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Sample records for opioid receptor exon

  1. Corelation Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Mu Opioid Receptor Exon 2 and Stereotypic Behaviour in Sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianhong; BAO Jun; CUI Weiguo

    2008-01-01

    Three breeds of sows were observed to investigate the relationship between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in Mu Opioid Receptor (MOR) and stereotypic behaviour, such as, sham-chewing, bar biting and standing still in order to better understand the mechanism of stereotypic development of the animals in restrained conditions. MOR exon 2 partial sequences were amplified to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms by PCR-SSCE One SNP, a silence mutant was found. A significant difference (P<0.01) was found in the frequency of genotypes in these 3 breeds where only the BB genotype, which was identical to that published in GenBank, was found in the Duroc breed, while no AA genotype was found in Landrace, 3 genotypes AA, BB and AB were found in Yorkshire. The result also indicated that the individuals with AA and AB genotypes tended to be more active in sham-chewing than those with the BB genotype (P<0.05). The overall results of this study suggested that sham-chewing of sows may be subjected to both genetic control and environmental conditions, but activity level was more likely to be affected by their environment. We can putatively draw the conclusion that MOR gene has effect on the sham-chewing behavioral traits of sow.

  2. Opioid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are the oldest and most potent drugs for the treatment of severe pain. Their clinical application is undisputed in acute (e.g., postoperative) and cancer pain, but their long-term use in chronic pain has met increasing scrutiny. This article reviews mechanisms underlying opioid analgesia and other opioid actions. It discusses the structure, function, and plasticity of opioid receptors; the central and peripheral sites of analgesic actions and side effects; endogenous and exogenous opioid receptor ligands; and conventional and novel opioid compounds. Challenging clinical situations, such as the tension between chronic pain and addiction, are also illustrated.

  3. Broad spectrum analgesic efficacy of IBNtxA is mediated by exon 11-associated splice variants of the mu-opioid receptor gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieskopf, Jeffrey S.; Pan, Ying-Xian; Marcovitz, Jaclyn; Tuttle, Alexander H.; Majumdar, Susruta; Pidakala, John

    2014-01-01

    Mu-opioids remain vastly important for the treatment of pain, and would represent ideal analgesics if their analgesic effects could be separated from their many side effects. A recently synthesized compound, iodobenzoylnaltrexamide (IBNtxA), acting at 6-transmembrane (6-TM) splice variants of the mu-opioid receptor gene, was shown to have potent analgesic actions against acute, thermal pain accompanied by a vastly improved side-effect profile compared to 7-TM-acting drugs such as morphine. Whether such analgesia can be seen in longer-lasting and non-thermal algesiometric assays is not known. The current study demonstrates potent and efficacious IBNtxA inhibition of a wide variety of assays, including inflammatory and neuropathic hypersensitivity and spontaneous pain. We further demonstrate the dependence of such analgesia on 6-TM mu-opioid receptor variants using isobolographic analysis and the testing of Oprm1 (the mu-opioid receptor gene) exon 11 null mutant mice. Finally, the effect of nerve damage (spared nerve injury) and inflammatory injury (complete Freund’s adjuvant) on expression of mu-opioid receptor variant genes in pain-relevant central nervous system loci was examined, revealing a downregulation of the mMOR-1D splice variant in the dorsal root ganglion after spared nerve injury. These findings are supportive of the potential value of 6-TM-acting drugs as novel analgesics. PMID:25093831

  4. Mu Opioid Receptor Gene: New Point Mutations in Opioid Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Dinarvand, Amin; Goodarzi, Ali; Vousooghi, Nasim; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Dinarvand, Rasoul; Ostadzadeh, Fahimeh; Khoshzaban, Ahad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mu opioid receptor gene and drug addiction has been shown in various studies. Here, we have evaluated the existence of polymorphisms in exon 3 of this gene in Iranian population and investigated the possible association between these mutations and opioid addiction. Methods 79 opioid-dependent subjects (55 males, 24 females) and 134 non-addict or control individuals (74 males, 60 females) participated in the study. Geno...

  5. The N-terminally truncated µ3 and µ3-like opioid receptors are transcribed from a novel promoter upstream of exon 2 in the human OPRM1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Andersen

    Full Text Available The human µ opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, produces a multitude of alternatively spliced transcripts encoding full-length or truncated receptor variants with distinct pharmacological properties. The majority of these transcripts are transcribed from the main promoter upstream of exon 1, or from alternate promoters associated with exons 11 and 13. Two distinct transcripts encoding six transmembrane domain (6TM hMOR receptors, µ3 and µ3-like, have been reported, both starting with the first nucleotide in exon 2. However, no mechanism explaining their initiation at exon 2 has been presented. Here we have used RT-PCR with RNA from human brain tissues to demonstrate that the µ3 and µ3-like transcripts contain nucleotide sequences from the intron 1-exon 2 boundary and are transcribed from a novel promoter located upstream of exon 2. Reporter gene assays confirmed the ability of the novel promoter to drive transcription in human cells, albeit at low levels. We also report the identification of a "full-length" seven transmembrane domain (7TM version of µ3, hMOR-1A2, which also contains exon 1, and a novel transcript, hMOR-1Y2, with the potential to encode the previously reported hMOR-1Y receptor, but with exon Y spliced to exon 4 instead of exon 5 as in hMOR-1Y. Heterologous expression of GFP-tagged hMOR variants in HEK 293 cells showed that both 6TM receptors were retained in the intracellular compartment and were unresponsive to exogenous opioid exposure as assessed by their ability to redistribute or affect cellular cAMP production, or to promote intracellular Ca(2+ release. Co-staining with an antibody specific for endoplasmic reticulum (ER indicated that the µ3-like receptor was retained at the ER after synthesis. 7TM receptors hMOR-1A2 and hMOR-1Y2 resided in the plasma membrane, and were responsive to opioids. Notably, hMOR-1A2 exhibits novel functional properties in that it did not internalize in response to the opioid peptide [D-Ala2, N

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of aryl-naloxamide opiate analgesics targeting truncated exon 11-associated μ opioid receptor (MOR-1) splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Susruta; Subrath, Joan; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Polikar, Lisa; Burgman, Maxim; Nagakura, Kuni; Ocampo, Julie; Haselton, Nathan; Pasternak, Anna R; Grinnell, Steven; Pan, Ying-Xian; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2012-07-26

    3-Iodobenzoylnaltrexamide 1 (IBNtxA) is a potent analgesic acting through a novel receptor target that lack many side-effects of traditional opiates composed, in part, of exon 11-associated truncated six transmembrane domain MOR-1 (6TM/E11) splice variants. To better understand the SAR of this drug target, a number of 4,5-epoxymorphinan analogues were synthesized. Results show the importance of a free 3-phenolic group, a phenyl ring at the 6 position, an iodine at the 3'or 4' position of the phenyl ring, and an N-allyl or c-propylmethyl group to maintain high 6TM/E11 affinity and activity. 3-Iodobenzoylnaloxamide 15 (IBNalA) with a N-allyl group displayed lower δ opioid receptor affinity than its naltrexamine analogue, was 10-fold more potent an analgesic than morphine, elicited no respiratory depression or physical dependence, and only limited inhibition of gastrointestinal transit. Thus, the aryl-naloxamide scaffold can generate a potent analgesic acting through the 6TM/E11 sites with advantageous side-effect profile and greater selectivity.

  7. The evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Craig W.

    2009-01-01

    The proteins that mediate the analgesic and other effects of opioid drugs and endogenous opioid peptides are known as opioid receptors. Opioid receptors consist of a family of four closely-related proteins belonging to the large superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The three types of opioid receptors shown unequivocally to mediate analgesia in animal models are the mu (MOR), delta (DOR), and kappa (KOR) opioid receptor proteins. The role of the fourth member of the opioid receptor fami...

  8. Opioids and their peripheral receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Amato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The inflammation of peripheral tissues leads the primary afferent neurons, in particular at the cell bodies level located in the DRG (dorsal root ganglia, to an increased synthesis of opioid receptors: determining an “up-regulation”. After that opioid receptors are transported at the level of the nociceptive terminals, they are incorporated into the neuronal membrane becoming functional receptors. The above receptor proteins bind to opioid produced by immune cells or the exogenous ones. This leads to a direct or indirect suppression of the Ca2+ currents induced by TRPV1 or the currents of the Na+, resulting in neuronal reduced excitability and in transmitted signals decrease. The observation that the immune system is able to modulate the pain by ligands that interact with the opioid receptors located on sensory neurons, may have broad implications for the development of innovative and safer pain drugs.

  9. Overview of genetic analysis of human opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Santi M

    2015-01-01

    The human μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), due to its genetic and structural variation, has been a target of interest in several pharmacogenetic studies. The μ-opioid receptor (MOR), encoded by OPRM1, contributes to regulate the analgesic response to pain and also controls the rewarding effects of many drugs of abuse, including opioids, nicotine, and alcohol. Genetic polymorphisms of opioid receptors are candidates for the variability of clinical opioid effects. The non-synonymous polymorphism A118G of the OPRM1 has been repeatedly associated with the efficacy of opioid treatments for pain and various types of dependence. Genetic analysis of human opioid receptors has evidenced the presence of numerous polymorphisms either in exonic or in intronic sequences as well as the presence of synonymous coding variants that may have important effects on transcription, mRNA stability, and splicing, thus affecting gene function despite not directly disrupting any specific residue. Genotyping of opioid receptors is still in its infancy and a relevant progress in this field can be achieved by using advanced gene sequencing techniques described in this review that allow the researchers to obtain vast quantities of data on human genomes and transcriptomes in a brief period of time and with affordable costs.

  10. ZFOR2, a new opioid receptor-like gene from the teleost zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrallo, A; González-Sarmiento, R; Alvar, F; Rodríguez, R E

    2000-12-08

    A new opioid receptor-like (ZFOR2) has been cloned and characterized in an anamniote vertebrate, the teleost zebrafish (Danio rerio). ZFOR2 encodes a 384-amino-acid protein with seven potential transmembrane domains, and its predicted amino acid sequence presents an overall 74% degree of identity to mammalian mu opioid receptors. Its inclusion in a dendrogram generated from the alignment of the opioid receptor's protein sequences, confirms its classification as a mu opioid receptor. Divergences in sequence are greater in the regions corresponding to extracellular loops, suggesting possible differences in ligand selectivity with respect to the classical mu opioid receptors. The genomic structure of ZFOR2 is also highly conserved throughout the phylogenetic scale, supporting the origin of opioid receptors early in evolution. Nevertheless, ZFOR2 lacks the fourth exon found in human and rodent mu opioid receptors, that is known to be involved in desensibilization and internalization processes.

  11. Opioid receptor trafficking and interaction in nociceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Bao, L; Li, S

    2015-01-01

    Opiate analgesics such as morphine are often used for pain therapy. However, antinociceptive tolerance and dependence may develop with long-term use of these drugs. It was found that μ-opioid receptors can interact with δ-opioid receptors, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance can be reduced by blocking δ-opioid receptors. Recent studies have shown that μ- and δ-opioid receptors are co-expressed in a considerable number of small neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. The interaction of μ-opioid receptors with δ-opioid receptors in the nociceptive afferents is facilitated by the stimulus-induced cell-surface expression of δ-opioid receptors, and contributes to morphine tolerance. Further analysis of the molecular, cellular and neural circuit mechanisms that regulate the trafficking and interaction of opioid receptors and related signalling molecules in the pain pathway would help to elucidate the mechanism of opiate analgesia and improve pain therapy. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24611685

  12. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging of Opioid Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Absalom, Anthony; Visser, Anniek; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; De Vries, Erik FJ; Van Waarde, Aren; Luiten, Paul GM

    2014-01-01

    The opioid system consists of opioid receptors (which mediate the actions of opium), their endogenous ligands (the enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins, dynorphin, and nociceptin), and the proteins involved in opioid production, transport, and degradation. PET tracers for the various opioid recepto

  13. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging of Opioid Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Absalom, Anthony; Visser, Anniek; Dierckx, Rudi; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; De Vries, Erik FJ; Van Waarde, Aren; Luiten, Paul GM

    2014-01-01

    The opioid system consists of opioid receptors (which mediate the actions of opium), their endogenous ligands (the enkephalins, endorphins, endomorphins, dynorphin, and nociceptin), and the proteins involved in opioid production, transport, and degradation. PET tracers for the various opioid

  14. The delta opioid receptor tool box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Sanchez, Ana; Segura, Laura; Pradhan, Amynah A

    2016-12-03

    In recent years, the delta opioid receptor has attracted increasing interest as a target for the treatment of chronic pain and emotional disorders. Due to their therapeutic potential, numerous tools have been developed to study the delta opioid receptor from both a molecular and a functional perspective. This review summarizes the most commonly available tools, with an emphasis on their use and limitations. Here, we describe (1) the cell-based assays used to study the delta opioid receptor. (2) The features of several delta opioid receptor ligands, including peptide and non-peptide drugs. (3) The existing approaches to detect delta opioid receptors in fixed tissue, and debates that surround these techniques. (4) Behavioral assays used to study the in vivo effects of delta opioid receptor agonists; including locomotor stimulation and convulsions that are induced by some ligands, but not others. (5) The characterization of genetically modified mice used specifically to study the delta opioid receptor. Overall, this review aims to provide a guideline for the use of these tools with the final goal of increasing our understanding of delta opioid receptor physiology.

  15. Pharmacological Profiles of Oligomerized μ-Opioid Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Ing-Kang Ho; Cynthia Wei-Sheng Lee

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are widely prescribed pain relievers with multiple side effects and potential complications. They produce analgesia via G-protein-protein coupled receptors: μ-, δ-, κ-opioid and opioid receptor-like 1 receptors. Bivalent ligands targeted to the oligomerized opioid receptors might be the key to developing analgesics without undesired side effects and obtaining effective treatment for opioid addicts. In this review we will update the biological effects of μ-opioids on homo- or hetero-ol...

  16. Activation profiles of opioid ligands in HEK cells expressing δ opioid receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Clark J; Demirci Hasan; Gharagozlou Parham; Lameh Jelveh

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to characterize the activation profiles of 15 opioid ligands in transfected human embryonic kidney cells expressing only δ opioid receptors. Activation profiles of most of these ligands at δ opioid receptors had not been previously characterized in vitro. Receptor activation was assessed by measuring the inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Results Naltrexone and nalorphine were classified as antagonists at δ opioid receptor....

  17. In vivo opioid receptor heteromerization: where do we stand?

    OpenAIRE

    Massotte, D

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors are highly homologous GPCRs that modulate brain function at all levels of neural integration, including autonomous, sensory, emotional and cognitive processing. Opioid receptors functionally interact in vivo, but the underlying mechanisms involving direct receptor–receptor interactions, affecting signalling pathways or engaging different neuronal circuits, remain unsolved. Heteromer formation through direct physical interaction between two opioid receptors or between an opioi...

  18. Opioid receptors: toward separation of analgesic from undesirable effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ping-Yee; Reggio, Patricia H; Loh, Horace H

    2013-06-01

    The use of opioid analgesics for pain has always been hampered by their many side effects; in particular, the addictive liability associated with chronic use. Recently, attempts to develop analgesic agents with reduced side effects have targeted either the putative opioid receptor splice variants or the receptor hetero-oligomers. This review discusses the potential for receptor splice variant- and the hetero-oligomer-based discovery of new opioid analgesics. We also examine an alternative approach of using receptor mutants for pain management. Finally, we discuss the role of the biased agonism observed and the recently reported opioid receptor crystal structures in guiding the future development of opioid analgesics.

  19. Opioid Receptors: Toward Separation of Analgesic from Undesirable Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, P.Y.; Reggio, Patricia H.; Loh, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The use of opioid analgesics for pain has always been hampered by their many side effects; in particular, the addictive liability associated with chronic use. Recently, attempts to develop analgesic agents with reduced side effects have targeted either the putative opioid receptor splice variants or the receptor heterooligomers. This review discusses the potential for receptor splice variant- and the hetero-oligomer-based discovery of new opioid analgesics. We also examine an alternative approach of using receptor mutants for pain management. Finally, we discuss the role of the biased agonism observed and the recently reported opioid receptor crystal structures in guiding the future development of opioid analgesics PMID:23598157

  20. Anatomical and functional correlation of the endomorphins with mu opioid receptor splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbadie, C; Rossi, G C; Orciuolo, A; Zadina, J E; Pasternak, G W

    2002-09-01

    The present study characterizes the relationship between the endogenous mu opioid peptides endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and endomorphin-2 (EM-2) and several splice variants of the cloned mu opioid receptor (MOR-1) encoded by the mu opioid receptor gene (Oprm). Confocal laser microscopy revealed that fibers containing EM-2-like immunoreactivity (-LI) were distributed in close apposition to fibers showing MOR-1-LI (exon 4-LI) and to MOR-1C-LI (exons 7/8/9-LI) in the superficial laminae of the lumbar spinal cord. We also observed colocalization of EM-2-LI and MOR-1-LI in a few fibers of lamina II, and colocalization of EM-2-LI and MOR-1C-LI in laminae I-II, and V-VI. To assess the functional relevance of the MOR-1 variants in endomorphin analgesia, we examined the effects of antisense treatments that targeted individual exons within the Oprm1 gene on EM-1 and EM-2 analgesia in the tail flick test. This antisense mapping study implied mu opioid receptor mechanisms for the endomorphins are distinct from those of morphine or morphine-6beta-glucuronide (M6G).

  1. Opioid tolerance and the emergence of new opioid receptor-coupled signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gintzler, A R; Chakrabarti, S

    2000-01-01

    Multiple cellular adaptations are elicited by chronic exposure to opioids. These include diminution of spare opioid receptors, decreased opioid receptor density, and G-protein content and coupling thereof. All imply that opioid tolefance is a manifestation of a loss of opioid function, i.e., desensitization. Recent observations challenge the exclusiveness of this formulation and indicate that opioid tolerance also results from qualitative changes in opioid signaling. In this article, Gintzler and Chakrabarti discuss the evidence that suggests that opioid tolerance results not only from impaired opioid receptor functionality, but also from altered consequences of coupling. Underlying the latter are fundamental changes in the nature of effectors that are coupled to the opioid receptor/G-protein signaling pathway. These molecular changes include the upregulation of adenylyl cyclase isoforms of the type II family as well as a substantial increase in their phosphorylation state. As a result, there is a shift in opioid receptor/G-protein signaling from predominantly Gialpha inhibitory to Gbetagamma stimulatory following chronic in vivo morphine exposure. These adaptations to chronic morphine indicate the plasticity of opioid-signal transduction mechanisms and the ability of chronic morphine to augment new signaling strategies.

  2. Computer Modeling of Human Delta Opioid Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Dzimbova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of selective agonists of δ-opioid receptor as well as the model of interaction of ligands with this receptor is the subjects of increased interest. In the absence of crystal structures of opioid receptors, 3D homology models with different templates have been reported in the literature. The problem is that these models are not available for widespread use. The aims of our study are: (1 to choose within recently published crystallographic structures templates for homology modeling of the human δ-opioid receptor (DOR; (2 to evaluate the models with different computational tools; and (3 to precise the most reliable model basing on correlation between docking data and in vitro bioassay results. The enkephalin analogues, as ligands used in this study, were previously synthesized by our group and their biological activity was evaluated. Several models of DOR were generated using different templates. All these models were evaluated by PROCHECK and MolProbity and relationship between docking data and in vitro results was determined. The best correlations received for the tested models of DOR were found between efficacy (erel of the compounds, calculated from in vitro experiments and Fitness scoring function from docking studies. New model of DOR was generated and evaluated by different approaches. This model has good GA341 value (0.99 from MODELLER, good values from PROCHECK (92.6% of most favored regions and MolProbity (99.5% of favored regions. Scoring function correlates (Pearson r = -0.7368, p-value = 0.0097 with erel of a series of enkephalin analogues, calculated from in vitro experiments. So, this investigation allows suggesting a reliable model of DOR. Newly generated model of DOR receptor could be used further for in silico experiments and it will give possibility for faster and more correct design of selective and effective ligands for δ-opioid receptor.

  3. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  4. Interaction of the mu-opioid receptor with GPR177 (Wntless) inhibits Wnt secretion: potential implications for opioid dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Stagljar Igor; Van Bockstaele Elisabeth J; Reyes Beverly AS; Wong Victoria; Kittanakom Saranya; Jin Jay; Berrettini Wade; Levenson Robert

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Opioid agonist drugs produce analgesia. However, long-term exposure to opioid agonists may lead to opioid dependence. The analgesic and addictive properties of opioid agonist drugs are mediated primarily via the mu-opioid receptor (MOR). Opioid agonists appear to alter neuronal morphology in key brain regions implicated in the development of opioid dependence. However, the precise role of the MOR in the development of these neuronal alterations remains elusive. We hypothes...

  5. PET imaging of human cardiac opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villemagne, Patricia S.R.; Dannals, Robert F. [Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 605 N Caroline St., Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ravert, Hayden T. [Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 605 N Caroline St., Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Frost, James J. [Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 605 N Caroline St., Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2002-10-01

    The presence of opioid peptides and receptors and their role in the regulation of cardiovascular function has been previously demonstrated in the mammalian heart. The aim of this study was to image {mu} and {delta} opioid receptors in the human heart using positron emission tomography (PET). Five subjects (three females, two males, 65{+-}8 years old) underwent PET scanning of the chest with [{sup 11}C]carfentanil ([{sup 11}C]CFN) and [{sup 11}C]-N-methyl-naltrindole ([{sup 11}C]MeNTI) and the images were analyzed for evidence of opioid receptor binding in the heart. Either [{sup 11}C]CFN or [{sup 11}C]MeNTI (20 mCi) was injected i.v. with subsequent dynamic acquisitions over 90 min. For the blocking studies, either 0.2 mg/kg or 1 mg/kg of naloxone was injected i.v. 5 min prior to the injection of [{sup 11}C]CFN and [{sup 11}C]MeNTI, respectively. Regions of interest were placed over the left ventricle, left ventricular chamber, lung and skeletal muscle. Graphical analysis demonstrated average baseline myocardial binding potentials (BP) of 4.37{+-}0.91 with [{sup 11}C]CFN and 3.86{+-}0.60 with [{sup 11}C]MeNTI. Administration of 0.2 mg/kg naloxone prior to [{sup 11}C]CFN produced a 25% reduction in BP in one subject in comparison with baseline values, and a 19% decrease in myocardial distribution volume (DV). Administration of 1 mg/kg of naloxone before [{sup 11}C]MeNTI in another subject produced a 14% decrease in BP and a 21% decrease in the myocardial DV. These results demonstrate the ability to image these receptors in vivo by PET. PET imaging of cardiac opioid receptors may help to better understand their role in cardiovascular pathophysiology and the effect of abuse of opioids and drugs on heart function. (orig.)

  6. [Opioid receptors of the CNS: function, structure and distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamberová, R

    2004-01-01

    Even though the alkaloids of opium, such as morphine and codeine, were isolated at the beginning of 19th century, the opioid receptors were not determined until 1970's. The discovery of endogenous opioid peptides, such as endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins, has helped to differentiate between the specific opioid receptor subtypes, mu, delta and kappa, that are used up to now. Opioid receptors are distributed in the central nervous system unevenly. Each receptor subtype has its own specific and nonspecific agonists and antagonists. Opioides, as exogenous opioid receptor agonists, are drugs that are often used in medicine for their analgesic effects, but they are also some of the most heavily abused drugs in the world. Opioides may also induce long-term changes in the numbers and binding activities of opioid receptors. Some of our studies in fact demonstrate that prenatal morphine exposure can alter opioid receptors of adult rats. This may begin to provide insight into the sources of some of the morphological and behavioral changes in the progeny of mothers that received or abused opioides during pregnancy.

  7. Recent developments in the study of opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian M

    2013-04-01

    It is now about 40 years since Avram Goldstein proposed the use of the stereoselectivity of opioid receptors to identify these receptors in neural membranes. In 2012, the crystal structures of the four members of the opioid receptor family were reported, providing a structural basis for understanding of critical features affecting the actions of opiate drugs. This minireview summarizes these recent developments in our understanding of opiate receptors. Receptor function is also influenced by amino acid substitutions in the protein sequence. Among opioid receptor genes, one polymorphism is much more frequent in human populations than the many others that have been found, but the functional significance of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been unclear. Recent studies have shed new light on how this SNP might influence opioid receptor function. In this minireview, the functional significance of the most prevalent genetic polymorphism among the opioid receptor genes is also considered.

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of endogenous and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska, Dorota K; Gach, Katarzyna; Janecka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main role of endogenous opioid peptides is the modulation of pain. Opioid peptides exert their analgesic activity by binding to the opioid receptors distributed widely in the central nervous system (CNS). However, opioid receptors are also found on tissues and organs outside the CNS, including the cells of the immune system, indicating that opioids are capable of exerting additional effects in periphery. Morphine, which is a gold standard in the treatment of chronic pain, is well-known for its immunosuppressive effects. Much less is known about the immunomodulatory effects exerted by endogenous (enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins and endomorphins) and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors. In this review we tried to summarize opioid peptide-mediated modulation of immune cell functions which can be stimulatory as well as inhibitory.

  9. Opioid receptor desensitization: mechanisms and its link to tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane eAllouche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Opioid receptors are part of the class A of G-protein coupled receptors and the target of the opiates, the most powerful analgesic molecules used in clinic. During a protracted use, a tolerance to analgesic effect develops resulting in a reduction of the effectiveness. So understanding mechanisms of tolerance is a great challenge and may help to find new strategies to tackle this side effect. This review will summarize receptor-related mechanisms that could underlie tolerance especially receptor desensitization. We will focus on the latest data obtained on molecular mechanisms involved in opioid receptor desensitization: phosphorylation, receptor uncoupling, internalization and post-endocytic fate of the receptor.

  10. [Functional selectivity of opioid receptors ligands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Nicolas; Archer-Lahlou, Elodie; Richard-Lalonde, Mélissa; Piñeyro-Filpo, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    Opiates are the most effective analgesics available for the treatment of severe pain. However, their clinical use is restricted by unwanted side effects such as tolerance, physical dependence and respiratory depression. The strategy to develop new opiates with reduced side effects has mainly focused on the study and production of ligands that specifically bind to different opiate receptors subtypes. However, this strategy has not allowed the production of novel therapeutic ligands with a better side effects profile. Thus, other research strategies need to be explored. One which is receiving increasing attention is the possibility of exploiting ligand ability to stabilize different receptor conformations with distinct signalling profiles. This newly described property, termed functional selectivity, provides a potential means of directing the stimulus generated by an activated receptor towards a specific cellular response. Here we summarize evidence supporting the existence of ligand-specific active conformations for two opioid receptors subtypes (delta and mu), and analyze how functional selectivity may contribute in the production of longer lasting, better tolerated opiate analgesics. double dagger.

  11. Delayed cardioprotection is mediated via a non-peptide delta opioid agonist, SNC-121, independent of opioid receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemal H; Hsu, Anna; Gross, Garrett J

    2004-01-01

    Acute cardioprotection is mediated primarily through delta opioid receptor stimulation independent of micro or kappa opioid receptor stimulation. Delayed cardioprotection is mediated by delta opioid receptor agonists but ambiguity remains about direct receptor involvement. Therefore, we investigated the potential of SNC-121, a non-peptide delta opioid agonist, to produce delayed cardioprotection and characterized the role of opioid receptors in this delayed response. All rats underwent 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. SNC-121 induced a significant delayed cardioprotective effect. To determine the nature of this SNC-121-induced delayed cardioprotection, rats were treated with specific opioids receptor antagonists and underwent pertussis toxin (PT) treatment prior to opioid agonist stimulation. Control rats were injected with saline and allowed to recover for 24 hours. Pretreatment and early treatment with opioid receptor antagonists failed to inhibit the delayed protective effects of SNC-121, as did pretreatment with PT. Treatment with a free radical scavenger, 2-mercaptopropionyl glycine, at the time of opioid stimulation attenuated the delayed cardioprotective effects of SNC-121. These data suggest that delayed cardioprotection is stimulated via non-peptide delta opioid agonists by a mechanism unrelated to opioid receptor activation. The mechanism appears to be a non-opioid receptor mediated production of reactive oxygen species that triggers the signaling cascade leading to delayed cardioprotection.

  12. Opioid receptors and legal highs: Salvia divinorum and Kratom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Kavita M; McCurdy, Christopher R; Boyer, Edward W

    2008-02-01

    Salvia divinorum and Mitragyna speciosa ("Kratom"), two unscheduled dietary supplements whose active agents are opioid receptor agonists, have discrete psychoactive effects that have contributed to their increasing popularity. Salvia divinorum contains the highly selective kappa- opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A; this compound produces visual hallucinations and synesthesia. Mitragynine, the major alkaloid identified from Kratom, has been reported as a partial opioid agonist producing similar effects to morphine. An interesting minor alkaloid of Kratom, 7-hydroxymitragynine, has been reported to be more potent than morphine. Both Kratom alkaloids are reported to activate supraspinal mu- and delta- opioid receptors, explaining their use by chronic narcotics users to ameliorate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Despite their widespread Internet availability, use of Salvia divinorum and Kratom represents an emerging trend that escapes traditional methods of toxicologic monitoring. The purpose of this article is to familiarize toxicologists and poison control specialists with these emerging psychoactive dietary supplements.

  13. Chronic ethanol consumption in rats produces opioid antinociceptive tolerance through inhibition of mu opioid receptor endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He

    Full Text Available It is well known that the mu-opioid receptor (MOR plays an important role in the rewarding properties of ethanol. However, it is less clear how chronic ethanol consumption affects MOR signaling. Here, we demonstrate that rats with prolonged voluntary ethanol consumption develop antinociceptive tolerance to opioids. Signaling through the MOR is controlled at many levels, including via the process of endocytosis. Importantly, agonists at the MOR that promote receptor endocytosis, such as the endogenous peptides enkephalin and β-endorphin, show a reduced propensity to promote antinociceptive tolerance than do agonists, like morphine, which do not promote receptor endocytosis. These observations led us to examine whether chronic ethanol consumption produced opioid tolerance by interfering with MOR endocytosis. Indeed, here we show that chronic ethanol consumption inhibits the endocytosis of MOR in response to opioid peptide. This loss of endocytosis was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 protein levels after chronic drinking, suggesting that loss of this component of the trafficking machinery could be a mechanism by which endocytosis is lost. We also found that MOR coupling to G-protein was decreased in ethanol-drinking rats, providing a functional explanation for loss of opioid antinociception. Together, these results suggest that chronic ethanol drinking alters the ability of MOR to endocytose in response to opioid peptides, and consequently, promotes tolerance to the effects of opioids.

  14. Using opioid receptors to expand the chemogenetic and optogenetic toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damez-Werno, Diane M; Kenny, Paul J

    2015-05-20

    In this issue of Neuron, innovative new modifications to opioid receptors are used to expand the tools available to modulate neuronal activity. Vardy et al. (2015) describe a new "DREADD" chemogenetic tool based on the inhibitory κ opioid receptor (KORD) that can be used in conjunction with already-available DREADDs. Siuda et al. (2015) report the development of "opto-MOR," a light-activatable μ opioid receptor (MOR) chimera that can be used to better understand the complexities of MOR signaling.

  15. δ-OPIOID RECEPTOR ADAPTATION IN NEUROBLASTOMA CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D-M,Chuang; M.Belchers; J.Barg; J.Rowinski; G.Clark; C.A.Gloeckner; A.Ho; X-M.Gao; C.J.Coscia

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying tolerance and dependence arising from chronic opioid exposure are poorly understood. However, the development of neuroblastoma and neurohybrid cell culturea, has provided a simplified model for the atudy of opioid receptor adaptation. Using neuroblastoma NG108-15 cells,

  16. Endomorphins fully activate a cloned human mu opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J; Strong, J A; Zhang, S; Yue, X; DeHaven, R N; Daubert, J D; Cassel, J A; Yu, G; Mansson, E; Yu, L

    1998-11-13

    Endomorphins were recently identified as endogenous ligands with high selectivity for mu opioid receptors. We have characterized the ability of endomorphins to bind to and functionally activate the cloned human mu opioid receptor. Both endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 exhibited binding selectivity for the mu opioid receptor over the delta and kappa opioid receptors. Both agonists inhibited forskolin-stimulated increase of cAMP in a dose-dependent fashion. When the mu opioid receptor was coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes with G protein-activated K+ channels, application of either endomorphin activated an inward K+ current. This activation was dose-dependent and blocked by naloxone. Both endomorphins acted as full agonists with efficacy similar to that of [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO). These data indicate that endomorphins act as full agonists at the human mu opioid receptor, capable of stimulating the receptor to inhibit the cAMP/adenylyl cyclase pathway and activate G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels.

  17. Receptor-selective changes in mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors after chronic naltrexone treatment in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesscher, HMB; Bailey, Alexis; Burbach, JPH; van Ree, JM; Kitchen, [No Value; Gerrits, MAFM

    2003-01-01

    Chronic treatment with the opioid antagonist naltrexone induces functional supersensitivity to opioid agonists, which may be explained by receptor up-regulation induced by opioid receptor blockade. In the present study, the levels of opioid receptor subtypes through the brain of mice were determined

  18. Receptor-selective changes in mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors after chronic naltrexone treatment in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesscher, HMB; Bailey, Alexis; Burbach, JPH; van Ree, JM; Kitchen, [No Value; Gerrits, MAFM

    Chronic treatment with the opioid antagonist naltrexone induces functional supersensitivity to opioid agonists, which may be explained by receptor up-regulation induced by opioid receptor blockade. In the present study, the levels of opioid receptor subtypes through the brain of mice were determined

  19. Clinically employed opioid analgesics produce antinociception via μ-δ opioid receptor heteromers in Rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekkirala, Ajay S; Banks, Matthew L; Lunzer, Mary M; Negus, Stevens S; Rice, Kenner C; Portoghese, Philip S

    2012-09-19

    Morphine and related drugs are widely employed as analgesics despite the side effects associated with their use. Although morphine is thought to mediate analgesia through mu opioid receptors, delta opioid receptors have been implicated in mediating some side effects such as tolerance and dependence. Here we present evidence in rhesus monkeys that morphine, fentanyl, and possibly methadone selectively activate mu-delta heteromers to produce antinociception that is potently antagonized by the delta opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (NTI). Studies with HEK293 cells expressing mu-delta heteromeric opioid receptors exhibit a similar antagonism profile of receptor activation in the presence of NTI. In mice, morphine was potently inhibited by naltrindole when administered intrathecally, but not intracerebroventricularly, suggesting the possible involvement of mu-delta heteromers in the spinal cord of rodents. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that, in primates, mu-delta heteromers are allosterically coupled and mediate the antinociceptive effects of three clinically employed opioid analgesics that have been traditionally viewed as mu-selective. Given the known involvement of delta receptors in morphine tolerance and dependence, our results implicate mu-delta heteromers in mediating both antinociception and these side effects in primates. These results open the door for further investigation in humans.

  20. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: cardiovascular effects of opioids and their receptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, John P; Pepe, Salvatore; Peart, Jason N

    2012-01-01

    Opioid peptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important regulators within the cardiovascular system, implicated in modulation of electrophysiological function, heart rate, myocardial inotropy, vascular function, and cellular stress resistance. The opioid system is also involved in cardiovascular development, adaptation to injury and effects of advanced age. The significant roles of opioids are emphasized by the observation that the heart produces prodynorphin and proenkephalin, which are enzymatically processed from small to large active polypeptides. Indeed, depending on species, cardiac preproenkephalin mRNA levels are comparable to or higher than those found in the central nervous system. This review highlights and discusses current knowledge and recent findings regarding physiological and pathophysiological modulation of the heart and vessels by the opioid receptor system.

  1. Opioid receptors and cardioprotection - 'opioidergic conditioning' of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, John P; See Hoe, Louise E; Du Toit, Eugene F; Peart, Jason N

    2015-04-01

    Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) remains a major cause of morbidity/mortality globally, firmly established in Westernized or 'developed' countries and rising in prevalence in developing nations. Thus, cardioprotective therapies to limit myocardial damage with associated ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R), during infarction or surgical ischaemia, is a very important, although still elusive, clinical goal. The opioid receptor system, encompassing the δ (vas deferens), κ (ketocyclazocine) and μ (morphine) opioid receptors and their endogenous opioid ligands (endorphins, dynorphins, enkephalins), appears as a logical candidate for such exploitation. This regulatory system may orchestrate organism and organ responses to stress, induces mammalian hibernation and associated metabolic protection, triggers powerful adaptive stress resistance in response to ischaemia/hypoxia (preconditioning), and mediates cardiac benefit stemming from physical activity. In addition to direct myocardial actions, central opioid receptor signalling may also enhance the ability of the heart to withstand I-R injury. The δ- and κ-opioid receptors are strongly implicated in cardioprotection across models and species (including anti-infarct and anti-arrhythmic actions), with mixed evidence for μ opioid receptor-dependent protection in animal and human tissues. A small number of clinical trials have provided evidence of cardiac benefit from morphine or remifentanil in cardiopulmonary bypass or coronary angioplasty patients, although further trials of subtype-specific opioid receptor agonists are needed. The precise roles and utility of this GPCR family in healthy and diseased human myocardium, and in mediating central and peripheral survival responses, warrant further investigation, as do the putative negative influences of ageing, IHD co-morbidities, and relevant drugs on opioid receptor signalling and protective responses.

  2. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED)

    2012-07-11

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  3. Peptidases prevent μ-opioid receptor internalization in dorsal horn neurons by endogenously released opioids

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Bingbing; Marvizón, Juan Carlos G.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of peptidases on μ-opioid receptor (MOR) activation by endogenous opioids, we measured MOR-1 internalization in rat spinal cord slices. A mixture of inhibitors of aminopeptidases (amastatin), dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase (captopril), and neutral endopeptidase (phosphoramidon) dramatically increased the potencies of Leu-enkephalin and dynorphin A to produce MOR-1 internalization, and also enhanced the effects of Met-enkephalin and α-neoendorphin, but not endomorphins or β...

  4. [Endomorphins--endogenous ligands of the mu-opioid receptor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlikowska, Renata; Fichna, Jakub; Janecka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Two endogenous opioid peptides with extremely high mu-opioid receptor affinity and selectivity, endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2, were: discovered and isolated from the mammalian brain in 1997. Endomorphins are amidated tetrapeptides, structurally different from so called typical opioids: enkephalins, dynorphins and endorphins. A protein precursor of endomorphins and a gene encoding their sequence remain unknown. Endomorphins are unable to cross the blood-brain barrier because of their low hydrophobicity. In animal models, these peptides turned out to be very potent in relieving neuropathic and inflammatory pain. In comparison with morphine, a prototype opioid receptor ligand, endomorphins produces less undesired side effects. In this article we describe the discovery of endomorphins, their cellular localization and functions in the organism, as well as their structure-activity relationships and biodegradation pathways.

  5. Nucleus accumbens μ-opioid receptors mediate social reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezza, Viviana; Damsteegt, Ruth; Achterberg, E J Marijke; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2011-04-27

    Positive social interactions are essential for emotional well-being and proper behavioral development of young individuals. Here, we studied the neural underpinnings of social reward by investigating the involvement of opioid neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in social play behavior, a highly rewarding social interaction in adolescent rats. Intra-NAc infusion of morphine (0.05-0.1 μg) increased pinning and pouncing, characteristic elements of social play behavior in rats, and blockade of NAc opioid receptors with naloxone (0.5 μg) prevented the play-enhancing effects of systemic morphine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) administration. Thus, stimulation of opioid receptors in the NAc was necessary and sufficient for morphine to increase social play. Intra-NAc treatment with the selective μ-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala(2),N-MePhe(4),Gly(5)-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) (0.1-10 ng) and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2) (CTAP) (0.3-3 μg) increased and decreased social play, respectively. The δ-opioid receptor agonist DPDPE ([D-Pen(2),D-Pen(5)]-enkephalin) (0.3-3 μg) had no effects, whereas the κ-opioid receptor agonist U69593 (N-methyl-2-phenyl-N-[(5R,7S,8S)-7-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1-oxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]acetamide) (0.01-1 μg) decreased social play. Intra-NAc treatment with β-endorphin (0.01-1 μg) increased social play, but met-enkephalin (0.1-5 μg) and the enkephalinase inhibitor thiorphan (0.1-1 μg) were ineffective. DAMGO (0.1-10 ng) increased social play after infusion into both the shell and core subregions of the NAc. Last, intra-NAc infusion of CTAP (3 μg) prevented the development of social play-induced conditioned place preference. These findings identify NAc μ-opioid receptor stimulation as an important neural mechanism for the attribution of positive value to social interactions in adolescent rats. Altered NAc μ-opioid receptor function may underlie social impairments in psychiatric disorders such as autism

  6. Opioid receptors regulate the extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Gavan P; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2003-12-01

    Rats received a single pairing of an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) with a footshock unconditioned stimulus (US). The fear (freezing) that had accrued to the CS was then extinguished. Injection of naloxone prior to this extinction significantly impaired the development of extinction. This impairment was mediated by opioid receptors in the brain and was not observed when naloxone was injected after extinction training. Finally, an injection of naloxone on test failed to reinstate extinguished responding that had already accrued to the CS. These experiments show that opioid receptors regulate the development, but not the expression, of fear extinction and are discussed with reference to the roles of opioid receptors in US processing, memory, and appetitive motivation.

  7. Quantitative immunolocalization of {mu} opioid receptors: regulation by naltrexone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, C.J.; Lam, H.; To, T.; Anton, B. [Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Unterwald, E.M. [Department of Psychiatry, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1998-04-24

    The present study utilized a newly developed quantitative immunohistochemical assay to measure changes in {mu} opioid receptor abundance following chronic administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone. These data were compared with those obtained from {mu} receptor radioligand binding on adjacent tissue sections, in order to determine whether the characteristic antagonist-induced increase in radioligand binding is due to an increase in the total number of {mu} receptors and/or to an increase in the proportion of receptors that are in an active binding conformation in the absence of a change in the total number of receptors. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered naltrexone, 7-8 mg/kg per day, or saline continuously for seven days by osmotic minipumps, after which time their brains were processed for immunohistochemistry and receptor autoradiography on adjacent fresh frozen tissue sections. Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry was performed using a radiolabelled secondary antibody for autoradiographic determination and a set of radioactive standards. Results demonstrate an overall concordance between the distribution of {mu} opioid receptors as measured by the two different methods with a few exceptions. Following naltrexone administration, {mu} receptor immunoreactivity was significantly higher in the amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus, and interpeduncular nucleus as compared with the saline-treated control animals. [{sup 3}H]D-Ala{sup 2},N-Me-Phe{sup 4},Gly-ol{sup 5}-enkephalin binding to {mu} opioid receptors was significantly higher in the globus pallidus, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, central gray, and interpeduncular nucleus of the naltrexone-treated rats.These findings indicate that in some brain regions chronic naltrexone exposure increases the total number of {mu} opioid receptors, while in other regions there is an increase in the percent of active receptors without an

  8. Role of opioid receptors in the reinstatement of opioid-seeking behavior: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Fadda, Paola; Antinori, Silvia; Fratta, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Opioid abuse in humans is characterized by discontinuous periods of drug use and abstinence. With time, the probability of falling into renewed drug consumption becomes particularly high and constitutes a considerable problem in the management of heroin addicts. The major problem in the treatment of opioid dependence still remains the occurrence of relapse, to which stressful life events, renewed use of heroin, and exposure to drug-associated environmental cues are all positively correlated. To study the neurobiology of relapse, many research groups currently use the reinstatement animal model, which greatly contributed to disentangle the mechanisms underlying relapse to drug-seeking in laboratory animals. The use of this model is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, and new versions have been recently developed to better appreciate the differential contribution of each opioid receptor subtype to the relapse phenomenon. In this chapter we review the state of the art of our knowledge on the specific role of the opioid receptors as unrevealed by the reinstatement animal model of opioid-seeking behavior.

  9. Peripheral δ-opioid receptors attenuate the exercise pressor reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Anna K; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Kim, Joyce; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor; Kaufman, Marc P

    2013-10-15

    In rats with ligated femoral arteries, the exercise pressor reflex is exaggerated, an effect that is attenuated by stimulation of peripheral μ-opioid receptors on group IV metabosensitive afferents. In contrast, δ-opioid receptors are expressed mostly on group III mechanosensitive afferents, a finding that prompted us to determine whether stimulation of these opioid receptors could also attenuate the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in "ligated" rats. We found femoral arterial injection of [D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE; 1.0 μg), a δ-opioid agonist, significantly attenuated the pressor and cardioaccelerator components of the exercise pressor reflex evoked by hindlimb muscle contraction in both rats with ligated and patent femoral arteries. DPDPE significantly decreased the pressor responses to muscle mechanoreflex activation, evoked by tendon stretch, in ligated rats only. DPDPE (1.0 μg) had no effect in either group on the pressor and cardioaccelerator responses to capsaicin (0.2 μg), which primarily stimulates group IV afferents. DPDPE (1.0 μg) had no effect on the pressor and cardioaccelerator responses to lactic acid (24 mM), which stimulates group III and IV afferents, in rats with patent femoral arteries but significantly decreased the pressor response in ligated rats. Western blots revealed the amount of protein comprising the δ-opioid receptor was greater in dorsal root ganglia innervating hindlimbs with ligated femoral arteries than in dorsal root ganglia innervating hindlimbs with patent femoral arteries. Our findings support the hypothesis that stimulation of δ-opioid receptors on group III afferents attenuated the exercise pressor reflex.

  10. Buprenorphine-induced antinociception is mediated by mu-opioid receptors and compromised by concomitant activation of opioid receptor-like receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfy, Kabirullah; Eitan, Shoshana; Bryant, Camron D; Yang, Yu C; Saliminejad, Nazli; Walwyn, Wendy; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Carroll, F Ivy; Maidment, Nigel T; Evans, Christopher J

    2003-11-12

    Buprenorphine is a mixed opioid receptor agonist-antagonist used clinically for maintenance therapy in opiate addicts and pain management. Dose-response curves for buprenorphine-induced antinociception display ceiling effects or are bell shaped, which have been attributed to the partial agonist activity of buprenorphine at opioid receptors. Recently, buprenorphine has been shown to activate opioid receptor-like (ORL-1) receptors, also known as OP4 receptors. Here we demonstrate that buprenorphine, but not morphine, activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt via ORL-1 receptors. Because the ORL-1 receptor agonist orphanin FQ/nociceptin blocks opioid-induced antinociception, we tested the hypothesis that buprenorphine-induced antinociception might be compromised by concomitant activation of ORL-1 receptors. In support of this hypothesis, the antinociceptive effect of buprenorphine, but not morphine, was markedly enhanced in mice lacking ORL-1 receptors using the tail-flick assay. Additional support for a modulatory role for ORL-1 receptors in buprenorphine-induced antinociception was that coadministration of J-113397, an ORL-1 receptor antagonist, enhanced the antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine in wild-type mice but not in mice lacking ORL-1 receptors. The ORL-1 antagonist also eliminated the bell-shaped dose-response curve for buprenorphine-induced antinociception in wild-type mice. Although buprenorphine has been shown to interact with multiple opioid receptors, mice lacking micro-opioid receptors failed to exhibit antinociception after buprenorphine administration. Our results indicate that the antinociceptive effect of buprenorphine in mice is micro-opioid receptor-mediated yet severely compromised by concomitant activation of ORL-1 receptors.

  11. Kir3 channel signaling complexes: Focus on opioid receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim eNagi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Opioids are among the most effective drugs to treat severe pain. They produce their analgesic actions by specifically activating opioid receptors located along the pain perception pathway where they inhibit the flow of nociceptive information. This inhibition is partly accomplished by activation of hyperpolarizing G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK or Kir3 channels. Kir3 channels control cellular excitability in the central nervous system and in the heart and, because of their ubiquitous distribution, they mediate the effects of a large range of hormones and neurotransmitters which, upon activation of corresponding G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs lead to channel opening. Here we analyze GPCR signaling via these effectors in reference to precoupling and collision models. Existing knowledge on signaling bias is discussed in relation to these models as a means of developing strategies to produce novel opioid analgesics with an improved side effects profile.

  12. The critical role of spinal 5-HT7 receptors in opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Ozgur; Seyrek, Melik; Tasdemir, Serdar; Kahraman, Serdar; Deveci, Mehmet Salih; Karakus, Emre; Halici, Zekai; Dogrul, Ahmet

    2015-09-05

    The opioid and non-opioid types of stress-induced analgesia have been well defined. One of the non-opioid type involve the endocannabinoid system. We previously reported that the spinal serotonin 7 receptor (5-HT7) blockers inhibit both morphine and cannabinoid-induced analgesia, thus we hypothesized that descending serotonergic pathways-spinal 5-HT7 receptor loop might contribute to stress-induced analgesia. Stress-induced analgesia was induced with warm (32°C) or cold (20°C) water swim stress in male Balb-C mice. The effects of intrathecal injection of a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB 269970, of the denervation of serotonergic neurons by intrathecal administration of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) and of lesions of the dorsolateral funiculus on opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia were evaluated with the tail-flick and hot plate tests. The expression of 5-HT7 receptors mRNA in the dorsal lumbar region of spinal cord were analyzed by RT-PCR following spinal serotonin depletion or dorsolateral funiculus lesion. The effects of the selective 5-HT7 receptor agonists LP 44 and AS 19 were tested on nociception. Intrathecal SB 269970 blocked both opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia. Dorsolateral funiculus lesion or denervation of the spinal serotonergic neurons resulted in a marked decrease in 5-HT7 receptor expression in the dorsal lumbar spinal cord, accompanied by inhibition of opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia. However, the systemic or intrathecal LP 44 and AS 19 alone did not produce analgesia in unstressed mice. These results indicate that descending serotonergic pathways and the spinal 5-HT7 receptor loop play a crucial role in mediating both opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia.

  13. Antitussive activity of Withania somnifera and opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosálová, Gabriela; Sivová, Veronika; Ray, Bimalendu; Fraňová, Soňa; Ondrejka, Igor; Flešková, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Arabinogalactan is a polysaccharide isolated from the roots of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera L. It contains 65% arabinose and 18% galactose. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitussive activity of arabinogalactan in conscious, healthy adult guinea pigs and the role of the opioid pathway in the antitussive action. A polysaccharide extract was given orally in a dose of 50 mg/kg. Cough was induced by an aerosol of citric acid in a concentration 0.3 mol/L, generated by a jet nebulizer into a plethysmographic chamber. The intensity of cough response was defined as the number of cough efforts counted during a 3-min exposure to the aerosol. The major finding was that arabinogalactan clearly suppressed the cough reflex; the suppression was comparable with that of codeine that was taken as a reference drug. The involvement of the opioid system was tested with the use of a blood-brain barrier penetrable, naloxone hydrochloride, and non-penetrable, naloxone methiodide, to distinguish between the central and peripheral mu-opioid receptor pathways. Both opioid antagonists acted to reverse the arabinogalactan-induced cough suppression; the reversion was total over time with the latter antagonist. We failed to confirm the presence of a bronchodilating effect of the polysaccharide, which could be involved in its antitussive action. We conclude that the polysaccharide arabinogalactan from Withania somnifera has a distinct antitussive activity consisting of cough suppression and that this action involves the mu-opioid receptor pathways.

  14. Striatal μ-opioid receptor availability predicts cold pressor pain threshold in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelberg, Nora; Aalto, Sargo; Tuominen, Lauri;

    2012-01-01

    Previous PET studies in healthy humans have shown that brain μ-opioid receptor activation during experimental pain is associated with reductions in the sensory and affective ratings of the individual pain experience. The aim of this study was to find out whether brain μ-opioid receptor binding...... at the resting state, in absence of painful stimulation, can be a long-term predictor of experimental pain sensitivity. We measured μ-opioid receptor binding potential (BP(ND)) with μ-opioid receptor selective radiotracer [(11)C]carfentanil and positron emission tomography (PET) in 12 healthy male subjects...... the potential associations between μ-opioid receptor BP(ND) and psychophysical measures. The results show that striatal μ-opioid receptor BP(ND) predicts cold pressor pain threshold, but not cold pressor pain tolerance or tactile sensitivity. This finding suggests that striatal μ-opioid receptor density...

  15. Opioid-induced redistribution of 6TM and 7TM μ opioid receptors: A hypothesized mechanistic facilitator model of opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Xiaoju; Liu, Yusheng; Xu, Shiqin; Lei, Liming; Shen, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xirong; Xia, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Fuzhou

    2016-08-01

    Opioids are still the most popular form of pain treatment, but many unavoidable side effects make opioids a big challenge in effective pain management. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), a paradoxical phenomenon, portrays an increased sensitivity to harmful stimuli caused by opioid exposure. Changes in the neural modulation are considered a major contributor to the development of OIH. Activation of opioid receptors (ORs) and corresponding downstream molecules are the vital composition of functional performance of opioids. Increasing interests were proposed of the interaction between ORs and other neural transmitter systems such as glutamatergic, GABAergic and adrenergic ones to the genesis of OIH. G protein coupled μ-opioid receptor (MOR) was studied comprehensively on its role in the development of OIH. In addition to the relationship between MOR and other neurotransmitter receptors, a new intracellular MOR that has six transmembrane (6TM) domains was identified, and found to perform a pro-nociceptive task in contrast to the counterpart 7TM isoform. A mechanistic model of OIH in which both 6TM and 7TM MORs undergoing membrane redistribution upon opioid exposure is proposed which eventually facilitates the neurons more sensitive to nociceptive stimulation than that of the preceding opioid exposure.

  16. Complete knockout of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor in the rat does not induce compensatory changes in mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Mul, J.D.; Wit, E. de; Cuppen, E.

    2009-01-01

    The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) opioid peptide receptor (NOPr) is a new member of the opioid receptor family consisting of mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors. The anti-opioid properties of its endogenous ligand, N/OFQ provide the receptor interesting potentials in symptoms and processes related

  17. Complete knockout of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor in the rat does not induce compensatory changes in mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Mul, J.D.; de Wit, E.; Cuppen, E.

    2009-01-01

    The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) opioid peptide receptor (NOPr) is a new member of the opioid receptor family consisting of mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors. The anti-opioid properties of its endogenous ligand, N/OFQ provide the receptor interesting potentials in symptoms and processes related

  18. Reduced emotional and corticosterone responses to stress in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ide, Soichiro; Sora,Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Minami, Masabumi; Uhl, George R.; Ishihara, Kumatoshi

    2009-01-01

    The detailed mechanisms of emotional modulation in the nervous system by opioids remain to be elucidated, although the opioid system is well known to play important roles in the mechanisms of analgesia and drug dependence. In the present study, we conducted behavioral tests of anxiety and depression and measured corticosterone concentrations in both male and female μ-opioid receptor knockout (MOP-KO) mice to reveal the involvement of μ-opioid receptors in stress-induced emotional responses. M...

  19. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms.

  20. Involvement of peripheral mu opioid receptors in scratching behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Atsuki; Sugimoto, Yukio

    2010-12-15

    Pruritus is a common adverse effect of opioid treatment. However, the mechanism by which pruritus is induced by opioid administration is unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of the intradermal injection of loperamide, a peripherally restricted opioid receptor agonist, on the itch sensation. When injected intradermally into the rostral part of the back in mice, loperamide elicited scratching behavior. We also examined the effects of the selective mu opioid receptor agonist [d-Ala², N-Me-Phe⁴, Gly⁵-ol]-enkephalin acetate (DAMGO), the selective delta opioid receptor agonist [d-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE), and the selective kappa opioid receptor agonist U-50488H on scratching behavior in mice in order to determine which subtype is involved in opioid-induced pruritus. Following intradermal injection into the rostral part of the back in mice, DAMGO elicited scratching behavior, while DPDPE and U-50488H did not. This suggests that peripheral mu opioid activation elicits the itch sensation. Next, we focused on the treatment of opioid-induced itch sensation without central adverse effects. Naloxone methiodide is a peripherally restricted opioid receptor antagonist. In the present study, naloxone methiodide significantly suppressed scratching behavior induced by loperamide and DAMGO. These findings suggest that mu opioid receptors play a primary role in peripheral pruritus and that naloxone methiodide may represent a possible remedy for opioid-induced itching.

  1. Interactions among mu- and delta-opioid receptors, especially putative delta1- and delta2-opioid receptors, promote dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirose, N.; Murakawa, K.; Takada, K.; Oi, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Nagase, H.; Cools, A.R.; Koshikawa, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of interactions among mu- and delta-opioid receptors, especially the putative delta(1)- and delta(2)-opioid receptors, in the nucleus accumbens on accumbal dopamine release was investigated in awake rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. In agreement with previous studies, perfusion of the

  2. Interactions among mu- and delta-opioid receptors, especially putative delta1- and delta2-opioid receptors, promote dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirose, N.; Murakawa, K.; Takada, K.; Oi, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Nagase, H.; Cools, A.R.; Koshikawa, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of interactions among mu- and delta-opioid receptors, especially the putative delta(1)- and delta(2)-opioid receptors, in the nucleus accumbens on accumbal dopamine release was investigated in awake rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. In agreement with previous studies, perfusion of the

  3. [Nociceptin and the ORL1 receptor: pharmacology of a new opioid receptor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grond, S; Meuser, T; Pietruck, C; Sablotzki, A

    2002-12-01

    Molecular biological investigations led to the discovery of the ORL1 receptor ( opioid receptor like-1 receptor) and its endogenous ligand nociceptin. Although its sequence and structure are closely related to traditional opioid receptors, the ORL1 receptor shows low binding affinities for selective opioid agonists and antagonists. On the other hand, the ORL1 ligand nociceptin does not bind to the three traditional opioid receptors. The activation of the G protein-coupled ORL1 receptor inhibits adenlylate cyclase activity, reduces the intracellular concentration of the second messenger cAMP and regulates ion channels. The supraspinal administration of nociceptin produces hyperalgesia. unlike opioids. Spinal intrathecal and peripheral administration of nociceptin causes hyperalgesia in low doses and analgesia in high doses. The physiological role and detailed mechanisms of these dose-dependent nociceptin effects in opposite directions are not yet known. In addition, nociceptin modulates other biological phenomena such as feeding, locomotion, gastrointestinal function,memory, cardiovascular function,immunity, renal function, anxiety,dependence and tolerance.Future research on the physiological and pathophysiological importance of the nociceptin/ORL1 receptor systems may provide a target for novel therapeutics.

  4. Peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists as treatment options for constipation in noncancer pain patients on chronic opioid therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Raffa, Robert B; Pappagallo, Marco; Fleischer, Charles; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Zampogna, Gianpietro; Duval, Elizabeth; Hishmeh, Janan; LeQuang, Jo Ann; Taylor, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Opioid-induced constipation (OIC), a prevalent and distressing side effect of opioid therapy, does not reliably respond to treatment with conventional laxatives. OIC can be a treatment-limiting adverse event. Recent advances in medications with peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists, such as methylnaltrexone, naloxegol, and alvimopan, hold promise for treating OIC and thus extending the benefits of opioid analgesia to more chronic pain patients. Peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists have been clinically tested to improve bowel symptoms without compromise to pain relief, although there are associated side effects, including abdominal pain. Other treatment options include fixed-dose combination products of oxycodone analgesic together with naloxone. PMID:28176913

  5. Prevention of Stimulant Induced Euphoria with an Opioid Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    peers, deficits in the interactions with peers and superiors, emotional impulsivity that could lead to low self esteem , substance abuse, criminality...Young Adults With ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 50(6): p. 543- 53. 12. Zhu, J., et al., Methylphenidate and mu opioid receptor interactions...Sponsor Approved Recorded by / Date 6/14/13 6/14/13 1770201 The blood draw was not completed on Drug Feeling visit after 2 different phlebotomy

  6. Opioid modulation of immunocompetence: Receptor characterization and second messenger involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmick, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the effects of opioids on several indices of immunocompetence, determined the receptor specificity of these effects, and ascertain whether the actions of opioids on lymphocytes could be correlated with activation of second messenger systems. By measuring {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into lymphocytes, it was demonstrated that {beta}-endorphin 1-31 ({beta}-END 1-31) enhanced rat thymocyte Ca{sup 2+} uptake in response to concanavalin A (Con A) but not phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Related opioid peptides and alkaloids were unable to mimic the effect, and naloxone did not block it, suggesting that {beta}-END 1-31 acted by binding to specific, non-opioid receptors on the thymocytes. Rat splenocyte Con A-stimulated Ca{sup 2+} uptake was not affected by {beta}-END 1-31. {beta}-END 1-31 did not affect basal Ca{sup 2+} uptake by either cell type. Using ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake as an index of lymphocyte proliferation, {beta}-END 1-31 and several related opioid peptides reversed prostaglandin E{sub 1} (PGE{sub 1}) suppression of rat lymph node cell Con A- and PHA-stimulated proliferation. Naloxone did not block the reversal. {beta}-END 1-31 was unable to reverse forskolin and cholera toxin suppression of proliferation, indicating that the lowering of cyclic AMP levels was not the mechanism involved. Verapamil inhibition of proliferation was also not reversed by {beta}-END 1-31, suggesting that promotion of Ca{sup 2+} influx was not a major mechanism involved.

  7. Does the kappa opioid receptor system contribute to pain aversion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Cahill

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The kappa opioid receptor (KOR and the endogenous peptide-ligand dynorphin have received significant attention due the involvement in mediating a variety of behavioral and neurophysiological responses, including opposing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse including opioids. Accumulating evidence indicates this system is involved in regulating states of motivation and emotion. Acute activation of the KOR produces an increase in motivational behavior to escape a threat, however, KOR activation associated with chronic stress leads to the expression of symptoms indicative of mood disorders. It is well accepted that KOR can produce analgesia and is engaged in chronic pain states including neuropathic pain. Spinal studies have revealed KOR-induced analgesia in reversing pain hypersensitivities associated with peripheral nerve injury. While systemic administration of KOR agonists attenuates nociceptive sensory transmission, this effect appears to be a stress-induced effect as anxiolytic agents, including delta opioid receptor agonists, mitigate KOR agonist-induced analgesia. Additionally, while the role of KOR and dynorphin in driving the dysphoric and aversive components of stress and drug withdrawal has been well characterized, how this system mediates the negative emotional states associated with chronic pain is relatively unexplored. This review provides evidence that dynorphin and the KOR system contribute to the negative affective component of pain and that this receptor system likely contributes to the high comorbidity of mood disorders associated with chronic neuropathic pain.

  8. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of novel μ-opioid receptor agonist compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Yoshiaki; Kurosawa, Aya; Saikawa, Hitomi; Kuroiwa, Satoshi; Suzuki, Chiharu; Kuwabara, Nobuo; Hoshino, Hazime; Obata, Hideaki; Saito, Shigeru; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Takeda, Shigeki

    2015-11-15

    Opioids are the most effective and widely used drugs for pain treatment. Morphine is an archetypal opioid and is an opioid receptor agonist. Unfortunately, the clinical usefulness of morphine is limited by adverse effects such as analgesic tolerance and addiction. Therefore, it is important to study the development of novel opioid agonists as part of pain control. The analgesic effects of opioids are mediated by three opioid receptors, namely opioid μ-, δ-, and κ-receptors. They belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and are coupled to Gi proteins. In the present study, we developed a ligand screening system to identify novel opioid μ-receptor agonists that measures [(35)S]GTPγS binding to cell membrane fractions prepared from the fat body of transgenic silkworms expressing μ-receptor-Gi1α fusion protein. We screened the RIKEN Natural Products Depository (NPDepo) chemical library, which contains 5848 compounds, and analogs of hit compounds. We successfully identified a novel, structurally unique compound, that we named GUM1, with agonist activity for the opioid μ-receptor (EC50 of 1.2 µM). The Plantar Test (Hargreaves' Method) demonstrated that subcutaneous injection of 3mg/kg of GUM1 into wild-type rats significantly extended latency time. This extension was also observed in a rat model of morphine tolerance and was inhibited by pre-treatment of naloxone. The unique molecular skeleton of GUM1 makes it an attractive molecule for further ligand-opioid receptor binding studies.

