithioidea and its sister group, Hypsogastropoda, is almost identical to that of the common ancestor of Gastropoda; moreover, independent mitochondrial genome rearrangements were identified between the lineages of Cerithioidea and Hypsogastropoda. The rearrangements within Cerithioidea can be explained by the inversion of a single tRNA gene, two translocations of a single tRNA gene, and three translocations of a genome fragment containing a tRNA gene and protein-coding gene(s).

  20. Review of palaeozygopleurid gastropods (Palaeozygopleuridae, Gastropoda) from Devonian strata of the Perunica microplate (Bohemia), with a re-evaluation of their stratigraphic distribution, notes on their ontogeny, and descriptions of new taxa.

    Frýda, Jiři; Ferrová, Lenka; Frýdová, Barbora


    Review of all species of the family Palaeozygopleuridae Horný, 1955 (Gastropoda) known from the Perunica microplate (Bohemia) is presented with a description of three new species, Palaeozygopleura lukesi sp. nov., Cimrmaniela sveraki gen. et sp. nov. and Cimrmaniela smoljaki gen. et sp. nov. The stratigraphic distributions of the most of Bohemian palaeozygopleurid species are either corrected or refined, based on new records or modern stratigraphic studies. A complete list of the geographic occurrences of all known palaeozygopleurid gastropods from the Perunica microplate is also given together with notes on their ontogeny.

  1. Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India

    Pankaj Gupta; Muthuvel Arumugam; Raj Vardhan Azad; Rohit Saxena; Supriyo Ghose; Nihar Ranjan Biswas; Thirumurthy Velpandian


    Objective: To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India.Methods:Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups.Results:In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursacrumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization.Conclusions:The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases.

  2. A new approach to an old conundrum--DNA barcoding sheds new light on phenotypic plasticity and morphological stasis in microsnails (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Carychiidae).

    Weigand, Alexander M; Jochum, Adrienne; Pfenninger, Markus; Steinke, Dirk; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette


    The identification of microsnail taxa based on morphological characters is often a time-consuming and inconclusive process. Aspects such as morphological stasis and phenotypic plasticity further complicate their taxonomic designation. In this study, we demonstrate that the application of DNA barcoding can alleviate these problems within the Carychiidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). These microsnails are a taxon of the pulmonate lineage and most likely migrated onto land independently of the Stylommatophora clade. Their taxonomical classification is currently based on conchological and anatomical characters only. Despite much confusion about historic species assignments, the Carychiidae can be unambiguously subdivided into two taxa: (i) Zospeum species, which are restricted to karst caves, and (ii) Carychium species, which occur in a broad range of environmental conditions. The implementation of discrete molecular data (COI marker) enabled us to correctly designate 90% of the carychiid microsnails. The remaining cases were probably cryptic Zospeum and Carychium taxa and incipient species, which require further investigation into their species status. Because conventional reliance upon mostly continuous (i.e. nondiscrete) conchological characters is subject to fallibility for many gastropod species assignments, we highly recommend the use of DNA barcoding as a taxonomic, cutting-edge method for delimiting microsnail taxa.

  3. The influence of trematodes on the macroalgae consumption by the common periwinkle Littorina littorea

    Clausen, Karin T.; Larsen, Martin H.; Iversen, Nina K.;


    gastropod Littorina littorea (L.) (Mollusca: Gastropoda), in turn affecting the composition of the macroalgal community on which the snail grazes. Here, we examine the effect of two species of trematodes, Renicola roscovita and Himasthla elongata, on L. littorea's consumption in two outdoor microcosm...

  4. Applicability of the black slug Arion ater for monitoring exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their subsequent bioactivation into DNA binding metabolites

    Hamers, T.; Kalis, E.J.J.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Maas, L.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Murk, A.J.


    The applicability of terrestrial black slugs Arion ater (Mollusca, Gastropoda) was studied for biomonitoring environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In laboratory experiments, slugs were orally exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for a short term (3 days) or a long term (119 d

  5. The evolution of shell form in tropical terrestrial microsnails

    Liew, Thor Seng


    Mollusca form an important animal phylum that first appeared in the Cambrian, and today is,after Arthropoda, the second largest animal phylum, with more than 100,000 extant species(Bieler, 1992, Brusca and Brusca, 2003), with the class Gastropoda accounting for 80% of the extant species in the Mollu

  6. Identification of Genes Related to Learning and Memory in the Brain Transcriptome of the Mollusc, "Hermissenda Crassicornis"

    Tamvacakis, Arianna N.; Senatore, Adriano; Katz, Paul S.


    The sea slug "Hermissenda crassicornis" (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) has been studied extensively in associative learning paradigms. However, lack of genetic information previously hindered molecular-level investigations. Here, the "Hermissenda" brain transcriptome was sequenced and assembled de novo, producing 165,743…

  7. 软体动物门起源和进化中的模糊问题研究%Research on Some Fuzzy Problems of the Origin and Evolution of Mollusca



    软体动物进化是生物进化重要组成部分之一,是生物进化论、动物学研究重要内容之一。根据古生物学、现代生物进化论研究成就,就软体动物起源、进化及一些类群兴盛、绝灭原因中的模糊问题进行了研究。%Mollusca evolution is an important part of biological evolution and zoology.Based on the achievements of paleontology and modern biological evolution,the paper researches some fuzzy problems of the origin and evolution and prosperity and extinction of of mollusca.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts of Solemya velum say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    Eisen, J A; Smith, S W; Cavanaugh, C M


    The protobranch bivalve Solemya velum Say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) houses chemoautotrophic symbionts intracellularly within its gills. These symbionts were characterized through sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA coding regions and hybridization of an Escherichia coli gene probe to S. velum genomic DNA restriction fragments. The symbionts appeared to have only one copy of the 16S rRNA gene. The lack of variability in the 16S sequence and hybridization patterns within and between individual S. velum organisms suggested that one species of symbiont is dominant within and specific for this host species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S sequences of the symbionts indicates that they lie within the chemoautotrophic cluster of the gamma subdivision of the eubacterial group Proteobacteria.

  9. A preliminary study of iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates (chitons, Mollusca) in near-shore environments

    Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.


    Chitons (Mollusca) are marine invertebrates that produce radulae (teeth or rasping tongues) containing high concentrations of biomineralized magnetite and other iron-bearing minerals. As Fe isotope signatures are influenced by redox processes and biological fractionation, Fe isotopes in chiton radulae might be expected to provide an effective tracer of ambient oceanic conditions and biogeochemical cycling. Here, in a pilot study to measure Fe isotopes in marine invertebrates, we examine Fe isotopes in modern marine chiton radulae collected from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to assess the range of isotopic values, and to test whether or not the isotopic signatures reflect seawater values. Values of δ56Fe (relative to IRMM-014) in chiton teeth range from -1.90 to 0.00 ‰ (±0.05‰ (2σ) uncertainty in δ56Fe), probably reflecting a combination of geographical control and biological fractionation processes. Comparison with published local surface seawater Fe isotope data shows a consistent negative offset of chiton teeth Fe isotope compositions relative to seawater. Strikingly, two different species from the same locality in the North Pacific (Puget Sound, Washington, USA) have distinct isotopic signatures. Tonicella lineata, which feeds on red algae in the sublittoral zone, has a mean δ56Fe of -0.65 ± 0.26‰ (2σ, 3 specimens), while Mopalia muscosa, which feeds on both green and red algae in the eulittoral zone, shows lighter isotopic values with a mean δ56Fe of -1.47 ± 0.98‰ (2σ, 5 specimens). Three possible pathways are proposed to account for the different isotopic signatures: (i) physiologically controlled processes within the chitons that lead to species-dependent fractionation; (ii) diet-controlled variability due to different Fe isotope fractionation in the red and green algal food sources; and (iii) environmentally controlled fractionation that causes variation in the isotopic signatures of bioavailable Fe in the different

  10. The influence of fish cage culture on δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  11. New York Bight Study: Report 5, NY Bight Biological Review Program


    Chapter 3 Step 2: Examining Potential Impacts with Existing Databases and Models 65 material in the Gulf of Mexico . Using trawl and hydroacoustic surveys...48.7 11.3 Pogonophora 2.9 4.7 2.1 Sipunculda 0.6 2.5 1.9 1.9 0.8 Echiura 1.3 0.4 0.3 Mollusca -Gastropoda 0.4 8.3 25.7 39.2 13.4 2.4 Mollusca -Bivalvia...types of information should be integrated into management deci- sions. Over 80 sample stations were located in offshore waters between the Gulf of

  12. Community benthic paleoecology from high-resolution climate records: Mollusca and foraminifera in post-glacial environments of the California margin

    Myhre, Sarah E.; Kroeker, Kristy J.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter; Kennett, James P.


    Paleoecological reconstructions of past climate are often based on a single taxonomic group with a consistent presence. Less is known about the relationship between multi-taxon community-wide change and climate variability. Here we reconstruct paleoecological change in a Late Quaternary (16.1-3.4 ka) sediment core from the California margin (418 m below sea level) of Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), USA, using Mollusca (Animalia) and Foraminifera (Rhizaria) microfossils. Building upon previous investigations, we use multivariate ordination and cluster analyses to interpret community-scale changes in these distinctly different taxonomic groups across discrete climate episodes. The strongest differences between seafloor biological communities occurred between glacial (prior to Termination IA, 14.7 ka) and interglacial climate episodes. Holocene communities were well partitioned, indicating that sub-millennial oceanographic variability was recorded by these microfossils. We document strong evidence of chemosynthetic trophic webs and sulfidic environments (from gastropod Alia permodesta and bivalve Lucinoma aequizonata), which characterized restricted intervals previously interpreted as well oxygenated (such as the Pre-Bølling Warming). Mollusc records indicate first-order trophic energetic shifts between detrital and chemosynthetically-fixed carbon. Molluscs associated with widely different physiological preferences occur here within single, decadal intervals of sediment, and as such mollusc assemblages may reflect significant inter-decadal oceanographic variability. Foraminifera assemblages provide exceptional records of the sequential, chronological progression of the deglacial climatic and oceanographic events, whereas mollusc assemblages reflect non-chronological similarities in reoccurring communities. Foraminifera taxa that drive community similarity here are also independently recognized as marker species for seafloor hypoxia regimes, which provides support for the

  13. The Diversity of Molluscas Was Applied to Monitor the Heavy Metals in the Huayuan River%软体动物多样性在花垣河水体重金属监测中的应用

    刘俊; 郑济芳; 胡南; 胡劲松; 朱允华; 刘运莲; 殷杰


    对湘西花垣河软体动物多样性与重金属污染状况进行了调查.在花垣河8个监测断面中,除S1、S3、S8的软体动物丰富度指数(DMA)与Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)分别介于0.264 3-2.493 7和0.676 5-2.412 3外,S2、S4、S5、S7、S8五个断面的软体动物丰富度和多样性指数均为零.Mn、Cd、Pb、Cu、Zn在花垣河8个监测断面的河水中都能检测到,其中Mn、Cd含量严重超出GB的Ⅴ类水标准.软体动物多样性监测与理化监测的结果均表明,花垣河水体已经受到严重重金属污染.%The diversities of molluscas and the pollution of heavy metals in the Xiangxi Huayuan River were investigated.The species richness indexes (DMA) and Shannon-Wiener diversity indexes (H′) of mollusca at S1,S3,S8 were 0.264 3-2.493 7 and 0.676 5-2.412 3,respectively.The DMA and H′ at the other 5 sections were zero.Mn、Cd、Pb、Cu、Zn were identified in the water,the concentrantions of Mn and Cd were severe exceed the standard of limits of Ⅴ class water of GB.The results of the diversities of molluscas and the physico-chemical monitoring suggested that the water of the Huayuan River had been polluted by heavy metals severity.

  14. 山东潍坊地区医学贝类种类及分布调查研究%The Species and Ecological Distribution of Medical Mollusca in Weifang, Shandong Province

    郭云海; 李娜; 胡玲; 张仪; 周晓农


    目的 调查山东潍坊地区医学贝类种类及分布. 方法 选择山东潍坊地区的潍坊市区、寿光、安丘和昌邑等地,现场采集医学贝类标本,进行形态学鉴定和分类定种. 结果 共获得标本1 791个,经形态学鉴定,隶属于2纲9科14种,包括重要医学贝类的纹沼螺(Parafsaruluss triatulus)383个、长角涵螺(Alocinma longicornis)34个、小土蜗(Galba pervia) 63个、椭圆萝卜螺(Radix swinhoei)137个、耳萝卜螺(R.auricularia)95个、尖膀胱螺(Physa acuta) 677个和尖口圆扁螺(Hippeutis cantori)22个.其中纹沼螺和尖膀胱螺为优势物种. 结论 山东潍坊地区可传播寄生虫的医学贝类种类较多.%Objective To investigate the species and distribution of mollusca with medical importance in Weifang,Shandong Province.Methods Species identification and quantitative statistics analysis was studied based on field-collected snails from the districts of Weifang,Shouguang,Anqiu and Changyi,Shandong Province.Results A total of 1 791 medical mollusca specimens were collected,belonging to two Classes,9 families and 14 species.Some important species were discovered including Parafossarulus striatuluis(383),A locinma longicornis(34),Galba pervia (63),Radix swinhoei (137),R.auricularia (95),Physa acuta(677) and Hippeutis cantori(22).The dominant species were P.acuta and P.striatulus.Conclusion There remains a higher diversity of medical mollusca in Weifang,Shandong Province.

  15. Big River Reservoir Project - Pawcatuck River and Narragansett Bay Drainage Basins - Water and Related Land Resources Study. Volume III. Appendices H-K.


    abundant taxa observed were: Odonata (0.5%), Nematoda (0.5%) and Turbellaria (2.5%) (Appendix A). Tarbox Pond Three Ponar samples yielded an average...included only snails (Gastropoda); other less abundant taxa observed were Odonata (1.0%), Trichoptera (0.5%) and Hydracarina (0.5%) (Appendix A). Big River...included Ceraclea; Oecetis, Lype and Phylocentropus. Other less abundant taxa observed included Mollusca (4.4%), Odonata (1.1%) and Megaloptera (1.8


    Levent BAT; Arıcı, Elif; Sezgin, Murat; Şahin, Fatih


    The present study was aim to determine the concentrationsof copper,cobalt, lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel and iron in the edible tissuesof Liocarcinusdepurator (decapoda), Rapanavenosa (gastropoda) and Mytilusgalloprovincilais (mollusca) collected from Samsun coasts of the Black Sea,Turkey in 2010. These biomonitor species are major food sources of benthicecosystem. Exposing to heavy metals at higher concentrations might be toxic todemersal fish species and also humans. The concentrat...

  17. Overseas Surveys (1981-1983) for Insects to Control Hydrilla.


    several treatments usually required during the growing season, only high priority waters can be effectively managed. Taxonomy Identification difficulties...11. Hydrilla has been recognized as a separate species of plant since the early days of taxonomy . According to Cook and Luond’s (1982) synonomy...Order Tanaidacea Tanaids Philippines 5 LUZ32Z1, LUZ832Z2 Total 105 Glass Mollusca Order Gastropoda (Snails) Ampullariidae Burma 3 BUR82204 Malaysia I

  18. Introducción al estudio de los gasterópodos (Mollusca de la laguna de Montcortès (Pallars Sobirà, Cataluña, NE de la península ibérica

    V. Bros


    Full Text Available Introduction to the study of gastropods (Mollusca on the Montcortés lake (Pallars Sobirà, Catlonia, NE of the Iberian peninsulaThe check-list of 50 species of terrestrial gastro­pod and freshwater molluscs in the Montcortès lake (Catalonia, Spain and its environs, pertaining to 24 different families, is shown. Thirty-three species are cited for the first time in the area of study. The unpublished data on their distribution and ecological requirements are contributed. The preliminary results indicate us that the communities of molluscs that accompany to the helofitic vegetation and the higrofits well are formed with elements of high faunistic and ecological interest. Simultaneously, some recommendations for the protection of the malacological fauna of the lake are commented.

  19. Tolerance to air exposure of the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca as a prerequisite to survival in overland translocations

    Alvaro Alonso


    Full Text Available Spreading throughout a new ecosystem is the last step of an exotic species to become invasive. In the case of invasive aquatic molluscs, tolerance to air exposure is one of the main mechanisms allowing overland translocation and spreading. The mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca is native to New Zealand but it has spread worldwide, invading ecosystems in Europe, Australia, America and Asia. The aim of our study is to assess mudsnail tolerance to air exposure, which may contribute to the successful overland translocation of this species. We conducted a laboratory experiment with four levels of air exposure (9, 18, 24 and 36 hours in a controlled climatic chamber. Snails were placed for 60 seconds in a laboratory paper filter to remove surface snail water. Then they were placed back in empty vessels during the four periods of air exposure, except the control group, which was immediately returned to water. At the end of each period of air exposure all vessels were filled with water and the cumulative mortality was monitored after 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours of rehydration. The calculated Lethal Times (i.e. the time of air exposure (in hours necessary to cause the death of 50% (LT50 or 99% (LT99 of the population and their 95% confidence limits at 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours were 28.1 (25.2–31.9, 26.9 (24.2–30.1, 25.9 (23.4–28.9 and 25.9 (23.4–28.9 hours, respectively for LT50, and 49.6 (42.7–63.3, 45.6 (39.9–56.5, 43.2 (38.0–53.0 and 43.2 (38.0–53.0 hours, respectively for LT99. Therefore an air exposure time over 43 hours caused the death of all studied individuals during all monitoring periods. Extending the monitoring period beyond 24 hours did not significantly change lethal times. Therefore, we recommend exposing fishing tools or boats at open air during at least 53 hours as a low cost measure to control mudsnail spread in early stages of invasion.

  20. Mollusks (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) of the Multiple-Use Reserve Martín García Island, Río de la Plata River: biodiversity and ecology.

    César, I I; Martín, S M; Rumi, A; Tassara, M


    The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five were along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Twenty-seven mollusk species were found, Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila , B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense and Limnoperna fortunei. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggests that the species distribution is related to the physico-chemical condition of water. Axis two of the ordination diagram displayed the approximately 95.6% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, water temperature and pH showed the highest fluctuations during the sampling period. The species richness (S) showed relationships mainly with water temperature and conductivity. The biodiversity of the gastropods and bivalves from Martín García Island amounts to up to 26 species. Among the Gastropoda, the Planorbidae family made the most sizeable contribution. The Lithogliphidae P. agapetus (26.28%) and P. buschii (9.50%) showed the highest relative

  1. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

    Rafael Araujo


    European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha. Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  2. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Seo, Daniele


    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  3. Occurrence of the alien nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858 (Opisthobranchia, Tethydidae, in the Maltese Islands

    J.A. BORG


    Full Text Available The alien dendronotacean nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858, a tropical Indo-Pacific species that seems to have been introduced by shipping into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, and which has established populations in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Montenegro, Croatia, NW Sicily, southern peninsular Italy and Djerba Island in the Gulf of Gabes, is recorded for the first time from Malta. A thriving population was observed on a soft sediment bottom at a depth of 18-20 m off the western coast of the island of Comino (Maltese Islands. It is suggested that this species was introduced into Malta due to a natural range expansion of surrounding populations.

  4. Occurrence of the alien sea hare Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828 (Opisthobranchia, Aplysiidae in Malta



    Full Text Available The alien sea hare Aplysia dactylomela, which is already established in several localities in the centraland eastern Mediterranean, is recorded for the first time from Malta on the basis of a specimen photographedat Cirkewwa (northern Malta. It is hypothesised that the occurrence of this species in Malta isa recent event and may be due to range expansion of the species.

  5. Morphology, anatomy and histology of Doto uva Marcus, 1955 (Opisthobranchia: Nudibranchia) from the Chilean coast

    Fischer, M.A.; Velde, van der G.; Roubos, E.W.


    Doto uva Marcus, 1955 is a nudibranch species recorded from the Brazilian and Chilean coast. In spite of its wide distribution, D. uva has been described only superficially, mainly as to the pattern of its coloration, external morphology, radular teeth and reproductive system. Here we substantially

  6. Occurrence of the alien nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858) (Opisthobranchia, Tethydidae), in the Maltese Islands

    J.A. BORG; J. Evans; P. J. Schembri


    The alien dendronotacean nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858), a tropical Indo-Pacific species that seems to have been introduced by shipping into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, and which has established populations in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Montenegro, Croatia, NW Sicily, southern peninsular Italy and Djerba Island in the Gulf of Gabes, is recorded for the first time from Malta. A thriving population was observed on a soft sediment bottom at a depth of 18-20 m off the western co...

  7. Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca)

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.


    Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.                   

  8. 湖北钉螺分类学研究进展

    胡缨; 黎学铭


    日本血吸虫病是严重危害人体健康的人畜共患病,主要流行于亚洲,而它的流行又依赖作为中间宿主的湖北钉螺。钉螺属软体动物门(Phylum Mollusca)、腹足纲(Class Gastropoda)、前腮亚纲(Subclass Prosobranchia)、圆口螺科(Family Pomatiopsidae)、圆口螺亚科(Subfamily Pomatisinae)、钉螺属(Genus Oncoinelania)。

  9. 中草药在鲍鱼养殖防病中的应用

    张荣森; 陈涛




    许静; 郑江; 周晓农


    @@ 钉螺属软体动物门(Phylum Mollusca)、腹足纲(Class Gastropoda)、前鳃亚纲(Subclass Prosobranchia)、麂眼螺超科(Superfamily Rissocea)、圆口螺科(Family Pomatiopsidae)、圆口螺亚科(Subclass Pomatiopsinae).根据形态学上的特征,钉螺属又分为两个种:湖北钉螺(Oncomelania hupensis)和微小钉螺(Oncomelania minima)[1].


    丁建华; 周立志; 邓道贵; 金显文


    2011年3月、6月、9月和12月对淮河干流11个采集点的底栖软体类动物群落结构进行了调查研究,共记录了软体类动物9科26种,其中位于最上游的桐柏金庄种类最少,仅有3种分布,而位于中下游的新城口种类达到15种.总体上看,自上游至下游,软体动物种类的数量呈现一定的增多趋势.Pearson相关性检验结果表明软体动物种类数量和生物密度与河道深度间分别存在显著的正相关(r = 0.617,P = 0.043,n = 11)和负相关关系(r = -0.654,P = 0.029,n = 11).方差分析(One-way ANOVA)结果表明,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数[F(3,40) = 0.225,P = 0.879]、Margalef丰富度指数[F(3,40) = 0.902,P = 0.449]、Pielou均匀性指数[F(3,40) = 0.841,P = 0.479]这3种指数以及生物量[F(3,40) = 1.931,P = 0.14]不存在显著的季节性变化,但生物密度[F(3,40) = 5.45,P = 0.003]却存在极显著的季节性变化.其中,生物密度在6月份出现峰值[(90.13 ± 36.31) ind./m2],最低值出现在12月份[(14.42 ± 2.78) ind./m2];生物量的变化不与生物密度变化同步,其峰值出现在9月份[(155.08 ± 50.43) g/m2],最低值则出现在3月份[(39.15 ± 14.08) g/m2].相似性分析(One-way ANOSIM)结果表明,软体类动物群落在生物密度和生物量方面的优势物种组成上均无显著的季节性差异,其P值分别为0.082和0.514.生物密度在不同月份间的不相似百分比变化幅度从53.87%至59.12%,而生物量的不相似百分比变化幅度则从58.76%至68.58%.冗余分析(Redundancy Analysis RDA)结果表明,河宽、水深和砂质型底质为影响淮河干流底栖软体类动物分布的主要环境因子.%The benthic mollusca community structure at eleven sampling sites in Huaihe River was investigated in March, June, September and December 2011. A total of 26 species from 9 families were recorded. Thereinto, only 3 species occurred in the first upriver site: Tongbaijinzhuang, and 15 species occurred in the downriver

  12. Cloning and Functional Expression of a Multi-Functional Cellulase Gene egx from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean in vitro%福寿螺多功能纤维素酶基因egx的克隆及其体外功能性表达

    黄妙容; 刘德武; 吴珍芳


    [Objective] The objective of the study is to clone the multi-functional cellulase gene from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, and analyze its expression in vitro. [Method] The cDNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR from the stomach of Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, and then cloned into pMD18-T vector. Following sequencing, the gene was subcloned into the expression vector pET-32a (+) and pcDNA3.1 (+) using EcoR I and Not I restriction sites, and the enzymatic activity was determined by DNS. [Result] Sequence analysis showed that the 1 326 bp amplicon consists of 1 185 bp coding sequence and part of flanking sequence. The DNA sequence and the putative amino acid sequence shared 99% and 100% identity with the reported sequence, respectively. The purified product from E.coli BL-21 (DE3) showed hydrolytic activities to various substrates including carboxylmethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na), 2-hydroxyethyl-cellulose, hydroxyethyl-cellulose, sigmacell and xylan with specific activities of 24.78, 15.67, 18.42, 600.91 and 175.43 U·mg-1, respectiviely, while the recombination protein expressed in PK15 showed hydrolytic activities of 0.84, 0.78, 1.01, 14.62 and 4.23 U·mL-1, respectively. [Conclusion] The multi-functional cellulase from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, was cloned, functional expressed in pro- and eukaryotic cells, and this could provide a foundation for further research and application of the multi-functional cellulase gene from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean.%[目的]克隆福寿螺多功能纤维素酶基因egx,并在大肠杆菌和哺乳动物细胞中进行表达分析.[方法]通过RT-PCR的方法,从福寿螺胃组织总RNA中克隆福寿螺多功能纤维素酶基因egx序列,连接克隆载体pMD18-T,再通过EcoR Ⅰ和NotⅠ两个酶切位点分别与表达载体pET-32a(+)及pcDNA3.1(+)连接,构建原核、真核表达载体,并在E.coli BL-21 (DE3)和猪肾细胞PK15中进行表达,最后采用DNS法测定表达产物酶

  13. 湛江红树林保护区软体动物群落结构与生态位分析%The Structure of the Mollusca Community and Niche Analysis in Zhangjiang Mangrove Nature Reserves

    唐以杰; 陈康; 刘金苓


    对广东湛江红树林保护区高桥核心区软体动物进行采样调查,共采集软体动物20种,隶属1门2纲13科.其中桐花树+红海榄(Acgiceras corniculatum + Rhizophora stylosa )群落10种,桐花树+秋茄(Acgiceras corniculatum + Kandelia candel )群落6种,桐花树+白骨壤(Acgiceras corniculatum + Avicennia marina )群落13种,白骨壤+桐花树群落(Avicennia marina + Acgiceras corniculatum )16种.对软体动物密度数据进行季节和红树植物群落类型进行无重复双因素方差分析,结果显示软体动物栖息密度主要受红树植物群落类型而不是季节的影响.对定量取样中获得的20个物种以 Shannon-Wiener 指数为基础进行了生态位宽度测定,以 Pianka重叠指数为基础进行了生态位重叠值分析,结果表明琵琶拟沼螺(Assiminea lutea )、黑口滨螺(Littoraria melanostoma )和粗糙滨螺(Littorina scaber )的生态位较宽,均为2.0以上,它们之间的生态重叠值也较高,均为0.70以上.以密度数据4次开方为基础,利用欧氏距离进行群落物种的系统聚类分析,结果表明物种的聚类可以反映群落中物种生态位重叠值,但是生态位宽度的研究,要针对不同物种来分析.非度量多维标度排序分析也支持以上结果.研究表明,物种生态宽度、物种之间的生态位重叠值与物种的分布与数量密切相关,反映了软体动物群落中各物种对生境资源利用能力的强弱.%This study was conducted to explore the structure of the mollusca community and niche in Zhangjiang Mangrove Nature Reserves.The mollusks community in the four kinds of mangrove communities in the core region of Gaoqiao town were studies.A total of 20 species in the investigation, belonging to 13 families,2 classes and 1 phyla were collected.The numbers of species found in the Acgiceras corniculatum + Rhizophora stylosa ,Acgiceras corniculatum + Kandelia

  14. Lorentz Spengler's descriptions of chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    Kaas, P.; Knudsen, J.


    The present paper deals with an important Danish paper on the Polyplacophora, published in 1797 by Lorentz Spengler: Udförlig Beskrivelse over det mangeskallede Konkylie-Slaegt, af Linnaeus kaldet Chiton; med endeel nye Arter og Varieteter. -Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet, 4e Bind, Ie Hefte, VI

  15. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.