  9. Salvinorin A: allosteric interactions at the mu-opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Richard B; Murphy, Daniel L; Xu, Heng; Godin, Jonathan A; Dersch, Christina M; Partilla, John S; Tidgewell, Kevin; Schmidt, Matthew; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2007-02-01

    Salvinorin A [(2S,4aR,6aR,7R,9S,10aS,10bR)-9-(acetyloxy)-2-(3-furanyl)-dodecahydro-6a,10b-dimethyl-4,10-dioxo-2h-naphtho[2,1-c]pyran-7-carboxylic acid methyl ester] is a hallucinogenic kappa-opioid receptor agonist that lacks the usual basic nitrogen atom present in other known opioid ligands. Our first published studies indicated that Salvinorin A weakly inhibited mu-receptor binding, and subsequent experiments revealed that Salvinorin A partially inhibited mu-receptor binding. Therefore, we hypothesized that Salvinorin A allosterically modulates mu-receptor binding. To test this hypothesis, we used Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the cloned human opioid receptor. Salvinorin A partially inhibited [(3)H]Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-N-Me-Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) (0.5, 2.0, and 8.0 nM) binding with E(MAX) values of 78.6, 72.1, and 45.7%, respectively, and EC(50) values of 955, 1124, and 4527 nM, respectively. Salvinorin A also partially inhibited [(3)H]diprenorphine (0.02, 0.1, and 0.5 nM) binding with E(MAX) values of 86.2, 64, and 33.6%, respectively, and EC(50) values of 1231, 866, and 3078 nM, respectively. Saturation binding studies with [(3)H]DAMGO showed that Salvinorin A (10 and 30 microM) decreased the mu-receptor B(max) and increased the K(d) in a dose-dependent nonlinear manner. Saturation binding studies with [(3)H]diprenorphine showed that Salvinorin A (10 and 40 microM) decreased the mu-receptor B(max) and increased the K(d) in a dose-dependent nonlinear manner. Similar findings were observed in rat brain with [(3)H]DAMGO. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that Salvinorin A altered the dissociation kinetics of both [(3)H]DAMGO and [(3)H]diprenorphine binding to mu receptors. Furthermore, Salvinorin A acted as an uncompetitive inhibitor of DAMGO-stimulated guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)-triphosphate binding. Viewed collectively, these data support the hypothesis that Salvinorin A allosterically modulates the mu-opioid receptor.

  10. Studies Toward the Pharmacophore of Salvinorin A, a Potent Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist

    OpenAIRE

    Munro, Thomas A.; Mark A. Rizzacasa; Roth, Bryan L.; Toth, Beth A.; Yan, Feng

    2005-01-01

    Salvinorin A (1), from the sage Salvia divinorum, is a potent and selective kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist. We screened other salvinorins and derivatives for binding affinity and functional activity at opioid receptors. Our results suggest that the methyl ester and furan ring are required for activity, but that the lactone and ketone functionalities are not. Other salvinorins showed negligible binding affinity at the KOR. None of the compounds bound to mu or delta opioid receptors.

  11. Studies toward the pharmacophore of salvinorin A, a potent kappa opioid receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Thomas A; Rizzacasa, Mark A; Roth, Bryan L; Toth, Beth A; Yan, Feng

    2005-01-27

    Salvinorin A (1), from the sage Salvia divinorum, is a potent and selective kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist. We screened other salvinorins and derivatives for binding affinity and functional activity at opioid receptors. Our results suggest that the methyl ester and furan ring are required for activity but that the lactone and ketone functionalities are not. Other salvinorins showed negligible binding affinity at the KOR. None of the compounds bound to mu or delta opioid receptors.

  12. Impact of efficacy at the μ-opioid receptor on antinociceptive effects of combinations of μ-opioid receptor agonists and cannabinoid receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2014-11-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists, such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), enhance the antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists, which suggests that combining cannabinoids with opioids would improve pain treatment. Combinations with lower efficacy agonists might be preferred and could avoid adverse effects associated with large doses; however, it is unclear whether interactions between opioids and cannabinoids vary across drugs with different efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists alone and in combination with cannabinoid receptor agonists were studied in rhesus monkeys (n = 4) using a warm water tail withdrawal procedure. Etorphine, fentanyl, morphine, buprenorphine, nalbuphine, Δ(9)-THC, and CP 55,940 (2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol) each increased tail withdrawal latency. Pretreatment with doses of Δ(9)-THC (1.0 mg/kg) or CP 55,940 (0.032 mg/kg) that were ineffective alone shifted the fentanyl dose-effect curve leftward 20.6- and 52.9-fold, respectively, and the etorphine dose-effect curve leftward 12.4- and 19.6-fold, respectively. Δ(9)-THC and CP 55,940 shifted the morphine dose-effect curve leftward only 3.4- and 7.9-fold, respectively, and the buprenorphine curve only 5.4- and 4.1-fold, respectively. Neither Δ(9)-THC nor CP 55,940 significantly altered the effects of nalbuphine. Cannabinoid receptor agonists increase the antinociceptive potency of higher efficacy opioid receptor agonists more than lower efficacy agonists; however, because much smaller doses of each drug can be administered in combinations while achieving adequate pain relief and that other (e.g., abuse-related) effects of opioids do not appear to be enhanced by cannabinoids, these results provide additional support for combining opioids with cannabinoids to treat pain.

  13. Opioid mediated activity and expression of mu and delta opioid receptors in isolated human term non-labouring myometrium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, Rebecca A

    2013-01-05

    The existence of opioid receptors in mammalian myometrial tissue is now widely accepted. Previously enkephalin degrading enzymes have been shown to be elevated in pregnant rat uterus and a met-enkephalin analogue has been shown to alter spontaneous contractility of rat myometrium. Here we have undertaken studies to determine the effects of met-enkephalin on in vitro human myometrial contractility and investigate the expression of opioid receptors in pregnant myometrium. Myometrial biopsies were taken from women undergoing elective caesarean delivery at term. Organ bath experiments were used to investigate the effect of the met-enkephalin analogue [d-Ala 2, d-met 5] enkephalin (DAMEA) on spontaneous contractility. A confocal immunofluorescent technique and real time PCR were used to determine the expression of protein and mRNA, respectively for two opioid receptor subtypes, mu and delta. DAMEA had a concentration dependent inhibitory effect on contractile activity (1 × 10(-7)M-1 × 10(-4)M; 54% reduction in contractile activity, P<0.001 at 1 × 10(-4)M concentration). Mu and delta opioid receptor protein sub-types and their respective mRNA were identified in all tissues sampled. This is the first report of opioid receptor expression and of an opioid mediated uterorelaxant action in term human non-labouring myometrium in vitro.

  14. Studies on mu and delta opioid receptor selectivity utilizing chimeric and site-mutagenized receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W W; Shahrestanifar, M; Jin, J; Howells, R D

    1995-01-01

    Opioid receptors are members of the guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor family. Three types of opioid receptors have been cloned and characterized and are referred to as the delta, kappa and mu types. Analysis of receptor chimeras and site-directed mutant receptors has provided a great deal of information about functionally important amino acid side chains that constitute the ligand-binding domains and G-protein-coupling domains of G-protein-coupled receptors. We have constructed delta/mu opioid receptor chimeras that were express in human embryonic kidney 293 cells in order to define receptor domains that are responsible for receptor type selectivity. All chimeric receptors and wild-type delta and mu opioid receptors displayed high-affinity binding of etorphine (an agonist), naloxone (an antagonist), and bremazocine (a mixed agonist/antagonist). In contrast, chimeras that lacked the putative first extracellular loop of the mu receptor did not bind the mu-selective peptide [D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO). Chimeras that lacked the putative third extracellular loop of the delta receptor did not bind the delta-selective peptide, [D-Ser2,D-Leu5]enkephalin-Thr (DSLET). Point mutations in the putative third extracellular loop of the wild-type delta receptor that converted vicinal arginine residues to glutamine abolished DSLET binding while not affecting bremazocine, etorphine, and naltrindole binding. We conclude that amino acids in the putative first extracellular loop of the mu receptor are critical for high-affinity DAMGO binding and that arginine residues in the putative third extracellular loop of the delta receptor are important for high-affinity DSLET binding. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8618916

  15. Development of concepts on the interaction of drugs with opioid receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, N. E.; Kuzmin, V. S.

    2011-02-01

    The development of concepts on the molecular mechanisms of the action of medicinal drugs on the opioid receptors is briefly surveyed. The modern point of view on the mechanism of activation of opioid receptors is given based on the data from chimeric and site-directed mutagenesis of the cloned opioid receptors and the computer-aided simulations of the reception zone and ligand-receptor complexes. Three-dimensional models of the opioid pharmacophore derived by both conventional methods and a comparative analysis of molecular fields are described in detail.

  16. Development of concepts on the interaction of drugs with opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmina, N E; Kuzmin, V S

    2011-02-28

    The development of concepts on the molecular mechanisms of the action of medicinal drugs on the opioid receptors is briefly surveyed. The modern point of view on the mechanism of activation of opioid receptors is given based on the data from chimeric and site-directed mutagenesis of the cloned opioid receptors and the computer-aided simulations of the reception zone and ligand-receptor complexes. Three-dimensional models of the opioid pharmacophore derived by both conventional methods and a comparative analysis of molecular fields are described in detail.

  17. Fluoxetine alters mu opioid receptor expression in obese Zucker rat extrahypothalamic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, María P; Zumalabe, José María; Macarulla, María T; Sáenz Del Burgo, Laura; Zarate, Jon; Echevarría, Enrique

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the effects of chronic fluoxetine on mu opioid receptor expression in obese Zucker rat extrahypothalamic regions. Male obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were administered with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg; i.p.) daily for two weeks. Brain regional immunostaining for mu opioid receptor was carried out. An increase in the numbers of neural cells immunostained for mu opioid receptor in caudatus-putamen, dentate gyrus, lateral septum, amygdala, and frontal, parietal, and piriform cortices was observed. Increased mu opioid receptor expression in the central amygdaloid nuclei suggests a decreased opioidergic tone at this level that could be involved in fluoxetine anorectic action.

  18. Synaptic localization of. kappa. opioid receptors in guinea pig neostriatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomary, C.; Beaudet, A. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Gairin, J.E. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse (France))

    1992-01-15

    Distribution of {kappa} opioid receptors was examined by EM radioautography in sections of guinea pig neostriatum with the selective {sup 125}I-labeled dynorphin analog (D-Pro{sup 10})dynorphin-(1-11). Most specifically labeled binding sites were found by probability circle analysis to be associated with neuronal membrane appositions. Because of limitations in resolution of the method, the radioactive sources could not be ascribed directly to either one of the apposed plasma membranes. Nevertheless, three lines of evidence favored a predominant association of ligand with dendrites of intrinsic striatal neurons: (1) the high frequency with which labeled interfaces implicated a dendrite, (2) the enrichment of dendrodendritic interfaces, and (3) the occurrence of dendritic profiles labeled at several contact points along their plasma membranes. A small proportion of labeled sites was associated with axo-axonic interfaces, which may subserve the {kappa} opioid-induced regulation of presynaptic dopamine and acetylcholine release documented in guinea pig neostriatum. These results support the hypothesis that in mammalian brain {kappa} opioid receptors are conformationally and functionally distinct from {mu} and {delta} types.

  19. Molecular mechanism for opioid dichotomy: bidirectional effect of μ-opioid receptors on P2X₃ receptor currents in rat sensory neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhmakov, Igor; Kulyk, Vyacheslav; Khasabova, Iryna; Khasabov, Sergey; Simone, Donald; Bakalkin, Georgy; Gordienko, Dmitri; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Krishtal, Oleg

    2015-06-01

    Here, we describe a molecular switch associated with opioid receptors-linked signalling cascades that provides a dual opioid control over P2X3 purinoceptor in sensory neurones. Leu-enkephalin inhibited P2X3-mediated currents with IC50 ~10 nM in ~25% of small nociceptive rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones. In contrast, in neurones pretreated with pertussis toxin leu-enkephalin produced stable and significant increase of P2X3 currents. All effects of opioid were abolished by selective μ-opioid receptor antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), nonselective inhibitor naloxone, and by PLC inhibitor U73122. Thus, we discovered a dual link between purinoceptors and μ-opioid receptors: the latter exert both inhibitory (pertussis toxin-sensitive) and stimulatory (pertussis toxin-insensitive) actions on P2X3 receptors through phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent pathways. This dual opioid control of P2X3 receptors may provide a molecular explanation for dichotomy of opioid therapy. Pharmacological control of this newly identified facilitation/inhibition switch may open new perspectives for the adequate medical use of opioids, the most powerful pain-killing agents known today.

  20. Mu Opioid Receptor Actions in the Lateral Habenula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyssa B Margolis

    Full Text Available Increased activity of lateral habenula (LHb neurons is correlated with aversive states including pain, opioid abstinence, rodent models of depression, and failure to receive a predicted reward. Agonists at the mu opioid receptor (MOR are among the most powerful rewarding and pain relieving drugs. Injection of the MOR agonist morphine directly into the habenula produces analgesia, raising the possibility that MOR acts locally within the LHb. Consequently, we examined the synaptic actions of MOR agonists in the LHb using whole cell patch clamp recording. We found that the MOR selective agonist DAMGO inhibits a subset of LHb neurons both directly and by inhibiting glutamate release onto these cells. Paradoxically, DAMGO also presynaptically inhibited GABA release onto most LHb neurons. The behavioral effect of MOR activation will thus depend upon both the level of intrinsic neuronal activity in the LHb and the balance of activity in glutamate and GABA inputs to different LHb neuronal populations.

  1. Modulation of peripheral μ-opioid analgesia by σ1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, Cristina; Montilla-García, Ángeles; González-Cano, Rafael; Nieto, Francisco Rafael; Romero, Lucía; Artacho-Cordón, Antonia; Montes, Rosa; Fernández-Pastor, Begoña; Merlos, Manuel; Baeyens, José Manuel; Entrena, José Manuel; Cobos, Enrique José

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of σ1-receptor inhibition on μ-opioid-induced mechanical antinociception and constipation. σ1-Knockout mice exhibited marked mechanical antinociception in response to several μ-opioid analgesics (fentanyl, oxycodone, morphine, buprenorphine, and tramadol) at systemic (subcutaneous) doses that were inactive in wild-type mice and even unmasked the antinociceptive effects of the peripheral μ-opioid agonist loperamide. Likewise, systemic (subcutaneous) or local (intraplantar) treatment of wild-type mice with the selective σ1 antagonists BD-1063 [1-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-4-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride] or S1RA [4-[2-[[5-methyl-1-(2-naphthalenyl)1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy]ethyl] morpholine hydrochloride] potentiated μ-opioid antinociception; these effects were fully reversed by the σ1 agonist PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl)1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate) hydrochloride], showing the selectivity of the pharmacological approach. The μ-opioid antinociception potentiated by σ1 inhibition (by σ1-receptor knockout or σ1-pharmacological antagonism) was more sensitive to the peripherally restricted opioid antagonist naloxone methiodide than opioid antinociception under normal conditions, indicating a key role for peripheral opioid receptors in the enhanced antinociception. Direct interaction between the opioid drugs and σ1 receptor cannot account for our results, since the former lacked affinity for σ1 receptors (labeled with [(3)H](+)-pentazocine). A peripheral role for σ1 receptors was also supported by their higher density (Western blot results) in peripheral nervous tissue (dorsal root ganglia) than in several central areas involved in opioid antinociception (dorsal spinal cord, basolateral amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and rostroventral medulla). In contrast to its effects on nociception, σ1-receptor inhibition did not alter fentanyl- or loperamide-induced constipation, a peripherally mediated nonanalgesic opioid effect. Therefore

  2. Structural and functional interactions between six-transmembrane μ-opioid receptors and β2-adrenoreceptors modulate opioid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoshkin, Alexander; Convertino, Marino; Viet, Chi T; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S; Kambur, Oleg; Marcovitz, Jaclyn; Patel, Pinkal; Stone, Laura S; Kalso, Eija; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Schmidt, Brian L; Maixner, William; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Diatchenko, Luda

    2015-12-11

    The primary molecular target for clinically used opioids is the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Besides the major seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptors, the MOR gene codes for alternatively spliced six-transmembrane (6TM) isoforms, the biological and clinical significance of which remains unclear. Here, we show that the otherwise exclusively intracellular localized 6TM-MOR translocates to the plasma membrane upon coexpression with β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-ARs) through an interaction with the fifth and sixth helices of β2-AR. Coexpression of the two receptors in BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells potentiates calcium responses to a 6TM-MOR ligand, and this calcium response is completely blocked by a selective β2-antagonist in BE(2)-C cells, and in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. Co-administration of 6TM-MOR and β2-AR ligands leads to substantial analgesic synergy and completely reverses opioid-induced hyperalgesia in rodent behavioral models. Together, our results provide evidence that the heterodimerization of 6TM-MOR with β2-AR underlies a molecular mechanism for 6TM cellular signaling, presenting a unique functional responses to opioids. This signaling pathway may contribute to the hyperalgesic effects of opioids that can be efficiently blocked by β2-AR antagonists, providing a new avenue for opioid therapy.

  3. Structural and functional interactions between six-transmembrane μ-opioid receptors and β2-adrenoreceptors modulate opioid signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoshkin, Alexander; Convertino, Marino; Viet, Chi T.; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S.; Kambur, Oleg; Marcovitz, Jaclyn; Patel, Pinkal; Stone, Laura S.; Kalso, Eija; Mogil, Jeffrey S.; Schmidt, Brian L.; Maixner, William; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Diatchenko, Luda

    2015-01-01

    The primary molecular target for clinically used opioids is the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Besides the major seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptors, the MOR gene codes for alternatively spliced six-transmembrane (6TM) isoforms, the biological and clinical significance of which remains unclear. Here, we show that the otherwise exclusively intracellular localized 6TM-MOR translocates to the plasma membrane upon coexpression with β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-ARs) through an interaction with the fifth and sixth helices of β2-AR. Coexpression of the two receptors in BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells potentiates calcium responses to a 6TM-MOR ligand, and this calcium response is completely blocked by a selective β2-antagonist in BE(2)-C cells, and in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. Co-administration of 6TM-MOR and β2-AR ligands leads to substantial analgesic synergy and completely reverses opioid-induced hyperalgesia in rodent behavioral models. Together, our results provide evidence that the heterodimerization of 6TM-MOR with β2-AR underlies a molecular mechanism for 6TM cellular signaling, presenting a unique functional responses to opioids. This signaling pathway may contribute to the hyperalgesic effects of opioids that can be efficiently blocked by β2-AR antagonists, providing a new avenue for opioid therapy. PMID:26657998

  4. Hyaluronic acid induces activation of the κ-opioid receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zavan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Nociceptive pain is one of the most common types of pain that originates from an injury involving nociceptors. Approximately 60% of the knee joint innervations are classified as nociceptive. The specific biological mechanism underlying the regulation of nociceptors is relevant for the treatment of symptoms affecting the knee joint. Intra-articular administration of exogenous hyaluronic acid (HA in patients with osteoarthritis (OA appears to be particularly effective in reducing pain and improving patient function. METHODS: We performed an in vitro study conducted in CHO cells that expressed a panel of opioid receptors and in primary rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons to determine if HA induces the activation of opioid peptide receptors (OPr using both aequorin and the fluorescent dye Fura-2/AM. RESULTS: Selective agonists and antagonists for each OPr expressed on CHO cells were used to test the efficacy of our in vitro model followed by stimulation with HA. The results showed that HA induces stimulatory effects on the κ receptor (KOP. These effects of HA were also confirmed in rat DRG neurons, which express endogenously the OPr. CONCLUSIONS: HA activates the KOP receptor in a concentration dependent manner, with a pEC(50 value of 7.57.

  5. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates.

  6. Opioid activation of Toll-Like receptor 4 contributes to drug reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, M R; Northcutt, A.L.; Hiranita, T.; WANG, X; Lewis, S.; Thomas, J.; van Steeg, K.; Kopajtic, T.A.; L. Loram; Sfregola, C.; Galer, E.; Miles, N.E.; Bland, S.T.; AMAT, J.; Rozeske, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Opioid action was thought to exert reinforcing effects solely via the initial agonism of opioid receptors. Here we present evidence for an additional novel contributor to opioid reward: the innate immune pattern-recognition receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and its MyD88-dependent signaling. Blockade of TLR4/MD2 by administration of the non-opioid, unnatural isomer of naloxone, (+)-naloxone (rats), or two independent genetic knockouts of MyD88-TLR4-dependent signaling (mice), suppressed ...

  7. Opioid mediated activity and expression of mu and delta opioid receptors in isolated human term non-labouring myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Rebecca A; McMorrow, Jason P; Campion, Deirdre P; Carey, Michael F; O'Connor, John J

    2013-01-05

    The existence of opioid receptors in mammalian myometrial tissue is now widely accepted. Previously enkephalin degrading enzymes have been shown to be elevated in pregnant rat uterus and a met-enkephalin analogue has been shown to alter spontaneous contractility of rat myometrium. Here we have undertaken studies to determine the effects of met-enkephalin on in vitro human myometrial contractility and investigate the expression of opioid receptors in pregnant myometrium. Myometrial biopsies were taken from women undergoing elective caesarean delivery at term. Organ bath experiments were used to investigate the effect of the met-enkephalin analogue [d-Ala 2, d-met 5] enkephalin (DAMEA) on spontaneous contractility. A confocal immunofluorescent technique and real time PCR were used to determine the expression of protein and mRNA, respectively for two opioid receptor subtypes, mu and delta. DAMEA had a concentration dependent inhibitory effect on contractile activity (1 × 10(-7)M-1 × 10(-4)M; 54% reduction in contractile activity, Popioid receptor protein sub-types and their respective mRNA were identified in all tissues sampled. This is the first report of opioid receptor expression and of an opioid mediated uterorelaxant action in term human non-labouring myometrium in vitro.

  8. μ-Opioid receptor desensitization: homologous or heterologous?

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    Llorente, Javier; Lowe, Janet D; Sanderson, Helen S; Tsisanova, Elena; Kelly, Eamonn; Henderson, Graeme; Bailey, Chris P

    2012-12-01

    There is considerable controversy over whether μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) desensitization is homologous or heterologous and over the mechanisms underlying such desensitization. In different cell types MOPr desensitization has been reported to involve receptor phosphorylation by various kinases, including G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), second messenger and other kinases as well as perturbation of the MOPr effector pathway by GRK sequestration of G protein βγ subunits or ion channel modulation. Here we report that in brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) neurons prepared from relatively mature rats (5-8 weeks old) rapid MOPr desensitization induced by the high-efficacy opioid peptides methionine enkephalin and DAMGO was homologous and not heterologous to α(2)-adrenoceptors and somatostatin SST(2) receptors. Given that these receptors all couple through G proteins to the same set of G-protein inwardly rectifying (GIRK) channels it is unlikely therefore that in mature neurons MOPr desensitization involves G protein βγ subunit sequestration or ion channel modulation. In contrast, in slices from immature animals (less than postnatal day 20), MOPr desensitization was observed to be heterologous and could be downstream of the receptor. Heterologous MOPr desensitization was not dependent on protein kinase C or c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity, but the change from heterologous to homologous desensitization with age was correlated with a decrease in the expression levels of GRK2 in the LC and other brain regions. The observation that the mechanisms underlying MOPr desensitization change with neuronal development is important when extrapolating to the mature brain results obtained from experiments on expression systems, cell lines and immature neuronal preparations.

  9. ACTIVATION AND INTERNALIZATION OF THE μ-OPIOID RECEPTOR BY THE NEWLY DISCOVERED ENDOGENOUS AGONISTS, ENDOMORPHIN-1 AND ENDOMORPHIN-2

    OpenAIRE

    McConalogue, K; Grady, E. F.; MINNIS, J.; Balestra, B; Tonini, M; Brecha, N C; Bunnett, N. W.; Sternini, C.

    1999-01-01

    The multiple effects of opiate alkaloids, important therapeutic drugs used for pain control, are mediated by the neuronal μ-opioid receptor. Among the side effects of these drugs is a profound impairment of gastrointestinal transit. Endomorphins are opioid peptides recently isolated from the nervous system, which have high affinity and selectivity for μ-opioid receptors. Since the μ-opioid receptor undergoes ligand-induced receptor endocytosis in an agonist-dependent manner, we compared the a...

  10. Opioid Receptors Mediate Direct Predictive Fear Learning: Evidence from One-Trial Blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; McNally, Gavan P.

    2007-01-01

    Pavlovian fear learning depends on predictive error, so that fear learning occurs when the actual outcome of a conditioning trial exceeds the expected outcome. Previous research has shown that opioid receptors, including [mu]-opioid receptors in the ventrolateral quadrant of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), mediate such predictive fear…

  11. Mu-opioid receptor knockout mice show diminished food-anticipatory activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; van den Bos, Ruud; Baars, Annemarie M; Lubbers, Marianne; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Hillebrand, Jacquelien J G; Schuller, Alwin G; Pintar, John E; Spruijt, Berry M

    2004-01-01

    We have previously suggested that during or prior to activation of anticipatory behaviour to a coming reward, mu-opioid receptors are activated. To test this hypothesis schedule induced food-anticipatory activity in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice was measured using running wheels. We hypothesized

  12. Optimisation of in silico derived 2-aminobenzimidazole hits as unprecedented selective kappa opioid receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasmal, Pradip K; Krishna, C Vamsee; Sudheerkumar Adabala, S

    2015-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is an important mediator of pain signaling and it is targeted for the treatment of various pains. Pharmacophore based mining of databases led to the identification of 2-aminobenzimidazole derivative as KOR agonists with selectivity over the other opioid receptors DOR...

  13. Heterodimerization of ORL1 and Opioid Receptors and Its Consequences for N-type Calcium Channel Regulation*

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Rhian M; You, Haitao; Hameed, Shahid; Altier, Christophe; Mezghrani, Alexandre; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Zamponi, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the heterodimerization of ORL1 receptors and classical members of the opioid receptor family. All three classes of opioid receptors could be co-immunoprecipitated with ORL1 receptors from both transfected tsA-201 cell lysate and rat dorsal root ganglia lysate, suggesting that these receptors can form heterodimers. Consistent with this hypothesis, in cells expressing either one of the opioid receptors together with ORL1, prolonged ORL1 receptor activation via nociceptin ap...

  14. Kappa-opioid receptor-selective dicarboxylic ester-derived salvinorin A ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polepally, Prabhakar R; White, Kate; Vardy, Eyal; Roth, Bryan L; Ferreira, Daneel; Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2013-05-15

    Salvinorin A, the active ingredient of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum is the most potent known naturally occurring hallucinogen and is a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist. To better understand the ligand-receptor interactions, a series of dicarboxylic ester-type of salvinorin A derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their binding affinity at κ-, δ- and μ-opioid receptors. Most of the analogues show high affinity to the κ-opioid receptor. Methyl malonyl derivative 4 shows the highest binding affinity (Ki=2nM), analogues 5, 7, and 14 exhibit significant affinity for the κ-receptor (Ki=21, 36 and 39nM).

  15. μ-Opioid Agonist Inhibition of κ-Opioid Receptor-Stimulated Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Phosphorylation Is Dynamin-Dependent in C6 Glioma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bohn, Laura M.; Belcheva, Mariana M.; Coscia, Carmine J.

    2000-01-01

    In previous studies we found that μ-opioids, acting via μ-opioid receptors, inhibit endothelin-stimulated C6 glioma cell growth. In the preceding article we show that the κ-selective opioid agonist U69,593 acts as a mitogen with a potency similar to that of endothelin in the same astrocytic model system. Here we report that C6 cell treatment with μ-opioid agonists for 1 h results in the inhibition of κ-opioid mitogenic signaling. The μ-selective agonist endomorphin-1 attenuates κ-opioid-stimu...

  16. Temperament trait Harm Avoidance associates with μ-opioid receptor availability in frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, Lauri; Salo, Johanna; Hirvonen, Jussi;

    2012-01-01

    Avoidance are largely unknown. We hypothesized that variability in Harm Avoidance trait would be explained by differences in the activity of μ-opioid system as the opioid system is known to regulate affective states and stress sensitivity. Brain μ-opioid receptor availability was measured in 22 healthy...... subjects using positron emission tomography and [(11)C]carfentanil, a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist. The subjects were selected from a large Finish population-based cohort (N=2075) on the basis of their pre-existing Temperament and Character Scores. Subjects scoring consistently in the upper (10......) and lower (12) quartiles for the Harm Avoidance trait were studied. High Harm Avoidance score associated with high μ-opioid receptor availability (i.e. lower endogenous μ-opioid drive) in anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and anterior insular cortex...

  17. Synthetic and Receptor Signaling Explorations of the Mitragyna Alkaloids: Mitragynine as an Atypical Molecular Framework for Opioid Receptor Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruegel, Andrew C; Gassaway, Madalee M; Kapoor, Abhijeet; Váradi, András; Majumdar, Susruta; Filizola, Marta; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sames, Dalibor

    2016-06-01

    Mu-opioid receptor agonists represent mainstays of pain management. However, the therapeutic use of these agents is associated with serious side effects, including potentially lethal respiratory depression. Accordingly, there is a longstanding interest in the development of new opioid analgesics with improved therapeutic profiles. The alkaloids of the Southeast Asian plant Mitragyna speciosa, represented by the prototypical member mitragynine, are an unusual class of opioid receptor modulators with distinct pharmacological properties. Here we describe the first receptor-level functional characterization of mitragynine and related natural alkaloids at the human mu-, kappa-, and delta-opioid receptors. These results show that mitragynine and the oxidized analogue 7-hydroxymitragynine, are partial agonists of the human mu-opioid receptor and competitive antagonists at the kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. We also show that mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are G-protein-biased agonists of the mu-opioid receptor, which do not recruit β-arrestin following receptor activation. Therefore, the Mitragyna alkaloid scaffold represents a novel framework for the development of functionally biased opioid modulators, which may exhibit improved therapeutic profiles. Also presented is an enantioselective total synthesis of both (-)-mitragynine and its unnatural enantiomer, (+)-mitragynine, employing a proline-catalyzed Mannich-Michael reaction sequence as the key transformation. Pharmacological evaluation of (+)-mitragynine revealed its much weaker opioid activity. Likewise, the intermediates and chemical transformations developed in the total synthesis allowed the elucidation of previously unexplored structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the Mitragyna scaffold. Molecular docking studies, in combination with the observed chemical SAR, suggest that Mitragyna alkaloids adopt a binding pose at the mu-opioid receptor that is distinct from that of classical opioids.

  18. Role of mu- and delta-opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens in turning behaviour of rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsuzaki, S.; Ikeda, H.; Akiyama, G.; Sato, M.; Moribe, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nagase, H.; Cools, A.R.; Koshikawa, N.

    2004-01-01

    The role of mu-, delta1- and delta2-opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens in pivoting was investigated in freely moving rats. Unilateral injections of the mu-opioid receptor agonist, [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO, 1 and 2 microg) and the delta2-opioid receptor agonist, deltorphin

  19. Prescription Pain Medications (Opioids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain? Opioids attach to specific proteins, called opioid receptors, on nerve cells in the brain, spinal cord, ... essential functions like breathing when they attach to opioid receptors in a brain area that controls respiration. Opioid ...

  20. Peripheral Sensitization Increases Opioid Receptor Expression and Activation by Crotalphine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Fernandes, Ana Carolina de Oliveira; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Parada, Carlos Amilcar; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Cury, Yara

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation enhances the peripheral analgesic efficacy of opioid drugs, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. Crotalphine (CRP), a peptide that was first isolated from South American rattlesnake C.d. terrificus venom, induces a potent and long-lasting anti-nociceptive effect that is mediated by the activation of peripheral opioid receptors. Because the high efficacy of CRP is only observed in the presence of inflammation, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the CRP anti-nociceptive effect induced by inflammation. Using real-time RT-PCR, western blot analysis and ELISA assays, we demonstrate that the intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases the mRNA and protein levels of the µ- and κ-opioid receptors in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and paw tissue of rats within 3 h of the injection. Using conformation state-sensitive antibodies that recognize activated opioid receptors, we show that PGE2, alone does not increase the activation of these opioid receptors but that in the presence of PGE2, the activation of specific opioid receptors by CRP and selective µ- and κ-opioid receptor agonists (positive controls) increases. Furthermore, PGE2 down-regulated the expression and activation of the δ-opioid receptor. CRP increased the level of activated mitogen-activated protein kinases in cultured DRG neurons, and this increase was dependent on the activation of protein kinase Cζ. This CRP effect was much more prominent when the cells were pretreated with PGE2. These results indicate that the expression and activation of peripheral opioid receptors by opioid-like drugs can be up- or down-regulated in the presence of an acute injury and that acute tissue injury enhances the efficacy of peripheral opioids. PMID:24594607

  1. Antagonists of toll like receptor 4 maybe a new strategy to counteract opioid-induced hyperalgesia and opioid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian

    2012-12-01

    Long term opioid treatment results in hyperalgesia and tolerance, which is a troublesome phenomenon in clinic application. Recent studies have revealed a critical role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the neuropathological process of opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance. TLR4 is predominantly expressed by microglial cells and is a key modulator in the activation of the innate immune system. Activation of TLR4 may initiate the activation of microglia and hence a number of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that could enhance neuronal excitability are released. Blockade of TLR4 activation by its antagonists alleviate neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that opioid antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone, which were also demonstrated to be TLR4 antagonist, may have clinic application value in attenuation of opioid-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance.

  2. A Novel Approach for Effectively Treating SCI Pain, Improving Opioid Efficacy, and Preventing Opioid-Induced Constipation: Key Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    pain ; however, morphine for 7 d post-SCI has little effect on chronic thermal nociceptive thresholds in this model. Establishing effects of post-SCI...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0277 TITLE: A Novel Approach for Effectively Treating SCI Pain , Improving Opioid Efficacy, and Preventing Opioid...SCI Pain , Improving Opioid Efficacy, and Preventing Opioid-Induced Constipation: Key Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  3. Interaction of the mu-opioid receptor with GPR177 (Wntless inhibits Wnt secretion: potential implications for opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stagljar Igor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioid agonist drugs produce analgesia. However, long-term exposure to opioid agonists may lead to opioid dependence. The analgesic and addictive properties of opioid agonist drugs are mediated primarily via the mu-opioid receptor (MOR. Opioid agonists appear to alter neuronal morphology in key brain regions implicated in the development of opioid dependence. However, the precise role of the MOR in the development of these neuronal alterations remains elusive. We hypothesize that identifying and characterizing novel MOR interacting proteins (MORIPs may help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the development of opioid dependence. Results GPR177, the mammalian ortholog of Drosophila Wntless/Evi/Sprinter, was identified as a MORIP in a modified split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen. GPR177 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that plays a critical role in mediating Wnt protein secretion from Wnt producing cells. The MOR/GPR177 interaction was validated in pulldown, coimmunoprecipitation, and colocalization studies using mammalian tissue culture cells. The interaction was also observed in rodent brain, where MOR and GPR177 were coexpressed in close spatial proximity within striatal neurons. At the cellular level, morphine treatment caused a shift in the distribution of GPR177 from cytosol to the cell surface, leading to enhanced MOR/GPR177 complex formation at the cell periphery and the inhibition of Wnt protein secretion. Conclusions It is known that chronic morphine treatment decreases dendritic arborization and hippocampal neurogenesis, and Wnt proteins are essential for these processes. We therefore propose that the morphine-mediated MOR/GPR177 interaction may result in decreased Wnt secretion in the CNS, resulting in atrophy of dendritic arbors and decreased neurogenesis. Our results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for GPR177 in regulating cellular response to opioid drugs.

  4. Selective κ opioid antagonists nor-BNI, GNTI and JDTic have low affinities for non-opioid receptors and transporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Munro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nor-BNI, GNTI and JDTic induce selective κ opioid antagonism that is delayed and extremely prolonged, but some other effects are of rapid onset and brief duration. The transient effects of these compounds differ, suggesting that some of them may be mediated by other targets. RESULTS: In binding assays, the three antagonists showed no detectable affinity (K(i≥10 µM for most non-opioid receptors and transporters (26 of 43 tested. There was no non-opioid target for which all three compounds shared detectable affinity, or for which any two shared sub-micromolar affinity. All three compounds showed low nanomolar affinity for κ opioid receptors, with moderate selectivity over μ and δ (3 to 44-fold. Nor-BNI bound weakly to the α(2C-adrenoceptor (K(i = 630 nM. GNTI enhanced calcium mobilization by noradrenaline at the α(1A-adrenoceptor (EC₅₀ = 41 nM, but did not activate the receptor, displace radioligands, or enhance PI hydrolysis. This suggests that it is a functionally-selective allosteric enhancer. GNTI was also a weak M₁ receptor antagonist (K(B = 3.7 µM. JDTic bound to the noradrenaline transporter (K(i = 54 nM, but only weakly inhibited transport (IC₅₀ = 1.1 µM. JDTic also bound to the opioid-like receptor NOP (K(i = 12 nM, but gave little antagonism even at 30 µM. All three compounds exhibited rapid permeation and active efflux across Caco-2 cell monolayers. CONCLUSIONS: Across 43 non-opioid CNS targets, only GNTI exhibited a potent functional effect (allosteric enhancement of α(1A-adrenoceptors. This may contribute to GNTI's severe transient effects. Plasma concentrations of nor-BNI and GNTI may be high enough to affect some peripheral non-opioid targets. Nonetheless, κ opioid antagonism persists for weeks or months after these transient effects dissipate. With an adequate pre-administration interval, our results therefore strengthen the evidence that nor-BNI, GNTI and JDTic are highly

  5. Naloxone fails to produce conditioned place aversion in mu-opioid receptor knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoubis, P D; Matthes, H W; Walwyn, W M; Kieffer, B L; Maidment, N T

    2001-01-01

    There is growing evidence that tonic activity of the opioid system may be important in the modulation of affective state. Naloxone produces a conditioned place aversion in rodents, an effect that is centrally mediated. Previous pharmacological data using antagonists with preferential actions at mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors indicate the importance of the mu-opioid receptor in mediating this effect. We sought to test the mu-opioid receptor selectivity of naloxone aversion using mu-opioid receptor knock-out mice. mu-Opioid receptor knock-out and wild-type mice were tested for naloxone (10 mg/kg, s.c.) aversion using a place conditioning paradigm. As a positive control for associative learning, knock-out mice were tested for conditioned place aversion to a kappa agonist, U50,488H (2 mg/kg, s.c.). Naloxone produced a significant place aversion in wild-type mice, but failed to have any effect in mu-opioid receptor knock-out mice. On the other hand, both knock-out and wild-type mice treated with U50,488H spent significantly less time in the drug-paired chamber compared to their respective vehicle controls. We conclude that the mu-opioid receptor is crucial for the acquisition of naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion. Furthermore, in a separate experiment using C57BL/6 mice, the delta-selective antagonist naltrindole (10 or 30 mg/kg, s.c.) failed to produce conditioned place aversion.Taken together, these data further support the notion that naloxone produces aversion by antagonizing tonic opioid activity at the mu-opioid receptor.

  6. Nicotine enhancement and reinforcer devaluation: Interaction with opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshenbaum, Ari P; Suhaka, Jesse A; Phillips, Jessie L; Voltolini de Souza Pinto, Maiary

    In rats, nicotine enhances responding maintained by non-pharmacological reinforcers, and discontinuation of nicotine devalues those same reinforcers. The goal of this study was to assess the interaction of nicotine and opioid receptors and to evaluate the degree to which nicotine enhancement and nicotine-induced devaluation are related to opioid activation. Nicotine (0.4mg/kg), or nicotine plus naloxone (0.3 or 3.0mg/kg), was delivered to rats prior to progressive ratio (PR) schedule sessions in which sucrose was used as a reinforcer. PR-schedule responding was assessed during ten daily sessions of drug delivery, and for three post-dosing days/sessions. Control groups for this investigation included a saline-only condition, and naloxone-only (0.3 or 3.0mg/kg) conditions. When administered in conjunction with nicotine, both naloxone doses attenuated nicotine enhancement of the sucrose reinforcer, and the combination of the larger dose of naloxone (3.0mg/kg) with nicotine produced significant impairments in sucrose reinforced responding. When administered alone, neither dose of naloxone (0.3 & 3.0mg/kg) significantly altered responding in comparison to saline. Furthermore, when dosing was discontinued after ten once-daily doses, all nicotine groups (nicotine-only and nicotine+naloxone combination) demonstrated significant decreases in sucrose reinforcement compared to the saline group. Although opioid antagonism attenuated reinforcement enhancement by nicotine, it did not prevent reinforcer devaluation upon discontinuation of nicotine dosing, and the higher dose of naloxone (3.0mg/kg) produced decrements upon discontinuation on its own in the absence of nicotine.

  7. A novel first exon directs hormone-sensitive transcription of the pig prolactin receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine prolactin (PRL) acts through its receptor (PRLR) to confer a wide range of biological functions, including its established role during lactation.We have identified a novel first exon of the porcine PRLR that gives rise to three different mRNA transcripts. Transcri...

  8. Functional coupling, desensitization and internalization of virally expressed mu opioid receptors in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from mu opioid receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, W M; Keith, D E; Wei, W; Tan, A M; Xie, C W; Evans, C J; Kieffer, B L; Maidment, N T

    2004-01-01

    Although mu opioid receptors desensitize in various cell lines in vitro, the relationship of this change in signaling efficacy to the development of tolerance in vivo remains uncertain. It is clear that a system is needed in which functional mu opioid receptor expression is obtained in appropriate neurons so that desensitization can be measured, manipulated, and mutated receptors expressed in this environment. We have developed a recombinant system in which expression of a flag-tagged mu opioid receptor is returned to dorsal root ganglia neurons from mu opioid receptor knockout mice in vitro. Flow cytometry analysis showed that adenoviral-mediated expression of the amino-terminal flag-tagged mu opioid receptor in neurons resulted in approximately 1.3x10(6) receptors/cell. Many mu opioid receptor cell lines express a similar density of receptors but this is approximately 7x greater than the number of endogenous receptors expressed by matched wild-type neurons. Inhibition of the high voltage-activated calcium currents in dorsal root ganglia neurons by the mu agonist, D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly(5)-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO), was not different between the endogenous and flag-tagged receptor at several concentrations of DAMGO used. Both receptors desensitized equally over the first 6 h of DAMGO pre-incubation, but after 24 h the response of the endogenous receptor to DAMGO had desensitized further than the flag- tagged receptor (71+/-3 vs 29+/-7% respectively; P<0.002), indicating less desensitization in neurons expressing a higher density of receptor. Using flow cytometry to quantify the percentage of receptors remaining on the neuronal cell surface, the flag-tagged receptor internalized by 17+/-1% after 20 min and 55+/-2% after 24 h of DAMGO. These data indicate that this return of function model in neurons recapitulates many of the characteristics of endogenous mu opioid receptor function previously identified in non-neuronal cell lines.

  9. Prospects for Creation of Cardioprotective and Antiarrhythmic Drugs Based on Opioid Receptor Agonists

    OpenAIRE

    Maslov, Leonid N; Khaliulin, Igor; Oeltgen, Peter R; Naryzhnaya, Natalia V.; Pei, Jian‐Ming; Brown, Stephen A; Lishmanov, Yury B.; Downey, James M

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has now been demonstrated that the μ, δ1, δ2, and κ1 opioid receptor (OR) agonists represent the most promising group of opioids for the creation of drugs enhancing cardiac tolerance to the detrimental effects of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Opioids are able to prevent necrosis and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes during I/R and improve cardiac contractility in the reperfusion period. The OR agonists exert an infarct‐reducing effect with prophylactic administration and prevent reperfusi...

  10. Functional characteristics of the naked mole rat μ-opioid receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Busch-Dienstfertig

    Full Text Available While humans and most animals respond to µ-opioid receptor (MOR agonists with analgesia and decreased aggression, in the naked mole rat (NMR opioids induce hyperalgesia and severe aggression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 can underlie altered behavioral responses to opioids. Therefore, we hypothesized that the primary structure of the NMR MOR may differ from other species. Sequencing of the NMR oprm1 revealed strong homology to other mammals, but exposed three unique amino acids that might affect receptor-ligand interactions. The NMR and rat oprm1 sequences were cloned into mammalian expression vectors and transfected into HEK293 cells. Radioligand binding and 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP enzyme immunoassays were used to compare opioid binding and opioid-mediated cAMP inhibition. At normalized opioid receptor protein levels we detected significantly lower [3H]DAMGO binding to NMR compared to rat MOR, but no significant difference in DAMGO-induced cAMP inhibition. Strong DAMGO-induced MOR internalization was detectable using radioligand binding and confocal imaging in HEK293 cells expressing rat or NMR receptor, while morphine showed weak or no effects. In summary, we found minor functional differences between rat and NMR MOR suggesting that other differences e.g. in anatomical distribution of MOR underlie the NMR's extreme reaction to opioids.

  11. [Effect of opioid receptors on acute stress-induced changes in recognition memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wu, Yu-Wei; Qian, Zhao-Qiang; Yan, Cai-Fang; Fan, Ka-Min; Xu, Jin-Hui; Li, Xiao; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-12-25

    Although ample evidence has shown that acute stress impairs memory, the influences of acute stress on different phases of memory, such as acquisition, consolidation and retrieval, are different. Experimental data from both human and animals support that endogenous opioid system plays a role in stress, as endogenous opioid release is increased and opioid receptors are activated during stress experience. On the other hand, endogenous opioid system mediates learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute forced swimming stress on recognition memory of C57 mice and the role of opioid receptors in this process by using a three-day pattern of new object recognition task. The results showed that 15-min acute forced swimming damaged the retrieval of recognition memory, but had no effect on acquisition and consolidation of recognition memory. No significant change of object recognition memory was found in mice that were given naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, by intraperitoneal injection. But intraperitoneal injection of naloxone before forced swimming stress could inhibit the impairment of recognition memory retrieval caused by forced swimming stress. The results of real-time PCR showed that acute forced swimming decreased the μ opioid receptor mRNA levels in whole brain and hippocampus, while the injection of naloxone before stress could reverse this change. These results suggest that acute stress may impair recognition memory retrieval via opioid receptors.

  12. Opioid Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serecigni, Josep Guardia

    2015-09-29

    Objetivos: A partir de los recientes progresos en la farmacoterapia del alcoholismo, hemos efectuado una revisión sobre los fármacos antagonistas de los receptores opioides, que tienen aprobada la indicación para el tratamiento del alcoholismo, como son naltrexona y nalmefeno. Metodología: Hemos revisado más de 100 publicaciones sobre péptidos y receptores opioides, el efecto de los fármacos antagonistas de los receptores opioides sobre el consumo de alcohol, tanto en animales como en humanos, tanto en el laboratorio como para el tratamiento del alcoholismo. También se describen las características farmacológicas de naltrexona y de nalmefeno y su utilidad en la práctica clínica. Resultados: Múltiples evidencias han demostrado la eficacia de naltrexona y nalmefeno para reducir el consumo de alcohol, tanto en animales de laboratorio como también en personas estudiadas en situación de bar experimental, aunque debido al diferente perfil receptorial, nalmefeno ha sido relacionado con una mayor eficacia para la reducción del consumo de alcohol, en ratas que presentan dependencia del alcohol. Además, un gran número de ensayos clínicos controlados han demostrado la eficacia de naltrexona para la prevención de recaídas, en personas que presentan un trastorno por dependencia del alcohol. Ensayos clínicos controlados recientes han demostrado la eficacia de nalmefeno “a demanda” para reducir el consumo de alcohol, en personas que presentan un trastorno por dependencia del alcohol de baja gravedad. Conclusiones: Tanto naltrexona como nalmefeno han demostrado ser fármacos seguros, bien tolerados, de manejo sencillo, y eficaces para el tratamiento del trastorno por dependencia del alcohol, (actualmente llamado trastorno por consumo de alcohol). A partir de recientes ensayos clínicos controlados se ha comprobado que nalmefeno produce una reducción significativa del consumo de alcohol, lo cual supone un nuevo objetivo que amplía las posibilidades de

  13. Mu opioid receptors are in discrete hippocampal interneuron subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carrie T; Milner, Teresa A

    2002-01-01

    In the rat hippocampal formation, application of mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists disinhibits principal cells, promoting excitation-dependent processes such as epileptogenesis and long-term potentiation. However, the precise location of MORs in particular inhibitory circuits, has not been determined, and the roles of MORs in endogenous functioning are unclear. To address these issues, the distribution of MOR-like immunoreactivity (-li) was examined in several populations of inhibitory hippocampal neurons in the CA1 region using light and electron microscopy. We found that MOR-li was present in many parvalbumin-containing basket cells, but absent from cholecystokinin-labeled basket cells. MOR-li was also commonly in interneurons containing somatostatin-li or neuropeptide Y-li that resembled the "oriens-lacunosum-moleculare" (O-LM) interneurons innervating pyramidal cell distal dendrites. Finally, MOR-li was in some vasoactive intestinal peptide- or calretinin-containing profiles resembling interneurons that primarily innervate other interneurons. These findings indicate that MOR-containing neurons form a neurochemically and functionally heterogeneous subset of hippocampal GABAergic neurons. MORs are most frequently on interneurons that are specialized to inhibit pyramidal cells, and are on a limited number of interneurons that target other interneurons. Moreover, the distribution of MORs to different neuronal types in several laminae, some relatively far from endogenous opioids, suggests normal functional roles that are different from the actions seen with exogenous agonists such as morphine.

  14. Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenoids from Salvia splendens and evaluation of Opioid Receptor affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Gianfranco; Savona, Giuseppe; Rodríguez, Benjamín; Dersch, Christina M; Rothman, Richard B; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2008-12-20

    Salvinorin A (1), a neoclerodane diterpene from the hallucinogenic mint Salvia divinorum, is the only known non-nitrogenous and specific kappa-opioid agonist. Several structural congeners of 1 isolated from Salvia splendens (2 - 8) together with a series of semisynthetic derivatives (9 - 24), some of which possess a pyrazoline structural moiety (9, 19 - 22), have been tested for affinity at human mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors. None of these compounds showed high affinity binding to these receptors. However, 10 showed modest affinity for kappa receptors suggesting other naturally neoclerodanes from different Salvia species may possess opioid affinity.

  15. Revolution in GPCR signalling: opioid receptor heteromers as novel therapeutic targets: IUPHAR review 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Wakako; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2014-09-01

    GPCRs can interact with each other to form homomers or heteromers. Homomers involve interactions with the same receptor type while heteromers involve interactions between two different GPCRs. These receptor-receptor interactions modulate not only the binding but also the signalling and trafficking properties of individual receptors. Opioid receptor heteromerization has been extensively investigated with the objective of identifying novel therapeutic targets that are as potent as morphine but without the side effects associated with chronic morphine use. In this context, studies have described heteromerization between the different types of opioid receptors and between opioid receptors and a wide range of GPCRs including adrenoceptors, cannabinoid, 5-HT, metabotropic glutamate and sensory neuron-specific receptors. Recent advances in the field involving the generation of heteromer-specific reagents (antibodies or ligands) or of membrane-permeable peptides that disrupt the heteromer interaction are helping to elucidate the physiological role of opioid receptor heteromers and the contribution of the partner receptor to the side effects associated with opioid use. For example, studies using membrane-permeable peptides targeting the heteromer interface have implicated μ and δ receptor heteromers in the development of tolerance to morphine, and heteromers of μ and gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in morphine-induced itch. In addition, a number of ligands that selectively target opioid receptor heteromers exhibit potent antinociception with a decrease in the side effects commonly associated with morphine use. In this review, we summarize the latest findings regarding the biological and functional characteristics of opioid receptor heteromers both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Mu opioid receptor polymorphism, early social adversity, and social traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L; Kim, Youngmee

    2016-10-01

    A polymorphism in the mu opioid receptor gene OPRM1 (rs1799971) has been investigated for its role in sensitivity to social contexts. Evidence suggests that the G allele of this polymorphism is associated with higher levels of sensitivity. This study tested for main effects of the polymorphism and its interaction with a self-report measure of childhood adversity as an index of negative environment. Outcomes were several personality measures relevant to social connection. Significant interactions were obtained, such that the negative impact of childhood adversity on personality was greater among G carriers than among A homozygotes on measures of agreeableness, interdependence, anger proneness, hostility, authentic pride, life engagement, and an index of (mostly negative) feelings coloring one's world view. Findings support the role of OPRM1 in sensitivity to negative environments. Limitations are noted, including the lack of a measure of advantageous social environment to assess sensitivity to positive social contexts.

  17. Direct association of Mu-opioid and NMDA glutamate receptors supports their cross-regulation: molecular implications for opioid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, Javier; Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar

    2012-09-01

    In the nervous system, the interaction of opioids like morphine and its derivatives, with the G protein-coupled Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) provokes the development of analgesic tolerance, as well as physical dependence. Tolerance implies that increasing doses of the drug are required to achieve the same effect, a phenomenon that contributes significantly to the social problems surrounding recreational opioid abuse. In recent years, our understanding of the mechanisms that control MOR function in the nervous system, and that eventually produce opioid tolerance, has increased greatly. Pharmacological studies have identified a number of signaling proteins involved in morphine-induced tolerance, including the N-methyl-D-aspartate acid glutamate receptor (NMDAR), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase A (PKA), calcium (Ca²⁺)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), delta-opioid receptor (DOR) and the regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins. There is general agreement on the critical role of the NMDAR/nNOS/CaMKII pathway in this process, which is supported by the recent demonstration of a physical association between MORs and NMDARs in post-synaptic structures. Indeed, it is feasible that treatments that diminish morphine tolerance may target distinct elements within the same regulatory MOR-NMDAR pathway. Accordingly, we propose a model that incorporates the most relevant signaling components implicated in opioid tolerance in which, certain signals originating from the activated MOR are perceived by the associated NMDAR, which in turn exerts a negative feedback effect on MOR signaling. MOR- and NMDAR-mediated signals work together in a sequential and interconnected manner to ultimately induce MOR desensitization. Future studies of these phenomena should focus on adding further components to this signaling pathway in order to better define the mechanism underlying MOR desensitization in neural cells.

  18. Brain opioid receptor density relates to stereotypies in chronically stressed pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loijens, L.W.S.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Wiepkema, P.R.; Wiegant, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    Opioid receptor densities were measured in the hippocampus of chronically stressed (tethered) pigs to study the involvement of endogenous opioid systems in stereotypy performance. Three groups of animals were housed tethered for 2 (n = 12), 5.5 (n = 12) and 8-9 months (n = 8), respectively, and the

  19. Brain opioid receptor density relates to stereotypies in chronically stressed pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loijens, L.W.S.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Wiepkema, P.R.; Wiegant, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    Opioid receptor densities were measured in the hippocampus of chronically stressed (tethered) pigs to study the involvement of endogenous opioid systems in stereotypy performance. Three groups of animals were housed tethered for 2 (n = 12), 5.5 (n = 12) and 8-9 months (n = 8), respectively, and the

  20. Mycobacteria attenuate nociceptive responses by formyl peptide receptor triggered opioid peptide release from neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike L Rittner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In inflammation, pain is regulated by a balance of pro- and analgesic mediators. Analgesic mediators include opioid peptides which are secreted by neutrophils at the site of inflammation, leading to activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons. In humans, local opioids and opioid peptides significantly downregulate postoperative as well as arthritic pain. In rats, inflammatory pain is induced by intraplantar injection of heat inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum, a component of complete Freund's adjuvant. We hypothesized that mycobacterially derived formyl peptide receptor (FPR and/or toll like receptor (TLR agonists could activate neutrophils, leading to opioid peptide release and inhibition of inflammatory pain. In complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation, thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds of the paw were quantified (Hargreaves and Randall-Selitto methods, respectively. Withdrawal time to heat was decreased following systemic neutrophil depletion as well as local injection of opioid receptor antagonists or anti-opioid peptide (i.e. Met-enkephalin, beta-endorphin antibodies indicating an increase in pain. In vitro, opioid peptide release from human and rat neutrophils was measured by radioimmunoassay. Met-enkephalin release was triggered by Mycobacterium butyricum and formyl peptides but not by TLR-2 or TLR-4 agonists. Mycobacterium butyricum induced a rise in intracellular calcium as determined by FURA loading and calcium imaging. Opioid peptide release was blocked by intracellular calcium chelation as well as phosphoinositol-3-kinase inhibition. The FPR antagonists Boc-FLFLF and cyclosporine H reduced opioid peptide release in vitro and increased inflammatory pain in vivo while TLR 2/4 did not appear to be involved. In summary, mycobacteria activate FPR on neutrophils, resulting in tonic secretion of opioid peptides from neutrophils and in a decrease in inflammatory pain. Future therapeutic strategies may aim

  1. Role of the intracellular receptor domain of gp130 (exon 17) in human inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph J. Auernhammer; Thomas Ochsenkühn; Kathrin Zitzmann; Fabian Schnitzler; Julia Seiderer; Peter Lohse; George Vlotides; Dieter Engelhardt; Michael Sackmann; Burkhard G(o)ke

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of the intracellular receptor domain of gp130 in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).METHODS: We amplified and sequenced the complete exon 17 of the human gp130 gene in 146 patients with IBD. According to clinical and histopathological signs,the 146 patients with IBD were classified as having Crohn's disease (n = 73) or ulcerative colitis (n = 63),or as indeterminate status (n = 10).RESULTS: No mutations in exon 17 of the gp130 gene could be detected in any of the 146 patients with IBD examined.CONCLUSION: There is no evidence that mutations in exon 17 of the gp130 gene are involved in the pathogenesis of human IBD.

  2. Sex differences in subcellular distribution of delta opioid receptors in the rat hippocampus in response to acute and chronic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sanoara Mazid; Hall, Baila S.; Odell, Shannon C.; Khalifa Stafford; Dyer, Andreina D.; Van Kempen, Tracey A.; Jane Selegean; McEwen, Bruce S.; Elizabeth M. Waters; Milner, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction requires associative learning processes that critically involve hippocampal circuits, including the opioid system. We recently found that acute and chronic stress, important regulators of addictive processes, affect hippocampal opioid levels and mu opioid receptor trafficking in a sexually dimorphic manner. Here, we examined whether acute and chronic stress similarly alters the levels and trafficking of hippocampal delta opioid receptors (DORs). Immediately after acute immobili...

  3. Different mechanisms of homologous and heterologous μ-opioid receptor phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Anika; Illing, Susann; Miess, Elke; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of μ-opioid receptor signalling is tightly regulated and ultimately limited by the coordinated phosphorylation of intracellular serine and threonine residues. Here, we review and discuss recent progress in the generation and application of phosphosite-specific μ-opioid receptor antibodies, which have proved to be excellent tools for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of receptor phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Agonist-induced phosphorylation of μ-opioid receptors occurs at a conserved 10 residue sequence (370) TREHPSTANT(379) in the receptor's carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Diverse opioids induce receptor phosphorylation at S375, present in the middle of this sequence, but only high-efficacy opioids have the ability to drive higher order phosphorylation on flanking residues (T370, T376 and T379). S375 is the initiating residue in a hierarchical phosphorylation cascade. In contrast, agonist-independent heterologous μ-opioid receptor phosphorylation occurs primarily at T370. The combination of phosphosite-specific antibodies and siRNA knockdown screening also facilitated the identification of relevant kinases and phosphatases. In fact, morphine induces a selective S375 phosphorylation that is predominantly catalysed by GPCR kinase 5 (GRK5), whereas multisite phosphorylation induced by high-efficacy opioids specifically requires GRK2/3. By contrast, T370 phosphorylation stimulated by phorbol esters or heterologous activation of Gq -coupled receptors is mediated by PKCα. Rapid μ-opioid receptor dephosphorylation occurs at or near the plasma membrane and is catalysed by protein phosphatase 1γ (PP1γ). These findings suggest that there are distinct phosphorylation motifs for homologous and heterologous regulation of μ-opioid receptor phosphorylation. However, it remains to be seen to what extent different μ-opioid receptor phosphorylation patterns contribute to the development of tolerance and dependence in vivo. This article

  4. Activation of μ opioid receptors in the LPBN facilitates sodium intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Carolina G; Roncari, Camila F; Barbosa, Silas P; De Paula, Patrícia M; Colombari, Débora S A; De Luca, Laurival A; Colombari, Eduardo; Menani, José V

    2015-07-15

    Important inhibitory mechanisms for the control of water and sodium intake are present in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). Opioid receptors are expressed by LPBN neurons and injections of β-endorphin (nonspecific opioid receptor agonist) in this area induce 0.3M NaCl and water intake in satiated rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the injections of endomorphin-1 (μ opioid receptor agonist) alone or combined with the blockade of μ, κ or δ opioid receptors into the LPBN on 0.3M NaCl and water intake induced by subcutaneous injections of the diuretic furosemide (FURO) combined with low dose of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (CAP). Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally in the LPBN were used. Bilateral injections of endomorphin-1 (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0nmol/0.2μl) into the LPBN increased 0.3M NaCl and water intake induced by FURO+CAP. The previous blockade of μ opioid receptor with CTAP (1.0nmol/0.2μl) into the LPBN reduced the effect of endomorphin-1 on FURO+CAP-induced 0.3M NaCl. GNTI (κ opioid receptor antagonist; 2.0nmol/0.2μl) and naltrindole (δ opioid receptor antagonist; 2.0nmol/0.2μl) injected into the LPBN did not change the effects of endomorphin-1 on FURO+CAP-induced 0.3M NaCl. The results suggest that μ opioid receptors in the LPBN are involved in the control of sodium intake.

  5. Differential regulation of δ-opioid receptor trafficking after internalization by TIPP and DPDPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-huaHONG; Yi-minTAO; Xue-junXU; Zhi-qiangCHI; Jing-genLIU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the mechanisms underlying the difference between TIPP and DPDPE in desensitization of the δ-opioidreceptors. METHODS: GH3 cells stably expressing HA-tagged δ-opioid receptors were treated with TIPP, DPDPE (1 μmol/L)or morphine (10 μmol/L) for different periods of time in the presence or absence of 50 μmol/L monensin or 10 nmol/L OA.Internalization of δ-opioid receptor was assessed using confocal

  6. The mu-opioid receptor gene-dose dependent reductions in G-protein activation in the pons/medulla and antinociception induced by endomorphins in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, H; Narita, M; Oji, D E; Suganuma, C; Nagase, H; Sora, I; Uhl, G R; Cheng, E Y; Tseng, L F

    1999-01-01

    There appear to be different relationships between mu-opioid receptor densities and the acute and neuroadaptive mu-opioid agonist-induced responses of the multiple opioid neuronal systems, including important pons/medulla circuits. The recent success in creating mu-opioid receptor knockout mice allows studies of mu-opioid agonist-induced pharmacological and physiological effects in animals that express no, one or two copies of the mu-opioid receptor gene. We now report that the binding of mu-opioid receptor ligand, [3H][D-Ala2,NHPhe4,Gly-ol]enkephalin to membrane preparations of the pons/medulla was reduced by half in heterozygous mu-opioid receptor knockout mice and eliminated in homozygous mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. The endogenous mu-opioid agonist peptides endomorphin-1 and -2 activate G-proteins in the pons/medulla from wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent fashion, as assessed using [35S]guanosine-5'-o-(3-thio)triphosphate binding. This stimulation was reduced to half of the wild-type levels in heterozygous mice and eliminated in homozygous knockout mice. The intracerebroventricular injection of either endomorphin-1 or endomorphin-2 produced marked antinociception in the hot-plate and tail-flick tests in wild-type mice. These antinociceptive actions were significantly reduced in heterozygous mu-opioid receptor knockout mice, and virtually abolished in homozygous knockout mice. The mu-opioid receptors are the principal molecular targets for endomorphin-induced G-protein activation in the pons/medulla and the antinociception caused by the intracerebroventricular administration of mu-opioid agonists. These data support the notion that there are limited physiological mu-opioid receptor reserves for inducing G-protein activation in the pons/medulla and for the nociceptive modulation induced by the central administration of endomorphin-1 and -2.

  7. Cyclic endomorphin analogs in targeting opioid receptors to achieve pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Anna; Gentilucci, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Endomorphins, the endogenous ligands of the µ-opioid receptor, are attractive candidates for opioid-based pain-relieving agents. These tetrapeptides, with their remarkable affinity for the µ-opioid receptor, display favorable antinociceptive activity when injected directly into the brain of experimental animals. However, the application of endomorphins as clinical analgesics has been impeded by their instability in body fluids and inability to reach the brain after systemic administration. Among numerous modifications of the endomorphin structure aimed at improving their pharmacological properties, cyclization can be viewed as an interesting option. Here, we have summarized recent advances in obtaining endomorphin-based cyclic peptide analogs.

  8. Regulation of opioid receptor signalling: Implications for the development of analgesic tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagi Karim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Opiate drugs are the most effective analgesics available but their clinical use is restricted by severe side effects. Some of these undesired actions appear after repeated administration and are related to adaptive changes directed at counteracting the consequences of sustained opioid receptor activation. Here we will discuss adaptations that contribute to the development of tolerance. The focus of the first part of the review is set on molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of opioid receptor signalling in heterologous expression systems and neurons. In the second part we assess how adaptations that take place in vivo may contribute to analgesic tolerance developed during repeated opioid administration.