    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  16. [Microbiologic depuration of Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Arcidae)].

    Wong, E; Antillón, F; Glenn, E; González, M I


    In Costa Rica the mollusk Anadara tuberculosa represents a risk for human health due to the contamination of the growing waters and the fact that its is consumed raw. The families depending on the income obtained through commercialization of these animals have a low education and economic status. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop and evaluate simple methods of depuration that could be easily used by these families to make these mollusks safe for consumption. Bottles containing 11 of saline solution (25g/l) were prepared in duplicates to test the bactericidal effect of acetic acid. The solution in each bottle was adjusted to ph 4.5, 5.0 or 5.5 or held at ph of 7.0 or 8.0 for the controls. The solution in each bottle was then inoculated with approximately 1 X 104 cfu/ml of coliforms. Counts of coliforms were determined for each bottle 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours after inoculation. For the depuration studies, specimens with diameters ranging from 4.0 to 4.5 cm were collected from a harvester at the estuary of Puntarenas, Gulf of Nicoya. Fifty specimens each were depurated in separate tanks containing 25 1 of oxygenated saline solution adjusted with acetic acid to an initial ph of 4.5 (treatment) or non adjusted ph of 8.0 (control). Counts of Enterobacteriaceae were determined, in duplicates, every 12 hr for 48 hr. An additional fifty animals were depurated using the defined method and tested to determine if they met international standards of microbiological quality for aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Escherichia coli count and presence of Salmonella. A sensory evaluation using a triangle test was performed to compare a typical dish prepared with depurated or non-depurated animals. A significant coliform reduction was determined in a saline solution (25 g/l) at a pH range of 4.5 to 5.5. This reduction, during 8 hr, was higher in the acid treatments compared to the controls. During depuration, the elimination of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria was faster when acetic was used (initial ph = 4.5) than when it was not. This elimination was more important the first 24 hr, time defined as adequate for the application of the method. The method has the advantage of transforming the bivalve in a product that is safe for human consumption, since it guarantees that the international standards of microbiological quality, for raw and depurated mollusks, are reached. On the other hand, the sensory qualities of a typical dish prepared with depurated animals are not affected by the method, which can be easily implemented and applied by the people that work in the extraction of this mollusk.

  17. Four new African turriform gastropods (Mollusca: Conoidea).

    Morassi, Mauro; Bonfitto, Antonio


    Four new species, belonging to four distinct conoidean families, are described from east Africa and Mozambique Channel. Iredalea adenensis sp. nov. (Drilliidae Olsson, 1964), from Gulf of Aden, and Buchema shearmani sp. nov. (Horaiclavidae Bouchet et al., 2011), from off Mogadishu (Somalia), both trawled by local fishermen, represent the first record of their respective genera in eastern Africa. Crassispira somalica sp. nov. (Pseudomelatomidae Morrison, 1965), also collected offshore from Modagishu (Somalia), represents the first eastern Africa species bearing "typical" Crassispira features. Tropidoturris vizcondei sp. nov. (Borsoniidae Bellardi, 1875), from the Mozambique Channel, increases the knowledge of a genus considered endemic to southeastern Africa.

  18. Morphology, anatomy and histology of a new species of Flabellina Voigt, 1834 (Opisthobranchia: Aeolidoidea) from the Chilean coast

    Fischer, M.A.; Velde, G. van der; Roubos, E.W.


    Flabellina cerverai sp. nov. was found in Bay La Herradura, Coquimbo, North of Chile, and clearly differs from other members of the Flabellinidae by the following combination of main characters: (1) small body size (4.5–6.3 mm), (2) translucent-yellow body coloration, with a white line along the dor

  19. Distribution of molluscan remains in the sediment of the Chukchi Sea and its vicinity, the Arctic

    Gao Aiguo; Xu Fengshan; Sun Haiqing; Li Lon


    The result of an analysis of mollusca remains collected from the Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea and Bering Sea in the First Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition, from July to September,1999 is presented. Seventeen species of mollusca have been identified, which belong to two classes: Bivalvia and Gastropoda. The compositions of the mollusca are very simple. According to the distribution pattern two groups may be distinguished among molluscan species. The Pan-Arctic and circumboreal group comprises Nuculana pernula, N. radiata, Nucula bellotii, Astarte montagui, Seripes groenlandicus, Macoma calcarea, M. moesta alaskana, Liocyma fluctuosa, Mya pseudoarenaria and Turritella polaris. Three species, Cyclocardia crebricos tata, Trichotrois coronata and Argobuccinum oregonense are components of the Pan-Arctic and Pacific boreal group. With regard to feeding habits, detritus feeders dominate. There are 7 species of detritus feeders, i.e. , Nuculana pernula, N. radiata,Nucula bellotii , Macoma calcarea , M. moesta alaskana , Macoma sp. and Trichotropis coronata . Detritus feeders are dominant with regard to the numbers of species as well as to the frequency of occurrence. Macoma calcarea is the most abundant species.

  20. [Energy metabolism and body mass ratio in bivalves mollusca (Mollusca: Bivalvia)].

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Radzinskaia, L I


    On the basis of experimental and published data, the interspecific and intraspecific (ontogenetic) dependence of energy metabolism on body weight in bivalves was calculated. Changes in the parameters of intraspecific allometric dependence under the effect of environmental factors were analyzed. The rate of comparable standard metabolism (coefficient a at k = 0.76) was shown to vary in different taxonomic and zoogeographic groups of bivalves.

  1. [Macrogeographic genetic variability in the gastropod mollusk Littorina sitkana from the northwest Pacific].

    Zaslavskaya, N I; Pudovkin, A I


    Variation at four highly polymorphic allozyme loci (inorganic pyrophosphatase, peptidase, and two esterase loci) was examined in 25 settlements of the marine snail Littorina sitkana (Mollusca, Gastropoda). The sampling localities covered a wide part of the species range: from the Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan) at the southwest to the Mednyi Island (Commander Islands) at the northeast. Like other littorines lacking the pelagic stage, L. sitkana was characterized by significant genetic differentiation (G(ST) for the pooled sample was 0.310). Cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling conducted on a matrix of pairwise genetic distances between all of the settlements studied revealed four genetically different groups: southern Primorye, northern Prymorye, Sakhalin, and Kuril-Commanders. The population-genetic structure of the L. sitkana settlements is close to that described by the isolation-by-distance and stepping-stone models: the geographic and the genetic distances between the most settlements examined are distinctly correlated.

  2. 中国桑树害虫名录(Ⅺ)%Checklist of Mulberry Pests in China (Ⅺ)

    浦冠勤; 孙兴鲁; 毛建萍; 姜德义; 王军; 谭书生



  3. Transferência do gênero monotípico Parodizia Medina de Bithyniidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia para Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia Transference of the monotypic genus Parodizia Medina from Bithyniidae Gray (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia to Pyramidellidae Gray (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia

    Maria Cristina Pons da Silva


    Full Text Available Propõe-se a transferência do gênero monitípico Parodizia Medina, 1959 de Bithyniidae (Prosobranchia para Pyramidellidae (Heterobranchia. A proposta está baseada em dados morfológicos de espécimens de P. uruguayensis Medina, 1959 procedentes da bacia do rio Tramandaí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The transference of the monotypic genus Parodizia Medina, 1959 from Bithyniidae (Prosobranchia to Pyramidellidae (Heterobranchia is proposed. The proposal is based on some morphological data of P. uruguayensis Medina, 1959 from Tramandaí river basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  4. Untersuchungen zum Harnsäuremetabolismus von Littorina littorea (Gastropoda)

    Heil, K. P.; Eichelberg, D.


    Periwinkles, as typical inhabitants of sea-shores, are subjected to extreme changes of environmental conditions, which affect their excretion. In Littorina littorea uric acid, urea and ammonium were detected particularly in the kidney, but the only metabolite excreted was ammonium. Only the concentration of uric acid was dependent on the availability of water; decreasing periods of submersion during low tide and raised salinities caused a higher concentration of uric acid, while increasing periods of submersion and lowered salinities effected the opposite. Transfer of periwinkles within their intertidal habitat and laboratory experiments to test the effect of salinity showed that the concentration of uric acid in the kidney is adaptable. The dependence of uric acid concentration in the kidney on environmental conditions and the ammoniotelic excretion of L. littorea are discussed with regard to its particular living conditions. It is suggested that uric acid serves as nitrogen depot and has a particular function in osmoregulation.

  5. Silurian Gastropoda from the Alexander terrane, southeast Alaska

    Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.


    Gastropods are described from Ludlow-age strata of the Heceta Limestone on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska. They are part of a diverse megabenthic fauna of the Alexander terrane, an accreted terrane of Siberian or Uralian affinities. Heceta Limestone gastropods with Uralian affinities include Kirkospira glacialis, which closely resembles "Pleurotomaria" lindstromi Oehlert of Chernyshev, 1893, Retispira cf. R. volgulica (Chernyshev, 1893), and Medfracaulus turriformis (Chernyshev, 1893). Medfracaulus and similar morphotypes such as Coelocaulus karlae are unknown from rocks that are unquestionably part of the North American continent (Laurentia) during Late Silurian time. Beraunia is previously known only from the Silurian of Bohemia. Pachystrophia has previously been reported only from western North American terranes (Eastern Klamath, York, and Farewell terranes) and Europe. Bathmopterus Kirk, 1928, is resurrected and is only known from the Silurian of southeast Alaska. Newly described taxa include Hecetastoma gehrelsi n. gen. and n. sp. and Baichtalia tongassensis n. gen. and n. sp. ??2008 The Geological Society of America.

  6. Evidence for the validity of Protatlanta sculpta (Gastropoda: Pterotracheoidea)

    Wall-Palmer, D.; Burridge, A.K.; Peijnenburg, K.C.T.A.; Janssen, A.; Goetze, E.; Kirby, R.; Hart, M.B.; Smart, C.W.


    The genus Protatlanta is thought to be monotypic and is part of the Atlantidae, a family of shelled heteropods. These microscopic planktonic gastropods are poorly known, although research on their ecology is now increasing in response to concerns about the effects of ocean acidification on calcareou

  7. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the cone snails (Gastropoda, Conoidea).

    Puillandre, N; Bouchet, P; Duda, T F; Kauferstein, S; Kohn, A J; Olivera, B M; Watkins, M; Meyer, C


    We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Clade; the others are divided between the Small Major Clade (∼12%), the Conus californicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (∼3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper.

  8. Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887, from Ecuador (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae

    W. Lobato Paraense


    Full Text Available A description is given of the shell, renal organ, reproductive system and radula of topotypic specimens of Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887. A diagnosis between it and four other lymnaeids which also occur in South America and were previously studied by the author (L. columella, L. diaphana, L. viatrix and L. rupestris is presented.

  9. The phylogeography of Indoplanorbis exustus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Asia

    Diaz Jose L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The freshwater snail Indoplanorbis exustus is found across India, Southeast Asia, central Asia (Afghanistan, Arabia and Africa. Indoplanorbis is of economic importance in that it is responsible for the transmission of several species of the genus Schistosoma which infect cattle and cause reduced livestock productivity. The snail is also of medical importance as a source of cercarial dermatitis among rural workers, particularly in India. In spite of its long history and wide geographical range, it is thought that Indoplanorbis includes only a single species. The aims of the present study were to date the radiation of Indoplanorbis across Asia so that the factors involved in its dispersal in the region could be tested, to reveal potential historical biogeographical events shaping the phylogeny of the snail, and to look for signs that I. exustus might be polyphyletic. Results The results indicated a radiation beginning in the late Miocene with a divergence of an ancestral bulinine lineage into Assam and peninsular India clades. A Southeast Asian clade diverged from the peninsular India clade late-Pliocene; this clade then radiated at a much more rapid pace to colonize all of the sampled range of Indoplanorbis in the mid-Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogenetic depth of divergences between the Indian clades and Southeast Asian clades, together with habitat and parasitological differences suggest that I. exustus may comprise more than one species. The timescale estimated for the radiation suggests that the dispersal to Arabia and to Southeast Asia was facilitated by palaeogeographical events and climate change, and did not require human involvement. Further samples from Afghanistan, Africa and western India are required to refine the phylogeographical hypothesis and to include the African Recent dispersal.

  10. Sobre dos Cassiopidae (Gastropoda del Neocomiense español.



    Full Text Available Se describen 2 gasterópodos neocomienses (Cretácico Inferior, provenientes del Weald de Cameros. Uno de ellos, Paraglauconia vierai se considera nueva especie. El otro es una especie descrita hace poco en el Hauteriviense francés.

  11. The radular morphology of Nassariidae (Gastropoda:Caenogastropoda) from China

    YANG Jingwen; ZHANG Suping


    The family Nassariidae includes a number of species that are distributed throughout the world.Each species has a characteristic shell shape,tooth shape,and behavior.However,the classification of species in this family of the Rhachiglossa is controversial.We describe the radulae of 22 species from China in detail using optical and scanning electron microscopy.These species are considered to be representatives of two subfamilies,two genera,and 10 subgenera.Our results suggest that the morphology of the central tooth and the pair of lateral teeth and the presence or absence of a pair of intermediate accessory lateral teeth could be used to distinguish among species.We found no support for the subgeneric differentiation of the species.However,the presence or absence of the intermediate lateral accessory plate was characteristic of species divisions.We noted sexual dimorphism in the shape of the teeth in some species,and considerable variability of the shape of teeth within a single species.Based on our results,the genus Nassarius cannot be split into subgenera using radula morphology.

  12. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata en el litoral peruano

    Carlos Paredes


    Full Text Available Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835 y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842, Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835, Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852 y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en las playas de canto rodado en los límites de la Provincia Peruana. Cuatro especies tropicales se registran por primera vez para el mar peruano: E. stagnale, M. olivaceus, D. graminea y M. acuta.

  13. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

    W. Lobato Paraense


    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  14. New species of Cyclodontina from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae

    Rodrigo B. Salvador


    Full Text Available A new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small forest fragment in the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia state, Brazil. Bahia is known for a high diversity of land snails and Bom Jesus da Lapa is an interesting locality, since it is close to the interface between two major Brazilian biomes: Cerrado and Caatinga. The new species is described as Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its brown shell, conical spire, convex whorls, a sculpture comprised of strong ribs, and an aperture with four barriers: a median parietal tooth, a median palatal tooth, a median basal tooth and a strong columellar lamella. This discovery is also a reminder of how little the Brazilian continental molluscan fauna is known and of the urgency in studying and preserving the rich (though usually overlooked fauna of the Caatinga.

  15. On relict hydrobiid species in Brazilian Amazonia (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Hydrobiidae)

    Wesselingh, F.P.


    Two extant hydrobiid species from the lower Tapajos river of Brazil are redescribed. Potamopyrgus amazonicus Haas, 1949, is assigned to the genus Dyris Conrad, 1871. At least eleven species from Miocene deposits of Western Amazonia are assigned to Dyris, a genus that was previously assumed to be ext

  16. Hydrocarbons in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Oudejans, R.C.H.M.


    1. 1. The biosynthesis of hydrocarbons in the snail Cepaea nemoralis was studied after injection of the 14C-labelled precursors acetate, valine, isoleucine and palmitic acid. 2. 2. The highest incorporation was achieved with palmitic acid, although with the other precursors the hydrocarbons were al

  17. Benthic Macro-Fauna Composition and Abundance in Sombreiro River, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    E.N. Ezekiel


    Full Text Available The benthic macro-fauna composition and abundance in sombreiro was studied for a period of two years (August 2007 - July2009. A total of twenty-eight species belonging to fourteen (14 families, six (6 classes and three (3 phyla were recorded in Sombreiro River. The phylum Annelida dominated with two classes (Oligochaeta and Polychaeta. Oligochaeta was represented by two families (Naididae and Lumbricidae and seven species having 25% by composition. Polychaeta was represented by seven families (Nereidae, Nepthyidae, Capitellidae, Eucinidae, Glyceridae, Arenicolidae and Syllidae and thirteen species having 46.4% by composition. The Phylum arthropoda was represented by two classes (Crustacea and inseita. Two families (Gammaridae and Penaidae having two species consisting of 7.2% were recorded, for the class crustacea. The class insecta was represented by one family (Chironomidae with one species consisting of 3.6%. The phylum Mollusca was represented by two classes (Gastropoda and Bivalvia. Gastropoda had two species with 7.2% composition and Bivalvia has three species with10.7% composition. Oligochaeta was the highest and constituted 62.0%. The others were Polychaeta (23.9%, Insecta (6.7%, Gastropoda (3.9%, Bivalvia (2.2% and Crustacea (1.3%. The mean diversity(S ranged between 11 species. Mean abundance of individuals (N was 985. Mean Margalef index (d value was 1.339. The mean value for Shannon-Wienner (H was 0.956. Mean Pielou’s index of relative density or evenness index (E was 0.986. Mean SimpsIn’s Dominance index (C was 0.623.


    Nisrina Arifatul Izzah


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini tentang keanekaragaman makrozoobentos di pesisir pantai Desa Panggung Kecamatan Kedung Kabupaten Jepara yang dilaksanakan pada Maret – April 2016. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman makrozoobentos. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode purposive sampling dalam penentuan lokasi stasiun penelitian dan pembuatan plot mengunakan metode line transect. Stasiun penelitian terdiri dari dua stasiun yakni Stasiun I dan Stasiun II. Hasil Penelitian di temukan 6 spesies makrozoobentos terdiri dari 2 jenis dari Classis Bivalvia (Fillum Mollusca yaitu spesies Anadara granosa dan Scrobicularia plana, 2 jenis dari Classis Gastropoda (Fillum Mollusca yaitu spesies Turritella nivea dan Quoyia decollata, 1 jenis dari classis Crustacea (Fillum Arthropoda yaitu Penaeus indicus, dan 1 jenis dari Classis Polychaeta (Fillum Annelida yaitu Arenicola marina. Komposisi spesies, kepadatan populasi, kenanekaragaman dan keseragaman dari komunitas makrozoobentos bahwa stasiun I lebih tinggi dari stasiun II. Terlihat pada hasil indeks keanekaragaman (H’ makrozoobentos di stasiun I (1,52 dan stasiun II (1,47. Kedua stasiun mengindikasikan bahwa keanekaragaman rendah dan kondisi kualitas lingkungan perairan dalam keadaan setengah tercemar. kualitas perairan laut di sekitar pesisir pantai desa Panggung kecamatan Kedung kabupaten Jepara membutuhkan perhatian untuk mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan.

  19. 上海苏州河大型底栖动物的研究%A study on macro-invertebrate of the Suzhou River, Shanghai.

    刘国才; 赖伟; 殷浩文; 顾福康


    苏州河白鹤至浙江路段6个采样断面大型底栖动物隶属于环节动物门(Annelida)、软体动物门(Mollusca)及节肢动物门(Arthropoda).其中寡毛纲(Oligochaeta)4种、蛭纲(Hirudinea)2种、腹足纲(Gastropoda)5种、双壳纲(Bivalvia)2种及昆虫纲摇蚊科幼虫(Chironomidae)与潜蝇蛹(Agromyzigae)(未定种).随着底质污染的加重,群落结构趋于简化.种类少、高度耐污是存活大型底栖动物的显著特点.从白鹤至华槽断面,高度耐污的霍甫水丝蚓(Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri)数量趋于增加,并在华槽断面形成明显数量高峰;北新泾、武宁路河段底质污染严重,环节动物、软体动物消失;浙江路断面受黄浦江"逆流"影响,寡毛纲动物再度出现,并形成一定数量.%Macro-invertebrate from Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda were found in six sections from Baihe to Zhejiang road in the Suzhou River, among which four species were from Oligochaeta, two species from Hirudinea, five species from Gastropoda, two species from Bivalvia and several species from Insecta (unidentified). The community structure of macro-invertebrates became simple with the sediment pollution getting heavier. Limited species with high pollution resistibility were the characteristics of the species survival. The amounts of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri with high pollution resistibility increased gradually from Baihe to Huacao section, and reached a peak in Huacao section; species from An-nelida, Mollusca were not found in Beixinjing and Wuninglu sections due to heavy sediment pollution; species from Oli-gochaeta were found again and had certain numbers in Zhejiang road section as the result of the effect of courterflow of the Huangpu River.

  20. Host shift and speciation in a coral-feeding nudibranch

    Faucci, Anuschka; Toonen, Robert J; Hadfield, Michael G


    While the role of host preference in ecological speciation has been investigated extensively in terrestrial systems, very little is known in marine environments. Host preference combined with mate choice on the preferred host can lead to population subdivision and adaptation leading to host shifts. We use a phylogenetic approach based on two mitochondrial genetic markers to disentangle the taxonomic status and to investigate the role of host specificity in the speciation of the nudibranch genus Phestilla (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) from Guam, Palau and Hawaii. Species of the genus Phestilla complete their life cycle almost entirely on their specific host coral (species of Porites, Goniopora and Tubastrea). They reproduce on their host coral and their planktonic larvae require a host-specific chemical cue to metamorphose and settle onto their host. The phylogenetic trees of the combined cytochrome oxidase I and ribosomal 16S gene sequences clarify the relationship among species of Phestilla identifying most of the nominal species as monophyletic clades. We found a possible case of host shift from Porites to Goniopora and Tubastrea in sympatric Phestilla spp. This represents one of the first documented cases of host shift as a mechanism underlying speciation in a marine invertebrate. Furthermore, we found highly divergent clades within Phestilla sp. 1 and Phestilla minor (8.1–11.1%), suggesting cryptic speciation. The presence of a strong phylogenetic signal for the coral host confirms that the tight link between species of Phestilla and their host coral probably played an important role in speciation within this genus. PMID:17134995

  1. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Silvana C. Thiengo


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  2. New records of Protobranchia (Mollusca: Bivalvia in the Peruvian Sea

    Carlos Paredes


    Full Text Available The following species of Bivalvia have been recorded for the first time for Peruvian waters: Nucula (Nucula iphigenia (Dall, 1908; Ennucula cardara (Dall, 1916; Nuculana (Nuculana extenuata (Dall, 1897; Orthoyoldia panamensis (Dall, 1908. These bivalves were collected in the platform and continental slope down to depths of 864 meters.

  3. Mollusca (terrestrial and marine Gastropods et Bivalvia from Morocco

    Atanas Irikov


    Full Text Available Fifteen samples with molluscs are collected from various habitats and regions of Morocco, located in the seashore zone, as well as the central and the eastern parts of the country. We recorded 21 terrestrial and 15 marine species of molluscs. New localities and new species for the fauna of Morocco and the African continent are reported for the first time.

  4. p63 gene structure in the phylum mollusca.

    Baričević, Ana; Štifanić, Mauro; Hamer, Bojan; Batel, Renato


    Roles of p53 family ancestor (p63) in the organisms' response to stressful environmental conditions (mainly pollution) have been studied among molluscs, especially in the genus Mytilus, within the last 15 years. Nevertheless, information about gene structure of this regulatory gene in molluscs is scarce. Here we report the first complete genomic structure of the p53 family orthologue in the mollusc Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and confirm its similarity to vertebrate p63 gene. Our searches within the available molluscan genomes (Aplysia californica, Lottia gigantea, Crassostrea gigas and Biomphalaria glabrata), found only one p53 family member present in a single copy per haploid genome. Comparative analysis of those orthologues, additionally confirmed the conserved p63 gene structure. Conserved p63 gene structure can be a helpful tool to complement or/and revise gene annotations of any future p63 genomic sequence records in molluscs, but also in other animal phyla. Knowledge of the correct gene structure will enable better prediction of possible protein isoforms and their functions. Our analyses also pointed out possible mis-annotations of the p63 gene in sequenced molluscan genomes and stressed the value of manual inspection (based on alignments of cDNA and protein onto the genome sequence) for a reliable and complete gene annotation.

  5. Upper Cambrian chitons (Mollusca, polyplacophora) from Missouri, USA

    Pojeta, J.; Vendrasco, M.J.; Darrough, G.


    Numerous new specimens reveal a greater presence of chitons in Upper Cambrian rocks than previously suspected. Evidence is presented showing that the chiton esthete sensory system is present in all chiton species in this study at the very beginning of the known polyplacophoran fossil record. The stratigraphic occurrences and paleobiogeography of Late Cambrian chitons are documented. The 14 previously-named families of Cambrian and Ordovician chitons are reviewed and analyzed. Aulochitonidae n. fam. is defined, based on Aulochiton n. gen.; A. sannerae n. sp. is also defined. The long misunderstood family Preacanthochitonidae and its type genus Preacanthochiton Bergenhayn, 1960, are placed in synonymy with Mattheviidae and Chelodes Davidson & King, 1874, respectively; Eochelodes Marek, 1962, also is placed in synonymy with Chelodes, and Elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is placed in synonymy with Hemithecella Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. At the species level, H. elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, and Elongata perplexa Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, are placed in synonymy with H. eminensis Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995. The Ordovician species H. abrupta Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is transferred to the genus Chelodes as C. abrupta (Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995). The Ordovician species Preacanthochiton baueri Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Helminthochiton as H. ? baueri (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). The Ordovician species H. marginatus Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Litochiton as L. marginatus (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). Matthevia walcotti Runnegar, Pojeta, Taylor, & Collins, 1979, is treated as a synonym of Hemithecella expansa Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. In addition, other multivalved Cambrian mollusks are discussed; within this group, Dycheiidae n. fam. is defined, as well as Paradycheia dorisae n. gen. and n. sp. Cladistic analysis indicates a close relationship among the genera here assigned to the Mattheviidae, and between Echinochiton Pojeta, Eernisse, Hoare, & Henderson, 2003, and mattheviids. The results suggest treating these taxa as stem-lineage chitons, and do not support the hypothesis that they are aplacophorans.