  9. Novel approaches for the treatment of psychostimulant and opioid abuse – focus on opioid receptor-based therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Chris P.; Husbands, Steve M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Psychostimulant and opioid addiction are poorly treated. The majority of abstinent users relapse back to drug-taking within a year of abstinence, making ‘anti-relapse’ therapies the focus of much current research. There are two fundamental challenges to developing novel treatments for drug addiction. Firstly, there are 3 key stimuli that precipitate relapse back to drug-taking: stress, presentation of drug-conditioned cue, taking a small dose of drug. The most successful novel treatment would be effective against all 3 stimuli. Secondly, a large number of drug users are poly-drug users: taking more than one drug of abuse at a time. The ideal anti-addiction treatment would therefore be effective against all classes of drugs of abuse. Areas Covered In this review, the authors discuss the clinical need and animal models used to uncover potential novel treatments. There is a very broad range of potential treatment approaches and targets currently being examined as potential anti-relapse therapies. These broadly fit into 2 categories: ‘memory-based’ and ‘receptor-based’ and the authors discuss the key targets here within. Expert opinion Opioid receptors and ligands have been widely studied, and research into how different opioid subtypes affect behaviours related to addiction (reward, dysphoria, motivation) suggests that they are tractable targets as anti-relapse treatments. Regarding opioid ligands as novel ‘anti-relapse’ medications targets - research suggests that a ‘non-selective’ approach to targeting opioid receptors will be the most effective. PMID:25253272

  10. Changes of mu and kappa opioid receptors in cathartic colon of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bao-hua; MO Ping; JIA Hou-jun; LI Chun-xue; ZHANG Sheng-ben

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To oberve the changes of mu and kappa opioid receptors in the cathartic colon of rat, and to clarify that whether opioid receptors accounts for the occurrence of slow trait constipation (STC). Methods: The cathartiic colon model of rat was made by feeding with laxatives. The activity of mu and kappa opioid receptors in the cathartic colon of rat was measured by radio-ligand binding assay. Results: Compared with the control group, the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) and affinity(Kd) of mu opioid receptor in cathartic colon group were significantly increased (207. 00 ± 22. 90 fmol/mg·p vs 82. 00 ± 14.23 fmol/mg· p, P < 0.01 ;3.30 ± 0.45 mmol/L vs 2.40 ± 0.57 mmol/L, P < 0.05). The maximal binding capacity of kappa opioid receptor also showed a great increase (957. 00 ± 102. 41 fmol/mg· p vs 459.00 ± 52.41 fmol/mg·p, P < 0.01 ), but no significant difference of affinity was found between the two groups. Conclsion: The mu and kappa opioid receptors may be involved in the functional disorders of cathartic colon.

  11. Intron 1 and exon 1 alpha estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms in women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hélio; Nogueira-de-Souza, Naiara C; D'Amora, Paulo; Silva, Ismael D C G; Girão, Manoel J B C; Schor, Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the association of intron 1 and exon 1 polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ER-alpha) with endometriosis in women. Association study. Endometriosis Unit, Federal University of São Paulo. The control group consisted of volunteers older than 45 years who had no evidence of endometriosis antecedents. Two groups with the disease were evaluated: the first group had stage I or II endometriosis and the second group stage III or IV. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by digestion with HaeIII and MspI endonucleases (RFLP) were applied to detect intron 1 and exon 1 polymorphisms, respectively, in a total of 125 controls and 105 affected women. Frequency and distribution of HaeIII and MspI polymorphisms in ER-alpha. No significant differences in the frequency of polymorphisms either in intron 1 or exon 1 of ER-alpha were found when endometriosis patients were compared with control subjects. Furthermore, the frequency of ER-alpha polymorphisms within the two different groups of patients with disease was statistically similar. The odds ratio between presence of intron 1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and endometriosis was 0.904, and the odds ratio between exon 1 SNP and endometriosis was 0.976. The evaluated polymorphisms were not associated with endometriosis.

  12. Cloning of opioid receptors in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and their involvement in regulation of stress and immune response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chadzinska, M.K.; Hermsen, G.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    In mammals opiate alkaloids and endogenous opioid peptides exert their physiological and pharmacological actions through opioid receptors (MOR, DOR and KOR) expressed not only on neuroendocrine cells but also on leukocytes. Therefore, opioids can modulate the immune response. We cloned and sequenced

  13. Ca2+ channel inhibition by endomorphins via the cloned mu-opioid receptor expressed in NG108-15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mima, H; Morikawa, H; Fukuda, K; Kato, S; Shoda, T; Mori, K

    1997-12-11

    Endomorphin-1 and -2, recently isolated endogenous peptides specific for the mu-opioid receptor, inhibited Ca2+ channel currents with EC50 of 6 and 9 nM, respectively, in NG108-15 cells transformed to express the cloned rat mu-opioid receptor. On the other hand, they elicited no response in nontransfected NG108-15 cells. It is concluded that endomorphin-1 and -2 induce Ca2+ channel inhibition by selectively activating the mu-opioid receptor.

  14. Receptome: Interactions between three pain-related receptors or the "Triumvirate" of cannabinoid, opioid and TRPV1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zádor, Ferenc; Wollemann, Maria

    2015-12-01

    A growing amount of data demonstrates the interactions between cannabinoid, opioid and the transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors. These interactions can be bidirectional, inhibitory or excitatory, acute or chronic in their nature, and arise both at the molecular level (structurally and functionally) and in physiological processes, such as pain modulation or perception. The interactions of these three pain-related receptors may also reserve important and new therapeutic applications for the treatment of chronic pain or inflammation. In this review, we summarize the main findings on the interactions between the cannabinoid, opioid and the TRPV1 receptor regarding to pain modulation.

  15. The interaction between histamine H1 receptor and μ- opioid receptor in scratching behavior in ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Tasuku; Sugimoto, Yumi; Kamei, Chiaki

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we examined the interaction between histamine H1 receptor and μ-opioid receptor in scratching behavior in ICR mice. Both histamine and morphine caused scratching and simultaneous injection of histamine and morphine had an additive effect. Chlorpheniramine and naloxone inhibited histamine-induced scratching behavior. These two drugs also inhibited morphine-induced scratching behavior. Simultaneous injection of chlorpheniramine and naloxone caused a significant inhibition of histamine-induced scratching compared with separate injections. The same findings were also noted for morphine-induced scratching. These results strongly indicate a close relationship between histamine H1 receptor and μ-opioid receptor in scratching behavior in ICR mice.

  16. Synergy between mu opioid ligands: evidence for functional interactions among mu opioid receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, Elizabeth A; Tallarida, Ronald J; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2002-11-01

    Pharmacological differences among mu opioid drugs have been observed in in vitro and in vivo preclinical models, as well as clinically, implying that all mu opioids may not be working through the same mechanism of action. Here we demonstrate analgesic synergy between L-methadone and several mu opioid ligands. Of the compounds examined, L-methadone selectively synergizes with morphine, morphine-6beta-glucuronide, codeine, and the active metabolite of heroin, 6-acetylmorphine. Morphine synergizes only with L-methadone. In analgesic assays, D-methadone was inactive alone and did not enhance morphine analgesia when the two were given together, confirming that L-methadone was not acting through N-methyl-D-aspartate mechanisms. Both L-methadone and morphine displayed only additive effects when paired with oxymorphone, oxycodone, fentanyl, alfentanyl, or meperidine. Although it displays synergy in analgesic assays, the L-methadone/morphine combination does not exhibit synergy in the gastrointestinal transit assay. This analgesic synergy of L-methadone with selective mu opioid drugs and the differences in opioid-mediated actions suggest that these drugs may be acting via different mechanisms. These findings provide further evidence for the complexity of the pharmacology of mu opioids.

  17. Prefrontal Cortical Kappa Opioid Receptors Attenuate Responses to Amygdala Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, Hugo A; Hanks, Ashley N; Scott, Liam; Mejias-Aponte, Carlos; Hughes, Zoë A; O'Donnell, Patricio

    2015-12-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) have been implicated in anxiety and stress, conditions that involve activation of projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Although KORs have been studied in several brain regions, their role on mPFC physiology and on BLA projections to the mPFC remains unclear. Here, we explored whether KORs modify synaptic inputs from the BLA to the mPFC using in vivo electrophysiological recordings with electrical and optogenetic stimulation. Systemic administration of the KOR agonist U69,593 inhibited BLA-evoked synaptic responses in the mPFC without altering hippocampus-evoked responses. Intra-mPFC U69,593 inhibited electrical and optogenetic BLA-evoked synaptic responses, an effect blocked by the KOR antagonist nor-BNI. Bilateral intra-mPFC injection of the KOR antagonist nor-BNI increased center time in the open field test, suggesting an anxiolytic effect. The data demonstrate that mPFC KORs negatively regulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the BLA-mPFC pathway and anxiety-like behavior. These findings provide a framework whereby KOR signaling during stress and anxiety can regulate the flow of emotional state information from the BLA to the mPFC.

  18. Kappa opioid receptors stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periyasamy, S.; Hoss, W. (Univ. of Toledo, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various subtype-selective opioid agonists and antagonists on the phosphoinositide (PI) turnover response were investigated in the rat brain. The {kappa}-agonists U-50,488H and ketocyclazocine produced a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of IP's in hippocampal slices. The other {kappa}-agonists Dynorphin-A (1-13) amide, and its protected analog D(Ala){sup 2}-dynorphin-A (1-13) amide also produced a significant increase in the formation of ({sup 3}H)-IP's, whereas the {mu}-selective agonists (D-Ala{sup 2}-N-Me-Phe{sup 4}-Gly{sup 5}-ol)-enkephalin and morphine and the {delta}-selective agonist (D-Pen{sup 2,5})-enkephalin were ineffective. The increase in IP's formation elicited by U-50,488H was partially antagonized by naloxone and more completely antagonized by the {kappa}-selective antagonists nor-binaltorphimine and MR 2266. The formation of IP's induced by U-50,488H varies with the regions of the brain used, being highest in hippocampus and amygdala, and lowest in striatum and pons-medullar. The results indicate that brain {kappa}- but neither {mu}- nor {delta}- receptors are coupled to the PI turnover response.

  19. N-METHYL-d-ASPARTATE RECEPTORS AND LARGE CONDUCTANCE CALCIUM-SENSITIVE POTASSIUM CHANNELS INHIBIT THE RELEASE OF OPIOID PEPTIDES THAT INDUCE μ-OPIOID RECEPTOR INTERNALIZATION IN THE RAT SPINAL CORD

    Science.gov (United States)

    SONG, B.; MARVIZÓN, J. C. G.

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous opioids in the spinal cord play an important role in nociception, but the mechanisms that control their release are poorly understood. To simultaneously detect all opioids able to activate the μ-opioid receptor, we measured μ-opioid receptor internalization in rat spinal cord slices stimulated electrically or chemically to evoke opioid release. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal horn in the presence of peptidase inhibitors produced μ-opioid receptor internalization in half of the μ-opioid receptor neurons. This internalization was rapidly abolished by N-methyl-d-aspartate (IC50=2 μM), and N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonists prevented this effect. μ-Opioid receptor internalization evoked by high K+ or veratridine was also inhibited by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation. N-methyl-d-aspartate did not affect μ-opioid receptor internalization induced by exogenous endomorphins, confirming that the effect of N-methyl-d-aspartate was on opioid release. We hypothesized that this inhibition was mediated by large conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels BK(Ca2+). Indeed, inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate was prevented by tetraethylammonium and by the selective BK(Ca2+) blockers paxilline, penitrem A and verruculogen. Paxilline did not increase μ-opioid receptor internalization in the absence of N-methyl-d-aspartate, indicating that it does not produce an increase in opioid release unrelated to the inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The BK(Ca2+) involved appears to be a subtype with slow association kinetics for iberiotoxin, which was effective only with long incubations. The BK(Ca2+) opener NS-1619 also inhibited the evoked μ-opioid receptor internalization, and iberiotoxin prevented this effect. We concluded that Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors causes the opening of BK(Ca2+) and hyperpolarization in opioid-containing dorsal horn neurons, resulting in the inhibition of opioid release. Since μ-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn

  20. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and large conductance calcium-sensitive potassium channels inhibit the release of opioid peptides that induce mu-opioid receptor internalization in the rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B; Marvizón, J C G

    2005-01-01

    Endogenous opioids in the spinal cord play an important role in nociception, but the mechanisms that control their release are poorly understood. To simultaneously detect all opioids able to activate the mu-opioid receptor, we measured mu-opioid receptor internalization in rat spinal cord slices stimulated electrically or chemically to evoke opioid release. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal horn in the presence of peptidase inhibitors produced mu-opioid receptor internalization in half of the mu-opioid receptor neurons. This internalization was rapidly abolished by N-methyl-D-aspartate (IC50=2 microM), and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists prevented this effect. mu-Opioid receptor internalization evoked by high K+ or veratridine was also inhibited by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. N-methyl-D-aspartate did not affect mu-opioid receptor internalization induced by exogenous endomorphins, confirming that the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate was on opioid release. We hypothesized that this inhibition was mediated by large conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels BK(Ca2+). Indeed, inhibition by N-methyl-D-aspartate was prevented by tetraethylammonium and by the selective BK(Ca2+) blockers paxilline, penitrem A and verruculogen. Paxilline did not increase mu-opioid receptor internalization in the absence of N-methyl-D-aspartate, indicating that it does not produce an increase in opioid release unrelated to the inhibition by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The BK(Ca2+) involved appears to be a subtype with slow association kinetics for iberiotoxin, which was effective only with long incubations. The BK(Ca2+) opener NS-1619 also inhibited the evoked mu-opioid receptor internalization, and iberiotoxin prevented this effect. We concluded that Ca2+ influx through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors causes the opening of BK(Ca2+) and hyperpolarization in opioid-containing dorsal horn neurons, resulting in the inhibition of opioid release. Since mu-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn

  1. Animal models of motivation for drinking in rodents with a focus on opioid receptor neuropharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F; Roberts, Amanda J; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Heyser, Charles J; Katner, Simon N; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Weiss, Friedbert

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol, like other drugs of abuse, has motivating properties that can be developed as animal models of self-administration. A major strength of the operant approach where an animal must work to obtain ethanol is that it reduces confounds due to palatability and controls for nonspecific malaise-inducing effects. In the domain of opioid peptide systems, limited access paradigms have good predictive validity. In addition, animal models of excessive drinking-either environmentally or genetically induced-also appear sensitive to blockade or inactivation of opioid peptide receptors. Ethanol availability can be predicted by cues associated with positive reinforcement, and these models are sensitive to the administration of opioid antagonists. Perhaps most exciting are the recent results suggesting that the key element in opioid peptide systems that is important for the positive reinforcing effects of ethanol is the mu-opioid receptor. How exactly ethanol modulates mu-receptor function will be a major challenge of future research. Nevertheless, the apparently critical role of the mu receptor in ethanol reinforcement refocuses the neuropharmacology of ethanol reinforcement in the opioid peptide domain and opens a novel avenue for exploring medications for treating alcoholism.

  2. Salvinorin A analogs and other κ-opioid receptor compounds as treatments for cocaine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Bronwyn M; Ewald, Amy W M; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Acute activation of kappa-opioid receptors produces anti-addictive effects by regulating dopamine levels in the brain. Unfortunately, classic kappa-opioid agonists have undesired side effects such as sedation, aversion, and depression, which restrict their clinical use. Salvinorin A (Sal A), a novel kappa-opioid receptor agonist extracted from the plant Salvia divinorum, has been identified as a potential therapy for drug abuse and addiction. Here, we review the preclinical effects of Sal A in comparison with traditional kappa-opioid agonists and several new analogs. Sal A retains the anti-addictive properties of traditional kappa-opioid receptor agonists with several improvements including reduced side effects. However, the rapid metabolism of Sal A makes it undesirable for clinical development. In an effort to improve the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of this compound, kappa-opioid receptor agonists based on the structure of Sal A have been synthesized. While work in this field is still in progress, several analogs with improved pharmacokinetic profiles have been shown to have anti-addictive effects. While in its infancy, it is clear that these compounds hold promise for the future development of anti-addictive therapeutics.

  3. [Opioid μ receptors mediate the stress-induced spatial reference memory impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lan-Qin; Wen, Jie; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-04-25

    Learning/memory impairment is one of the most serious problems induced by stress, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Opiates and opioid receptors are implicated in multiple physiological functions including learning and memory. However, there is no clear evidence whether the endogenous opioid system is involved in the formation of the stress-induced spatial reference memory impairment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of μ opioid receptor in the stress-induced spatial reference memory impairment by means of Morris water maze (MWM) test in a mouse elevated platform stress model. The mice were trained in the MWM for four trials a session for 4 consecutive days after receiving the elevated platform stress, and intracerebroventricular injection of μ opioid receptor agonist DAMGO, antagonist CTAP or saline. Retention of the spatial training was assessed 24 h after the last training session with a 60-s free-swim probe trial using a new starting position. The results showed that intracerebroventricular injection of μ opioid receptor agonist DAMGO but not antagonist CTAP before MWM training impaired the memory retrieval of mice. Elevated platform stress before MWM training also impaired memory retrieval, which could be reversed by pre-injection of CTAP, and aggravated by DAMGO. These results suggest that endogenous opioid system may play a crucial role in the formation of the stress-induced memory impairment.

  4. The prenatal developmental profile of expression of opioid peptides and receptors in the mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, R. Adrian; Barg, Jacob; Bem, Wojciech T.; Coscia, Carmine J.; Loh, Y. Peng

    2008-01-01

    Although the postnatal development of opioid systems of mammalian brain has been well studied, little is known about the ontogeny of and relationship between embryonic (E) opioid peptides and their receptors. Moreover, a simultaneous assessment of levels of the 3 classes of opioid peptides and their putative receptors during embryonal development has not been made. To this end, the ontogeny of opioid peptides and receptors in mouse brain were examined during the period E11.5 to postnatal day 1 (P1). Met-enkephalin, dynorphin and β-endorphin immunoreactivity were detected before their putative opioid receptors. β-Endorphin can be discerned as early as E11.5, whereas μ binding was first observed at E12.5. Although dynorphin and Met-enkephalin were measurable at the same time as β-endorphin, κ-receptors were not detected until E14.5 and δ sites were not found at all prenatally. Differences in immunoreactivity levels of the 3 peptides occur with dynorphin being lower than Met-enkephalin and β-endorphin, consistent with a low Bmax for κ binding. Expression of the 3 opioid peptides as well as μ and κ opioid receptors rapidly increase in parallel from E14.5 to E18.5, Interestingly, levels of β-endorphin diminish by P1, the stage at which a sharp rise of μ receptors occurs. In a comparative study of the binding of β-endorphin1–31, its truncated form (1–27) and their N-acetyl derivatives to E14.5 brain membranes, β-endorphin1–31 exhibited the highest affinity. PMID:1674235

  5. Opioid receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray regulate extinction of pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Gavan P; Pigg, Michael; Weidemann, Gabrielle

    2004-08-01

    Four experiments studied the role of opioid receptors in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), an important structure eliciting conditioned fear responses, in the extinction of Pavlovian fear. Rats received pairings of an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) with a foot shock unconditioned stimulus (US). The freezing conditioned response (CR) elicited by the CS was then extinguished via nonreinforced presentations of the CS. Microinjection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone into the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG) before nonrein-forced CS presentations impaired development of extinction, but such microinjections at the end of extinction did not reinstate an already extinguished freezing CR. This role for opioid receptors in fear extinction was specific to the vlPAG because infusions of naloxone into the dorsal PAG did not impair fear extinction. Finally, the impairment of fear extinction produced by vlPAG infusions of naloxone was dose-dependent. These results show for the first time that the midbrain PAG contributes to fear extinction and specifically identify a role for vlPAG opioid receptors in the acquisition but not the expression of such extinction. Taken together with our previous findings, we suggest that, during fear conditioning, activation of vlPAG opioid receptors contributes to detection of the discrepancy between the actual and expected outcome of the conditioning trial. vlPAG opioid receptors regulate the learning that accrues to the CS and other stimuli present on a trial because they instantiate an associative error correction process influencing US information reaching the site of CS-US convergence in the amygdala. During nonreinforcement, this vlPAG opioid receptor contribution signals extinction.

  6. Potent Dmt-Tic pharmacophoric delta- and mu-opioid receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingyou; Fujita, Yoshio; Shiotani, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Anna; Tsuda, Yuko; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Marczak, Ewa; Bryant, Sharon D; Salvadori, Severo; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Okada, Yoshio

    2005-12-15

    A series of dimeric Dmt-Tic (2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) analogues (8-14, 18-22) were covalently linked through diaminoalkane and symmetric or asymmetric 3,6-diaminoalkyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone moieties. All the compounds exhibited high affinity for both delta-opioid receptors [Ki(delta) = 0.06-1.53 nM] and mu-opioid receptors [Ki(mu) = 1.37-5.72 nM], resulting in moderate delta-receptor selectivity [Ki(mu)/Ki(delta) = 3-46]. Regardless of the type of linker between the Dmt-Tic pharmacophores, delta-opioid-mediated antagonism was extraordinarily high in all analogues (pA2 = 10.42-11.28), while in vitro agonism (MVD and GPI bioassays) was essentially absent (ca. 3 to >10 microM). While an unmodified N-terminus (9, 13, 18) revealed weak mu-opioid antagonism (pA2 = 6.78-6.99), N,N'-dimethylation (21, 22), which negatively impacts on mu-opioid-associated agonism (Balboni et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2003, 11, 5435-5441), markedly enhanced mu-opioid antagonism (pA2 = 8.34 and 7.71 for 21 and 22, respectively) without affecting delta-opioid activity. These data are the first evidence that a single dimeric opioid ligand containing the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore exhibits highly potent delta- and mu-opioid antagonist activities.

  7. Anti-nociception mediated by a κ opioid receptor agonist is blocked by a δ receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A M W; Roberts, K W; Pradhan, A A; Akbari, H A; Walwyn, W; Lutfy, K; Carroll, F I; Cahill, C M; Evans, C J

    2015-01-01

    The opioid receptor family comprises four structurally homologous but functionally distinct sub-groups, the μ (MOP), δ (DOP), κ (KOP) and nociceptin (NOP) receptors. As most opioid agonists are selective but not specific, a broad spectrum of behaviours due to activation of different opioid receptors is expected. In this study, we examine whether other opioid receptor systems influenced KOP-mediated antinociception. We used a tail withdrawal assay in C57Bl/6 mice to assay the antinociceptive effect of systemically administered opioid agonists with varying selectivity at KOP receptors. Pharmacological and genetic approaches were used to analyse the interactions of the other opioid receptors in modulating KOP-mediated antinociception. Etorphine, a potent agonist at all four opioid receptors, was not anti-nociceptive in MOP knockout (KO) mice, although etorphine is an efficacious KOP receptor agonist and specific KOP receptor agonists remain analgesic in MOP KO mice. As KOP receptor agonists are aversive, we considered KOP-mediated antinociception might be a form of stress-induced analgesia that is blocked by the anxiolytic effects of DOP receptor agonists. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with the DOP antagonist, naltrindole (10 mg·kg(-1) ), unmasked etorphine (3 mg·kg(-1) ) antinociception in MOP KO mice. Further, in wild-type mice, KOP-mediated antinociception by systemic U50,488H (10 mg·kg(-1) ) was blocked by pretreatment with the DOP agonist SNC80 (5 mg·kg(-1) ) and diazepam (1 mg·kg(-1) ). Systemic DOP receptor agonists blocked systemic KOP antinociception, and these results identify DOP receptor agonists as potential agents for reversing stress-driven addictive and depressive behaviours mediated through KOP receptor activation. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The

  8. Differentiation of δ, μ, and κ opioid receptor agonists based on pharmacophore development and computed physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizola, Marta; Villar, Hugo O.; Loew, Gilda H.

    2001-04-01

    Compounds that bind with significant affinity to the opioid receptor types, δ, μ, and κ, with different combinations of activation and inhibition at these three receptors could be promising behaviorally selective agents. Working on this hypothesis, the chemical moieties common to three different sets of opioid receptor agonists with significant affinity for each of the three receptor types δ, μ, or κ were identified. Using a distance analysis approach, common geometric arrangements of these chemical moieties were found for selected δ, μ, or κ opioid agonists. The chemical and geometric commonalities among agonists at each opioid receptor type were then compared with a non-specific opioid recognition pharmacophore recently developed. The comparison provided identification of the additional requirements for activation of δ, μ, and κ opioid receptors. The distance analysis approach was able to clearly discriminate κ-agonists, while global molecular properties for all compounds were calculated to identify additional requirements for activation of δ and μ receptors. Comparisons of the combined geometric and physicochemical properties calculated for each of the three sets of agonists allowed the determination of unique requirements for activation of each of the three opioid receptors. These results can be used to improve the activation selectivity of known opioid agonists and as a guide for the identification of novel selective opioid ligands with potential therapeutic usefulness.

  9. Discovery of the first small-molecule opioid pan antagonist with nanomolar affinity at mu, delta, kappa, and nociceptin opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Nurulain T; Journigan, V Blair; Polgar, Willma E

    2015-04-15

    The trans-(3R,4R)-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine scaffold is a known pharmacophore for mu opioid (MOP), kappa opioid (KOP), and delta opioid (DOP) receptor antagonists; however, it has not been explored in nociceptin opioid (NOP/ORL-1) receptor ligands. We recently found that the selective KOP antagonist JDTic, (3R)-7-hydroxy-N-((1S)-1-{[(3R,4R)-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl]methyl}-2-methylpropyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide, containing this opioid antagonist pharmacophore, has significant binding affinity at the NOP receptor (Ki 16.67 ± 0.76 nM), with no intrinsic activity in the [(35)S]GTPγS functional assay. Since this is the first ligand containing the trans-(3R,4R)-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine opioid antagonist pharmacophore to have affinity for the NOP receptor, we explored the structural determinants of its NOP binding affinity. When rational chemical modifications of JDTic were carried out, based on our previously established NOP pharmacophoric structure-activity relationship (SAR) model, most modifications led to a significant decrease in NOP and opioid binding affinity compared to JDTic. Interestingly, however, removal of the 3,4-dimethyl groups of the trans-(3R,4R)-dimethyl-4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidine antagonist scaffold of JDTic increased the binding affinity at NOP by 10-fold (Ki 1.75 ± 0.74 nM) while maintaining comparable affinity for KOP, MOP, and DOP receptors (Ki 1.14 ± 0.63, 1.67 ± 0.6, and 19.6 ± 1.3 nM, respectively). In vitro functional efficacy studies using the [(35)S]GTPγS assay showed that this compound AT-076 functions as an antagonist at all four opioid receptors. Detailed characterization of the antagonist activity of AT-076 shows that it has a noncompetitive antagonist profile at the NOP and KOP receptors (insurmountable antagonism), but is a potent competitive antagonist at the MOP and DOP receptors, with Ke values 3-6-fold more potent than those of JDTic. AT-076 is the

  10. Antinociceptive Action of Isolated Mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through Activation of Opioid Receptor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG, a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt. In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist, naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist, naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist naloxonazine (µ1-receptor antagonist and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg. The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor.

  11. Analysis of potassium and calcium imaging to assay the function of opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Viola; Nockemann, Dinah; Machelska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    As the activation of opioid receptors leads to the modulation of potassium and calcium channels, the ion imaging represents an attractive method to analyze the function of the receptors. Here, we describe the imaging of potassium using the FluxOR™ potassium ion channel assay, and of calcium using Fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester. Specifically, we (1) characterize the activation of the G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium 2 channel by agonists of μ- and δ-opioid receptors with the aid of the FluxOR™ assay in cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, and (2) describe calcium imaging protocols to measure capsaicin-induced transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel activity during opioid withdrawal in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

  12. Opioid receptor types involved in the development of nicotine physical dependence in an invertebrate (Planaria) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Baron, Steve; Bhandal, Jaspreet S; Brown, Tevin; Song, Kevin; Tallarida, Christopher S; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-11-01

    Recent data suggest that opioid receptors are involved in the development of nicotine physical dependence in mammals. Evidence in support of a similar involvement in an invertebrate (Planaria) is presented using the selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, and the more receptor subtype-selective antagonists CTAP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2) (μ, MOR), naltrindole (δ, DOR), and nor-BNI (norbinaltorphimine) (κ, KOR). Induction of physical dependence was achieved by 60-min pre-exposure of planarians to nicotine and was quantified by abstinence-induced withdrawal (reduction in spontaneous locomotor activity). Known MOR and DOR subtype-selective opioid receptor antagonists attenuated the withdrawal, as did the non-selective antagonist naloxone, but a KOR subtype-selective antagonist did not. An involvement of MOR and DOR, but not KOR, in the development of nicotine physical dependence or in abstinence-induced withdrawal was thus demonstrated in a sensitive and facile invertebrate model.

  13. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Hijazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome.

  14. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallah, Ahmed; Aboul-Ela, Maha; Ellakany, Abdalla

    2017-01-01

    Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome. PMID:28280516

  15. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Mohamad Ali; El-Mallah, Ahmed; Aboul-Ela, Maha; Ellakany, Abdalla

    2017-01-01

    Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome.

  16. Investigation of in vitro Opioid Receptor Binding Activities of Some Turkish Salvia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Gündüz Çınar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Kappa Opioid Peptide Receptor (KOPr activation produces analgesic, psychotomimetic, diuretic and antipruritic effects. KOPr ligands are investigated for their potential roles in the treatment of addiction, depression, feeding behavior, psychosis and schizophrenia. In this study the methanolic extracts of a number of Salvia species which are native to Turkey (S. tomentosa, S. tchihatcheffii , S. rosifolia, S. dichroantha and S. sclarea were tested for their potential binding to opioid receptors in rat brain membranes and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells expressing human KOPr (CHO-KOPh. [ 3H]Diprenorphine, an unselective opioid antagonist, was utilized in the radioligand receptor binding assays. All extracts (0.11 mg/ml inhibited the [ 3H]Diprenorphine binding with ranging KOPr binding affinities. More than 50% inhibition of diprenorphine binding was shown only with Salvia dichroantha and Salvia sclarea both in rat brain membranes and CHO-KOPh membranes.Among them Salvia sclarea deserves further investigation for its active component(s and its pharmacological characterization. This study clearly demonstrates the potential opioid receptor binding activities of several Turkish Salvia species. This work constitutes the first study on in vitro opioid receptor binding activities of Salvia species from the Turkish flora.

  17. Maturational alterations in constitutive activity of medial prefrontal cortex kappa-opioid receptors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sunil; Walker, Brendan M

    2015-11-01

    Opioid receptors can display spontaneous agonist-independent G-protein signaling (basal signaling/constitutive activity). While constitutive κ-opioid receptor (KOR) activity has been documented in vitro, it remains unknown if KORs are constitutively active in native systems. Using [(35) S] guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio] triphosphate coupling assay that measures receptor functional state, we identified the presence of medial prefrontal cortex KOR constitutive activity in young rats that declined with age. Furthermore, basal signaling showed an age-related decline and was insensitive to neutral opioid antagonist challenge. Collectively, the present data are first to demonstrate age-dependent alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex KOR constitutive activity in rats and changes in the constitutive activity of KORs can differentially impact KOR ligand efficacy. These data provide novel insights into the functional properties of the KOR system and warrant further consideration of KOR constitutive activity in normal and pathophysiological behavior. Opioid receptors exhibit agonist-independent constitutive activity; however, kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) constitutive activity has not been demonstrated in native systems. Our results confirm KOR constitutive activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that declines with age. With the ability to presynaptically inhibit multiple neurotransmitter systems in the mPFC, maturational or patho-logical alterations in constitutive activity could disrupt corticofugal glutamatergic pyramidal projection neurons mediating executive function. Regulation of KOR constitutive activity could serve as a therapeutic target to treat compromised executive function.

  18. Opioid receptor activation triggering downregulation of cAMP improves effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Claudia; Hormann, Inis; Roscher, Mareike; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma are the most frequent and malignant human brain tumors, having a very poor prognosis. The enhanced radio- and chemoresistance of glioblastoma and the glioblastoma stem cells might be the main reason why conventional therapies fail. The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Downregulation of cAMP sensitizes tumor cells for anti-cancer treatment. Opioid receptor agonists triggering opioid receptors can activate inhibitory Gi proteins, which, in turn, block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. In this study, we show that downregulation of cAMP by opioid receptor activation improves the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma. The µ-opioid receptor agonist D,L-methadone sensitizes glioblastoma as well as the untreatable glioblastoma stem cells for doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and activation of apoptosis pathways by reversing deficient caspase activation and deficient downregulation of XIAP and Bcl-xL, playing critical roles in glioblastomas’ resistance. Blocking opioid receptors using the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or increasing intracellular cAMP by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) strongly reduced opioid receptor agonist-induced sensitization for doxorubicin. In addition, the opioid receptor agonist D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux, whereas doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in glioblastomas. Furthermore, opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone inhibited tumor growth significantly in vivo. Our findings suggest that opioid receptor activation triggering downregulation of cAMP is a promising strategy to inhibit tumor growth and to improve the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs in treatment of glioblastoma and in killing glioblastoma stem cells. PMID:24626197

  19. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent opioid receptor agonist, biphalin, compared to subtype-selective opioid receptor agonists for stroke treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Islam, Mohammad R; Karamyan, Vardan T; Abbruscato, Thomas J

    2015-06-03

    To meet the challenge of identification of new treatments for stroke, this study was designed to evaluate a potent, nonselective opioid receptor (OR) agonist, biphalin, in comparison to subtype selective OR agonists, as a potential neuroprotective drug candidate using in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Our in vitro approach included mouse primary neuronal cells that were challenged with glutamate and hypoxic/aglycemic (H/A) conditions. We observed that 10nM biphalin, exerted a statistically significant neuroprotective effect after glutamate challenge, compared to all selective opioid agonists, according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Moreover, 10nM biphalin provided superior neuroprotection after H/A-reoxygenation compared to selective opioid agonists in all cases. Our in vitro investigations were supported by in vivo studies which indicate that the nonselective opioid agonist, biphalin, achieves enhanced neuroprotective potency compared to any of the selective opioid agonists, evidenced by reduced edema and infarct ratios. Reduction of edema and infarction was accompanied by neurological improvement of the animals in two independent behavioral tests. Collectively these data strongly suggest that concurrent agonist stimulation of mu, kappa and delta ORs with biphalin is neuroprotective and superior to neuroprotection by activation of any single OR subtype.

  20. Casein kinase 1-epsilon deletion increases mu opioid receptor-dependent behaviors and binge eating1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, L R; Kirkpatrick, S L; Yazdani, N; Luttik, K P; Lacki, O A; Keith Babbs, R; Jenkins, D F; Evan Johnson, W; Bryant, C D

    2017-09-01

    Genetic and pharmacological studies indicate that casein kinase 1 epsilon (Csnk1e) contributes to psychostimulant, opioid, and ethanol motivated behaviors. We previously used pharmacological inhibition to demonstrate that Csnk1e negatively regulates the locomotor stimulant properties of opioids and psychostimulants. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Csnk1e negatively regulates opioid and psychostimulant reward using genetic inhibition and the conditioned place preference assay in Csnk1e knockout mice. Similar to pharmacological inhibition, Csnk1e knockout mice showed enhanced opioid-induced locomotor activity with the mu opioid receptor agonist fentanyl (0.2 mg/kg i.p.) as well as enhanced sensitivity to low-dose fentanyl reward (0.05 mg/kg). Interestingly, female knockout mice also showed a markedly greater escalation in consumption of sweetened palatable food - a behavioral pattern consistent with binge eating that also depends on mu opioid receptor activation. No difference was observed in fentanyl analgesia in the 52.5°C hot plate assay (0-0.4 mg/kg), naloxone conditioned place aversion (4 mg/kg), or methamphetamine conditioned place preference (0-4 mg/kg). To identify molecular adaptations associated with increased drug and food behaviors in knockout mice, we completed transcriptome analysis via mRNA sequencing of the striatum. Enrichment analysis identified terms associated with myelination and axon guidance and pathway analysis identified a differentially expressed gene set predicted to be regulated by the Wnt signaling transcription factor, Tcf7l2. To summarize, Csnk1e deletion increased mu opioid receptor-dependent behaviors, supporting previous studies indicating an endogenous negative regulatory role of Csnk1e in opioid behavior. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  1. A structural feature of the non-peptide ligand interactions with mice mu-opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Hamid R; Mucksch, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M

    2014-01-01

    By binding to and activating the G-protein coupled μ-, κ- and δ-opioid receptors in the central nervous system, opiates are known to induce analgesic and sedative effects. In particular, non-peptide opioid ligands are often used in clinical applications to induce these therapeutically beneficial effects, due to their superior pharmacokinetics and bioavailability in comparison to endogenous neuropeptides. However, since opioid alkaloids are highly addictive substances, it is necessary to understand the exact mechanisms of their actions, specifically the ligand-binding properties of the target receptors, in order to safely apply opiates for therapeutic purposes. Using an in silico molecular docking approach (AutoDock Vina) combined with two-step cluster analysis, we have computationally obtained the docking scores and the ligand-binding pockets of twelve representative non-peptide nonendogenous agonists and antagonists at the crystallographically identified μ-opioid receptor. Our study predicts the existence of two main binding sites that are congruently present in all opioid receptor types. Interestingly, in terms of the agonist or antagonist properties of the substances on the receptors, the clustering analysis suggests a relationship with the position of the ligand-binding pockets, particularly its depth within the receptor structure. Furthermore, the binding affinity of the substances is directly correlated to the proximity of the binding pockets to the extracellular space. In conclusion, the results provide further insights into the structural features of the functional pharmacology of opioid receptors, suggesting the importance of the binding position of non-peptide agonists and antagonists- specifically the distance and the level of exposure to the extracellular space- to their dissociation kinetics and subsequent potency.

  2. Molecular modeling study of the differential ligand-receptor interaction at the μ, δ and κ opioid receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizola, Marta; Carteni-Farina, Maria; Perez, Juan J.

    1999-07-01

    3D models of the opioid receptors μ, δ and κ were constructed using BUNDLE, an in-house program to build de novo models of G-protein coupled receptors at the atomic level. Once the three opioid receptors were constructed and before any energy refinement, models were assessed for their compatibility with the results available from point-site mutations carried out on these receptors. In a subsequent step, three selective antagonists to each of three receptors (naltrindole, naltrexone and nor-binaltorphamine) were docked onto each of the three receptors and subsequently energy minimized. The nine resulting complexes were checked for their ability to explain known results of structure-activity studies. Once the models were validated, analysis of the distances between different residues of the receptors and the ligands were computed. This analysis permitted us to identify key residues tentatively involved in direct interaction with the ligand.

  3. Opioid and GABAB receptors differentially couple to an adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A downstream effector after chronic morphine treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Elizabeth Bagley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Opioids are intensely addictive, and cessation of their chronic use is associated with a highly aversive withdrawal syndrome. A cellular hallmark of withdrawal is an opioid sensitive protein kinase A-dependent increase in GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1 currents in periaqueductal gray (PAG neurons. Elevated GAT-1 activity directly increases GABAergic neuronal excitability and synaptic GABA release, which will enhance GABAergic inhibition of PAG output neurons. This reduced activity of PAG output neurons to several brain regions, including the hypothalamus and medulla, contributes to many of the PAG-mediated signs of opioid withdrawal. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen reduces some of the PAG mediated signs of opioid withdrawal. Like the opioid receptors the GABAB receptor is a Gi/Go coupled G-protein coupled receptor. This suggests it could be modulating GAT-1 activity in PAG neurons through its inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A pathway. Opioid modulation of the GAT-1 activity can be detected by changes in the reversal potential of opioid membrane currents. We found that when opioids are reducing the GAT-1 cation conductance and increasing the GIRK conductance the opioid agonist reversal potential is much more negative than Ek. Using this approach for GABAB receptors we show that the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, does not couple to inhibition of GAT-1 currents during opioid withdrawal. It is possible this differential signaling of the two Gi/Go coupled G-protein coupled receptors is due to the strong compartmentalization of the GABAB receptor that does not favor signaling to the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A/GAT-1 pathway. This highlights the importance of studying the effects of G-protein coupled receptors in native tissue with endogenous G-protein coupled receptors and the full complement of relevant proteins and signaling molecules. This study suggests that baclofen reduces opioid withdrawal symptoms through a non-GAT-1

  4. The dynamic relationship between mu and kappa opioid receptors in body temperature regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; McClatchy, Daniel B; Geller, Ellen B; Tallarida, Ronald J; Adler, Martin W

    2005-12-12

    Previous studies demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a kappa opioid receptor agonist decreased, and a mu agonist increased, body temperature (Tb) in rats. A dose-response study with the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) showed that a low dose (1.25 nmol, icv) alone had no effect, although a high dose (25 nmol, icv) increased Tb. It was hypothesized that the hyperthermia induced by nor-BNI was the result of the antagonist blocking the kappa opioid receptor and releasing its inhibition of mu opioid receptor activity. To determine whether the Tb increase caused by nor-BNI was a mu receptor-mediated effect, we administered the selective mu antagonist CTAP (1.25 nmol, icv) 15 min after nor-BNI (25 nmol, icv) and measured rectal Tb in unrestrained rats. CTAP significantly antagonized the Tb increase induced by icv injection of nor-BNI. Injection of 5 or 10 nmol of CTAP alone significantly decreased the Tb, and 1.25 nmol of nor-BNI blocked that effect, indicating that the CTAP-induced hypothermia was kappa-mediated. The findings strongly suggest that mu antagonists, in blocking the basal hyperthermia mediated by mu receptors, can unmask the endogenous kappa receptor-mediated hypothermia, and that there is a tonic balance between mu and kappa opioid receptors that serves as a homeostatic mechanism for maintaining Tb.

  5. Pharmacogenomic study of the role of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor and opioid receptors in diabetic hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Kris; Tzschentke, Thomas M; Koch, Thomas; Schiene, Klaus; Christoph, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    Targeting functionally independent receptors may provide synergistic analgesic effects in neuropathic pain. To examine the interdependency between different opioid receptors (µ-opioid peptide [MOP], δ-opioid peptide [DOP] and κ-opioid peptide [KOP]) and the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic polyneuropathy, nocifensive activity was measured using a hot plate test in wild-type and NOP, MOP, DOP and KOP receptor knockout mice in response to the selective receptor agonists Ro65-6570, morphine, SNC-80 and U50488H, or vehicle. Nocifensive activity was similar in non-diabetic wild-type and knockout mice at baseline, before agonist or vehicle administration. STZ-induced diabetes significantly increased heat sensitivity in all mouse strains, but MOP, DOP and KOP receptor knockouts showed a smaller degree of hyperalgesia than wild-type mice and NOP receptor knockouts. For each agonist, a significant antihyperalgesic effect was observed in wild-type diabetic mice (all Preceptor compared with wild-type diabetic mice. Morphine was the only agonist that demonstrated near-full antihyperalgesic efficacy across all non-cognate receptor knockouts. Partial or near-complete reductions in efficacy were observed with Ro65-6570 in DOP and KOP receptor knockouts, with SNC-80 in NOP, MOP and KOP receptor knockouts, and with U50488H in NOP and DOP receptor knockouts. There was no evidence of NOP and MOP receptor interdependency in response to selective agonists for these receptors. These findings suggest that concurrent activation of NOP and MOP receptors, which showed functional independence, may yield an effective and favorable therapeutic analgesic profile.

  6. β-arrestins: regulatory role and therapeutic potential in opioid and cannabinoid receptor-mediated analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raehal, Kirsten M; Bohn, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a complex disorder with neurochemical and psychological components contributing to the severity, the persistence, and the difficulty in adequately treating the condition. Opioid and cannabinoids are two classes of analgesics that have been used to treat pain for centuries and are arguably the oldest of "pharmacological" interventions used by man. Unfortunately, they also produce several adverse side effects that can complicate pain management. Opioids and cannabinoids act at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and much of their effects are mediated by the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R), respectively. These receptors couple to intracellular second messengers and regulatory proteins to impart their biological effects. In this chapter, we review the role of the intracellular regulatory proteins, β-arrestins, in modulating MOR and CB1R and how they influence the analgesic and side-effect profiles of opioid and cannabinoid drugs in vivo. This review of the literature suggests that the development of opioid and cannabinoid agonists that bias MOR and CB1R toward G protein signaling cascades and away from β-arrestin interactions may provide a novel mechanism by which to produce analgesia with less severe adverse effects.

  7. Electroacupuncture-Induced Dynamic Processes of Gene Expression Levels of Endogenous Opioid Peptide Precursors and Opioid Receptors in the CNS of Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the dynamic processes of mRNA levels of proenkephalin, proopiomelanocortin, prodynorphin, and opioid receptors (δ-, μ-, and κ-receptor induced by electroacupuncture (EA in the central nerve system, goats were stimulated by EA of 60 Hz for 0.5 h at a set of Baihui, Santai, Ergen, and Sanyangluo points. The pain threshold was measured using the method of potassium iontophoresis. The mRNA levels of the three opioid peptide precursors and three opioid receptors were determined with quantitative real-time PCR and the levels of Met-enkephalin with SABC immunohistochemistry at 0.5 h before and at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h after EA. The results showed that the pain threshold correlated (P<0.01 with Met-enkephalin immunoactivities in the measured nuclei and areas of goats. The analgesic aftereffect lasted for 12 h at least. The mRNA levels of the three opioid peptide precursors and three opioid receptors began to increase at 0 h, reached the peak during the time from 4 h to 6 h or at 12 h, and remained higher at 24 h after EA was discontinued. These results suggested that the initiation of gene expression of opioid peptides and the three receptors may be associated with EA-induced analgesic aftereffect.

  8. Endomorphin-2 and endomorphin-1 promote the extracellular amount of accumbal dopamine via nonopioid and mu-opioid receptors, respectively.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okutsu, H.; Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, I.; Aono, Y.; Saigusa, T.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    Activation of mu-opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to increase accumbal dopamine efflux in rats. Endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH(2); EM-2) and endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH(2); EM-1) are suggested to be the endogenous ligands for the mu-opioid receptor. As the ability of

  9. Recruitment of opioid peptide-containing neutrophils is independent of formyl peptide receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, D; Stolz, A; Mousa, S A; Brack, A; Rittner, H L

    2011-01-01

    In complete Freund's adjuvants (CFA) inflammation opioid containing neutrophils release opioid peptides upon stimulation and mediate peripheral analgesia. Neutrophil migration is regulated partially by chemokines, but other mediators e.g. formyl peptides could also contribute. In vitro, formyl peptides but not Mycobacterium butyricum (CFA component) induced migration of neutrophils. In contrast, local formyl peptide injection did not induce leukocyte recruitment in vivo due to insufficient up-regulation of adhesion molecule expression. Furthermore, leukocyte recruitment and peripheral opioid-mediated analgesia were unaffected by systemic formyl peptide receptor blockade in CFA inflammation. Thus, while formyl peptides do not regulate migration they directly stimulate opioid peptide release. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Regulation of extinction-related plasticity by opioid receptors in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Parsons

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has led to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the extinction of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Long-term synaptic changes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are critical for extinction learning, but very little is currently known about how the mPFC and other brain areas interact during extinction. The current study examined the effect of drugs that impair the extinction of fear conditioning on the activation of the extracellular-related kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK in brain regions that likely participate in the consolidation of extinction learning. Inhibitors of opioid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptors were applied to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG and amygdala shortly before extinction training. Results from these experiments show that blocking opioid receptors in the vlPAG prevented the formation of extinction memory, whereas NMDA receptor blockade had no effect. Conversely, blocking NMDA receptors in the amygdala disrupted the formation of fear extinction memory, but opioid receptor blockade in the same brain area did not. Subsequent experiments tested the effect of these drug treatments on the activation of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway in various brain regions following extinction training. Only opioid receptor blockade in the vlPAG disrupted ERK phosphorylation in the mPFC and amygdala. These data support the idea that opiodergic signaling derived from the vlPAG affects plasticity across the brain circuit responsible for the formation of extinction memory.

  11. Endomorphin analogues with balanced affinity for both μ- and δ-opioid receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhang; Lei Chang; Lei Lei Yu; Jin Chun Liu; Jia Jia Chen; Xiao Wen Li; Lawrence H. Lazarus; Ting You Li

    2011-01-01

    Analogues of endomorphin and tripeptides modified at positions 4 and 3, respectively, with various phenylalanine analogues were synthesized and their affinities for opioid receptors were evaluated. Most of the peptides exhibited potent μ-receptor affinity and selectivity, among them, compound 7 (Dmt-Pro-Tmp-Tmp-NH2) exhibited potent affinity for both μ- and δ-receptors (Kiμ = 0.47 nmol/L, Kiδ = 1.63 nmol/L).

  12. Modelling the PKPD of oxycodone in experimental pain - impact of opioid receptor polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus; Foster, David J R; Upton, Richard N;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the opioid receptor genes may affect the pharmacodynamics (PD) of oxycodone and be part of the reason behind the diversity in clinical response. The aim of the analysis was to model the exposure-response profile of oxycodone for three different pain variables and search...... in healthy volunteers. Pain tolerance data from muscle pressure (n=36), visceral pressure (n=54) and skin pinch (n=34) were included. Genetic associations with 18 opioid-receptor SNPs were explored using a stepwise covariate approach. Model simulations were performed using the estimated model parameters...

  13. Synthesis of [{sup 3}]DIPPA: a potent irreversible antagonist selective for the {kappa} opioid receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Anchih; Portoghese, P.S. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). College of Pharmacy; Trometer, J.D. [E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    2-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-[(1S)-1-(3-isothiocyanatophe nyl)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)ethyl]acetamide (1,DIPPA) has been previously reported to be an opioid receptor affinity label that produces selective and long-lasting {kappa} opioid receptor antagonism in mice. High specific activity [{sup 3}H]DIPPA (39.7 Ci/mmol) was prepared by bromination and catalytic tritiation of the amino precursor of DIPPA followed by conversion to the isothiocyanate with thiophosgene. (Author).

  14. Mu receptor binding of some commonly used opioids and their metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhaorong; Irvine, R.J. (Univ. of Adelaide (Australia)); Somogyi, A.A.; Bochner, F. (Univ. of Adelaide (Australia) Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia))

    1991-01-01

    The binding affinity to the {mu} receptor of some opioids chemically related to morphine and some of their metabolites was examined in rat brain homogenates with {sup 3}H-DAMGO. The chemical group at position 6 of the molecule had little effect on binding. Decreasing the length of the alkyl group at position 3 decreased the K{sub i} values (morphine < codeine < ethylmorphine < pholcodine). Analgesics with high clinical potency containing a methoxyl group at position 3 had relatively weak receptor binding, while their O-demethylated metabolites had much stronger binding. Many opioids may exert their pharmacological actions predominantly through metabolites.

  15. Regulation of µ-Opioid Receptors: Desensitization, Phosphorylation, Internalization, and Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John T.; Ingram, Susan L.; Henderson, Graeme; Chavkin, Charles; von Zastrow, Mark; Schulz, Stefan; Koch, Thomas; Evans, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Morphine and related µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists remain among the most effective drugs known for acute relief of severe pain. A major problem in treating painful conditions is that tolerance limits the long-term utility of opioid agonists. Considerable effort has been expended on developing an understanding of the molecular and cellular processes that underlie acute MOR signaling, short-term receptor regulation, and the progression of events that lead to tolerance for different MOR agonists. Although great progress has been made in the past decade, many points of contention and controversy cloud the realization of this progress. This review attempts to clarify some confusion by clearly defining terms, such as desensitization and tolerance, and addressing optimal pharmacological analyses for discerning relative importance of these cellular mechanisms. Cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating MOR function by phosphorylation relative to receptor desensitization and endocytosis are comprehensively reviewed, with an emphasis on agonist-biased regulation and areas where knowledge is lacking or controversial. The implications of these mechanisms for understanding the substantial contribution of MOR signaling to opioid tolerance are then considered in detail. While some functional MOR regulatory mechanisms contributing to tolerance are clearly understood, there are large gaps in understanding the molecular processes responsible for loss of MOR function after chronic exposure to opioids. Further elucidation of the cellular mechanisms that are regulated by opioids will be necessary for the successful development of MOR-based approaches to new pain therapeutics that limit the development of tolerance. PMID:23321159

  16. Fourteen. beta. -(bromoacetamido)morphine irreversibly labels. mu. opioid receptors in rat brain membranes

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    Bidlack, J.M.; Frey, D.K.; Seyed-Mozaffari, A.; Archer, S. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY (USA))

    1989-05-16

    The binding properties of 14{beta}-(bromoacetamido)morphine (BAM) and the ability of BAM to irreversibly inhibit opioid binding to rat brain membranes were examined to characterize the affinity and selectivity of BAM as an irreversible affinity ligand for opioid receptors. BAM had the same receptor selectivity as morphine, with a 3-5-fold decrease in affinity for the different types of opioid receptors. When brain membranes were incubated with BAM, followed by extensive washing, opioid binding was restored to control levels. However, when membranes were incubated with dithiothreitol (DTT), followed by BAM, and subsequently washed, 90% of the 0.25 nM ({sup 3}H)(D-Ala{sup 2},(Me)Phe{sup 4},Gly(ol){sup 5})enkephalin (DAGO) binding was irreversibly inhibited as a result of the specific alkylation of a sulfhydryl group at the {mu} binding site. This inhibition was dependent on the concentrations of both DTT and BAM. The {mu} receptor specificity of BAM alkylation was demonstrated by the ability of BAM alkylated membranes to still bind the {delta}-selective peptide ({sup 3}H)(D-penicillamine{sup 2},D-penicillamine{sup 5})enkephalin (DPDPE) and (-)-({sup 3}H)bremazocine in the presence of {mu} and {delta} blockers, selective for {kappa} binding sites. Morphine and naloxone partially protected the binding site from alkylation with BAM, while ligands that did not bind to the {mu}s site did not afford protection. These studies have demonstrated that when a disulfide bond at or near {mu} opioid binding sites was reduced, BAM could then alkylate this site, resulting in the specific irreversible labeling of {mu} opioid receptors.

  17. Mu and delta opioid receptors oppositely regulate motor impulsivity in the signaled nose poke task.

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    Mary C Olmstead

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is a primary feature of many psychiatric disorders, most notably attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction. Impulsivity includes a number of processes such as the inability to delay gratification, the inability to withhold a motor response, or acting before all of the relevant information is available. These processes are mediated by neural systems that include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, glutamate and cannabinoids. We examine, for the first time, the role of opioid systems in impulsivity by testing whether inactivation of the mu- (Oprm1 or delta- (Oprd1 opioid receptor gene alters motor impulsivity in mice. Wild-type and knockout mice were examined on either a pure C57BL6/J (BL6 or a hybrid 50% C57Bl/6J-50% 129Sv/pas (HYB background. Mice were trained to respond for sucrose in a signaled nose poke task that provides independent measures of associative learning (responses to the reward-paired cue and motor impulsivity (premature responses. Oprm1 knockout mice displayed a remarkable decrease in motor impulsivity. This was observed on the two genetic backgrounds and did not result from impaired associative learning, as responses to the cue signaling reward did not differ across genotypes. Furthermore, mutant mice were insensitive to the effects of ethanol, which increased disinhibition and decreased conditioned responding in wild-type mice. In sharp contrast, mice lacking the Oprd1 gene were more impulsive than controls. Again, mutant animals showed no deficit in associative learning. Ethanol completely disrupted performance in these animals. Together, our results suggest that mu-opioid receptors enhance, whereas delta-opioid receptors inhibit, motor impulsivity. This reveals an unanticipated contribution of endogenous opioid receptor activity to disinhibition. In a broader context, these data suggest that alterations in mu- or delta-opioid receptor function may contribute to impulse control disorders.

  18. Desensitization of functional µ-opioid receptors increases agonist off-rate.

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    Williams, John T

    2014-07-01

    Desensitization of µ-opioid receptors (MORs) develops over 5-15 minutes after the application of some, but not all, opioid agonists and lasts for tens of minutes after agonist removal. The decrease in function is receptor selective (homologous) and could result from 1) a reduction in receptor number or 2) a decrease in receptor coupling. The present investigation used photolysis of two caged opioid ligands to examine the kinetics of MOR-induced potassium conductance before and after MOR desensitization. Photolysis of a caged antagonist, carboxynitroveratryl-naloxone (caged naloxone), blocked the current induced by a series of agonists, and the time constant of decline was significantly decreased after desensitization. The increase in the rate of current decay was not observed after partial blockade of receptors with the irreversible antagonist, β-chlornaltrexamine (β-CNA). The time constant of current decay after desensitization was never more rapid than 1 second, suggesting an increased agonist off-rate rather than an increase in the rate of channel closure downstream of the receptor. The rate of G protein-coupled K(+) channel (GIRK) current activation was examined using photolysis of a caged agonist, carboxynitrobenzyl-tyrosine-[Leu(5)]-enkephalin. After acute desensitization or partial irreversible block of MORs with β-CNA, there was an increase in the time it took to reach a peak current. The decrease in the rate of agonist-induced GIRK conductance was receptor selective and dependent on receptor number. The results indicate that opioid receptor desensitization reduced the number of functional receptor and that the remaining active receptors have a reduced agonist affinity.

  19. D3 dopamine and kappa opioid receptor alterations in human brain of cocaine-overdose victims.

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    Mash, D C; Staley, J K

    1999-06-29

    Cocaine is thought to be addictive because chronic use leads to molecular adaptations within the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) circuitry, which affects motivated behavior and emotion. Although the reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated primarily by blockade of DA uptake, reciprocal signaling between DA and endogenous opioids has important implications for understanding cocaine dependence. We have used in vitro autoradiography and ligand binding to map D3 DA and kappa opioid receptors in the human brains of cocaine-overdose victims. The number of D3 binding sites was increased one-to threefold over the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial sectors of the caudate and putamen from cocaine-overdose victims, as compared to age-matched and drug-free control subjects. D3 receptor/cyclophilin mRNA ratios in the nucleus accumbens were increased sixfold in cocaine-overdose victims over control values, suggesting that cocaine exposure also affects the expression of D3 receptor mRNA. The number of kappa opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens and other corticolimbic areas from cocaine fatalities was increased twofold as compared to control values. Cocaine-overdose victims exhibiting preterminal excited delirium had a selective upregulation of kappa receptors measured also in the amygdala. Understanding the complex regulatory profiles of DA and opioid synaptic markers that occur with chronic misuse of cocaine may suggest multitarget strategies for treating cocaine dependence.

  20. Morphine induces μ opioid receptor endocytosis in guinea pig enteric neurons following prolonged receptor activation

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    Patierno, Simona; Anselmi, Laura; Jaramillo, Ingrid; Scott, David; Garcia, Rachel; Sternini, Catia

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims The μ opioid receptor (μOR) undergoes rapid endocytosis following acute stimulation with opioids and most opiates, but not with morphine. We investigated whether prolonged activation of μOR affects morphine’s ability to induce receptor endocytosis in enteric neurons. Methods We compared the effects of morphine, a poor μOR-internalizing opiate, and [D-Ala2, MePhe4,Gly-ol5] enkephalin (DAMGO), a potent μOR-internalizing agonist, on μOR trafficking in enteric neurons and on the expression of dynamin and β-arrestin immunoreactivity in the ileum of guinea pigs rendered tolerant by chronic administration of morphine. Results Morphine (100 µM) strongly induced endocytosis of μOR in tolerant but not naïve neurons (55.7%±9.3% vs. 24.2%±7.3%, P<0.001) whereas DAMGO (10 µM) strongly induced internalization of μOR in neurons from tolerant and naïve animals (63.6%±8.4% and 66.5%±3.6%). Morphine- or DAMGO-induced μOR endocytosis resulted from direct interactions between the ligand and the μOR, because endocytosis was not affected by tetrodotoxin, a blocker of endogenous neurotransmitter release. Ligand-induced μOR internalization was inhibited by pretreatment with the dynamin inhibitor, dynasore. Chronic morphine administration resulted in a significant increase in dynamin and translocation of dynamin immunoreactivity from the intracellular pool to the plasma membrane, but did not affect β arrestin immunoreactivity. Conclusion Chronic activation of μORs increases the ability of morphine to induce μOR endocytosis in enteric neurons, which depends on the level and cellular localization of dynamin, a regulatory protein that has an important role in receptor-mediated signal transduction in cells. PMID:21070774

  1. Synthesis and κ-Opioid Receptor Activity of Furan-Substituted Salvinorin A Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A, found in the leaves of Salvia divinorum, is a potent κ-opioid receptor agonist, making it an attractive scaffold for development into a treatment for substance abuse. Although several successful semisynthetic studies have been performed to elucidate structure–activity relationships, the lack of analogues with substitutions to the furan ring of salvinorin A has prevented a thorough understanding of its role in binding to the κ-opioid receptor. Herein we report the synthesis of several salvinorin A derivatives with modified furan rings. Evaluation of these compounds in a functional assay indicated that sterically less demanding substitutions are preferred, suggesting the furan ring is bound in a congested portion of the binding pocket. The most potent of the analogues successfully reduced drug-seeking behavior in an animal model of drug-relapse without producing the sedation observed with other κ-opioid agonists. PMID:25426797

  2. Synthesis and κ-opioid receptor activity of furan-substituted salvinorin A analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Andrew P; Groer, Chad E; Young, David; Ewald, Amy W; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2014-12-26

    The neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A, found in the leaves of Salvia divinorum, is a potent κ-opioid receptor agonist, making it an attractive scaffold for development into a treatment for substance abuse. Although several successful semisynthetic studies have been performed to elucidate structure-activity relationships, the lack of analogues with substitutions to the furan ring of salvinorin A has prevented a thorough understanding of its role in binding to the κ-opioid receptor. Herein we report the synthesis of several salvinorin A derivatives with modified furan rings. Evaluation of these compounds in a functional assay indicated that sterically less demanding substitutions are preferred, suggesting the furan ring is bound in a congested portion of the binding pocket. The most potent of the analogues successfully reduced drug-seeking behavior in an animal model of drug-relapse without producing the sedation observed with other κ-opioid agonists.

  3. Avance en el diseño de un péptido bloqueador del receptor Opioide Kappa 2 humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velásquez Álvarez Alvaro Andrés

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó la posibilidad de predecir una probable estructura secundaria para el Receptor Opioide Kappa 2 humano tomando como base la secuencia de aminoácidos del Receptor Opioide Kappa 1 humano. La estructura predicha mostró ser compatible con los datos que se poseen acerca de este tipo de receptores. Con esta prueba inicial, el proyecto que tiene como objetivo principal diseñar un análogo proteico para el Receptor Opioide Kappa 2 humano, ha mostrado el nivel mínimo de viabilidad necesario para ser continuado.

  4. Morphine protects against methylmercury intoxication: a role for opioid receptors in oxidative stress?

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    Allan Costa-Malaquias

    Full Text Available Mercury is an extremely dangerous environmental contaminant responsible for episodes of human intoxication throughout the world. Methylmercury, the most toxic compound of this metal, mainly targets the central nervous system, accumulating preferentially in cells of glial origin and causing oxidative stress. Despite studies demonstrating the current exposure of human populations, the consequences of mercury intoxication and concomitant use of drugs targeting the central nervous system (especially drugs used in long-term treatments, such as analgesics are completely unknown. Morphine is a major option for pain management; its global consumption more than quadrupled in the last decade. Controversially, morphine has been proposed to function in oxidative stress independent of the activation of the opioid receptors. In this work, a therapeutic concentration of morphine partially protected the cellular viability of cells from a C6 glioma cell line exposed to methylmercury. Morphine treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and totally prevented increases in nitrite levels in those cells. A mechanistic study revealed no alteration in sulfhydryl groups or direct scavenging at this opioid concentration. Interestingly, the opioid antagonist naloxone completely eliminated the protective effect of morphine against methylmercury intoxication, pointing to opioid receptors as the major contributor to this action. Taken together, the experiments in the current study provide the first demonstration that a therapeutic concentration of morphine is able to reduce methylmercury-induced oxidative damage and cell death by activating the opioid receptors. Thus, these receptors may be a promising pharmacological target for modulating the deleterious effects of mercury intoxication. Although additional studies are necessary, our results support the clinical safety of using this opioid in methylmercury-intoxicated patients, suggesting that normal analgesic doses could

  5. Normal phenotype in conditional androgen receptor (AR) exon 3-floxed neomycin-negative male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Kesha; Clarke, Michele V; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Davey, Rachel A; MacLean, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    Androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) acting via the androgen receptor (AR) are required for male sexual differentiation, and also regulate the development of many other tissues including muscle, fat and bone. We previously generated an AR(lox) mouse line with exon 3 of the AR gene targeted by loxP sites. The deletion of exon 3 is in-frame, so only the DNA binding-dependent actions of the AR are deleted, but non-DNA binding-dependent actions are retained. This line also contained an antibiotic resistance selection cassette, neomycin (neo) in intron 3, which was also flanked by loxP sites. Hemizygous AR(lox) male mice demonstrated a phenotype of hyperandrogenization, with increased mass of androgen-dependent tissues. We hypothesized that this hyperandrogenization was likely to be due to the presence of the neo cassette. In this study, we have generated an AR(lox) neo-negative mouse line, using the EIIa-cre deleter mouse line to remove the neo cassette. Hemizygous AR(lox) neo-negative male mice have a normal phenotype, with normal body mass and normal mass of androgen-dependent tissues including the testis, seminal vesicles, kidney, spleen, heart and retroperitoneal fat. This neo-negative exon 3-targeted mouse line is the only floxed AR mouse line available to study the DNA binding-dependent actions of the AR in a tissue-specific manner, and is suitable for investigation in all tissues. This study demonstrates the importance of removing the selection cassette, which can potentially alter the phenotype of floxed mouse lines even in the absence of detectable effects on target gene expression.