  6. Biodiversity and biogeography of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic mollusca

    Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Clarke, Andrew


    For many decades molluscan data have been critical to the establishment of the concept of a global-scale increase in species richness from the poles to the equator. Low polar diversity is key to this latitudinal cline in diversity. Here we investigate richness patterns in the two largest classes of molluscs at both local and regional scales throughout the Southern Ocean. We show that biodiversity is very patchy in the Southern Ocean (at the 1000-km scale) and test the validity of historical biogeographic sub-regions and provinces. We used multivariate analysis of biodiversity patterns at species, genus and family levels to define richness hotspots within the Southern Ocean and transition areas. This process identified the following distinct sub-regions in the Southern Ocean: Antarctic Peninsula, Weddell Sea, East Antarctic—Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctic—Enderby Land, East Antarctic—Wilkes Land, Ross Sea, and the independent Scotia arc and sub Antarctic islands. Patterns of endemism were very different between the bivalves and gastropods. On the basis of distributional ranges and radiation centres of evolutionarily successful families and genera we define three biogeographic provinces in the Southern Ocean: (1) the continental high Antarctic province excluding the Antarctic Peninsula, (2) the Scotia Sea province including the Antarctic Peninsula, and (3) the sub Antarctic province comprising the islands in the vicinity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  7. Notes on Cancellaria minima Reeve (Mollusca: Neogastropoda: Cancellariacea)

    Verhecken, A.


    Cancellaria minima Reeve, 1856, is redescribed after three syntypes and 59 shells recently collected near Madeira and off Morocco. The few literature data concerning this poorly known species are summarized. Its range appears to be situated between 27° and 37°N and 5° and 17°W, as far as known mainl

  8. A new dicyemid from octopus hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopoda)

    Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Gómez, M. Carmen; Hochberg, F. G.; Gestal, C.; Furuya, Hidetaka


    A new species of dicyemid mesozoan is described from Octopus hubbsorum Berry, 1953, collected in the south of Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Me´xico. Dicyema guaycurense n. sp. is a medium-size species that reaches about 1,600 mm in length. It occurs in folds of the renal appendages. The vermiform stages are characterized as having 22 peripheral cells, a conical calotte, and an axial cell that extends to the base of the propolar cells. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells;...

  9. First molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Polycerinae (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Polyceridae)

    Palomar, Gemma; Pola, Marta; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva


    The subfamily Polycerinae includes four genera with around 46 species described to date. This subfamily is characterized by a limaciform body, which may have simple tentacular processes on the margin of the oral veil. Phylogenetic relationships between the genera of the subfamily Polycerinae (Polyceridae) have not yet been studied, and therefore, the only available information is based on morphological descriptions. The present study reports the first phylogenetic analysis of Polycerinae based on the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rRNA) using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our results showed that Polycerinae is monophyletic, but the relationships within the subfamily as well as within Polycera remain unresolved. A key finding of this study is that there are clearly two sympatric species of Polycera present in South Africa: Polycera capensis Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 also found in Australia and an undescribed Polycera sp. On the other hand, the studied specimens of the genus Gymnodoris were clustered within Polycerinae, reopening the problem of the systematic position of this genus. Additional genes and species of Polycerinae and Gymnodoris would provide more information and probably fully resolve this situation.

  10. Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Ecuador (Mollusca: Basommatophora

    W Lobato Paraense


    Full Text Available In the course of a trip to Ecuador I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of the following nominal species of pulmonate molluscs: Biomphalaria cousini Paraense, 1966; Planorbis equatorius Cousin, 1887; P. canonicus Cousin, 1887; Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 and P. boetzkesi Miller, 1879. Additional findings were: Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817, Biomphalaria peregrina (Orbigny 1835, Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835, D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835, D. lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839, D. surinamense (Clessin, 1884, Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 and Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805. P. boetzkesi and P. canonicus are considered junior synonyms of Gyraulus hindsianus (Dunker, 1848 and Biomphalaria peregrina (Orbigny, 1835, respectively.

  11. Protandric hermaphroditism in the bivalve Arca noae (Mollusca: Arcidae

    G. BELLO


    Full Text Available Following the histological analysis of Arca noae samples from the south-western Adriatic Sea, five hermaphroditic specimens were found out of 168 sexed individuals (3.0%. The hermaphrodite gonads showed the co-occurrence of male and female germ cells within the same acini, i.e. both spermatozoa in the lumen and oogonia lining its wall. Oogonia increased in size through winter, thus suggesting that the direction of sex change is from male to female. Both the biometrical analyses and theoretical considerations strongly suggest that A. noae is an obligate protandric species.

  12. Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Peru (Mollusca: Basommatophora

    Paraense W Lobato


    Full Text Available In the course of several trips to Peru I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Biomphalaria andecola (Orbigny, 1835, B. helophila (Orbigny, 1835, B. pucaraensis (Preston, 1909, Drepanotrema limayanum (Lesson, 1830, D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835, and Lymnaea viatrix Orbigny, 1835, besides B. tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835, Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817, H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879, Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1801, and seemingly P. peruviana Gray, 1828. B. pucaraensis is considered a junior synonym of B. peregrina (Orbigny, 1835.

  13. Notes on a few Opisthobranch Mollusca from Surinam (Guianas)

    Nijssen-Meyer, J.


    The Opisthobranchs dealt with in this paper were entrusted to me by Dr. C. O. van Regteren Altena, Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, and belong to that museum. They are part of a large collection of marine molluscs from Surinam of which Dr. van Regteren Altena intends to publish an annot

  14. Morphological and molecular diversity of Unionidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia from Portugal

    Reis, J.


    Full Text Available Freshwater mussels from the family Unionidae are known to exhibit a high level of ecological phenotypic plasticity that is reflected in their shell shape. This variation has caused uncertainty on systematics and taxonomy of the group. Several naiad populations from nine river basins from Portugal were analyzed genetically, using two mitochondrial gene fragments (16SrRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I and morphologically, using ANOVA analyses of shell dimmensions. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were used to revise the systematics and to infer an evolutionary hypothesis for the family at the western-most Atlantic Iberian Peninsula. Genetic and morphological data were in agreement and supported the occurrence of 5 species in the region: Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Potomida littoralis, Unio tumidiformis and Unio delphinus. The differentiation of all these species, except A. cygnea, is thought to have taken place during the isolation of the Iberian Peninsula and formation of the current river basins in the Tertiary. The possibility of A. cygnea being a relatively recent introduction is discussed. Basic morphometric measures of the shell proved to be useful to separate Unio species, but also seem to be strongly affected by environmental conditions. The high intra-specific morphologic variation was partially related to the species’ high level of phenotypic plasticity, but seems to have an important role in evolutionary processes.Las náyades de la familia Unionidae tienen gran plasticidad fenotípica, lo que se refleja en la forma de su concha. Esta variabilidad morfológica ha sido causa de gran confusión en la taxonomía y sistemática del grupo. Se han estudiado, genética y morfológicamente, numerosas poblaciones de náyades provenientes de nueve cuencas hidrográficas portuguesas. Para ello se han analizando dos fragmentos de genes mitocondriales (ARNr 16S y Citocromo Oxidasa I así como diferentes variables morfológicas de la concha. Se han realizado además análisis filogenéticos para conocer la sistemática de la familia e inferir una hipótesis evolutiva de su distribución en el oeste de la península Ibérica. Los datos genéticos y morfológicos sugieren la existencia de cinco especies: Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Potomida littoralis, Unio tumidiformis y Unio delphinus. La diferenciación de estas especies, con la excepción de A. cygnea, ha ocurrido durante el aislamiento de la península Ibérica y posterior formación de las actuales cuencas hidrográficas en el Terciario. Se discute la posibilidad de que la presencia de A. cygnea se deba a una introducción reciente. Los datos morfométricos analizados pueden ser útiles para separar las especies del género Unio, pero son también dependientes de las condiciones ambientales. La elevada variabilidad morfológica dentro de cada especie está relacionada con su plasticidad fenotípica, pero tiene a su vez un importante papel en el proceso evolutivo.

  15. New records of opisthobranchs from Lakshadweep, India (Mollusca: Heterobranchia

    D. Apte


    Full Text Available All India Coordinated Project on Taxonomy (AICOPTAX, an initiative of Ministry of Environment and Forests allowed the authors to study opisthobranch fauna of the west coast of India. During the present study, nine species of opisthobranchs are reported for the first time from Lakshadweep of which six are new records to India.

  16. A new species of Anna (Mollusca: Neogastropoda: Buccinidae from Brazil

    José Coltro


    Full Text Available Anna capixaba, a new species found in depths of 45-60 m off the coast of the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, is herein described. The new species is mainly characterized by a teleoconch of 4.5 whorls, weakly demarcated from the protoconch; sculptured by rounded, prominent, narrowly-separated, spiral threads; outer lip with 5-6 teeth, posterior tooth stronger; columella with two plicae, smooth.

  17. Recharacterization of Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Strophocheilidae

    Meire Silva Pena


    Full Text Available Stropocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 is recharacterized by the conchology and morphology of the soft parts, the latter for the first time. Palial complex, reproductive and digestive systems provide important characteristics to enrich the knowledge of the genus Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. The presence of four arched folds in the posterior region of the pediose mass and the morphology of the suprapediose gland offered more data to identify and diagnose the species.Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 é recaracterizado pela conquiologia e pela primeira vez a morfologia das partes moles. Complexo palial, sistemas reprodutor e digestivo forneceram importantes caracteres para enriquecer o conhecimento sobre Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. A presençca de quatro pregas arqueadas na região posterior da massa cefalopediosa e a morfologia da glândula suprapediosa acrescentaram dados para a diagnose da espécie.

  18. Evaluation of the use of Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) and Hastula cinerea (Gastropoda, Terebridae) as TBT sentinels for sandy coastal habitats.

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Berenguel, Thayana Amorim; de Arruda, Noelle C L Patrício; del Matto, Lygia A; Amado, Lílian Lund; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Turra, Alexander


    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination is still recorded in the environment even after its ban in antifouling paints. Since most biomonitors of TBT contamination, through imposex evaluation, are hard-bottom gastropods, the identification of soft-bottom sentinels has become useful for regions where rocky shores and coral reefs are absent. Thus, an evaluation of Olivella minuta and Hastula cinerea as monitors of TBT contamination was performed in two sandy beaches located under influence area of São Sebastião harbor (São Paulo state, Brazil), where previous and simultaneous studies have reported environmental contamination by TBT. In addition, the imposex occurrence in H. cinerea was assessed in an area with low marine traffic (Una beach), also located in São Paulo State. A moderate imposex incidence in O. minuta was detected in Pernambuco (% I = 9.36, RPLI = 4.49 and RPLIstand = 4.27) and Barequeçaba (% I = 2.42, RPLI = 0.36 and RPLIstand = 0.81) beaches, indicating TBT contamination. In contrast, more severe levels of imposex were recorded for H. cinerea in Una beach (% I = 12.45) and mainly in Barequeçaba beach (% I = 98.92, RPLI = 26.65). Our results suggest that O. minuta and H. cinerea have good potential as biomonitors for TBT based on their wide geographical distribution, common occurrence in different coastal sediment habitats, easy collection, and association with TBT-contaminated sediments.

  19. Histologia das glândulas salivares dos Limacoidea e Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata Histology of the salivary glands of the Limacoidea and Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet


    Full Text Available The histology of the salivary glands of six species of Limacoidea, Boettgerilla pallens Simroth, 1912, Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774, Deroceras rodnae Grossu & Lupu, 1965, Malacolimax tenellus (Müller, 1774 and Lehmannia marginata (Müller, 1774, and a species of Milacidae, Tandonia budapestensis (Hazay, 1881 is comparatively described herein. In the glandular parenchyme four to five secretory cell types are distinguished and characterised, besides a cell type which is probably undifferentiated. The secretory cell types are classified into two groups, mucous and serous cells. Two types of mucous cells and two to three types of serous cells are distinguished. The salivary glands of the herein studied Limacoidea and Milacidae show a duct system composed of intralobular, interlobular and main ducts, each one presenting a characteristic type of epithelial lining. The results are comparatively discussed with the data available in the literature, in order to verify the correspondence between the different cell types described for other Pulmonata.

  20. Development of a new sediment bioassay with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia); Entwicklung eines Sedimentbiotests mit der Zwergdeckelschnecke Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)

    Duft, M.; Tillmann, M.; Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany). Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik; Schulte-Oehlmann, U.; Oehlmann, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zoologisches Inst.


    Currently, only few organismic biotest systems are available for the assessment of effects on reproduction, which consider an exposure toward whole sediments. A well-suited test organism is the parthenogenetic mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. This ovoviviparous prosobranch snail lives in the upper layers of freshwater and brackish sediments. The number of (unshelled) embryos turned out to be a very sensitive parameter for the indication of sediment components affecting reproduction. Additionally, this endpoint allows to signal possible estrogenic sediment compounds. With this 28-day bioassay, laboratory tests on the effects of various chemicals on P. antipodarum were performed, e.g. triphenyltin and bisphenol A, in relevant environmental concentration ranges. Furthermore, the suitability of our test system for the investigation of complex and multiple level ranged contaminations was examined by means of various natural sediments from the Neisse and Odra rivers. (orig.) [German] Derzeit bestehen nur wenige etablierte organismische Testverfahren zur Erfassung von reproduktionstoxischen Effekten, die eine Exposition gegenueber Gesamtsedimenten beruecksichtigen. Ein hierfuer gut geeigneter Testorganismus ist die parthenogenetische Zwergdeckelschnecke Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Sie gehoert zu den ovoviviparen (lebendgebaerenden) Prosobranchiern und lebt in den obersten Schichten von Suess- und Brackwassersedimenten. Als empfindlicher Parameter zur Indikation reproduktionstoxisch wirkender Sedimentkomponenten erwies sich die Anzahl der (neugebildeten) Embryonen im Brutraum - dieser Endpunkt vermag zudem auf eventuell vorhandene oestrogene Wirkstoffe im Sediment hinzuweisen. Mit Hilfe dieses 28 Tage umfassenden Biotests wurden in Laboruntersuchungen die Wirkungen verschiedener Umweltchemikalien, wie z.B. Triphenylzinn und Bisphenol A, auf P. antipodarum in umweltrelevanten Konzentrationsreihen getestet. Darueber hinaus wurde die Eignung des Biotests fuer die Ermittlung und Untersuchung der Wirkung komplexer Kontaminanten anhand von verschiedenen realen Flusssedimenten unterschiedlichen Belastungsgrades - aus Neisse und Oder - erprobt. (orig.)

  1. Tributyltin biomonitoring using prosobranchs as sentinel organisms

    Oehlmann, J. [International Graduate School Zittau, Chair of Environmental High Technology, Markt 23, D-02763 Zittau (Germany); Stroben, E. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Schulte-Oehlmann, U. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Bauer, B. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Fioroni, P. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Markert, B. [International Graduate School Zittau, Chair of Environmental High Technology, Markt 23, D-02763 Zittau (Germany)


    Tributyltin (TBT) compounds, some of the most toxic xenobiotics, produce a variety of pathological reactions in animals. A reliable biomonitoring method to assess the degree of environmental TBT pollution has been described based on investigations of virilization phenomena in prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Examples are the imposex phenomenon in marine and freshwater species, the intersex reaction in littorinids and the reduction of female sexual glands and offspring numbers in further species resulting mainly in a sterilization of females. The degree of imposex or intersex in populations is determined by different biomonitoring indices which allow to assess the TBT pollution of the environment at low costs with high precision. The effectiveness of TBT legislations is analysed by extensive surveys in France and Ireland indicating that there is still a continuing threat to sensitive marine organisms. TBT disturbs the biosynthesis of steroid hormones on the level of estrogen biosynthesis. The observed virilization phenomena seem due to an inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 dependent aromatase by this organotin compound. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  2. A neurophylogenetic approach provides new insight to the evolution of Scaphopoda.

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H; Schrödl, Michael; Lodde-Bensch, Eva; Lindberg, David R; Heß, Martin; Brennan, Gerard P; Sigwart, Julia D


    The position of scaphopods in molluscan phylogeny remains singularly contentious, with several sister relationships supported by morphological and phylogenomic data: Scaphopoda + Bivalvia (Diasoma), Scaphopoda + Cephalopoda (Variopoda), and Scaphopoda + Gastropoda. Nervous system architecture has contributed significant insights to reconstructing phylogeny in the Mollusca and other invertebrate groups, but a modern neurophylogenetic approach has not been applied to molluscs, hampered by a lack of clearly defined homologous characters that can be unequivocally compared across the radical body plan disparity among the living clades. We present the first three-dimensional reconstruction of the anterior nervous system of a scaphopod, Rhabdus rectius, using histological tomography. We also describe a new putative sensory organ, a paired and pigmented sensory mantle slit. This structure is restricted to our study species and not a general feature of scaphopods, but it forms an integral part of the description of the nervous system in R. rectius. It also highlights the potential utility of neuro-anatomical characters for multiple levels of phylogenetic inference beyond this study. This potential has not previously been exploited for the thorny problem of molluscan phylogeny. The neuroanatomy of scaphopods demonstrates a highly derived architecture that shares a number of key characters with the cephalopod nervous system, and supports a Scaphopoda + Cephalopoda grouping.

  3. Dynamic energy budget as a basis to model population-level effects of zinc-spiked sediments in the gastropod Valvata piscinalis.

    Ducrot, Virginie; Péry, Alexandre R R; Mons, Raphaël; Quéau, Hervé; Charles, Sandrine; Garric, Jeanne


    This paper presents original toxicity test designs and mathematical models that may be used to assess the deleterious effects of toxicants on Valvata piscinalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Results obtained for zinc, used as a reference toxicant, are presented. The feeding behavior, juvenile survival, growth, age at puberty, onset of reproduction, number of breedings during the life cycle, and fecundity were significantly altered when the snails were exposed to zinc-spiked sediments. Dynamic energy budget models (DEBtox) adequately predicted the effects of zinc on the V. piscinalis life cycle. They also provided estimates for lifecycle parameters that were used to parameterize a demographic model, based on a Z-transformed life-cycle graph. The effect threshold for the population growth rate (lambda) was estimated at 259 mg/kg dry sediment of zinc, showing that significant changes in abundance may occur at environmental concentrations. Significant effects occurring just above this threshold value were mainly caused by the severe impairment of reproductive endpoints. Sensitivity analysis showed that the value of lambda depended mainly on the juvenile survival rate. The impairment of this latter parameter may result in extinction of V. piscinalis. Finally, the present study highlights advantages of the proposed modeling approach in V. piscinalis and possible transfer to other test species and contaminants.

  4. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

    Rodrigo B. Ferreira


    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  5. Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements

    Zardoya Rafael


    . dolabrata nor Pulmonata (polyphyletic nor Opisthobranchia (because of the inclusion S. pectinata were recovered as monophyletic groups. The gene order of the Vetigastropoda might represent the ancestral mitochondrial gene order for Gastropoda and we propose that at least three major rearrangements have taken place in the evolution of gastropods: one in the ancestor of Caenogastropoda, another in the ancestor of Patellogastropoda, and one more in the ancestor of Heterobranchia.

  6. Functional chloroplasts in metazoan cells - a unique evolutionary strategy in animal life

    Krug Patrick J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among metazoans, retention of functional diet-derived chloroplasts (kleptoplasty is known only from the sea slug taxon Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia. Intracellular maintenance of plastids in the slug's digestive epithelium has long attracted interest given its implications for understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis. However, photosynthetic ability varies widely among sacoglossans; some species have no plastid retention while others survive for months solely on photosynthesis. We present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sacoglossa and a survey of kleptoplasty from representatives of all major clades. We sought to quantify variation in photosynthetic ability among lineages, identify phylogenetic origins of plastid retention, and assess whether kleptoplasty was a key character in the radiation of the Sacoglossa. Results Three levels of photosynthetic activity were detected: (1 no functional retention; (2 short-term retention lasting about one week; and (3 long-term retention for over a month. Phylogenetic analysis of one nuclear and two mitochondrial loci revealed reciprocal monophyly of the shelled Oxynoacea and shell-less Plakobranchacea, the latter comprising a monophyletic Plakobranchoidea and paraphyletic Limapontioidea. Only species in the Plakobranchoidea expressed short- or long-term kleptoplasty, most belonging to a speciose clade of slugs bearing parapodia (lateral flaps covering the dorsum. Bayesian ancestral character state reconstructions indicated that functional short-term retention arose once in the last common ancestor of Plakobranchoidea, and independently evolved into long-term retention in four derived species. Conclusion We propose a sequential progression from short- to long-term kleptoplasty, with different adaptations involved in each step. Short-term kleptoplasty likely arose as a deficiency in plastid digestion, yielding additional energy via the release of fixed carbon

  7. Milax Clerxi nov. spec., eine neue Nacktschnecke aus Südjugoslawien (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Milacidae)

    Rähle, W.


    Durch das Entgegenkommen von Herrn Dr. C. O. van Regteren Altena, Leiden, erhielt der Verfasser eine Serie juveniler, fast erwachsener und erwachsener Nacktschnecken aus der Gattung Milax zur Bearbeitung, welche aus der Umgebung der Stadt Ohrid in Mazedonien stammen und dort im Sommer 1974 von Drs.

  8. Pseudo-imposex: male features in female volutes not TBT-induced (Gastropoda: Volutidae)

    Swennen, C.; Horpet, P.


    The occurrence of a penis in female gastropods of the superfamily Muricoidea (infraorder Neogastropoda) has commonly been accepted as an indicator of tributyltin (TBT) pollution. Some species seem less sensitive than others, and one belonging to the family Columbellidae has been reported that it lac

  9. Molecular identification of Austrobilharzia species parasitizing Cerithidea cingulata (Gastropoda: Potamididae) from Kuwait Bay.

    Al-Kandari, W Y; Al-Bustan, S A; Isaac, A M; George, B A; Chandy, B S


    Avian schistosomes belonging to the genus Austrobilharzia (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) are among the causative agents of cercarial dermatitis in humans. In this paper, ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to study schistosome cercariae from Kuwait Bay that have been identified morphologically as Austrobilharzia sp. Sequence comparison of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 28S and 18S regions of the collected schistosome cercariae with corresponding sequences of other schistosomes in GenBank revealed high sequence similarity. This confirmed the morphological identification of schistosome cercariae from Kuwait Bay as belonging to the genus Austrobilharzia. The finding was further supported by the phylogenetic tree that was constructed based on the combined data set 18S-28S-mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCO1) sequences in which Austrobilharzia sp. clustered with A. terrigalensis and A. variglandis. Sequence comparison of the Austrobilharzia sp. from Kuwait Bay with A. variglandis and A. terrigalensis based on mtCO1 showed a variation of 10% and 11%, respectively. Since the sequence variation in the mtCO1 was within the interspecific range among trematodes, it seems that the Austrobilharzia species from Kuwait Bay is different from the two species reported in GenBank, A. terrigalensis and A. variglandis.

  10. Not so sluggish: the success of the Felimare picta complex (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia crossing Atlantic biogeographic barriers

    Frederico Almada


    Full Text Available The molecular phylogeny of the Atlanto-Mediterranean species of the genus Felimare, particularly those attributed to the species F. picta, was inferred using two mitochondrial markers (16S and COI. A recent revision of the Chromodorididae clarified the taxonomic relationships at the family level redefining the genus Felimare. However, conflicting taxonomic classifications have been proposed for a restrict group of taxa with overlapping morphological characteristics and geographical distributions designated here as the Felimare picta complex. Three major groups were identified: one Mediterranean and amphi-Atlantic group; a western Atlantic group and a tropical eastern Atlantic group. F. picta forms a paraphyletic group since some subspecies are more closely related with taxa traditionaly classified as independent species (e.g. F. zebra than with other subspecies with allopatric distributions (e.g. F. picta picta and F. picta tema. Usually, nudibranchs have adhesive demersal eggs, short planktonic larval phases and low mobility as adults unless rafting on floating materials occurs. Surprisingly however, the phylogeny of the F. picta complex suggests that they successfully cross main Atlantic biogeographic barriers including the mid-Atlantic barrier. This ability to cross different biogeographic barriers may be related to F. picta’s distinct life history and ecological traits. Compared to other Chromodorididae F. picta has larger eggs and planktotrophic larvae which could be related to a longer planktonic phase.

  11. A new species of Nassarius (Gastropoda: Nassariidae) from the western Pacific Ocean

    ZHANG Suping


    This paper describes a new species of Nassarius from the South China Sea,which was recognized when re-sorting the collection of Nassariidae in the Marine Biological Museum,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao,China.The shells were collected during several investigations,including the National Comprehensive Oceanic Survey in 1958-1959,and the China-Vietnam Co-Investigation on Marine Resource of the Beibu Gulf during 1959-1962.The morphology of the shell and the radula places the new species of Nassarius within the subgenus Zeuxis.It is named Nassarius (Zeuxis) nanhaiensis sp.nov.

  12. Gymnodoris pattani, a new dorid nudibranch from Pattani Bay, Gulf of Thailand (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    Swennen, C.


    Several specimens of a new dorid nudibranch have been found in Yaring River, Pattani Province in southern Thailand. The species clearly belongs to the genus Gymnodoris, and is described and named G. pattani. It can be distinguished from all other species described in the genus by its translucently g

  13. Sense organs in Spongiobranchaea australis d’Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda, Pteropoda)

    Spoel, van der S.


    The sense organs: the labial tentacles, eyes, rhinophores, osphradium and statocysts of Spongiobranchaea australis d’Orbigny, 1835 are described together with their innervation. The descriptions are based on serial sections of three animals.

  14. Chondrina tatrica Ložek, 1948: new species for the Romanian fauna (Gastropoda: Chondrinidae

    Roland Farkas


    Full Text Available Chondrina tatrica Ložek, 1948 is reported for the first time for Romania. The species was thought to be endemic to the Western Carpathian Mountains. The Romanian locality (Boga valley, Bihor County is situated approximately 260 km from the nearest known site of the species in a straight line. The zoogeographical significance of this finding and the possible route of the ancestors of C. tatrica to the Carpathians is discussed.

  15. Diversity of Edible Mollusc (Gastropoda and Bivalvia at Selected Divison of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Hadi Hamli


    Full Text Available Diversity of edible mollusc was studied at eight divisions of Sarawak from August 2010 to May 2011. At each division, diversity and number of species were collected from road site selling out lets and local wet markets. Total number of mollusc was comprised of 29 species namely  Solen regularies, S. lamarckii,  Pharella acutidens, Anadara granosa, Pholas orientalis, Gluconome virens, Circe scripta, Anodonta woodina, Paphia undulata, Amusium pleuronectes, Meretrix meretrix, M. lyrata, Polymesoda bengalensis, P. erosa and P. expansa  for bivalve and  Cerithidea rizophorarum, C. obtusa, Telescopium telescopium, Clithon retropictus, Nerita articulate, N. chamaeleon, N. albicilla, Ellobium aurisjuda, Trochus radiates, Planaxis sulcatus, Monodonta labio, Turbo crasus, Thais aculate  and Melo melo  for gastropod. The species number of bivalve was recorded highest (15 species in mollusc group from Sarawak. Mollusc diversity was found highest (14 species in Bintulu and lowest (1 species in the division of Sarikei. From this study, there is a wide chance of research to further explore both on the possibility of commercial value and ecosystem conservation.

  16. Perotrochus caledonicus (Gastropoda: Pleurotomariidae revisited: descriptions of new species from the South-West Pacific

    Patrick Anseeuw


    Full Text Available Morphological (shell and molecular examination of a large suite of specimens of pleurotomariids from around New Caledonia and the Coral Sea reveals the existence of four species in the complex of Perotrochus caledonicus: Perotrochus deforgesi Métivier, 1990 and P. pseudogranulosus sp. nov. live allopatrically on the plateaus and guyots of the Coral Sea; Perotrochus caledonicus Bouchet & Métivier, 1982 and Perotrochus wareni sp. nov. live sympatrically - but essentially not syntopically - on the slopes of New Caledonia, Norfolk Ridge and the Loyalty Ridge. All species live in the 300–500 m interval, and together form a significant component of the mollusc fauna living on hard bottoms in the SW Pacific, with individual dredge hauls containing up to 25 specimens of Perotrochus.

  17. New taxa of terrestrial molluscs from Turkey (Gastropoda, Pristilomatidae, Enidae, Hygromiidae, Helicidae

    Burçin Gümüs


    Full Text Available This paper reports on results of several collecting trips of the authors in Turkey. In the course of this research, a long-lasting question was addressed. It could be proven that the nominal species Bulimus frivaldskyi L. Pfeiffer, 1847 is closely related to Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, and thus this species is shifted from the genus Ena Turton, 1831, to the genus Meijeriella Bank, 1985. Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, could be recorded from Turkey for the first time. The nomenclatural situation of the species Euchondrus septemdentatus (Roth, 1839 vs. its replacement name Euchondrus borealis (Mousson, 1874 is discussed. A new arrangement of the species formely comprised in the genus Zebrina Held, 1837 is presented, and the genera Rhabdoena Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1902, and Leucomastus A. Wagner, 1927 are re-established. The following species and subspecies new to science could be described: Vitrea gostelii sp. n. (Pristilomatidae, Turanena demirsoyi sp. n., Euchondrus paucidentatus sp. n., Rhabdoena gostelii sp. n. (all Enidae, Metafruticicola kizildagensis sp. n. (Hygromiidae, and Assyriella thospitis menkhorsti ssp. n. (Helicidae. For several other species, new distribution records are listed.

  18. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

    Barna Páll-Gergely


    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  19. Reversal of density dependence of juvenile Littorina littorea (Gastropoda) growth in response to periphyton nutrient status

    Sommer, Ulrich


    Experimental periphyton communities were grown in aquaria receiving media of differently enriched seawater (fully enriched, without Si enrichment, without N and P enrichment) and supplied differently with medium (batch and weekly replacement). Periphyton was subject to grazing by 1-6 individuals of juvenile Littorina littorea. Periphyton biomass was higher in the replacement aquaria than in the batch aquaria and higher in the full and the -Si medium than in the -NP medium. The N:C ratio of the periphyton increased with Littorina number in the batch aquaria and was unaffected by Littorina number in the replacement aquaria. Diatoms were most dominant in the -NP treatments and rarest in the -Si treatments. Chlorophytes were dominant in the -Si and the fully enriched treatments, but also Cyanobacteria contributed significantly to periphyton biomass in those treatments under nutrient replacement. Somatic growth of Littorina was negatively correlated to Littorina density in the replacement aquaria and positively density dependent in the batch aquaria. The latter is explained by improved food quality under stronger grazing pressure.

  20. [Inheritance of the background shell color in the snails Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Littorinidae)].

    Kozminsky, E V


    We investigated in a gastropod mollusk Littorina obtusata (L. obtusata) the inheritance of background shell coloration of the shell, which arises on the basis of three pigments: purple, orange, and yellow. We found that the hypothesis on polyallelic inheritance, as in the genus Cepaea, cannot explain the inheritance of shell color in periwinkles. We demonstrated that a separate genetic system is responsible for incorporation of each pigment into the shell. The composition of these genetic systems includes at least tw genes each in the case of the yellow and purple pigments. Our analysis shows that caution should be applied when extending the results obtained in the studies of the Cepaea genus to the other species of gastropods.

  1. Rediae of echinostomatid and heterophyid trematodes suppress phagocytosis of haemocytes in Littorina littorea (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia).

    Iakovleva, Nadya V; Shaposhnikova, Tania G; Gorbushin, Alexander M


    A modulation of the phagocytic activity of hemocytes from the common periwinkle Littorina littorea by secretory-excretory products (SEP) released by trematode rediae during axenic in vitro cultivation was studied. The SEP released by the parasites Himasthla elongata (Echinostomatidae) and Cryptocotyle lingua (Heterophyidae) were found to inhibit the phagocytosis of zymozan particles by periwinkle hemocytes. The specificity of SEP effects was assessed: SEP of Himasthla militaris and Cryptocotyle concavum, two trematodes belonging to the same genera but infecting another closely related prosobranch snail Hydrobia ulvae, were also shown to be able to suppress L. littorea hemocytes phagocytic activity. However, no decrease in phagocytosis rate was observed when SEP of H. elongata and C. lingua were applied to monolayers of hemocytes from the bivalve mollusc Mytilus edulis. SEP from H. elongata was fractionated; only those fractions containing proteins of molecular weight more than 50 kDa were shown to possess inhibitory activity. Different H. elongata SEP concentrations were tested in for their ability to suppress phagocytosis by L. littorea hemocytes. Even very low SEP concentrations were shown to retain their ability to decrease phagocytosis rate, the inhibitory effect being dose-dependent. Hemocytes derived from snails naturally infected with H. elongata were also found to have lower phagocytic ability as compared to healthy individuals.

  2. [Inheritance of longitudinal shell bands in the snails Littorina obtusata and Littorina saxatilis (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)].

    Kozminskiĭ, E V


    The hypothesis of a monogenic inheritance of dark longitudinal bands on the shell in the gastropods Littorina obtusata and L. saxatilis was checked. One gene having two alleles proved to be responsible for the shell banding pattern in both of the species. The presence of bands was a dominant character in either case.

  3. [Inheritance of white spots on the shell of Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)].

    Kozminskiĭ, E V; Lezin, P A; Fokin, M V


    The hypothesis on monogenic inheritance of white spot pattern on the shell of the gastropod snail Littorina obtusata was tested. Although in most cases our results did not contradict this assumption, the hypothesis cannot explain the observed segregation in general. An alternative hypothesis was suggested, according to which the presence of spot pattern is controlled by two complementary biallelic genes.

  4. Not all spotted cats are leopards: evidence for a Hemilienardia ocellata species complex (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Raphitomidae

    Alexander E. Fedosov


    Full Text Available The small conoidean Hemilienardia ocellata is one of the easily recognizable Indo-Pacific “turrids”, primarily because of its remarkable eyespot colour pattern. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed four species that share this “characteristic” colour pattern but demonstrate consistent differences in size and shell proportions. Three new species – Hemilienardia acinonyx sp. nov. from the Philippines, H. lynx sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea and H. pardus sp. nov. from the Society and Loyalty Islands – are described based on the results of phylogenetic analyses. Although the H. ocellata species complex clade falls in a monophyletic Hemilienardia, H. ocellata and H. acinonyx sp. nov. possess a radula with semi-enrolled or notably flattened triangular marginal teeth, a condition that diverges substantially from the standard radular morphology of Hemilienardia and other raphitomids.

  5. First record of Calma gobioophaga Calado and Urgorri, 2002 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia in the Mediterranean Sea

    J. PRKIC


    Full Text Available Specimens of the nudibranch genus Calma were observed under stones at two Croatian localities while feeding on gobiid eggs. Some ambiguous morphological features compared with the original descriptions of the known species of the genus, C. glaucoides and C. gobioophaga, hampered an easy identification. Genetic data (COI and 16S sequences confirmed the distinction between the two species of the genus Calma, and allowed to unambiguously identify the Croatian specimens as Calma gobioophaga. This is the first record of this species for the Mediterranean and extends remarkably its distribution range. Finally, the eggs fed by the Croatian specimens have been taxonomically identified by using the 12S rDNA marker as Gobius cobitis.

  6. A revision of the Neogene Conidae and Conorbidae (Gastropoda) of the Paratethys Sea.

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Landau, Bernard


    The Miocene Conidae and Conorbidae of the central- and south-eastern European Paratethys Sea are revised. In total, 74 species are described of which 10 are new species and 5 are documented for the first time from Paratethyan localities. Species descriptions and delimitations are partly based on morphometric data. In addition, colour patterns are described for the first time for the majority of species. In respect to the ongoing discussion on the supraspecific treatment of extant Conidae, we strongly focus on generic allocations and provide a key for the genera as understood herein. Biogeographically, the larger part of the assemblage indicates affiliation with modern western African faunas as indicated by the occurrence of genera such as Lautoconus, Kalloconus, Monteiroconus and Pseudonoduloconus. The relationship with Indo-West Pacific faunas is comparatively low. The high alpha-diversities observed for localities in the Pannonian, Transylvanian and Vienna basins, with up to 44 species, is a marker of tropical conditions in the Paratethys Sea during middle Miocene times.        Conasprella minutissima nov. sp., Kalloconus hendricksi nov. sp., Kalloconus letkesensis nov. sp., Kalloconus pseudohungaricus nov. sp., Lautoconus kovacsi nov. sp., Lautoconus pestensis nov. sp., Lautoconus quaggaoides nov. sp., Leporiconus paratethyianus nov. sp., Plagioconus breitenbergeri nov. sp. and Plagioconus bellissimus nov. sp. are described as new species; Conilithes eichwaldi nov. nom. is proposed as new name for Conus exiguus Eichwald, 1830 [non Lamarck, 1810].

  7. A hitherto unnoticed adaptive radiation: epitoniid species (Gastropoda: Epitoniidae) associated with corals (Scleractinia)

    Gittenberger, A.; Gittenberger, E.


    Twenty-two epitoniid species that live associated with various hard coral species are described. Three genera, viz. Epidendrium gen. nov., Epifungium gen. nov., and Surrepifungium gen. nov., and ten species are introduced as new to science, viz. Epidendrium aureum spec. nov., E. sordidum spec. nov.,

  8. The first record of Anisus vorticulus (Troschel, 1834 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Croatia?

    Luboš Beran


    Full Text Available A threatened planorbid gastropod Anisus vorticulus (Troschel, 1834, listed in the EU Habitat Directive, was found in the Krka National Park in Croatia in August 2009. This find is the first known record at least in the western part of Croatia belonging to the Adriatic Sea drainage area.

  9. ESR dating of Soma (Manisa, West Anatolia - Turkey) fossil gastropoda shells

    Engin, Birol [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Kapan-Yesilyurt, Sevinc [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Department of Geological Engineering, Canakkale (Turkey); Taner, Gueler [Ankara University, Department of Geological Engineering, Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Demirtas, Hayruennisa [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Eken, Mahmut [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)


    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy technique has been employed to date the aragonitic fresh-water gastropod shells (Melanoides curvicosta) collected from Soma (Manisa) district (West Anatolia) of Turkey. The influence of the annealing temperature and {gamma}-radiation dose on dating signal at g = 2.0016 is investigated. The thermal stability and dose response of the ESR signals were found to be suitable for an age determination using a signal at g = 2.0016. The activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and mean-lifetime ({tau}) at 15 deg. C of the g = 2.0016 center were calculated to be 1.67 {+-} 0.01 eV (3.6 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup 13} s{sup -1} and 2.02 x 10{sup 8} years, respectively. The ESR signal growth curve on additional {gamma}-irradiation has been best fitted by an exponential saturation function. Based on this model, accumulated dose (AD) value for dating is obtained. We have determined the ESR age of the terrestrial gastropods to be 2.57 {+-} 0.30 Ma. The results show that the ESR age falls into the Late Pliocene (Romanian) epoch of the geological time scale, which agreed with the paleoecological and paleogeographic distribution and stratigraphic level of the fauna.

  10. Odontomariinae, a new middle paleozoic subfamily of slit-bearing euophaloidean gastropods (Euophalomorpha, Gastropoda)

    Fryda, J.; Heidelberger, D.; Blodgett, R.B.


    A new subfamily, the Odontomariinae subfam. nov., is established herein for a distinctive group of uncoiled, slit-bearing Middle Devonian euomphalid gastropods. Its taxonomic position is based on the recent discovery of open coiled protoconchs and it is placed within the Euomphalomorpha. The genera Odontomaria Odontomaria C. F. Roemer and Tubiconcha n. gen. belonging to this new subfamily are enlarged based on studies on new material of the following species: Odontomaria semiplicata (Sandberger & Sandberger), Odontomaria gracilis n. sp., Odontomaria jankei n. sp., Odontomaria cheeneetnukensis n. sp., Odontomaria cindiprellerae n. sp. and Tubiconcha leunissi (Heidelberger, 2001). Members of the Odontomariinae were mainly sedentary organisms in high-energy, moderately shallow water. ?? 2006 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  11. [Expression of genes encoding defense factors in the snail Planorbarius corneus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) infested with trematodes].

    Prokhorova, E E; Tsymbalenko, N V; Ataev, G L


    Because many species of gastropods are intermediate hosts for trematodes, these molluscs are often used as model-organisms in the studies of invertebrate immune system. Revealing of the ways in which the defense factors functioning became possible due to the use of the methods of molecular biology. Contemporary molecular methods allow analyzing the defense factors allocations and levels of their expression. We investigated the expression of genes encoding defense factors in gastropods by the example of the snail Planorbarius corneus from water bodies of the Leningrad Oblast under infestation with trematods. The snails naturally infested with the parthenites of trematode species belonging to the families Strigeidae, Notocotylidae, Plagiorchiidae, and Schistosomatida were used as the experimental sample. Uninfested snails were used as a control sample. Several genes encoding the factors, which have been recently found involved in the anti-trematode defense reactions in pulmonates, were chosen, namely fibrinogen-related protein, C-lectin, calcium-binding protein, and cystatin-like protein. The genes' expression was analyzed on total mRNA samples by the reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction. It was shown than expression levels of the genes under consideration are different in uninfested snails and in the snails infested with different trematode species. Thus, in the mollusks infested with the parthenites of Cotylurus sp. and Bilharziella polonica, the expression levels of the genes of all factors under study were increased, while in the infested Notocotylus sp. n Plagiorchis sp., only expression levels of C-lectin and cystatin-like protein were increased. Results of the expression analysis confirm the role of hemocytes and cells of hepatopancreas in the production of humoral defense factors. In the snails infested with trematodes, the expression levels of C-lectin and calcium-binding protein genes are increased in haemocytes, while the genes of fibrinogen-related and cystatin-like proteins are activated in the hepatopancreas. Our data also confirm the role of the factors examined in the anti-trematode defense reactions in pulmonates.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of the Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Panpulmonata) supports independent terrestrial invasions.

    Romero, Pedro E; Pfenninger, Markus; Kano, Yasunori; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette


    Gastropods of the family Ellobiidae are an interesting group in which to study transitions from intertidal to terrestrial realms. However, the phylogenetic relationships within this family still lack resolution. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis of the Ellobiidae based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylograms. We used nuclear (18S, 28S, H3) and mitochondrial (16S, 12S, COI) data, increasing the numbers of markers and data, and making this the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of the family to date. Our results support phylogenetic hypotheses derived from morphological data, and provide a supported framework to evaluate the internal relationships within Ellobiidae. The resulting phylogenetic trees support the previous hypothesis that the Ellobiidae are monophyletic only if the Trimusculinae (Otina, Smeagol and Trimusculus) are considered part of this family. In addition, we found that the Carychiinae, Ellobiinae and Pythiinae are reciprocally monophyletic and closely related, with the Carychiinae as sister group to Ellobiinae. Relationships within Melampodinae and Pedipedinae and their phylogenetic positions remain unresolved. Land invasion by the Ellobiidae occurred independently in Carychiinae and Pythia during different geological times (Mesozoic and Cenozoic, respectively). Diversification in the family does not appear to be related to past climate and biotic changes, neither the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary nor the lowering of the sea level in the Oligocene.

  13. Two problematic, troglophilous gastropods from the Peloponnese, Greece (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Zonitidae)

    Gittenberger, E.


    Two species of pulmonate gastropods are described as new to science although their generic classification remains uncertain since only shells are available for study. The species might be troglodytes. Their shells indicate the presence of subterraneous material.

  14. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda

    Ivailo Dedov


    Full Text Available We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  15. Transcriptome analysis in Concholepas concholepas (Gastropoda, Muricidae): mining and characterization of new genomic and molecular markers.

    Cárdenas, Leyla; Sánchez, Roland; Gomez, Daniela; Fuenzalida, Gonzalo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristián; Tanguy, Arnaud


    The marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, locally known as the "loco", is the main target species of the benthonic Chilean fisheries. Genetic and genomic tools are necessary to study the genome of this species in order to understand the molecular basis of its development, growth, and other key traits to improve the management strategies and to identify local adaptation to prevent loss of biodiversity. Here, we use pyrosequencing technologies to generate the first transcriptomic database from adult specimens of the loco. After trimming, a total of 140,756 Expressed Sequence Tag sequences were achieved. Clustering and assembly analysis identified 19,219 contigs and 105,435 singleton sequences. BlastN analysis showed a significant identity with Expressed Sequence Tags of different gastropod species available in public databases. Similarly, BlastX results showed that only 895 out of the total 124,654 had significant hits and may represent novel genes for marine gastropods. From this database, simple sequence repeat motifs were also identified and a total of 38 primer pairs were designed and tested to assess their potential as informative markers and to investigate their cross-species amplification in different related gastropod species. This dataset represents the first publicly available 454 data for a marine gastropod endemic to the southeastern Pacific coast, providing a valuable transcriptomic resource for future efforts of gene discovery and development of functional markers in other marine gastropods.

  16. Terrestrial gastropods of Srebarna Nature Reserve, North-Eastern Bulgaria (Gastropoda).

    Dedov, Ivailo; Antonova, Vera


    We give the results from the first investigation focused on the land snail fauna in Srebarna Nature Reserve in Bulgaria. A total of 23 localities were studied and 27 species of terrestrial gastropods were found, 23 of which were new observations for the Reserve.

  17. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea).

    Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Burridge, Alice K; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A


    The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and atlantids are likely to be useful indicators of these changes. However, we still lack fundamental information on their taxonomy and biogeography, which is essential for monitoring the effects of a changing ocean. Integrated morphological and molecular approaches to taxonomy have been employed to improve the assessment of species boundaries, which give a more accurate picture of species distributions. Here a new species of atlantid heteropod is described based on shell morphology, DNA barcoding of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene, and biogeography. All specimens of Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. were collected from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans suggesting that this species has a very narrow latitudinal distribution (37-48°S). Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. was found to be relatively abundant (up to 2.3 specimens per 1000 m(3) water) within this narrow latitudinal range, implying that this species has adapted to the specific conditions of the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone and has a high tolerance to the varying ocean parameters in this region.

  18. Recent history of the European Nassarius nitidus (Gastropoda) : phylogeographic evidence of glacial refugia and colonization pathways

    Albaina, Naiara; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Couceiro, Lucia; Miguel Ruiz, Jose; Barreiro, Rodolfo


    Because marine species respond differentially to factors governing survival and gene flow, closely related taxa may display dissimilar phylogeographic histories. New data for the patchily distributed gastropod Nassarius nitidus throughout its Atlantic-Mediterranean range (collected during 2008 and 2

  19. Systematics and Distribution of Siphocypraea mus and Propustularia surinamensis (Gastropoda, Cypraeidae)

    Coomans, H.E.


    The systematic place of “Cypraea” mus Linné is discussed, and it is concluded that the species belongs in Siphocypraea (Akleistostoma). The “varieties” tuberculata Gray and bicornis Sowerby should be withdrawn; they are only forms with callosities. Callus formations are often found in Cypraeidae. Th

  20. A new Deroceras species from North_Western spain (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae)

    Winter, de A.J.


    Deroceras ercinae spec. nov. is described from the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain. The characters used to define the subgenera of Deroceras are discussed. It is demonstrated that the present subdivision of this genus into subgenera is not based on synapomorphic characters.

  1. Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes in the Hepatopancreas of Bellamya aeruginosa (Gastropoda Fed with Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Jinyong Zhu


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate ultrastructural alterations and biochemical responses in the hepatopancreas of the freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa after exposure to two treatments: toxic cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa and toxic cyanobacterial cells mixed with a non-toxic green alga (Scendesmus quadricauda for a period of 15 days of intoxication, followed by a 15-day detoxification period. The toxic algal suspension induced a very pronounced increase of the activities of acid phosphatases, alkaline phosphatases and glutathione S-transferases (ACP, ALP and GST in the liver at the later stage of intoxication. During the depuration, enzymatic activity tended to return to the levels close to those in the control. The activity of GST displayed the most pronounced response among different algal suspensions. Severe cytoplasmic vacuolization, condensation and deformation of nucleus, dilation and myeloid-like in mitochondria, disruption of rough endoplasmic reticulum, proliferation of lysosome, telolysosomes and apoptotic body were observed in the tissues. All cellular organelles began recovery after the snails were transferred to the S. quadricauda. The occurrence of a large amount of activated lysosomes and heterolysosomes and augment in activity of detoxification enzyme GST might be an adaptive mechanism to eliminate or lessen cell damage caused by hepatotoxicity to B. aeruginosa.

  2. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria


    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants.

  3. Notes on Rivomarginella electrum (Reeve, 1865) from Lampung, South Sumatra (Gastropoda, Marginellidae)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz; Coomans, Henry E.


    Specimens of the freshwater marginellid Rivomarginella electrum (Reeve) were collected in South Sumatra. The erroneous spelling of the type locality is corrected into Lake Jepara. The animal, radula and ecology are described for the first time; living specimens were observed in an aquarium. The spec

  4. Four marine digenean parasites of Austrolittorina spp. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in New Zealand: morphological and molecular data.

    O'Dwyer, Katie; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Poulin, Robert; Faltýnková, Anna


    Littorinid snails are one particular group of gastropods identified as important intermediate hosts for a wide range of digenean parasite species, at least throughout the Northern Hemisphere. However nothing is known of trematode species infecting these snails in the Southern Hemisphere. This study is the first attempt at cataloguing the digenean parasites infecting littorinids in New Zealand. Examination of over 5,000 individuals of two species of the genus Austrolittorina Rosewater, A. cincta Quoy & Gaimard and A. antipodum Philippi, from intertidal rocky shores, revealed infections with four digenean species representative of a diverse range of families: Philophthalmidae Looss, 1899, Notocotylidae Lühe, 1909, Renicolidae Dollfus, 1939 and Microphallidae Ward, 1901. This paper provides detailed morphological descriptions of the cercariae and intramolluscan stages of these parasites. Furthermore, partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) for varying numbers of isolates of each species were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out at the superfamily level and along with the morphological data were used to infer the generic affiliation of the species.

  5. A nomenclator of extant and fossil taxa of the Melanopsidae (Gastropoda, Cerithioidea).

    Neubauer, Thomas A


    This nomenclator provides details on all published names in the family-, genus-, and species-group, as well as for a few infrasubspecific names introduced for, or attributed to, the family Melanopsidae. It includes nomenclaturally valid names, as well as junior homonyms, junior objective synonyms, nomina nuda, common incorrect subsequent spellings, and as far as possible discussion on the current status in taxonomy. The catalogue encompasses three family-group names, 79 genus-group names, and 1381 species-group names. All of them are given in their original combination and spelling (except mandatory corrections requested by the Code), along with their original source. For each family- and genus-group name, the original classification and the type genus and type species, respectively, are given. Data provided for species-group taxa are type locality, type horizon (for fossil taxa), and type specimens, as far as available.

  6. Record of imposex in Cronia konkanensis (Gastropoda, Muricidae) from Indian waters

    VishwaKiran, Y.; Anil, A.C.

    -biocides into the North sea—an estimation. Deutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrite, 46, 355–364. Kelly, J. R., Rudnick, D. T., Dana-Morton, R., Buttel, L. A., Levine, S. N., & Carr, K. A. (1990). Tri- butyltin and invertebrates of a seagrass ecosystem: exposure and response...

  7. Freshwater snail Pomacea bridgesii (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae, life history traits and aquaculture potential

    Ana R. A. Coelho


    Full Text Available Investigations on the reproductive biology, life cycle and feeding habits of Pomacea bridgesiihave been undertaken to assess its potential as a cultured species for the ornamental trade. The speciesis dioecious and, under optimal culture conditions of temperature and food supply, it can breed all yearround. The total developmental period at 23±1ºC varied from 15 to 24 days after oviposition. Hatchingcan last for up to 20 hours in the same egg cluster. Hatching success was very high (mean94.56±0.62% and no significant differences were observed in hatching rates between different clutchsizes. Development is direct and juveniles hatch at shell length (SL = 2.4±0.25 mm. Maturity is reached192±1.5 days after hatching and at SL = 32.80±2.03 mm. Two feeding experiments were undertaken toassess the impact of food type on juvenile survival during the first 8 days post-hatching and subsequentgrowth until 90 days post-hatching. Compatibility between other fish and plants fresh-water aquariumspecies were performed. A combination of environmental tolerance, moderately amphibious behavior,fast growth, short development and hatching at an advanced stage, compatibility with other aquariumspecies (fishes or other invertebrates, and simple low cost diet, make P. bridgesii highly suitable forintensive culture for the ornamental trade.

  8. Population biology of the gastropod Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) on two sheltered beaches in southeastern Brazil

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Tardelli, Daniel Teixeira; Turra, Alexander


    The structure, dynamics and production of two populations of the olivid gastropod Olivella minuta were analyzed through monthly sampling from November 2009 through October 2011 on two sandy beaches, Pernambuco (very sheltered) and Barequeçaba (sheltered) in São Paulo state (23°48'S), southeastern Brazil. On both beaches, samples were taken along five transects established perpendicular to the waterline. Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated for both populations from monthly length-frequency distributions. The production and turnover ratios were determined using the mass-specific growth rate method. The population on the less-sheltered Barequeçaba Beach was less abundant (120.02 ± 22.60 ind m-1) than on Pernambuco Beach (3295.30 ± 504.86 ind m-1 (±SE)), which we attribute to the greater environmental stability of the latter. Conversely, the mean length, size of the largest individual, and body mass were higher at Barequeçaba than at Pernambuco. The significant differences in the growth of individuals and the mortality rate (Z) between the beaches suggest that density-dependent processes were operating at Pernambuco Beach. The production and P/B ratio at Pernambuco (12.12 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.91 year-1) were higher than at Barequeçaba (0.82 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.06 year-1). The difference in production can be attributed to the higher abundance on Pernambuco, while the higher P/B ratio resulted from the scarcity of smaller individuals in the intertidal zone of Barequeçaba. The P/B ratio estimated for the Pernambuco population is the highest found so far for sandy-beach gastropods. This study reinforces the theory that biological interactions are important regulators of sheltered sandy-beach populations. Future studies with multi-beach sampling are needed to better understand the life-history variations of O. minuta along gradients of degree of exposure of sandy beaches.

  9. Imposex in Olivancillaria vesica vesica (Gmelin (Gastropoda, Olividae from a Southeastern Brazilian sandy beach

    Carlos Henrique Soares Caetano


    Full Text Available Imposex, the development of male sex organs on the female, is registered and described for Olivancillaria vesica vesica (Gmelin, 1791 at Restinga da Marambaia beach, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

  10. Eine neue Deroceras-Art (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Agriolimacidae) von der Griechischen Insel Samos

    Rähle, W.