  6. Interaction of trimebutine and Jo-1196 (fedotozine) with opioid receptors in the canine ileum

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    Allescher, H.D.; Ahmad, S.; Classen, M.; Daniel, E.E. (Technical Univ., Munich, (West Germany))

    1991-05-01

    Receptor binding of the opioid receptor antagonist, ({sup 3}H)diprenorphine, which has a similar affinity to the various opioid receptor subtypes, was characterized in subcellular fractions derived from either longitudinal or circular smooth muscle of the canine small intestine with their plexuses (myenteric plexus and deep muscular plexus, respectively) attached. The distribution of opioid binding activity showed a good correlation in the different fractions with the binding of the neuronal marker ({sup 3}H)saxitoxin but no correlation to the smooth muscle plasma membrane marker 5'-nucleotidase. The saturation data (Kd = 0.12 +/- 0.04 nM and maximum binding = 400 +/- 20 fmol/mg) and the data from kinetic experiments (Kd = 0.08 nmol) in the myenteric plexus were in good agreement with results obtained previously from the circular muscle/deep muscular plexus preparation. Competition experiments using selective drugs for mu (morphiceptin-analog (N-MePhe3-D-Pro4)-morphiceptin), delta (D-Pen2,5-enkephalin) and kappa (dynorphin 1-13, U50488-H) ligands showed the existence of all three receptor subtypes. The existence of kappa receptors was confirmed in saturation experiments using ({sup 3}H) ethylketocycloazocine as labeled ligand. Two putative opioid agonists, with effects on gastrointestinal motility, trimebutine and JO-1196 (fedotozin), were also examined. Trimebutine (Ki = 0.18 microM), Des-Met-trimebutine (Ki = 0.72 microM) and Jo-1196 (Ki = 0.19 microM) displaced specific opiate binding. The relative affinity for the opioid receptor subtypes was mu = 0.44, delta = 0.30 and kappa = 0.26 for trimebutine and mu = 0.25, delta = 0.22 and kappa = 0.52 for Jo-1196.

  7. Panicolytic-like effect of tramadol is mediated by opioid receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal grey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaes, Gislaine Cardoso de Souza; Roncon, Camila Marroni; Sestile, Caio Cesar; Maraschin, Jhonatan Christian; Souza, Rodolfo Luis Silva; Porcu, Mauro; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2017-05-30

    Tramadol is a synthetic opioid prescribed for the treatment of moderate to severe pain, acting as agonist of μ-opioid receptors and serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) reuptake inhibitor. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol in rats submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM), an animal model that evaluates behavioural parameters such as anxiety and panic. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated acutely with tramadol (16 and 32mg/kg) and were submitted to the ETM. Tramadol (32mg/kg) promoted a panicolytic-like effect. Considering that dorsal periaqueductal grey (dPAG) is the main brain structure related to the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD), this study also evaluated the participation of 5-HT and opioid receptors located in the dPAG in the panicolytic-like effect of tramadol. Seven days after stereotaxic surgery for implantation of a cannula in the dPAG, the animals were submitted to the test. To assess the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors on the effect of tramadol, we combined the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635 (0.37nmol), microinjected intra-dPAG, 10min prior to the administration of tramadol (32mg/kg, i.p.). WAY100635 did not block the panicolytic-like effect of tramadol. We also associated the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, systemically (1mg/kg, i.p.) or intra-dPAG (0.5nmol) administered 10min prior to tramadol (32mg/kg, i.p.). Naloxone blocked the panicolytic-like effect of tramadol in both routes of administrations, showing that tramadol modulates acute panic defensive behaviours through its interaction with opioid receptors located in the dPAG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel alternatively spliced isoform of the mu-opioid receptor: functional antagonism

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    Wentworth Sean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opioids are the most widely used analgesics for the treatment of clinical pain. They produce their therapeutic effects by binding to μ-opioid receptors (MORs, which are 7 transmembrane domain (7TM G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, and inhibiting cellular activity. However, the analgesic efficacy of opioids is compromised by side-effects such as analgesic tolerance, dependence and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH. In contrast to opioid analgesia these side effects are associated with cellular excitation. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain these phenomena, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance and OIH remain poorly understood. Results We recently discovered a new human alternatively spliced isoform of MOR (MOR1K that is missing the N-terminal extracellular and first transmembrane domains, resulting in a 6TM GPCR variant. To characterize the pattern of cellular transduction pathways activated by this human MOR1K isoform, we conducted a series of pharmacological and molecular experiments. Results show that stimulation of MOR1K with morphine leads to excitatory cellular effects. In contrast to stimulation of MOR1, stimulation of MOR1K leads to increased Ca2+ levels as well as increased nitric oxide (NO release. Immunoprecipitation experiments further reveal that unlike MOR1, which couples to the inhibitory Gαi/o complex, MOR1K couples to the stimulatory Gαs complex. Conclusion The major MOR1 and the alternative MOR1K isoforms mediate opposite cellular effects in response to morphine, with MOR1K driving excitatory processes. These findings warrant further investigations that examine animal and human MORK1 expression and function following chronic exposure to opioids, which may identify MOR1K as a novel target for the development of new clinically effective classes of opioids that have high analgesic efficacy with diminished ability to produce tolerance, OIH, and other unwanted side-effects.

  9. A Facile Synthesis for Novel Loperamide Analogs as Potential μ Opioid Receptor Agonists

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    Xiaofeng Bao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A facile synthesis for novel loperamide analogs as potential μ opioid receptors is described. The synthetic procedure for compound 5, which contains two 4-phenyl piperidine scaffolds, was optimized, and this compound was synthesized in excellent yield. We also describe a mild and highly efficient protocol for the synthesis of compounds 6 and 7.

  10. Kappa Opioid Receptors Mediate where Fear Is Expressed Following Extinction Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Richardson, Rick; McNally, Gavan P.

    2011-01-01

    Six experiments used a within-subjects renewal design to examine the involvement of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in regulating the expression and recovery of extinguished fear. Rats were trained to fear a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) via pairings with foot shock in a distinctive context (A). This was followed by extinction training of the CS in…

  11. Kappa Opioid Receptors Mediate where Fear Is Expressed Following Extinction Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Richardson, Rick; McNally, Gavan P.

    2011-01-01

    Six experiments used a within-subjects renewal design to examine the involvement of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in regulating the expression and recovery of extinguished fear. Rats were trained to fear a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) via pairings with foot shock in a distinctive context (A). This was followed by extinction training of the CS in…

  12. Recent advances on the δ opioid receptor: from trafficking to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Louis; Mittal, Nitish; Beaudry, Hélène; Walwyn, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Within the opioid family of receptors, δ (DOPrs) and μ opioid receptors (MOPrs) are typical GPCRs that activate canonical second-messenger signalling cascades to influence diverse cellular functions in neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. These receptors activate well-known pathways to influence ion channel function and pathways such as the map kinase cascade, AC and PI3K. In addition new information regarding opioid receptor-interacting proteins, downstream signalling pathways and resultant functional effects has recently come to light. In this review, we will examine these novel findings focusing on the DOPr and, in doing so, will contrast and compare DOPrs with MOPrs in terms of differences and similarities in function, signalling pathways, distribution and interactions. We will also discuss and clarify issues that have recently surfaced regarding the expression and function of DOPrs in different cell types and analgesia. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. A unique binding epitope for salvinorin A, a non-nitrogenous kappa opioid receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Brian E; Nieto, Marcelo J; McCurdy, Christopher R; Ferguson, David M

    2006-05-01

    Salvinorin A is a potent kappa opioid receptor (KOP) agonist with unique structural and pharmacological properties. This non-nitrogenous ligand lacks nearly all the structural features commonly associated with opioid ligand binding and selectivity. This study explores the structural basis to salvinorin A binding and selectivity using a combination of chimeric and single-point mutant opioid receptors. The experiments were designed based on previous models of salvinorin A that locate the ligand within a pocket formed by transmembrane (TM) II, VI, and VII. More traditional sites of opioid recognition were also explored, including the highly conserved aspartate in TM III (D138) and the KOP selectivity site E297, to determine the role, if any, that these residues play in binding and selectivity. The results indicate that salvinorin A recognizes a cluster of residues in TM II and VII, including Q115, Y119, Y312, Y313, and Y320. Based on the position of these residues within the receptor, and prior study on salvinorin A, a model is proposed that aligns the ligand vertically, between TM II and VII. In this orientation, the ligand spans residues that are spaced one to two turns down the face of the helices within the receptor cavity. The ligand is also in close proximity to EL-2 which, based on chimeric data, is proposed to play an indirect role in salvinorin A binding and selectivity.

  14. Sucrose-induced analgesia in mice: Role of nitric oxide and opioid receptor-mediated system

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    Abtin Shahlaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mechanism of action of sweet substance-induced analgesia is thought to involve activation of the endogenous opioid system. The nitric oxide (NO pathway has a pivotal role in pain modulation of analgesic compounds such as opioids. Objectives: We investigated the role of NO and the opioid receptor-mediated system in the analgesic effect of sucrose ingestion in mice. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg of NO synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME and 20 mg/kg of opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone on the tail flick response in sucrose ingesting mice. Results: Sucrose ingestion for 12 days induced a statistically significant increase in the latency of tail flick response which was unmodified by L-NAME, but partially inhibited by naltrexone administration. Conclusions: Sucrose-induced nociception may be explained by facilitating the release of endogenous opioid peptides. Contrary to some previously studied pain models, the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP pathway had no role in thermal hyperalgesia in our study. We recommend further studies on the involvement of NO in other animals and pain models.

  15. Regulation of μ and δ opioid receptor functions: involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase 5

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    Beaudry, H; Mercier-Blais, A-A; Delaygue, C; Lavoie, C; Parent, J-L; Neugebauer, W; Gendron, L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Phosphorylation of δ opioid receptors (DOP receptors) by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) was shown to regulate the trafficking of this receptor. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of CDK5 in regulating DOP receptors in rats treated with morphine or with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). As μ (MOP) and DOP receptors are known to be co-regulated, we also sought to determine if CDK5-mediated regulation of DOP receptors also affects MOP receptor functions. Experimental Approach The role of CDK5 in regulating opioid receptors in CFA- and morphine-treated rats was studied using roscovitine as a CDK inhibitor and a cell-penetrant peptide mimicking the second intracellular loop of DOP receptors (C11-DOPri2). Opioid receptor functions were assessed in vivo in a series of behavioural experiments and correlated by measuring ERK1/2 activity in dorsal root ganglia homogenates. Key Results Chronic roscovitine treatment reduced the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of deltorphin II (Dlt II) in morphine- and CFA-treated rats respectively. Repeated administrations of C11-DOPri2 also robustly decreased Dlt II-induced analgesia. Interestingly, DAMGO-induced analgesia was significantly increased by roscovitine and C11-DOPri2. Concomitantly, in roscovitine-treated rats the Dlt II-induced ERK1/2 activation was decreased, whereas the DAMGO-induced ERK1/2 activation was increased. An acute roscovitine treatment had no effect on Dlt II- or DAMGO-induced analgesia. Conclusions and Implications Together, our results demonstrate that CDK5 is a key player in the regulation of DOP receptors in morphine- and CFA-treated rats and that the regulation of DOP receptors by CDK5 is sufficient to modulate MOP receptor functions through an indirect process. PMID:25598508

  16. Agonist-Specific Recruitment of Arrestin Isoforms Differentially Modify Delta Opioid Receptor Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Amynah A; Perroy, Julie; Walwyn, Wendy M; Smith, Monique L; Vicente-Sanchez, Ana; Segura, Laura; Bana, Alia; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Evans, Christopher J

    2016-03-23

    Ligand-specific recruitment of arrestins facilitates functional selectivity of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Here, we describe agonist-selective recruitment of different arrestin isoforms to the delta opioid receptor in mice. A high-internalizing delta opioid receptor agonist (SNC80) preferentially recruited arrestin 2 and, in arrestin 2 knock-outs (KOs), we observed a significant increase in the potency of SNC80 to inhibit mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased acute tolerance. In contrast, the low-internalizing delta agonists (ARM390, JNJ20788560) preferentially recruited arrestin 3 with unaltered behavioral effects in arrestin 2 KOs. Surprisingly, arrestin 3 KO revealed an acute tolerance to these low-internalizing agonists, an effect never observed in wild-type animals. Furthermore, we examined delta opioid receptor-Ca(2+)channel coupling in dorsal root ganglia desensitized by ARM390 and the rate of resensitization was correspondingly decreased in arrestin 3 KOs. Live-cell imaging in HEK293 cells revealed that delta opioid receptors are in pre-engaged complexes with arrestin 3 at the cell membrane and that ARM390 strengthens this membrane interaction. The disruption of these complexes in arrestin 3 KOs likely accounts for the altered responses to low-internalizing agonists. Together, our results show agonist-selective recruitment of arrestin isoforms and reveal a novel endogenous role of arrestin 3 as a facilitator of resensitization and an inhibitor of tolerance mechanisms. Agonists that bind to the same receptor can produce highly distinct signaling events and arrestins are a major mediator of this ligand bias. Here, we demonstrate that delta opioid receptor agonists differentially recruit arrestin isoforms. We found that the high-internalizing agonist SNC80 preferentially recruits arrestin 2 and knock-out (KO) of this protein results in increased efficacy of SNC80. In contrast, low-internalizing agonists (ARM390 and JNJ20788560) preferentially recruit

  17. Ligand-Specific Regulation of the Endogenous Mu-Opioid Receptor by Chronic Treatment with Mu-Opioid Peptide Agonists

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    Murányi, Marianna; Cinar, Resat; Kékesi, Orsolya; Birkás, Erika; Fábián, Gabriella; Bozó, Beáta; Zentai, András; Tóth, Géza; Kicsi, Emese Gabriella; Mácsai, Mónika; Szabó, Gyula; Szücs, Mária

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the endomorphins (EM), the postulated endogenous peptide agonists of the mu-opioid receptors, several analogues have been synthesized to improve their binding and pharmacological profiles. We have shown previously that a new analogue, cis-1S,2R-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid2-endomorphin-2 (ACHC-EM2), had elevated mu-receptor affinity, selectivity, and proteolytic stability over the parent compound. In the present work, we have studied its antinociceptive effects and receptor regulatory processes. ACHC-EM2 displayed a somewhat higher (60%) acute antinociceptive response than the parent peptide, EM2 (45%), which peaked at 10 min after intracerebroventricular (icv) administration in the rat tail-flick test. Analgesic tolerance developed to the antinociceptive effect of ACHC-EM2 upon its repeated icv injection that was complete by a 10-day treatment. This was accompanied by attenuated coupling of mu-sites to G-proteins in subcellular fractions of rat brain. Also, the density of mu-receptors was upregulated by about 40% in the light membrane fraction, with no detectable changes in surface binding. Distinct receptor regulatory processes were noted in subcellular fractions of rat brains made tolerant by the prototypic full mu-agonist peptide, DAMGO, and its chloromethyl ketone derivative, DAMCK. These results are discussed in light of the recently discovered phenomenon, that is, the “so-called biased agonism” or “functional selectivity”. PMID:24350273

  18. Ligand-Specific Regulation of the Endogenous Mu-Opioid Receptor by Chronic Treatment with Mu-Opioid Peptide Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Murányi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the endomorphins (EM, the postulated endogenous peptide agonists of the mu-opioid receptors, several analogues have been synthesized to improve their binding and pharmacological profiles. We have shown previously that a new analogue, cis-1S,2R-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid2-endomorphin-2 (ACHC-EM2, had elevated mu-receptor affinity, selectivity, and proteolytic stability over the parent compound. In the present work, we have studied its antinociceptive effects and receptor regulatory processes. ACHC-EM2 displayed a somewhat higher (60% acute antinociceptive response than the parent peptide, EM2 (45%, which peaked at 10 min after intracerebroventricular (icv administration in the rat tail-flick test. Analgesic tolerance developed to the antinociceptive effect of ACHC-EM2 upon its repeated icv injection that was complete by a 10-day treatment. This was accompanied by attenuated coupling of mu-sites to G-proteins in subcellular fractions of rat brain. Also, the density of mu-receptors was upregulated by about 40% in the light membrane fraction, with no detectable changes in surface binding. Distinct receptor regulatory processes were noted in subcellular fractions of rat brains made tolerant by the prototypic full mu-agonist peptide, DAMGO, and its chloromethyl ketone derivative, DAMCK. These results are discussed in light of the recently discovered phenomenon, that is, the “so-called biased agonism” or “functional selectivity”.

  19. Effect of forced treadmill exercise and blocking of opioid receptors with naloxone on memory in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Asadi Rizi; Parham Reisi; Nooshin Naghsh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The forced treadmill running can influence the opioid contents of the brain, through both effects of exercise and the effects of stress caused by coercion. Since opioids can cause negative effects on brain functions, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of forced treadmill exercise and blocking of opioid receptors with naloxone on memory in male rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental groups were the control, the exercise, the naloxone, and the naloxone exercise. The exerc...

  20. Anti-opioid effects of neuropeptide FF receptors in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersanté, Flavie; Wang, Jin-Ya; Chen, Jin-Chung; Mollereau, Catherine; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-25

    The present study investigates the modulatory effects of neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors on the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway controlled by opioid receptors. A stable NPFF(2) receptor agonist, dNPA, was injected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the release of dopamine and serotonin within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), induced by intraperitoneal injection of morphine, was monitored using the brain microdialysis, in non-constrained rat. dNPA decreased systemic morphine-induced elevation of dopamine and serotonin metabolites within the NAc. Furthermore, co-injected with morphine into the VTA, NPFF inhibited morphine-induced stereotypy 60-120min after the injection. This neurochemical and behavioural anti-opioid effect mediated by NPFF(2) receptors at the level of VTA suggests the involvement of NPFF in the rewarding effects of opiates on the mesolimbic dopamine system.

  1. Growth hormone receptor exon 3 isoforms and their implication in growth disorders and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Alexander A L; Arnhold, Ivo J P

    2009-04-01

    Human recombinant growth hormone (hGH) has been used to treat short stature in several different conditions, but considerable inter-individual variation in short- and long-term growth response exists. Pharmacogenomics can provide important insights into hGH therapy. The GH receptor (GHR) is the first key molecule mediating GH action. In the past 3 years, a common GHR polymorphism reflecting the presence (GHRfl) or absence (GHRd3) of exon 3 has been under intensive investigation regarding its influence on the response to hGH therapy. Studies that evaluated response to GH treatment determined by these two GHR isoforms in children with GH deficiency, girls with Turner syndrome, children born small for gestational age and patients with acromegaly showed that patients carrying the GHRd3 allele demonstrated a greater GH sensitivity than patients homozygous for the GHRfl allele. Other studies presented contradictory data, however, which may be caused by confounding factors such as small sample sizes and differences in experimental design. This GHR exon 3 genotype is the first identified genetic factor found to modulate the individual response to GH therapy. This article reviews the historical aspects and pharmacogenetic studies published to date in relation to this GHR polymorphism. The analyses of present and future validation studies may define the use of this and other polymorphisms in clinical practice, moving from pharmacogenetics to routine application and allowing individualization of hGH doses to optimize final outcome.

  2. Nucleus accumbens μ-opioid receptors mediate social reward

    OpenAIRE

    Trezza, Viviana; Damsteegt, Ruth; Achterberg, E J Marijke; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J

    2011-01-01

    Positive social interactions are essential for emotional well-being and proper behavioral development of young individuals. Here, we studied the neural underpinnings of social reward, by investigating the involvement of opioid neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in social play behavior, a highly rewarding social interaction in adolescent rats. Intra-NAc infusion of morphine (0.05–0.1 μg) increased pinning and pouncing, characteristic elements of social play behavior in rats, and ...

  3. Chronic inflammatory injury results in increased coupling of delta opioid receptors to voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Amynah; Smith, Monique; McGuire, Brenna; Evans, Christopher; Walwyn, Wendy

    2013-03-04

    Opioid receptors regulate a diverse array of physiological functions. Mu opioid receptor agonists are well-known analgesics for treating acute pain. In contrast, animal models suggest that chronic pain is more effectively relieved by delta opioid receptor agonists. A number of studies have shown that chronic pain results in increased function of delta opioid receptors. This is proposed to result from enhanced trafficking of the delta opioid receptor to the cell membrane induced by persistent tissue injury. However, recent studies have questioned this mechanism, which has resulted in some uncertainty as to whether delta opioid receptors are indeed upregulated in chronic pain states. To clarify this question, we have examined the effect of chronic inflammatory pain over time using both an ex vivo measure of delta function: receptor-Ca2+ channel coupling, and an in vivo measure; the relief of chronic pain by a delta opioid receptor agonist. In addition, as beta-arrestin 2 can regulate delta opioid receptor trafficking and signaling, we have further examined whether deleting this scaffolding and signal transduction molecule alters delta opioid receptor function. We used the Complete Freund's Adjuvant model of inflammatory pain, and examined the effectiveness of the delta agonist, SNC80, to both inhibit Ca2+ channels in primary afferent neurons and to attenuate mechanical allodynia. In naïve beta-arrestin 2 wildtype and knockout mice, SNC80 neither significantly inhibited voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents nor produced antinociception. However, following inflammatory pain, both measures showed a significant and long-lasting enhancement of delta opioid receptor function that persisted for up to 14 days post-injury regardless of genotype. Furthermore, although this pain model did not alter Ca2+ current density, the contribution of N-type Ca2+ channels to the total current appeared to be regulated by the presence of beta-arrestin 2. Our results indicate that there is an

  4. Evaluation of 7 {alpha}-O-IADPN as a new potential SPECT opioid receptor imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.F.; Mao, S.Y. [Fujian Medical College, Fuzhou (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Tafani, J.A.M.; Coulais, Y.; Guiraud, R. [Hospital Purpan, Toulouse (France). Service Central de medicine Nucleaire; Zajac, J.M. [LPTF-CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: A new iodinated diprenorphine antagonist analogue, [{sup 123}I]7 {alpha}.-O-IADPN, [E] - 17-(cyclopropylmethyl) -4,5 (x-epoxy- 18,19-dihydro-3-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7 {alpha}-[1-(3-iodoallyl)oxy-1-methylethyl]-6,14-endo-ethenomorphinan for in vivo and in vitro studies as a potential central nervous system (CNS) opioid receptor imaging agent was developed. In vivo biodistribution and metabolism of 7 {alpha}-O-lADPN in rat demonstrated that 0.16% of the iodinated compound was presented in mouse brain with a degradation-resistant at the first 60 min, and that 36% of the total cerebral radioactivity and 63% of its specific binding to opioid receptors were observed 20 min after i.v. injection. The cerebral radioactivity in mouse brain concentrated in the basal ganglion and cortex, and displayed a remarkably high target-to-non-target ratio (cortex/cerebellum = 60 min post-injection). The in vitro binding studies showed that [{sup 123}I]7 {alpha}-O-IADPN binds non selectively to multiple opioid receptors {mu} = 8 K) with a very high affinity (Ki = 0.4 + 0.2 nM). Ex vivo autoradiography results in mouse further confirmed the high uptake and retention of this agent in basal ganglion region and cortex. The planar imaging of monkey brains after i.v. injection of [{sup 123}I]7 {alpha}-O-IADPN clearly displayed that multiple opioid receptors can be visualized. With the excellent in vitro affinity and in vivo stability to deiodination and high target-to-nontarget ratio, [{sup 123}I]7 {alpha}- O-IADPN appears to be useful as a CNS opioid receptor imaging probe for SPECT in primate and non-primate.

  5. Opiate-induced constipation related to activation of small intestine opioid μ2-receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wency Chen; Hsien-Hui Chung; Juei-Tang Cheng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of opioid μ-receptor subtype in opiate-induced constipation (OIC).METHODS:The effect of loperamide on intestinal transit was investigated in mice.Ileum strips were isolated from 12-wk-old male BALB/c mice for identification of isometric tension.The ileum strips were precontracted with 1 μmol/L acetylcholine (ACh).Then,decrease in muscle tone (relaxation) was characterized after cumulative administration of 0.1-10 μmol/k loperamide into the organ bath,for a concentration-dependent study.Specific blockers or antagonists were used for pretreatment to compare the changes in loperamide-induced relaxation.RESULTS:In addition to the delay in intestinal transit,loperamide produced a marked relaxation in isolated ileum precontracted with ACh,in a dose-dependent manner.This relaxation was abolished by cyprodime,a selective opioid μ-receptor antagonist,but not modified by naloxonazine at a dose sufficient to block opioid μ-1 receptors.Also,treatment with opioid μ-1 receptor agonist failed to modify the muscle tone.Moreover,the relaxation by loperamide was attenuated by glibenclamide at a dose sufficient to block ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels,and by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor,but was enhanced by an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).CONCLUSION:Loperamide induces intestinal relaxation by activation of opioid μ-2 receptors via the cAMPPKA pathway to open KATP channels,relates to OIC.

  6. Opioid receptor antagonists increase [Ca2+]i in rat arterial smooth muscle cells in hemorrhagic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li KAI; Zhong-feng WANG; Yu-liang SHI; Liang-ming LIU; De-yao HU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effects of opioid receptor antagonists and norepinephrine on intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in mesenteric arterial (MA) smooth muscle cells (SMC) isolated from normal and hemorrhagic shocked rats in the vascular hyporesponse stage. METHODS: The rat model of hemorrhagic shock was made by withdrawing blood to decrease the artery mean blood pressure to 3.73-4.26 kPa and keeping at the level for 3 h.[Ca2+]i of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were detected by the laser scan confocal microscopy. RESULTS:In the hyporesponse VMSC of rats in hemorrhagic shock, selective δ-, κ-, and μ-opioid receptor antagonists (naltrindole, nor-binaltorphimine, and β-funaltrexamine, 100 nmol/L) as well as norepinephrine 5 μmol/L significantly increased [Ca2+]i by 47 %±13 %, 37 %±14 %, 33 %±10 %, and 54 %±17 %, respectively, although their effects were lower than those in the normal rat cells (the increased values were 148 %±54 %, 130 %±44 %, 63 %±17 %and 110 %±38 %, respectively); and the norepinephrine-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was further augmented by three δ-, κ-, and μ-opioid receptor antagonists (50 nmol/L, respectively) application (from 52 %± 16 % to 99 %±29 %,146 %±54 % and 137 %±47 %, respectively). CONCLUSION: The disorder of [Ca2+]i regulation induced by hemorrhagic shock was mediated by opioid receptor and α-adrenoceptor, which may be partly responsible for the vascular hyporesponse, and the opioid receptor antagonists improved the response of resistance arteries to vascular stimulants in decompensatory stage of hemorrhagic shock.

  7. Functional μ-Opioid-Galanin Receptor Heteromers in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Estefanía; Quiroz, César; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Cortés, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    The neuropeptide galanin has been shown to interact with the opioid system. More specifically, galanin counteracts the behavioral effects of the systemic administration of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists. Yet the mechanism responsible for this galanin–opioid interaction has remained elusive. Using biophysical techniques in mammalian transfected cells, we found evidence for selective heteromerization of MOR and the galanin receptor subtype Gal1 (Gal1R). Also in transfected cells, a synthetic peptide selectively disrupted MOR–Gal1R heteromerization as well as specific interactions between MOR and Gal1R ligands: a negative cross talk, by which galanin counteracted MAPK activation induced by the endogenous MOR agonist endomorphin-1, and a cross-antagonism, by which a MOR antagonist counteracted MAPK activation induced by galanin. These specific interactions, which represented biochemical properties of the MOR-Gal1R heteromer, could then be identified in situ in slices of rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) with MAPK activation and two additional cell signaling pathways, AKT and CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, in vivo microdialysis experiments showed that the disruptive peptide selectively counteracted the ability of galanin to block the dendritic dopamine release in the rat VTA induced by local infusion of endomorphin-1, demonstrating a key role of MOR-Gal1R heteromers localized in the VTA in the direct control of dopamine cell function and their ability to mediate antagonistic interactions between MOR and Gal1R ligands. The results also indicate that MOR-Gal1R heteromers should be viewed as targets for the treatment of opioid use disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) localized in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a key role in the reinforcing and addictive properties of opioids. With parallel in vitro experiments in mammalian transfected cells and in situ and in vivo experiments in rat VTA, we demonstrate that a significant

  8. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome due to a new frameshift deletion in exon 4 of the androgen receptor gene: Functional analysis of the mutant receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Lobaccaro; S. Lumbroso; N. Poujol (Nicolas); V. Georget; A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); G. Malpuech (Georges); C. Sultan

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the androgen receptor gene in a large kindred with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome and negative receptor-binding activity, single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing identified a 13 base pair deletion within exon 4. This was responsible for

  9. Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: role of the furan in affinity for opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Denise S; Lovell, Kimberly M; Lozama, Anthony; Han, Nina; Day, Victor W; Dersch, Christina M; Rothman, Richard B; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2009-09-21

    Further synthetic modification of the furan ring of salvinorin A (1), the major active component of Salvia divinorum, has resulted in novel neoclerodane diterpenes with opioid receptor affinity and activity. A computational study has predicted 1 to be a reproductive toxicant in mammals and is suggestive that use of 1 may be associated with adverse effects. We report in this study that piperidine 21 and thiomorpholine 23 have been identified as selective partial agonists at kappa opioid receptors. This indicates that additional structural modifications of 1 may provide ligands with good selectivity for opioid receptors but with reduced potential for toxicity.

  10. Synthesis of iboga-like isoquinuclidines: Dual opioid receptors agonists having antinociceptive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tuhin Suvro; Paul, Sibasish; Sinha, Surajit; Das, Sumantra

    2014-11-01

    Some novel iboga-analogues consisting of benzofuran moiety and dehydroisoquinuclidine ring connected by -CH2-, (CH2)2 and (CH2)3 linkers have been synthesized with the view to develop potential antinociceptive drugs. The compounds 14 and 21 showed binding at the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), while the compound 11a exhibited dual affinities at both MOR and κ-opioid receptor (KOR). MAP kinase activation indicated all three compounds have opioid agonistic properties. The presence of a double bond and endo-methylcarboxylate group in the dehydroisoquinuclidine ring and the benzofuran and methylene spacer appeared to be essential for opioid receptor binding. Further studies demonstrated 11a caused significant antinociception in mice in the hot-plate test which was comparable to that produced by morphine. The compound 11a was also found to be nontremorigenic unlike various iboga congeners. This study identifies a new pharmacophore which may lead to the development of suitable substitute of morphine in the treatment of pain.

  11. Characterization of zeta (zeta): a new opioid receptor involved in growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagon, I S; Goodman, S R; McLaughlin, P J

    1989-03-20

    Endogenous opioid systems (i.e., opioids and opioid receptors) are known to play a role in neural cancer. Using [3H]-[Met5]enkephalin, a potent ligand involved in growth, specific and saturable binding was detected in homogenates of S20Y neuroblastoma transplanted into A/Jax mice; the data fit a single binding site. Scatchard analysis yielded a Kd of 0.49 nM and a binding capacity of 5.32 fmol/mg protein. Binding was dependent on protein concentration, time, temperature, and pH, and was sensitive to Na+ and guanine nucleotides. Optimal binding required protease inhibitors, and pretreatment of the tumor homogenates with trypsin markedly reduced [3H]-[Met5]enkephalin binding, suggesting that the binding site was proteinaceous in character. Displacement experiments indicated that [Met5]enkephalin was the most potent displacer of [3H]-[Met5]enkephalin; other ligands selective for mu, delta, kappa, epsilon, and sigma were not highly competitive. Given the functional significance of [Met5]enkephalin as a potent regulator of normal and abnormal growth, and that the receptor recognized by [Met5]enkephalin does not resemble any previously described, the present study has demonstrated the presence of a new opioid receptor termed zeta (zeta) (from the Greek 'Zoe', life) related to the proliferation of cells and tissues.

  12. Expression of {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta} opioid receptor messenger RNA in the human CNS: a {sup 33}P in situ hybridization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peckys, D.; Landwehrmeyer, G.B. [Department of Neurology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Neurozentrum, Breisacherstrasse 64, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    The existence of at least three opioid receptor types, referred to as {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta}, is well established. Complementary DNAs corresponding to the pharmacologically defined {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta} opioid receptors have been isolated in various species including man. The expression patterns of opioid receptor transcripts in human brain has not been established with a cellular resolution, in part because of the low apparent abundance of opioid receptor messenger RNAs in human brain. To visualize opioid receptor messenger RNAs we developed a sensitive in situ hybridization histochemistry method using {sup 33}P-labelled RNA probes. In the present study we report the regional and cellular expression of {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta} opioid receptor messenger RNAs in selected areas of the human brain. Hybridization of the different opioid receptor probes resulted in distinct labelling patterns. For the {mu} and {kappa} opioid receptor probes, the most intense regional signals were observed in striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and certain brainstem areas as well as the spinal cord. The most intense signals for the {delta} opioid receptor probe were found in cerebral cortex. Expression of opioid receptor transcripts was restricted to subpopulations of neurons within most regions studied demonstrating differences in the cellular expression patterns of {mu}, {kappa}, and {delta} opioid receptor messenger RNAs in numerous brain regions. The messenger RNA distribution patterns for each opioid receptor corresponded in general to the distribution of opioid receptor binding sites as visualized by receptor autoradiography. However, some mismatches, for instance between {mu} opioid receptor receptor binding and {mu} opioid receptor messenger RNA expression in the anterior striatum, were observed. A comparison of the distribution patterns of opioid receptor messenger RNAs in the human brain and that reported for the rat suggests a homologous

  13. Interaction and regulatory functions of μ- and δ-opioid receptors in nociceptive afferent neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhang; Lan Bao

    2012-01-01

    μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists such as morphine are powerful analgesics used for pain therapy.However,the use of these drugs is limited by their side-effects,which include antinociceptive tolerance and dependence.Earlier studies reported that MOR analgesic tolerance is reduced by blockade of δ-opioid receptors (DORs) that interact with MORs.Recent studies show that the MOR/DOR interaction in nociceptive afferent neurons in the dorsal root ganglion may contribute to morphine analgesic tolerance.Further analysis of the mechanisms for regulating the trafficking of receptors,ion channels and signaling molecules in nociceptive afferent neurons would help to understand the nociceptive mechanisms and improve pain therapy.

  14. Glucocorticoid-mediated repression of T-cell receptor signalling is impaired in glucocorticoid receptor exon 2-disrupted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Douglas R; Purton, Jared F; Cole, Timothy J; Godfrey, Dale I

    2014-02-01

    Studies using glucocorticoid receptor exon 2-disrupted knockout (GR2KO) mice provided strong evidence against an obligatory role for glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signalling in T-cell selection. These mice express a truncated form of the GR that is incapable of transmitting a range of glucocorticoid (GC)-induced signals, including GC-induced thymocyte death. However, one study that suggested that truncated GR function is preserved in the context of GR-mediated repression of T-cell activation-induced genes, challenged earlier conclusions derived from the use of these mice. Because GR versus T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling cross-talk is the means by which GCs are hypothesized to have a role in T-cell selection, we reassessed the utility of GR2KO mice to study the role of the GR in this process. Here, we show that GR-mediated repression of TCR signalling is impaired in GR2KO T cells in terms of TCR-induced activation, proliferation and cytokine production. GC-induced apoptosis was largely abolished in peripheral T cells, and induction of the GC-responsive molecule, interleukin-7 receptor, was also severely reduced in GR2KO thymocytes. Together, these data strongly re-affirm conclusions derived from earlier studies of these mice that the GR is not obligatory for normal T-cell selection.

  15. AM-251 and rimonabant act as direct antagonists at mu-opioid receptors: implications for opioid/cannabinoid interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, Kathryn A; Brents, Lisa K; Franks, Lirit N; Rajasekaran, Maheswari; Zimmerman, Sarah M; Fantegrossi, William E; Prather, Paul L

    2012-10-01

    Mu-opioid and CB1-cannabinoid agonists produce analgesia; however, adverse effects limit use of drugs in both classes. Additive or synergistic effects resulting from concurrent administration of low doses of mu- and CB1-agonists may produce analgesia with fewer side effects. Synergism potentially results from interaction between mu-opioid receptors (MORs) and CB1 receptors (CB1Rs). AM-251 and rimonabant are CB1R antagonist/inverse agonists employed to validate opioid-cannabinoid interactions, presumed to act selectively at CB1Rs. Therefore, the potential for direct action of these antagonists at MORs is rarely considered. This study determined if AM-251 and/or rimonabant directly bind and modulate the function of MORs. Surprisingly, AM-251 and rimonabant, but not a third CB1R inverse agonist AM-281, bind with mid-nanomolar affinity to human MORs with a rank order of affinity (K(i)) of AM-251 (251 nM) > rimonabant (652 nM) > AM281 (2135 nM). AM-251 and rimonabant, but not AM-281, also competitively antagonize morphine induced G-protein activation in CHO-hMOR cell homogenates (K(b) = 719 or 1310 nM, respectively). AM-251 and rimonabant block morphine inhibition of cAMP production, while only AM-251 elicits cAMP rebound in CHO-hMOR cells chronically exposed to morphine. AM-251 and rimonabant (10 mg/kg) attenuate morphine analgesia, whereas the same dose of AM-281 produces little effect. Therefore, in addition to high CB1R affinity, AM-251 and rimonabant bind to MORs with mid-nanomolar affinity and at higher doses may affect morphine analgesia via direct antagonism at MORs. Such CB1-independent of these antagonists effects may contribute to reported inconsistencies when CB1/MOR interactions are examined via pharmacological methods in CB1-knockout versus wild-type mice.

  16. Opioid receptor agonists may favorably affect bone mechanical properties in rats with estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janas, Aleksandra; Folwarczna, Joanna

    2017-02-01

    The results of epidemiological, clinical, and in vivo and in vitro experimental studies on the effect of opioid analgesics on bone are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of morphine (an agonist of opioid receptors), buprenorphine (a partial μ opioid receptor agonist and κ opioid receptor antagonist), and naloxone (an antagonist of opioid receptors) on the skeletal system of female rats in vivo. The experiments were carried out on 3-month-old Wistar rats, divided into two groups: nonovariectomized (intact; NOVX) rats and ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The bilateral ovariectomy was performed 7 days before the start of drug administration. Morphine hydrochloride (20 mg/kg/day s.c.), buprenorphine (0.05 mg/kg/day s.c.), or naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate (2 mg/kg/day s.c.) were administered for 4 weeks to NOVX and OVX rats. In OVX rats, the use of morphine and buprenorphine counteracted the development of osteoporotic changes in the skeletal system induced by estrogen deficiency. Morphine and buprenorphine beneficially affected also the skeletal system of NOVX rats, but the effects were much weaker than those in OVX rats. Naloxone generally did not affect the rat skeletal system. The results confirmed the role of opioid receptors in the regulation of bone remodeling processes and demonstrated, in experimental conditions, that the use of opioid analgesics at moderate doses may exert beneficial effects on the skeletal system, especially in estrogen deficiency.

  17. Analgesia produced by exposure to 2450-MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) is mediated by brain mu- and kappa-opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, G.; Park, E.J.; Quock, R.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Rockford (United States))

    1992-02-26

    This study was conducted to identify the opioid receptor subtype(s) responsible for RFR-induced analgesia. Male Swiss Webster mice, 20-25 g, were exposed to 20 mW/cm{sup 2} RFR in a 2,450-MHz waveguide system for 10 min, then tested 15 min later in the abdominal constriction paradigm which detects {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid activity. Immediately following RFR exposure, different groups of mice were pretreated intracerebroventricularly with different opioid receptor blockers with selectivity for {mu}- or {kappa}-opioid receptors. Results show that RFR-induced analgesia was attenuated by higher but not lower doses of the non-selective antagonist naloxone, but the selective {mu}-opioid antagonist {beta}-funaltrexamine and by the selective {kappa}-opioid antagonist norbinaltorphimine. RFR-induced analgesia was also reduced by subcutaneous pretreatment with 5.0 mg/kg of the {mu}-/{kappa}-opioid antagonist({minus})-5,9-diethyl-{alpha}-5,9-dialkyl-2{prime}-hydroxy-6,7-benzomorphan(MR-2266). These findings suggest that RFR-induced analgesia may be mediated by both {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid mechanisms.

  18. Human Mu Opioid Receptor (OPRM1A118G) polymorphism is associated with brain mu- opioid receptor binding potential in smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, R.; Logan, J.; Ray, R.; Ruparel, K.; Newberg, A.; Wileyto, E.P.; Loughead, J.W.; Divgi, C.; Blendy, J.A.; Logan, J.; Zubieta, J.-K.; Lerman, C.

    2011-04-15

    Evidence points to the endogenous opioid system, and the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) in particular, in mediating the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, including nicotine. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the human MOR gene (OPRM1 A118G) has been shown to alter receptor protein level in preclinical models and smoking behavior in humans. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for these associations, we conducted an in vivo investigation of the effects of OPRM1 A118G genotype on MOR binding potential (BP{sub ND} or receptor availability). Twenty-two smokers prescreened for genotype (12 A/A, 10 */G) completed two [{sup 11}C] carfentanil positron emission tomography (PET) imaging sessions following overnight abstinence and exposure to a nicotine-containing cigarette and a denicotinized cigarette. Independent of session, smokers homozygous for the wild-type OPRM1 A allele exhibited significantly higher levels of MOR BP{sub ND} than smokers carrying the G allele in bilateral amygdala, left thalamus, and left anterior cingulate cortex. Among G allele carriers, the extent of subjective reward difference (denicotinized versus nicotine cigarette) was associated significantly with MOR BP{sub ND} difference in right amygdala, caudate, anterior cingulate cortex, and thalamus. Future translational investigations can elucidate the role of MORs in nicotine addiction, which may lead to development of novel therapeutics.

  19. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome due to a new frameshift deletion in exon 4 of the androgen receptor gene: Functional analysis of the mutant receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Lobaccaro, J.M.; Lumbroso, S.; Poujol, Nicolas; Georget, V.; Brinkmann, Albert; Malpuech, Georges; Sultan, C.

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the androgen receptor gene in a large kindred with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome and negative receptor-binding activity, single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing identified a 13 base pair deletion within exon 4. This was responsible for a predictive frameshift in the open reading frame and introduction of a premature stop codon at position 783 instead of 919. The deletion was reproduced in androgen receptor wildtype cDNA and tran...

  20. The effect of opioid receptor blockade on the neural processing of thermal stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter D Schoell

    Full Text Available The endogenous opioid system represents one of the principal systems in the modulation of pain. This has been demonstrated in studies of placebo analgesia and stress-induced analgesia, where anti-nociceptive activity triggered by pain itself or by cognitive states is blocked by opioid antagonists. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of opioid receptor blockade on the physiological processing of painful thermal stimulation in the absence of cognitive manipulation. We therefore measured BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent signal responses and intensity ratings to non-painful and painful thermal stimuli in a double-blind, cross-over design using the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. On the behavioral level, we observed an increase in intensity ratings under naloxone due mainly to a difference in the non-painful stimuli. On the neural level, painful thermal stimulation was associated with a negative BOLD signal within the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, and this deactivation was abolished by naloxone.

  1. Neuroprotection against hypoxia/ischemia: δ-opioid receptor-mediated cellular/molecular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaozhou; Sandhu, Harleen K; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Belser, Nathalee; Kim, Dong H; Xia, Ying

    2013-07-01

    Hypoxic/ischemic injury remains the most dreaded cause of neurological disability and mortality. Despite the humbling experiences due to lack of promising therapy, our understanding of the complex cascades underlying the neuronal insult has led to advances in basic science research. One of the most noteworthy has been the effect of opioid receptors, especially the delta-opioid receptor (DOR), on hypoxic/ischemic neurons. Our recent studies, and those of others worldwide, present strong evidence that sheds light on DOR-mediated neuroprotection in the brain, especially in the cortex. The mechanisms of DOR neuroprotection are broadly categorized as: (1) stabilization of the ionic homeostasis, (2) inhibition of excitatory transmitter release, (3) attenuation of disrupted neuronal transmission, (4) increase in antioxidant capacity, (5) regulation of intracellular pathways-inhibition of apoptotic signals and activation of pro-survival signaling, (6) regulation of specific gene and protein expression, and (7) up-regulation of endogenous opioid release and/or DOR expression. Depending upon the severity and duration of hypoxic/ischemic insult, the release of endogenous opioids and DOR expression are regulated in response to the stress, and DOR signaling acts at multiple levels to confer neuronal tolerance to harmful insult. The phenomenon of DOR neuroprotection offers a potential clue for a promising target that may have significant clinical implications in our quest for neurotherapeutics.

  2. Interacting Cannabinoid and Opioid Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Core Control Adolescent Social Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, Antonia; Lassalle, Olivier; Sepers, Marja; Campolongo, Patrizia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Marsicano, Giovanni; Kieffer, Brigitte; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Trezza, Viviana; Manzoni, Olivier J J

    2016-01-01

    Social play behavior is a highly rewarding, developmentally important form of social interaction in young mammals. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Previous work has suggested that opioid and endocannabinoid neurotransmission interact in the modulation of social play. Therefore, we combined behavioral, pharmacological, electrophysiological, and genetic approaches to elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in social play, and how cannabinoid and opioid neurotransmission interact to control social behavior in adolescent rodents. Systemic administration of the 2-AG hydrolysis inhibitor JZL184 or the opioid receptor agonist morphine increased social play behavior in adolescent rats. These effects were blocked by systemic pretreatment with either CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) or mu-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonists. The social play-enhancing effects of systemic morphine or JZL184 treatment were also prevented by direct infusion of the CB1R antagonist SR141716 and the MOR antagonist naloxone into the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC). Searching for synaptic correlates of these effects in adolescent NAcC excitatory synapses, we observed that CB1R antagonism blocked the effect of the MOR agonist DAMGO and, conversely, that naloxone reduced the effect of a cannabinoid agonist. These results were recapitulated in mice, and completely abolished in CB1R and MOR knockout mice, suggesting that the functional interaction between CB1R and MOR in the NAcC in the modulation of social behavior is widespread in rodents. The data shed new light on the mechanism by which endocannabinoid lipids and opioid peptides interact to orchestrate rodent socioemotional behaviors.

  3. Interacting cannabinoid and opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens core control adolescent social play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Manduca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social play behavior is a highly rewarding, developmentally important form of social interaction in young mammals. However, its neurobiological underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Previous work has suggested that opioid and endocannabinoid neurotransmission interact in the modulation of social play. Therefore, we combined behavioral, pharmacological, electrophysiological and genetic approaches to elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG in social play, and how cannabinoid and opioid neurotransmission interact to control social behavior in adolescent rodents. Systemic administration of the 2-AG hydrolysis inhibitor JZL184 or the opioid receptor agonist morphine increased social play behavior in adolescent rats. These effects were blocked by systemic pretreatment with either CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R or mu-opioid receptor (MOR antagonists. The social play-enhancing effects of systemic morphine or JZL184 treatment were also prevented by direct infusion of the CB1R antagonist SR141716 and the MOR antagonist naloxone into the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC. Searching for synaptic correlates of these effects in adolescent NAcC excitatory synapses, we observed that CB1R antagonism blocked the effect of the MOR agonist DAMGO and, conversely, that naloxone reduced the effect of a cannabinoid agonist. These results were recapitulated in mice, and completely abolished in CB1R and MOR knockout mice, suggesting that the functional interaction between CB1R and MOR in the NAcC in the modulation of mediates social behavior is widespread in rodents. The data shed new light on the mechanism by which endocannabinoid lipids and opioid peptides interact to orchestrate rodent socioemotional behaviors.

  4. New 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) opioid peptidomimetics based on the Aba-Gly scaffold. Development of unique mu-opioid receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballet, Steven; Salvadori, Severo; Trapella, Claudio; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Lattanzi, Roberta; Tourwé, Dirk; Balboni, Gianfranco

    2006-06-29

    The Aba-Gly scaffold, incorporated into Dmt-Tic ligands (H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-CH2-Ph, H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-Ph, H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH2-Bid), exhibited mixed micro/delta or delta opioid receptor activities with micro agonism. Substitution of Tic by Aba-Gly coupled to -NH-CH2-Ph (1), -NH-Ph (2), or -Bid (Bid=1H-benzimidazole-2-yl) (3) shifted affinity (Ki(micro)=0.46, 1.48, and 19.9 nM, respectively), selectivity, and bioactivity to micro-opioid receptors. These compounds represent templates for a new class of lead opioid agonists that are easily synthesized and suitable for therapeutic pain relief.

  5. Enkephalins modulate inhibitory neuromuscular transmission in circular muscle of human colon via delta-opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, C H; Kamm, M A; Burnstock, G; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1990-01-01

    1. A sucrose-gap technique was used to investigate the neuromodulatory actions of enkephalins on non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) in the circular muscle of the human large intestine. 2. The native enkephalins, [Leu5]enkephalin (LENK) and [Met5]enkephalin (MENK) caused a concentration-dependent reduction in amplitude of IJPs without a significant effect on the smooth muscle membrane. 3. The actions of LENK and MENK were mimicked by the delta-selective opioid receptor agonists [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) and [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin (DADLE). 4. The actions of LENK, MENK and DPDPE were antagonized to similar extents by the delta-selective opioid receptor antagonist ICI 174,864. 5. The mu-selective opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, Me Phe, Gly-ol5]enkephalin was approximately 100-fold less potent than any of the native or synthetic enkephalins at reducing the amplitude of the IJP. Dynorphin A and beta-endorphin both had very weak activity. 6. Responses to all of the agonists were inhibited by naloxone. The degree of antagonism of DPDPE or DADLE by naloxone (1 microM) was the same as that of LENK or MENK. 7. Neither MENK nor LENK affected hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle membrane induced by ATP or 5-hydroxytryptamine. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (1 pM-1 microM) did not produce any observable responses and this lack of reactivity was not affected by the enkephalins. 8. It is concluded that in the circular muscle of the human colon, LENK and MENK can act on prejunctional delta-opioid receptors to produce inhibition of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory neuromuscular transmission. Possible physiological significance of this prejunctional receptor is discussed. PMID:1966052

  6. In vivo receptor binding of opioid drugs at the mu site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, J.S.; Holford, N.H.; Sadee, W.

    1985-06-01

    The in vivo receptor binding of a series of opioid drugs was investigated in intact rats after s.c. administration of (/sup 3/H)etorphine tracer, which selectively binds to mu sites in vivo. Receptor binding was determined by a membrane filtration assay immediately after sacrifice of the animals and brain homogenization. Coadministration of unlabeled opioid drugs together with tracer led to a dose-dependent decrease of in vivo tracer binding. Estimates of the doses required to occupy 50% of the mu sites in vivo established the following potency rank order: diprenorphine, naloxone, buprenorphine, etorphine, levallorphan, cyclazocine, sufentanil, nalorphine, ethylketocyclazocine, ketocyclazocine, pentazocine, morphine. In vivo-in vitro differences among the relative receptor binding potencies were only partially accounted for by differences in their access to the brain and the regulatory effects of Na+ and GTP, which are expected to reduce agonist affinities in vivo. The relationship among mu receptor occupancy in vivo and pharmacological effects of the opioid drugs is described.

  7. Effect of prenatal methadone and ethanol on opioid receptor development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, M.A.; Braun, R.L. (Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The current literature shows that the offspring of female rats exposed to methadone or ethanol display similar neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations, and suggests that these drugs may be operating through a common mechanism. If this hypothesis is true, their effect on the endogenous opioid systems should be qualitatively similar. In this study virgin females were treated with methadone or 10% ethanol oral solution starting prior to conception and continued throughout gestation. When the offspring had reached 15 or 30 days of age they were sacrificed, the brain was removed and prepared for opioid receptor binding studies. ({sup 3}H)DAGO and ({sup 3}H)DADLE were used as ligands for the mu and delta receptors, respectively. These studies show significant treatment-related differences in both the number of mu and delta binding sites as well as in apparent receptor affinity. Significant sex- and age-related differences between treatments were also observed. These data show that methadone and ethanol, while manifesting some similar neurochemical and behavioral effects, have unique effects on opioid receptor binding, suggesting that they may be acting by different mechanisms.

  8. Exon organization of the mouse entactin gene corresponds to the structural domains of the polypeptide and has regional homology to the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durkin, M E; Wewer, U M; Chung, A E

    1995-01-01

    Entactin is a widespread basement membrane protein of 150 kDa that binds to type IV collagen and laminin. The complete exon-intron structure of the mouse entactin gene has been determined from lambda genomic DNA clones. The gene spans at least 65 kb and contains 20 exons. The exon organization...... of the mouse entactin gene closely corresponds to the organization of the polypeptide into distinct structural and functional domains. The two amino-terminal globular domains are encoded by three exons each. Single exons encode the two protease-sensitive, O-glycosylated linking regions. The six EGF......-like repeats and the single thyroglobulin-type repeat are each encoded by separate exons. The carboxyl-terminal half of entactin displays sequence homology to the growth factor-like region of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, and in both genes this region is encoded by eight exons. The positions of four...

  9. δ-Opioid receptors in the accumbens shell mediate the influence of both excitatory and inhibitory predictions on choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Vincent; Wong, Felix L; Balleine, Bernard W

    2015-01-01

    Stimuli that predict rewarding events can control choice between future actions, and this control could be mediated by δ-opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-S). Stimuli predicting the absence of important events can also guide choice, although it remains unknown whether they do so via changes in an accumbal δ-opioid receptor-related process. δ-opioid receptor-eGFP mice were trained to perform two instrumental actions that delivered different food outcomes. Choice between the two actions was then tested in the presence of stimuli paired with either the delivery or the non-delivery of each of the two outcomes. Bilateral infusions of the δ-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole into the NAc-S were used to determine the role of these receptors at the time of choice and δ-opioid receptor expression in the NAc-S used to assess functional activity. A stimulus predicting a specific outcome biased choice performance towards the action previously earning that same outcome. In contrast, a stimulus signalling the absence of that outcome biased performance away from the action that delivered that outcome towards actions associated with the absence of that outcome. Both effects were associated with increased δ-opioid receptor expression on the membrane of cholinergic interneurons within the NAc-S. Furthermore, both effects were blocked by naltrindole infused into the NAc-S. These findings suggest that δ-opioid receptors in the NAc-S were involved in the effects of predictive learning on choice between actions, whether those predictions involve the presence or absence of specific rewarding events. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. In vivo antinociception of potent mu opioid agonist tetrapeptide analogues and comparison with a compact opioid agonist - neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist chimera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillemyn Karel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important limiting factor in the development of centrally acting pharmaceuticals is the blood-brain barrier (BBB. Transport of therapeutic peptides through this highly protective physiological barrier remains a challenge for peptide drug delivery into the central nervous system (CNS. Because the most common strategy to treat moderate to severe pain consists of the activation of opioid receptors in the brain, the development of active opioid peptide analogues as potential analgesics requires compounds with a high resistance to enzymatic degradation and an ability to cross the BBB. Results Herein we report that tetrapeptide analogues of the type H-Dmt1-Xxx2-Yyy3-Gly4-NH2 are transported into the brain after intravenous and subcutaneous administration and are able to activate the μ- and δ opioid receptors more efficiently and over longer periods of time than morphine. Using the hot water tail flick test as the animal model for antinociception, a comparison in potency is presented between a side chain conformationally constrained analogue containing the benzazepine ring (BVD03, Yyy3: Aba, and a "ring opened" analogue (BVD02, Yyy3: Phe. The results show that in addition to the increased lipophilicity through amide bond N-methylation, the conformational constraint introduced at the level of the Phe3 side chain causes a prolonged antinociception. Further replacement of NMe-D-Ala2 by D-Arg2 in the tetrapeptide sequence led to an improved potency as demonstrated by a higher and maintained antinociception for AN81 (Xxx2: D-Arg vs. BVD03 (Xxx2: NMe-D-Ala. A daily injection of the studied opioid ligands over a time period of 5 days did however result in a substantial decrease in antinociception on the fifth day of the experiment. The compact opioid agonist - NK1 antagonist hybrid SBCHM01 could not circumvent opioid induced tolerance. Conclusions We demonstrated that the introduction of a conformational constraint has an important

  11. mu-Opioid receptor-independent fashion of the suppression of sodium currents by mu-opioid analgesics in thalamic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Keisuke; Amano, Taku; Kasakura, Akiko; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro; Sakai, Norio; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Narita, Minoru

    2009-03-27

    Most reports in the literature have shown that the effects of opioid analgesics are primarily mediated by mu-opioid receptor (MOR), whereas other potential targets of opioid analgesics have not been thoroughly characterized. In this study, we found that extracellular application of morphine, fentanyl or oxycodone, which are all considered to be MOR agonists, at relatively high concentrations, but not endogenous mu-opioid peptides, produced a concentration-dependent suppression of sodium currents in cultured thalamic neurons. These effects of opioids were not affected by either a MOR antagonist naloxone or a deletion of MOR gene. Among these opioids, fentanyl strongly suppressed sodium currents to the same degree as lidocaine, and both morphine and oxycodone slightly but significantly reduced sodium currents when they were present extracellularly. In contrast, the intracellular application of morphine, but not oxycodone, fentanyl or lidocaine, reduced sodium currents. These results suggest that morphine, fentanyl and oxycodone each produce the MOR-independent suppression of sodium currents by distinct mechanisms in thalamic neurons.

  12. Evaluation of [{sup 125}I]7{alpha}-O-iodoally diprenophine as a new potential SPECT opioid receptor imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.F.; Tafani, J.A.M.; Frances, B.; Bergon, M.; Coulais, Y.; Zajac, J. M.; Guiraud, R

    1997-08-01

    A new iodinated diprenorphine analog, [{sup 125}I]7{alpha}-O-iodoallyl diprenorphine ([{sup 125}I]7{alpha}-O-IA-DPN), was prepared by iododestannylation and characterized. As an opioid antagonist, this agent showed very high affinity (K{sub i} = 0.4 {+-} 0.2 nM) and 63% of specific binding by in vitro and in vivo binding studies. Inhibition curves indicated that this tracer labeled with the same affinities to three opioid receptors ({mu} = {delta} = {kappa}). The findings demonstrate that this proposed compound appears to be a potential radioprobe for future study of opioid receptors by in vivo SPECT.

  13. Specific binding of a ligand of sigma-opioid receptors - N-allylnormetazocine (SKF 10047) - with liver membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samovilova, N.N.; Yarygin, K.N.; Vinogradov, V.A.

    1986-08-01

    A ligand of the sigma-opioid receptors - N-allylnormetazocine (SKF 10047) -binds specifically and reversible with rat liver membranes. In relation to a number of properties, the sites binding SKF 10047 in the liver are similar to the sigma-opioid receptors of the central nervous system. They do not interact with classical opiates (morphine, naloxone) and with opioid peptides, but bind well benzomorphans (bremazocine, SKF 10047) and a number of compounds of different chemical structures with a pronounced psychtropic action (haloperidol, imipramine, phencyclidine, etc.).

  14. Endomorphins 1 and 2, endogenous mu-opioid receptor agonists, impair passive avoidance learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, M; Watanabe, Y; Kameyama, T

    2001-06-08

    The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2, endogenous mu-opioid receptor agonists, on passive avoidance learning associated with long-term memory were investigated in mice. Endomorphin-1 (10 and 17.5 microg) and endomorphin-2 (17.5 microg) produced a significant decrease in step-down latency in a passive avoidance learning task. beta-Funaltrexamine (5 microg) almost completely reversed the endomorphin-1 (17.5 microg)- and endomorphin-2 (17.5 microg)-induced shortening of step-down latency, although neither naltrindole (4 ng) nor nor-binaltorphimine (4 microg) produced any significant effects on the effects of endomorphins 1 and 2. These results suggest that endomorphins 1 and 2 impair long-term memory through the mediation of mu-opioid receptors in the brain.

  15. Hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets due to deletion of exon 3 of the vitamin D receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rut, A.R.; O`Riordan, J.L.H.; Hughes, M.R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary vitamin D resistant rickets is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe rickets, hypolcalcaemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and occasionally, the absence of body hair. The pathological process involves resistance of target tissues to the actions of calcitriol [1,25(OH{sub 2}D{sub 3})], the hormonal form of vitamin D. Calcitriol mediates its actions through a nuclear receptor (VDR) which has been cloned and shown to be a member of the superfamily of steriod/thyroid/retinoic acid receptors. Skin fibroblasts were obtained from a Greek child with characteristic features of the condition. Total RNA was extracted from rapidly dividing cells and reverse transcribed. The coding region was amplified by PCR with primers 31a in the 5{prime} untranslated region and 31b in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the VDR cDNA sequence. The 5{prime} and 3{prime} halves of VDR were further amplified using primers tagged with M13 forward and reverse primer sequences. The whole process was carried out in duplicate starting with RNA. Sequence data was obtained using Taq dye primer cycle sequencing (ABI). Agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that the 5{prime} product was approximately 100 bp shorter than control. This was confirmed by sequencing which demonstrated a 131 bp deletion of the C-terminal part of the DNA binding domain (bases 147-277). Bases 147-277 are coded for by exon 3 and this deletion is bounded by the splice junctions. This is the first report of a deletion in VDR in any patient with vitamin D-resistant rickets. Such a deletion not only removes the second zinc finger but also results in a frameshift that corrupts the remainder of the receptor. Such a deletion may have arisen as a result of a microdeletion of genomic DNA or, more likely, as a result of defective splicing.

  16. Ultrastructural relationship between the mu opioid receptor and its interacting protein, GPR177, in striatal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, Arith-Ruth S.; Levenson, Robert; Berrettini, Wade; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    GPR177, the mammalian ortholog of Drosophila Wntless/Evi/Sprinter, was recently identified as a novel mu-opioid receptor (MOR) interacting protein. GPR177 is a trans-membrane protein pivotal to mediating the secretion of Wnt signaling proteins. Wnt proteins, in turn, are essential in regulating neuronal development, a phenomenon inhibited upon chronic exposure to MOR agonists such as morphine and heroin. We previously showed that GPR177 and MOR are co-localized in the mouse dorsolateral stria...

  17. Evidence of Endogenous Mu Opioid Receptor Regulation by Epigenetic Control of the Promoters▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Cheol Kyu; Song, Kyu Young; Kim, Chun Sung; Choi, Hack Sun; Guo, Xiao-Hong; Law, Ping-Yee; Wei, Li-Na; Loh, Horace H.

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacological effect of morphine as a painkiller is mediated mainly via the mu opioid receptor (MOR) and is dependent on the number of MORs in the cell surface membrane. While several studies have reported that the MOR gene is regulated by various cis- and trans-acting factors, many questions remain unanswered regarding in vivo regulation. The present study shows that epigenetic silencing and activation of the MOR gene are achieved through coordinated regulation at both the histone and ...

  18. Bioorthogonal click chemistry to assay mu-opioid receptor palmitoylation using 15-hexadecynoic acid and immunoprecipitation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a modification of bioorthogonal click chemistry to assay the palmitoylation of cellular proteins. This assay utilizes 15-hexadecynoic acid (15-HDYA) as a chemical probe in combination with protein immunoprecipitation using magnetic beads in order to detect S-palmitoylation of proteins of interest. Here we demonstrate the utility of this approach for the mu-opioid receptor (MOR), a GPCR responsible for mediating the analgesic and addictive properties of most clinically releva...

  19. Synthetic studies of neoclerodane diterpenes from Salvia divinorum: preparation and opioid receptor activity of salvinicin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Denise S; Katavic, Peter L; Lozama, Anthony; Harding, Wayne W; Parrish, Damon; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Dersch, Christina M; Partilla, John S; Rothman, Richard B; Navarro, Hernan; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2007-07-26

    Further modification of salvinorin A (1a), the major active component of Salvia divinorum, has resulted in the synthesis of novel neoclerodane diterpenes with opioid receptor affinity and activity. We report in this study that oxadiazole 11a and salvidivin A (12a), a photooxygenation product of 1a, have been identified as the first neoclerodane diterpenes with kappa antagonist activity. This indicates that additional structural modifications of 1a may lead to analogues with higher potency and utility as drug abuse medications.