    Im Frühjahr 1982 sammelte Herr Jens Hemmen aus Wiesbaden (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) auf der Insel Samos zahlreiche Individuen einer noch unbekannten Deroceras-Art, die ihren anatomischen Merkmalen nach zur Untergattung Plathystimulus Wiktor, 1973 gehört. Die Tiere waren fast alle erwachsen und erm

  11. Ecomorphological Analyses of Marine Mollusks' Shell Thickness of Rapana venosa (VALENCIENNES, 1846 (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Igor P. Bondarev


    Full Text Available Shell thickness of Rapana venosa was investigated from ecologically different places of the Azov – Black Sea basin. In the formation of the shell thickness there are two major trends: thickening with age, and inversely proportional to the size of the thickening of even-aged individuals of the same population. Shell thickness formation was analyzed in connection with biotic and abiotic environmental factors of influence. R. venosa ontogeny is not conducive to the rapid succession newly acquired characters in local populations. The formation of a thick shell is mainly the individual response of bions to the environment. Individuals’ of the same type reaction is the cause of formation of specific conchological characters of separate populations or parts thereof. Mechanical impacts (e.g. damage by breaking predators and storm waves hitting on rocks have no significant effect on the increasing of thickness of shells. Comparative analysis of the thickness of the shell of R. venosa from areas with different salinity shows that the direct relationship between these parameters is absent. R. venosa is capable of forming its own salinity medium in the mantle cavity, which is different from the external environment. The main factor influencing the formation of a thick-walled shell is the amplitude of the temperature fluctuations in the locality. Shell thickness of R. venosa was considered as ecomorphological character in comparison with the same feature of shell-bearing mollusks from the World Ocean at different latitude zones. It is shown that high temperature gradient is one of the most important factors of forming a thick shell. The greatest show this intertidal species and ecomorphs of temperate and high latitudes, where the temperature gradients are most expressed.

  12. Well-known and little-known: miscellaneous notes on Peruvian Orthalicidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    Breure, A.S.H.; Mogollón Avila, V.


    The family Orthalicidae is well represented in Peru but, like in other families, some species are wellknown and others have not been reported on since their original descriptions. In this paper we present new records for well-known species and elucidate the status of several lesser known taxa. Four

  13. A new genus and species of Aclididae (Gastropoda) from off Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Warén, A.


    Dr. Manuel Carrillo Pèrez (Universidad de la Laguna) has sent some dredge-samples to the first author. This material contained many interesting molluscs, not mentioned by Nordsieck & Talavera (1979). Amongst them was a very peculiar gastropod species, which was difficult to identify. Based on some s

  14. Iron-encrusted diatoms and bacteria epibiotic on Hydrobia ulvae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)

    Gillan, D. C.; Cadée, G. C.


    Rust-coloured shells of the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae collected in the Wadden Sea near Texel and in the Jade Busen were analysed under the scanning electron microscope. Most of the shells were found to be covered with a microbial community encrusted with an iron-rich mineral containing traces of Mn, Mg, Ca and Si (EDAX analysis). The community formed a biofilm including two morphotypes of diatoms identified as Cocconeis placentula and Achnanthes lemmermanni, two morphotypes of slender filamentous bacteria resembling Leucothrix and Flexibacter, aggregates of coccoid cells and large trichomes resembling members of the cyanobacterial orders Pleurocapsales and Stigonematales, respectively. The most frequent microorganisms of the biofilm were diatoms and filamentous bacteria.

  15. [Effect of an altered magnetic field on the development of great ramshorn Planorbarius corneus (Gastropoda, Planorbidae)].

    Tsetlin, V V; Zotin, A A; Moĭsa, S S


    Effects of a 100-300-fold attenuated geomagnetic field on the embryonic development of great ramshorn Planorbarius corneus and water oxidation-reduction properties were studied in a hypomagnetic chamber. The hypomagnetic field was largely favorable to the P. corneus development. Specifically, teratogenic effects were less massive, i.e. embryos that had known no other environment but hypomagnetism were characterized by low death rate. The agility index grew in embryos on the stages of late veliger and post-metamorphosis. A sharp increase of the magnetic field to the normal strength resulted in rapid death of embryos and juvenile mollusks (virtually, their growth was arrested). Type of induction was dependent on adaptation of juvenile P. corneus to a magnetic field. Mollusks grown in the normal geomagnetic field would prefer the conditions with maximal induction, whereas mollusks developed in the hypomagnetic chamber, on the contrary, chose the conditions with minimal induction. The oxidation-reduction potential of water increased as magnetic induction attenuated pointing to a natural decline in internal energy of water molecules due, as we see it, to inhibition of the mollusk embryonic development.

  16. Limnaea peregrina Clessin, 1882, Synonym of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae

    W Lobato Paraense


    Full Text Available A description is given of the shell, radula, renal region, reproductive system and egg capsules of topotypic specimens of limnaea peregrina Clessin, 1882. This investigation intends contributing to define the specific identity of that nominal species. A close anatomical comparison with Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 from Michigan, USA, shows that both forms are indistinguishable, giving support to previous inferences from some authors. Data on egg hatching are presented.

  17. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

    Marcos G. Papp


    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  18. Linking immune patterns and life history shows two distinct defense strategies in land snails (gastropoda, pulmonata).

    Russo, Jacqueline; Madec, Luc


    Life history integration of the defense response was investigated at intra- and interspecific levels in land snails of the family Helicidae. Two hypotheses were tested: (i) fitness consequences of defense responses are closely related to life history traits such as size at maturity and life span; (ii) different pathways of the immune response based on "nonspecific" versus "specific" responses may reflect different defense options. Relevant immune responses to a challenge with E. coli were measured using the following variables: blood cell density, cellular or plasma antibacterial activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and bacterial growth inhibition. The results revealed that the largest snails did not exhibit the strongest immune response. Instead, body mass influenced the type of response in determining the appropriate strategy. Snails with a higher body mass at maturity had more robust plasma immune responses than snails with a lower mass, which had greater cell-mediated immune responses with a higher hemocyte density. In addition, ROS appeared also to be a stress mediator as attested by differences between sites and generations for the same species.

  19. Activity of the mangrove snail Cerithidea decollata (Gastropoda: Potamididae) in a warm temperate South African estuary

    Hodgson, Alan N.; Dickens, John


    A population of Cerithidea decollata, an intertidal marine gastropod usually found within mangroves, was studied within an area of Juncus kraussii in the upper reaches of the warm temperate Knysna estuary, which is at the southern-most limit of the recorded distribution of this snail. Activity (migratory and homing behaviour, distances travelled during foraging) of the snails was monitored over spring and neap tides in four seasons. Migratory patterns of the snails were affected by season, time of low tide (day vs night), tidal magnitude (spring vs neap) and zonation. In the summer and spring, a greater proportion of snails migrated from J. kraussii leaves onto the mud during the day at spring low tide. During neap tides in these two seasons, most snails did not climb J. kraussii leaves and remained on the mud, which was nearly always exposed. In autumn a few snails only were active and in winter snails were almost completely inactive, probably due to low air temperatures. Snails travelled greater distances on the mud on spring tides, during the diurnal low tides, and in the summer. No snails were found to home to individual J. kraussii leaves; however, homing behaviour was recorded to wooden poles within the Juncus wetland.

  20. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Boshoff, Magdalena, E-mail: [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Royal Museum for Central Africa (JEMU), Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Backeljau, Thierry [University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (JEMU), Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Tack, Filip [Ghent University, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 265, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Bart [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Burg van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); De Jonge, Maarten; Bervoets, Lieven [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)


    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the digestive gland and foot respectively). Our study emphasizes that background metal levels should be taken into account when using invertebrates as bioindicators of metal contamination and that bioindicators may show substantial differences in accumulation patterns even if they have a highly comparable ecology. - Highlights: ► Concentrations of accumulated metals differ among localities and between the snail species in the foot. ► Organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. ► Total metal concentrations and soil physicochemical properties alone are not enough to explain organ bioaccumulation.

  1. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea)

    Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Burridge, Alice K.; Peijnenburg, Katja T.C.A.


    Abstract The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and atlantids are likely to be useful indicators of these changes. However, we still lack fundamental information on their taxonomy and biogeography, which is essential for monitoring the effects of a changing ocean. Integrated morphological and molecular approaches to taxonomy have been employed to improve the assessment of species boundaries, which give a more accurate picture of species distributions. Here a new species of atlantid heteropod is described based on shell morphology, DNA barcoding of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene, and biogeography. All specimens of Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. were collected from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans suggesting that this species has a very narrow latitudinal distribution (37–48°S). Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. was found to be relatively abundant (up to 2.3 specimens per 1000 m3 water) within this narrow latitudinal range, implying that this species has adapted to the specific conditions of the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone and has a high tolerance to the varying ocean parameters in this region. PMID:27551204

  2. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    Aartsen, van J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.


    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia.

  3. Taxonomic review of Metaxia (Gastropoda: Triphoridae from Brazil, with description of a new species

    Maurício Romulo Fernandes


    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the species of Metaxia Monterosato, 1884 from Brazil is revised. Previously to this study, only Metaxia excelsa Faber & Moolenbeek, 1991 was known to occur in this country, under its older name Metaxia exilis (C.B. Adams, 1850. The review of a large amount of shells in malacological collections in Brazil revealed the occurrence of three known additional species: Metaxia taeniolata (Dall, 1889; Metaxia rugulosa (C.B. Adams, 1850; Metaxia prompta Rolán & Fernández-Garcés, 2008, all previously reported from the southeast coast of the USA and/or the Caribbean region. Metaxia gongyloskymnus sp. nov., diagnosed by the globose protoconch with continuous axial ribs and microscopic spiral sculpture, is restricted to localities off the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

  4. Two new species of Thaumastus (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Meire Silva Pena


    Full Text Available Two new species of Thaumastus (Thaumastus from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, are described. They are diagnosed and characterized by the morphology of the shell and soft parts and compared with Brazilian species of the subgenus Thaumastus s.s. Martens, 1860. Thaumastus (T. parvus sp. nov. is similar to T. (T. baixoguanduensis Pena, Coelho & Salgado, 1996 but can be distinguished by the smaller size, smaller number of plates in the jaw, different number of follicle groups in the ovotestis and form of the fertilization complex. Thaumastus (T. caetensis sp. nov. is similar to T. (T. largillierti (Philippi, 1845 but differs by the width and the contour of the parietal side of the shell aperture. T. (T. caetensis is also closer to Thaumastus (T. baixoguanduensis but can be distinguished by the smaller dimensions (height, width and number of protoconch whorls, the lack of a transversal light band on the body whorl, the jaw with smaller number of plates, and the radula with 35 teeth. In the soft parts, this new species differs also in the number of follicle gatherings in ovotestis, fertilization complex with globose shape, and penian retractor muscle terminally and laterally attached to flagellum

  5. Defensive allomones in three species ofHypselodoris (gastropoda: Nudibranchia) from the Cantabrian sea.

    Fontana, A; Avila, C; Martinez, E; Ortea, J; Trivellone, E; Cimino, G


    ThreeHypselodoris species,H. villafranca, H. cantabrica, and H. tricolor, have been studied in order to further investigate the defensive strategies of Chromodorididae mollusks from Iberian coasts. All animals possess large amounts of furanosesquiterpenoids, probably derived from their diet of sponges. The products are transferred and stored in specific sites of the mantle (mantle dermal formations, MDFs) to be used as chemical deterrents against predators. Chemical analysis of CantabrianHypselodoris species has led to the characterization of eight sesquiterpenoids. Among these, six have been found previously in both sponges and nudibranchs, while two are new natural products.Hypselodoris species cooccurring in the same area contained comparable mixtures of sesquiterpenoids. However, two populations ofH. cantabrica from different sites of the Cantabrian sea showed different metabolic patterns. All sesquiterpenoids induce feeding deterrence inCarassius auratus and two are also toxic toGambusia affinis.

  6. Not so sluggish: the success of the Felimare picta complex (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) crossing Atlantic biogeographic barriers.

    Almada, Frederico; Levy, André; Robalo, Joana I


    The molecular phylogeny of the Atlanto-Mediterranean species of the genus Felimare, particularly those attributed to the species F. picta, was inferred using two mitochondrial markers (16S and COI). A recent revision of the Chromodorididae clarified the taxonomic relationships at the family level redefining the genus Felimare. However, conflicting taxonomic classifications have been proposed for a restrict group of taxa with overlapping morphological characteristics and geographical distributions designated here as the Felimare picta complex. Three major groups were identified: one Mediterranean and amphi-Atlantic group; a western Atlantic group and a tropical eastern Atlantic group. F. picta forms a paraphyletic group since some subspecies are more closely related with taxa traditionaly classified as independent species (e.g. F. zebra) than with other subspecies with allopatric distributions (e.g. F. picta picta and F. picta tema). Usually, nudibranchs have adhesive demersal eggs, short planktonic larval phases and low mobility as adults unless rafting on floating materials occurs. Surprisingly however, the phylogeny of the F. picta complex suggests that they successfully cross main Atlantic biogeographic barriers including the mid-Atlantic barrier. This ability to cross different biogeographic barriers may be related to F. picta's distinct life history and ecological traits. Compared to other Chromodorididae F. picta has larger eggs and planktotrophic larvae which could be related to a longer planktonic phase.

  7. Not so sluggish : The success of the Felimare picta complex (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) crossing Atlantic biogeographic barriers


    The molecular phylogeny of the Atlanto-Mediterranean species of the genus Felimare, particularly those attributed to the species F. picta, was inferred using two mitochondrial markers (16S and COI). A recent revision of the Chromodorididae clarified the taxonomic relationships at the family level redefining the genus Felimare. However, conflicting taxonomic classifications have been proposed for a restrict group of taxa with overlapping morphological characteristics and geographical distribut...

  8. The invasive Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis (Gastropoda: Viviparidae expands its European range to Belgium

    Van den Neucker Tom


    Full Text Available In this paper we report the first Belgian records of the invasive Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis. A walkover-survey along the Laak, a small lowland river, yielded a total of 20 live B. chinensis. The presence of both juvenile and adult individuals, with a shell height ranging from 16.6 to 47.5 mm, indicates that the species is firmly established. The most probable source of introduction is a nearby garden center that specializes in ornamental fish and plants for garden ponds.

  9. Synonymy between Lymnaea bogotensis Pilsbry, 1935 and Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae

    Luz Elena Velásquez


    Full Text Available The lymneid snail Lymnaea bogotensis Pilsbry 1935 is synonymized with L. cousini Jousseaume 1887, based on morphological comparisons of the reproductive systems. The shell, renal tube, and reproductive system are described and illustrated from specimens collected in the type locality and the municipality of Paipa, Colombia. Bibliographical records reveal L. columella to be the commonest lymneid in the country. The latter two species can be differentiated based on the morphology of the penial complex.

  10. Delimitation and phylogenetics of the diverse land snail family Urocoptidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): A reunion with Cerion

    Uit de Weerd, Dennis R.


    The extreme morphological diversity in the land-snail family Urocoptidae has complicated its delimitation from other land-snail families, and has obscured its intra- and interfamilial phylogenetic relationships. Using an independent dataset of 28S rRNA DNA-sequence data, I tested morphologybased hyp

  11. A new species of Leiostracus from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicidae

    Rodrigo B. Salvador


    Full Text Available A remarkable new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small Atlantic Rainforest fragment near the city of Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil, an area known for a high diversity of land snails. It is described herein as Leiostracus fetidus sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its color pattern of irregular brown to black axial stripes on a white to yellow background, a reddish axial band "separating" the white peristome from the rest of the shell and a broad brown spiral band surrounding the umbilical region. Other diagnostic features include a relatively small size, a proto columellar fold and two very weak folds delimiting the basal region of the aperture. This discovery is a reminder of how little this fauna is known and also an alarm for proper conservation of these forest fragments.

  12. Belgrandiella bozidarcurcici n. sp., a new species from Bosnia and Herzegovina (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae

    Glöer P.


    Full Text Available A new hydrobiid snail, Belgrandiella bozidarcurcici n. sp., is described from the rheocrene and rheopsammocrene springs situated in the canyon of the Cvrcka River, a region of Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The concept of the genus Belgrandiella seems to be extremely artificial, but for the time being we keep the new species as a member of the genus based mainly on the shape of the shell of its type species, B. kusceri (Wagner, 1914.

  13. A new species of Leiostracus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicoidea from Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Rodrigo B. Salvador


    Full Text Available A remarkable new species of pulmonate land snail was found in the collection of the Senckenberg Forschungninstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt (Frankfurt am Main, Germany and is described here as Leiostracus faerie sp. nov. It can be easily identified by its small and translucent shell with fine axial light brown bands and its protoconch sculpture. It was collected in the Rio Doce ("Doce River" region in Espírito Santo, Brazil, an area known for a high diversity and endemicity of land snails. This discovery shows how little this fauna is known and reinforces the importance of museum collections in the study of biodiversity and conservation.




    Full Text Available A study of Potamididae snail from the mangrove ecosystem in Ujung Kulon National Park was conducted, regarding to its diversity, shell characters and habitat characters. This study was carried out in 2008 during drought and rainy season. At the eight stations observed, seven species and four genera of Potamididae snail were identified. Compared with previous study, this study added new information from obtaining one genus (Cerithidea of three species (Cerithidea weyersi, C. quadrata and Cerithideopsilla alata

  15. A new species of the operculate land snail genus Maizaniella from Liberia (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda)

    Winter, de A.J.


    Maizaniella sapoensis spec. nov. from Liberia is described. The species is provisionally att ributed to the subgenus Spirulozania. It is by far the smallest known member of the genus, with an adult shell diameter of just over 2 mm.

  16. Radix natalensis (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, a potential intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica in Egypt

    Dar Y.


    Full Text Available Experimental infections of Egyptian Radix natalensis with French miracidia of Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine if this snail might act as an intermediate host in the life cycle of this digenean in Egypt. Single exposures of R. natalensis to miracidia (2/snail and two successive exposures (a total of 4 miracidia/snail were performed using lymnaeids measuring 1 to 6 mm in height. Live larval forms of F. hepatica were noted in single- and double-exposed snails. In double exposures, a significant increase of snail survival on day 28 post-exposure (at 24 °C and an decrease in prevalence were noted when the height of snails at exposure was increasing. Cercariae of F. hepatica were shed by these snails (90.7/snail during a mean patent period of 24.3 days. All snails have released these cercariae during 2-13 waves of shedding. According to these results, R. natalensis can be considered a potential intermediate host of F. hepatica in Egypt.

  17. Examining the phylogeny of the Australasian Lymnaeidae (Heterobranchia: Pulmonata: Gastropoda) using mitochondrial, nuclear and morphological markers.

    Puslednik, Louise; Ponder, Winston F; Dowton, Mark; Davis, Andrew R


    We examined the species groups relationships of the freshwater snail genus Austropeplea using mitochondrial, nuclear and morphological markers in addition to traditional methods of shell shape analysis. Based primarily on the results of a combined molecular and morphological analysis, samples of the nominal species A. tomentosa form distinct lineages. The New Zealand populations of A. tomentosa are a very distinct lineage from any of the Australian populations attributed to A. tomentosa. Furthermore, within the Australian group, three lineages, south Australia, Tasmania and eastern Australia, appear to have undergone recent and/or rapid speciation events. Samples assigned to A. lessoni were resolved as two distinct lineages, representing the eastern and northern Australian populations. Kutikina hispida was resolved within the Australian A. tomentosa clade. Molecular results for A. viridis suggests that it is also composed of at least two distinct lineages that could be treated as species. Incongruence observed between the single mitochondrial, nuclear and morphological topologies highlight the importance of using a number of different datasets in the delimitation of species-group taxa.

  18. Distribucion arborea de los gastropodos cerithidea montagnei (mollusca potamidae y littorina Spp. (Mollusca, Littorinidae en el manglar de Mata de Limón, Costa Rica

    Édgar Suarez B


    Full Text Available En el manglar de Mata de Limón, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, se estudió la distribución y preferencia por el susbtrato arbóreo de gastrópodos C. montagnei y Littorina spp. en cuatro especies de mangle, según la cantidad de moluscos observados en cada árbol y la cantidad de árboles con presencia o ausencia de ellos, en el período de setiembre de 1982 a junio de 1983. El orden de preferencia mostrado por ambos grupos de moluscos fue: 1 Rhizophora mangle, 2 Avicennia germinans, 3Pelliciera rhizophorae y 4 Laguncularia racemosa. Se discuten las posibles razones de esta preferencia. Cerithidea montagnei presentó una mayor distribución horizontal, así como una mayor abundancia respecto de Littorina spp.

  19. Two new species of dicyemid (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from two Australian cephalopod species: Sepioteuthis australis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) and Sepioloidea lineolata (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Sepiadariidae).

    Catalano, Sarah R; Furuya, Hidetaka


    Two new species of dicyemid parasites from Dicyema are described from 2 species of Australian cephalopods, i.e., Dicyema calamaroceum n. sp. from Sepioteuthis australis Quoy and Gaimard, 1832 (southern calamary) collected from Spencer Gulf (SG) and Gulf St Vincent (GSV), South Australia (SA), Australia, and Dicyema pyjamaceum n. sp. from Sepioloidea lineolata Quoy and Gaimard, 1832 (striped pyjama squid), collected from SG, SA, Australia. Dicyema calamaroceum is a medium sized species that reaches approximately 2,400 μm in length. The vermiform stages are characterized by having 31-34 peripheral cells, a conical calotte, and an axial cell that extends to the propolar cells. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos, and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells; 2 nuclei are present in each urn cell, and the refringent bodies are solid. Dicyema pyjamaceum is smaller than D. calamaroceum, with a body length that reaches approximately 1,950 μm. The vermiform stages are characterized by having 20-23 peripheral cells, a cap-shaped calotte that forms a cephalic swelling together with the parapolar cells, and an axial cell that extends to the propolar cells. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos. Verruciform cells and granules in propolar cells were observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos consist of 37 cells; 2 nuclei are present in each urn cell, and the refringent bodies are solid. This represents the first description of dicyemid parasites from Australia.

  20. Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) on the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G; Santos, J J B


    The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil) between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 microm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE). By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4%) in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2%) in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles.

  1. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    José Espinosa


    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species for Cuba and Venezuela is discussed and some considerations about Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000 species complex are given.

  2. Ocorrência do bivalve exótico Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, no Brasil Occurrence of exotic bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, in Brazil

    José R. B. de Souza


    Full Text Available O molusco Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831, natural da América do Norte, foi localizado no litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, em 2004, trazido provavelmente por água de lastro de navios. Na região, sua distribuição atualmente abrange zonas estuarinas adjacentes ao Porto do Recife. Os organismos foram encontrados restritos à região entre-marés, formando agregados densos com até 176.800 ind./m².The mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831 is native to North America. It was found at Pernambuco Coast, northeastern Brazil, in 2004, probably brought by ships' ballast water. The distribution of this species has been now spread to estuarial area near Recife Harbour. They showed a clumped distribution with a maximum of 176,800 ind./m² only in the intertidal zone.

  3. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Gary E. Rodrick


    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  4. The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae, Pectinidae and Spondylidae)

    H.H. Dijkstra; B.A. Marshall


    The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region are reviewed. Eight new species are described from the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone: Parvamussium cancellorum, Cyclochlamys austrina, Cc. delli, Cc. irregularis, Cc. munida, Cc. pileolus, Cyclopecten fluctuosus, and Catillopecten tasmani. Nine

  5. An annotated list of the species of the genus Corbicula from Indonesia (Mollusca: Corbiculidae)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz


    The species of the genus Corbicula known from Indonesia are alphabetically listed and noted. Sixteen out of the 35 described species are considered valid, i.e. C. gustaviana, C. moltkiana, C. sumatrana, C. tobae and C. tumida from Sumatra; C. javanica, C. pulchella and C. rivalis from Java; C. bitru

  6. Food intake and growth in Macoma balthica (mollusca) in the laboratory

    Hummel, H.

    Groups of Macoma balthica were kept during 4-week periods in an experimental set up at a constant temperature and food concentration. Food concentrations (expressed in particulate organic carbon) for the different groups ranged from 0 to 16 mg C·I -1. The experiment was repeated 6 times, viz. in different months, and the temperatures were changed accordingly to correspond with levels found in the field. The rates of food intake, water clearance and growth were followed throughout the experiment. The flagellate Isochrysis galbana served as food. With increasing food concentration all 3 rates (food intake, water clearance and growth) increased up to maximum to decrease again at high food concentrations. Such bell-shaped relationships were observed in all seasons. The dependence of growth on food concentration was similar in all seasons. Zero growth or weight losses were observed at food concentrations below 1.3 mg C·I -1, and maximum growth rates were reached at food concentrations between 5 and 7 mg C·I -1. The daily maintenance ration amounted to about 1.2% of the body weight. Seasonal differences were observed in the relationships of the rates of both water clearance and food intake with food concentration. During the winter and spring the optimum curves for these relationships reached their maximum at food concentrations of 8 to 10 mg C·I -1. During summer and early autumn the optimum curves were shifted to lower food concentrations, around 2 to 4 mg C·I -1, probably as an adaptation to low food concentrations observed in the field during these periods.

  7. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk


    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  8. Relationship between bioenergetics responses and organic pollutants in the giant mussel, Choromytilus chorus (Mollusca: Mytilidae).

    Toro, Beatriz; Navarro, Jorge M; Palma-Fleming, Hernán


    Samples of Choromytilus chorus (giant mussel) were collected at three sampling stations exposed to different degrees of pollution along the south-central portion of the Chilean coast in spring 1998 and summer 1999. Measurements were carried out on clearance rate, absorption efficiency, and oxygen consumption of the mussels under controlled laboratory conditions, and related to analytical data on organic pollutants in their tissues. Scope for growth (SFG) was employed as a physiological index to evaluate stress produced by pollutants existing at each sampling site. Individuals from San Vicente bay (highly polluted) showed negative SFG values in spring (-4.6 J/h per g) and summer (-3.5 J/h per g). These results indicated severe stress related to the accumulation of toxic compounds in their tissues. Specimens from Corral bay (medium level of pollution) gave a SFG of 15.5 J/h per g in spring and 6.5 J/h per g in summer, while those from Yaldad bay (low pollution) presented an inverse situation was observed with SFG values of 6.2 J/h per g in spring which was lower than the summer value of 25.7 J/h per g. There was a significant negative correlation between the SFG of the different populations of C. chorus and the concentrations of organochlorines (OChs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their tissues.


    Passuni, G.


    Full Text Available Mercury is a metal very employed at industry and mining in Peru. The aim of current research was to determine embryotoxic lethal acute toxicity of Hg2+, in form of chloride of mercury (HgCl on 2 Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817 at 24 h exposure. Concentrations assayed were 514, 51.4, 5.14 and 0.51 ug Hg2+ L-1, since salt on base of HgCl using dechlorined water as diluents. Snail embryos 2 were considered dead when none rotation movement during since 30 seconds. Percentage of mortality of embryonic stages of H. trivolvis increased with each of concentrations crescents of Hg2+ at 24 h exposure. At a concentration of 514.4 ug Hg2+ L-1 was observed significantly differences in relation to control. Moreover, concentration of 514.4 ug Hg2+ L-1 showed differences with relation to other three treatments. LC was 2.49 ug Hg2+ L-1. Embryos of H. trivolvis were 50 higher sensible to Hg2+ in comparison to other freshwater snail species was concluded.

  10. Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) procured by the CANCAP I-VII expeditions, 1976-86

    Kaas, P.


    The 327 specimens of chitons captured during six out of seven CANCAP Expeditions have been examined. They belong to 26 species, including two recently described ones: Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) substriatus Kaas & Van Belle, 1990 and Ischnochiton (Ischnochiton nicklesi Kaas & Van Belle, 1990. Callistochiton pachylasmae (Di Monterosato, 1878) has been found off the coast of Morocco.