  20. Early role of the κ opioid receptor in ethanol-induced reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Acevedo, Ma Belén; Spear, Norman E

    2012-03-20

    Effects of early ethanol exposure on later ethanol intake emphasize the importance of understanding the neurobiology of ethanol-induced reinforcement early in life. Infant rats exhibit ethanol-induced appetitive conditioning and ethanol-induced locomotor activation, which have been linked in theory and may have mechanisms in common. The appetitive effects of ethanol are significantly modulated by μ and δ opioid receptors, whereas μ but not δ receptors are involved in the motor stimulant effects of ethanol during early development. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system in the motivational effects of ethanol has been much less explored. The present study assessed, in preweanling (infant) rats, the modulatory role of the KOR system in several paradigms sensitive to ethanol-induced reinforcement. Kappa opioid activation and blockade were examined in second-order conditioned place preference with varied timing before conditioning and with varied ethanol doses. The role of KOR on ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol-induced taste conditioning was also explored. The experiments were based on the assumption that ethanol concurrently induces appetitive and aversive effects and that the latter may be mediated by activation of kappa receptors. The main result was that blockade of kappa function facilitated the expression of appetitive ethanol reinforcement in terms of tactile and taste conditioning. The effects of kappa activation on ethanol conditioning seemed to be independent from ethanol's stimulant effects. Kappa opioid activation potentiated the motor depressing effects of ethanol but enhanced motor activity in control subjects. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a reduced function of the KOR system in nondependent subjects should attenuate the aversive consequences of ethanol.

  1. Toll-like receptor 9 is required for opioid-induced microglia apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei He

    Full Text Available Opioids have been widely applied in clinics as one of the most potent pain relievers for centuries, but their abuse has deleterious physiological effects beyond addiction. However, the underlying mechanism by which microglia in response to opioids remains largely unknown. Here we show that morphine induces the expression of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9, a key mediator of innate immunity and inflammation. Interestingly, TLR9 deficiency significantly inhibited morphine-induced apoptosis in microglia. Similar results were obtained when endogenous TLR9 expression was suppressed by the TLR9 inhibitor CpGODN. Inhibition of p38 MAPK by its specific inhibitor SB203580 attenuated morphine-induced microglia apoptosis in wild type microglia. Morphine caused a dramatic decrease in Bcl-2 level but increase in Bax level in wild type microglia, but not in TLR9 deficient microglia. In addition, morphine treatment failed to induce an increased levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and MAP kinase kinase 3/6 (MKK3/6, the upstream MAPK kinase of p38 MAPK, in either TLR9 deficient or µ-opioid receptor (µOR deficient primary microglia, suggesting an involvement of MAPK and µOR in morphine-mediated TLR9 signaling. Moreover, morphine-induced TLR9 expression and microglia apoptosis appears to require μOR. Collectively, these results reveal that opioids prime microglia to undergo apoptosis through TLR9 and µOR as well. Taken together, our data suggest that inhibition of TLR9 and/or blockage of µOR is capable of preventing opioid-induced brain damage.

  2. It's MORe exciting than mu: crosstalk between mu opioid receptors and glutamatergic transmission in the mesolimbic dopamine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartoff, Elena H; Connery, Hilary S

    2014-01-01

    Opioids selective for the G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor (MOR) produce potent analgesia and euphoria. Heroin, a synthetic opioid, is considered one of the most addictive substances, and the recent exponential rise in opioid addiction and overdose deaths has made treatment development a national public health priority. Existing medications (methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone), when combined with psychosocial therapies, have proven efficacy in reducing aspects of opioid addiction. Unfortunately, these medications have critical limitations including those associated with opioid agonist therapies (e.g., sustained physiological dependence and opioid withdrawal leading to high relapse rates upon discontinuation), non-adherence to daily dosing, and non-renewal of monthly injection with extended-release naltrexone. Furthermore, current medications fail to ameliorate key aspects of addiction such as powerful conditioned associations that trigger relapse (e.g., cues, stress, the drug itself). Thus, there is a need for developing novel treatments that target neural processes corrupted with chronic opioid use. This requires a basic understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying effects of opioids on synaptic transmission and plasticity within reward-related neural circuits. The focus of this review is to discuss how crosstalk between MOR-associated G protein signaling and glutamatergic neurotransmission leads to immediate and long-term effects on emotional states (e.g., euphoria, depression) and motivated behavior (e.g., drug-seeking, relapse). Our goal is to integrate findings on how opioids modulate synaptic release of glutamate and postsynaptic transmission via α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area with the clinical (neurobehavioral) progression of opioid dependence, as well as to identify gaps in knowledge that can be addressed in future studies.

  3. Crystal structure of the[mu]-opioid receptor bound to a morphinan antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Mathiesen, Jesper M.; Sunahara, Roger K.; Pardo, Leonardo; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K.; Granier, Sébastien (Michigan-Med); (Stanford-MED); (UAB, Spain)

    2012-06-27

    Opium is one of the world's oldest drugs, and its derivatives morphine and codeine are among the most used clinical drugs to relieve severe pain. These prototypical opioids produce analgesia as well as many undesirable side effects (sedation, apnoea and dependence) by binding to and activating the G-protein-coupled {mu}-opioid receptor ({mu}-OR) in the central nervous system. Here we describe the 2.8 {angstrom} crystal structure of the mouse {mu}-OR in complex with an irreversible morphinan antagonist. Compared to the buried binding pocket observed in most G-protein-coupled receptors published so far, the morphinan ligand binds deeply within a large solvent-exposed pocket. Of particular interest, the {mu}-OR crystallizes as a two-fold symmetrical dimer through a four-helix bundle motif formed by transmembrane segments 5 and 6. These high-resolution insights into opioid receptor structure will enable the application of structure-based approaches to develop better drugs for the management of pain and addiction.

  4. Intracerebroventricular administration of morphine confers remote cardioprotection--role of opioid receptors and calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Irwin, Michael G; Lu, Yao; Mei, Bin; Zuo, You-Mei; Chen, Zhi-Wu; Wong, Tak-Ming

    2011-04-10

    The current study aimed to delineate the mechanism of remote preconditioning by intracerebroventricular morphine (RMPC) against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intracerebroventricular morphine injection before myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was achieved by 30min of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 120min of reperfusion. The effects of remote preconditioning by intracerebroventricular morphine preconditioning were also determined upon selective blockade of the δ, κ or μ-opioid receptors, or calmodulin (CaM). The infarct size, as a percentage of the area at risk, was determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium staining. Remote preconditioning by intracerebroventricular morphine reduced infarct size in the ischemic/reperfused myocardium, and the effect was abolished by the selective blockade of any one of the three δ, κ and μ opioid receptors or CaM. Furthermore, remote preconditioning by intracerebroventricular morphine increased the expression of CaM in the hippocampus and the plasma level of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The results of the present study provide evidence that the cardioprotection of remote preconditioning by intracerebroventricular morphine involves not only all three types of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, but also CaM, which releases CGRP, one of the mediators of remote preconditioning.

  5. Neuropeptide FF receptors exhibit direct and anti-opioid effects on mice dorsal raphe nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-05

    By using acutely dissociated dorsal raphe nucleus neurons (DRN) from young mice, direct and anti-opioid effects of Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors were measured. The NPFF analog 1 DMe (10 µM) had no effect on resting Ca2+ channels but reduced the magnitude of Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization in 83.3% neurons tested, of which the inhibition rate is 45.4±2.9%. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced to 18.9% the number of responding neurons and attenuated by 47% the response of 1 DMe. In contrast, cholera toxin treatment had no significant effect. Eighteen minute perfusion with 1 DMe at a very low 10 nM concentration, that did not directly inhibit Ca2+ transients triggered by depolarization in every neuron, attenuated by 78% the inhibitory effect of Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) on Ca2+ transients, but not that of by serotonin. These results demonstrated for the first time that NPFF receptors on mice DRN inhibit Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization via Gi/o protein and also exhibit a specific anti-opioid activity on nociceptin receptors, and that their specific anti-opioid activity is not a direct consequence of their activity on Ca2+ transients.

  6. Heterologous activation of protein kinase C stimulates phosphorylation of delta-opioid receptor at serine 344, resulting in beta-arrestin- and clathrin-mediated receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiang, B; Yu, G H; Guo, J

    2001-01-01

    , and ionomycin resulted in DOR internalization that required phosphorylation of Ser-344. Expression of dominant negative beta-arrestin and hypertonic sucrose treatment blocked PMA-induced DOR internalization, suggesting that PKC mediates DOR internalization via a beta-arrestin- and clathrin-dependent mechanism......The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effect of opioid-independent, heterologous activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on the responsiveness of opioid receptor and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our result showed that removing the C terminus of delta opioid receptor (DOR...... phosphorylation could inhibit PKC-catalyzed heterologous DOR phosphorylation and subsequent internalization. These data demonstrate that the responsiveness of opioid receptor is regulated by both PKC and GRK through agonist-dependent and agonist-independent mechanisms and PKC-mediated receptor phosphorylation...

  7. Chronic Morphine Reduces Surface Expression of δ-Opioid Receptors in Subregions of Rostral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah, Paul M; Heath, Emily M L; Balleine, Bernard W; Christie, Macdonald J

    2016-03-01

    The delta opioid receptor (DOPr), whilst not the primary target of clinically used opioids, is involved in development of opioid tolerance and addiction. There is growing evidence that DOPr trafficking is involved in drug addiction, e.g., a range of studies have shown increased plasma membrane DOPr insertion during chronic treatment with opioids. The present study used a transgenic mouse model in which the C-terminal of the DOPr is tagged with enhanced-green fluorescence protein to examine the effects of chronic morphine treatment on surface membrane expression in striatal cholinergic interneurons that are implicated in motivated learning following both chronic morphine and morphine sensitization treatment schedules in male mice. A sex difference was noted throughout the anterior striatum, which was most prominent in the nucleus accumbens core region. Incontrast with previous studies in other neurons, chronic exposure to a high dose of morphine for 6 days had no effect, or slightly decreased (anterior dorsolateral striatum) surface DOPr expression. A morphine sensitization schedule produced similar results with a significant decrease in surface DOPr expression in nucleus accumbens shell. These results suggest that chronic morphine and morphine sensitisation treatment may have effects on instrumental reward-seeking behaviours and learning processes related to drug addiction, via effects on striatal DOPr function.

  8. Brain delta2 opioid receptors mediate SNC-80-evoked hypothermia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Scott Manning; Hewson, Jennifer Marie; Inan, Saadet; Cowan, Alan

    2005-07-05

    Despite insights into an increasingly significant role for delta opioid receptors in thermoregulation, it is unclear whether delta receptors located in the brain or periphery play the more critical role in body temperature regulation. Moreover, it is not entirely clear which delta receptor phenotype, delta1 or delta2, mediates the hypothermic actions of delta agonists. Because SNC-80 distributes into central and peripheral compartments and produces rapid hypothermia following systemic injection, the nonpeptide delta agonist is particularly useful in discriminating the site of action of delta receptor-mediated hypothermia. To determine the locus and phenotype of delta receptor which mediates SNC-80-induced hypothermia, we injected SNC-80 and phenotype selective delta antagonists to male Sprague-Dawley rats. SNC-80 (10-50 mg/kg, im) evoked hypothermia that peaked 30 min post-injection. Naltrexone (5 mg/kg, sc), an opioid antagonist, or naltrindole (5 mg/kg, sc), a delta antagonist, blocked the hypothermic response to SNC-80 (35 mg/kg, im). The hypothermia caused by SNC-80 (35 mg/kg, im) was blocked by a delta2 antagonist, naltriben (2.5 mg/kg, sc), but was not affected by BNTX (5 and 10 mg/kg, sc), a delta1 antagonist. The administration of naltriben (10 microg/rat, icv) 30 min before SNC-80 (35 mg/kg, im) prevented SNC-80-evoked hypothermia. In contrast, methylnaltrexone (5 mg/kg, sc), a peripherally restricted opioid antagonist, did not affect the hypothermia caused by SNC-80. The present data demonstrate that selective activation of brain delta2 receptors is a major mechanism of SNC-80-evoked hypothermia in rats.

  9. The Mu opioid receptor promotes opioid and growth factor-induced proliferation, migration and Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT in human lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E Lennon

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiologic studies implying differences in cancer recurrence based on anesthetic regimens raise the possibility that the mu opioid receptor (MOR can influence cancer progression. Based on our previous observations that overexpression of MOR in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells increased tumor growth and metastasis, this study examined whether MOR regulates growth factor receptor signaling and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT in human NSCLC cells. We utilized specific siRNA, shRNA, chemical inhibitors and overexpression vectors in human H358 NSCLC cells that were either untreated or treated with various concentrations of DAMGO, morphine, fentanyl, EGF or IGF. Cell function assays, immunoblot and immunoprecipitation assays were then performed. Our results indicate MOR regulates opioid and growth factor-induced EGF receptor signaling (Src, Gab-1, PI3K, Akt and STAT3 activation which is crucial for consequent human NSCLC cell proliferation and migration. In addition, human NSCLC cells treated with opioids, growth factors or MOR overexpression exhibited an increase in snail, slug and vimentin and decrease ZO-1 and claudin-1 protein levels, results consistent with an EMT phenotype. Further, these effects were reversed with silencing (shRNA or chemical inhibition of MOR, Src, Gab-1, PI3K, Akt and STAT3 (p<0.05. Our data suggest a possible direct effect of MOR on opioid and growth factor-signaling and consequent proliferation, migration and EMT transition during lung cancer progression. Such an effect provides a plausible explanation for the epidemiologic findings.

  10. Activation of μ-opioid receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 by plasma from morphine-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Nan; Gomes, Fabio P; Deora, Vandana; Gregory, Kye; Vithanage, Tharindu; Nassar, Zeyad D; Cabot, Peter J; Sturgess, David; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we quantified the ability of opioids present in biological samples to activate the μ-opioid receptor and TLR4 using cell-based assays. Each assay was standardised, in the presence of plasma, using morphine, its μ receptor-active metabolite morphine-6 glucuronide (M6G) and its μ receptor-inactive, but TLR4-active metabolite morphine-3 glucuronide (M3G). Specificity was verified using antagonists. Morphine- and M6G-spiked plasma samples exhibited μ receptor activation, which M3G-spiked plasma lacked. In contrast, M3G showed moderate but consistent activation of TLR-4. Plasma samples were collected at a number of time points from mice administered morphine (1 or 10mg/kg every 12h for 3days) or saline. Morphine administration led to intermittent μ receptor activation, reversed by μ receptor antagonists, and to TRL4 activation at time points where M3G is measured in plasma. Interestingly, this protocol of morphine administration also led to TLR4-independent NF-κB activation, at time points where M3G was not detected, presumably via elevation of circulating cytokines including, but not limited to, TNFα. Circulating TNFα was increased after three days of morphine administration, and TNFα mRNA elevated in the spleen of morphine-treated mice.

  11. A novel, potent, oral active and safe antinociceptive pyrazole targeting kappa opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus F; Walker, Cristiani I B; Oliveira, Sara M; Rosa, Fernanda; Tonello, Raquel; Silva, Cássia R; Machado, Pablo; Boligon, Aline A; Martins, Marcos A P; Zanatta, Nilo; Bonacorso, Hélio G; Athayde, Margareth L; Rubin, Maribel A; Calixto, João B; Ferreira, Juliano

    2013-10-01

    Pyrazole compounds are an intriguing class of compounds with potential analgesic activity; however, their mechanism of action remains unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to explore the antinociceptive potential, safety and mechanism of action of novel 1-pyrazole methyl ester derivatives, which were designed by molecular simplification, using in vivo and in vitro methods in mice. First, tree 1-pyrazole methyl ester derivatives (DMPE, MPFE, and MPCIE) were tested in the capsaicin test and all presented antinociceptive effect; however the MPClE (methyl 5-trichloromethyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazole-1-carboxylate) was the most effective. Thus, we selected this compound to assess the effects and mechanisms in subsequent pain models. MPCIE produced antinociception when administered by oral, intraperitoneal, intrathecal and intraplantar routes and was effective in the capsaicin and the acetic acid-induced nociception tests. Moreover, this compound reduced the hyperalgesia in diverse clinically-relevant pain models, including postoperative, inflammatory, and neuropathic nociception in mice. The antinociception produced by orally administered MPClE was mediated by κ-opioid receptors, since these effects were prevented by systemically pre-treatment with naloxone and the κ-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. Moreover, MPCIE prevented binding of the κ-opioid ligand [(3)H]-CI-977 in vitro (IC₅₀ of 0.68 (0.32-1.4) μM), but not the TRPV1 ([(3)H]-resiniferatoxin) or the α₂-adrenoreceptor ([(3)H]-idazoxan) binding. Regarding the drug-induced side effects, oral administration of MPClE did not produce sedation, constipation or motor impairment at its active dose. In addition, MPCIE was readily absorbed after oral administration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MPClE is a novel, potent, orally active and safe analgesic drug that targets κ-opioid receptors.

  12. Effects of kappa opioid receptor-selective agonists on responses of pelvic nerve afferents to noxious colorectal distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, X; Sengupta, J N; Gebhart, G F

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of kappa-opioid receptor selective agonists on responses of mechanosensitive afferent fibers in the pelvic nerve. Single-fiber recordings were made from pelvic nerve afferents in the decentralized S1 dorsal root of the rat. A total of 572 afferent fibers in the S1 dorsal root were identified by electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve; 252 (44%) responded to noxious colorectal distension (CRD; 80 mmHg). Of these 252 fibers that responded to CRD, 100 were studied further. All 100 fibers gave monotonic increases in firing to increasing pressures of CRD. Eighty-eight fibers had low thresholds for response (mean: 3 mmHg) and 12 fibers had high-thresholds for response (mean: 28 mmHg). Responses of 17 fibers also were tested after instillation of 5% mustard oil (MO) into the colon. The resting activity of 16/17 fibers significantly increased after MO instillation; 13 (77%) also exhibited sensitization of responses to graded CRD when tested 30 min after intracolonic MO instillation. The effects of kappa1-opioid receptor preferring agonists (U50,488H, U69,593 and U62,066), the kappa2-opioid receptor preferring agonist bremazocine, and the kappa3-opioid receptor preferring agonist naloxone benzoylhydrazone (nalBzoH) were tested on responses of 64 mechanosensitive afferent fibers to noxious CRD. All five agonists dose-dependently inhibited afferent fiber responses to noxious CRD. Doses producing inhibition to 50% of the control response to CRD did not differ among the five agonists, ranging from approximately 4 to 15 mg/kg. The effects of kappa1, kappa2, and kappa3 receptor agonists were attenuated by naloxone; two kappa-opioid receptor-selective antagonists were ineffective. There were no differences in the dose-response relationships of these drugs for fibers recorded from untreated and irritant-treated colons. Conduction velocities of the fibers remained unaffected after high doses of all tested agonists. In an in vitro

  13. Membrane glycoprotein M6A promotes μ-opioid receptor endocytosis and facilitates receptor sorting into the recycling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Jian Liang; Dai-Fei Wu; Ralf Stumm; Volker H(o)llt; Thomas Koch

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) with the neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6a is known to facilitate MOPr endocytosis in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. To further study the role of M6a in the post-endocytotic sorting of MOPr, we investigated the agonist-induced co-internalization of MOPr and M6a and protein targeting after internalization in HEK293 cells that co-expressed HA-tagged MOPr and Myc-tagged M6a. We found that M6a, MOPr, and Rab 11, a marker for recycling endosomes, co-localized in endocytotic vesicles, indicating that MOPr and M6a are primarily targeted to recycling endosomes after endocytosis. Furthermore, co-expression of M6a augmented the post-endocytotic sorting of δ-opioid receptors into the recycling pathway, indicating that M6a might have a more general role in opioid receptor post-ndocytotic sorting. The enhanced post-endocytotic sorting of MOPr into the recycling pathway was accompanied by a decrease in agonist-induced receptor down-regulation of M6a in co-expressing cells. We tested the physiological relevance of these findings in primary cultures of cortical neurons and found that co-expression of M6a markedly increased the translocation of MOPrs from the plasma membrane to intracellular vesicles at steady state and significantly enhanced both constitutive and agonist-induced receptor endocytosis. In conclusion, our results strongly indicate that M6a modulates MOPr endocytosis and post-endocytotic sorting and has an important role in receptor regulation.

  14. Redefining the structure-activity relationships of 2,6-methano-3-benzazocines. 5. Opioid receptor binding properties of N-((4'-phenyl)-phenethyl) analogues of 8-CAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanAlstine, Melissa A; Wentland, Mark P; Cohen, Dana J; Bidlack, Jean M

    2007-12-01

    A series of aryl-containing N-monosubstituted analogues of the lead compound 8-[N-((4'-phenyl)-phenethyl)]-carboxamidocyclazocine were synthesized and evaluated to probe a putative hydrophobic binding pocket of opioid receptors. Very high binding affinity to the mu opioid receptor was achieved though the N-(2-(4'-methoxybiphenyl-4-yl)ethyl) analogue of 8-CAC. High binding affinity to mu and very high binding affinity to kappa opioid receptors was observed for the N-(3-bromophenethyl) analogue of 8-CAC. High binding affinity to all three opioid receptors were observed for the N-(2-naphthylethyl) analogue of 8-CAC.

  15. Role of kinin B2 receptors in opioid-induced hyperalgesia in inflammatory pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grastilleur, Sébastien; Mouledous, Lionel; Bedel, Jerome; Etcheverry, Jonathan; Bader, Michael; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Fourcade, Olivier; Frances, Bernard; Minville, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    Postoperative pain management is a clinical challenge that can be complicated by opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Kinin receptors could mediate both the acute and chronic phases of inflammation and pain. A few recent studies suggest that dynorphin A could maintain neuropathic pain by activating the bradykinin (BK) receptor. Thus, the effect of a single administration of sufentanil (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) was investigated in a model of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain using three strains of mice, i.e., knockout mice for one kinin receptor, B1R or B2R (B1KO, B2KO), and wild-type C57/BL6J mice (WT) treated with either a B1R (R954) or a B2R antagonist (HOE140) or a KKS inhibitor (aprotinin). Pain was assessed and compared between the different groups using two behavioral tests exploring mechanical (von Frey filaments) and thermal (Hargreaves test) sensitivity. Pretreatment with sufentanil induced a sustained increase in pain sensitivity with a delayed return to baseline values characterizing an OIH in carrageenan-injected mice only. Sufentanil-induced OIH was not observed in B2KO but persisted in B1KO and was blunted by aprotinin and the B2R antagonist only. Collectively, our data indicate that the B2R receptor and BK synthesis or availability are essential peripheral steps in the mechanism leading to OIH in a pain context.

  16. YFa and analogs: Investigation of opioid receptors in smooth muscle contraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krishan Kumar; Ritika Goyal; Annu Mudgal; Anita Mohan; Santosh Pasha

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the pharmacological profile and inhibition of smooth muscle contraction by YFa and its analogs in conjunction with their receptor selectivity. METHODS: The effects of YFa and its analogs (D-Ala2) YFa, Y (D-Ala2) GFMKKKFMRF amide and Des-Phe- YGGFMKKKFMR amide in guinea pig ileum (GPI) and mouse vas deferens (MVD) motility were studied using an isolated tissue organ bath system, and morphine and DynA (1-13) served as controls. Acetylcholine was used for muscle stimulation. The observations were validated by specific antagonist pretreatment experiments using naloxonazine, naltrindole and norbinaltorphimine norBNI. RESULTS: YFa did not demonstrate significant inhibition of GPI muscle contraction as compared with morphine (15% vs 62%, P = 0.0002), but moderate inhibition of MVD muscle contraction, indicating the role of κ opioid receptors in the contraction. A moderate inhibition of GPI muscles by (Des-Phe) YFa revealed the role of anti-opiate receptors in the smooth muscle contraction. (D-Ala-2) YFa showed significant inhibition of smooth muscle contraction, indicating the involvement of mainly d receptors in MVD contraction. These results were supported by specific antagonist pretreatment assays. CONCLUSION: YFa revealed its side-effect-free analgesic properties with regard to arrest of gastrointestinal transit. The study provides evidences for the involvement of κ and anti-opioid receptors in smooth muscle contraction.

  17. In Vitro Opioid Receptor Affinity and in Vivo Behavioral Studies of Nelumbo nucifera Flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarihamy, Mallika; León, Francisco; Pettaway, Sara; Wilson, Lisa; Lambert, Janet A.; Wang, Mei; Hill, Christopher; McCurdy, Christopher R.; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Cutler, Stephen J.; Muhammad, Ilias

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Nelumbo nucifera Geartn., known as sacred lotus, has been used traditionally in South East Asia as a traditional medicine for various CNS disorders including stress, fever, depression, insomnia, and cognitive conditions. Aim of the study To investigate the in vitro cannabinoid and opioid receptor binding affinities, and in vivo behavioral actions of Nelumbo flower extracts and to isolate the potential compounds to treat CNS associated disorders. Materials and methods The white and pink flowers of N. nucifera were extracted with 95% EtOH, followed by acid-base partitioning using CHCl3 to give acidic and basic partitions. These partitions were subjected to Centrifugal Preparative TLC (CPTLC) to yield benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline (BTIQ) alkaloids and long chain fatty acids, identified by physical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, EtOH extracts and partitions were analyzed for chemical markers by UHPLC/MS and GC/MS. In vitro neuropharmacological effects were evaluated by cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) and opioid [delta (δ), kappa (κ), and mu (μ)] competitive radioligand binding and GTPγS functional assays. The in vivo behavioral effect was studied through the use of the mouse tetrad assay at 10, 30, 75 and 100 mg/kg/ip doses that revealed the effect on locomotion, catalepsy, body temperature, and nociception of acidic and basic CHCl3 partitions, fractions, and compounds. Results Three aporphines, nuciferine (1), N-nor-nuciferine (2), asimilobine (3), and five BTIQs, armepavine (4), O-methylcoclaurine (5), N-methylcoclaurine (6), coclaurine (7), neferine (10), and a mixture of linoleic and palmitic acids (LA and PA), were identified and evaluated for cannabinoid and opioid receptor displacement activities. Compounds 5–7 showed binding affinities for the κ opioid receptor with equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) values of 3.5±0.3, 0.9±0.1, 2.2±0.2 µM, respectively. Compound 10 displayed affinities for δ-and μ- opioid

  18. Delta-opioid receptor analgesia is independent of microglial activation in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mika

    Full Text Available The analgesic effect of delta-opioid receptor (DOR ligands in neuropathic pain is not diminished in contrast to other opioid receptor ligands, which lose their effectiveness as analgesics. In this study, we examine whether this effect is related to nerve injury-induced microglial activation. We therefore investigated the influence of minocycline-induced inhibition of microglial activation on the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists: morphine, DAMGO, U50,488H, DPDPE, Deltorphin II and SNC80 after chronic constriction injury (CCI to the sciatic nerve in rats. Pre-emptive and repeated administration of minocycline (30 mg/kg, i.p. over 7 days significantly reduced allodynia and hyperalgesia as measured on day 7 after CCI. The antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of intrathecally (i.t. administered morphine (10-20 µg, DAMGO (1-2 µg and U50,488H (25-50 µg were significantly potentiated in rats after minocycline, but no such changes were observed after DPDPE (10-20 µg, deltorphin II (1.5-15 µg and SNC80 (10-20 µg administration. Additionally, nerve injury-induced down-regulation of all types of opioid receptors in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia was not influenced by minocycline, which indicates that the effects of opioid ligands are dependent on other changes, presumably neuroimmune interactions. Our study of rat primary microglial cell culture using qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of mu-opioid receptors (MOR and kappa-opioid receptors (KOR, further we provide the first evidence for the lack of DOR on microglial cells. In summary, DOR analgesia is different from analgesia induced by MOR and KOR receptors because it does not dependent on injury-induced microglial activation. DOR agonists appear to be the best candidates for new drugs to treat neuropathic pain.

  19. Delta-opioid receptor analgesia is independent of microglial activation in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Joanna; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Rojewska, Ewelina; Makuch, Wioletta; Starowicz, Katarzyna; Przewlocka, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The analgesic effect of delta-opioid receptor (DOR) ligands in neuropathic pain is not diminished in contrast to other opioid receptor ligands, which lose their effectiveness as analgesics. In this study, we examine whether this effect is related to nerve injury-induced microglial activation. We therefore investigated the influence of minocycline-induced inhibition of microglial activation on the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists: morphine, DAMGO, U50,488H, DPDPE, Deltorphin II and SNC80 after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve in rats. Pre-emptive and repeated administration of minocycline (30 mg/kg, i.p.) over 7 days significantly reduced allodynia and hyperalgesia as measured on day 7 after CCI. The antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of intrathecally (i.t.) administered morphine (10-20 µg), DAMGO (1-2 µg) and U50,488H (25-50 µg) were significantly potentiated in rats after minocycline, but no such changes were observed after DPDPE (10-20 µg), deltorphin II (1.5-15 µg) and SNC80 (10-20 µg) administration. Additionally, nerve injury-induced down-regulation of all types of opioid receptors in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia was not influenced by minocycline, which indicates that the effects of opioid ligands are dependent on other changes, presumably neuroimmune interactions. Our study of rat primary microglial cell culture using qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of mu-opioid receptors (MOR) and kappa-opioid receptors (KOR), further we provide the first evidence for the lack of DOR on microglial cells. In summary, DOR analgesia is different from analgesia induced by MOR and KOR receptors because it does not dependent on injury-induced microglial activation. DOR agonists appear to be the best candidates for new drugs to treat neuropathic pain.

  20. Delta-Opioid Receptor Analgesia Is Independent of Microglial Activation in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewska, Ewelina; Makuch, Wioletta; Starowicz, Katarzyna; Przewlocka, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The analgesic effect of delta-opioid receptor (DOR) ligands in neuropathic pain is not diminished in contrast to other opioid receptor ligands, which lose their effectiveness as analgesics. In this study, we examine whether this effect is related to nerve injury-induced microglial activation. We therefore investigated the influence of minocycline-induced inhibition of microglial activation on the analgesic effects of opioid receptor agonists: morphine, DAMGO, U50,488H, DPDPE, Deltorphin II and SNC80 after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve in rats. Pre-emptive and repeated administration of minocycline (30 mg/kg, i.p.) over 7 days significantly reduced allodynia and hyperalgesia as measured on day 7 after CCI. The antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of intrathecally (i.t.) administered morphine (10–20 µg), DAMGO (1–2 µg) and U50,488H (25–50 µg) were significantly potentiated in rats after minocycline, but no such changes were observed after DPDPE (10–20 µg), deltorphin II (1.5–15 µg) and SNC80 (10–20 µg) administration. Additionally, nerve injury-induced down-regulation of all types of opioid receptors in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia was not influenced by minocycline, which indicates that the effects of opioid ligands are dependent on other changes, presumably neuroimmune interactions. Our study of rat primary microglial cell culture using qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of mu-opioid receptors (MOR) and kappa-opioid receptors (KOR), further we provide the first evidence for the lack of DOR on microglial cells. In summary, DOR analgesia is different from analgesia induced by MOR and KOR receptors because it does not dependent on injury-induced microglial activation. DOR agonists appear to be the best candidates for new drugs to treat neuropathic pain. PMID:25105291

  1. Structure of the human [kappa]-opioid receptor in complex with JDTic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Huixian; Wacker, Daniel; Mileni, Mauro; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Vardy, Eyal; Liu, Wei; Thompson, Aaron A.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Carroll, F. Ivy; Mascarella, S. Wayne; Westkaemper, Richard B.; Mosier, Philip D.; Roth, Bryan L.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C. (VCU); (Scripps); (UNC); (Res. Tri. Inst.)

    2013-04-25

    Opioid receptors mediate the actions of endogenous and exogenous opioids on many physiological processes, including the regulation of pain, respiratory drive, mood, and - in the case of {kappa}-opioid receptor ({kappa}-OR) - dysphoria and psychotomimesis. Here we report the crystal structure of the human {kappa}-OR in complex with the selective antagonist JDTic, arranged in parallel dimers, at 2.9 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals important features of the ligand-binding pocket that contribute to the high affinity and subtype selectivity of JDTic for the human {kappa}-OR. Modelling of other important {kappa}-OR-selective ligands, including the morphinan-derived antagonists norbinaltorphimine and 5'-guanidinonaltrindole, and the diterpene agonist salvinorin A analogue RB-64, reveals both common and distinct features for binding these diverse chemotypes. Analysis of site-directed mutagenesis and ligand structure-activity relationships confirms the interactions observed in the crystal structure, thereby providing a molecular explanation for {kappa}-OR subtype selectivity, and essential insights for the design of compounds with new pharmacological properties targeting the human {kappa}-OR.

  2. Synthesis and in vivo brain distribution of carbon-11-labeled {delta}-opioid receptor agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichika, Rama, E-mail: rpichika@ucsd.ed [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Jewett, Douglas M.; Sherman, Philip S. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Traynor, John R. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Husbands, Stephen M. [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom); Woods, James H. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kilbourn, Michael R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Three new radiolabeled compounds, [{sup 11}C]SNC80 ((+)-4-[({alpha}R)-{alpha}-{l_brace}(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl{r_brace}-3-[{sup 11}C] methoxybenzyl-N,N-diethylbenzamide), N,N-diethyl-4-[3-methoxyphenyl-1-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidin-4-ylidenemethyl) benzamide and N,N-diethyl-4-[(1-[{sup 11}C]methylpiperidin-4-ylidene)phenylmethyl]benzamide, were prepared as potential in vivo radiotracers for the {delta}-opioid receptor. Each compound was synthesized by alkylation of the appropriate desmethyl compounds using [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate. In vivo biodistribution studies in mice showed very low initial brain uptake of all three compounds and no regional specific binding for [{sup 11}C]SNC80. A monkey positron emission tomography study of [{sup 11}C]SNC80 confirmed low brain permeability and uniform regional distribution of this class of opioid agonists in a higher species. Opioid receptor ligands of this structural class are thus unlikely to succeed as in vivo radiotracers, likely due to efficient exclusion from the brain by the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter.

  3. A role for the mu opioid receptor in the antidepressant effects of buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shivon A; Erickson, Rebecca L; Browne, Caroline A; Lucki, Irwin

    2017-02-15

    Buprenorphine (BPN), a mixed opioid drug with high affinity for mu (MOR) and kappa (KOR) opioid receptors, has been shown to produce behavioral responses in rodents that are similar to those of antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs. Although recent studies have identified KORs as a primary mediator of BPN's effects in rodent models of depressive-like behavior, the role of MORs in BPN's behavioral effects has not been as well explored. The current studies investigated the role of MORs in mediating conditioned approach behavior in the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) test, a behavioral measure previously shown to be sensitive to chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs. The effects of BPN were evaluated in the NIH test 24h post-administration in mice with genetic deletion of the MOR (Oprm1(-/-)) or KOR (Oprk1(-/-)), or after pharmacological blockade with the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and selective MOR antagonist cyprodime. We found that behavioral responses to BPN in the NIH test were blocked in Oprm1(-/-) mice, but not in Oprk1(-/-) mice. Both cyprodime and naltrexone significantly reduced approach latency at doses experimentally proven to antagonize the MOR. In contrast the selective MOR agonist morphine and the selective KOR antagonist nor-BNI were both ineffective. Moreover, antinociceptive studies revealed persistence of the MOR antagonist properties of BPN at 24h post-administration, the period of behavioral reactivity. These data support modulation of MOR activity as a key component of BPN's antidepressant-like effects in the NIH paradigm.

  4. The μ-opioid receptor gene and smoking initiation and nicotine dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendler Kenneth S

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The gene encoding the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1 is reported to be associated with a range of substance dependence. Experiments in knockout mice indicate that the mu-opioid receptor may mediate reinforcing effects of nicotine. In humans, opioid antagonist naltrexone may reduce the reinforcing effects of tobacco smoking. Additionally, the OPRM1 gene is located in a region showing linkage to nicotine dependence. The OPRM1 is thus a plausible candidate gene for smoking behavior. To investigate whether OPRM1 contributes to the susceptibility of smoking initiation and nicotine dependence, we genotyped 11 SNPs in the gene for 688 Caucasian subjects of lifetime smokers and nonsmokers. Three SNPs showed nominal significance for smoking initiation and one reached significance for nicotine dependence. The global test for three-marker (rs9479757-rs2075572-rs10485057 haplotypes was significant for smoking initiation (p = 0.0022. The same three-marker haplotype test was marginal (p = 0.0514 for nicotine dependence. These results suggest that OPRM1 may be involved in smoking initiation and nicotine dependence.

  5. Impact of chronic morphine on delta opioid receptor-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbs, E; Faget, L; Ceredig, R A; Matifas, A; Vonesch, J-L; Kieffer, B L; Massotte, D

    2016-01-28

    Delta opioid (DOP) receptors participate to the control of chronic pain and emotional responses. Recent data also identified their implication in spatial memory and drug-context associations pointing to a critical role of hippocampal delta receptors. To better appreciate the impact of repeated drug exposure on their modulatory activity, we used fluorescent knock-in mice that express a functional delta receptor fused at its carboxy-terminus with the green fluorescent protein in place of the native receptor. We then tested the impact of chronic morphine treatment on the density and distribution of delta receptor-expressing cells in the hippocampus. A decrease in delta receptor-positive cell density was observed in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus without alteration of the distribution across the different GABAergic populations that mainly express delta receptors. This effect partly persisted after four weeks of morphine abstinence. In addition, we observed increased DOP receptor expression at the cell surface compared to saline-treated animals. In the hippocampus, chronic morphine administration thus induces DOP receptor cellular redistribution and durably decreases delta receptor-expressing cell density. Such modifications are likely to alter hippocampal physiology, and to contribute to long-term cognitive deficits.

  6. Somatostatin and opioid receptors do not regulate proliferation or apoptosis of the human multiple myeloma U266 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allouche Stéphane

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background opioid and somatostatin receptors (SSTRs that can assemble as heterodimer were individually reported to modulate malignant cell proliferation and to favour apoptosis. Materials and methods: SSTRs and opioid receptors expression were examined by RT-PCR, western-blot and binding assays, cell proliferation was studied by XTT assay and propidium iodide (PI staining and apoptosis by annexin V-PI labelling. Results almost all human malignant haematological cell lines studied here expressed the five SSTRs. Further experiments were conducted on the human U266 multiple myeloma cells, which express also μ-opioid receptors (MOP-R. XTT assays and cell cycle studies provide no evidence for a significant effect upon opioid or somatostatin receptors stimulation. Furthermore, neither direct effect nor potentiation of the Fas-receptor pathway was detected on apoptosis after these treatments. Conclusion these data suggest that SSTRs or opioid receptors expression is not a guaranty for an anti-tumoral action in U266 cell line.

  7. Effect of Iboga alkaloids on µ-opioid receptor-coupled G protein activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Antonio

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The iboga alkaloids are a class of small molecules defined structurally on the basis of a common ibogamine skeleton, some of which modify opioid withdrawal and drug self-administration in humans and preclinical models. These compounds may represent an innovative approach to neurobiological investigation and development of addiction pharmacotherapy. In particular, the use of the prototypic iboga alkaloid ibogaine for opioid detoxification in humans raises the question of whether its effect is mediated by an opioid agonist action, or if it represents alternative and possibly novel mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to independently replicate and extend evidence regarding the activation of μ-opioid receptor (MOR-related G proteins by iboga alkaloids. METHODS: Ibogaine, its major metabolite noribogaine, and 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC, a synthetic congener, were evaluated by agonist-stimulated guanosine-5´-O-(γ-thio-triphosphate ([(35S]GTPγS binding in cells overexpressing the recombinant MOR, in rat thalamic membranes, and autoradiography in rat brain slices. RESULTS AND SIGNIFICANCE: In rat thalamic membranes ibogaine, noribogaine and 18-MC were MOR antagonists with functional Ke values ranging from 3 uM (ibogaine to 13 uM (noribogaine and 18MC. Noribogaine and 18-MC did not stimulate [(35S]GTPγS binding in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human or rat MORs, and had only limited partial agonist effects in human embryonic kidney cells expressing mouse MORs. Ibogaine did not did not stimulate [(35S]GTPγS binding in any MOR expressing cells. Noribogaine did not stimulate [(35S]GTPγS binding in brain slices using autoradiography. An MOR agonist action does not appear to account for the effect of these iboga alkaloids on opioid withdrawal. Taken together with existing evidence that their mechanism of action also differs from that of other non-opioids with clinical effects on opioid tolerance and withdrawal, these

  8. The crystal structure of a bimorphinan with highly selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbańczyk-Lipkowska, Zofia; Etter, Margaret C.; Lipkowski, Andrzej W.; Portoghese, Philip S.

    1987-07-01

    The crystal structure of the dihydrobromide heptahydrate of nor-binaltorphimine (17, 17'-bis(cyclopropylmethyl)-6,6',7,7'-tetrahydro-4,5α: 4',5'α-diepoxy-6,6'-imino[7,7' bimorphinan]-3,3',14,14'-tetraol)is presented. This structure is the first reported structure of a rigid bivalent opioid ligand. Two morphinan pharmacophores are connected by a rigid spacer, the pyrrole ring. The nor-binaltorphimine structure itself shows unique, high selectivity as a kappa opioid receptor antagonist. Crystal data: P3 2, Z = 3, a = b = 20.223 (4), c = 9.541(7) Å, α = β = 90°, γ = 120°; R = 0.079 (1765 reflections, Fobs > 1σ( F)).

  9. Facile synthesis of ( sup 11 C)buprenorphine for positron emission tomographic studies of opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, J.R.; Dannals, R.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). School of Hygiene and Public Health Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology); Mazza, S.M. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). School of Hygiene and Public Health); Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a simple and rapid method for the production of buprenorphine (BPN), a potent opioid partial agonist, labelled with carbon-11 at the 6-methoxy position. The procedure uses a precursor synthesized in high yield (89%) from BPN in two steps and employs ({sup 11}C)iodomethane as the radiolabelling reagent. ({sup 11}C)BPN of 97% radiochemical purity can be prepared in high specific activity (41 GBq/{mu}mol; 1120 mCi/{mu}mol) in a radiochemical yield of 10% at end-of-synthesis (not decay corrected). The ({sup 11}C)BPN is available for use in studies of cerebral opioid receptors by positron emission tomography within 24 min from end-of-bombardment, including radiosynthesis, purification, formulation for i.v. injection and determination of specific activity. (author).

  10. Differential involvement of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone in motivational and hedonic aspects of reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Miriam; Heise, Verena; Spanagel, Rainer

    2010-04-02

    In the present study dose-dependent effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were investigated on the rewarding effects of sweetened condensed milk (SCM) in four behavioral paradigms addressing hedonic, consummatory as well as motivational aspects of a reward: odour-conditioned pleasure attenuation of the acoustic startle response (PAS), conditioned place preference (CPP), voluntary consumption in a limited access paradigm, as well as break point determination in a progressive ratio (PR) task. A dose-dependent reduction in reward-related behavior was observed in all paradigms, with exception of the break point in the PR task, which was not affected by naloxone at all. CPP for SCM was only affected by the highest dose of naloxone. The present results indicate that naloxone is more effective in suppressing the hedonic than motivational aspects of reward, further supporting the involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the mediation of hedonic properties of food reward.

  11. Ligand-Directed Functional Selectivity at the Mu Opioid Receptor Revealed by Label-Free Integrative Pharmacology On-Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Megan; Tran, Elizabeth; Sun, Haiyan; Levenson, Robert; Fang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    Development of new opioid drugs that provide analgesia without producing dependence is important for pain treatment. Opioid agonist drugs exert their analgesia effects primarily by acting at the mu opioid receptor (MOR) sites. High-resolution differentiation of opioid ligands is crucial for the development of new lead drug candidates with better tolerance profiles. Here, we use a label-free integrative pharmacology on-target (iPOT) approach to characterize the functional selectivity of a library of known opioid ligands for the MOR. This approach is based on the ability to detect dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) arising from the activation of the MOR in living cells. DMR assays were performed in HEK-MOR cells with and without preconditioning with probe molecules using label-free resonant waveguide grating biosensors, wherein the probe molecules were used to modify the activity of specific signaling proteins downstream the MOR. DMR signals obtained were then translated into high resolution heat maps using similarity analysis based on a numerical matrix of DMR parameters. Our data indicate that the iPOT approach clearly differentiates functional selectivity for distinct MOR signaling pathways among different opioid ligands, thus opening new avenues to discover and quantify the functional selectivity of currently used and novel opioid receptor drugs. PMID:22003401

  12. Ligand-directed functional selectivity at the mu opioid receptor revealed by label-free integrative pharmacology on-target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Morse

    Full Text Available Development of new opioid drugs that provide analgesia without producing dependence is important for pain treatment. Opioid agonist drugs exert their analgesia effects primarily by acting at the mu opioid receptor (MOR sites. High-resolution differentiation of opioid ligands is crucial for the development of new lead drug candidates with better tolerance profiles. Here, we use a label-free integrative pharmacology on-target (iPOT approach to characterize the functional selectivity of a library of known opioid ligands for the MOR. This approach is based on the ability to detect dynamic mass redistribution (DMR arising from the activation of the MOR in living cells. DMR assays were performed in HEK-MOR cells with and without preconditioning with probe molecules using label-free resonant waveguide grating biosensors, wherein the probe molecules were used to modify the activity of specific signaling proteins downstream the MOR. DMR signals obtained were then translated into high resolution heat maps using similarity analysis based on a numerical matrix of DMR parameters. Our data indicate that the iPOT approach clearly differentiates functional selectivity for distinct MOR signaling pathways among different opioid ligands, thus opening new avenues to discover and quantify the functional selectivity of currently used and novel opioid receptor drugs.

  13. The mu1, mu2, delta, kappa opioid receptor binding profiles of methadone stereoisomers and morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, K; Christensen, C B; Christrup, Lona Louring

    1995-01-01

    The binding affinities of racemic methadone and its optical isomers R-methadone and S-methadone were evaluated for the opioid receptors mu1, mu2, delta and kappa, in comparison with that of morphine. The analgesic R-methadone had a 10-fold higher affinity for mu1 receptors than S-methadone (IC50 3.......0 nM and 26.4 nM, respectively). At the mu2 receptor, the IC50 value of R-methadone was 6.9 nM and 88 nM for S-methadone, respectively. As expected, R-methadone had twice the affinity for mu1 and mu2 receptors than the racemate. All of the compounds tested had low affinity for the delta and kappa...

  14. Development of a peptidomimetic antagonist of neuropeptide FF receptors for the prevention of opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihel, Frédéric; Humbert, Jean-Paul; Schneider, Séverine; Bertin, Isabelle; Wagner, Patrick; Schmitt, Martine; Laboureyras, Emilie; Petit-Demoulière, Benoît; Schneider, Elodie; Mollereau, Catherine; Simonnet, Guy; Simonin, Frédéric; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques

    2015-03-18

    Through the development of a new class of unnatural ornithine derivatives as bioisosteres of arginine, we have designed an orally active peptidomimetic antagonist of neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR). Systemic low-dose administration of this compound to rats blocked opioid-induced hyperalgesia, without any apparent side-effects. Interestingly, we also observed that this compound potentiated opioid-induced analgesia. This unnatural ornithine derivative provides a novel therapeutic approach for both improving analgesia and reducing hyperalgesia induced by opioids in patients being treated for chronic pain.

  15. Nucleocytoplasmic distribution of opioid growth factor and its receptor in tongue epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagon, Ian S; Ruth, Torre B; McLaughlin, Patricia J

    2005-01-01

    The subcellular distributions of the opioid growth factor (OGF), [Met(5)]-enkephalin, and opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) in the epithelium of the rat tongue were determined in order to reveal structure-function relationships. Laser scanning confocal microscopic analysis showed that both OGF and OGFr were colocalized in the paranuclear cytoplasm and in the nuclei of keratinocytes in the stratum basale. Using immunoelectron microscopy and postembedding techniques, double labeling experiments disclosed that complexes of OGF-OGFr were colocalized on the outer nuclear envelope, in the paranuclear cytoplasm, perpendicular to the nuclear envelope in a putative nuclear pore complex, and in the nucleus adjacent to heterochromatin. Anti-OGF IgG alone was detected in the cytoplasm, and anti-OGFr IgG alone was associated with the outer nuclear envelope. Study of chronic treatment with the opioid antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), which blocks opioid-receptor binding, revealed the presence of OGFr immunoreactivity alone in the cytoplasm and the nucleus; some OGF-OGFr complexes were also observed. Colocalization of OGFr and karyopherin (importin) beta was recorded in the cytoplasm and nucleus. These results in tongue epithelium are the first to suggest that OGFr resides on the outer nuclear envelope, where OGF interacts with OGFr; that the OGF-OGFr complex translocates between cytoplasm and nucleus at the nuclear pore; and that the nuclear localization signal of OGFr interacts with karyopherin beta for nuclear transport. These novel data also indicate that signal transduction for cell proliferation appears to involve an OGF-OGFr complex that interfaces with chromatin in the nucleus. Moreover, the unique finding that OGFr was found in the cytoplasm and nucleus in NTX-treated specimens may suggest that NTX-OGFr complexes have the same pathway as OGF-OGFr.

  16. Reduced emotional and corticosterone responses to stress in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Soichiro; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Minami, Masabumi; Uhl, George R; Ishihara, Kumatoshi

    2010-01-01

    The detailed mechanisms of emotional modulation in the nervous system by opioids remain to be elucidated, although the opioid system is well known to play important roles in the mechanisms of analgesia and drug dependence. In the present study, we conducted behavioral tests of anxiety and depression and measured corticosterone concentrations in both male and female mu-opioid receptor knockout (MOP-KO) mice to reveal the involvement of mu-opioid receptors in stress-induced emotional responses. MOP-KO mice entered more and spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with wild-type mice. MOP-KO mice also displayed significantly decreased immobility in a 15 min tail-suspension test compared with wild-type mice. Similarly, MOP-KO mice exhibited significantly decreased immobility on days 2, 3, and 4 in a 6 min forced swim test conducted for 5 consecutive days. The increase in plasma corticosterone concentration induced by tail-suspension, repeated forced swim, or restraint stress was reduced in MOP-KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Corticosterone levels were not different between wild-type and MOP-KO mice before stress exposure. In contrast, although female mice tended to exhibit fewer anxiety-like responses in the tail-suspension test in both genotypes, no significant gender differences were observed in stress-induced emotional responses. These results suggest that MOPs play an important facilitatory role in emotional responses to stress, including anxiety- and depression-like behavior and corticosterone levels.

  17. Kappa opioid receptor antagonist and N-methyl-D- aspartate receptor antagonist affect dynorphin- induced spinal cord electrophysiologic impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chen; Liangbi Xiang; Jun Liu; Dapeng Zhou; Hailong Yu; Qi Wang; Wenfeng Han; Weijian Ren

    2012-01-01

    The latencies of motor- and somatosensory-evoked potentials were prolonged to different degrees, and wave amplitude was obviously decreased, after injection of dynorphin into the rat subarachnoid cavity.The wave amplitude and latencies of motor- and somatosensory-evoked potentials were significantly recovered at 7 and 14 days after combined injection of dynorphin and either the kappa opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine or the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801.The wave amplitude and latency were similar in rats after combined injection of dynorphin and nor-binaltorphimine or MK-801.These results suggest that intrathecal injection of dynorphin causes damage to spinal cord function.Prevention of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor or kappa receptor activation lessened the injury to spinal cord function induced by dynorphin.

  18. GRK2 protein-mediated transphosphorylation contributes to loss of function of μ-opioid receptors induced by neuropeptide FF (NPFF2) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulédous, Lionel; Froment, Carine; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine

    2012-04-13

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) interacts with specific receptors to modulate opioid functions in the central nervous system. On dissociated neurons and neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with NPFF receptors, NPFF acts as a functional antagonist of μ-opioid (MOP) receptors by attenuating the opioid-induced inhibition of calcium conductance. In the SH-SY5Y model, MOP and NPFF(2) receptors have been shown to heteromerize. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF, we have investigated the phosphorylation status of the MOP receptor using phospho-specific antibody and mass spectrometry. Similarly to direct opioid receptor stimulation, activation of the NPFF(2) receptor by [D-Tyr-1-(NMe)Phe-3]NPFF (1DMe), an analog of NPFF, induced the phosphorylation of Ser-377 of the human MOP receptor. This heterologous phosphorylation was unaffected by inhibition of second messenger-dependent kinases and, contrarily to homologous phosphorylation, was prevented by inactivation of G(i/o) proteins by pertussis toxin. Using siRNA knockdown we could demonstrate that 1DMe-induced Ser-377 cross-phosphorylation and MOP receptor loss of function were mediated by the G protein receptor kinase GRK2. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the phosphorylation pattern of MOP receptors was qualitatively similar after treatment with the MOP agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly (NMe)-Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or after treatment with the NPFF agonist 1DMe, but the level of multiple phosphorylation was more intense after DAMGO. Finally, NPFF(2) receptor activation was sufficient to recruit β-arrestin2 to the MOP receptor but not to induce its internalization. These data show that NPFF-induced heterologous desensitization of MOP receptor signaling is mediated by GRK2 and could involve transphosphorylation within the heteromeric receptor complex.

  19. Involvement of GABA and opioid peptide receptors in sevoflurane-induced antinociception in rat spinal cord

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-wei WANG; Xiao-ming DENG; Xin-min YOU; Shu-xiao LIU; Zhi-qi ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The spinal cord is pivotal in immobility induced by volatile anesthetics because the anesthetics depress the activity of motor neurons in the spinal cord.The aim of this study was to observe the effects of sevoflurane on pain processing at the spinal level. Methods: The firing of the gastrocnemius muscle was evoked by electrical stimulation to the ipsilateral hindpaw in rats. The nociceptive C response of electromyography (EMG)was selected to study. The GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (0.1 mg/kg) and opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0.4 mg/kg) were administered intravenously, either in the presence or in the absence of 1.0% sevoflurane. Results: In rats with transected spinal cord,sevoflurane produced a profound reduction in the C response in a dose- and timedependent manner. In the presence of 1.0% sevoflurane, the C responses were increased after injections of bicuculline and naloxone. Conclusion: Sevoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that acts directly on the spinal cord to suppress the nociceptive reflex. The sevoflurane-induced suppression of the C response is antagonized by either bicuculline or naloxone. The results suggest that spinal GABAA receptors and opioid peptide receptors are involved in the sevoflurane-induced suppression of spinal nociception.

  20. Amisulpride-induced seizurogenic effect: a potential role of opioid receptor-linked transduction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Thakur Gurjeet; Chand, Prem

    2011-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of opioid receptors, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, mast cells and histamine receptors (H(1) subtype) in the seizurogenic effect of amisulpride on mice. A single injection of amisulpride (180 mg/kg) was employed to evaluate the seizurogenicity of the drug in mice. Seizures were assessed in terms of a composite seizure severity score (SSS), time of the onset of straub-like tail, onset of jerky movements of whole body, convulsions and death. Amisulpride administration (180 mg/kg) induced a significant pro-convulsant effect in mice as measured in terms of the SSS (21.12 ± 2.71) and a significant decrease in the time latency of the onset of straub-like tail (132.45 ± 12.31), jerky movements of whole body (153.28 ± 14.12), convulsions (184.97 ± 13.11) and death (100%). Moreover, prior administration of naloxone, cetrizine, sodium cromoglycate and gabapentin, respectively, attenuated this seizurogenic activity that amisulpride exerted on mice (p amisulpride exerts a seizurogenic effect on mice possibly via an opioid receptor activation-dependent release of histamine from the mast cells and a simultaneous inhibition of GABA release.

  1. Species differences in the effects of the κ-opioid receptor antagonist zyklophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Sunil; Aldrich, Jane V; Walker, Brendan M

    2016-03-01

    We have shown that dysregulation of the dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor (DYN/KOR) system contributes to escalated alcohol self-administration in alcohol dependence and that KOR antagonists with extended durations of action selectively reduce escalated alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent animals. As KOR antagonism has gained widespread attention as a potential therapeutic target to treat alcoholism and multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, we tested the effect of zyklophin (a short-acting KOR antagonist) on escalated alcohol self-administration in rats made alcohol-dependent using intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Following dependence induction, zyklophin was infused centrally prior to alcohol self-administration sessions and locomotor activity tests during acute withdrawal. Zyklophin did not impact alcohol self-administration or locomotor activity in either exposure condition. To investigate the neurobiological basis of this atypical effect for a KOR antagonist, we utilized a κ-, μ-, and δ-opioid receptor agonist-stimulated GTPyS coupling assay to examine the opioid receptor specificity of zyklophin in the rat brain and mouse brain. In rats, zyklophin did not affect U50488-, DAMGO-, or DADLE-stimulated GTPyS coupling, whereas the prototypical KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (norBNI) attenuated U50488-induced stimulation in the rat brain tissue at concentrations that did not impact μ- and δ-receptor function. To reconcile the discrepancy between the present rat data and published mouse data, comparable GTPyS assays were conducted using mouse brain tissue; zyklophin effects were consistent with KOR antagonism in mice. Moreover, at higher concentrations, zyklophin exhibited agonist properties in rat and mouse brains. These results identify species differences in zyklophin efficacy that, given the rising interest in the development of short-duration KOR antagonists, should provide valuable information for therapeutic development efforts.

  2. Concomitant duplications of opioid peptide and receptor genes before the origin of jawed vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görel Sundström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The opioid system is involved in reward and pain mechanisms and consists in mammals of four receptors and several peptides. The peptides are derived from four prepropeptide genes, PENK, PDYN, PNOC and POMC, encoding enkephalins, dynorphins, orphanin/nociceptin and beta-endorphin, respectively. Previously we have described how two rounds of genome doubling (2R before the origin of jawed vertebrates formed the receptor family. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Opioid peptide gene family members were investigated using a combination of sequence-based phylogeny and chromosomal locations of the peptide genes in various vertebrates. Several adjacent gene families were investigated similarly. The results show that the ancestral peptide gene gave rise to two additional copies in the genome doublings. The fourth member was generated by a local gene duplication, as the genes encoding POMC and PNOC are located on the same chromosome in the chicken genome and all three teleost genomes that we have studied. A translocation has disrupted this synteny in mammals. The PDYN gene seems to have been lost in chicken, but not in zebra finch. Duplicates of some peptide genes have arisen in the teleost fishes. Within the prepropeptide precursors, peptides have been lost or gained in different lineages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ancestral peptide and receptor genes were located on the same chromosome and were thus duplicated concomitantly. However, subsequently genetic linkage has been lost. In conclusion, the system of opioid peptides and receptors was largely formed by the genome doublings that took place early in vertebrate evolution.

  3. Combined blockade of both mu- and kappa-opioid receptors prevents the acute orexigenic action of agouti-related protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S; Clegg, DJ; Woods, SC; Seeley, RJ

    2002-01-01

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an endogenous antagonist at the melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor in the hypothalamus. Central administration of AgRP produces a robust increase in food intake, and this effect can be blocked by administration of nonspecific opioid receptor antagonist. Such results impli

  4. Antagonism of the Met5-enkephalin-opioid growth factor receptor-signaling axis promotes MSC to differentiate into osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Nikhil A; DeBoyace, Sean D; Margulies, Bryan S

    2016-07-01

    Chronic opioid therapy is associated with bone loss. This led us to hypothesize that the opioid antagonists, that include naloxone, would stimulate bone formation by regulating MSC differentiation. The opioid growth factor receptor (OGFR) is a non-canonical opioid receptor that binds naloxone with high affinity whereas the native opioid growth factor, met5-enkephalin (met5), binds both the OGFR and the canonical delta opioid receptor (OPRD). Naloxone and an shRNA OGFR lentivirus were employed to disrupt the OGFR-signaling axis in cultured MSC. In parallel, naloxone was administered to bone marrow using a mouse unicortical defect model. OPRD, OGFR, and the met5-ligand were highly expressed in MSC and osteoblasts. A pulse-dose of naloxone increased mineral formation in MSC cultures in contrast to MSC treated with continuous naloxone or OGFR deficient MSC. Importantly, SMAD1 and SMAD8/9 expression increased after a pulse dose of naloxone whereas SMAD1, SMAD7, and ID1 were increased in the OGFR deficient MSC. Inhibited OGFR signaling decreased proliferation and increased p21 expression. The addition of naloxone to the unicortical defect resulted in increased bone formation within the defect. Our data suggest that novel mechanism through which signaling through the OGFR regulates osteogenesis via negative regulation of SMAD1 and p21. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1195-1205, 2016.

  5. Effect of GNTI,a kappa opioid receptor antagonist, on MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and stereotypy in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-ting QI; Hong ZOU; Chen-hao ZHANG; Qing-lian XIE; Mei-lei JIN; Lei YU

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To examine the effect of GNTI[5'-guanidinyl-17-(cyclopropylmethyl)-6,7-dehydro-4,-5α-epoxy-3-14-dihydroxy-6,7-2',3'-indolomorphinan],a selective antagonist for the kappa opioid receptor,in the MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate)-induced behavioral model of psychosis in schizophrenia as a way to explore the involvement of the kappa opioid receptor in modulating psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.Methods:Two doses 0f MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg and 0.6 mg/kg) were administered by systemic injection in mice to induce psychosis-like behavior as a rodent schizophrenia model, preceded by an injection of different doses of GNTI. Both locomotion and stereotypy were measured as the behavioral endpoints for quantitative analysis.Results:GNTI inhibited MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and stereotypy.In particular,GNTI showed differential modulation of stereotypy induced by 0.3 mg/kg VS 0.6 mg/kg MK-801.Conclusion:Antagonism of kappa opioid receptors attenuates MK-801-induced behavior,suggesting a potential involvement of the kappa opioid receptor in psychosis-like symptoms of schizophrenia.GNTI aDpears to be a useful pharmacological tool to explore the kappa opioid receptor function in vivo.

  6. δ-opioid Receptor Induced Inhibition of Sodium Channel Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康学智; 顾全保; 丁光宏; 晁东满; 王英伟; G Balboni; LH Lazarus; 夏萤

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the precise role of DOR in the regulation of sodium channels at present. Methods: With Xenopus oocytes co-expressing sodium channel subtype 2 (Nav1.2) and DOR. Results: 1) Nav1.2 expression induced tetrodotoxin-sensitive inward currents; 2) DOR expression reduced the inward currents; 3) activation of DOR reduced the amplitude of the current and rightly shifted the activation curve of the current in the oocytes with both Nav1.2 and DOR, but not in ones with Nav1.2 alone; 4) the DOR agonist-induced inhibition of Nav1.2 currents was in a dose-dependent manner and saturable; 5) the DOR agonist had no effect on naive oocytes. Conclusion: These data represent the first demonstration that activation of DOR inhibits Na+ channel function by decreasing the amplitude of sodium currents and increasing its threshold of activation. This novel finding has far-reaching impacts on novel solutions of certain neurological disorders such as hypoxic/ischemic injury, epilepsy and pain. Also, our data may improve the understanding of the mechanisms underlying acupuncture since acupuncture is known to activate the brain opioid system.%目的:研究δ-阿片受体表达和激活对钠通道1.2亚型的电流特性的影响.方法:用双电极电压钳技术,在δ-阿片受体和钠通道亚型1.2共表达的非洲爪蟾第V期卵母细胞上,观察δ-阿片受体表达和/或激活后,钠通道1.2亚型电流特性的变化.结果:1)钠通道1.2亚型的表达产生河豚毒素(tetrodotoxin,TTX)敏感的内向电流;2)δ-阿片受体的表达减少钠通道激活电流的幅度;3)δ-阿片受体和钠通道1.2亚型共表达的卵母细胞中,δ-阿片受体激动剂可以抑制钠通道激活电流的幅度和电导,而只有钠通道1.2亚型表达的卵母细胞则无此现象;4)δ-阿片受体激动剂抑制钠电流的作用具有剂量依赖关系,并能达到饱和状态;5)δ-阿片受体激动剂对未表达外派陛蛋白的卵母细胞无影响.结论:本结

  7. Analgesic tone conferred by constitutively active mu opioid receptors in mice lacking β-arrestin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hoa; Maga, Matthew; Pradhan, Amynah; Evans, Christopher J; Maidment, Nigel T; Hales, Tim G; Walwyn, Wendy

    2011-04-12

    Hedonic reward, dependence and addiction are unwanted effects of opioid analgesics, linked to the phasic cycle of μ opioid receptor activation, tolerance and withdrawal. In vitro studies of recombinant G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) over expressed in cell lines reveal an alternative tonic signaling mechanism that is independent of agonist. Such studies demonstrate that constitutive GPCR signaling can be inhibited by inverse agonists but not by neutral antagonists. However, ligand-independent activity has been difficult to examine in vivo, at the systems level, due to relatively low levels of constitutive activity of most GPCRs including μ receptors, often necessitating mutagenesis or pharmacological manipulation to enhance basal signaling. We previously demonstrated that the absence of β-arrestin 2 (β-arr2) augments the constitutive coupling of μ receptors to voltage-activated Ca²+ channels in primary afferent dorsal root ganglion neurons from β-arr2⁻/⁻ mice. We used this in vitro approach to characterize neutral competitive antagonists and inverse agonists of the constitutively active wild type μ receptors in neurons. We administered these agents to β-arr2⁻/⁻ mice to explore the role of constitutive μ receptor activity in nociception and hedonic tone. This study demonstrates that the induction of constitutive μ receptor activity in vivo in β-arr2⁻/⁻ mice prolongs tail withdrawal from noxious heat, a phenomenon that was reversed by inverse agonists, but not by antagonists that lack negative efficacy. By contrast, the aversive effects of inverse agonists were similar in β-arr2⁻/⁻ and β-arr2+/+ mice, suggesting that hedonic tone was unaffected.