  11. Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) procured by the CANCAP I-VII expeditions, 1976-86

    Kaas, P.


    The 327 specimens of chitons captured during six out of seven CANCAP Expeditions have been examined. They belong to 26 species, including two recently described ones: Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) substriatus Kaas & Van Belle, 1990 and Ischnochiton (Ischnochiton nicklesi Kaas & Van Belle, 1990. Callisto

  12. Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana

    Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.


    The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

  13. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas;


    Combined electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry of the larvae of several polyplacophoran species (Chiton olivaceus, Lepidochitona aff. corrugata, Mopalia muscosa) revealed a sensory system new to science, a so-called "ampullary system." The cells of the "ampullary system" are arranged in four...... symmetrically situated pairs lying dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally in the pretrochal part of the trochophore-like larva and they send axons into the cerebral commissure. They are lost at metamorphosis. The fine structure of these cells strongly resembles that of so-called "ampullary cells" known from various...... sensory organs of other molluscs, such as the apical complex of gastropod and bivalve larvae, osphradia of vetigastropods, and olfactory organs of cephalopods, and nuchal organs of certain polychaetes. The ampullary cells and their nerves are densely stained by anti-FMRF-amide fluorescence dyes, whereas...

  14. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean



    Full Text Available The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (Spanish Eastern coast, Western Mediterranean FAO division 37.1.1. The common octopus fishery was studied analysing the monthly landing and effort data by fishing gear from 1994 to 2005. Monthly samplings of the commercial O. vulgarislandings from trawlers and clay pots from January 2004 to December 2005 resulted in the measuring of 1833 specimens to enable analysis of the catch composition, and allowed the biological sampling of 1176 individuals to provide the reproductive parameters of the species in the study area. The length-weight relationship calculated for the species was BW = 0.51 * DML 2.87. The yearly sex ratios (males:females were 1:1 (trawl, 2004, 1:0.74 (trawl, 2005, and 1:0.88 (clay pots, 2005. The size (dorsal mantle length, DML at maturity of the species in the study area was 9.67 cm for males and 14.38 cm for females. The gonadosomatic index reached a peak between April and July for males and in July for females. The Fulton condition index was lower in both sexes between June and September, and for males in November-December, whereas for both sexes the values of the digestive gland index were at their maximum between June and December. The energy allocation between somatic and reproductive growth was investigated and the results suggested that the energy spent on reproduction mainly came from feeding, and not from energy stored in the mantle tissues or in the digestive gland

  15. What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)?

    Alonso, A.; Castro-Diez, P.


    The spread of non-native species is one of the most harmful and least reversible disturbances in ecosystems. Species have to overcome several filters to become a pest (transport, establishment, spread and impact). Few studies have checked the traits that confer ability to overcome these steps in the

  16. [Reproduction, diet and fishery of Octopus (Octopus) hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in the coast of Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Alejo-Plata, Maria del Carmen; Gómez-Márquez, José Luis; Carrillo, Samuel Ramos; Herrera-Galindo, Jorge Eduardo


    The octopus Octopus hubbsorum (Berry 1953) ranges widely and is important for the artisanal fishery in Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samples were taken approximately at every two weeks from January 2002 to November 2003. All organisms were measured for dorsal mantle length (DLM) and total weight; sex and maturity gonadic stage were registered. For the stomach content analysis, frequency of occurrence and emptying indexes were used. The 352 organisms caught ranged from 4 to 18 cm in DLM; the sex ratio was different from 1 (chi2 = 24.2, p<0.05) throughout the year. The maximum values of the GSI appeared in May (4.1917 for females; 1.2675 in males). LDM for first sexual maturity (LDM50%) was 16 cm (females) and 14 cm (males). Octopus hubbsorum moves from deep waters to the coast, probably in search of better conditions, and lays masses of eggs on rocky substrata. They are fished from March to October, with higher intensity in April and May. Fishing effort was related to the oceanographic characteristics and the atmospheric conditions of the area. From April to September the CPUE monthly mean was 20-10 kg/divers/day. Using the CPUE and environmental condition relationship, the estimated adequate superficial temperature for fishing is 29.5 degrees C.

  17. Spermatozoa and spermatogenesis in the northern quahaug Mercenaria mercenaria (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Ying, Xue-Ping; Yang, Wan-Xi; Dahms, Hans-U.; Lin, Zhihua; Chai, Xueliang


    We studied the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in the northern quahaug, the clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Spermatogenetic cells gradually elongate. Mitochondria gradually fuse and increase in size and electron density. During spermatid differentiation, proacrosomal vesicles migrate towards the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus and eventually form the acrosome. The spermatozoon of M. mercenaria is of a primitive type. It is composed of head, mid-piece, and tail. The acrosome shows a subacrosomal space with a short conical contour. The slightly curved nucleus of the spermatozoon contains fine-grained dense chromatin. The middle piece consists of a centriolar complex which is surrounded by four mitochondria. The flagellum has a standard “9 + 2” microtubular structure. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of M. mercenaria shares a number of features with other species of the family Veneridae. M. mercenaria may be a suitable model species for further investigations into the mechanisms of spermatogenesis in the Bivalvia.

  18. On the identity of broad-shelled mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilus) from the Dutch delta region

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Rajagopal, S.; Jansen, J.M.; Bos, M.M.; Velde, van der G.; Gittenberger, E.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Raad, H.; Hummel, H.


    Late Quaternary (Eemian) deposits of the Netherlands contain shells that resemble those of living Mytilus galloprovincialis. Similar broad-shelled mytilids also occur in estuaries of the southwestern Netherlands together with slender individuals typical of M. edulis. We sampled living mussels along

  19. Thyasira ockelmanni (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Veneroidea, A new species of Thyasiridae from the Norwegian Sea

    Rozemarijn Keuning


    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A new species of Thyasiridae, Thyasira ockelmanni n.sp. is described from the abyssal depths of the Norwegian Sea. The generic assignment is tentative and possible alternatives are discussed. The new species has some resemblance to Thyasira subovata (Jeffreys, 1881 and Adontorhina similis Barry & McCormack, 2007, but the posterior outline is rounded and not angulate or truncate as in these species.

  20. Sinanodonta woodiana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae: Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers

    Elena Iulia Iorgu


    Full Text Available Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 is a large Unionid species with a real invasion success. It colonized Europe, Central America, the Indonesian Islands and recently North America. The species life cycle involves a larval parasitic stage on freshwater fish species which contributes to the spread of the mussel. In this paper we describe, for the first time, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the species Sinanodonta woodiana. The genetic screening of individuals confirmed that all loci were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 14 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.650 to 0.950. These loci should prove useful to study the species population genetics which could help to infer important aspects of the invasion process.

  1. Toxicological aspects associated with the ecology of Donax trunculus (Bivalvia, Mollusca) in a polluted environment

    Fishelson, L.; Manelis, R. [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bresler, V.; Zuk-Rimon, Z.; Dotan, A.; Yawetz, A. [Institute for Nature Conservation Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hornung, H. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, National Institute of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)


    This study provides data on the ecology and toxicology observed in the population of Donax trunculus, a sand dwelling mussel, in the shallow subtidal of Haifa Bay (Mediterranean Sea, Israel). The studied population of the mussel forms a dominant fraction in a community of sand-dwelling molluscs in a zone located 5-25 m from the shoreline, and at depths of 20-120 cm, numbering up to 2000 per m{sup 2}. Samples of the mussel were collected from three sites, located within 9 km of shore in Haifa Bay. These included a clean site (Akko), a site polluted by a chemical PVC-polymer industry (Frutarom), and a site polluted with oil and waste from the petrochemical industry (Qiryat Yam). Metal analysis indicated site-dependent variations in levels of cadmium, lead, copper and mercury in the mussel soft tissues. Copper levels were similar in the bivalves collected from all the sites. Levels of mercury were significantly higher in specimens from the PVC-polluted site (Frutarom) while levels of cadmium were higher in Akko and Qiryat Yam compared to Frutarom. Lead residues were found only in Donax from Akko. The residual contents of mercury, copper and cadmium were relatively high in the young and noticeably low in Donax of medium body size. The main site of deposition of metals was in the soft tissues of the bivalve, but bioaccumulation of metals was also found in the shells. A marked increase in permeability of gills and mantle to the fluorescent anionic dye-fluorescein (FLU) was detected in Donax from Qiryat Yam and especially Frutarom, compared to the bivalves sampled from Akko. Multiple foci of enhanced permeability (multiple fluorescent spots) were detected in all the individuals sampled from Frutarom but none in the bivalve samples from Akko. Lysosomal accumulation of the metachromatic fluorescent cationic probe, acridine orange - (AO), was significantly decreased in the tissues of D. trunculus from polluted sites, especially polluted by the PVC factory. This decrease correlated with lysosomal enlargement and the formation of secondary lysosomes. D. trunculus appears to possess the most effective biochemical and physiological defense mechanisms enabling it to survive in habitats of polluted shallow waters, where other sand dwelling mollusc species were absent or found only in waters deeper then 2.5 m. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. The sensorial structures of Spondylus americanus Hermann,1781 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Spondylidae

    Marina Gomes Viana


    Full Text Available Adult animals of Spondylus americanus were analyzed and specialized sensorial structures, the sensorial papillae and the eyes, were characterized. The sensorial papillae were projections on the edge of the mantle in form of light brown fingers which had function of percepting stimulus coming from the medium. They were constituted by loose conjunctive tissues with longitudinal muscular fibers and externally covered by ciliated cubic epithelium, which presented high amount of melanocytes that gave the coloration of the papillae. The eyes were more complex, being on small stalks histologically similar to the papillae. They exhibited a circular formate and had a metallic blue color. Theses structures were constituted by a corneo epithelium, cornea, lens, retina, basal stalk, periocular band and optical nerve. The eyes were distributed asymmetrically to both valves related with the sedentarism of the species. Right valve presented a smaller number of eyes when compared to left one.Foram examinados exemplares adultos de Spondylus. americanus Hermann, 1781 e estruturas especializadas na percepção de estímulos foram caracterizadas: as papilas sensoriais e os ocelos. As papilas sensoriais são projeções do bordo manto em forma de dedos de cor castanha e com a função de perceber estímulos vindo do meio, são constituídas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo contendo fibras musculares longitudinais e revestidas externamente por epitélio cúbico ciliado, o qual apresenta grande quantidade de melanócitos, que dão a coloração das papilas. Os ocelos são mais complexos, estando sobre pequenos pedúnculos histologicamente semelhante às papilas, têm formato circular e possui cor azul metálica. Constituí-se por um epitélio córneo, córnea, lente, retina, pedúnculo basal, banda periocular e nervo óptico. Os ocelos distribuem-se assimetricamente por ambas as valvas, o que está relacionado com o sedentarismo da espécie. A valva direita apresenta menor número de ocelos quando comparada a esquerda.

  3. Phylogenetic Diversity of Cephalopoda (Animalia:Mollusca) Along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea Coastline

    Byron, Gordon


    Although the Red Sea presents a unique environment with high temperature and salinity, it remains an area that is understudied. This lack of information is reflected in many areas, one which is biodiversity. Despite increasing work on biodiversity throughout the Red Sea and an increase in Cephalopoda studies, Cephalopoda in the Red Sea remain underrepresented, which is especially pronounced in molecular analyses. Members of the class Cephalopoda are considered to be major contributors to coral reef ecosystems, serving as part of the food chain and exhibiting population increases due to targeted teleost fisheries and global climate change. In order to assess the biodiversity of Cephalopoda in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, 87 specimens were collected from 25 reef locations between 17°N and 28°N latitude, as well as from the largest fish market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Taxonomic identification of specimens was determined using morphological comparisons with previously reported species in the Red Sea and the molecular barcoding region Cytochrome Oxidase I. 84 Red Sea sequences were compared with sequences from GenBank and analyzed using a complement of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood, and Bayesian inference trees. Species complexes were also investigated for Sepia pharaonis and Sepioteuthis lessoniana, which had been previously reported. From 17 cuttlefish, our study yielded three species, two of which matched previously reported species in GenBank. In addition, two distinct clades of Sepia pharaonis were identified. Of 35 squid collected, four species were identified, one of which did not match any other accepted species in literature, while Sepioteuthis lessoniana in the Red Sea formed a distinct clade. From 30 different specimens a total of five genera of Octopoda were present, forming six distinct species. Five Octopoda species collected did not match previously reported species, although many specimens were paralarvae or juveniles, so morphologically we could not compare to previously described species in the Red Sea. Cephalopoda fisheries in the Red Sea is low, and as their populations increase worldwide, this could be a viable fishery for Saudi Arabia. As such, further investigation into the role which cephalopods play in supporting biodiversity in the Red Sea is essential.

  4. A tropical Atlantic species of Melibe Rang, 1829 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Tethyiidae

    Erika Espinoza


    Full Text Available A new species of Melibe is described based on two specimens collected in Florida. This new species is well differentiated morphologically and genetically from other species of Melibe studied to date. The four residue deletions in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 protein found in all previously sequenced tropical species of Melibe sequenced (and Melibe rosea are also present in this new species. These deletions do not appear to affect important structural components of this protein but might have fitness implications. This paper provides the first confirmed record of Melibe in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

    Tëmkin Ilya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  6. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.


    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian mus

  7. Ueber den begriff "Kinoplasma" in der spermiogenese von Australorbis Glabratus Olivaceus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae

    Rudolf Barth


    Full Text Available Zur Klaerung der Frage, ob der Begriff "Kinoplasma" fuer gewisse, von MERTON (1924,1926, 1930 beobachtete Bildungen an den reifenden Spermiden von pulmonaten Mollusken oder fuer Bestandteile des Cytoplasmas im Sinne von STRASBURGER und SCARTH zu verwenden ist, werden in der vorliegenden Mitteilung die Vorgaenge bei der Spermiohistogenese von Australorbis glabratus olivaceus untersucht. Es ergibt sich: 1. Das von MERTON bezeichnete "Kinoplasma" existiert nicht als solches, es handelt sich bei den von ihm dargestellten Protoplasmabildungen um kugelige, von den Spermiden abgeschnuerte Restkoerper nicht verwendeten Baumaterials, bestehend aus Protoplasma und einigen Mitochondrien. Sie werden von den Naehr- oder Bazalzellen phagozytiert. Der Ausdruck "Kinoplasma" kann nur fuer die submikroskopischen, geformten, faedigen Elemente des Cytoplasmas reserviert bleiben, die den geradlinigen Fall der uebrigen nicht geformten Komponenten bremst oder ablenkt; damit muss das Kinoplasma aber aus dem Begriff des Cytoplasmas herausgenommen werden, da es, wenn auch vermutlich reversibel, eine Differenzierung darstellt. 2. Der Spermienfaden wird von den Centriolen (Axialfilament und den Mitochondrien (zwei peripher gelegene Spiralfilamente, sowie einem Plasmamantel gebildet. 3. Nach Beendigung des Auswachsens der Spermiengeissel, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt nur aus dem Achsenfaden und dem Protoplasmazylinder besteht, setzt sich eine Protoplasmamasse vom Kopf in Richtung zum Geisselende in Bewegung. Sie fuehrt den Golgi-Koerper und sehr viele Mitochondrien mit sich. Aus diesen entwickeln sich Fibrillen, die sich zu den beiden Spiralfilamenten zusammenfuegen. Diese Masse entspricht der von MERTON in seiner Theorie als Kinoplasma bezeichneten Komponente. 4. Die Bewegung dieses Protoplasmateils wird auf den Schub zurueckgefuehrt, den die sich bildenden Fibrillen auf die Mitochondrien ausueben. 5. Die Rueckwaertsbewegung dieses Protoplasmakoerpers beruht wahrscheinlich auf Elastizitaet und Kontraktilitaet des Plasmalemmas. 6. Das zum Kopf zurueckgekehrte Protoplasma wird mit restlichen Mitochondrien als Kugel ausgeschieden und von den Naehrzellen phagocytiert. 7. Der Golgi-Koerper wird vor Beendigung der Protoplasmawanderung bereits in der letzten Haelfte der Geissel eliminiert.

  8. A new alien gastropod Pseudorhaphitoma iodolabiata (Hornung & Mermod, 1928 (Mangeliidae, Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea



    Full Text Available The study documents the occurrence of a new alien gastropod Pseudorhaphitoma iodolabiata in the Mediterranean Sea, collected inIskenderun Bay, Turkey, on September 2011. This record increases to 213 the number of alien molluscs in the Mediterranean.

  9. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

    W. Lobato Paraense


    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic parte of female duct to penial complex = 1.36 to 2.81 ((mean 1.90 +- 0.33; penial sheath to prepuce = 042 to 0.96 (mean 0.67 +- 0.13. Comparison with Morelet’s type specimens of Planorbis orbiculus and P. retusus points to the identity of those nominal species with B. obstructa.

  10. Pectinoidea (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Propeamussiidae, Cyclochlamydidae n. fam., Entoliidae and Pectinidae) from the Vanuatu Archipelago

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Maestrati, P.


    This paper documents the species of Pectinoidea Rafinesque, 1815 collected in Vanuatu during the SANTO 2006 expedition. A total of 49 species (13 Propeamussiidae Abbott, 1954, 4 Cyclochlamydidae n. fam., 1 Entoliidae Teppner, 1922, and 31 Pectinidae Rafinesque, 1815) are represented, of which 70% ar

  11. Bibliography of Cuban terrestrial Mollusca, including related and biohistorical papers on Cuban malacology

    Breure, A.S.H.; González Guillén, A.


    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of literature on Cuban terrestrial molluscs since the 18th century. It currently cites approximately 1000 references, dealing with a) primary and secondary sources directly treating Cuban taxa or relevant for the study of the Cuban malacofauna; b) abstrac

  12. Three new species of Pruvotinidae (Mollusca: Solenogastres) from Antarctica and NW Spain

    Zamarro, Maria; García-Álvarez, Oscar; Urgorri, Victoriano


    The family Pruvotinidae (Solenogastres, Cavibelonia) includes thirty species of fifteen genera grouped in five subfamilies. These subfamilies are defined by the combination of the presence or absence of hollow hook-shaped sclerites, the presence or absence of a dorsopharyngeal gland and the type of ventrolateral foregut glandular organs: type A, type C or circumpharyngeal. In this paper, three new species of the family Pruvotinidae are described: Pruvotina artabra n. sp. and Gephyroherpia impar n. sp. from NW Spain, and Pruvotina manifesta n. sp. from Antarctic Peninsula. These new descriptions increase the global knowledge of Solenogastres biodiversity.

  13. The opisthobranch gastropods (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) from Venezuela: an annotated and illustrated inventory of species.

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Caballer; Ortea, Jesús; Rivero, Nelsy; Tucker, Gabriela Carias; Malaquias, Manuel António E; Narciso, Samuel


    The Caribbean waters of Venezuela are composed by a large variety of habitats, with over 2800 km of coastline, islands, and islets. This area is a transitional zone between two main biogeographic provinces, the Caribbean and the Brazilian, separated by the fresh water outflows of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers, and is therefore expected to be an area of high species diversity. However, concerning the study of molluscs, Venezuela is probably the poorest known region in the Caribbean. The best compilation of opisthobranch species known in Venezuela was produced almost a decade ago, mentioning the occurrence of 57 species, plus seven determined only to genus level. In this work, 134 species are reported for Venezuela (71 are illustrated), representing about 40 % of the entire diversity of opisthobranchs known in the Caribbean. Among the species occurring in Venezuela, 49 have here the southern limit of their distribution range and only one the northern limit. Forty-six species are recorded for the first time to the country and one is a new record for the Caribbean Sea, namely Placida cremoniana. In addition, the distribution and ecology of the species are given based in literature and new data.

  14. Molecular Phylogeny of Mobilid and Sessilid Ciliates Symbiotic in Eastern Pacific Limpets (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda).

    Irwin, Nicholas A T; Lynn, Denis H


    The phylogenetic relationships of the ciliate subclass Peritrichia, composed of the orders Mobilida and Sessilida, have recently come under debate as morphological and molecular analyses have struck contrasting conclusions as to the monophyly of the group. We provide additional molecular data to assess the monophyly of the Peritrichia by sequencing the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of two symbiotic peritrichs, Urceolaria korschelti and Scyphidia ubiquita, found inhabiting the mantle cavity of limpets. Although phylogenetic analyses indicated a nonmonophyletic Peritrichia, approximately unbiased tests revealed that the monophyletic hypothesis could not be rejected. With regard to the Mobilida, our analysis showed divergence within the family Trichodinidae related to host taxa-a molluscan clade and a fish clade. For the Sessilida, the family Scyphidiidae was sister to the Astylozoidae. In our sampling of U. korschelti and S. ubiquita, both species showed significant genetic divergence among geographically isolated, yet morphologically indistinguishable populations. We hypothesize that cryptic speciation has produced these morphologically identical species and argue that more extensive genomic analyses are required to fully assess the monophyly, biogeography, and ultimately biodiversity of the peritrichs.

  15. Submarine canyons as the preferred habitat for wood-boring species of Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Romano, C.; Voight, J. R.; Company, J. B.; Plyuscheva, M.; Martin, D.


    Submarine canyons are often viewed as natural “debris concentrators” on the seafloor. Organic substrates may be more abundant inside than outside canyon walls. To determine the effects of the presence these substrates in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) and its adjacent western open slope, we deployed wood to study colonizing organisms. Three replicate pine and oak cubes (i.e. most common trees inland) were moored at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months. Wood from inside the canyon was significantly more heavily colonized by the five morphotypes of wood-boring bivalves than was wood on the adjacent open slope. Xylophaga sp. A dominated all wood types and locations, with peak abundance at 900 and 1200 m depth. Its growth rate was highest (0.070 mm d-1) during the first three months and was faster (or it recruits earlier) in pine than in oak. Size distribution showed that several recruitment events may have occurred from summer to winter. Xylophaga sp. B, appeared first after 9 months and clearly preferred pine over oak. As the immersion time was the same, this strongly supported a specific association between recruiters and type of substrate. Three morphotypes, pooled as Xylophaga spp. C, were rare and seemed to colonize preferentially oak inside the canyon and pine in the adjacent open slope. Individuals of Xylophaga were more abundant inside the canyon than in nearby off-canyon locations. Blanes Canyon may serve as a long-term concentrator of land-derived vegetal fragments and as a consequence sustain more animals. Are the species richness and abundance of wood-boring bivalves higher inside the canyon than on the adjacent open slope? Do the composition and density of the wood-boring bivalves change with deployment time and depth, as well as on the type of the sunken wood? What is the growth rate of the dominant wood-boring species?

  16. External morphology of spermatozoa and spermatozeugmata of the freshwater mussel Truncilla truncata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Waller, D.L.; Lasee, B.A.


    Truncilla truncata males release spherical aggregates of spermatozoa, called spermatozeugmata, at spawning. Sperm aggregates from other bivalve species have been described, but few detailed studies exist of the morphology of unionid spermatozeugmata and spermatozoa. We provide the first description of the external morphology of spermatozeugmata and spermatozoa of T. Truncata. The spermatozeugmata had an inside diameter of 76 mu m and contained 8000-9000 spermatozoa. Heads of spermatozoa were directed toward the center of the sphere into a translucent shell; tails were arranged radially and caused the spermatozeugmata to rotate. Spermatozoa of T. Truncata measured 3.3 mu m in length (excluding tail) and each had a head, a midpiece and a flagellum. We also documented the release of spermatozeugmata in two additional unionid species, Lampsilis cardium and Amblema plicata plicata.

  17. The continuing debate on deep molluscan phylogeny: evidence for Serialia (Mollusca, Monoplacophora + Polyplacophora).

    Stöger, I; Sigwart, J D; Kano, Y; Knebelsberger, T; Marshall, B A; Schwabe, E; Schrödl, M


    Molluscs are a diverse animal phylum with a formidable fossil record. Although there is little doubt about the monophyly of the eight extant classes, relationships between these groups are controversial. We analysed a comprehensive multilocus molecular data set for molluscs, the first to include multiple species from all classes, including five monoplacophorans in both extant families. Our analyses of five markers resolve two major clades: the first includes gastropods and bivalves sister to Serialia (monoplacophorans and chitons), and the second comprises scaphopods sister to aplacophorans and cephalopods. Traditional groupings such as Testaria, Aculifera, and Conchifera are rejected by our data with significant Approximately Unbiased (AU) test values. A new molecular clock indicates that molluscs had a terminal Precambrian origin with rapid divergence of all eight extant classes in the Cambrian. The recovery of Serialia as a derived, Late Cambrian clade is potentially in line with the stratigraphic chronology of morphologically heterogeneous early mollusc fossils. Serialia is in conflict with traditional molluscan classifications and recent phylogenomic data. Yet our hypothesis, as others from molecular data, implies frequent molluscan shell and body transformations by heterochronic shifts in development and multiple convergent adaptations, leading to the variable shells and body plans in extant lineages.

  18. A study of the type series of Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca, Cephalopoda, Nautilida).

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana V


    Few animals are treasured by zoologists more than Nautilus, and Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of the genus, in particular. However, the type series of this species has not been studied in great detail. According to the rules of zoological nomenclature the type series consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon at the time of description (whether directly or by bibliographic reference), and any evidence, published or unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens are included. The type series of Nautilus pompilius includes specimens in the Linnean Society of London, the University Museum in Uppsala, and specimens figured by pre-Linnaean authors indicated by reference by Linnaeus (1758). One specimen in London and four specimens in Uppsala, which are still extant, are likely to have been known to Linnaeus at the time when he prepared the 10th Edition of Systema Naturae (Linnaeus 1758), although none of these specimens was specifically mentioned by him. Even though it is widely believed that Linnaeus (1767) designated as lectotype a specimen figured by Rumphius (1705) in his D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer, referred to in the Systema Naturae, this presumed lectotypification is not valid because Linnaeus did not explicitly indicate that any particular specimen was considered to be the type of the species. Later lectotype designations of Rumphius' illustrations are invalid because they show three different specimens. It seems that the best approach, given the quality of the material and the lack of clarity as to its type status, would be to apply to the ICZN asking to set aside all previous type fixations and designate a neotype, preferably a DNA sequenced specimen of known provenance.

  19. The end of a long controversy: systematics of the genus Limenandra (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Aeolidiidae)

    Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M.; Cervera, Juan Lucas


    Limenandra Haefelfinger and Stamm 1958 is a small genus within the Aeolidiidae with, until this paper, only two species: Limenandra nodosa Haefelfinger and Stamm 1958 and Limenandra fusiformis Baba 1949. Although most recent authors have regarded Limenandra as a junior synonym of Baeolidia Bergh 1888, recent molecular studies have demonstrated its monophyletic status and have rejected the circumtropical distribution attributed to the type species, L. nodosa. The present paper reviews the previously known species of Limenandra with additional morphological data and describes three new species: Limenandra barnosii sp. nov. and Limenandra rosanae sp. nov. from the Indo-Pacific are easily distinguished from all other Limenandra species by their vivid and bright colour patterns, while Limenandra confusa sp. nov., also from the Indo-Pacific, is very similar to the Atlantic and Mediterranean L. nodosa. The five species differ in colouration, the size and ornamentation of the cerata, the rhinophorial papillae, details of the reproductive system and the number of salivary glands. Additionally, Limenandra can be easily distinguished from other Aeolidiidae based on differences in the radular and receptaculum seminis morphology.