  8. Analgesic tone conferred by constitutively active mu opioid receptors in mice lacking β-arrestin 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hales Tim G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hedonic reward, dependence and addiction are unwanted effects of opioid analgesics, linked to the phasic cycle of μ opioid receptor activation, tolerance and withdrawal. In vitro studies of recombinant G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs over expressed in cell lines reveal an alternative tonic signaling mechanism that is independent of agonist. Such studies demonstrate that constitutive GPCR signaling can be inhibited by inverse agonists but not by neutral antagonists. However, ligand-independent activity has been difficult to examine in vivo, at the systems level, due to relatively low levels of constitutive activity of most GPCRs including μ receptors, often necessitating mutagenesis or pharmacological manipulation to enhance basal signaling. We previously demonstrated that the absence of β-arrestin 2 (β-arr2 augments the constitutive coupling of μ receptors to voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in primary afferent dorsal root ganglion neurons from β-arr2-/- mice. We used this in vitro approach to characterize neutral competitive antagonists and inverse agonists of the constitutively active wild type μ receptors in neurons. We administered these agents to β-arr2-/- mice to explore the role of constitutive μ receptor activity in nociception and hedonic tone. This study demonstrates that the induction of constitutive μ receptor activity in vivo in β-arr2-/- mice prolongs tail withdrawal from noxious heat, a phenomenon that was reversed by inverse agonists, but not by antagonists that lack negative efficacy. By contrast, the aversive effects of inverse agonists were similar in β-arr2-/- and β-arr2+/+ mice, suggesting that hedonic tone was unaffected.

  9. Asymmetric synthesis and in vitro and in vivo activity of tetrahydroquinolines featuring a diverse set of polar substitutions at the 6 position as mixed-efficacy μ opioid receptoropioid receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Aaron M; Griggs, Nicholas W; Anand, Jessica P; Traynor, John R; Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Mosberg, Henry I

    2015-08-19

    We previously reported a small series of mixed-efficacy μ opioid receptor (MOR) agonist/δ opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist peptidomimetics featuring a tetrahydroquinoline scaffold and showed the promise of this series as effective analgesics after intraperitoneal administration in mice. We report here an expanded structure-activity relationship study of the pendant region of these compounds and focus in particular on the incorporation of heteroatoms into this side chain. These analogues provide new insight into the binding requirements for this scaffold at MOR, DOR, and the κ opioid receptor (KOR), and several of them (10j, 10k, 10m, and 10n) significantly improve upon the overall MOR agonist/DOR antagonist profile of our previous compounds. In vivo data for 10j, 10k, 10m, and 10n are also reported and show the antinociceptive potency and duration of action of compounds 10j and 10m to be comparable to those of morphine.

  10. Assembly of splicing complexes on exon 11 of the human insulin receptor gene does not correlate with splicing efficiency in-vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caples Matt

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incorporation of exon 11 of the insulin receptor gene is both developmentally and hormonally-regulated. Previously, we have shown the presence of enhancer and silencer elements that modulate the incorporation of the small 36-nucleotide exon. In this study, we investigated the role of inherent splice site strength in the alternative splicing decision and whether recognition of the splice sites is the major determinant of exon incorporation. Results We found that mutation of the flanking sub-optimal splice sites to consensus sequences caused the exon to be constitutively spliced in-vivo. These findings are consistent with the exon-definition model for splicing. In-vitro splicing of RNA templates containing exon 11 and portions of the upstream intron recapitulated the regulation seen in-vivo. Unexpectedly, we found that the splice sites are occupied and spliceosomal complex A was assembled on all templates in-vitro irrespective of splicing efficiency. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the exon-definition model explains alternative splicing of exon 11 in the IR gene in-vivo but not in-vitro. The in-vitro results suggest that the regulation occurs at a later step in spliceosome assembly on this exon.

  11. [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic: a novel radioligand for {kappa}-opioid receptor positron emission tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisnel, Geraldine; Oueslati, Farhana; Dhilly, Martine; Delamare, Jerome [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, DSV/DRM UMR CEA 2E, Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Centre Cyceron, 14074 Caen Cedex (France); Perrio, Cecile [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, DSV/DRM UMR CEA 2E, Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Centre Cyceron, 14074 Caen Cedex (France)], E-mail: perrio@cyceron.fr; Debruyne, Daniele [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, DSV/DRM UMR CEA 2E, Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Centre Cyceron, 14074 Caen Cedex (France)], E-mail: debruyne@cyceron.fr; Barre, Louisa [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, DSV/DRM UMR CEA 2E, Universite de Caen-Basse Normandie, Centre Cyceron, 14074 Caen Cedex (France)

    2008-07-15

    Introduction: Radiopharmaceuticals that can bind selectively the {kappa}-opioid receptor may present opportunities for staging clinical brain disorders and evaluating the efficiency of new therapies related to stroke, neurodegenerative diseases or opiate addiction. The N-methylated derivative of JDTic (named MeJDTic), which has been recently described as a potent and selective antagonist of {kappa}-opioid receptor in vitro, was labeled with carbon-11 and evaluated for in vivo imaging the {kappa}-opioid receptor in mice. Methods: [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic was prepared by methylation of JDTic with [{sup 11}C]-methyl triflate. The binding of [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic to {kappa}-opioid receptor was investigated ex vivo by biodistribution and competition studies using nonfasted male CD1 mice. Results: [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic exhibited a high and rapid distribution in peripheral organs. The uptake was maximal in lung where the {kappa} receptor is largely expressed. [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic rapidly crossed the blood-brain barrier and accumulated in the brain regions of interest (hypothalamus). The parent ligand remained the major radioactive compound in brain during the experiment. Chase studies with U50,488 (a {kappa} referring agonist), morphine (a {mu} agonist) and naltrindole (a {delta} antagonist) demonstrated that this uptake was the result of specific binding to the {kappa}-opioid receptor. Conclusion: These findings suggested that [{sup 11}C]-MeJDTic appeared to be a promising selective 'lead' radioligand for {kappa}-opioid receptor PET imaging.

  12. Error correction in latent inhibition and its disruption by opioid receptor blockade with naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hiu T; Killcross, A S; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2013-11-01

    Latent inhibition refers to the retardation in the development of conditioned responding when a pre-exposed stimulus is used to signal an unconditioned stimulus. This effect is described by error-correction models as an attentional deficit and is commonly used as an animal model of schizophrenia. A series of experiments studied the role of error-correction mechanism in latent inhibition and its interaction with the endogenous opioid system. Systemic administration of the competitive opioid receptor antagonist naloxone before rats were pre-exposed to a target stimulus prevented latent inhibition of its subsequent fear conditioning; it was without effect on a non-pre-exposed stimulus and did not produce state-dependent learning (Experiments 1a and 1b). Naloxone did not reverse the latent inhibitory effect already accrued to a pre-exposed target. However, it did prevent the enhancement of latent inhibition by a long retention interval interpolated between its initial exposure and re-exposure (Experiment 2) or by a novel stimulus compounded with the pre-exposed target during re-exposure (Experiment 3). These results provide evidence that attentional loss in latent inhibition is instructed by an opioid-mediated error signal which diminishes with repeated stimulus exposures but recovers with the passage of time or reintroduction of novelty.

  13. Allosteric modulation model of the mu opioid receptor by herkinorin, a potent not alkaloidal agonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Valencia, A. F.; Martínez-Mayorga, K.

    2017-05-01

    Modulation of opioid receptors is the primary choice for pain management and structural information studies have gained new horizons with the recently available X-ray crystal structures. Herkinorin is one of the most remarkable salvinorin A derivative with high affinity for the mu opioid receptor, moderate selectivity and lack of nitrogen atoms on its structure. Surprisingly, binding models for herkinorin are lacking. In this work, we explore binding models of herkinorin using automated docking, molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations and available experimental information. Our herkinorin D-ICM-1 binding model predicted a binding free energy of -11.52 ± 1.14 kcal mol-1 by alchemical free energy estimations, which is close to the experimental values -10.91 ± 0.2 and -10.80 ± 0.05 kcal mol-1 and is in agreement with experimental structural information. Specifically, D-ICM-1 molecular dynamics simulations showed a water-mediated interaction between D-ICM-1 and the amino acid H2976.52, this interaction coincides with the co-crystallized ligands. Another relevant interaction, with N1272.63, allowed to rationalize herkinorin's selectivity to mu over delta opioid receptors. Our suggested binding model for herkinorin is in agreement with this and additional experimental data. The most remarkable observation derived from our D-ICM-1 model is that herkinorin reaches an allosteric sodium ion binding site near N1503.35. Key interactions in that region appear relevant for the lack of β-arrestin recruitment by herkinorin. This interaction is key for downstream signaling pathways involved in the development of side effects, such as tolerance. Future SAR studies and medicinal chemistry efforts will benefit from the structural information presented in this work.

  14. Association of mu-opioid receptor expression with lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y-F; Xu, Q-X; Liao, L-D; Xu, X-E; Wu, J-Y; Wu, Z-Y; Shen, J-H; Li, E-M; Xu, L-Y

    2015-01-01

    The mu-opioid receptor (MOR), a membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptor, is the main target for opioids in the nervous system. MOR1 has been found in several types of cancer cells and reported to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the expression and clinical significance of MOR1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unclear. In our study, the expression of MOR1 was confirmed in ESCC cell lines (KYSE180, KYSE150, and EC109) by Western blot. MOR1 was also detected on tissue microarrays of ESCC samples in 239 cases using immunohistochemical staining. We found that MOR1 was mainly located in the cytoplasm and occasionally occurred in the membrane or nucleus of ESCC cells. Moreover, results indicated that MOR1 expression in the cytoplasm was associated with lymph node metastasis (R = 0.164, P = 0.008, Kendall's tau-b-test). No more associations were found between MOR1 expression status and other clinical parameters. However, no statistical significant differences were found between MOR1 expression in the cytoplasm, nucleus/membrane, and the overall survival of ESCC patients (P = 0.848; P = 0.167; P = 0.428, respectively, log-rank test). Our results suggest that the cytoplasmic MOR1 may be a high-risk factor for lymph node metastasis of ESCC patients. We also hypothesize that MOR1 agonists used in ESCC patients should be prudent, and opioid receptor antagonists may be novel therapeutic drugs for ESCC patients.

  15. Methylphenidate and μ opioid receptor interactions: a pharmacological target for prevention of stimulant abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinmin; Spencer, Thomas J; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Biederman, Joseph; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2011-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most commonly used and highly effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. As the therapeutic use of MPH has increased, so has its abuse and illicit street-use. Yet, the mechanisms associated with development of MPH-associated abuse and dependence are not well understood making it difficult to develop methods to help its mitigation. As a result, many ADHD patients especially children and youth, that could benefit from MPH treatment do not receive it and risk lifelong disabilities associated with untreated ADHD. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms associated with development of MPH addiction and designing methods to prevent it assume high public health significance. Using a mouse model we show that supra-therapeutic doses of MPH produce rewarding effects (surrogate measure for addiction in humans) in a conditioned place preference paradigm and upregulate μ opioid receptor (MOPR) activity in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, brain regions associated with reward circuitry. Co-administration of naltrexone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, prevents MPH-induced MOPR activation and the rewarding effects. The MPH-induced MOPR activation and rewarding effect require activation of the dopamine D1 but not the D2-receptor. These findings identify the MOPR as a potential target for attenuating rewarding effects of MPH and suggest that a formulation that combines naltrexone with MPH could be a useful pharmaceutical approach to alleviate abuse potential of MPH and other stimulants.

  16. Does PKC activation increase the homologous desensitization of μ opioid receptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arttamangkul, Seksiri; Birdsong, William; Williams, John T

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of agents known to activate PKC on morphine-induced desensitization of μ-opioid receptors (MOP receptors) in brain slices containing locus coeruleus neurons. Intracellular recordings were obtained from rat locus coeruleus neurons. Two measurements were used to characterize desensitization, the decline in hyperpolarization induced by application of a saturating concentration of agonist (acute desensitization) and the decrease in hyperpolarization induced by a subsaturating concentration of [Met](5) enkephalin (ME) following washout of the saturating concentration (sustained desensitization). Internalization of MOP receptors was studied in brain slices prepared from transgenic mice expressing Flag-MOP receptors. The subcellular distribution of activated PKC was examined using a novel fluorescent sensor of PKC in HEK293 cells. The phorbol esters (PMA and PDBu) and muscarine increased acute desensitization induced by a saturating concentration of morphine and ME. These effects were not sensitive to staurosporine. Staurosporine did not block the decline in hyperpolarization induced by muscarine. PDBu and muscarine did not affect sustained desensitization induced by ME nor did phorbol esters or muscarine change the trafficking of MOP receptors induced by morphine or ME. The distribution of activated PKC measured in HEK293 cells differed depending on which phorbol ester was applied. This study demonstrates a distinct difference in two measurements that are often used to evaluate desensitization. The measure of decline correlated well with the reduction in peak amplitudes caused by PKC activators implicating the modification of other factors rather than MOP receptors. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Synthesis of triated N1`-alkyl derivatives of the delta opioid receptor ligand naltrindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, J.R.; Johnson, S.M. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Dept., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Tritiated N1`-methyl and N1`-ethyl analogues of naltrindole (NTI) have been synthesized for evaluation as radioligands for studies of delta opioid receptors. The two N1`-alkyl-5`,7`-dibromoNTI precursors for radiolabeling were prepared by base-promoted alkylation of 2,4-dibromophenylhydrazine with either iodomethane or iodoethane followed by condensation with naltrexone using the Fischer indole synthesis. Catalytic debromotritiation followed by HPLC purification afforded [{sup 3}H]MeNTI (17.3 Ci/mmol) and [{sup 3}H]EtNTI (22.5 Ci/mmol) with high chemical and radiochemical purities ({>=} 99.8%). (author).

  18. The role of ubiquitination in lysosomal trafficking of δ-opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Anastasia G; White, Ian J; Marsh, Mark; von Zastrow, Mark; Hislop, James N

    2011-02-01

    The δ-opioid receptor (DOR) undergoes ligand-induced downregulation by endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-dependent endocytic trafficking to lysosomes. In contrast to a number of other signaling receptors, the DOR can downregulate effectively when its ubiquitination is prevented. We explored the membrane trafficking basis of this behavior. First, we show that internalized DORs traverse the canonical multivesicular body (MVB) pathway and localize to intralumenal vesicles (ILVs). Second, we show that DOR ubiquitination stimulates, but is not essential for, receptor transfer to ILVs and proteolysis of the receptor endodomain. Third, we show that receptor ubiquitination plays no detectable role in the early sorting of internalized DORs out of the recycling pathway. Finally, we show that DORs undergo extensive proteolytic fragmentation in the ectodomain, even when receptor ubiquitination is prevented or ILV formation itself is blocked. Together, these results are sufficient to explain why DORs downregulate effectively in the absence of ubiquitination, and they place a discrete molecular sorting operation in the MVB pathway effectively upstream of the ESCRT. More generally, these findings support the hypothesis that mammalian cells can control the cytoplasmic accessibility of internalized signaling receptors independently from their ultimate trafficking fate.

  19. Kappa-opioid receptor-mediated effects of the plant-derived hallucinogen, salvinorin A, on inverted screen performance in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantegrossi, William E; Kugle, Kelly M; Valdes, Leander J; Koreeda, Masato; Woods, James H

    2005-12-01

    Salvinorin A is a pharmacologically active diterpene that occurs naturally in the Mexican mint Ska Maria Pastora (Salvia divinorum) and represents the first naturally occurring kappa-opioid receptor agonist. The chemical structure of salvinorin A is novel among the opioids, and thus defines a new structural class of kappa-opioid-receptor selective drugs. Few studies have examined the effects of salvinorin A in vivo, and fewer still have attempted to assess the agonist actions of this compound at mu-opioid, delta-opioid, and kappa-opioid receptors using selective antagonists. In the mouse, salvinorin A disrupted climbing behavior on an inverted screen task, indicating a rapid, but short-lived induction of sedation/motor incoordination. Similar effects were observed with the mu-agonist remifentanil and the synthetic kappa-agonist U69,593. When behaviorally equivalent doses of all three opioids were challenged with antagonists at doses selective for mu-opioid, delta-opioid, or kappa-opioid receptors, results suggested that the motoric effects of remifentanil were mediated by mu-receptors, whereas those of salvinorin A and U69,593 were mediated via kappa-receptors. Despite similar potencies and degrees of effectiveness, salvinorin A and U69,593 differed with regard to their susceptibility to antagonism by the kappa-antagonist nor-binaltorphamine. This later finding, coupled with the novel chemical structure of the compound, is consistent with recent findings that the diterpene salvinorin A may bind to the kappa-receptor in a manner that is qualitatively different from that of more traditional kappa-agonists such as the benzeneacetamide U69,593. Such pharmacological differences among these kappa-opioids raise the possibility that the development of other diterpene-based opioids may yield important therapeutic compounds.

  20. Novel κ-opioid receptor agonist MB-1C-OH produces potent analgesia with less depression and sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le-sha; Wang, Jun; Chen, Jian-chun; Tao, Yi-min; Wang, Yu-hua; Xu, Xue-jun; Chen, Jie; Xu, Yun-gen; Xi, Tao; Hu, Xiao-wu; Wang, Yu-jun; Liu, Jing-gen

    2015-05-01

    To characterize the pharmacological profiles of a novel κ-opioid receptor agonist MB-1C-OH. [(3)H]diprenorphine binding and [(35)S]GTPγS binding assays were performed to determine the agonistic properties of MB-1C-OH. Hot plate, tail flick, acetic acid-induced writhing, and formalin tests were conducted in mice to evaluate the antinociceptive actions. Forced swimming and rotarod tests of mice were used to assess the sedation and depression actions. In [(3)H]diprenorphine binding assay, MB-1C-OH did not bind to μ- and δ-opioid receptors at the concentration of 100 μmol/L, but showed a high affinity for κ-opioid receptor (Ki=35 nmol/L). In [(35)S]GTPγS binding assay, the compound had an Emax of 98% and an EC50 of 16.7 nmol/L for κ-opioid receptor. Subcutaneous injection of MB-1C-OH had no effects in both hot plate and tail flick tests, but produced potent antinociception in the acetic acid-induced writhing test (ED50=0.39 mg/kg), which was antagonized by pretreatment with a selective κ-opioid receptor antagonist Nor-BNI. In the formalin test, subcutaneous injection of MB-1C-OH did not affect the flinching behavior in the first phase, but significantly inhibited that in the second phase (ED50=0.87 mg/kg). In addition, the sedation or depression actions of MB-1C-OH were about 3-fold weaker than those of the classical κ agonist (-)U50,488H. MB-1C-OH is a novel κ-opioid receptor agonist that produces potent antinociception causing less sedation and depression.

  1. Locus coeruleus kappa-opioid receptors modulate reinstatement of cocaine place preference through a noradrenergic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hasani, Ream; McCall, Jordan G; Foshage, Audra M; Bruchas, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Activation of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) in monoamine circuits results in dysphoria-like behaviors and stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in both conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration models. Noradrenergic (NA) receptor systems have also been implicated in similar behaviors. Dynorphinergic projections terminate within the locus coeruleus (LC), a primary source of norepinephrine in the forebrain, suggesting a possible link between the NA and dynorphin/kappa opioid systems, yet the implications of these putative interactions have not been investigated. We isolated the necessity of KORs in the LC in kappa opioid agonist (U50,488)-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP by blocking KORs in the LC with NorBNI (KOR antagonist). KOR-induced reinstatement was significantly attenuated in mice injected with NorBNI in the LC. To determine the sufficiency of KORs in the LC on U50,488-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP, we virally re-expressed KORs in the LC of KOR knockout mice. We found that KORs expression in the LC alone was sufficient to partially rescue KOR-induced reinstatement. Next we assessed the role of NA signaling in KOR-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP in the presence and absence of a α2-agonist (clonidine), β-adrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol), and β(1)- and β(2)-antagonist (betaxolol and ICI-118,551 HCl). Both the blockade of postsynaptic β(1)-adrenergic receptors and the activation of presynaptic inhibitory adrenergic autoreceptors selectively potentiated the magnitude of KOR-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP but not cocaine-primed CPP reinstatement. Finally, viral restoration of KORs in the LC together with β-adrenergic receptor blockade did not potentiate KOR-induced reinstatement to cocaine CPP, suggesting that adrenergic receptor interactions occur at KOR-expressing regions external to the LC. These results identify a previously unknown interaction between KORs and NA systems and suggest a NA

  2. Quantitative encoding of a partial agonist effect on individual opioid receptors by multi-site phosphorylation and threshold detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Elaine K.; Trester-Zedlitz, Michelle; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Kotowski, Sarah J.; Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Burlingame, Alma L; von Zastrow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Many drugs act as partial agonists of seven-transmembrane signaling receptors when compared to endogenous ligands. Partial agonism is well described as a 'macroscopic' property manifest at the level of physiological systems or cell populations, but it is not known whether partial agonists encode discrete regulatory information at the 'microscopic' level of individual receptors. We addressed this question by focusing on morphine, a partial agonist drug for µ-type opioid peptide receptors, and ...

  3. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib is not caused by mutations in the coding exons of the human parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipani, E.; Bergwitz, C.; Iida-Klein, A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib) is thought to be from caused by a PTH/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor defect. To search for receptor mutations in genomic DNA from 17 PHP-Ib patients, three recently isolated human genomic DNA clones were further characterized by restriction enzyme mapping and nucleotide sequencing across intron/exon borders. Regions including all 14 coding exons and their splice junctions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the products were analyzed by either temperature gradient gel electrophoresis or direct nucleotide sequencing. Silent polymorphisms were identified in exons G (1 of 17), M4 (1 of 17), and M7 (15 of 17). Two base changes were found in introns, 1 at the splice-donor site of the intron between exons E2 and E3 (1 of 17) and the other between exons G and M1 (2 of 17). Total ribonucleic acid from COS-7 cells expressing minigenes with or without the base change between exons E2 and E3 showed no difference by either Northern blot analysis or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Radioligand binding was indistinguishable for both transiently expressed constructs. A missense mutation (E546 to K546) in the receptor`s cytoplamic tail (3 of 17) was also found in 1 of 60 healthy individuals, and PTH/PTHrP receptors with this mutation were functionally indistinguishable from wild-type receptors. PHP-Ib thus appears to be rarely, if ever, caused by mutations in the coding exons of the PTH/PTHrP receptor gene. 58 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. δ-Opioid receptor activation stimulates normal diet intake but conversely suppresses high-fat diet intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Mizushige, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Yuri; Lazarus, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Kanamoto, Ryuhei; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2014-02-15

    The central opioid system is involved in a broadly distributed neural network that regulates food intake. Here, we show that activation of central δ-opioid receptor not only stimulated normal diet intake but conversely suppressed high-fat diet intake as well. [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE), an agonist selective for the δ-receptor, increased normal diet intake after central administration to nonfasted male mice. The orexigenic activity of DPDPE was inhibited by blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), D-type prostanoid receptor 1 (DP(1)), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor type 1 (Y1) for PGD(2) and NPY, respectively, suggesting that this was mediated by the PGD(2)-NPY system. In contrast, DPDPE decreased high-fat diet intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. DPDPE-induced suppression of high-fat diet intake was blocked by antagonists of melanocortin 4 (MC(4)) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors but not by knockout of the L-PGDS gene. These results suggest that central δ-opioid receptor activation suppresses high-fat diet intake via the MC-CRF system, independent of the orexigenic PGD(2) system. Furthermore, orally administered rubiscolin-6, an opioid peptide derived from spinach Rubisco, suppressed high-fat diet intake. This suppression was also blocked by centrally administered naltrindole, an antagonist for the δ-receptor, suggesting that rubiscolin-6 suppressed high-fat diet intake via activation of central δ-opioid receptor.

  5. Noribogaine is a G-protein biased κ-opioid receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, Emeline L; Milon, Nicolas; Heghinian, Mari D; Fishback, James; Schürer, Stephan C; Garamszegi, Nandor; Mash, Deborah C

    2015-12-01

    Noribogaine is the long-lived human metabolite of the anti-addictive substance ibogaine. Noribogaine efficaciously reaches the brain with concentrations up to 20 μM after acute therapeutic dose of 40 mg/kg ibogaine in animals. Noribogaine displays atypical opioid-like components in vivo, anti-addictive effects and potent modulatory properties of the tolerance to opiates for which the mode of action remained uncharacterized thus far. Our binding experiments and computational simulations indicate that noribogaine may bind to the orthosteric morphinan binding site of the opioid receptors. Functional activities of noribogaine at G-protein and non G-protein pathways of the mu and kappa opioid receptors were characterized. Noribogaine was a weak mu antagonist with a functional inhibition constants (Ke) of 20 μM at the G-protein and β-arrestin signaling pathways. Conversely, noribogaine was a G-protein biased kappa agonist 75% as efficacious as dynorphin A at stimulating GDP-GTP exchange (EC50=9 μM) but only 12% as efficacious at recruiting β-arrestin, which could contribute to the lack of dysphoric effects of noribogaine. In turn, noribogaine functionally inhibited dynorphin-induced kappa β-arrestin recruitment and was more potent than its G-protein agonistic activity with an IC50 of 1 μM. This biased agonist/antagonist pharmacology is unique to noribogaine in comparison to various other ligands including ibogaine, 18-MC, nalmefene, and 6'-GNTI. We predict noribogaine to promote certain analgesic effects as well as anti-addictive effects at effective concentrations>1 μM in the brain. Because elevated levels of dynorphins are commonly observed and correlated with anxiety, dysphoric effects, and decreased dopaminergic tone, a therapeutically relevant functional inhibition bias to endogenously released dynorphins by noribogaine might be worthy of consideration for treating anxiety and substance related disorders.

  6. Intermittent-access binge consumption of sweet high-fat liquid does not require opioid or dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Sylvie; Kim, James J; Nicola, Saleem M

    2015-10-01

    Binge eating disorders are characterized by episodes of intense consumption of high-calorie food. In recently developed animal models of binge eating, rats given intermittent access to such food escalate their consumption over time. Consumption of calorie-dense food is associated with neurochemical changes in the nucleus accumbens, including dopamine release and alterations in dopamine and opioid receptor expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that binge-like consumption on intermittent access schedules is dependent on opioid and/or dopamine neurotransmission in the accumbens. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether injection of dopamine and opioid receptor antagonists into the core and shell of the accumbens reduced consumption of a sweet high-fat liquid in rats with and without a history of intermittent binge access to the liquid. Although injection of a μ opioid agonist increased consumption, none of the antagonists (including μ opioid, δ opioid, κ opioid, D1 dopamine and D2 dopamine receptor antagonists, as well as the broad-spectrum opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone) reduced consumption, and this was the case whether or not the animals had a prior history of intermittent access. These results suggest that consumption of sweet, fatty food does not require opioid or dopamine receptor activation in the accumbens even under intermittent access conditions that resemble human binge episodes.

  7. Polymorphisms of Exon 17 of Insulin-Receptor Gene in Pathogenesis of Human Disorders With Insulin Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU WANG; JIE MI; XIAO-YUAN ZHAO; JIAN-XIN WU; HONG CHENG; ZHI-KUN ZHANG; XIU-YUAN DING; DONG-QING HOU; HUILI

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between polymorphisms of insulin-receptor (INSR) gene and insulin resistance in a population-based study in China. Methods Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to the amplify Exon 17 of INSR gene and all amplified products were analyzed by direct sequencing. Results Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found at the following loci: T to TC at the locus of 10699 (Tyr984), G to GC at the locus of 10731 (Glu994), Deletion G at the locus of 10798 (Asp1017), C to T/TC at the locus of 10923 (His1058), C to CA at the locus of 10954 (Leu1069), and T to TA at the locus of 10961 (Phe1071), which might not change the amino acid sequence. The data were in agreement with the test of Hardy-Weinberg balance (P>0.05). Among the 345 cases, all clinical indices were higher in males than in females except for HDL cholesterol (P0.05). After sex stratification in analysis,all allele frequencies on the six loci of SNPs of Exon 17 had different distributions between the insulin resistant group and the control group, but P>0.05. Conclusion SNPs of Exon 17 of INSR gene are unlikely to play a direct role in the pathogenesis of human disorders with insulin resistance.

  8. Opioid receptor modulation of hedonic taste preference and food intake: a single-dose safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic investigation with GSK1521498, a novel μ-opioid receptor inverse agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Pradeep J; O'Neill, Barry V; Bush, Mark A; Koch, Annelize; Tao, Wenli X; Maltby, Kay; Napolitano, Antonella; Brooke, Allison C; Skeggs, Andrew L; Herman, Craig S; Larkin, Andrew L; Ignar, Diane M; Richards, Duncan B; Williams, Pauline M; Bullmore, Edward T

    2012-04-01

    Endogenous opioids and µ-opioid receptors have been linked to hedonic and rewarding aspects of palatable food intake. The authors examined the safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic profile of GSK1521498, a µ-opioid receptor inverse agonist that is being investigated primarily for the treatment of overeating behavior in obesity. In healthy participants, GSK1521498 oral solution and capsule formulations were well tolerated up to a dose of 100 mg. After single doses (10-150 mg), the maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC) in plasma increased in a dose-proportional manner. GSK1521498 selectively reduced sensory hedonic ratings of high-sugar and high-fat dairy products and caloric intake of high-fat/high-sucrose snack foods. These findings provide encouraging data in support of the development of GSK1521498 for the treatment of disorders of maladaptive ingestive behavior or compulsive consumption.

  9. Up-regulation of -opioid receptors in the spinal cord of morphine-tolerant rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subrata Basu Ray; Himanshu Gupta; Yogendra Kumar Gupta

    2004-03-01

    Though morphine remains the most powerful drug for treating pain, its effectiveness is limited by the development of tolerance and dependence. The mechanism underlying development of tolerance to morphine is still poorly understood. One of the factors could be an alteration in the number of m-receptors within specific parts of the nervous system. However, reports on changes in the -opioid receptor density in the spinal cord after chronic morphine administration are conflicting. Most of the studies have used subcutaneously implanted morphine pellets to produce tolerance. However, it does not simulate clinical conditions, where it is more common to administer morphine at intervals, either by injections or orally. In the present study, rats were made tolerant to morphine by injecting increasing doses of morphine (10–50 mg/kg, subcutaneously) for five days. In vitro tissue autoradiography for localization of -receptor in the spinal cord was done using [3H]-DAMGO. As compared to the spinal cord of control rats, the spinal cord of tolerant rats showed an 18.8% increase or up-regulation in the density of -receptors in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn. This up-regulation of -receptors after morphine tolerance suggests that a fraction of the receptors have been rendered desensitized, which in turn could lead to tolerance.

  10. Dezocine exhibits antihypersensitivity activities in neuropathy through spinal μ-opioid receptor activation and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Xiang; Mao, Xiao-Fang; Li, Teng-Fei; Gong, Nian; Zhang, Ma-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Dezocine is the number one opioid painkiller prescribed and sold in China, occupying 44% of the nation’s opioid analgesics market today and far ahead of the gold-standard morphine. We discovered the mechanisms underlying dezocine antihypersensitivity activity and assessed their implications to antihypersensitivity tolerance. Dezocine, given subcutaneously in spinal nerve-ligated neuropathic rats, time- and dose-dependently produced mechanical antiallodynia and thermal antihyperalgesia, significantly increased ipsilateral spinal norepinephrine and serotonin levels, and induced less antiallodynic tolerance than morphine. Its mechanical antiallodynia was partially (40% or 60%) and completely (100%) attenuated by spinal μ-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonism or norepinephrine depletion/α2-adrenoceptor antagonism and combined antagonism of MORs and α2-adenoceptors, respectively. In contrast, antagonism of spinal κ-opioid receptors (KORs) and δ-opioid receptors (DORs) or depletion of spinal serotonin did not significantly alter dezocine antiallodynia. In addition, dezocine-delayed antiallodynic tolerance was accelerated by spinal norepinephrine depletion/α2-adenoceptor antagonism. Thus dezocine produces antihypersensitivity activity through spinal MOR activation and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (NRI), but apparently not through spinal KOR and DOR activation, serotonin reuptake inhibition or other mechanisms. Our findings reclassify dezocine as the first analgesic of the recently proposed MOR-NRI, and reveal its potential as an alternative to as well as concurrent use with morphine in treating pain. PMID:28230181

  11. Activation of Peripheral κ-Opioid Receptors Normalizes Caffeine Effects Modified in Nicotine-Dependent Rats during Nicotine Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Bogdanova, N G

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effect of peripheral (intragastric) ICI-204,448, an agonist of gastric κ-opioid receptors, on the psychostimulating and anxiolytic effects of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats at the stage of nicotine withdrawal. In these rats, the effects of caffeine (10 mg/kg) were perverted. In nicotine-dependent rats, caffeine produced an anxiolytic effect accompanied by pronounced stimulation of motor activity, in contrast to anxiogenic effect induced by caffeine in intact rats without nicotine dependence. During nicotine withdrawal, nicotine-dependent rats demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to nicotine. Intragastric administration of κ-opioid receptor agonist ICI-204,448 normalized the effect of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats. We have previously demonstrated that activation of peripheral κ-opioid receptors inhibited central κ-opioid activity and eliminated manifestations of nicotine withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent rats, e.g. metabolism activation, stimulation of motor activity, and enhancement of food consumption. In its turn, inhibition of central κ-opioid structures activates the brain adenosine system, which can attenuate the caffeine-induced effects in nicotine-dependent rats.

  12. Ligand requirements for involvement of PKCε in synergistic analgesic interactions between spinal μ and δ opioid receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, D J; Metcalf, M D; Kitto, K F; Messing, R O; Fairbanks, C A; Wilcox, G L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We recently found that PKCε was required for spinal analgesic synergy between two GPCRs, δ opioid receptors and α2A adrenoceptors, co-located in the same cellular subpopulation. We sought to determine if co-delivery of μ and δ opioid receptor agonists would similarly result in synergy requiring PKCε. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Combinations of μ and δ opioid receptor agonists were co-administered intrathecally by direct lumbar puncture to PKCε-wild-type (PKCε-WT) and -knockout (PKCε-KO) mice. Antinociception was assessed using the hot-water tail-flick assay. Drug interactions were evaluated by isobolographic analysis. KEY RESULTS All agonists produced comparable antinociception in both PKCε-WT and PKCε-KO mice. Of 19 agonist combinations that produced analgesic synergy, only 3 required PKCε for a synergistic interaction. In these three combinations, one of the agonists was morphine, although not all combinations involving morphine required PKCε. Morphine + deltorphin II and morphine + deltorphin I required PKCε for synergy, whereas a similar combination, morphine + deltorphin, did not. Additionally, morphine + oxymorphindole required PKCε for synergy, whereas a similar combination, morphine + oxycodindole, did not. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS We discovered biased agonism for a specific signalling pathway at the level of spinally co-delivered opioid agonists. As the bias is only revealed by an appropriate ligand combination and cannot be accounted for by a single drug, it is likely that the receptors these agonists act on are interacting with each other. Our results support the existence of μ and δ opioid receptor heteromers at the spinal level in vivo. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24827408

  13. Localization of the kappa opioid receptor gene to human chromosome band 8q11. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Kazuki; Takeda, Jun; Bell, G.I.; Espinosa, R.; Le Beau, M.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Using the cloned mouse kappa opioid receptor cDNA clone as a probe, screened a human genomic library and isolated a clone containing part of the human kappa opioid receptor gene (OPRK1), designated [lambda]hSR4-1. To determine the chromosomal localization of OPRK1, [lambda]hSR4-1 DNA was labeled with biotin by nick-translation in the presence of bio-11-dUTP and hybridized to human metaphase cells prepared from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes as described previously. Hybridization of the OPRK1-specific probe [lambda]hSR4-1 DNA to normal human metaphase chromosomes resulted in specific labeling only of chromosome 8. Specific labeling of 8q11 was observed on all 4 (6 cells), 3 (9 cells), 2 (9 cells), or 1 (1 cell) chromatid of the chromosome 8 homologs in 25 cells examined. Of 72 signals observed, 70 were located at 8q11. 1 signal was located at 7q11 and at 12p11. In most cells, the signal on 8q was located at 8q11.2. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  14. [N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphins are micro-opioid receptor antagonists lacking inverse agonist properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Ewa D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Li, Tingyou; Bryant, Sharon D; Tsuda, Yuko; Okada, Yoshio; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2007-10-01

    [N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphin-1 and -2 ([N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2) are new selective micro-opioid receptor antagonists obtained by N-alkylation with an allyl group on the amino terminus of 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) derivatives. To further characterize properties of these compounds, their intrinsic activities were assessed by functional guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thiotriphosphate) binding assays and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in cell membranes obtained from vehicle, morphine, and ethanol-treated SK-N-SH cells and brain membranes isolated from naive and morphine-dependent mice; their mode of action was compared with naloxone or naltrexone, which both are standard nonspecific opioid-receptor antagonists. [N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2 were neutral antagonists under all of the experimental conditions examined, in contrast to naloxone and naltrexone, which behave as neutral antagonists only in membranes from vehicle-treated cells and mice but act as inverse agonists in membranes from morphine- and ethanol-treated cells as well as morphine-treated mice. Both endomorphin analogs inhibited the naloxone- and naltrexone-elicited withdrawal syndromes from acute morphine dependence in mice. This suggests their potential therapeutic application in the treatment of drug addiction and alcohol abuse without the adverse effects observed with inverse agonist alkaloid-derived compounds that produce severe withdrawal symptoms.

  15. Inflammation enhances mu-opioid receptor transcription and expression in mice intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, O; Alameda, F; Puig, M M

    2001-11-01

    Opioid receptors (ORs) and their mRNA are present in the central and peripheral nervous systems of mammals and in different peripheral tissues, including the gut. Using a model of croton oil-induced (CO) intestinal inflammation in mice, we have shown a 6-fold increase in the potency of the antitransit and antisecretory effects of mu-OR agonists, mediated by peripheral ORs. We postulate that the enhanced effects are mediated by an increase in the expression of intestinal OR. We used jejunum (stripped of the mucosal layer) from mice with CO-induced intestinal inflammation and, as control subjects, saline-treated animals (SS). We evaluated the quantity of mu-OR mRNA determined by a competitive reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; the levels of mu-OR protein by Western blot immunoassay, and the localization and number of cells expressing mu-OR using immunohistochemistry. The results show a significant increase of mu-OR mRNA (7.7-fold) and receptor protein (3-fold) during intestinal inflammation. Inflammation also induced a 64.3% increase in the number of neurons expressing mu-OR immunoreactivity in the myenteric plexus but not in the submucosal plexus. Our results show that intestinal inflammation enhances the transcription and translation of mu-OR mRNA, thus explaining the increased potency of mu-opioids during inflammation.

  16. Inhibition of Activity of GABA Transporter GAT1 by δ-Opioid Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Pu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analgesia is a well-documented effect of acupuncture. A critical role in pain sensation plays the nervous system, including the GABAergic system and opioid receptor (OR activation. Here we investigated regulation of GABA transporter GAT1 by δOR in rats and in Xenopus oocytes. Synaptosomes of brain from rats chronically exposed to opiates exhibited reduced GABA uptake, indicating that GABA transport might be regulated by opioid receptors. For further investigation we have expressed GAT1 of mouse brain together with mouse δOR and μOR in Xenopus oocytes. The function of GAT1 was analyzed in terms of Na+-dependent [3H]GABA uptake as well as GAT1-mediated currents. Coexpression of δOR led to reduced number of fully functional GAT1 transporters, reduced substrate translocation, and GAT1-mediated current. Activation of δOR further reduced the rate of GABA uptake as well as GAT1-mediated current. Coexpression of μOR, as well as μOR activation, affected neither the number of transporters, nor rate of GABA uptake, nor GAT1-mediated current. Inhibition of GAT1-mediated current by activation of δOR was confirmed in whole-cell patch-clamp experiments on rat brain slices of periaqueductal gray. We conclude that inhibition of GAT1 function will strengthen the inhibitory action of the GABAergic system and hence may contribute to acupuncture-induced analgesia.

  17. Toward a structure-based model of salvinorin A recognition of the kappa-opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Brian E; McCurdy, Christopher R; Ferguson, David M

    2008-03-27

    The structural basis to salvinorin A recognition of the kappa-opioid receptor is evaluated using a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and molecular-modeling techniques. The results show that salvinorin A recognizes a collection of residues in transmembrane II and VII, including Q115, Y119, Y313, I316, and Y320. The mutation of one hydrophobic residue in particular, I316, was found to completely abolish salvinorin A binding. As expected, none of the residues in transmembrane III or VI commonly associated with opiate recognition (such as D138 or E297) appear to be required for ligand binding. On the basis of the results presented here and elsewhere, a binding site model is proposed that aligns salvinorin A vertically within a pocket spanning transmembrane II and VII, with the 2' substituent directed toward the extracellular domains. The model explains the role that hydrophobic contacts play in binding this lipophilic ligand and gives insight into the structural basis to the mu-opioid receptor selectivity of 2'-benzoyl salvinorin (herkinorin).

  18. Pavlovian conditioning of morphine-induced alterations of immune status: evidence for opioid receptor involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coussons-Read, M E; Dykstra, L A; Lysle, D T

    1994-12-01

    Prior work in our laboratory has shown that morphine's immunomodulatory effects can become conditioned to environmental stimuli that predict drug administration. These immune alterations include conditioned changes in natural killer cell activity, interleukin-2 production, and mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. The present study examined the involvement of opioid receptor activity in the establishment and expression of conditioned morphine-induced alterations of immune status. During the training phase of the experiment, Lewis rats received two conditioning sessions during which a subcutaneous injection of 15 mg/kg morphine sulfate was paired with exposure to a distinctive environment. On the test day, animals were re-exposed to the distinctive environment alone prior to sacrifice. Saline or naltrexone (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) was administered during either the training or the test session. Administration of naltrexone prior to training antagonized the development of all of the conditioned alterations of immune status including changes in the mitogenic responsiveness of splenocytes, suppression of natural killer cell activity, and interleukin-2 production by splenocytes. Naltrexone administration prior to testing also was effective in antagonizing the expression of a subset of morphine-induced conditioned alterations in immune status. Taken together, these studies indicate that opioid receptor activity is involved in the establishment of conditioned morphine-induced immune alterations, as well as in the expression of a subset of these conditioned alterations of immune status.

  19. The potent opioid agonist, (+)-cis-3-methylfentanyl binds pseudoirreversibly to the opioid receptor complex in vitro and in vivo: Evidence for a novel mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Band, L.; Xu, Heng; Bykov, V.; Rothman, R.B.; Kim, Chongho; Newman, A.; Jacobson, A.E.; Rice, K.C. (NIDDK, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Greig, N. (NIA, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that pretreatment of rat brain membranes with (+)-cis-3-methylfentanyl ((+)-cis-MF), followed by extensive washing of the membranes, produces a wash-resistant decreasing in the binding of ({sup 3}H)-(D-ala{sup 2}, D-leu{sup 5})enkephalin to the d binding site of the opioid receptor complex ({delta}{sub cx} binding site). Intravenous administration of (+)-cis-MF (50 {mu}g/kg) to rats produced a pronounced catalepsy and also produced a wash-resistant masking of {delta}{sub cx} and {mu} binding sites in membranes prepared 120 min post-injection. Administration of 1 mg/kg i.v. of the opioid antagonist, 6-desoxy-6{beta}-fluoronaltrexone (cycloFOXY), 100 min after the injection of (+)-cis-MF (20 min prior to the preparation of membranes) completely reversed the catatonia and restored masked {delta}{sub cx} binding sites to control levels. This was not observed with (+)-cycloFOXY. The implications of these and other findings for the mechanism of action of (+)-cis-MF and models of the opioid receptors are discussed.

  20. Cutaneous nociceptors lack sensitisation, but reveal μ-opioid receptor-mediated reduction in excitability to mechanical stimulation in neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Yvonne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral nerve injuries often trigger a hypersensitivity to tactile stimulation. Behavioural studies demonstrated efficient and side effect-free analgesia mediated by opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons. However, mechanistic approaches addressing such opioid properties in painful neuropathies are lacking. Here we investigated whether opioids can directly inhibit primary afferent neuron transmission of mechanical stimuli in neuropathy. We analysed the mechanical thresholds, the firing rates and response latencies of sensory fibres to mechanical stimulation of their cutaneous receptive fields. Results Two weeks following a chronic constriction injury of the saphenous nerve, mice developed a profound mechanical hypersensitivity in the paw innervated by the damaged nerve. Using an in vitro skin-nerve preparation we found no changes in the mechanical thresholds and latencies of sensory fibres from injured nerves. The firing rates to mechanical stimulation were unchanged or reduced following injury. Importantly, μ-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5]-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO significantly elevated the mechanical thresholds of nociceptive Aδ and C fibres. Furthermore, DAMGO substantially diminished the mechanically evoked discharges of C nociceptors in injured nerves. These effects were blocked by DAMGO washout and pre-treatment with the selective μ-opioid receptor antagonist Cys2-Tyr3-Orn5-Pen7-amide. DAMGO did not alter the responses of sensory fibres in uninjured nerves. Conclusions Our findings suggest that behaviourally manifested neuropathy-induced mechanosensitivity does not require a sensitised state of cutaneous nociceptors in damaged nerves. Yet, nerve injury renders nociceptors sensitive to opioids. Prevention of action potential generation or propagation in nociceptors might represent a cellular mechanism underlying peripheral opioid-mediated alleviation of mechanical hypersensitivity in neuropathy.

  1. Ghrelin receptor agonist, GHRP-2, produces antinociceptive effects at the supraspinal level via the opioid receptor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Li, Shu; Zheng, Yue-hui; Liu, Fu-Yan; Wang, Jing-lei; Zhang, Da-lei; Wei, Jie

    2014-05-01

    GHRP-2 is a synthetic agonist of ghrelin receptor. GHRP-2 has similar physiological functions with ghrelin. In our previous study, ghrelin (i.c.v.) could induce analgesic effect through an interaction with GHS-R1α and with the central opioid system in the acute pain in mice. To date, the function of GHRP-2 in pain processing was not understood. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GHRP-2 on pain modulation at supraspinal level in mice using the tail immersion test. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of GHRP-2 (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 and 10 nmol/L) produced a concentration- and time-related antinociceptive effect. This effect could be fully antagonized by GHS-R1α antagonist [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6, indicating that the analgesic effect induced by GHRP-2 is mediated through the activation of GHS-R1α. Interestingly, naloxone, naltrindole and nor-binaltorphimine, but not β-funaltrexamine, could also block the analgesic effect markedly, suggesting that δ- and κ-opioid receptor is involved in the analgesic response evoked by GHRP-2. Moreover, i.c.v. administration of GHRP-2 potentiated the analgesic effect induced by morphine (i.c.v., 1 nmol/L) and this potentiated effect could not be reversed by [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6. Thus these findings may be a new strategy on investigating the interaction between ghrelin system and opioids on pain modulation. Furthermore, GHRP-2 may be a promising peptide for developing new analgesic drugs.

  2. Muscleblind-like 1 activates insulin receptor exon 11 inclusion by enhancing U2AF65 binding and splicing of the upstream intron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Gloria V; Cooper, Thomas A

    2014-02-01

    Alternative splicing regulates developmentally and tissue-specific gene expression programs, disruption of which have been implicated in numerous diseases. Muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) regulates splicing transitions, which are disrupted on loss of MBNL1 function in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). One such event is MBNL1-mediated activation of insulin receptor exon 11 inclusion, which requires an intronic enhancer element downstream of exon 11. The mechanism of MBNL1-mediated activation of exon inclusion is unknown. We developed an in vitro splicing assay, which robustly recapitulates MBNL1-mediated splicing activation of insulin receptor exon 11 and found that MBNL1 activates removal of the intron upstream of exon 11 upon binding its functional response element in the downstream intron. MBNL1 enhances early spliceosome assembly as evidenced by enhanced complex A formation and binding of U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 65 kDa subunit (U2AF65) on the upstream intron. We demonstrated that neither the 5' splice site nor exon 11 sequences are required for MBNL1-activated U2AF65 binding. Interestingly, the 5' splice site is required for MBNL1-mediated activation of upstream intron removal, although MBNL1 has no effect on U1 snRNA recruitment. These results suggest that MBNL1 directly activates binding of U2AF65 to enhance upstream intron removal to ultimately activate alternative exon inclusion.

  3. μ-Opioid receptor antibody reveals tissue-dependent specific staining and increased neuronal μ-receptor immunoreactivity at the injured nerve trunk in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Schmidt

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is a debilitating chronic disease often resulting from damage to peripheral nerves. Activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons can attenuate pain without central nervous system side effects. Here we aimed to analyze the distribution of neuronal μ-opioid receptors, the most relevant opioid receptors in the control of clinical pain, along the peripheral neuronal pathways in neuropathy. Hence, following a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in mice, we used immunohistochemistry to quantify the μ-receptor protein expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, directly at the injured nerve trunk, and at its peripheral endings in the hind paw skin. We also thoroughly examined the μ-receptor antibody staining specificity. We found that the antibody specifically labeled μ-receptors in human embryonic kidney 293 cells as well as in neuronal processes of the sciatic nerve and hind paw skin dermis, but surprisingly not in the DRG, as judged by the use of μ/δ/κ-opioid receptor knockout mice. Therefore, a reliable quantitative analysis of μ-receptor expression in the DRG was not possible. However, we demonstrate that the μ-receptor immunoreactivity was strongly enhanced proximally to the injury at the nerve trunk, but was unaltered in paws, on days 2 and 14 following injury. Thus, μ-opioid receptors at the site of axonal damage might be a promising target for the control of painful neuropathies. Furthermore, our findings suggest a rigorous tissue-dependent characterization of antibodies' specificity, preferably using knockout animals.

  4. Synthesis of novel triplets with a 1,3,5-trioxazatriquinane skeleton and their pharmacologies for opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Hiroshi; Kutsumura, Noriki

    2015-06-01

    We designed and synthesized novel triplet molecules with 1,3,5-trioxazatriquinane skeletons. One class comprises double-capped triplets with a morphinan skeleton; the other class comprises simple phenol derivatives with phenethylamine moieties. One compound with m-phenolic hydroxyl group, called SYK-146, is a highly selective, potent agonist for the κ receptor, with activity nearly equivalent to that of U-50488H. The o-phenolic isomer of SYK-146, called SYK-524, showed potent but non-selective agonistic activity for the opioid receptors. We also added several simple phenol derivatives to a library of compounds that target opioid receptors, and they showed high hit rates for the receptor. This library might also be expected to show high hit rates for other receptors.

  5. Alternative splicing of exon 17 and a missense mutation in exon 20 of the insulin receptor gene in two brothers with a novel syndrome of insulin resistance (congenital fiber-type disproportion myopathy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorwerk, P; Christoffersen, C T; Müller, J

    1999-01-01

    domain. In the correct spliced variant, the point mutation is silent and results in a normally translated IR. The paternal allele carries a missense mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain. All three cDNA variants were present in the lymphocytes of the patients. Purified IR from 293 cells overexpressing...... to be compound heterozygotes for mutations in the IR gene. The maternal allele was alternatively spliced in exon 17 due to a point mutation in the -1 donor splice site of the exon. The abnormal skipping of exon 17 shifts the amino acid reading frame and leads to a truncated IR, missing the entire tyrosine kinase...... either of the two mutated receptors lacked basal or stimulated IR beta-subunit autophosphorylation. A third brother who inherited both normal alleles has an normal muscle phenotype and insulin sensitivity, suggesting a direct linkage of these IR mutations with the CFTDM phenotype....

  6. Featured Article: Nuclear export of opioid growth factor receptor is CRM1 dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kren, Nancy P; Zagon, Ian S; McLaughlin, Patricia J

    2016-02-01

    Opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr) facilitates growth inhibition in the presence of its specific ligand opioid growth factor (OGF), chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin. The function of the OGF-OGFr axis requires the receptor to translocate to the nucleus. However, the mechanism of nuclear export of OGFr is unknown. In this study, endogenous OGFr, as well as exogenously expressed OGFr-EGFP, demonstrated significant nuclear accumulation in response to leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of CRM1-dependent nuclear export, suggesting that OGFr is exported in a CRM1-dependent manner. One consensus sequence for a nuclear export signal (NES) was identified. Mutation of the associated leucines, L217 L220 L223 and L225, to alanine resulted in decreased nuclear accumulation. NES-EGFP responded to LMB, indicating that this sequence is capable of functioning as an export signal in isolation. To determine why the sequence functions differently in isolation than as a full length protein, the localization of subNES was evaluated in the presence and absence of MG132, a potent inhibitor of proteosomal degradation. MG132 had no effect of subNES localization. The role of tandem repeats located at the C-terminus of OGFr was examined for their role in nuclear trafficking. Six of seven tandem repeats were removed to form deltaTR. DeltaTR localized exclusively to the nucleus indicating that the tandem repeats may contribute to the localization of the receptor. Similar to the loss of cellular proliferation activity (i.e. inhibition) recorded with subNES, deltaTR also demonstrated a significant loss of inhibitory activity indicating that the repeats may be integral to receptor function. These experiments reveal that OGFr contains one functional NES, L217 L220 L223 and L225 and can be exported from the nucleus in a CRM1-dependent manner.

  7. Induction of delta opioid receptor function by up-regulation of membrane receptors in mouse primary afferent neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, Wendy; Maidment, Nigel T; Sanders, Matthew; Evans, Christopher J; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Hales, Tim G

    2005-12-01

    It is not clear whether primary afferent neurons express functional cell-surface opioid receptors. We examined delta receptor coupling to Ca2+ channels in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons under basal conditions and after receptor up-regulation. [D-Ala2,Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin (DADLE), trans-(+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-[1-pyrrolidinyl]cyclohexyl) benzene-acetamide methanesulfonate (U-50,488H; 1 microM), and baclofen (50 microM) inhibited Ca2+ currents, whereas the -selective ligands [D-Pen2,Pen5]-enkephalin (DPDPE) and deltorphin II (1 microM) did not. The effect of DADLE (1 microM) was blocked by the mu-antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP; 300 nM) but not by the -antagonist Tyr-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-Phe-Phe-OH (300 nM), implicating mu receptors. Despite a lack of functional delta receptors, flow cytometry revealed cell-surface receptors. We used this approach to identify conditions that up-regulate receptors, including mu receptor gene deletion in dorsal root ganglion neurons of mu-/- mice and 18-h incubation of mu+/+ neurons with CTAP followed by brief (10-min) DPDPE exposure. Under these conditions, the expression of cell-surface delta receptors was up-regulated to 149 +/- 9 and 139 +/- 5%, respectively; furthermore, DPDPE and deltorphin II (1 microM) inhibited Ca2+ currents in both cases. Viral replacement of mu receptors in mu-/- neurons reduced delta receptor expression to mu+/+ levels, restored the inhibition of Ca2+ currents by DAMGO, and abolished receptor coupling. Our observations suggest that receptor-Ca2+ channel coupling in primary afferent fibers may have little functional significance under basal conditions in which mu receptors predominate. However, up-regulation of cell-surface delta receptors induces their coupling to Ca2+ channels. Pharmacological approaches that increase functional delta receptor expression may reveal a novel target for analgesic therapy.

  8. Transformation of naltrexone into mesembrane and investigation of the binding properties of its intermediate derivatives to opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoura, Kazuya; Fujii, Hideaki; Imaide, Satomi; Gouda, Hiroaki; Hirayama, Shigeto; Hirono, Shuichi; Nagase, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    We transformed naltrexone (5) with the morphinan skeleton into mesembrane (4) belonging to the Sceletium alkaloids via key intermediate 6, characterized by a cis-fused hydroindole skeleton with a suspended phenyl ring fixed by an epoxy bridge. We then investigated the binding affinities of 4 and the key intermediate 6 derivatives to the opioid receptors. Among the tested compounds, 15', with a cis-fused hydroindole core, bound to the three opioid receptor types with strong to moderate affinities. The observed differences of binding affinities among the tested compounds were reasonably explained by the conformational analyses of the compounds. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the tested compounds like 15' with the hydroindole structure was completely different from the reported SAR of morphinan derivatives with the hydroisoquinoline skeleton. Compound 15' with a structure that differs from the morphinans represents a useful fundamental skeleton with a novel chemotype that may contribute to the development of new opioid ligands.

  9. Ligand-directed trafficking of the δ-opioid receptor in vivo: two paths toward analgesic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Amynah A A; Walwyn, Wendy; Nozaki, Chihiro; Filliol, Dominique; Erbs, Eric; Matifas, Audrey; Evans, Christopher; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2010-12-08

    δ-Opioid receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that regulate nociceptive and emotional responses. It has been well established that distinct agonists acting at the same G-protein-coupled receptor can engage different signaling or regulatory responses. This concept, known as biased agonism, has important biological and therapeutic implications. Ligand-biased responses are well described in cellular models, however, demonstrating the physiological relevance of biased agonism in vivo remains a major challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term consequences of ligand-biased trafficking of the δ-opioid receptor, at both the cellular and behavioral level. We used δ agonists with similar binding and analgesic properties, but high [SNC80 ((+)-4-[(αR)-α-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide)]- or low [ARM390 (N,N-diethyl-4-(phenyl-piperidin-4-ylidenemethyl)-benzamide)]-internalization potencies. As we found previously, a single SNC80-but not ARM390-administration triggered acute desensitization of the analgesic response in mice. However, daily injections of either compound over 5 d produced full analgesic tolerance. SNC80-tolerant animals showed widespread receptor downregulation, and tolerance to analgesic, locomotor and anxiolytic effects of the agonist. Hence, internalization-dependent tolerance developed, as a result of generalized receptor degradation. In contrast, ARM390-tolerant mice showed intact receptor expression, but δ-opioid receptor coupling to Ca²+ channels was abolished in dorsal root ganglia. Concomitantly, tolerance developed for agonist-induced analgesia, but not locomotor or anxiolytic responses. Therefore, internalization-independent tolerance was produced by anatomically restricted adaptations leading to pain-specific tolerance. Hence, ligand-directed receptor trafficking of the δ-opioid receptor engages distinct adaptive responses, and this study reveals a novel aspect of

  10. Ethanol-induced social facilitation in adolescent rats: role of endogenous activity at mu opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2009-06-01

    or with shifts in the biphasic ethanol dose-response curve. Ethanol-induced facilitation of social play behavior seen in adolescent animals is mediated in part through ethanol-induced release of endogenous ligands for the mu-opioid receptor or an ethanol-associated enhancement of sensitivity of these receptors for their endogenous ligands.

  11. Hormonal regulation of delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in interneurons and pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tanya J; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Chapleau, Jeanette D; Milner, Teresa A

    2011-02-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that women and men differ in relapse vulnerability to drug-seeking behavior during abstinence periods. As relapse is frequently triggered by exposure of the recovered addict to objects previously associated with drug use and the formation of these associations requires memory systems engaged by the hippocampal formation (HF), studies exploring ovarian hormone modulation of hippocampal function are warranted. Previous studies revealed that ovarian steroids alter endogenous opioid peptide levels and trafficking of mu opioid receptors in the HF, suggesting cooperative interaction between opioids and estrogens in modulating hippocampal excitability. However, whether ovarian steroids affect the levels or trafficking of delta opioid receptors (DORs) in the HF is unknown. Here, hippocampal sections of adult male and normal cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats were processed for quantitative immunoperoxidase light microscopy and dual label fluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy using antisera directed against the DOR and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Consistent with previous studies in males, DOR-immunoreactivity (-ir) localized to select interneurons and principal cells in the female HF. In comparison to males, females, regardless of estrous cycle phase, show reduced DOR-ir in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and proestrus (high estrogen) females, in particular, display reduced DOR-ir in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. Ultrastructural analysis of DOR-labeled profiles in CA1 revealed that while females generally show fewer DORs in the distal apical dendrites of pyramidal cells, proestrus females, in particular, exhibit DOR internalization and trafficking towards the soma. Dual label studies revealed that DORs are found in NPY-labeled interneurons in the hilus, CA3, and CA1. While DOR colocalization frequency in NPY-labeled neuron somata was similar between animals in the hilus, proestrus females had fewer NPY-labeled neurons that

  12. Sustained Suppression of Hyperalgesia during Latent Sensitization by μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors and α2A Adrenergic Receptors: Role of Constitutive Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, Wendy M; Chen, Wenling; Kim, Hyeyoung; Minasyan, Ani; Ennes, Helena S; McRoberts, James A; Marvizón, Juan Carlos G

    2016-01-06

    Many chronic pain disorders alternate between bouts of pain and periods of remission. The latent sensitization model reproduces this in rodents by showing that the apparent recovery ("remission") from inflammatory or neuropathic pain can be reversed by opioid antagonists. Therefore, this remission represents an opioid receptor-mediated suppression of a sustained hyperalgesic state. To identify the receptors involved, we induced latent sensitization in mice and rats by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the hindpaw. In WT mice, responses to mechanical stimulation returned to baseline 3 weeks after CFA. In μ-opioid receptor (MOR) knock-out (KO) mice, responses did not return to baseline but partially recovered from peak hyperalgesia. Antagonists of α2A-adrenergic and δ-opioid receptors reinstated hyperalgesia in WT mice and abolished the partial recovery from hyperalgesia in MOR KO mice. In rats, antagonists of α2A adrenergic and μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors reinstated hyperalgesia during remission from CFA-induced hyperalgesia. Therefore, these four receptors suppress hyperalgesia in latent sensitization. We further demonstrated that suppression of hyperalgesia by MORs was due to their constitutive activity because of the following: (1) CFA-induced hyperalgesia was reinstated by the MOR inverse agonist naltrexone (NTX), but not by its neutral antagonist 6β-naltrexol; (2) pro-enkephalin, pro-opiomelanocortin, and pro-dynorphin KO mice showed recovery from hyperalgesia and reinstatement by NTX; (3) there was no MOR internalization during remission; (4) MORs immunoprecipitated from the spinal cord during remission had increased Ser(375) phosphorylation; and (5) electrophysiology recordings from dorsal root ganglion neurons collected during remission showed constitutive MOR inhibition of calcium channels. Chronic pain causes extreme suffering to millions of people, but its mechanisms remain to be unraveled. Latent sensitization is a phenomenon

  13. Mu opioid receptor-effector coupling and trafficking in dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, W M; Wei, W; Xie, C-W; Chiu, K; Kieffer, B L; Evans, C J; Maidment, N T

    2006-10-13

    Morphine induces profound analgesic tolerance in vivo despite inducing little internalization of the mu opioid receptor (muOR). Previously proposed explanations suggest that this lack of internalization could either lead to prolonged signaling and associated compensatory changes in downstream signaling systems, or that the receptor is unable to recycle and resensitize and so loses efficacy, either mechanism resulting in tolerance. We therefore examined, in cultured neurons, the relationship between muOR internalization and desensitization in response to two agonists, D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly5-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO) and morphine. In addition, we studied the chimeric mu/delta opioid receptor (mu/ partial differentialOR) which could affect internalization and desensitization in neurons. Dorsal root ganglia neurons from muOR knockout mice were transduced with an adenovirus expressing either receptor and their respective internalization, desensitization and trafficking profiles determined. Both receptors desensitized equally, measured by Ca2+ current inhibition, during the first 5 min of agonist exposure to DAMGO or morphine treatment, although the mu/partial differentialOR desensitized more extensively. Such rapid desensitization was unrelated to internalization as DAMGO, but not morphine, internalized both receptors after 20 min. In response to DAMGO the mu/partial differentialOR internalized more rapidly than the muOR and was trafficked through Rab4-positive endosomes and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1-labeled lysosomes whereas the muOR was trafficked through Rab4 and Rab11-positive endosomes. Chronic desensitization of the Ca2+ current response, after 24 h of morphine or DAMGO incubation, was seen in the DAMGO, but not morphine-treated, muOR-expressing cells. Such persistence of signaling after chronic morphine treatment suggests that compensation of downstream signaling systems, rather than loss of efficacy due to poor receptor recycling, is a more likely

  14. Gold Nanorods Targeted to Delta Opioid Receptor: Plasmon-Resonant Contrast and Photothermal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvar C. Black

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly targeted gold nanorods were investigated for applications in both diagnostic imaging and disease treatment with cellular resolution. The nanorods were tested in two genetically engineered cell lines derived from the human colon carcinoma HCT-116, a model for studying ligand-receptor interactions. One of these lines was modified to express delta opioid receptor (δOR and green fluorescent protein, whereas the other was receptor free and expressed a red fluorescent protein, to serve as the control. Deltorphin, a high-affinity ligand for δOR, was stably attached to the gold nanorods through a thiol-terminated linker. In a mixed population of cells, we demonstrated selective imaging and destruction of receptor-expressing cells while sparing those cells that did not express the receptor. The molecularly targeted nanorods can be used as an in vitro ligand-binding and cytotoxic treatment assay platform and could potentially be applied in vivo for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes with endoscopic technology.

  15. μ-δ opioid receptor heteromer-specific signaling in the striatum and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabli, Noufissa; Fan, Theresa; O'Dowd, Brian F; George, Susan R

    2014-07-18

    The μ-δ opioid receptor heteromer activates the pertussis toxin-resistant Gαz GTP-binding protein following stimulation by the δ-agonist deltorphin-II whereas μ- and δ-receptors activate the pertussis toxin-sensitive Gαi3 protein following stimulation by μ- and δ-agonists, respectively. Although the regulation of the μ-δ heteromer is being investigated extensively in vitro, its physiological relevance remains elusive owing to a lack of available molecular tools. We investigated μ-δ heteromer signaling under basal conditions and following prolonged morphine treatment in rodent brain regions highly co-expressing μ- and δ-receptors and Gαz. Deltorphin-II induced Gαz activation in the striatum and hippocampus, demonstrating the presence of μ-δ heteromer signaling in these brain regions. Prolonged morphine treatment, which desensitizes μ- and δ-receptor function, had no effect on μ-δ heteromer signaling in the brain. Our data demonstrate that μ-δ heteromer signaling does not desensitize and is regulated differently from μ- and δ-receptor signaling following prolonged morphine treatment.

  16. Antinociceptive and hypothermic effects of Salvinorin A are abolished in a novel strain of kappa-opioid receptor-1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansonoff, Michael A; Zhang, Jiwen; Czyzyk, Traci; Rothman, Richard B; Stewart, Jeremy; Xu, Heng; Zjwiony, Jordan; Siebert, Daniel J; Yang, Feng; Roth, Bryan L; Pintar, John E

    2006-08-01

    Salvia divinorum is a natural occurring hallucinogen that is traditionally used by the Mazatec Indians of central Mexico. The diterpene salvinorin A was identified as an active component of S. divinorum over 20 years ago, but only recently has biochemical screening indicated that a molecular target of salvinorin A in vitro is the kappa-opioid receptor. We have examined whether salvinorin A, the C2-substituted derivative salvinorinyl-2-propionate, and salvinorin B can act as kappa-opioid receptor agonists in vivo. We found that following intracerebroventricular injection over a dose range of 1 to 30 microg of both salvinorin A and salvinorinyl-2-propionate produces antinociception in wild-type mice but not in a novel strain of kappa-opioid receptor knockout mice. Moreover, both salvinorin A and salvinorinyl-2-propionate reduce rectal body temperature, similar to conventional kappa-opioid receptor agonists, in a genotype-dependent manner. In addition, we determined that salvinorin A has high affinity for kappa 1- but not kappa 2-opioid receptors, demonstrating selectivity for this receptor subclass. Finally, treatment over the same dose range with salvinorin B, which is inactive in vitro, produced neither antinociceptive nor hypothermic effects in wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that salvinorin A is the active component of S. divinorum, selective for kappa(1)-opioid receptors, and that salvinorin A and specific structurally related analogs produce behavioral effects that require the kappa-opioid receptor.

  17. Polymorphisms in exons 1B and 1C of the type I interleukin-1 receptor gene in patients with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amora, Paulo; Sato, Hélio; Girão, Manoel J B C; Silva, Ismael D C G; Schor, Eduardo

    2006-09-01

    To study possible correlation between the prevalence of polymorphisms in the type I interleukin-1 receptor gene and pelvic endometriosis. Genotypes of 223 women were analyzed: 109 women with surgically and histologically confirmed endometriosis and 114 healthy women. Distributions of two single-base polymorphisms of the human interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) gene were evaluated: PstI, due to a C-->T transition in exon 1B and BsrBI a C-->A transition at position 52 in exon 1C. Polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP) resolved on 3% agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. Genotypes for PstI polymorphisms did not differ significantly among control and endometriosis (P = 0.058). However, in relation to BsrBI polymorphism, protective risk was observed for the development of endometriosis [OR 0.39-IC 95% (0.2-0.9)]. BsrBI heterozygote genotype (C/A) showed protective effect against endometriosis development.

  18. Sodium modulates opioid receptors through a membrane component different from G-proteins. Demonstration by target size analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, S.; Costa, T.; Herz, A.

    1988-07-25

    The target size for opioid receptor binding was studied after manipulations known to affect the interactions between receptor and GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins). Addition of GTP or its analogs to the binding reaction, exposure of intact cells to pertussis toxin prior to irradiation, or treatment of irradiated membranes with N-ethylmaleimide did not change the target size (approximately equal to 100 kDa) for opioid receptors in NG 108-15 cells and rat brain. These data suggest that the 100-kDa species does not include an active subunit of a G-protein or alternatively that GTP does not promote the dissociation of the receptor-G-protein complex. The presence of Na+ (100 mM) in the radioligand binding assay induced a biphasic decay curve for agonist binding and a flattening of the monoexponential decay curve for a partial agonist. In both cases the effect was explained by an irradiation-induced loss of the low affinity state of the opioid receptor produced by the addition of Na+. This suggests that an allosteric inhibitor that mediates the effect of sodium on the receptor is destroyed at low doses of irradiation, leaving receptors which are no longer regulated by sodium. The effect of Na+ on target size was slightly increased by the simultaneous addition of GTP but was not altered by pertussis toxin treatment. Thus, the sodium unit is distinct from G-proteins and may represent a new component of the opioid receptor complex. Assuming a simple bimolecular model of one Na+ unit/receptor, the size of this inhibitor can be measured as 168 kDa.

  19. (--Pentazocine induces visceral chemical antinociception, but not thermal, mechanical, or somatic chemical antinociception, in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh Masamichi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background (--Pentazocine has been hypothesized to induce analgesia via the κ-opioid (KOP receptor, although the involvement of other opioid receptor subtypes in the effects of pentazocine remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the μ-opioid (MOP receptor in thermal, mechanical, and chemical antinociception induced by (--pentazocine using MOP receptor knockout (MOP-KO mice. Results (--Pentazocine-induced thermal antinociception, assessed by the hot-plate and tail-flick tests, was significantly reduced in heterozygous and abolished in homozygous MOP-KO mice compared with wildtype mice. The results obtained from the (--pentazocine-induced mechanical and somatic chemical antinociception experiments, which used the hind-paw pressure and formalin tests, were similar to the results obtained from the thermal antinociception experiments in these mice. However, (--pentazocine retained its ability to induce significant visceral chemical antinociception, assessed by the writhing test, in homozygous MOP-KO mice, an effect that was completely blocked by pretreatment with nor-binaltorphimine, a KOP receptor antagonist. In vitro binding and cyclic adenosine monophosphate assays showed that (--pentazocine possessed higher affinity for KOP and MOP receptors than for δ-opioid receptors. Conclusions The present study demonstrated the abolition of the thermal, mechanical, and somatic chemical antinociceptive effects of (--pentazocine and retention of the visceral chemical antinociceptive effects of (--pentazocine in MOP-KO mice. These results suggest that the MOP receptor plays a pivotal role in thermal, mechanical, and somatic chemical antinociception induced by (--pentazocine, whereas the KOP receptor is involved in visceral chemical antinociception induced by (--pentazocine.

  20. LACKING EXON5 OF VARIANT ESTROGEN RECEPTOR IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lei; Gong Ping; Sun Sulian; Dong Zhiwei

    1998-01-01

    Methods: The target sequence of ER RNA covering exon4~6(1082~1520bp) was amplified in 7 clinical human breast cancer tissues by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques.Results: PCR products were transferred to nitrocellulose membranes and hybridized using a [r-32P]-ATP labeled ER 29 oligonulceotide probe representing the antisense strand of the ER Cdna sequence 1271~1299. Specific bands were found at 438 and 300 base pairs in two tumors. The 300 base pair of PCR product was recovered from ER+/PR+ and ER+/PR- tumor, respectively.Conclusion: Dideoxy sequence analysis revealed that they contained the variant ER completely missing exon 5.

  1. Ultrastructural relationship between the mu opioid receptor and its interacting protein, GPR177, in striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arith-Ruth S; Levenson, Robert; Berrettini, Wade; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2010-10-28

    GPR177, the mammalian ortholog of Drosophila Wntless/Evi/Sprinter, was recently identified as a novel mu-opioid receptor (MOR) interacting protein. GPR177 is a trans-membrane protein pivotal to mediating the secretion of Wnt signaling proteins. Wnt proteins, in turn, are essential in regulating neuronal development, a phenomenon inhibited upon chronic exposure to MOR agonists such as morphine and heroin. We previously showed that GPR177 and MOR are co-localized in the mouse dorsolateral striatum; however, the nature of this interaction was not fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we examined cellular substrates for interactions between GPR177 and MOR using a combined immunogold-silver and peroxidase detection approach in coronal sections in the dorsolateral segment of the striatum. Semi-quantitative analysis of the ultrastructural distribution of GPR177 and MOR in striatal somata and in dendritic processes showed that, of the somata and dendritic processes exhibiting GPR177, 32% contained MOR immunolabeling while for profiles exhibiting MOR, 37% also contained GPR177 immunoreactivity. GPR177-labeled particles were localized predominantly along both the plasma membrane and within the cytoplasm of MOR-labeled dendrites. Somata and dendritic processes that contained both GPR177 and MOR more often received symmetric (inhibitory-type) synapses from unlabeled axon terminals. To further define the phenotype of GPR177 and MOR-containing cellular profiles, triple immunofluorescence detection showed that GPR177 and MOR are localized in neurons containing the opioid peptide, enkephalin, within the dorsolateral striatum. The results provide an anatomical substrate for interactions between MOR and its interacting protein, GPR177, in striatal opioid-containing neurons that may underlie the morphological alterations produced in neurons by chronic opiate use.

  2. Immunohistochemical observations of methionine-enkephalin and delta opioid receptor in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ailong; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan

    2013-02-01

    The study was designed to determine whether methionine-enkephalin (met-Enk) or delta opioid receptor was present in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. The results showed that they were both in the bulbus oris, esophagus, crop, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, posterior salivary glands of O. ocellatus, one of them, met-Enk in the rectum, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland. And the distributions were extensive in the digestive system. Strong or general met-Enk immunoreactivity was observed in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, anterior salivary glands and the adventitia of the intestine and rectum, and so was the delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, and crop, however, they were weak in other parts. Combining with delta opioid receptor, met-Enk may be involved in the regulations of food intake, absorption, movement of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and secretion of digestive gland. The different densities of met-Enk and delta opioid receptor may be related to the different functions in the digestive system of O. ocellatus.

  3. Negative regulation of opioid receptor-G protein-Ca2+ channel pathway by the nootropic nefiracetam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Mitsunobu; Furukawa, Taiji; Ogihara, Yoshiyasu; Watabe, Shigeo; Shiotani, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Yasuro; Nishimura, Masao; Nukada, Toshihide

    2004-10-01

    It has recently been reported that nefiracetam, a nootropic agent, is capable of attenuating the development of morphine dependence and tolerance in mice. The mechanism of this antimorphine action is not clear. The present study was designed to address this issue using Xenopus oocytes expressing delta-opioid receptors, G proteins (G(i3alpha) or G(o1alpha)), and N-type (alpha1B) Ca2+ channels. Membrane currents through Ca2+ channels were recorded from the oocytes under voltage-clamp conditions. The Ca2+ channel currents were reduced reversibly by 40-60% in the presence of 1 microM leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk). The Leu-Enk-induced current inhibition was recovered promptly by nefiracetam (1 microM), while control currents in the absence of Leu-Enk were not influenced by nefiracetam. A binding assay revealed that 3H-nefiracetam preferentially bound to the membrane fraction of oocytes expressing G(i3alpha). When delta-opioid receptors were coexpressed, the binding was significantly increased. However, an additional expression of alpha1B Ca2+ channels decreased the binding. The results suggest that nefiracetam preferentially binds to G(i3alpha) associated with delta-opioid receptors, thereby inhibiting the association of G proteins with Ca2+ channels. In conclusion, nefiracetam negatively regulates the inhibitory pathway of opioid receptor-G protein-Ca2+ channel.

  4. Deltorphin II enhances extracellular levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens via opioid receptor-independent mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murakawa, K.; Hirose, N.; Takada, K.; Suzuki, T.; Nagase, H.; Cools, A.R.; Koshikawa, N.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the delta2-opioid receptor agonist, deltorphin II, on extracellular levels of dopamine in the rat nucleus accumbens were investigated in awake animals by in vivo brain microdialysis. In agreement with previous studies, perfusion of deltorphin II (50.0 nmol) into the nucleus accumbens

  5. mu-opioid receptor-stimulated synthesis of reactive oxygen species is mediated via phospholipase D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Thomas; Seifert, Anja; Wu, Dai-Fei; Rankovic, Marija; Kraus, Jürgen; Börner, Christine; Brandenburg, Lars-Ove; Schröder, Helmut; Höllt, Volker

    2009-08-01

    We have recently shown that the activation of the rat mu-opioid receptor (MOPr, also termed MOR1) by the mu-agonist [D-Ala(2), Me Phe(4), Glyol(5)]enkephalin (DAMGO) leads to an increase in phospholipase D2 (PLD2) activity and an induction of receptor endocytosis, whereas the agonist morphine which does not induce opioid receptor endocytosis fails to activate PLD2. We report here that MOPr-mediated activation of PLD2 stimulates production of reactive oxygen molecules via NADH/NADPH oxidase. Oxidative stress was measured with the fluorescent probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and the role of PLD2 was assessed by the PLD inhibitor D-erythro-sphingosine (sphinganine) and by PLD2-small interfering RNA transfection. To determine whether NADH/NADPH oxidase contributes to opioid-induced production of reactive oxygen species, mu-agonist-stimulated cells were pre-treated with the flavoprotein inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium, or the specific NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Our results demonstrate that receptor-internalizing agonists (like DAMGO, beta-endorphin, methadone, piritramide, fentanyl, sufentanil, and etonitazene) strongly induce NADH/NADPH-mediated ROS synthesis via PLD-dependent signaling pathways, whereas agonists that do not induce MOPr endocytosis and PLD2 activation (like morphine, buprenorphine, hydromorphone, and oxycodone) failed to activate ROS synthesis in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. These findings indicate that the agonist-selective PLD2 activation plays a key role in the regulation of NADH/NADPH-mediated ROS formation by opioids.

  6. Isolation and chemical modification of clerodane diterpenoids from Salvia species as potential agonists at the kappa-opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiqiang; Husbands, Stephen M; Mahon, Mary F; Traynor, John R; Rowan, Michael G

    2007-07-01

    The clerodane diterpenoid salvinorin A (1), the main active component of the psychotropic herb Salvia divinorum, has been reported to be a potent agonist at the kappa-opioid receptor. Computer modeling suggested that splendidin (2) from S. splendens, as well as related compounds, might possess similar activities. In the present study, this hypothesis was tested by determination of the binding properties of a series of structural congeners, compounds 2-8, at the mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors. However, none of these compounds showed significant binding to any of the opioid-receptor subtypes, thus disproving the above hypothesis. The novel compounds 7 and 8 were obtained semi-synthetically by selective modification of salvifarin (5), isolated from Salvia farinacea, upon epoxide-ring opening with AcOH in the presence of indium(III) triflate. Also, the X-ray crystal structure of salvifaricin (6; Fig.), obtained from S. farinacea, was determined for the first time and used, in combination with in-depth NMR experiments, to elucidate the absolute configurations of the new products. Our experiments demonstrate that the relatively well-accessible diterpenoid 6 could be used as starting material for future studies into the structure-activity relationship at the kappa-opioid receptor.

  7. Multiscale design of coarse-grained elastic network-based potentials for the μ opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossépré, Mathieu; Leherte, Laurence; Laaksonen, Aatto; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    Despite progress in computer modeling, most biological processes are still out of reach when using all-atom (AA) models. Coarse-grained (CG) models allow classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to be accelerated. Although simplification of spatial resolution at different levels is often investigated, simplification of the CG potential in itself has been less common. CG potentials are often similar to AA potentials. In this work, we consider the design and reliability of purely mechanical CG models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In this sense, CG force fields (FF) consist of a set of holonomic constraints guided by an elastic network model (ENM). Even though ENMs are used widely to perform normal mode analysis (NMA), they are not often implemented as a single FF in the context of MD simulations. In this work, various ENM-like potentials were investigated by varying their force constant schemes and connectivity patterns. A method was established to systematically parameterize ENM-like potentials at different spatial resolutions by using AA data. To do so, new descriptors were introduced. The choice of conformation descriptors that also include flexibility information is important for a reliable parameterization of ENMs with different degrees of sensitivity. Hence, ENM-like potentials, with specific parameters, can be sufficient to accurately reproduce AA MD simulations of μOR at highly coarse-grained resolutions. Therefore, the essence of the flexibility properties of μOR can be captured with simple models at different CG spatial resolutions, opening the way to mechanical approaches to understanding GPCR functions. Graphical Abstract All atom structure, residue interaction network and coarse-grained elastic network models of the μ opioid receptor (μOR).

  8. Collybolide is a novel biased agonist of κ-opioid receptors with potent antipruritic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Bobeck, Erin N.; Fakira, Amanda K.; Massaro, Nicholas P.; Sharma, Indrajeet; Cavé, Adrien; Hamm, Heidi E.; Parello, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Among the opioid receptors, the κ-opioid receptor (κOR) has been gaining considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of complex CNS disorders including depression, visceral pain, and cocaine addiction. With an interest in discovering novel ligands targeting κOR, we searched natural products for unusual scaffolds and identified collybolide (Colly), a nonnitrogenous sesquiterpene from the mushroom Collybia maculata. This compound has a furyl-δ-lactone core similar to that of Salvinorin A (Sal A), another natural product from the plant Salvia divinorum. Characterization of the molecular pharmacological properties reveals that Colly, like Sal A, is a highly potent and selective κOR agonist. However, the two compounds differ in certain signaling and behavioral properties. Colly exhibits 10- to 50-fold higher potency in activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway compared with Sal A. Taken with the fact that the two compounds are equipotent for inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity, these results suggest that Colly behaves as a biased agonist of κOR. Behavioral studies also support the biased agonistic activity of Colly in that it exhibits ∼10-fold higher potency in blocking non–histamine-mediated itch compared with Sal A, and this difference is not seen in pain attenuation by these two compounds. These results represent a rare example of functional selectivity by two natural products that act on the same receptor. The biased agonistic activity, along with an easily modifiable structure compared with Sal A, makes Colly an ideal candidate for the development of novel therapeutics targeting κOR with reduced side effects. PMID:27162327

  9. Central delta-opioid receptor interactions and the inhibition of reflex urinary bladder contractions in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, A.; Nunan, L.; Wire, W.

    1985-01-01

    The in vivo effects of a number of opioid agonists and antagonists were studied on the spontaneous reflex contractions of the urinary bladder recorded isometrically in the rat anesthetized with urethane. All substances were administered into the central nervous system by the intracereboventricular (i.c.v.) or spinal intrathecal (i.t.) route. The conformationally restricted enkephalin analogues [2-D-penicillamine, 5-L-cysteine] enkephalin (DPLCE), [2-D-penicillamine, 5-L-penicillamine] enkephalin (DPLPE) and [2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine] enkephalin (DPDPE) produced dose-related inhibition of reflex bladder contractions when administered by the i.c.v. or i.t. route. Both the novel delta-opioid receptor antagonist ICI 154,129 (200-600 micrograms) [N,N-bisallyl-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Psi-(CH2S)-Phe-Leu-OH) and ICI 174,864 (1-3 micrograms) [N,N-dially-Tyr-Aib-Aib-Phe-Leu-OH: Aib = alpha-aminoisobutyric acid] attenuated or abolished the effects of DPLCE, DPLPE and DPDPE when administered by the i.c.v. or i.t. route. The antagonism observed was selective since the equipotent inhibition produced by the mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, Me-Phe4, Gly(ol)5] enkephalin (DAGO) was unaffected. Overall, ICI 154,129 was considerably weaker than ICI 174,864 and both antagonists inhibited bladder activity at doses higher than those required to demonstrate delta-receptor antagonism. Further studies of the agonistic effect of ICI 174,864 showed that it was insensitive to low doses of naloxone (2 micrograms, i.c.v. or i.t.) but could be abolished by higher (10-15 micrograms) doses of naloxone. These observations suggested that the agonistic effect of ICI 174,864 was not mediated by mu-opioid receptor. beta-Endorphin (0.2-1.0 micrograms, i.c.v.) inhibited bladder contractions but following recovery from this effect, appeared to prevent the expression of delta-receptor antagonism by ICI 174,864. In addition a previously subthreshold dose of ICI 174,864 now exhibited marked agonistic

  10. Graphene decorated with mu-opioid receptor: the ionic screening effect and detection of enkephalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jinglei; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Liu, Renyu; A. T. Charlie Johnson Team; Renyu Liu Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the properties of graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) decorated with a computaionally redesigned, water-soluble variant of the human mu-opioid receptor (wsMOR) in physiological buffer solution. The shift of the Fermi level in the GFETs is quantitatively described by chemical-gating effect of charges on the wsMOR that are screened by the ionic solution. Our results suggest that sensitivity to the molecular target is lost when the Debye screening length of the solution is shorter than the distance from the graphene to the wsMOR; thus de-salting may be necessary when wsMOR decorated GFETs are used as biosensors in solution. We used this insight to detect DAMGO, a synthetic analog to the endogenous opioid peptide encephalin, at a concentration of 10 pM (5.1 pg/mL) in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) diluted to 5% of its normal salt concentration. When the sensors were measured in a dry state, the limit of detection for DAGMO was 1 pM (0.5 pg/mL), one-third of the baseline in human body.Funding for this work was provided by DARPA.

  11. Behavioural activation system sensitivity is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Tomi; Tuominen, Lauri; Manninen, Sandra; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Nuutila, Pirjo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-08-01

    The reinforcement-sensitivity theory proposes that behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS, respectively) guide approach and avoidance behaviour in potentially rewarding and punishing situations. Their baseline activity presumably explains individual differences in behavioural dispositions when a person encounters signals of reward and harm. Yet, neurochemical bases of BAS and BIS have remained poorly understood. Here we used in vivo positron emission tomography with a µ-opioid receptor (MOR) specific ligand [(11)C]carfentanil to test whether individual differences in MOR availability would be associated with BAS or BIS. We scanned 49 healthy subjects and measured their BAS and BIS sensitivities using the BIS/BAS scales. BAS but not BIS sensitivity was positively associated with MOR availability in frontal cortex, amygdala, ventral striatum, brainstem, cingulate cortex and insula. Strongest associations were observed for the BAS subscale 'Fun Seeking'. Our results suggest that endogenous opioid system underlies BAS, and that differences in MOR availability could explain inter-individual differences in reward seeking behaviour.

  12. Molecular characterization and functional expression of opioid receptor—like1 receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUYALAN; LUPU; 等

    1997-01-01

    The opioid receptor-like1 receptor(ORL1),an orphan receptor whose human and murine complementary DNAs,has been characterized recently.ORL1 transcripts are particularly abundant in the central nervous system.We demonstrated that ORL1 expressed in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y cell lines by radioligand binding assay,reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern analysis in the present study.Stimulation with ORL1 specific agonist,nociceptin/orphanin FQ,increased [35S]GTPγS binding to SK-N-SH cell membranes (EC50=14±0.45 nM),and attenuated forskolin-stimulated accumulation of cellular cAMP(EC50=0.80±0.45 nM),indicative that activation of ORL1 activates G proteins and inhibits adenylyl cyclase.Activation of ORL1 receptor was also accessed using CHO:hORL1 cell line by microphysiometer.Treatment of nociceptin/orphanin FQ increased extracellular acidification rate significantly.

  13. Molecular modeling directed synthesis of a bicyclic analogue of the delta opioid receptor agonist SNC 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bettina; Englberger, Werner; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2005-06-01

    In order to find novel delta opioid receptor agonists, the pharmacophoric benzhydryl moiety of the lead compound SNC 80 (1) was dissected and the phenyl residues were attached to different positions of the 6,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane core system (4). The position of the carboxamido group, the stereochemistry, the C3/C4 bond order and the kind and length of the spacer X were considered. The resulting compounds were compared with the four energetically most favourable conformations of SNC 80 by a multifit analysis. These calculations led to the structures 5-10, which fit best to SNC 80. Herein the synthesis of one of these compounds (9) is described. Starting from (S)-glutamate two alternative routes are detailed to obtain the key intermediate 14. A variation of the Dieckmann cyclization, which uses trapping of the first cyclization product with ClSiMe(3) provided the mixed acetal 20, which was carefully hydrolyzed to yield the bicyclic ketone 17. Stereoselective addition of phenylmagnesium bromide, dehydration, LiAlH(4) reduction and exchange of the N-6 residue afforded the designed compound 9. The affinities of 9 towards delta, mu, kappa and ORL1 receptors were determined in receptor binding studies with radioligands. Only moderate receptor affinity was found.

  14. μ-Opioid receptor activation and noradrenaline transport inhibition by tapentadol in rat single locus coeruleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Tzschentke, Thomas M; Christie, MacDonald J

    2015-01-01

    Tapentadol is a novel analgesic that combines moderate μ-opioid receptor agonism and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in a single molecule. Both mechanisms of action are involved in producing analgesia; however, the potency and efficacy of tapentadol in individual neurons has not been characterized. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) (KIR 3.x) currents were made from rat locus coeruleus neurons in brain slices to investigate the potency and relative efficacy of tapentadol and compare its intrinsic activity with other clinically used opioids. Tapentadol showed agonist activity at μ receptors and was approximately six times less potent than morphine with respect to KIR 3.x current modulation. The intrinsic activity of tapentadol was lower than [Met]enkephalin, morphine and oxycodone, but higher than buprenorphine and pentazocine. Tapentadol inhibited the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) with potency similar to that at μ receptors. The interaction between these two mechanisms of action was additive in individual LC neurons. Tapentadol displays similar potency for both µ receptor activation and NAT inhibition in functioning neurons. The intrinsic activity of tapentadol at the μ receptor lies between that of buprenorphine and oxycodone, potentially explaining the favourable profile of side effects, related to μ receptors. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Quantitative encoding of a partial agonist effect on individual opioid receptors by multi-site phosphorylation and threshold detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Elaine K.; Trester-Zedlitz, Michelle; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Kotowski, Sarah J.; Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Burlingame, Alma L.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Many drugs act as partial agonists of seven-transmembrane signaling receptors when compared to endogenous ligands. Partial agonism is well described as a 'macroscopic' property manifest at the level of physiological systems or cell populations, but it is not known whether partial agonists encode discrete regulatory information at the 'microscopic' level of individual receptors. We addressed this question by focusing on morphine, a partial agonist drug for µ-type opioid peptide receptors, and combining quantitative mass spectrometry with cell biological analysis to investigate morphine's reduced efficacy for promoting receptor endocytosis when compared to a peptide full agonist. We show that these chemically distinct ligands produce a complex, and qualitatively similar mixture of phosphorylated opioid receptor forms in intact cells. Quantitatively, however, the agonists promote markedly disproportional production of multi-site phosphorylation involving a specific Ser/Thr motif, whose modification at more than one residue is essential for efficient recruitment of the adaptor protein β-arrestin to clathrin-coated pits that mediate subsequent endocytosis of MORs. These results reveal quantitative encoding of agonist-selective endocytosis at the level of individual opioid receptors, based on the conserved biochemical principles of multi-site phosphorylation and threshold detection. PMID:21868358

  16. Synthesis and characterization of a dual kappa-delta opioid receptor agonist analgesic blocking cocaine reward behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, András; Marrone, Gina F; Eans, Shainnel O; Ganno, Michelle L; Subrath, Joan J; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Hunkele, Amanda; Pasternak, Gavril W; McLaughlin, Jay P; Majumdar, Susruta

    2015-11-18

    3-Iodobenzoyl naltrexamine (IBNtxA) is a potent analgesic belonging to the pharmacologically diverse 6β-amidoepoxymorphinan group of opioids. We present the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of five analogs of IBNtxA. The scaffold of IBNtxA was modified by removing the 14-hydroxy group, incorporating a 7,8 double bond and various N-17 alkyl substituents. The structural modifications resulted in analogs with picomolar affinities for opioid receptors. The lead compound (MP1104) was found to exhibit approximately 15-fold greater antinociceptive potency (ED50 = 0.33 mg/kg) compared with morphine, mediated through the activation of kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Despite its kappa agonism, this lead derivative did not cause place aversion or preference in mice in a place-conditioning assay, even at doses 3 times the analgesic ED50. However, pretreatment with the lead compound prevented the reward behavior associated with cocaine in a conditioned place preference assay. Together, these results suggest the promise of dual acting kappa- and delta-opioid receptor agonists as analgesics and treatments for cocaine addiction.

  17. Genetic variation in mu-opioid-receptor-interacting proteins and smoking cessation in a nicotine replacement therapy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Riju; Jepson, Christopher; Wileyto, E Paul; Dahl, John P; Patterson, Freda; Rukstalis, Margaret; Pinto, Angela; Berrettini, Wade; Lerman, Caryn

    2007-11-01

    Extending a previous finding of an association between functional genetic variation in the mu-opioid receptor gene and response to nicotine replacement therapy, we explored the role of genetic variants in two genes encoding mu-opioid-receptor-interacting proteins, namely ARRB2 and HINT1. Participants were 374 smokers treated for nicotine dependence with either transdermal nicotine or nicotine nasal spray for 8 weeks in an open-label randomized trial. In a logistic regression model controlling for OPRM1 genotype, treatment type, and other covariates, we found no significant main effect of ARRB2 genotype on abstinence at either end of treatment or 6-month follow-up. Participants with the HINT1 TT genotype had significantly higher abstinence rates at 6-month follow-up, but this may not be a pharmacogenetic effect, given that the participants were drug free during this time. Haplotype analysis did not reveal any significant associations for either gene. We found an interaction of ARRB2 and OPRM1 genotype on abstinence at 6 months that approached significance; however, interpretation of this finding is limited by the small number of participants with the minor alleles for both genes. Although these data do not provide support for the role of genetic variation in these mu-opioid-receptor-interacting proteins and smoking cessation, further exploration of opioid pathway genes in larger prospective pharmacogenetic trials may be warranted.

  18. Lithium attenuated the behavioral despair induced by acute neurogenic stress through blockade of opioid receptors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaloo, Pegah; Sadeghi, Banafshe; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Zolfagharie, Samira; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is disease with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Stressful events lead to depression and they can be used as a model of depression in rodents. In this study we aimed to investigate whether lithium modifies the stressed-induced depression through blockade of opioid receptors in mice. We used foot shock stress as stressor and forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT) to evaluation the behavioral responses in mice. We also used naltrexone hydrochloride (as opioid receptor antagonist), and morphine (as opioid receptor agonist). Our results displayed that foot-shock stress significantly increased the immobility time in TST and FST but it could not change the locomotor behavior in OFT. When we combined the low concentrations of lithium and naltrexone a significant reduction in immobility time was seen in the FST and TST in comparison with control foot-shock stressed group administered saline only. Despite the fact that our data showed low concentrations of lithium, when administered independently did not significantly affect the immobility time. Also our data indicated that concurrent administration of lithium and naltrexone had no effect on open field test. Further we demonstrated that simultaneous administration of morphine and lithium reverses the antidepressant like effect of active doses of lithium. Our data acclaimed that we lithium can augment stressed-induced depression and opioid pathways are involved in this action.

  19. Synthesis of radioiodinated naltrindole analogues: Ligands for studies of delta opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinter, Chris M.; Lever, John R

    1995-07-01

    Analogues of naltrindole and N1'-methylnaltrindole having radioiodine in the 7'-position of the indole ring have been prepared for evaluation as delta opioid receptor ligands. The no-carrier-added radiosyntheses were conducted by Cu(I) assisted nucleophilic exchange of radioiodide for bromide under reducing conditions at 190 deg. C. A combination of HPLC and solid-phase extraction gave the {sup 125}I- or {sup 123}I-labeled products in satisfactory yields (47%) with high radiochemical purities (>98%) and high specific activities ({sup 125}I: 43-68 GBq/{mu}mol, 1155-1833 mCi/{mu}mol; {sup 123}I: > 92 GBq/{mu}mol, 2500 mCi/{mu}mol)

  20. Expression of mu-opioid receptors in human chronic inflamed knee joint synovium tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hong-bin; HE Xing-ying; XU Hai-tao; ZHU Qiu-feng; WANG Ya-hua; SHI Xue-yin

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To examine the changes of mu-opioid receptors (MORs) expression in human chronic inflamed knee joint synovium tissue. Methods:Knee joint synovium tissues were taken from 21 patients with chronic arthritis(inflamed group) and 6 fresh bodies with normal knee joints(control group). And the expression of MORs was detected by using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry (FCM) and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Results: The expression of MORs in the inflamed group was significantly higher than that in the normal group by using the 3 techniques(P<0.05).Conclusion: Chronic inflammation enhances the up-regulation of MORs in human knee joint synovium tissue.

  1. 8-epi-Salvinorin B: crystal structure and affinity at the κ opioid receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béguin Cécile

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been many reports of epimerization of salvinorins at C-8 under basic conditions, but little evidence has been presented to establish the structure of these compounds. We report here the first crystal structure of an 8-epi-salvinorin or derivative: the title compound, 2b. The lactone adopts a boat conformation with the furan equatorial. Several lines of evidence suggest that epimerization proceeds via enolization of the lactone rather than a previously proposed indirect mechanism. Consistent with the general trend in related compounds, the title compound showed lower affinity at the kappa opioid receptor than the natural epimer salvinorin B (2a. The related 8-epi-acid 4b showed no affinity.

  2. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Propofol-Induced Cognitive Impairment via an Opioid Receptor-Independent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Xin-Juan; Wang, Na; Cui, Cai-Lian; Wu, Liu-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    While general anesthesia is known to induce cognitive deficits in elderly and pediatric patients, its influence on adults is less well-characterized. The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of propofol on the learning and memory of young adult rats, as well as the potential neuroprotective role of electroacupuncture (EA) in propofol-induced cognitive impairment. Intravenous anesthesia with propofol was administered to young adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 6 h, and EA was administered three times before and after anesthesia. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was conducted to determine the rat's cognitive performance following the anesthesia treatment. Our results showed that propofol induced obvious cognitive impairment in young adult rats, which could be ameliorated by multiple EA treatments. Moreover, the decreased level of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (pGSK-3β) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus accompanying the cognitive impairment was also reversed by EA treatment. Further experiments demonstrated that neither 2 nor 10 mg/kg (I.P.) naloxone blocked the effect of EA, indicating that the neuroprotective effect of EA on propofol-induced cognitive impairment was not mediated via the opioid receptors. The present study suggests that EA could ameliorate the cognitive impairment induced by prolonged anesthesia with propofol in young adult rats, which is likely associated with pGSK-3β levels in the CA1 independently of opioid receptors. These findings imply that EA may be used as a potential neuroprotective therapy for post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD).

  3. Potent delta-opioid receptor agonists containing the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Guerrini, Remo; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Bryant, Sharon D; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2002-12-01

    Conversion of delta-opioid receptor antagonists containing the 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (Tic) pharmacophore into potent delta-agonists required a third heteroaromatic nucleus, such as 1H-benzimidazole-2-yl (Bid) and a linker of specified length both located C-terminally to Tic in the general formula H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(R)-R'. The distance between Tic and Bid is a determining factor responsible for the acquisition of delta agonism (2, 2', 3, 4, 6) or delta antagonism (8). Compounds containing a C-terminal Ala (1, 1'), Asp (5), or Asn (7) with an amide (1, 1', 5) or free acid group (7) served as delta-antagonist controls lacking the third heteroaromatic ring. A change in chirality of the spacer (2, 2') or inclusion of a negative charge via derivatives of Asp (4, 6) resulted in potent delta agonism and moderate mu agonism, although delta-receptor affinity decreased about 10-fold for 4 while mu affinity fell by over 2 orders of magnitude. Repositioning of the negative charge in the linker altered activity: H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(CH(2)-Bid)COOH (6) maintained high delta affinity (K(i) = 0.042 nM) and delta agonism (IC(50) = 0.015 nM), but attachment of the free acid group to Bid [H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(2)-Bid(CH(2)-COOH) (9)] reconstituted delta antagonism (K(e) = 0.27 nM). The data demonstrate that a linker separating the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore and Bid, regardless of the presence of a negative charge, is important in the acquisition of opioids exhibiting potent delta agonism and weak mu agonism from a parent delta antagonist.

  4. Opioid Basics: Prescription Opioids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury Violence Prevention WISQARS (Injury & Death Data) Prescription Opioids Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prescription opioids ... overdose before they start. Risk Factors for Prescription Opioid Abuse and Overdose Research shows that some risk ...

  5. Nitric oxide and zinc-mediated protein assemblies involved in mu opioid receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, María; Garzón, Javier

    2013-12-01

    Opioids are among the most effective analgesics in controlling the perception of intense pain, although their continuous use decreases their potency due to the development of tolerance. The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor system is currently considered to be the most relevant functional antagonist of morphine analgesia. In the postsynapse of different brain regions the C terminus of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) associates with NR1 subunits of NMDARs, as well as with a series of signaling proteins, such as neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)/nitric oxide (NO), protein kinase C (PKC), calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). NO is implicated in redox signaling and PKC falls under the regulation of zinc metabolism, suggesting that these signaling elements might participate in the regulation of MOR activity by the NMDAR. In this review, we discuss the influence of redox signaling in the mechanisms whose plasticity triggers opioid tolerance. Thus, the MOR C terminus assembles a series of signaling proteins around the homodimeric histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1). The NMDAR NR1 subunit and the regulator of G protein signaling RGSZ2 bind HINT1 in a zinc-independent manner, with RGSZ2 associating with nNOS and regulating MOR-induced production of NO. This NO acts on the RGSZ2 zinc finger, providing the zinc ions that are required for PKC/Raf-1 cysteine-rich domains to simultaneously bind to the histidines present in the HINT1 homodimer. The MOR-induced activation of phospholipase β (PLCβ) regulates PKC, which increases the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by acting on NOX/NADPH, consolidating the long-term PKC activation required to regulate the Raf-1/MAPK cascade and enhancing NMDAR function. Thus, RGSZ2 serves as a Redox Zinc Switch that converts NO signals into Zinc signals, thereby modulating Redox Sensor Proteins like PKCγ and Raf-1. Accordingly, redox-dependent and

  6. Influence of intramuscular heat stimulation on modulation of nociception: complex role of central opioid receptors in descending facilitation and inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hao-Jun; Lei, Jing; Ye, Gang; Fan, Xiao-Li; Li, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that the threshold to activate 'silent' or inactive descending facilitation of nociception is lower than that of descending inhibition. Thus, the development of pain therapy to effectively drive descending inhibition alone, without the confounding influences of facilitation is a challenge. To address this issue we investigated the effects of intramuscular stimulation with a heating-needle on spinal nociception, assessed by measuring nociceptive paw withdrawal reflex in rats. Additionally, involvement of the thalamic 'nociceptive discriminators' (thalamic mediodorsal (MD) and ventromedial (VM) nuclei), and opioid-mediated mechanisms were further explored. Descending facilitation and inhibition were elicited by 46°C noxious heating-needle stimulation, and were regulated by thalamic MD and VM nuclei, respectively. In contrast, innocuous heating-needle stimulation at a temperature of 43°C elicited descending inhibition modulated by the thalamic VM nucleus alone. Microinjection of μ/δ/κ-opioid receptor antagonists β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride/naltrindole/nor-binaltorphimine, into the VM nucleus attenuated the 46°C intramuscular heating-needle stimulation-evoked descending inhibition, whereas treatment of the MD nucleus with β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride significantly decreased the descending facilitation. By contrast, descending inhibition evoked by 43°C heating-needle stimulation was only depressed by naltrindole, as opposed to μ- and κ-opioid receptor antagonists, which failed to influence descending inhibition. The present study reveals distinct roles of μ-opioid receptors in the function of thalamic MD and VM nuclei,which exert facilitatory and inhibitory actions on nociception. Furthermore, innocuous, but not noxious, intramuscular heating-needle stimulation targeting δ-opioid receptors is suggested to be a promising avenue for the effective inhibition of pain.

  7. Association between the Growth Hormone Receptor Exon 3 Polymorphism and Metabolic Factors in Korean Patients with Acromegaly

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    Hye Yoon Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis study investigated the association between the frequency of growth hormone receptor (GHR exon 3 polymorphism (exon 3 deletion; d3-GHR and metabolic factors in patients with acromegaly in Korea.MethodsDNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 30 unrelated patients with acromegaly. GHR genotypes were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and correlated with demographic data and laboratory parameters.ResultsNo patient had the d3/d3 genotype, while four (13.3% had the d3/fl genotype, and 26 (86.7% had the fl/fl genotype. Body mass index (BMI in patients with the d3/fl genotype was significantly higher than in those with the fl/fl genotype (P=0.001. Age, gender, blood pressure, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth hormone, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels showed no significant differences between the two genotypes.ConclusionThe d3-GHR polymorphism may be associated with high BMI but not with other demographic characteristics or laboratory parameters.

  8. Dopamine D4 receptor exon III polymorphism, adverse life events and personality traits in a nonclinical German adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Iris; Spangler, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Personality and temperament embrace a wide area of both psychological and behavioral processes which are also based on disposition. A functional polymorphism in exon III of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been a highly suspect genetic marker for personality in spite of ambiguous results. The present study aimed to further elucidate the relationship between DRD4, negative life events and personality in a representative nonclinical sample. Hundred sixty-seven Germans completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and the California Adult Q-Sort. A factor analysis revealed 3 factors: emotional stability, social orientation and impulsivity. DNA from buccal cells was genotyped for the DRD4 variable-number tandem-repeat exon III polymorphism with respect to presence versus absence of the DRD4 7-repeat allele. Adverse life events were assessed by means of the Adverse Life Events Scale. Men carrying the DRD4 7-repeat allele were more impulsive than those without. Male 7-repeat carriers were more emotionally instable than others, but only when they experienced a large amount of negative life events. No genotype-personality relationships were found for women. The results indicate gender-specific influences of the DRD4 gene on human behavior and invite researchers to further investigate gene-environment correlations on personality traits.

  9. Structural Determinants for the Binding of Morphinan Agonists to the μ-Opioid Receptor.

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    Xiaojing Cong

    Full Text Available Atomistic descriptions of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR noncovalently binding with two of its prototypical morphinan agonists, morphine (MOP and hydromorphone (HMP, are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Subtle differences between the binding modes and hydration properties of MOP and HMP emerge from the calculations. Alchemical free energy perturbation calculations show qualitative agreement with in vitro experiments performed in this work: indeed, the binding free energy difference between MOP and HMP computed by forward and backward alchemical transformation is 1.2±1.1 and 0.8±0.8 kcal/mol, respectively, to be compared with 0.4±0.3 kcal/mol from experiment. Comparison with an MD simulation of μOR covalently bound with the antagonist β-funaltrexamine hints to agonist-induced conformational changes associated with an early event of the receptor's activation: a shift of the transmembrane helix 6 relative to the transmembrane helix 3 and a consequent loss of the key R165-T279 interhelical hydrogen bond. This finding is consistent with a previous proposal suggesting that the R165-T279 hydrogen bond between these two helices indicates an inactive receptor conformation.

  10. Opioid receptor probes derived from cycloaddition of the hallucinogen natural product salvinorin A.

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    Lozama, Anthony; Cunningham, Christopher W; Caspers, Michael J; Douglas, Justin T; Dersch, Christina M; Rothman, Richard B; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2011-04-25

    As part of our continuing efforts toward more fully understanding the structure-activity relationships of the neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A, we report the synthesis and biological characterization of unique cycloadducts through [4+2] Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Microwave-assisted methods were developed and successfully employed, aiding in functionalizing the chemically sensitive salvinorin A scaffold. This demonstrates the first reported results for both cycloaddition of the furan ring and functionalization via microwave-assisted methodology of the salvinorin A skeleton. The cycloadducts yielded herein introduce electron-withdrawing substituents and bulky aromatic groups into the C-12 position. Kappa opioid (KOP) receptor space was explored through aromatization of the bent oxanorbornadiene system possessed by the cycloadducts to a planar phenyl ring system. Although dimethyl- and diethylcarboxylate analogues 5 and 6 retain some affinity and selectivity for KOP receptors and are full agonists, their aromatized counterparts 13 and 14 have reduced affinity for KOP receptors. The methods developed herein signify a novel approach toward rapidly probing the structure-activity relationships of furan-containing natural products.

  11. The endogenous mu-opioid receptor agonists endomorphins 1 and 2 have novel hypotensive activity in the rabbit.

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    Champion, H C; Zadina, J E; Kastin, A J; Hackler, L; Ge, L J; Kadowitz, P J

    1997-06-27

    The endogenous peptides endomorphins 1 and 2 are newly isolated, potent, and selective mu-opioid receptor agonists. In the present study, responses to the endomorphin peptides were investigated in the systemic vascular bed of the rabbit. Endomorphins 1 and 2 induced dose-related decreases in systemic arterial pressure when injected in doses of 1-30 nmol/kg i.v. In terms of relative vasodepressor activity, endomorphins 1 and 2 were similar to the ORL1 receptor ligand, nociceptin (Orphanin FQ), and met-enkephalin in decreasing systemic arterial pressure. Vasodepressor responses to endomorphins 1 and 2 were inhibited by the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, in a dose of 2 mg/kg i.v. These results demonstrate that endomorphins 1 and 2 have significant naloxone-sensitive, vasodepressor activity in the rabbit.

  12. Effects of juvenile isolation and morphine treatment on social interactions and opioid receptors in adult rats: behavioural and autoradiographic studies.

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    Van den Berg, C L; Van Ree, J M; Spruijt, B M; Kitchen, I

    1999-09-01

    The consequences of juvenile isolation and morphine treatment during the isolation period on (social) behaviour and mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors in adulthood were investigated by using a social interaction test and in vitro autoradiography in rats. Juvenile isolation reduced social exploration in adults. Morphine treatment counteracted this reduction in isolated rats, but decreased social exploration in nonisolated rats. Self-grooming and nonsocial exploration were enhanced after juvenile isolation. Morphine treatment had no effect on self-grooming, but suppressed nonsocial exploration in isolated rats. With respect to the opioid receptors, juvenile isolation resulted in regiospecific increases in mu-binding sites with a 58% increase in the basolateral amygdala and a 33% increase in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis. Morphine treatment in isolated rats reversed this upregulation in both areas. The number of delta-binding sites did not differ between the experimental groups. A general upregulation of kappa-binding sites was observed after juvenile isolation, predominantly in the cortical regions, the hippocampus and the substantia nigra. Morphine treatment did not affect the upregulation of kappa-receptors. The results show that juvenile isolation during the play period causes long-term effects on social and nonsocial behaviours and on the number of mu- and kappa- but not delta-opioid receptors in distinct brain areas. The number of mu-receptors in the basolateral amygdala appears to be negatively correlated with the amount of social exploration in adult rats.

  13. The Differential Effects of a Selective Kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonist, U50488, in Guinea Pig Heart Tissues

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    Chi-Feng Hung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential effects of a selective kappa- (κ- opioid receptor agonist, U50488, were elucidated by monitoring the contraction of isolated guinea pig atrial and ventricular muscles. In electrically driven left atria, U50488 in nanomolar concentration range decreased the contractile force. Norbinaltorphimine (norBNI, a selective κ-receptor antagonist, and pertussis toxin (PTX abolished the negative inotropic effect of U50488. In contrast, the inhibitory effect was not affected by the pretreatment of atropine or propranolol. Even though U50488 exerted a negative inotropic effect in the left atrium, it did not affect the contractile force of the right atrium and ventricles paced at 2 Hz. Similarly, the beating rate of the spontaneously beating right atrium was also unaffected by U50488. These results indicate that the activation of κ-opioid receptors can only produce negative inotropic effect in left atria via activation of PTX-sensitive G protein in guinea pigs. The absence of negative inotropic effects in right atria and ventricles suggests that there may be a greater distribution of functional κ-opioid receptors in guinea pig left atria than in right atria and ventricles, and the distribution of the receptors may be species-specific.

  14. Inhibition of trigemino-hypoglossal reflex in rats by oxytocin is mediated by mu and kappa opioid receptors.

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    Zubrzycka, Maria; Fichna, Jakub; Janecka, Anna

    2005-02-21

    Recent studies showed that oxytocin plays an important role in the modulation of pain at different levels of the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of oxytocin on trigemino-hypoglossal reflex in rats. With the experimental settings used in this study, we have demonstrated that oxytocin showed significant analgesic effect after intracerebroventricular administration in rats, as assayed by the amplitude of the retractory movements of the tongue after tooth pulp stimulation. Antinociceptive effect of oxytocin was inhibited by subsequent perfusion of cerebral ventricles with oxytocin antagonist, [deamino-Cys1-D-Tyr(OEt)2-Thr4-Orn8]-oxytocin, atosiban. An involvement of opioid system in the oxytocin-induced analgesia was studied after intracerebroventricular administration of different opioid antagonists: non-selective naloxone, mu-selective beta-funaltrexamine, delta-selective naltrindole, and kappa-selective nor-binaltorphimine. It was shown that inhibition of antinociceptive effects was mediated through mu and kappa opioid receptors, indicating that there is a synergy between oxytocin and opioid systems in transmitting and modulating pain stimuli. Co-administration of oxytocin and a mu-selective endogenous opioid ligand endomorphin-2 did not significantly increase the antinociceptive activity of endomorphin-2.

  15. The antinociceptive effects of ferulic acid on neuropathic pain: involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors.

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    Xu, Ying; Lin, Dan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Wang, Liqun; Lian, Lejing; Fei, Ning; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Naping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Xianfeng; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-04-12

    Neuropathic pain can be considered as a form of chronic stress that may share common neuropathological mechanism between pain and stress-related depression and respond to similar treatment. Ferulic acid (FA) is a major active component of angelica sinensis and has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects; however, it remains unknown whether FA ameliorate chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with FA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ameliorated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in von Frey hair and hot plate tasks, accompanied by increasing spinal noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Subsequent study suggested that treatment of CCI animals with 40 and 80 mg/kg FA also inhibited spinal MAO-A levels. FA's effects on mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesiawas blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) via pharmacological depletion of spinal noradrenaline or serotonin. Moreover, the anti-allodynic action of FA on mechanical stimuli was prevented by pre-treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551, or by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. While the anti-hyperalgesia on thermal stimuli induced by FA was blocked by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, or with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. These results suggest that the effect of FA on neuropathic pain is potentially mediated via amelioration of the descending monoaminergic system that coupled with spinal beta2- and 5-HT1A receptors and the downstream delta- and mu-opioid receptors differentially.

  16. Pharmacological investigations of N-substituent variation in morphine and oxymorphone: opioid receptor binding, signaling and antinociceptive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haddou, Tanila; Béni, Szabolcs; Hosztafi, Sándor; Malfacini, Davide; Calo, Girolamo; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Morphine and structurally related derivatives are highly effective analgesics, and the mainstay in the medical management of moderate to severe pain. Pharmacological actions of opioid analgesics are primarily mediated through agonism at the µ opioid peptide (MOP) receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor. Position 17 in morphine has been one of the most manipulated sites on the scaffold and intensive research has focused on replacements of the 17-methyl group with other substituents. Structural variations at the N-17 of the morphinan skeleton led to a diversity of molecules appraised as valuable and potential therapeutics and important research probes. Discovery of therapeutically useful morphine-like drugs has also targeted the C-6 hydroxyl group, with oxymorphone as one of the clinically relevant opioid analgesics, where a carbonyl instead of a hydroxyl group is present at position 6. Herein, we describe the effect of N-substituent variation in morphine and oxymorphone on in vitro and in vivo biological properties and the emerging structure-activity relationships. We show that the presence of a N-phenethyl group in position 17 is highly favorable in terms of improved affinity and selectivity at the MOP receptor, potent agonism and antinociceptive efficacy. The N-phenethyl derivatives of morphine and oxymorphone were very potent in stimulating G protein coupling and intracellular calcium release through the MOP receptor. In vivo, they were highly effective against acute thermal nociception in mice with marked increased antinociceptive potency compared to the lead molecules. It was also demonstrated that a carbonyl group at position 6 is preferable to a hydroxyl function in these N-phenethyl derivatives, enhancing MOP receptor affinity and agonist potency in vitro and in vivo. These results expand the understanding of the impact of different moieties at the morphinan nitrogen on ligand-receptor interaction, molecular mode of action and signaling, and may be

  17. Pharmacological investigations of N-substituent variation in morphine and oxymorphone: opioid receptor binding, signaling and antinociceptive activity.

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    Tanila Ben Haddou

    Full Text Available Morphine and structurally related derivatives are highly effective analgesics, and the mainstay in the medical management of moderate to severe pain. Pharmacological actions of opioid analgesics are primarily mediated through agonism at the µ opioid peptide (MOP receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor. Position 17 in morphine has been one of the most manipulated sites on the scaffold and intensive research has focused on replacements of the 17-methyl group with other substituents. Structural variations at the N-17 of the morphinan skeleton led to a diversity of molecules appraised as valuable and potential therapeutics and important research probes. Discovery of therapeutically useful morphine-like drugs has also targeted the C-6 hydroxyl group, with oxymorphone as one of the clinically relevant opioid analgesics, where a carbonyl instead of a hydroxyl group is present at position 6. Herein, we describe the effect of N-substituent variation in morphine and oxymorphone on in vitro and in vivo biological properties and the emerging structure-activity relationships. We show that the presence of a N-phenethyl group in position 17 is highly favorable in terms of improved affinity and selectivity at the MOP receptor, potent agonism and antinociceptive efficacy. The N-phenethyl derivatives of morphine and oxymorphone were very potent in stimulating G protein coupling and intracellular calcium release through the MOP receptor. In vivo, they were highly effective against acute thermal nociception in mice with marked increased antinociceptive potency compared to the lead molecules. It was also demonstrated that a carbonyl group at position 6 is preferable to a hydroxyl function in these N-phenethyl derivatives, enhancing MOP receptor affinity and agonist potency in vitro and in vivo. These results expand the understanding of the impact of different moieties at the morphinan nitrogen on ligand-receptor interaction, molecular mode of action and signaling

  18. Racemic Salsolinol and its Enantiomers Act as Agonists of the μ-Opioid Receptor by Activating the Gi Protein-Adenylate Cyclase Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berríos-Cárcamo, Pablo; Quintanilla, María E.; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Zapata-Torres, Gerald; Rivera-Meza, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that the ethanol-derived metabolite salsolinol (SAL) can activate the mesolimbic system, suggesting that SAL is the active molecule mediating the rewarding effects of ethanol. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that SAL exerts its action on neuron excitability through a mechanism involving opioid neurotransmission. However, there is no direct pharmacologic evidence showing that SAL activates opioid receptors. Methods: The ability of racemic (R/S)-SAL, and its stereoisomers (R)-SAL and (S)-SAL, to activate the μ-opioid receptor was tested in cell-based (light-emitting) receptor assays. To further characterizing the interaction of SAL stereoisomers with the μ-opioid receptor, a molecular docking study was performed using the crystal structure of the μ-opioid receptor. Results: This study shows that SAL activates the μ-opioid receptor by the classical G protein-adenylate cyclase pathway with an half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 2 × 10−5 M. The agonist action of SAL was fully blocked by the μ-opioid antagonist naltrexone. The EC50 for the purified stereoisomers (R)-SAL and (S)-SAL were 6 × 10−4 M and 9 × 10−6 M respectively. It was found that the action of racemic SAL on the μ-opioid receptor did not promote the recruitment of β-arrestin. Molecular docking studies showed that the interaction of (R)- and (S)-SAL with the μ-opioid receptor is similar to that predicted for the agonist morphine. Conclusions: It is shown that (R)-SAL and (S)-SAL are agonists of the μ-opioid receptor. (S)-SAL is a more potent agonist than the (R)-SAL stereoisomer. In silico analysis predicts a morphine-like interaction between (R)- and (S)-SAL with the μ-opioid receptor. These results suggest that an opioid action of SAL or its enantiomers is involved in the rewarding effects of ethanol. PMID:28167903

  19. Opioid growth factor receptor (OGFR expression is downregulated with progression of triple negative breast cancer

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    Beth Worley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is an aggressive form of breast cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of the newly diagnosed cancers worldwide, and disproportionately affects younger women and women of color. Although many forms of breast cancer are successfully treated, new therapies are needed for TNBC. A novel regulatory system, the opioid growth factor (OGF – opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr axis, plays a determining role in neoplasia. OGF is an endogenous peptide that binds specifically to OGFr to inhibit cell replication. As some human cancers grow, OGFr expression is diminished, thus limiting the therapeutic efficacy of OGF. The OGF-OGFr axis is present in human TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 and OGF  inhibits cell replication in a dosage-related, receptor-mediated manner. Methods: The present study investigated whether OGFr protein expression in human breast cancer cell lines grown in vitro or transplanted into nude mice, changed with the stage of proliferation or size of tumor using western blotting, semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry, and DNA synthesis techniques. Results: Comparison of log and confluent TNBC cultures revealed that OGF expression was significantly decreased in confluent cultures relative to levels in log-phase cells. Western blot analyses confirmed that OGFr was reduced in confluent TNBC and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in comparison to corresponding log-phase cells. Moreover, BrdU labeling was reduced in confluent cells. Small (<500 mm3 and large (>1000 mm3 TNBC tumors grown in nude mice were processed for semiquantitative   measurement of OGF and OGFr. The expression of both peptide and receptor in large tumors was downregulated relative to small tumors. Conclusion: The reduced expression of the inhibitory peptide and receptor diminishes the efficacy of the OGF-OGFr axis as a biotherapy. These data suggest that the OGF-OGFr pathway is altered with cancer progression and one or more elements of

  20. Truncated G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor MOR-1 splice variants are targets for highly potent opioid analgesics lacking side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Susruta; Grinnell, Steven; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Burgman, Maxim; Polikar, Lisa; Ansonoff, Michael; Pintar, John; Pan, Ying-Xian; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2011-12-06

    Pain remains a pervasive problem throughout medicine, transcending all specialty boundaries. Despite the extraordinary insights into pain and its mechanisms over the past few decades, few advances have been made with analgesics. Most pain remains treated by opiates, which have significant side effects that limit their utility. We now describe a potent opiate analgesic lacking the traditional side effects associated with classical opiates, including respiratory depression, significant constipation, physical dependence, and, perhaps most important, reinforcing behavior, demonstrating that it is possible to dissociate side effects from analgesia. Evidence indicates that this agent acts through a truncated, six-transmembrane variant of the G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor MOR-1. Although truncated splice variants have been reported for a number of G protein-coupled receptors, their functional relevance has been unclear. Our evidence now suggests that truncated variants can be physiologically important through heterodimerization, even when inactive alone, and can comprise new therapeutic targets, as illustrated by our unique opioid analgesics with a vastly improved pharmacological profile.

  1. Behavioural and morphological evidence for the involvement of glial cell activation in delta opioid receptor function: implications for the development of opioid tolerance

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    Taylor Anna MW

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that prolonged morphine treatment in vivo induces the translocation of delta opioid receptors (δORs from intracellular compartments to neuronal plasma membranes and this trafficking event is correlated with an increased functional competence of the receptor. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown; however chronic morphine treatment has been shown to involve the activation and hypertrophy of spinal glial cells. In the present study we have examined whether activated glia may be associated with the enhanced δOR-mediated antinociception observed following prolonged morphine treatment. Accordingly, animals were treated with morphine with or without concomitant administration of propentofylline, an inhibitor of glial activation that was previously shown to block the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance. The morphine regimen previously demonstrated to initiate δOR trafficking induced the activation of both astrocytes and microglia in the dorsal spinal cord as indicated by a significant increase in cell volume and cell surface area. Consistent with previous data, morphine-treated rats displayed a significant augmentation in δOR-mediated antinociception. Concomitant spinal administration of propentofylline with morphine significantly attenuated the spinal immune response as well as the morphine-induced enhancement of δOR-mediated effects. These results complement previous reports that glial activation contributes to a state of opioid analgesic tolerance, and also suggest that neuro-glial communication is likely responsible in part for the altered functional competence in δOR-mediated effects following morphine treatment.

  2. Growth hormone receptor exon 3 isoforms may have no importance in the clinical setting of multiethnic Brazilian acromegaly patients.

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    de Oliveira Machado, Evelyn; Lima, Carlos Henrique Azeredo; Ogino, Liana Lumi; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica R

    2016-08-01

    Acromegaly is associated with significant morbidity and increased mortality, but has a variable severity phenotype. The presence of the exon 3-deleted isoform of the growth hormone receptor (d3-GHR) may influence the disease phenotype and treatment outcomes, including the frequency of biochemical discordance after medical treatment. The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the d3-GHR isoform on clinical and biochemical characteristics and in the treatment outcomes of Brazilian multiethnic acromegaly patients. We retrospectively analyzed our acromegaly outpatient clinic databank and collected demographic, clinical, biochemical and treatment outcome data from those patients who agreed to participate in the study. A blood sample was collected from all patients, the DNA was extracted and the GHR isoforms were evaluated by PCR, with the full length (fl)-GHR represented by a 935-bp fragment and the d3-GHR represented by a 532-bp fragment. A total of 121 patients were included. Fifty-six patients (46.3 %) were full-length homozygous (fl/fl), 48 (39.7 %) were heterozygous (fl/d3) and 17 (14.0 %) were d3-GHR homozygous (d3/d3). There was no difference between patients homozygous for the fl isoform and those harboring at least one d3-GHR allele in the demographic, clinical and biochemical data or in the treatment outcomes, including somatostatin receptor ligands (SRL) monotherapy, combination therapy with SRL and cabergoline and pegvisomant treatment. There was also no difference between the groups for the frequency of GH and IGF-I discordance after medical treatment. GHR exon 3 genotyping appears to have no clinical significance, at least in Brazilian acromegaly patients.

  3. Tramadol reduces the 5-HTP-induced head-twitch response in mice via the activation of mu and kappa opioid receptors.

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    Sun, Hong-Lei; Zheng, Ji-Wang; Wang, Keng; Liu, Rui-Ke; Liang, Jian-Hui

    2003-01-31

    Tramadol, an atypical opioid analgesic, stimulates both opiatergic and serotonergic systems. Here we have investigated the effect of tramadol in mice on 5-hydroxyptrytophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch response (HTR), which is an animal model for the activation of the CNS 5-HT(2A) receptors in mice. Tramadol attenuated 5-HTP-induced HTR in a dose-dependent manner as morphine. Furthermore, the nonselective opioid receptor antagonists, naloxone and diprenorphine (M5050), reversed the effect of tramadol on 5-HTP-induced HTR dose-dependently. Interestingly, in contrast to the selective delta opioid receptor antagonist NTI, beta-FNA, a selective mu receptor antagonist, and nor-BNI, a selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist, antagonized the attenuation of 5-HTP-induced HTR by tramadol. In conclusion, administration of tramadol systemically inhibits 5-HTP-induced HTR in mice by activating opiatergic system in the CNS. Our findings show that mu and kappa opioid receptors, but not delta opioid receptor, play an important role in the regulation of serotonergic function in the CNS.