  20. Taxonomic implications of molecular studies on Northern Brazilian Teredinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia specimens

    Sonia Maria Lima Santos


    Full Text Available The current taxonomy of the Teredinidae (shipworms is wholly based on morphology and up to now no molecular studies of the phylogeny of this group have been published. In the present study the relationships between four genera of the subfamilies Teredininae and Bankiinae were established and the efficiency of the 16S rRNA gene in characterizing four Teredinidae species was tested. Phylogenetic trees support the grouping of Bankia fimbriatula with Nausitora fusticula and of Neoteredo reynei with Psiloteredo healdi, but the genetic distances do not justify the classification of these species into two distinct subfamilies. The results show that B. fimbriatula, N. reynei and P. healdi specimens from the coast of the Brazilian state of Pará have five distinct 16S rRNA haplotypes, with one N. reynei haplotype differing from the other haplotypes in respect to at least seven sequences sites, indicating the existence of two very distinct sympatric lineages.

  1. Recovery of the biogenic nest habitat of Limaria hians (Mollusca: Limacea) following anthropogenic disturbance

    Trigg, Colin; Moore, Colin G.


    The rate of regrowth of Limaria hians nest material, following a simulated dredging impact, was examined on an extensive L. hians bed off the west coast of Scotland. Within an area of complete coverage of the sea bed by a turf of L. hians nest material, the turf was cleared by diver from 10 × 0.25 m 2 plots and the sediment subsequently raked to simulate the passage of a scallop dredge. The areal extent and pattern of nest regrowth were recorded after 6 and 12 months. Control plots showed no significant change in 100% nest cover over the year. In the treated plots regrowth generally occurred from extension of peripheral nest material. Over the initial 6 autumn and winter months treatment plots displayed a mean regrowth of 9.2% of the cleared area, increasing to 15% in the second 6-month spring and summer period. However, no significant difference in growth was found between these periods. After 12 months half the treatment plots exhibited <25% nest cover and none of them contained nest of a thickness comparable to the surrounding bed. Conversion of regrowth rates within the treated plots to the rate of nest advance along a linear front, gave a value of 3.2 cm per year, highlighting the susceptibility of this species-rich biotope to scallop dredging.

  2. Ultrastructure developments during spermiogenesis in Polydora ciliata (Annelida: Spionidae), a parasite of mollusca

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Libin; Qiu, Tianlong; Xue, Dongxiu; Yang, Hongsheng


    Spionid worms of Polydora ciliata inhabit the shells of many commercially important bivalves and cause disease in molluscan aquaculture. Their sperm structure is closely related to their fertilization method. To give an insight into the sperm structure and spermatogenesis, ultrastructure details of the subcellular components of germ cells during spermiogenesis of Polydora ciliata are detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In P. ciliata, during spermiogenesis, chromatin is regularly arranged as dense fibrils and becomes more condensed when the nucleus elongates. Microtubules do not surround the nucleus during its elongation. The Golgi phase is characterized by the formation of proacrosomal granules within the Golgi apparatus. The proacrosomal granules fuse to form a single, spherical acrosomal vesicle that migrates to the anterior pole of the cell. At the time of nuclear condensation, mitochondria become reduced in number but increased in size, causing deep indentation at the base of the nucleus. The mid-piece has a few mitochondria. The cap phase includes the spreading of the acrosomal granule over the surface of the nucleus of the differentiating spermatid. The acrosomal phase of spermiogenesis is typically associated with changes in the shape of the nucleus, acrosome and tail. The relationship of sperm ultrastructure to spermiogenesis in spionidae species was discussed.

  3. Clarifying phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of the bivalve order Arcida (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia).

    Combosch, David J; Giribet, Gonzalo


    The systematics of the bivalve order Arcida constitutes an unresolved conundrum in bivalve systematics. The current definition of Arcida encompasses two superfamilies: Limopsoidea, which includes the recent families Philobryidae and Limopsidae, and Arcoidea, which encompasses the families Arcidae, Cucullaeidae, Noetiidae, Glycymerididae and Parallelodontidae. This classification, however, is controversial particularly with respect to the position and taxonomic status of Glycymerididae. Previous molecular phylogenies were limited either by the use of only a single molecular marker or by including only a few limopsoid and glycymeridid taxa. The challenging nature of Arcida taxonomy and the controversial results of some of the previous studies, prompted us to use a broad range of taxa (55 species), three nuclear markers (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and histone H3) and a wide range of algorithmic approaches. This broad but stringent approach led to a number of results that differ significantly from previous studies. We provide the first molecular evidence that supports the separation of Arcoidea from Limopsoidea, although the exact position of Glycymerididae remains unresolved, and the monophyly of Limopsoidea is algorithm-dependent. In addition, we present the first time-calibrated evolutionary tree of Arcida relationships, indicating a significant increase in the diversification of arcidan lineages at the beginning of the Cretaceous, around 140Ma. The monophyly of Arcida, which has been supported previously, was confirmed in all our analyses. Although relationships among families remain somehow unresolved we found support for the monophyly of most arcidan families, at least under some analytical conditions (i.e., Glycymerididae, Noetiidae, Philobryidae, and Limopsidae). However, Arcidae, and particularly Arcinae, remain a major source of inconsistency in the current system of Arcida classification and are in dire need of taxonomic revision.

  4. Novas ocorrências de gastrópodes e bivalves marinhos no Brasil (Mollusca

    Absalão Ricardo Silva


    Full Text Available The gastropods Costaclis egregia (Dall, 1889, Thaleia nisonis (Dall, 1889, Tjaernoeia michaeli Engl, 2001 and the bivalves Bathyarca sp., Myonera aff. ruginosa (Jeffreys, 1882 are recorded for the first time in Brazilian waters. This paper presents a brief description of these species and also include ilustrations.

  5. Structure and formation of the unusual sperm of Patelloida latistrigata (Mollusca : Patellogastropoda): implications for fertilization biology.

    Hodgson, Alan N; Hodgson, Valerie; Eckelbarger, Kevin J


    The structure of the spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of the lottiid limpet Patelloida latistrigata is described by transmission electron microscopy. Although the lengths of the spermatozoa (about 60 μm) and their head region (about 12 μm) are similar to those of other patellogastropods, the structure of the sperm head and midpiece are very different. The head consists of an unusually large acrosome (about 11-μm long) with a broad posterior invagination that houses the relatively small nucleus. The midpiece mitochondria, which are rather elongate with large folded tubular cristae, are housed in a cytoplasmic sheath posterior to the nucleus. The proximal centriole is unusually elongate (about 2-μm long). The axoneme that emerges from the distal centriole is surrounded anteriorly by the cytoplasmic sheath in which the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane has electron-dense material. The flagellum is enlarged at its terminal end. Spermatogenesis is similar to that described for other patellogastropods. Patelloida latistrigata, therefore, has spermatozoa that seem to meet the morphological criteria of ent-aquasperm, which raises the question of whether fertilization is truly external in this limpet. However, it is also possible that the modifications to the sperm are linked to unknown specializations of the egg or egg envelope.

  6. Ultrastructure of euspermatozoa and paraspermatozoa in the volutid snail Adelomelon ancilla (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda)

    Zabala, S.; Hermida, G. N.; Giménez, J.


    The ultrastructure of the euspermatozoa and the paraspermatozoa is investigated in Adelomelon ancilla, through histological section observed by transmission electron microscopy. Euspermatozoa of A. ancilla consists of: (1) a conical acrosomal vesicle (with a short basal invagination, constricted anteriorly) which is flattened at the apex and associated with an axial rod, a centrally perforated basal plate and a short accessory membrane, (2) a rod-shaped, solid and highly electron-dense nucleus (with a short basal fossa containing a centriolar complex and a initial portion of a 9 + 2 axoneme), (3) an elongate midpiece consisting of the axoneme sheathed by 5-6 helical mitochondrial elements each exhibiting a dense U-shaped outer layer, (4) an elongate glycogen piece (where the axoneme is sheathed by nine tracts of glycogen granules), (5) a dense annulus at the junction of the midpiece and glycogen piece, and (6) a short free tail region (where the axoneme is surrounded only by plasma membrane). We observed a parasperm in A. ancilla. This is vermiform in shape and is composed of multiple axonemes and extensive cytoplasm with numerous vesicles, and mitochondria are scattered inside the axonemes. Sperm of A. ancilla is characterized by the euspermatozoa type 2 and the paraspermatozoa morphology belongs to type 5. The U shaped electrodense mitochondrial element in the midpiece of the eusperm and the constriction in the acrosomal vesicle present in A. ancilla are exclusive. We suggest that these characteristics could have taxonomic importance, because these was observed in other volutids and have not been observed in the rest of caenogastropods studies. We consider that the morphology of paraspermatozoa in A. ancilla corresponds to the “lancet” type.

  7. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Sérgio Ávila


    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of Nembrothinae (Mollusca: Doridacea: Polyceridae) inferred from morphology and mitochondrial DNA.

    Pola, Marta; Cervera, J Lucas; Gosliner, Terrence M


    Within the Polyceridae, Nembrothinae includes some of the most striking and conspicuous sea slugs known, although several features of their biology and phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. This paper reports a phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA) and morphology for most species included in Nembrothinae. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using both molecular and combined morphological and molecular data support the taxonomic splitting of Nembrothinae into several taxa. Excluding one species (Tambja tentaculata), the monophyly of Roboastra was supported by all the phylogenetic analyses of the combined molecular data. Nembrotha was monophyletic both in the morphological and molecular analyses, always with high support. However, Tambja was recovered as para- or polyphyletic, depending on the analysis performed. Our study also rejects the monophyly of "phanerobranch" dorids based on molecular data.



    Unionidae(Bivalvia)are distributed infreshwaters,and represent a significanttaxonof benthic community[1].In China,freshwater mussels are abundant resources[2].Since1949,substantial investigations onthe unionidfau-na had been undertakenin China[3—8].Withreference tooverseas research[9,10],a preliminary reorganization onthe Unionidae was performed accordingtosome classifica-tion characteristics such as shell shape,larvae character-istics,and breeding habit[11].Due tothe serious conver-gence of freshwater muss...

  10. Random walk, zonation and the food searching strategy of Terebralia palustris (Mollusca, Potamididae) in Kenya

    Vannini, Marco; Cannicci, Stefano; Mrabu, Elisha; Rorandelli, Rocco; Fratini, Sara


    Terebralia palustris is a common mud-whelk present at a particularly high density in all Indo-West Pacific mangroves. Young snails feed on nothing but mud while larger specimens are able to feed on fallen leaves too. In Kenya (Mida Creek) under the canopy, competition for mangrove leaves can be very high due to the high density of Sesarmidae crabs. On open exposed muddy platforms, no Sesarmidae occur but the leaf density is very low because the leaves are only randomly present as they are deposited and removed twice a day by the tide. However, the snail density is always very high, raising the question as to whether the snails use a special searching strategy to optimize their resource finding rather than a purely random movement. By analyzing the snails' movements on a uniform area at different levels and comparing them with simulated random paths, we could show that the snails' movements are not purely random. The distribution of different size classes of T. palustris in Mida Creek was known to be quite odd: the same simulation approach suggests that the zonation asymmetry could reasonably be due to the stochastic recruitment of juveniles in space and time and maintained by a substantial long-lasting spatial inertia.

  11. Proteomic analysis from the mineralized radular teeth of the giant Pacific chiton, Cryptochiton stelleri (Mollusca).

    Nemoto, Michiko; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Dongsheng; Pan, Songqin; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Kisailus, David


    The biomineralized radular teeth of chitons are known to consist of iron-based magnetic crystals, associated with the maximum hardness and stiffness of any biomineral. Based on our transmission electron microscopy analysis of partially mineralized teeth, we suggest that the organic matrix within the teeth controls the iron oxide nucleation. Thus, we used Nano-LC-MS to perform a proteomic analysis of the organic matrix in radular teeth of the chiton Cryptochiton stelleri in order to identify the proteins involved in the biomineralization process. Since the genome sequence of C. stelleri is not available, cross-species similarity searching and de novo peptide sequencing were used to screen the proteins. Our results indicate that several proteins were dominant in the mineralized part of the radular teeth, amongst which, myoglobin and a highly acidic peptide were identified as possibly involved in the biomineralization process.

  12. Epibiotic relationships on Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) increase biodiversity in a submarine canyon in Argentina

    Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia


    The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35‧S to 59°33‧W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.

  13. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon : Part 6. Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae

    Dijkstra, H.H.


    During the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition (1990) to Ambon 17 Pectinidae species were collected, nine of which were described by Rumphius (1705) and five illustrated by Rumphius. One species, viz. Decatopecten plica (Linnaeus, 1758), illustrated in Rumphius (1705: pl. 44, fig. O), has not been ref

  14. [Biodiversity of land gastropods (Mollusca) in Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina].

    Miranda, María José; Cuezzo, María Gabriela


    Studies related to land mollusk diversity in tropical and subtropical forests are scarce. To assess this, a study on land snail diversity of subtropical cloudforest (Yungas) and dry forest (Chaco) areas of Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina, was carried out. Taxonomic identifications were performed to species level and built a species per stations data matrix to analyze diversity patterns on qualitative and quantitative samples processed from 10x10m quadrates in altitudinal transects. Non parametric analysis (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 and Chao 2) were used to estimate the true diversity of the area, as well as the degree of undersampling and spatial aggregation of the data. Diversity was also calculated using Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker and Jaccard indices. The richness of the San Javier Park was estimated to be 32 species distributed into 13 families and 21 genera. From the total number of species collected, a single one belongs to Caenogastropoda, while the rest of the species are classified into Pulmonata Stylommatophora and Systellommatophora. The most representative family was the micromollusc Charopidae, while the most relatively abundant species was another micromollusc snail, Adelopoma tucma. Richness and diversity were slightly more elevated in dry forest areas of the Chacoan Ecoregion than in cloud forest areas of Yungas. Non parametric estimators showed that the inventory was complete. Diversity values obtained were high in comparison to previously studied areas of Northwestern Argentina. The total number of specimen collected (22 169 specimens), was higher than other published studies.

  15. Size-differential feeding in Pinna nobilis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Exploitation of detritus, phytoplankton and zooplankton

    Davenport, John; Ezgeta-Balić, Daria; Peharda, Melita; Skejić, Sanda; Ninčević-Gladan, Živana; Matijević, Slavica


    The endangered fan shell Pinna nobilis is a large bivalve mollusc (<120 cm shell length) endemic to the Mediterranean that lives one-third buried in soft substrata, generally in shallow coastal waters. We hypothesised that P. nobilis of different sizes would ingest different food sources, because small fan shells will inhale material from closer to the substratum than do large fan shells. We studied stomach contents and faeces of 18 fan shells, 6 small (mean 23.0 cm length), 6 medium-sized (mean 41.5 cm length) and 6 large (mean 62.7 cm length) living in a small area of a low-energy coastal detritic bottom characterised by mud, sand and macroalgae at Mali Ston Bay, Croatia. We found that all P. nobilis ingested copious quantities of undetermined detritus (probably at least 95% of ingested material), phytoplankton, micro and mesozooplankton and pollen grains. Large P. nobilis stomach contents showed a preponderance of water column calanoid copepods, while small fan shells had higher numbers of bivalve larvae. All fan shells took in high numbers of harpacticoid copepods that are benthonic, feeding on microbial communities of detritus and benthic vegetation. There was also a significant selection of phytoplankton species, some apparently occurring between inhalation and ingestion. The stomach contents of small P. nobilis had a higher organic matter content than either medium-sized or large fan shells; this indicated that small fan shells ingested detritus of higher organic content than did larger P. nobilis. As the faeces of all P. nobilis had similar organic matter content, this also indicates higher assimilation efficiencies in small fan shells. The demonstration of differential dietary selectivity by different sized animals has implications for future trophic studies of this endangered species. This study also provides the first demonstration of predation on zooplankton by P. nobilis.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a novel perivitellin from the eggs of Pomacea scalaris (Mollusca, Ampullariidae).

    Ituarte, S; Dreon, M S; Ceolín, M; Heras, H


    Perivitellins are important components of the perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds gastropod embryos. The glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein ovorubin (OR) from eggs of the snail Pomacea canaliculata has been the most studied to date. Here we report the characterization of scalarin (SC), a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein from the PVF of P. scalaris. SC was purified by ultracentrifugation and exclusion chromatography. It is the major egg protein, representing 64% of the total soluble protein. The particle has a hydration density of 1.26 g/ml, an apparent molecular mass of 380 kDa and it is an elongated compact protein as estimated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It is composed of three subunits of ca. 35, 28, and 24 kDa noncovalently bonded. SC is highly glycosylated (carbohydrate content 20.1%, by wt.), with a low lipid content (0.7%), being esterified sterols, pigments and polar lipids the most abundant lipid classes. HPTLC and spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed the presence of free astaxanthin (ASX; 62.0%), and an unidentified carotenoid (38.0%). The carotenoid-apoprotein interaction was studied by spectrophotometry. Carotenoids do not seem to affect the structural characteristics of the oligomer. However, the carotenoid-protein association protected ASX against oxidation. The cross-reactivity between SC and perivitellins of P. canaliculata was tested using polyclonal antibodies (PAb) against SC, OR, and perivitellin PV2. The PAbs failed to cross-react with any egg proteins of either the same or other species. SC, among other functional similarities with OR, would be an antioxidant carrier, protecting at the same time carotenoids from oxidation in the perivitellin fluid of the egg.

  17. Phylogeny and evolution of ontogeny of the family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Lutikov, O. A.; Temkin, I. E.; Shurygin, B. N.


    We described ontogenies and reconstructed morphogeneses of hinges in some supraspecific taxa of the bivalve family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 from the Mesozoic of Russia. The phylogeny of the family is reconstructed using evolutionary and cladistic methods. The appearance of the endemic genus Arctotis Bodylevsky, 1960 in the epicontinental seas of Siberia can be explained in terms of gradual transformations of the ligament and byssal apparatus in the Northern Siberian members of Praemeleagrinella Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009 and Praearctotis Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009.

  18. Cytogenetics of Anodonta cygnea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) as possible indicator of environmental adversity

    Carrilho, J.; Leitão, A.; Vicente, C.; Malheiro, I.


    Anodonta cygnea is a freshwater clam, belonging to the Unionidae family, which can be found in rivers and lagoons all over Europe and Northern America. As they appear as important case studies for ecological damage assessments, the various species of the Unionidae family have been submitted to a sort of recent studies on their chromosomal or cytogenetic status. In this study we confirmed the diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38 for this species, and established for the first time the karyotype, which comprised six metacentric, 12 submetacentric and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs. We also found a high percentage of cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes. Considering that karyotype disturbances in Unionids have been previously related with exposure to chemicals, either natural or produced by human activity, we determined the aneuploidy index for our population. The aneuploidy index is an excellent marker for pollutant presence/effect. The animals acclimatized in tap water and in natural water from the lake where the individuals were collected showed different levels of aneuploidy. The higher values were found in tap water. Chromosome analysis techniques seem a suitable tool to study the impact of contaminants referred above, and making A. cygnea a suitable organism for assessment of an eugenic damage in aquatic systems. On the other hand, our results also point out to the importance of doing the acclimatizing process of the collected animals in their own natural water.

  19. Multi-species generalist predation on the stochastic harvested clam Tivela mactroides (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Turra, Alexander; Fernandez, Wellington S.; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flavia B.; Denadai, Márcia R.


    Top-down control is an important force modulating the abundance of prey and structuring marine communities. The harvested trigonal clam Tivela mactroides is hypothesized to be part of the diet of a variety of marine organisms, with its stock influencing predator abundance and being influenced by them. Here we analyzed the diet of potential predators of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay, northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil, to identify the main consumers of this marine resource, and also to address the importance of this clam in the diet of each predator. Samples were taken year-round by trawls; all specimens collected were identified and measured and the food items identified and quantified. Twenty-one species consumed T. mactroides, whose importance in the diet varied greatly in both the volume ingested and the frequency of occurrence (pompano Trachinotus carolinus > blue crab Callinectes danae > starfish Astropecten marginatus). Top-down influence on T. mactroides was also dependent on the abundance of consumers (yellow catfish Cathorops spixii > rake stardrum Stellifer rastrifer > barred grunt Conodon nobilis > A. marginatus). Considering the mean volume ingested, the frequency of occurrence of T. mactroides in the diet, and the relative abundance of consumers, the predators that most influenced T. mactroides were T. carolinus, A. marginatus, and C. danae, in decreasing order. Large numbers of small-sized individuals of T. mactroides (<10 mm) were generally preyed upon by A. marginatus, which may have a stronger effect on clam abundance in comparison to C. danae and T. carolinus, which preyed upon larger clams. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that predators' consumption of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay can influence its stocks, mainly due to the type and/or abundance of predator species, the volume and number of individuals of T. mactroides preyed upon, and the temporal variations in the abundance of predators.

  20. Temporal dynamics of amino and fatty acid composition in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Narciso, Luis; Marques, António; Bandarra, Narcisa; Rosa, Rui


    Few studies have been conducted on the temporal dynamics of both amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in marine bivalves. We investigated the seasonal variation of these compounds in the pod razor clam Ensis siliqua in relation to food availability, salinity, water temperature and reproductive cycle. AA content varied between 46.94 and 54.67 % dry weight (DW), and the AAs found in greater quantity were glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. FA content varied between 34.02 and 87.94 mg g-1 DW and the FAs found in greater quantity were 16:0 and 22:6 n-3. Seasonal trends were observed for AAs and FAs. FAs increased with gametogenesis and decreased with spawning while AA content increased throughout spawning. The effect of increasing temperature and high food availability during the spawning season masked the loss of AAs resulting from gamete release. Still, a comparatively greater increase in the contents of glutamic acid and leucine with spawning indicate their possible involvement in a post-spawning gonad recovery mechanism. A post-spawning decrease in 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 is indicative of the importance of these FAs in bivalve eggs. An increase in 18:3 n-3, 18:4 n-3, 20:1 n-9 and 20:2 n-6 during gametogenesis suggests their involvement in oocyte maturation. The FA 22:4 n-6, while increasing with spawning, appears to play a role in post-spawning gonad recovery. Salinity did not have an effect on the AA composition. None of the environmental parameters measured had an effect on FA composition.

  1. Brazilian species of Gadila (Mollusca: Scaphopoda: Gadilidae): rediscovery of Gadila elongata comb. nov. and shell morphometrics

    Caetano,Carlos H. S.; Victor Scarabino; Ricardo S. Absalão


    Gadila elongata comb. nov. was described in 1920 from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Until recently, it was only known from the type locality. Herein we present the first record of G. elongata from Brazil (Northeast coast, Ceará state, collected at 177 m) and a morphometrics analysis of the Brazilian species of Gadila. A multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis, based on nine shell morphometric variables (length, maximum diameter, length to maximum diameter ratio, distance of point of maximu...

  2. Brazilian species of Gadila (Mollusca: Scaphopoda: Gadilidae: rediscovery of Gadila elongata comb. nov. and shell morphometrics

    Carlos H. S. Caetano


    Full Text Available Gadila elongata comb. nov. was described in 1920 from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Until recently, it was only known from the type locality. Herein we present the first record of G. elongata from Brazil (Northeast coast, Ceará state, collected at 177 m and a morphometrics analysis of the Brazilian species of Gadila. A multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis, based on nine shell morphometric variables (length, maximum diameter, length to maximum diameter ratio, distance of point of maximum diameter from anterior aperture, maximum curvature, anterior aperture height to anterior aperture width ratio, apical aperture height, apical aperture width and apical aperture height to apical aperture width ratio enabled the distinction between all species studied. Comparisons of shell morphometrics show that length and length to maximum diameter ratio are the most important variables in the differentiation of Gadila species.

  3. A contribution to the knowledge of non-marine Mollusca of South West Africa

    Bruggen, van A.C.


    The moment to collate scattered notes on South West African non-marine molluscs arrived last year when Mr. B. H. Lamoral of the Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg (South Africa), entrusted the present author with the study of material obtained during a Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.

  4. The cytoskeleton of chondrocytes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda: an immunocytochemical study

    F Leone


    Full Text Available Our previous electron microscope study showed that chondrocytes from cephalopod cartilage possess a highly developed cytoskeleton and numerous cytoplasmic processes that ramify extensively through the tissue. We have now carried out a light microscope immunocytochemical study of chondrocytes from the orbital cartilage of Sepia officinalis to obtain indications as to the nature of the cytoskeletal components. We found clear positivity to antibodies against mammalian tubulin, vimentin, GFAP, and actin, but not keratin. The simultaneous presence of several cytoskeletal components is consistent with the hypothesis that cephalopod chondrocytes have the characteristics of both chondrocytes and osteocytes of vertebrates, which endow the tissue as a whole with some of the properties of vertebrate bone. We confirm, therefore, the presence in molluscs of the ubiquitous cytoskeletal proteins of metazoan cells that have remained highly conserved throughout phylogenetic evolution.

  5. orthodenticle/otx ortholog expression in the anterior brain and eyes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Buresi, Auxane; Baratte, Sébastien; Da Silva, Corinne; Bonnaud, Laure


    The origin of cerebral structures is a major issue in both developmental and evolutionary biology. Among Lophotrochozoans, cephalopods present both a derived nervous system and an original body plan, therefore they constitute a key model to study the evolution of nervous system and molecular processes that control the neural organization. We characterized a partial sequence of an ortholog of otx2 in Sepia officinalis embryos, a gene specific to the anterior nervous system and eye development. By in situ hybridization, we assessed the expression pattern of otx2 during S. officinalis organogenesis and we showed that otx is expressed (1) in the eyes, from early to late developmental stages as observed in other species (2) in the nervous system during late developmental stages. The otx ortholog does not appear to be required for the precocious emergence of the nervous ganglia in cephalopods and is later expressed only in the most anterior ganglia of the future brain. Finally, otx expression becomes restricted to localized part of the brain, where it could be involved in the functional specification of the central nervous system of S. officinalis. These results suggest a conserved involvement of otx in eye maturation and development of the anterior neural structures in S. officinalis.

  6. ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).

    Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure


    New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of pulmonate gastropods (Mollusca): new insights from increased taxon sampling.

    Dayrat, Benoît; Conrad, Michele; Balayan, Shaina; White, Tracy R; Albrecht, Christian; Golding, Rosemary; Gomes, Suzete R; Harasewych, M G; Martins, António Manuel de Frias


    Phylogenetic relationships among higher clades of pulmonate gastropods are reconstructed based on a data set including one nuclear marker (complete ribosomal 18S) and two mitochondrial markers (partial ribosomal 16S and Cytochrome oxidase I) for a total of 96 species. Sequences for 66 of these species are new to science, with a special emphasis on sampling the Ellobiidae, Onchidiidae, and Veronicellidae. Important results include the monophyly of Systellommatophora (Onchidiidae and Veronicellidae) as well as the monophyly of Ellobiidae (including Trimusculus, Otina, and Smeagol). Relationships within Ellobiidae, Onchidiidae, and Veronicellidae are evaluated here for the first time using molecular data. Present results are compared with those from the recent literature, and the current knowledge of phylogenetic relationships among pulmonate gastropods is reviewed: despite many efforts, deep nodes are still uncertain. Identification uncertainties about early fossils of pulmonates are reviewed. Impacts of those phylogenetic and fossil record uncertainties on our understanding of the macro-evolutionary history of pulmonates, especially transitions between aquatic and terrestrial habitats, are discussed.

  8. p63 in Mytilus galloprovincialis and p53 family members in the phylum Mollusca.

    Stifanić, Mauro; Micić, Milena; Ramsak, Andreja; Blasković, Sanja; Ruso, Ana; Zahn, Rudolf K; Batel, Renato


    Genes of the p53 family are known to be critical regulators of the cell cycle. They have already been established as possible biomarkers. Elaborate regulation mechanisms result in numerous cDNA and protein isoforms being expressed from each gene of the p53 family. Their similarity caused an often misleading nomenclature in non-vertebrate species. The aim of the present work is a clarification of the nomenclature of molluscan p53 family sequences, an essential prerequisite for reliable interpretation of gene expression and protein function studies. Here, we report five partial cDNA and one partial genomic p63 sequences, all originating from two Mytilus galloprovincialis individuals. DNA, deduced protein sequences, and the exon/intron architecture were analyzed and compared to p53, p63 and p73 sequences from other organisms. Along with our sequences, we analyzed all similar molluscan sequences found in the GenBank database. The analysis showed our cDNA sequences code for the TAp63gamma isoform of the p63 protein, and identified all other molluscan p53 family sequences as p63 genes or their expression isoforms. Our results also indicate p63 as the ancestral gene of the p53 family as well as the only gene of the family present in non-chordate metazoan species.

  9. The Marine Mollusca of St. Martin, Lesser Antilles, collected by H.J. Krebs

    Coomans, H.E.


    In 1864 an anonymous list of species of the West Indian marine mollusks was published in Denmark. There were only twenty copies printed, seven of which were lost during transportation to the West Indies (CLENCH et al., 1947—1948, p. 23). The author was HENDRIK JOHANNES KREBS (1821—1907), Fig. 117, a

  10. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

    M. ANTIT


    Full Text Available The occurrences of non-indigenous marine molluscs in Tunisia are reviewed, based booth on a literature survey and on original material. Species are accepted as established if there are two independent reports, either geographically separate or at least one month apart in time. On these grounds, 14 species are accepted (12 alien and 2 expanding their range from elsewhere in the Mediterranean, 3 aliens need confirmation but are likely to meet the standards for acceptation on a short future, and 5 records are rebutted or questioned. Two more species may be considered as cryptogenic, the reports are reliable but it is not clear indication that they are not indigenous. Two of the alien species are reported for the first time in Tunisian waters: the nudibranch Polycerella emertoni qualifies as established, and the bivalve Anadara transversa is tentatively identified from a juvenile live-taken specimen, which awaits further confirmation.The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  11. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile


    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  12. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Juan Francisco Araya


    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  13. Nanostructure and crystallography of aberrant columnar vaterite in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca).

    Frenzel, Max; Harrison, Richard J; Harper, Elizabeth M


    Both the crystallographic and nanostructural organisation of aberrant columnar vaterite occurring in Corbicula fluminea were characterised in detail for the first time using electron microscopic and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. At the millimetre scale, only a confinement of the otherwise randomly oriented c-axis to the growth surface is observed. Domains of 100 or more individual vaterite columns with common c-axis orientation exist within this disordered material. Each column behaves as a single crystal on the scale of EBSD measurements, but is internally composed of smaller irregularly shaped and slightly misaligned crystalline units (0.3-1.3μm in dimension). These are in turn partitioned by porous boundaries into rounded nanodomains, up to 600nm in size. The geometry of the nanodomains and their respective boundaries might suggest formation by the accretion of vesicles. In addition to crystallographic textures, this observation indicates formation under significant biological control with wider implications for possible causes of the condition.

  14. Cellular biomarker responses of limpets (Mollusca as measure of sensitivity to cadmiumcontamination

    Koot Reinecke


    Full Text Available Due to the availability and chemical nature of some heavy metals, sub-lethal toxicant levels may persist in the ocean waters and may cause physiological problems and toxicity in invertebrates and other marine organisms. Although studies of metal concentrations in False Bay showed relatively low mean concentrations of Cd, invertebrates such as molluscs, crustaceans and many other groups are able to accumulate high levels of heavy metals in their tissues and still survive in the heaviest polluted areas. They can accumulate numerous pollutants from natural waters in quantities that are many orders of magnitude higher than background levels. Bioaccumulation ofcadmium in intertidal species could cause stress which may be measurable at the cellular level. A variety of limpet species that may serve as suitable ecotoxicological monitoring species occur in abundance on rocky shores along the South African coastline. The aim of this study was to obtain sensitivity data which could contribute to the selection of a suitable monitoring species and the eventual establishment of a species sensitivity distribution model (SSD with a biomarker responseas endpoint. The limpets Cymbula oculus, Scutellastra longicosta, Cymbula granatina and Scutellastragranularis as well as water samples were collected at two localities in False Bay, South Africa. Analysis of water and biological samples were done by atomic absorption spectrometry. Exposures were done to three different sublethal concentrations of cadmium in the laboratory in static flow tanks over three days. There was a moderate increase in cadmium body concentrations over time. Results obtained at three exposure concentrations showed no significant differences in metal concentrations between the different C. oculus samples. Significant differences were obtained between the control and the exposure groups for each exposure time except between the control and the 1mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 24 and 72 hours of exposure. Cd body concentrations(soft tissue varied between 4.56 and 21.41µg/g (wet mass.Mean Cd concentrations in soft tissue of S. longicosta was considerably lower (varying between 1.18 and 19.58 µg/g Cd than in the tissues of C. oculus. The control group differed significantly from the 0.8 and 1 mg/L CdCl2 exposures after 48 and 72 hours. Mean Cd body concentrations in S. granular is were the highest of all exposed species, reaching a level of 148 µg/g Cd at the highest exposure concentration and differed significantly from the means of the other samples of the 0.8 mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 72 hours and from the 1 mg/L CdCl2 group after 24 hours. Significant differences were also obtained between theCd body concentrations of C. granatina for the three exposure concentrations and three exposure times. Lysosomal membrane integrity was determined for both exposed and control animals, using the neutral red retention assay. Three of the four species showed a significant decrease in retention times with an increase in Cd concentration. Inter-species differences in sensitivity to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations were reflected in the biomarker responses. Based on reduction of NRR times, the order of relative sensitivity to cadmium was S. granularis >C. oculus> S. longicosta.> C.granatina. 

  15. On a collection of non-marine Mollusca from Curaçao

    Benthem Jutting, van Tera


    About ten years ago Dr. J. H. VERNHOUT, at that time curator at the National Museum of Natural History at Leiden, gave a commentary on the present state of our knowledge about the “Land- & Freshwater-Molluscs of the Dutch West-Indian Islands” (Notes Leyden Museum, Vol. XXXVI, pag. 177—189, 1914). Af

  16. Life history of the bathyal octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Mediterranean Sea

    Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; González, María; Franco, Ignacio


    The life cycle of the deep-sea octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus was studied from monthly samples obtained throughout the year in different areas of the western Mediterranean (mainly around the Balearic Islands and along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula). A total of 373 individuals (205 females, 168 males) were analyzed; females ranged from 4.5 to 14.0 cm mantle length (ML) and males from 4.5 to 11.5 cm ML. There were few small-sized octopuses (octopus inhabits the lower continental shelf and upper slope in both areas, primarily between 200 and 500 m depth. Modal lengths were followed from autumn, when recruits were caught by trawlers, to summer, when reproduction took place. Females grew from 8 to 10 cm ML from winter to spring, but this modal size did not increase further in summer; males grew from 7 to 9 cm ML from winter to spring. The total disappearance of large individuals after summer suggests a life cycle lasting a single year. The evolution of the monthly mean sizes showed that the growth was best described by log-linear functions in both sexes. The length at first maturity was clearly higher in females (12 cm ML) than in males (8 cm ML). A total of 30 different prey items, belonging to four major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes, cephalopods and gastropods), were identified in the stomach contents. The diet of the octopus was based on crustaceans and teleosts, which accounted for 75% and 23% of the prey items, respectively. Cephalopods and gastropods were accessory prey as they only represented 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of the total. The octopus showed a marked preference for the benthic fish Symphurus nigrescens and the endobenthic crustacean Alpheus glaber. The bathymetric distribution of P. tetracirrhus coincides with those of these two main prey, which suggests that the distribution of the octopus might be strongly linked to its trophic resources.

  17. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos


    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed.

  18. Changes in energetic metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae in response to exogenous calcium

    L. D. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is considered an essential element for the metabolism of aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Brazil, and represents a limiting factor to its distribution and adaptation to the environment. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of exogenous CaCO3 on the energetic metabolism of B. glabrata for better understanding the physiological interference of chemical elements dissolved in the environment with the physiology of this species. Sixty-day-old snails were distributed into six groups, five exposed to different concentrations of CaCO3 (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L and a control group. The exposure to CaCO3 was assessed over time, with analysis of 15 snails of each group in the following intervals: 1, 14, 21 or 30 days for hemolymph extraction. Concentrations of calcium and glucose in the hemolymph were determined by commercial kits, and organic acids were extracted using an ion exchange column and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentration of calcium in the hemolymph showed no significant difference (p>0.05 from the control group and between the concentrations tested. Concentration of glucose decreased (p<0.05 in the treatments of exposure to 20 and 40 mg/L and increased when exposed to 80 and 100 mg/L CaCO3 compared to control and to other concentrations tested over 30 days. The organic acids pyruvate, oxaloacetate, citrate, succinate, fumarate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and lactate presented increased concentrations, while propionate and acetoacetate, decreased concentrations, when exposed to CaCO3 compared to control. Considering the influence of different periods of exposure to CaCO3, on the 14th day, there were stronger alterations in the metabolism of B. glabrata. In conclusion, exposure to CaCO3 reduced the concentration of glucose, which is metabolized into pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, and also influenced the energetic metabolism pathways, indicating an aerobic or partially anaerobic functioning.

  19. A survey of locally endemic mollusca of Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a culmination of field, laboratory, and bibliographic work begun in August, 1974. The project as originally contracted called for a survey of Utah and...

  20. Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J


    The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and mineral components, provides a new insight into biomineralization mechanisms and controls.

  1. Genetics and shell morphometrics of assimineids (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa.

    Miranda, Nelson A F; van Rooyen, Ryan; MacDonald, Angus; Ponder, Winston; Perissinotto, Renzo


    The Assimineidae are a family of amphibious microgastropods that can be mostly found in estuaries and mangroves in South Africa. These snails often occur in great numbers and are ecologically important to the St Lucia Estuary, which forms a crucial part of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Genetic and shell morphometric analyses were conducted on individuals collected from nine localities distributed from the northern lake regions to the southern lake and the mouth of the St Lucia estuarine lake. Mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S) DNA was used to construct Bayesian Inference, Neighbour-joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood trees. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed on standard shell parameter data. Results indicate that two different taxa are present in St Lucia. The taxon comprising individuals from the South Lake and St Lucia Estuary Mouth is identified as Assiminea cf. capensis Bartsch, in accordance with the latest taxonomic consensus. The taxon comprising assimineid individuals from False Bay, North Lake and South Lake, is here tentatively named "Assiminea" aff. capensis (Sowerby). These two taxa exhibit patterns of spatial overlap that appear to vary depending on environmental parameters, particularly salinity. The need to resolve the complex taxonomy of assimineids is highlighted.

  2. Taxonomy of some Galeommatoidea (Mollusca, Bivalvia associated with deep-sea echinoids

    Graham Oliver


    Full Text Available The type species of Axinodon ellipticus Verrill & Bush, 1898 and Kellia symmetros Jeffreys, 1876 are re-described. It is concluded that the two species are not conspecific and that K. symmetros cannot be placed in the genus Axinodon. The family affinity of Axinodon is not resolved, although it is probable that this genus belongs to the Thyasiridae. Kellia symmetros is the type species of Kelliola and is placed in the Montacutidae. Kelliola symmetros is most probably associated with the echinoid Aeropsis rostrata and is not the species previously recorded from North Atlantic Pourtalesia echinoids under the name of Axinodon symmetros. This commensal associated with the North Atlantic Pourtalesia is here described as new and placed in the new genus as Syssitomya pourtalesium gen. nov. sp. nov., Syssitomya gen. nov. differs from all other genera in the Montacutidae by having laminar gill filaments modified for harbouring symbiotic bacteria and it is thus assumed to be chemosymbiotic. A montacutid associated with the hadal Pourtalesia heptneri is described as Ptilomyax hadalis gen. nov. sp. nov.

  3. Redescription of Hiatella meridionalis d'Orbigny, 1846 (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hiatellidae from Argentina

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone


    Full Text Available The redescription of Hiatella meridionalis (d’Orbigny, 1846 is provided as first attempt to improve the systematics of the genus in the regions of Atlantic and western Pacific. This reanalysis is based on specimens collected in the vicinity of the type localities and is based on detailed morphology of samples that some researches consider a single, wide ranging species. From the morphological characters, the more interesting are: a high quantity of papillae at incurrent siphon; the retractor muscles of siphon divided in two bundles; the small size of the palps; the muscular ring in the stomach; and the zigzag fashion of the short intestinal loops. These characters distinguish the species from the other hiatellids so far examined. Type material of the species was examined, by first time illustrated, and the lectotype is designated.A redescrição de Hiatella meridionalis (d’Orbigny, 1846 é realizada como primeiro passo na melhoria da sistemática do gênero das regiões atlântica e pacífica oeste. Esta re-análise é baseada em espécimes coletados nas vizinhanças da localidade tipo e em morfologia detalhada de amostras que alguns pesquisadores consideram pertencer a uma única espécie de ampla distribuição. Dos caracteres anatômicos, os mais interessantes são: uma grande quantidade de papilas no sifão inalante; o músculo retrator dos sifões dividido em duas porções; o tamanho pequeno dos palpos; um anel muscular transversal no estomago; e um padrão em zigzag no curto intestino. Estes caracteres distinguem a espécie dos demais hiatelídeos até então examinados. Os sintipos da espécie foram também examinados e pela primeira vez ilustrados; o lectótipo é designado.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships among the family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) inferred from two mitochondrial DNA gene sequences.

    Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, N; Sakai, M; Ichii, T; Chow, S


    Squids of the family Ommastrephidae are distributed worldwide, and the family includes many species of commercial importance. To investigate phylogenetic relationships among squid species of the family Ommastrephidae, partial nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial gene loci (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [1277bp] and 16S rRNA [443bp]) of 15 ommastrephid species and two outgroup species from the families Loliginidae and Enoploteuthidae were determined and used to construct parsimony and distance based phylogenetic trees. The molecular data provided several new phylogenetic inferences. The monophyletic status of three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae and Ommastrephinae) was well supported, although phylogenetic relationships between the subfamilies were not resolved. Inclusion of a problematic species, Ornithoteuthis volatilis, to Todarodinae was indicated. Within Todarodinae, the Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus was observed to have much closer relationship to the species of the genus Nototodarus than to its congener (Todarodes filippovae). These results indicate that re-evaluation of several morphological key characters for ommastrephid taxonomy may be necessary.

  5. Freshwater bivalve mollusca (unionidae, sphaeriidae, corbiculidae) of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    Britton, J.C.; Fuller, S.L.H.


    A guide to freshwater bivalve molluscs found at the Savannah River Plant is presented. A dichotomous taxonomic key is provided to common forms and to unreported species whose geographic distributions include nearby localities. Discussions of ecology, life history, larval hosts, and other pertinent information is provided. (ACR)

  6. Finer sculptures in euthecosomatous shells, and their value for taxonomy (Mollusca, Pteropoda)

    Spoel, van der S.


    The protoconch in Limacina helicoides, Peraclis moluccensis, Styliola subula, Cavolinia globulosa, C. gibbosa, C. inflexa and C. longirostris are described; finer structures of the shell in these species and Hyalocylis striata, Diacra quadridentata and Cavolinia tridentata are described. The occurre

  7. Anatomia comparada do gênero Doris (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Dorididae) do litoral brasileiro


    O gênero Doris está representado no Brasil por quatro espécies: Doris verrucosa, Doris bovena, Doris ilo e Doris kyolis, a maioria delas com um histórico taxonômico confuso. Através da revisão taxonômica do gênero Doris, do estudo da anatomia comparada entre as espécies e com dados da literatura foi possível separar D. verrucosa em duas espécies, mantendo D. verrucosa como a espécie com distribuição para a Europa e Mar Mediterrâneo e Doris januarii, um sinônimo revalidado, com distribuição pa...

  8. Aspectos taxon??micos y biol??gicos de los doridoidea (mollusca :nudibranchia) del litoral granadino


    Se han colectado ejemplares pertenecientes a 62 especies de doriodideos, de los cuales 18 son fanerobranquios y 44 criptobranquios. Entre los fanerobranquios 5 pertenecen a la familia Goniodorididae, 3 a la familia Onchidorididae, 1 a la familia Aegiretidae, 1 a la familia Triophidae y 8 a la familia Polyceridade. Dentro de los criptobranquios se distinguen dos clados, los labiostomados y los porostomados. Entre las especies adscritas al primero de estos clados, 13 pertenecen a la familia Chr...

  9. Morfología del aparato digestivo de Enteroctopus megalocyathus y Loligo sanpaulensis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda)

    Garri Rosana; Ré María Edith


    A detailed description of the morphology of the digestive organs of Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852) and Loligo sanpaulensis Brakoniecki, 1984 is given. The mandibles, the crop diverticulum, a doubly coiled caecum, the loop of the medium intestine and the appendages of the digestive gland are first described for E. megalocyathus. The most outstanding finding in L. sanpaulensis is the location of the single posterior salivary gland, wholly embedded in the digestive gland.

  10. Morfología del aparato digestivo de Enteroctopus megalocyathus y Loligo sanpaulensis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda

    Garri Rosana


    Full Text Available A detailed description of the morphology of the digestive organs of Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 and Loligo sanpaulensis Brakoniecki, 1984 is given. The mandibles, the crop diverticulum, a doubly coiled caecum, the loop of the medium intestine and the appendages of the digestive gland are first described for E. megalocyathus. The most outstanding finding in L. sanpaulensis is the location of the single posterior salivary gland, wholly embedded in the digestive gland.

  11. The Genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean (Oregonian and Californian Provinces)

    Eernisse, D.J.


    The systematics of the northeastern Pacific Lepidochitona from the Californian and Oregonian Provinces (western continental United States) is presented and discussed. Three new species are described: L. caverna spec. nov. and L. berryana spec. nov. from California, and L. fernaldi spec. nov. from Wa

  12. A new genus and species of cavernicolous Pomatiopsidae (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda in Bahia, Brazil

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone


    Full Text Available Spiripockia punctatais a new genus and species of Pomatiopsidae found in a cave from Serra Ramalho, SW Bahia, Brazil. The taxon is troglobiont (restricted to subterranean realm, and is characterized by the shell weakly elongated, fragile, translucent, normally sculptured by pustules with periostracum hair on tip of pustules; peristome highly expanded; umbilicus opened; radular rachidian with 6 apical and 3 pairs of lateral cusps; osphradium short, arched; gill filaments with rounded tip; prostate flattened, with vas deferens inserting subterminally; penis duct narrow and weakly sinuous; pallial oviduct simple anteriorly, possessing convoluted bypass connecting base of bulged portion of transition between visceral and pallial oviducts with base of seminal receptacle; spermathecal duct complete, originated from albumen gland. The description of this endemic species may raise protective environmental actions to that cave and to the Serra Ramalho Karst area.

  13. Morfologia y biologia de Bostryx conspersus (Sowerby (Mollusca, Bulimulidae en las lomas costeras del Peru Central

    Rina Ramírez


    Full Text Available Morphological and biological observations on populations of the land snail Bostryx conspersus, in three "Lomas"of the Central Coast of Peru, were carried out between 1979 and 1982. Three shell color varieties of B. conspersus are reponed herein, as well as its aestivation, activity and reproduction strategies. The possible interactions of B. conspersus with a dipteron (Scaptomyza sp.; Drosophilidae and a nematode species are also discussed.

  14. Two interconnected kernels of reciprocally inhibitory interneurons underlie alternating left-right swim motor pattern generation in the mollusk Melibe leonina.

    Sakurai, Akira; Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S


    The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying the rhythmic swimming behavior of the nudibranch Melibe leonina (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) has been described as a simple half-center oscillator consisting of two reciprocally inhibitory pairs of interneurons called swim interneuron 1 (Si1) and swim interneuron 2 (Si2). In this study, we identified two additional pairs of interneurons that are part of the swim CPG: swim interneuron 3 (Si3) and swim interneuron 4 (Si4). The somata of Si3 and Si4 were both located in the pedal ganglion, near that of Si2, and both had axons that projected through the pedal commissure to the contralateral pedal ganglion. These neurons fulfilled the criteria for inclusion as members of the swim CPG: 1) they fired at a fixed phase in relation to Si1 and Si2, 2) brief changes in their activity reset the motor pattern, 3) prolonged changes in their activity altered the periodicity of the motor pattern, 4) they had monosynaptic connections with each other and with Si1 and Si2, and 5) their synaptic actions helped explain the phasing of the motor pattern. The results of this study show that the motor pattern has more complex internal dynamics than a simple left/right alternation of firing; the CPG circuit appears to be composed of two kernels of reciprocally inhibitory neurons, one consisting of Si1, Si2, and the contralateral Si4 and the other consisting of Si3. These two kernels interact with each other to produce a stable rhythmic motor pattern.

  15. 中国近海刍秣螺亚科的研究(腹足纲,骨螺科)%Study on species of Ocenbrinae from the China coasts(Gastro-poda: Muricidae)



    This paper deals with species of the Ocenebrinae(Gastropoda: Muricidae)collected from China coast waters, which occur the Bohai, Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and live in the low-tidal level or in shallow water or deeper, living on rocks or sandy gravel bottom. Subfamily Ocenebrinae was studied on population quantity, distribution and ecological habitat using traditional morphological taxonomic methods based on the mollusca collections of Institute of Oceanology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Of the 9 i-dentified species belonging to 4 genera, 1 species was recorded for the first time in China(with asterisk*)%为了摸清中国沿海分布的刍秣螺亚科(Ocenebrinae)的物种数量,以及分布状况和生活习性,完成刍秣螺亚科的系统分类研究.采用传统的形态分类学方法,对中国科学院海洋研究所历年来在中国沿海采集的刍秫螺亚科标本进行了整理分类,共鉴定出刍秣螺亚科4属,9种,其中1种在中国沿海为首次报道.文中对刍秣螺亚科动物的形态特征、习性及地理分布等进行了较详细的描述.

  16. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Daniela Lupi


    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  17. The endocrine disruptor effect of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.

    Omran, Nahla Elsayed; Salama, Wesam Mohamed


    Atrazine (AZ) and glyphosate (GL) are herbicides that are widely applied to cereal crops in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate the response of the snailBiomphalaria alexandrina(Mollusca: Gastropoda) as a bioindicator for endocrine disrupters in terms of steroid levels (testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E)), alteration of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity, total protein (TP) level, and gonadal structure after exposure to sublethal concentrations of AZ or GL for 3 weeks. In order to study the ability of the snails' recuperation, the exposed snails were subjected to a recovery period for 2 weeks. The results showed that the level of T, E, and TP contents were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) in both AZ- and GL-exposed groups compared with control (unexposed) group. The level of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in GL- and AZ-exposed snails and reach nearly a 50% increase in AZ-exposed group. Histological investigation of the ovotestis showed that AZ and GL caused degenerative changes including azoospermia and oocytes deformation. Interestingly, all the recovered groups did not return back to their normal state. It can be concluded that both herbicides are endocrine disrupters and cause cellular toxicity indicated by the decrease of protein content and the increase in CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity. This toxicity is irreversible and the snail is not able to recover its normal state. The fluctuation of CYP4501B1 suggests that this vertebrate-like enzyme may be functional also in the snail and may be used as a biomarker for insecticide toxicity.

  18. Deep mRNA sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea brain transcriptome provides access to gene homologues for neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and peptidergic signalling.

    Adriano Senatore

    Full Text Available The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level.We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes. BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA.Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain.

  19. Genetic isolation by distance among populations of the netted dog whelk Nassarius reticulatus (L.) along the European Atlantic coastline.

    Couceiro, Lucía; Barreiro, Rodolfo; Ruiz, José M; Sotka, Erik E


    Estimates of the average distances by which marine larvae disperse are generally poorly described, despite the central role that larval dispersal plays in the demographic connectivity of populations across geographic space. Here, we describe the population genetic structure and average dispersal distance of the netted dog whelk Nassarius reticulatus (L.) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Prosobranchia), a widespread member of European intertidal communities, using DNA sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). An analysis of 156 individuals from 6 locations spread across approximately 1700 km of the European Atlantic coastline revealed weak and nonsignificant population structure (overall Phi(ST) = 0.00013). However, pairwise Phi(ST) values revealed a slight but significant increase in genetic isolation with geographic distance (IBD), suggesting that populations are not panmictic across the sampled geographic range. If we assume that the isolation by distance is maintained by a stable, stepping stone model of gene flow, then the slope of the IBD is consistent with an average larval dispersal distance of approximately 70 km per generation. The spatial scale of larval dispersal in N. reticulatus is consistent with the life cycle of the species (planktotrophic veliger lasting 30-60 days before competent to settle). A mismatch analysis of the COI sequences revealed a signature of an ancient demographic expansion that began 61 500-160,000 years ago, well before the most recent Pleistocene glaciation event. The greatest levels of genetic diversity occur within the middle latitudes of the whelk's geographic range, consistent with the notion that historic populations of N. reticulatus might have expanded northward and southward from the centrally located Bay of Biscay.

  20. Reexamination of the species assignment of Diacavolinia pteropods using DNA barcoding.

    Amy E Maas

    Full Text Available Thecosome pteropods (Mollusca, Gastropoda are an ecologically important, diverse, and ubiquitous group of holoplanktonic animals that are the focus of intense research interest due to their external aragonite shell and vulnerability to ocean acidification. Characterizing the response of these animals to low pH and other environmental stressors has been hampered by continued uncertainty in their taxonomic identification. An example of this confusion in species assignment is found in the genus Diacavolinia. All members of this genus were originally indentified as a single species, Cavolinia longirostris, but over the past fifty years the taxonomy has been revisited multiple times; currently the genus comprises 22 different species. This study examines five species of Diacavolinia, including four sampled in the Northeast Atlantic (78 individuals and one from the Eastern tropical North Pacific (15 individuals. Diacavolina were identified to species based on morphological characteristics according to the current taxonomy, photographed, and then used to determine the sequence of the "DNA barcoding" region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI. Specimens from the Atlantic, despite distinct differences in shell morphology, showed polyphyly and a genetic divergence of <3% (K2P distance whereas the Pacific and Atlantic samples were more distant (≈ 19%. Comparisons of Diacavolinia spp. with other Cavolinia spp. reveal larger distances (≈ 24%. These results indicate that specimens from the Atlantic comprise a single monophyletic species and suggest possible species-level divergence between Atlantic and Pacific populations. The findings support the maintenance of Diacavolinia as a separate genus, yet emphasize the inadequacy of our current taxonomic understanding of pteropods. They highlight the need for accurate species identifications to support estimates of biodiversity, range extent and natural exposure of these planktonic calcifiers to