  4. Addictive evaluation of cholic acid-verticinone ester, a potential cough therapeutic agent with agonist action of opioid receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu-liang ZHANG; Hui WANG; Chang CHEN; Hui-fang PI; Han-li RUAN; Peng ZHANG; Ji-zhou WU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this work was to search for potential drugs with potent antitussive and expectorant activities as well as a low toxicity, but without addictive properties. Cholic acid-verticinone ester (CA-Ver) was synthesized based on the clearly elucidated antitussive and expectorant activities of verticinone in bulbs of Fritillaria and different bile acids in Snake Bile. In our previous study, CA-Vet showed a much more potent activity than codeine phosphate. This study was carried out to investigate the central antitussive mechanism and the addictive evaluation of CA-Ver.Methods: Testing on a capsaicin-induced cough model of mice pretreated with naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, was performed for the observation of CA-Ver's central antitussive mechanism. We then took naloxone-induced withdrawal tests of mice for the judgment of CA-Ver's addiction. Lastly, we determined the opioid dependence of CA-Ver in the guinea pig ileum. Results: The test on the capsaicin-induced cough model showed that naloxone could block the antitussive effect of CA-Ver,suggesting the antitussive mechanism of CA-Ver was related to the central opioid receptors. The naloxone-urged withdrawal tests of the mice showed that CA-Ver was not addictive, and the test of the opioid dependence in the guinea pig ileum showed that CA-Ver had no withdrawal response.Conclusion: These findings suggested that CA-Ver deserved attention for its potent antitussive effects related to the central opioid receptors, but without addiction, and had a good development perspective.

  5. No role for estrogen receptor 1 gene intron 1 Pvu II and exon 4 C325G polymorphisms in migraine susceptibility

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    Quinlan Sharon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported an association between the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 gene exon 8 G594A polymorphism and migraine susceptibility in two independent Australian cohorts. In this paper we report results of analysis of two further single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the ESR1 gene in the same study group, the T/C Pvu II SNP in intron 1 and the C325G SNP in exon 4, as well as results of linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis on these markers. Methods We investigated these variants by case-control association analysis in a cohort of 240 migraineurs and 240 matched controls. The SNPs were genotyped using specific restriction enzyme assays. Results were analysed using contingency table methods incorporating the chi-squared statistic. LD results are presented as D' statistics with associated P values. Results We found no evidence for association of the Pvu II T/C polymorphism and the C325G polymorphism and migraine susceptibility and no evidence for LD between these two SNPs and the previously implicated exon 8 G594A marker. Conclusion We have found no role for the polymorphisms in intron 1 and exon 4 with migraine susceptibility. To further investigate our previously implicated exon 8 marker, we suggest the need for studies with a high density of polymorphisms be undertaken, with particular focus on markers in LD with the exon 8 marker.

  6. Alternative splicing of exon 17 and a missense mutation in exon 20 of the insulin receptor gene in two brothers with a novel syndrome of insulin resistance (congenital fiber-type disproportion myopathy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorwerk, P; Christoffersen, C T; Müller, J; Vestergaard, H; Pedersen, O; De Meyts, P

    1999-01-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) in two brothers with a rare syndrome of congenital muscle fiber type disproportion myopathy (CFTDM) associated with diabetes and severe insulin resistance was studied. By direct sequencing of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes both patients were found to be compound heterozygotes for mutations in the IR gene. The maternal allele was alternatively spliced in exon 17 due to a point mutation in the -1 donor splice site of the exon. The abnormal skipping of exon 17 shifts the amino acid reading frame and leads to a truncated IR, missing the entire tyrosine kinase domain. In the correct spliced variant, the point mutation is silent and results in a normally translated IR. The paternal allele carries a missense mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain. All three cDNA variants were present in the lymphocytes of the patients. Purified IR from 293 cells overexpressing either of the two mutated receptors lacked basal or stimulated IR beta-subunit autophosphorylation. A third brother who inherited both normal alleles has an normal muscle phenotype and insulin sensitivity, suggesting a direct linkage of these IR mutations with the CFTDM phenotype.

  7. Cloning and characterization of promoter and 5 '-UTR of the NMDA receptor subunit epsilon(2) : evidence for alternative splicing of 5 '-non-coding exon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M; Pieri, [No Value; Uhlmann, F; Pfizenmaier, K; Eisel, U

    1998-01-01

    Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), we have cloned the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit epsilon(2) from murine forebrain-derived mRNA. We identified two distinct types of cDNA species differing in the presence or absence of one exon sequence. Se

  8. Cloning and characterization of promoter and 5'-UTR of the NMDA receptor subunit ε2 : evidence for alternative splicing of 5'-non-coding exon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Matthias; Pieri, Isabelle; Uhlmann, Frank; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Eisel, Ulrich

    1998-01-01

    Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), we have cloned the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit ε2 from murine forebrain-derived mRNA. We identified two distinct types of cDNA species differing in the presence or absence of one exon sequence. Sequencing

  9. Regulation of ingestive behaviors in the rat by GSK1521498, a novel micro-opioid receptor-selective inverse agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignar, Diane M; Goetz, Aaron S; Noble, Kimberly Nichols; Carballo, Luz Helena; Stroup, Andrea E; Fisher, Julie C; Boucheron, Joyce A; Brainard, Tracy A; Larkin, Andrew L; Epperly, Andrea H; Shearer, Todd W; Sorensen, Scott D; Speake, Jason D; Hommel, Jonathan D

    2011-10-01

    μ-Opioid receptor (MOR) agonism induces palatable food consumption principally through modulation of the rewarding properties of food. N-{[3,5-difluoro-3'-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-4-biphenylyl]methyl}-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-amine (GSK1521498) is a novel opioid receptor inverse agonist that, on the basis of in vitro affinity assays, is greater than 10- or 50-fold selective for human or rat MOR, respectively, compared with κ-opioid receptors (KOR) and δ-opioid receptors (DOR). Likewise, preferential MOR occupancy versus KOR and DOR was observed by autoradiography in brain slices from Long Evans rats dosed orally with the drug. GSK1521498 suppressed nocturnal food consumption of standard or palatable chow in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) Long Evans rats. Both the dose-response relationship and time course of efficacy in lean rats fed palatable chow correlated with μ receptor occupancy and the plasma concentration profile of the drug. Chronic oral administration of GSK1521498 induced body weight loss in DIO rats, which comprised fat mass reduction. The reduction in body weight was equivalent to the cumulative reduction in food consumption; thus, the effect of GSK1521498 on body weight is related to inhibition of food consumption. GSK1521498 suppressed the preference for sucrose-containing solutions in lean rats. In operant response models also using lean rats, GSK1521498 reduced the reinforcement efficacy of palatable food reward and enhanced satiety. In conclusion, GSK1521498 is a potent, MOR-selective inverse agonist that modulates the hedonic aspects of ingestion and, therefore, could represent a pharmacological treatment for obesity and binge-eating disorders.

  10. Altered expression of glial markers, chemokines, and opioid receptors in the spinal cord of type 2 diabetic monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, Norikazu; Ding, Huiping; Peters, Christopher M; Kock, Nancy D; Kishioka, Shiroh; Cline, J Mark; Wagner, Janice D; Ko, Mei-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a pathological condition that underlies diabetes and affects sensory processing. Given the high prevalence of pain in diabetic patients and crosstalk between chemokines and opioids, it is pivotal to know whether neuroinflammation-associated mediators are dysregulated in the central nervous system of diabetic primates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether mRNA expression levels of glial markers, chemokines, and opioid receptors are altered in the spinal cord and thalamus of naturally occurring type 2 diabetic monkeys (n=7) compared with age-matched non-diabetic monkeys (n=6). By using RT-qPCR, we found that mRNA expression levels of both GFAP and IBA1 were up-regulated in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) of diabetic monkeys compared with non-diabetic monkeys. Among all chemokines, expression levels of three chemokine ligand-receptor systems, i.e., CCL2-CCR2, CCL3-CCR1/5, and CCL4-CCR5, were up-regulated in the SDH of diabetic monkeys. Moreover, in the SDH, seven additional chemokine receptors, i.e., CCR4, CCR6, CCR8, CCR10, CXCR3, CXCR5, and CXCR6, were also up-regulated in diabetic monkeys. In contrast, expression levels of MOP, KOP, and DOP, but not NOP receptors, were down-regulated in the SDH of diabetic monkeys, and the thalamus had fewer changes in the glial markers, chemokines and opioids. These findings indicate that neuroinflammation, manifested as glial activation and simultaneous up-regulation of multiple chemokine ligands and receptors, seems to be permanent in type 2 diabetic monkeys. As chemokines and opioids are important pain modulators, this first-in-primate study provides a translational bridge for determining the functional efficacy of spinal drugs targeting their signaling cascades.

  11. Opioid receptors are involved in the sedative and antinociceptive effects of hesperidin as well as in its potentiation with benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscalzo, Leonardo M; Wasowski, Cristina; Paladini, Alejandro C; Marder, Mariel

    2008-02-12

    Previous reports from our laboratory described the sedative activity of hesperidin (hesperetin-7-rhamnoglucoside). This property is greatly increased when the glycoside is injected jointly with diazepam and this interaction has been shown to be synergistic. In the present work the generality of the synergistic phenomenon is proved, since potentiation also occurs with several other benzodiazepines, namely alprazolam, bromazepam, midazolam and flunitrazepam. In order to advance in the study of the mechanism of action of hesperidin, the possible participation of several brain receptors, which are implicated in the control of numerous behavioral and physiological functions, was explored by investigating the effects of a variety of their antagonists on hesperidin actions. The results showed that the 5-HT2 receptor and the alpha1-adrenoceptor seem unlikely to be involved in the behavioral effects of hesperidin. Naltrexone, a nonselective antagonist of opioid receptors, totally blocked hesperidin effects on locomotion, and partially antagonized hesperidin-induced decreased exploration in the hole board test. Nor-binaltorphimine, a selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist, was able to partially block hesperidin effects on locomotor activity. Furthermore, hesperidin-induced antinociception was partially blocked by naltrexone, and potentiated by co-administration with alprazolam. Hence, the participation of the opioid system in the sedative, antinociceptive and potentianting effects of hesperidin with benzodiazepines in mice is highly probable. Our results suggest a possible beneficial use of the association of hesperidin with benzodiazepines, not only to improve human sedative therapy, but also in the management of pain.

  12. Receptor Reserve Moderates Mesolimbic Responses to Opioids in a Humanized Mouse Model of the OPRM1 A118G Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J Elliott; Vardy, Eyal; DiBerto, Jeffrey F; Chefer, Vladimir I; White, Kate L; Fish, Eric W; Chen, Meng; Gigante, Eduardo; Krouse, Michael C; Sun, Hui; Thorsell, Annika; Roth, Bryan L; Heilig, Markus; Malanga, C J

    2015-01-01

    The OPRM1 A118G polymorphism is the most widely studied μ-opioid receptor (MOR) variant. Although its involvement in acute alcohol effects is well characterized, less is known about the extent to which it alters responses to opioids. Prior work has shown that both electrophysiological and analgesic responses to morphine but not to fentanyl are moderated by OPRM1 A118G variation, but the mechanism behind this dissociation is not known. Here we found that humanized mice carrying the 118GG allele (h/mOPRM1-118GG) were less sensitive than h/mOPRM1-118AA littermates to the rewarding effects of morphine and hydrocodone but not those of other opioids measured with intracranial self-stimulation. Reduced morphine reward in 118GG mice was associated with decreased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and reduced effects on GABA release in the ventral tegmental area that were not due to changes in drug potency or efficacy in vitro or receptor-binding affinity. Fewer MOR-binding sites were observed in h/mOPRM1-118GG mice, and pharmacological reduction of MOR availability unmasked genotypic differences in fentanyl sensitivity. These findings suggest that the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism decreases sensitivity to low-potency agonists by decreasing receptor reserve without significantly altering receptor function. PMID:25881115

  13. κ-Opioid receptor in the nucleus is a novel prognostic factor of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Fa; Xu, Qing-Xia; Liao, Lian-Di; Xu, Xiu-E; Wu, Jian-Yi; Shen, Jian; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Shen, Jin-Hui; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2013-09-01

    Opioid receptors, members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, appear to be involved in cancer progression. However, the expression and significance of opioid receptors in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated by flow cytometry that μ, δ, and κ-opioid receptors (MOR, DOR, and KOR) are expressed to various degrees in ESCC cell lines. The KOR protein was further examined by several methods in ESCC cell lines and tissues. Immunocytochemical staining localized KOR to the cell membrane in KYSE180 cells and the nucleus in EC109 cells, whereas no signal or weak staining of the cytoplasm was observed in KYSE150 cells. The expression of KOR was confirmed in ESCC cells by Western blotting. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry staining showed that KOR was up-regulated in ESCC tissues compared with nontumorous esophageal epithelium (P = .004, χ(2) test). Moreover, high nuclear KOR expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in 256 ESCC cases (R = 0.144; P = .030, Kendall τB test). Patients with high nuclear KOR expression in ESCC had a significantly poorer prognosis (P = .001, log-rank test). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that KOR in the nucleus was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 1.789; 95% confidence interval, 1.177-2.720; P = .006). Our results suggest that KOR is involved in the carcinogenesis or progression of ESCC and that nuclear KOR may be indicative of prognosis.

  14. Treatment of cocaine craving with as-needed nalmefene, a partial κ opioid receptor agonist: first clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosshans, Martin; Mutschler, Jochen; Kiefer, Falk

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of cocaine dependence is difficult as no approved pharmacotherapy is available as yet. However, in preclinical and clinical trials, a variety of compounds were tested for suitability as inhibitors of craving for and relapse into the use of cocaine, among these antidepressants, antiepileptics, dopamine agonists, disulfiram, and naltrexone. Nalmefene, a structural derivative of naltrexone, shares with its parent compound approval (granted by the European Medical Agency in 2013) as a medication for the treatment of alcohol addiction in the European Union. It differs from naltrexone by a higher affinity for the δ opioid-receptors and a partial agonistic affinity to the κ opioid-receptors. It should be noted that patients addicted to cocaine show a considerable increase in κ receptors in the nucleus accumbens. This report describes the case of an abstinent cocaine-addicted patient regularly afflicted with cravings for cocaine. The patient took as-needed nalmefene for 5 months whenever she developed a craving for cocaine. For most of these interventions, the patient reported an abatement of craving and could avoid relapsing into cocaine consumption. This effect may be accounted for by nalmefene acting, other than naltrexone, as a partial agonist of the κ opioid-receptors. Therefore, nalmefene might be a promising new option in the pharmacological repertoire for the treatment of cocaine addiction.

  15. Silent exonic mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene that cause familial hypercholesterolemia by affecting mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defesche, J C; Schuurman, E J M; Klaaijsen, L N; Khoo, K L; Wiegman, A; Stalenhoef, A F H

    2008-06-01

    In a large group of patients with the clinical phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia, such as elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and premature atherosclerosis, but without functional mutations in the genes coding for the LDL receptor and apolipoprotein B, we examined the effect of 128 seemingly neutral exonic and intronic DNA variants, discovered by routine sequencing of these genes. Two variants, G186G and R385R, were found to be associated with altered splicing. The nucleotide change leading to G186G resulted in the generation of new 3'-splice donor site in exon 4 and R385R was associated with a new 5'-splice acceptor site in exon 9 of the LDL receptor gene. Splicing of these alternate splice sites leads to an in-frame 75-base pair deletion in a stable mRNA of exon 4 in case of G186G and R385R resulted in a 31-base pair frame-shift deletion in exon 9 and non-sense-mediated mRNA decay.

  16. Density of mu-opioid receptors in the hippocampus of adult male and female rats is altered by prenatal morphine exposure and gonadal hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamberová, Romana; Rimanóczy, Agnes; Bar, Noffar; Schindler, Cheryl J; Vathy, Ilona

    2003-01-01

    The present in vitro autoradiography study demonstrates that prenatal exposure to morphine alters the density of mu-opioid receptors in the hippocampus of adult female but not adult male rats. Prenatal morphine exposure increased the mu-opioid receptor density in the CA1 of ovariectomized (OVX) females and in the CA3 of OVX, estradiol benzoate-plus progesterone (EB+P)-treated females, but decreased it in CA3 of OVX females. There were also hormonal effects on mu-opioid receptor density in adult female rats. In the CA1, only morphine-exposed but not saline-exposed, hormone-treated females (EB, P, or EB+P) had a decrease in mu-opioid receptor density relative to OVX females. Both saline-exposed and morphine-exposed, OVX females after gonadal hormone replacement had a lower density of mu-opioid receptors in the CA3 and in the dentate gyrus (DG) than OVX females. In male rats, there was a decrease in mu-opioid receptor density in the CA1 and CA3 of gonadectomized (GNX), testosterone 17beta-proprionate (TP)-treated males relative to GNX males regardless of prenatal morphine exposure. In the DG, the mu-opioid receptor density was reduced only in morphine-exposed but not in saline-exposed, TP-treated males compared with GNX males. Thus, our data demonstrate that mu-opioid receptor density in the hippocampus is affected by prenatal morphine exposure and by male and female gonadal hormones.

  17. Delta opioid receptors colocalize with corticotropin releasing factor in hippocampal interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T J; Milner, T A

    2011-04-14

    The hippocampal formation (HF) is an important site at which stress circuits and endogenous opioid systems intersect, likely playing a critical role in the interaction between stress and drug addiction. Prior study findings suggest that the stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR) may localize to similar neuronal populations within HF lamina. Here, hippocampal sections of male and cycling female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were processed for immunolabeling using antisera directed against the DOR and CRF peptide, as well as interneuron subtype markers somatostatin or parvalbumin, and analyzed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Both DOR- and CRF-labeling was observed in interneurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate hilus. Males and normal cycling females displayed a similar number of CRF immunoreactive neurons co-labeled with DOR and a similar average number of CRF-labeled neurons in the dentate hilus and stratum oriens of CA1 and CA3. In addition, 70% of DOR/CRF dual-labeled neurons in the hilar region co-labeled with somatostatin, suggesting a role for these interneurons in regulating perforant path input to dentate granule cells. Ultrastructural analysis of CRF-labeled axon terminals within the hilar region revealed that proestrus females have a similar number of CRF-labeled axon terminals that contain DORs compared to males but an increased number of CRF-labeled axon terminals without DORs. Taken together, these findings suggest that while DORs are anatomically positioned to modulate CRF immunoreactive interneuron activity and CRF peptide release, their ability to exert such regulatory activity may be compromised in females when estrogen levels are high.

  18. Decreased motivation to eat in mu-opioid receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Francesco; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Tabarin, Antoine; Contarino, Angelo

    2007-06-01

    Altered motivational processes might participate to the physiopathology of eating-related disorders. The endogenous opioid system is thought to mediate the hedonic properties of food intake. To assess the role for the micro-opioid receptor (MOR) pathway in the motivational properties of food intake, in the present study we tested wild-type and MOR-deficient mice (MOR-/-) in a nose-poke operant paradigm for chow or sucrose pellets. To avoid confounding factors linked to food restriction/deprivation experience, mice were always provided with food ad libitum. Although less MOR-/- than wild-type mice initiated operant behaviour, under a fixed ratio-1 (FR-1) reinforcement schedule the two genotypes showed similar patterns of food-driven nose-poking, indicating preserved cognitive abilities in MOR-deficient mice. However, during FR-3 and progressive ratio (PR) reinforcement experiments, MOR-/- mice showed lower levels of nose-poking for either chow or sucrose pellets than wild-type mice, indicating a crucial role for the MOR pathway in the motivational properties of food intake. Moreover, under the PR reinforcement schedule mice nose-poking for sucrose pellets showed higher genotype-independent breakpoint levels than mice working for chow pellets, indicating that the MOR pathway is not essential for hedonic processing of palatable food intake. Finally, MOR-/- mice did not differ from wild-type mice in the rate of operant responding extinction, further supporting the notion of unaltered cognitive abilities in the MOR-deficient mice. The present findings strongly indicate that the MOR pathway mediates the motivational properties of food intake, but it is not essential for hedonic processing of ingestive behaviour.

  19. Sex differences in kappa opioid receptor function and their potential impact on addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eChartoff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral, biological and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN, an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs, is necessary for stress-induced aversive states and is upregulated in the brain after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. KOR agonists produce signs of anxiety, fear, and depression in laboratory animals and humans, findings that have led to the hypothesis that drug withdrawal-induced DYN release is instrumental in negative reinforcement processes that drive addiction. However, these studies were almost exclusively conducted in males. Only recently is evidence available that there are sex differences in the effects of KOR activation on affective state. This review focuses on sex differences in DYN and KOR systems and how these might contribute to sex differences in addictive behavior. Much of what is known about how biological sex influences KOR systems is from research on pain systems. The basic molecular and genetic mechanisms that have been discovered to underlie sex differences in KOR function in pain systems may apply to sex differences in KOR function in reward systems. Our goals are to discuss the current state of knowledge on how biological sex contributes to KOR function in the context of pain,mood and addiction and to explore potential mechanisms for sex differences in KOR function. We will highlight evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R, heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid receptors (MORs, and gonadal hormones

  20. Growth inhibition of thyroid follicular cell-derived cancers by the opioid growth factor (OGF - opioid growth factor receptor (OGFr axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donahue Renee N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon cancer, but the most frequent malignancy of the endocrine system. Most thyroid cancers are derived from the follicular cell. Follicular carcinoma (FTC is considered more malignant than papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC is one of the most lethal human cancers. Opioid Growth Factor (OGF; chemical term - [Met5]-enkephalin and its receptor, OGFr, form an inhibitory axis regulating cell proliferation. Both the peptide and receptor have been detected in a wide variety of cancers, and OGF is currently used clinically as a biotherapy for some non-thyroid neoplasias. This study addressed the question of whether the OGF-OGFr axis is present and functional in human thyroid follicular cell - derived cancer. Methods Utilizing human ATC (KAT-18, PTC (KTC-1, and FTC (WRO 82-1 cell lines, immunohistochemistry was employed to ascertain the presence and location of OGF and OGFr. The growth characteristics in the presence of OGF or the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX, and the specificity of opioid peptides for proliferation of ATC, were established in KAT-18 cells. Dependence on peptide and receptor were investigated using neutralization studies with antibodies and siRNA experiments, respectively. The mechanism of peptide action on DNA synthesis and cell survival was ascertained. The ubiquity of the OGF-OGFr axis in thyroid follicular cell-derived cancer was assessed in KTC-1 (PTC and WRO 82-1 (FTC tumor cells. Results OGF and OGFr were present in KAT-18 cells. Concentrations of 10-6 M OGF inhibited cell replication up to 30%, whereas NTX increased cell growth up to 35% relative to cultures treated with sterile water. OGF treatment reduced cell number by as much as 38% in KAT-18 ATC in a dose-dependent and receptor-mediated manner. OGF antibodies neutralized the inhibitory effects of OGF, and siRNA knockdown of OGFr negated growth inhibition by OGF. Cell survival

  1. δ-Opioid Mechanisms for ADL5747 and ADL5859 Effects in Mice: Analgesia, Locomotion, and Receptor Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Chihiro; Le Bourdonnec, Bertrand; Reiss, David; Windh, Rolf T.; Little, Patrick J.; Dolle, Roland E.; Gavériaux-Ruff, Claire

    2012-01-01

    N,N-diethyl-4-(5-hydroxyspiro[chromene-2,4′-piperidine]-4-yl) benzamide (ADL5859) and N,N-diethyl-3-hydroxy-4-(spiro[chromene-2,4′-piperidine]-4-yl)benzamide (ADL5747) are novel δ-opioid agonists that show good oral bioavailability and analgesic and antidepressive effects in the rat and represent potential drugs for chronic pain treatment. Here, we used genetic approaches to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying their analgesic effects in the mouse. We tested analgesic effects of ADL5859 and ADL5747 in mice by using mechanical sensitivity measures in both complete Freund's adjuvant and sciatic nerve ligation pain models. We examined their analgesic effects in δ-opioid receptor constitutive knockout (KO) mice and mice with a conditional deletion of δ-receptor in peripheral voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav)1.8-expressing neurons (cKO mice). Both ADL5859 and ADL5747, and the prototypical δ agonist 4-[(R)-[(2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-piperazin-1-yl]-(3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-N,N-diethyl-benzamide (SNC80) as a control, significantly reduced inflammatory and neuropathic pain. The antiallodynic effects of all three δ-opioid agonists were abolished in constitutive δ-receptor KO mice and strongly diminished in δ-receptor cKO mice. We also measured two other well described effects of δ agonists, increase in locomotor activity and agonist-induced receptor internalization by using knock-in mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein-tagged δ receptors. In contrast to SNC80, ADL5859 and ADL5747 did not induce either hyperlocomotion or receptor internalization in vivo. In conclusion, both ADL5859 and ADL5747 showed efficient pain-reducing properties in the two models of chronic pain. Their effects were mediated by δ-opioid receptors, with a main contribution of receptors expressed on peripheral Nav1.8-positive neurons. The lack of in vivo receptor internalization and locomotor activation, typically induced by SNC80, suggests agonist-biased activity

  2. Association between GH receptor polymorphism (exon 3 deletion), serum IGF1, semen quality, and reproductive hormone levels in 838 healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, M; Jensen, Rikke Bodin; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: GH activity may be involved in male reproductive function. A common genetic polymorphism in the gene encoding the GH receptor (GHR) results in deletion of the entire exon 3 sequence (GHRd3 isoform). The short GHRd3/d3 isoform seems more sensitive compared with full-length receptors ...... volume and levels of inhibin-B, but does not seem to influence Leydig cell steroidogenesis. GHR genotype did not influence pre- and postnatal growth....

  3. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Koeniginstrasse 16 80539 Muenchen Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Eisinger, Daniela A., E-mail: eisinger@pharmtox.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Koeniginstrasse 16 80539 Muenchen Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  4. Effects of endomorphins-1 and -2, endogenous mu-opioid receptor agonists, on spontaneous alternation performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, M; Watanabe, Y; Kameyama, T

    2000-05-03

    The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of endomorphins-1 and -2, endogenous mu-opioid receptor agonists, on the spontaneous alternation performance associated with spatial working memory were investigated in mice. Endomorphin-1 (10 and 17.5 microg) and endomorphin-2 (10 microg) produced a significant decrease in percent alternation without affecting total arm entries. beta-Funaltrexamine (5 microg) almost completely reversed the endomorphin-1 (10 microg)- and endomorphin-2 (10 microg)-induced decrease in percent alternation, although neither naltrindole (4 ng) nor nor-binaltorphimine (4 microg) produced any significant effects on alternation performance. These results suggest that endomorphins impair spatial working memory through the mediation of mu-opioid receptors.

  5. Involvement of mu opioid receptors of periaqueductal gary (PAG) in acupuncture inhibition of noxious blood pressure response in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M; Xu, W; Chen, W; He, L

    1994-01-01

    Strong electric shock stimulation of the rabbit front paw elicited a pressor blood pressure response regarded as noxious response. Ligands of mu opioid receptors were microinjected into the PAG to observe their effects on acupunture inhibition of the pressor response. (1) Ohmefentanyl (OMF), a mu agonist, significantly attenuated the pressor response. Mu antagonist TCTAP greatly enhanced the pressor response. (2) Electroacupuncture (EA) significantly inhibited the pressor response, the inhibition being readily reversed by TCTAP. The response after TCTAP was significantly greater than that of the control before EA. The results suggest that noxious stimulation is able to activate the mu opioid receptor of the PAG to modulate the noxious response and EA is able to enhance the activation.

  6. Designing exons for human olfactory receptor gene subfamilies using a mathematical paradigm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sk Sarif Hassan; Pabitra Pal Choudhury; Amita Pal; R L Brahmachary; Arunava Goswami

    2010-09-01

    Ligands for only two human olfactory receptors are known. One of them, OR1D2, binds to Bourgeonal, a volatile chemical constituent of the fragrance of the mythical flower, Lily of the valley or Our Lady’s tears, Convallaria majalis (also the national flower of Finland). OR1D2, OR1D4 and OR1D5 are three full-length olfactory receptors present in an olfactory locus in the human genome. These receptors are more than 80% identical in DNA sequences and have 108 base pair mismatches among them. Apparently, these mismatch positions show no striking pattern using computer pattern recognition tools. In an attempt to find a mathematical rule in those mismatches, we find that an L-system generated sequence can be inserted into the OR1D2 subfamily-specific star model and novel full-length olfactory receptors can be generated. This remarkable mathematical principle could be utilized for making new subfamily olfactory receptor members from any olfactory receptor subfamily. The aroma and electronic nose industry might utilize this rule in future.

  7. Local analgesic effect of tramadol is mediated by opioid receptors in late postoperative pain after plantar incision in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Junior, José Oswaldo; de Freitas, Milena Fernandes; Bullara de Andrade, Carolina; Chacur, Marucia; Ashmawi, Hazem Adel

    2016-01-01

    Tramadol is a drug used to treat moderate to severe pain. It is known to present a peripheral effect, but the local mechanisms underlying its actions remain unclear. The role of peripheral opioid receptors in postoperative pain is not well understood. In the present study, we examined the peripheral opioid receptors to determine the local effect of tramadol in a plantar incision pain model. Rats were subjected to plantar incision and divided into four groups on postoperative day (POD) 1: SF_SF, 0.9% NaCl injected into the right hindpaw; SF_TraI, 0.9% NaCl and tramadol injected into the right hindpaw; SF_TraC, 0.9% NaCl and tramadol injected into the contralateral hindpaw; and Nal_Tra, naloxone and tramadol injected into the ipsilateral hindpaw. To determine the animals’ nociceptive threshold, mechanical hyperalgesia was measured before incision, on POD1 before treatment and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the incision. The same procedure was repeated on the POD2. The expression levels of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) were obtained through immunoblotting assays in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia (L3–L6) in naïve rats and 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after the incision. Our results showed that the plantar incision was able to cause an increase in mechanical hyperalgesia and that tramadol reversed this hyperalgesia on POD1 and POD2. Tramadol injections in the contralateral paw did not affect the animals’ nociceptive threshold. Naloxone was able to antagonize the tramadol effect partially on POD1 and completely on POD2. The DOR expression increased on POD2, POD3, and POD7, whereas the MOR expression did not change. Together, our results show that tramadol promoted a local analgesic effect in the postoperative pain model that was antagonized by naloxone in POD2, alongside the increase of DOR expression. PMID:27799813

  8. Layer selective presynaptic modulation of excitatory inputs to hippocampal CA1 by μ-opioid receptor activation

    OpenAIRE

    McQuiston, A. Rory

    2007-01-01

    Chronic and acute activation of μ-opioid receptors (MOR) in hippocampal CA1 disrupts rhythmic activity, alters activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and impairs spatial memory formation. In CA1, MORs act by hyperpolarizing inhibitory interneurons and suppressing inhibitory synaptic transmission. MOR modulation of inhibitory synaptic function translates into an increase in excitatory activity in all layers of CA1. However, the exact anatomical sites for MOR actions are not completely known. T...

  9. Immediate and Persistent Effects of Salvinorin A on the Kappa Opioid Receptor in Rodents, Monitored In Vivo with PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, Michael S; Van de Bittner, Genevieve C; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Lukas, Scott E; Hooker, Jacob M

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring changes in opioid receptor binding with positron emission tomography (PET) could lead to a better understanding of tolerance and addiction because altered opioid receptor dynamics following agonist exposure has been linked to tolerance mechanisms. We have studied changes in kappa opioid receptor (KOR) binding availability in vivo with PET following kappa opioid agonist administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=31) were anesthetized and treated with the (KOR) agonist salvinorin A (0.01-1.8 mg/kg, i.v.) before administration of the KOR selective radiotracer [(11)C]GR103545. When salvinorin A was administered 1 min prior to injection of the radiotracer, [(11)C]GR103545 binding potential (BPND) was decreased in a dose-dependent manner, indicating receptor binding competition. In addition, the unique pharmacokinetics of salvinorin A (half-life ~8 min in non-human primates) allowed us to study the residual impact on KOR after the drug had eliminated from the brain. Salvinorin A was administered up to 5 h prior to [(11)C]GR103545, and the changes in BPND were compared with baseline, 2.5 h, 1 h, and 1 min pretreatment times. At lower doses (0.18 mg/kg and 0.32 mg/kg) we observed no prolonged effect on KOR binding but at 0.60 mg/kg salvinorin A induced a sustained decrease in KOR binding (BPND decreased by 40-49%) which persisted up to 2.5 h post administration, long after salvinorin A had been eliminated from the brain. These data point towards an agonist-induced adaptive response by KOR, the dynamics of which have not been previously studied in vivo with PET.

  10. Panicolytic-like action of bradykinin in the dorsal periaqueductal gray through μ-opioid and B2-kinin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestile, Caio César; Maraschin, Jhonatan Christian; Gama, Vanessa Scalco; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2017-09-01

    A wealth of evidence has shown that opioid and kinin systems may control proximal defense in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG), a critical panic-associated area. Studies with drugs that interfere with serotonin-mediated neurotransmission suggest that the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) synergistically interacts with the 5-HT1A receptor in the dPAG to inhibit escape, a panic-related behavior. A similar inhibitory effect has also been reported after local administration of bradykinin (BK), which is blocked by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. The latter evidence, points to an interaction between BK and opioids in the dPAG. We further explored the existence of this interaction through the dPAG electrical stimulation model of panic. We also investigated whether intra-dPAG injection of captopril, an inhibitor of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) that also degrades BK, causes a panicolytic-like effect. Our results showed that intra-dPAG injection of BK inhibited escape performance in a dose-dependent way, and this panicolytic-like effect was blocked by the BK type 2 receptor (B2R) antagonist HOE-140, and by the selective MOR antagonist CTOP. Conversely, the panicolytic-like effect caused by local administration of the selective MOR agonist DAMGO was antagonized by pre-treatment with either CTOP or HOE-140, indicating cross-antagonism between MOR and B2R. Finally, intra-dPAG injection of captopril also impaired escape in a dose-dependent way, and this panicolytic-like effect was blocked by pretreatment with HOE-140, suggesting mediation by endogenous BK. The panicolytic-like effect of captopril indicates that the use of ACE inhibitors in the clinical management of panic disorder may be worth exploring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of defeat stress on behavioral flexibility in males and females: modulation by the mu-opioid receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Laredo, Sarah A.; Steinman, Michael Q.; Robles, Cindee F.; Ferrer, Emilio; Ragen, Benjamin J.; Trainor, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a component of executive functioning that allows individuals to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Independent lines of research indicate that the mu opioid receptor (MOR) is an important mediator of behavioral flexibility and responses to psychosocial stress. The current study bridges these two lines of research and tests the extent to which social defeat and MOR affect behavioral flexibility and whether sex moderates these effects in California mice (Perom...

  12. Mu Opioid Receptor Modulation of Dopamine Neurons in the Periaqueductal Gray/Dorsal Raphe: A Role in Regulation of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia; Sugam, Jonathan A; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; McElligott, Zoe A; McCall, Nora M; Lopez, Alberto J; McKlveen, Jessica M; Pleil, Kristen E; Kash, Thomas L

    2016-07-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a brain region involved in nociception modulation, and an important relay center for the descending nociceptive pathway through the rostral ventral lateral medulla. Given the dense expression of mu opioid receptors and the role of dopamine in pain, the recently characterized dopamine neurons in the ventral PAG (vPAG)/dorsal raphe (DR) region are a potentially critical site for the antinociceptive actions of opioids. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate synaptic modulation of the vPAG/DR dopamine neurons by mu opioid receptors and to (2) dissect the anatomy and neurochemistry of these neurons, in order to assess the downstream loci and functions of their activation. Using a mouse line that expresses eGFP under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, we found that mu opioid receptor activation led to a decrease in inhibitory inputs onto the vPAG/DR dopamine neurons. Furthermore, combining immunohistochemistry, optogenetics, electrophysiology, and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in a TH-cre mouse line, we demonstrated that these neurons also express the vesicular glutamate type 2 transporter and co-release dopamine and glutamate in a major downstream projection structure-the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Finally, activation of TH-positive neurons in the vPAG/DR using Gq designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs displayed a supraspinal, but not spinal, antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that vPAG/DR dopamine neurons likely play a key role in opiate antinociception, potentially via the activation of downstream structures through dopamine and glutamate release.

  13. Morphine and endomorphins differentially regulate micro-opioid receptor mRNA in SHSY-5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Mao, Xin; Blake, Allan D; Li, Wen Xin; Chang, Sulie L

    2003-08-01

    A sensitive quantitative-competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method was developed to measure micro-opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA expression in SHSY-5Y neuroblastoma cells. Differentiation of SHSY-5Y cells with either retinoic acid (RA) or 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) significantly increased MOR mRNA levels. Morphine treatment (10 microM) for 24 h decreased MOR mRNA levels in control, as well as RA- and TPA-differentiated cells. In contrast, chronic exposure to the opioid peptides endomorphin-1 or endomorphin-2 significantly increased MOR mRNA levels in undifferentiated and RA-differentiated cells. An opioid antagonist, naloxone, reversed the morphine and endomorphin-1 and -2 effects on MOR mRNA levels in undifferentiated SHSY-5Y cells, but naloxone had differential reversing effects on the agonists' regulation of MOR mRNA in RA- or TPA-differentiated cells. To investigate whether the changes in MOR mRNA expression paralleled changes in MOR receptor function, intracellular cAMP accumulation in SHSY-5Y cells was measured. After chronic treatment with morphine, forskolin-induced cAMP levels in SHSY-5Y cells were significantly higher than those of untreated control cells. In contrast, forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation levels were lower in cells treated with endomorphin-1 or -2 than in untreated control cells. Together, our studies indicate that the opioid alkaloid morphine and the opioid peptides endomorphin-1 and -2 differentially regulate MOR mRNA expression and MOR function in SHSY-5Y cells.

  14. Effects of kappa-opioid receptor ligands on intracranial self-stimulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todtenkopf, Mark S; Marcus, Jacqueline F; Portoghese, Philip S; Carlezon, William A

    2004-04-01

    Elevations in cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) function within the mesolimbic system of rats reduce cocaine reward in place conditioning studies and increase immobility in the forced swim test. Each of these behavioral adaptations can be interpreted as a depressive-like effect (i.e., anhedonia, despair) that may reflect reduced activity of brain reward systems. Furthermore, each effect appears due to increases in CREB-mediated expression of dynorphin, since each is attenuated by intracranial injections of the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist norBNI. Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) studies were conducted in rats to determine whether administration of a kappa-agonist would have depressive-like effects on brain stimulation reward, and whether pretreatment with a kappa-antagonist would attenuate any such effects. Conditions that have depressive effects in people (e.g., drug withdrawal) increase the threshold amounts of stimulation required to sustain ICSS in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats with lateral hypothalamic stimulating electrodes were tested in a "curve-shift" variant of the ICSS procedure after systemic administration of the kappa-agonist U-69593 alone, the novel kappa-antagonist 5'-acetamidinoethylnaltrindole (ANTI) alone, or co-administration of both drugs. U-69593 dose dependently increased ICSS thresholds, suggesting that activation of kappa-receptors reduced the rewarding impact of the brain stimulation. ANTI had no effects on its own, but it attenuated increases in ICSS thresholds caused by the agonist. These data provide further evidence that stimulation of brain kappa-receptors may trigger certain depressive-like signs, and that kappa antagonists may have efficacy as antidepressants without having reward-related actions of their own.

  15. Local analgesic effect of tramadol is not mediated by opioid receptors in early postoperative pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Sousa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tramadol is known as a central acting analgesic drug, used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Local analgesic effect has been demonstrated, in part due to local anesthetic-like effect, but other mechanisms remain unclear. The role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect is not known. In this study, we examined role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect of tramadol in the plantar incision model. METHODS: Young male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control, intraplantar tramadol, intravenous tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol, and intravenous naloxone. After receiving the assigned drugs (tramadol 5 mg, naloxone 200 µg or 0.9% NaCl, rats were submitted to plantar incision, and withdrawal thresholds after mechanical stimuli with von Frey filaments were assessed at baseline, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after incision. RESULTS: Plantar incision led to marked mechanical hyperalgesia during the whole period of observation in the control group, no mechanical hyperalgesia were observed in intraplantar tramadol group, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol group and intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol. In the intravenous tramadol group a late increase in withdrawal thresholds (after 45 min was observed, the intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol group and intravenous naloxone remained hyperalgesic during the whole period. CONCLUSIONS: Tramadol presented an early local analgesic effect decreasing mechanical hyperalgesia induced by plantar incision. This analgesic effect was not mediated by peripheral opioid receptors.

  16. Evaluation of the kappa-opioid receptor-selective tracer [{sup 11}C]GR103545 in awake rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoultz, Bent W. [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Oslo (Norway); Hjornevik, Trine; Willoch, Frode [University of Oslo, Centre for Molecular Biology and Neuroscience and Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Oslo (Norway); Akershus University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Loerenskog (Norway); Marton, Janos [ABX Advanced Biochemical Compounds GmbH, Radeberg (Germany); Noda, Akihiro; Murakami, Yoshihiro; Miyoshi, Sosuke; Nishimura, Shintaro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Basic Research Department, Hakui City, Ishikawa (Japan); Aarstad, Erik [University College of London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Drzezga, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Matsunari, Ichiro [Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Clinical Research Department, Hakui City, Ishikawa (Japan); Henriksen, Gjermund [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Oslo (Norway); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The recent development in radiosynthesis of the {sup 11}C-carbamate function increases the potential of [{sup 11}C]GR103545, which for the last decade has been regarded as promising for imaging the kappa-opioid receptor ({kappa}-OR) with PET. In the present study, [{sup 11}C]GR103545 was evaluated in awake rhesus macaques. Separate investigations were performed to clarify the OR subtype selectivity of this compound. Regional brain uptake kinetics of [{sup 11}C]GR103545 was studied 0-120 min after injection. The binding affinity and opioid subtype selectivity of [{sup 11}C]GR103545 was determined in cells transfected with cloned human opioid receptors. In vitro binding assays demonstrated a high affinity of GR103545 for {kappa}-OR (K{sub i} = 0.02 {+-}0.01 nM) with excellent selectivity over {mu}-OR (6 x 10{sup 2}-fold) and {delta}-OR (2 x 10{sup 4}-fold). PET imaging revealed a volume of distribution (V{sub T}) pattern consistent with the known distribution of {kappa}-OR, with striatum = temporal cortex > cingulate cortex > frontal cortex > parietal cortex > thalamus > cerebellum. [{sup 11}C]GR103545 is selective for {kappa}-OR and holds promise for use to selectively depict and quantify this receptor in humans by means of PET. (orig.)

  17. Discovery of Potent and Selective Agonists of δ Opioid Receptor by Revisiting the "Message-Address" Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Qian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Xiaoqin; Xu, Xuejun; Li, Wei; Liu, Jinggen; Fu, Wei

    2016-04-14

    The classic "message-address" concept was proposed to address the binding of endogenous peptides to the opioid receptors and was later successfully applied in the discovery of the first nonpeptide δ opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist naltrindole. By revisiting this concept, and based on the structure of tramadol, we designed a series of novel compounds that act as highly potent and selective agonists of DOR among which (-)-6j showed the highest affinity (K i = 2.7 nM), best agonistic activity (EC50 = 2.6 nM), and DOR selectivity (more than 1000-fold over the other two subtype opioid receptors). Molecular docking studies suggest that the "message" part of (-)-6j interacts with residue Asp128(3.32) and a neighboring water molecule, and the "address" part of (-)-6j packs with hydrophobic residues Leu300(7.35), Val281(6.55), and Trp284(6.58), rendering DOR selectivity. The discovery of novel compound (-)-6j, and the obtained insights into DOR-agonist binding will help us design more potent and selective DOR agonists.

  18. Functional Characterization of Exonic Variants of the PPARGC1B Gene in Coregulation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hun Soo; Lee, Shin-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Uk; Park, Jong Sook; Chung, Il Yup; Park, Choon-Sik

    2016-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 beta (PPARGC1B) is a coactivator of estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ. We previously demonstrated a significant association between a variant of exon 5 of the PPARGC1B gene (+102525 G>A, R265Q) and airway hyperreactivity (AHR). The aims of the study were to evaluate the genetic effects of variants of the PPARGC1B gene on the function of ERs. PPARGC1B +102525G and A gene constructs were generated using PCR and cloned into a pCMV4 promoter vector. A luciferase reporter assay was undertaken in 293T cells cotransfected with one of the PPARGC1B +102525G>A constructs, ERα, and an estrogen response element (ERE) containing a luciferase construct after treatment with 17β-estradiol. According to the luciferase reporter assay, the +102525A allele showed higher ERα activity than the +102525G allele in response to stimulation with 17β-estradiol. In addition, the interaction between ERα and PPARGC1B was evaluated by coprecipitation assay. Human influenza hemagglutinin-tagged PPARGC1B coprecipitated more intensely with ERα in the +102525A than the +102525G construct after 17β estradiol treatment. The variant +102525A allele enhances the activity of ERα to a greater degree than the +102525G allele of PPARGC1B.

  19. 阿片受体泛素化机制及其对受体功能的影响%Mechanism of opioid receptor ubiquitination and its effect on receptor function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洁冰; 周培岚; 郑志兵; 苏瑞斌

    2015-01-01

    Opioid receptors, as an important member of G protein coupled receptors (GPCR), are the binding targets of endogenous opioid peptides and exogenous opiates. The activation of opioid receptors influences the nervous system, immune physiology and endocrine system. However, prolonged activation of opioid receptors is likely to produce opioid tolerance, leading to opioid addiction. Receptor endocytosis and sorting into the recycling pathway contribute to recovery of cellular opioid responsiveness. Recent studies have revealed that GPCR can be modulated by ubiquitination which plays a unique roles in governing GPCR trafficking. Moreover, ubiquitination of the opioid receptors (μ, κand δ) is increased after stimulation of most opioid agonists. Mutation of the ubiquitin sites affects the internalization and degradation of opioid receptors, which contributes to changes in signal pathways and regulation of opioid receptors. ln this paper, ubiquitination of opioid receptors and the fundamental role of ubiquitination in trafficking of opioid receptors are reviewed.%阿片受体是一类重要的 G 蛋白偶联受体(GPCR),是内源性阿片肽及阿片类药物结合的靶点,阿片受体激活后对神经系统、免疫及内分泌系统具有调节作用。但阿片受体在反复激活后,容易出现耐受,导致阿片成瘾。受体的内吞和再循环对受体复敏具有重要意义。近年来研究发现,受体的泛素化修饰参与了 GPCR 的转运过程,并且多数配体作用于阿片受体后,受体的泛素化水平明显升高。将阿片受体的泛素化位点突变后,对不同阿片受体亚型的内吞和降解过程产生了不同的影响,进而影响了阿片受体的信号转导过程。本文着重对阿片受体3种亚型的泛素化修饰特点及泛素化对受体转运的调节作用进行综述。

  20. Protein kinase Czeta mediates micro-opioid receptor-induced cross-desensitization of chemokine receptor CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changcheng; Rahim, Rahil T; Davey, Penelope C; Bednar, Filip; Bardi, Giuseppe; Zhang, Lily; Zhang, Ning; Oppenheim, Joost J; Rogers, Thomas J

    2011-06-10

    We have previously shown that the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) is capable of mediating cross-desensitization of several chemokine receptors including CCR5, but the biochemical mechanism of this process has not been fully elucidated. We have carried out a series of functional and biochemical studies and found that the mechanism of MOR-induced cross-desensitization of CCR5 involves the activation of PKCζ. Inhibition of PKCζ by its pseudosubstrate inhibitor, or its siRNA, or dominant negative mutants suppresses the cross-desensitization of CCR5. Our results further indicate that the activation of PKCζ is mediated through a pathway involving phosphoinositol-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). In addition, activation of MOR elevates the phosphorylation level and kinase activity of PKCζ. The phosphorylation of PKCζ can be suppressed by a dominant negative mutant of PDK1. We observed that following MOR activation, the interaction between PKCζ and PDK1 is immediately increased based on the analysis of fluorescent resonance energy transfer in cells with the expression of PKCζ-YFP and PDK1-CFP. In addition, cells expressing PKCζ kinase motif mutants (Lys-281, Thr-410, Thr-560) fail to exhibit full MOR-induced desensitization of CCR5 activity. Taken together, we propose that upon DAMGO treatment, MOR activates PKCζ through a PDK1-dependent signaling pathway to induce CCR5 phosphorylation and desensitization. Because CCR5 is a highly proinflammatory receptor, and a critical coreceptor for HIV-1, these results may provide a novel approach for the development of specific therapeutic agents to treat patients with certain inflammatory diseases or AIDS.

  1. Direct influence of C-terminally substituted amino acids in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore on delta-opioid receptor selectivity and antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Guerrini, Remo; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2004-07-29

    A series of 17 analogues were developed on the basis of the general formula H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(R)-R' (denotes chirality; R = charged, neutral, or aromatic functional group; R' = -OH or -NH(2)). These compounds were designed to test the following hypothesis: the physicochemical properties of third-residue substitutions C-terminal to Tic in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore modify delta-opioid receptor selectivity and delta-opioid receptor antagonism through enhanced interactions with the mu-opioid receptor. The data substantiate the following conclusions: (i) all compounds had high receptor affinity [K(i)(delta) = 0.034-1.1 nM], while that for the mu-opioid receptor fluctuated by orders of magnitude [K(i)(mu) = 15.1-3966 nM]; (ii) delta-opioid receptor selectivity [K(i)(mu)/K(i)(delta)] declined 1000-fold from 22,600 to 21; (iii) a C-terminal carboxyl group enhanced selectivity but only as a consequence of the specific residue; (iv) amidated, positive charged residues [Lys-NH(2) (6), Arg-NH(2) (7)], and a negatively charged aromatic residue [Trp-OH (11)] enhanced mu-opioid affinity [K(i)(mu) = 17.0, 15.1, and 15.7 nM, respectively], while Gly-NH(2) (8), Ser-NH(2) (10), and His-OH (12) were nearly one-tenth as active; and (v) D-isomers exhibited mixed effects on mu-opioid receptor affinity (2' 1 microM) except H-Dmt-Tic-Glu-NH(2) (3), which was a partial delta-opioid receptor agonist (IC(50) = 2.5 nM). Thus, these C-terminally extended analogues indicated that an amino acid residue containing a single charge, amino or guanidino functionality, or aromatic group substantially altered the delta-opioid receptor activity profile (selectivity and antagonism) of the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore, which suggests that the C-terminal constituent plays a major role in determining opioid receptor activity as an "address domain".

  2. RNA interference targeting mu-opioid receptors reverses the inhibition of fentanyl on glucose-evoked insulin release of rat islets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Tao-lai; ZHANG Lei; WANG Xin-hua; LIU Sheng; MA Liang; LU Ying

    2010-01-01

    Background Mu opioid receptor plays an important role in many physiological functions. Fentanyl is a widely used opioid receptor agonist for analgesia. This study was conducted to test the role of mu-opioid receptor on insulin release by determining whether fentanyl affected insulin release from freshly isolated rat pancreatic islets and if small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting mu-opioid receptor in the islets could knock down mu-opioid receptor expression.Methods Islets were isolated from ripe SD rats' pancreas by common bile duct intraductal collagenase V digestion and purified by discontinuous Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. The siRNA knock-down of mu-opioid receptor mRNA and protein in islet cells was analyzed by semi-quantitative real time-PCR and Western blotting. After siRNA-transfection for 48 hours, the islets were co-cultured with fentanyl as follows: 0 ng/ml, 3 ng/ml and 30 ng/ml for 48 hours. Then glucose-evoked insulin release was performed. As a control, the insulin release was also analyzed in islets without siRNA-trasfection after being co-cultured with fentanyl for 48 hours.Results After 48 hours of transfections, specific siRNA targeting of mu-opioid receptors produced significant reduction of mu-opioid receptor mRNA and protein (P <0.01). Fentanyl significantly inhibited glucose-evoked insulin release in islets in a concentration dependent manner (P <0.01). But after siRNA-transfection for 48 hours, the inhibition on glucose-evoked insulin reiease was reversed (P <0.01).Conclusions RNA interference specifically reduces mu-opioid receptor mRNA and protein expression, leading to reversal of the fentanyl-induced inhibition on glucose-evoked insulin release of rat islets. The activation of opioid receptor induced by fentanyl functions to inhibit insulin release. The use of RNAi presents a promising tool for future research in diabetic mechanisms and a novel therapy for diabetes.

  3. Differential helical orientations among related G protein-coupled receptors provide a novel mechanism for selectivity. Studies with salvinorin A and the kappa-opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vortherms, Timothy A; Mosier, Philip D; Westkaemper, Richard B; Roth, Bryan L

    2007-02-02

    Salvinorin A, the active component of the hallucinogenic sage Salvia divinorum, is an apparently selective and highly potent kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist. Salvinorin A is unique among ligands for peptidergic G protein-coupled receptors in being nonnitrogenous and lipid-like in character. To examine the molecular basis for the subtype-selective binding of salvinorin A, we utilized an integrated approach using chimeric opioid receptors, site-directed mutagenesis, the substituted cysteine accessibility method, and molecular modeling and dynamics studies. We discovered that helix 2 is required for salvinorin A binding to KOR and that two residues (Val-108(2.53) and Val-118(2.63)) confer subtype selectivity. Intriguingly, molecular modeling studies predicted that these loci exhibit an indirect effect on salvinorin A binding, presumably through rotation of helix 2. Significantly, and in agreement with our in silico predictions, substituted cysteine accessibility method analysis of helix 2 comparing KOR and the delta-opioid receptor, which has negligible affinity for salvinorin A, revealed that residues known to be important for salvinorin A binding exhibit a differential pattern of water accessibility. These findings imply that differences in the helical orientation of helix 2 are critical for the selectivity of salvinorin A binding to KOR and provide a structurally novel basis for ligand selectivity.

  4. Ablation of kappa-opioid receptors from brain dopamine neurons has anxiolytic-like effects and enhances cocaine-induced plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Veer, Ashlee; Bechtholt, Anita J; Onvani, Sara; Potter, David; Wang, Yujun; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Schütz, Günther; Chartoff, Elena H; Rudolph, Uwe; Cohen, Bruce M; Carlezon, William A

    2013-07-01

    Brain kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) are implicated in states of motivation and emotion. Activation of KORs negatively regulates mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons, and KOR agonists produce depressive-like behavioral effects. To further evaluate how KOR function affects behavior, we developed mutant mice in which exon 3 of the KOR gene (Oprk1) was flanked with Cre-lox recombination (loxP) sites. By breeding these mice with lines that express Cre-recombinase (Cre) in early embryogenesis (EIIa-Cre) or only in DA neurons (dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre), we developed constitutive KOR knockouts (KOR(-/-)) and conditional knockouts that lack KORs in DA-containing neurons (DAT-KOR(lox/lox)). Autoradiography demonstrated complete ablation of KOR binding in the KOR(-/-) mutants, and reduced binding in the DAT-KOR(lox/lox) mutants. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) studies confirmed that KOR mRNA is undetectable in the constitutive mutants and reduced in the midbrain DA systems of the conditional mutants. Behavioral characterization demonstrated that these mutant lines do not differ from controls in metrics, including hearing, vision, weight, and locomotor activity. Whereas KOR(-/-) mice appeared normal in the open field and light/dark box tests, DAT-KOR(lox/lox) mice showed reduced anxiety-like behavior, an effect that is broadly consistent with previously reported effects of KOR antagonists. Sensitization to the locomotor-stimulating effects of cocaine appeared normal in KOR(-/-) mutants, but was exaggerated in DAT-KOR(lox/lox) mutants. Increased sensitivity to cocaine in the DAT-KOR(lox/lox) mutants is consistent with a role for KORs in negative regulation of DA function, whereas the lack of differences in the KOR(-/-) mutants suggests compensatory adaptations after constitutive receptor ablation. These mouse lines may be useful in future studies of KOR function.

  5. Fluoxetine reverses the behavioral despair induced by neurogenic stress in mice: role of N-methyl-d-aspartate and opioid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Kordjazy, Nastaran; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Dehpour, AhmadReza

    2016-06-01

    Opioid and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors mediate different effects of fluoxetine. We investigated whether opioid and NMDA receptors are involved in the protective effect of fluoxetine against the behavioral despair induced by acute physical stress in male mice. We used the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and open-field test (OFT) for behavioral evaluation. We used fluoxetine, naltrexone (opioid receptor antagonist), MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist), morphine (opioid receptor agonist), and NMDA (NMDA receptor agonist). Acute foot-shock stress (FSS) significantly induced behavioral despair (depressive-like) and anxiety-like behaviors in tests. Fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) reversed the depressant-like effect of FSS, but it did not alter the locomotion and anxiety-like behavior in animals. Acute administration of subeffective doses of naltrexone (0.3 mg/kg) or MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg) potentiated the antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine, while subeffective doses of morphine (1 mg/kg) and NMDA (75 mg/kg) abolished this effect of fluoxetine. Also, co-administration of subeffective doses of naltrexone (0.05 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.003 mg/kg) with fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) induced a significant decrease in the immobility time in FST and TST. Our results showed that opioid and NMDA receptors (alone or in combination) are involved in the antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine against physical stress.

  6. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is frequently due to premature stop codons in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene: an international collaborative report of 13 new mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Pascal; Audran, Françoise; Pienkowski, Catherine; Morange, Isabelle; Kohler, Birgit; Flori, Elisabeth; Heinrich, Claudine; Dacou-Voutetakis, Catherine; Joseph, Marie-Geneviève; Guedj, Anne-Marie; Journel, Hubert; Hecart-Bruna, Annie-Claude; Khotchali, Ines; Ten, Svetlana; Bouchard, Philippe; Paris, Françoise; Sultan, Charles

    2010-07-01

    To confirm the clinical diagnosis of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) by molecular genetic analysis and to determine the prevalence of exon 1 mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) transactivation defects of a large series of CAIS patients. International retrospective study. University Hospital of Montpellier, Department of Hormonology. 105 patients with normal female external genitalia, bilateral intra-abdominal or inguinal testis, normal breast development, absent or sparse pubic hair, normal or high endogenous testosterone production, hypoplastic or absent wolffian structures, and 46,XY karyotype. Sequencing of the AR gene. Prevalence of AR exon 1 mutations. Over a 10-year period (1997 to 2007), we identified 78 AR gene mutations in 105 patients with CAIS; 21 of them were located in exon 1, and 13 of these were new mutations. We report 13 new mutations in the AR gene. All but one were stop codons, and the last was a splicing abnormality. The finding that 27% of the mutations in our cohort were localized in exon 1 versus 15% in previous works justifies the sequencing of this exon in patients with CAIS. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Involvement of μ- and δ-opioid receptor function in the rewarding effect of (±)-pentazocine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tomohisa; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yoshizawa, Kazumi; Ise, Yuya; Mizuo, Keisuke; Saeki, Tomoya; Komiya, Sachiko; Masukawa, Daiki; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2015-07-01

    Most opioid receptor agonists have abuse potential, and the rewarding effects of opioids can be reduced in the presence of pain. While each of the enantiomers of pentazocine has a differential pharmacologic profile, (±)-pentazocine has been used clinically for the treatment of pain. However, little information is available regarding which components of pentazocine are associated with its rewarding effects, and whether the (±)-pentazocine-induced rewarding effects can be suppressed under pain. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of pain on the acquisition of the rewarding effects of (±)-pentazocine, and to examine the mechanism of the rewarding effects of (±)-pentazocine using the conditioned place preference paradigm. (±)-Pentazocine and (-)-pentazocine, but not (+)-pentazocine, produced significant rewarding effects. Even though the rewarding effects induced by (±)-pentazocine were significantly suppressed under pain induced by formalin, accompanied by increase of preprodynorphin mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens, a high dose of (±)-pentazocine produced significant rewarding effects under pain. In the normal condition, (±)-pentazocine-induced rewarding effects were blocked by a low dose of naloxone, whereas the rewarding effects induced by high doses of pentazocine under pain were suppressed by naltrindole (a δ-opioid receptor antagonist). Interestingly, (±)-pentazocine did not significantly affect dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. These findings suggest that the rewarding effects of (-)-pentazocine may contribute to the abuse potential of (±)-pentazocine through μ- as well as δ-opioid receptors, without robust activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. We also found that neural adaptations can reduce the abuse potential of (±)-pentazocine under pain.

  8. Evaluation of radioiodinated C6-O- and N-iodoallyl analogues of diprenorphine as ligands for cerebral opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lever, J.R.; Scheffel, U.; Stathis, M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Analogues of diprenorphine (DPN) having C6-O-iodoallyl (O-IA-DPN) and N-iodoallyl (N-IA-DPN) substituents can be I-125 labeled in good yield with high specific activity by radioiododestannylation. When tested in vitro against [H-3]-DPN in rat brain membranes, the apparent affinity (Ki) of O-IA-DPN (1.35 nM) proved 17-fold stronger than that of N-IA-DPN (23.4 nM). Against selective [H-3]-ligands, O-IA-DPN showed high apparent affinities for {mu}(1.9 nM), {gamma}(1.1 nM) and {kappa}(0.9 nM) sites. Consistent with the low apparent affinity in vitro, [I-125]-N-IA- DPN did not allow localization of cerebral opioid receptors after i.v. administration to mice. By contrast, [I-125]-O-IA-DPN exhibited a regional brain distribution which reflects binding to multiple opioid receptors. The highest radioactivity concentrations were in superior colliculi, hypothalamus, olfactory tubercles, thalamus and striatum. Peak levels (2.5-3.5 %ID/g) were maintained over the first 60 min. At all times, the lowest levels of radioactivity were in the cerebellum. Binding in vivo was saturable by O-IA-DPN, was blocked by (-)- but not by (+)-naloxone, and was inhibited by naltrexone in dose-dependent fashion. Specific binding was 83-93% for all tissues except cerebellum, where 50% blockade was noted with naltrexone (5.0 mg/kg). Using naltrexone blockade to define non-specific binding, the highest ratio of specific to non-specific binding (> 14 to 1) was noted for superior colliculi at 60 min. Inhibition studies with drugs selective for {mu}, {gamma} or {kappa} sites established that multiple opioid receptors are labeled. [123I]-O-IA-DPN has been prepared (84%, >2400 mCi/{mu}mol), and allows visualization of opioid receptors in mouse brain by ex vivo autoradiography. Together, these results suggest that [123I]-O-IA-DPN is suitable for SPECT studies of multiple opioid receptors.

  9. Ibogaine and noribogaine potentiate the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity by opioid and 5-HT receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, R A; Winter, J C

    1996-12-05

    The effects of the putative anti-addictive compound ibogaine and its principal metabolite, noribogaine, on adenylyl cyclase activity were determined in various areas of the rat brain. Neither compound altered either basal or forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities in the frontal cortex, midbrain or striatum. However, in all three brain areas the addition of ibogaine and noribogaine significantly enhanced inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity by a maximally effective concentration of morphine. Similarly, both compounds also potentiated the inhibition of hippocampal adenylyl cyclase activity by a maximally effective concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Although ibogaine appears to be more potent than noribogaine in augmenting opioid- and 5-HT-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity, both compounds appear to be of comparable efficacy. Neither compound, however, modified the inhibitory action of the muscarinic acetylcholine agonist, carbachol, on adenylyl cyclase activity. The present data indicate that ibogaine and noribogaine cause a selective increase in receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. This potentiation may be involved in the pharmacological actions of these compounds.

  10. Functional polymorphism of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) influences reinforcement learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mary R; Gallen, Courtney L; Zhang, Xiaochu; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Stein, Elliot A; Barr, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports on the functional effects (i.e., gain or loss of function), and phenotypic outcomes (e.g., changes in addiction vulnerability and stress response) of a commonly occurring functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1 A118G) have been inconsistent. Here we examine the effect of this polymorphism on implicit reward learning. We used a probabilistic signal detection task to determine whether this polymorphism impacts response bias to monetary reward in 63 healthy adult subjects: 51 AA homozygotes and 12 G allele carriers. OPRM1 AA homozygotes exhibited typical responding to the rewarded response--that is, their bias to the rewarded stimulus increased over time. However, OPRM1 G allele carriers exhibited a decline in response to the rewarded stimulus compared to the AA homozygotes. These results extend previous reports on the heritability of performance on this task by implicating a specific polymorphism. Through comparison with other studies using this task, we suggest a possible mechanism by which the OPRM1 polymorphism may confer reduced response to natural reward through a dopamine-mediated decrease during positive reinforcement learning.

  11. Antinociceptive profile of salvinorin A, a structurally unique kappa opioid receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Christopher R; Sufka, Kenneth J; Smith, Grant H; Warnick, Jason E; Nieto, Marcelo J

    2006-01-01

    Salvinorin A, is a structurally unique, non-nitrogenous, kappa opioid receptor (KOP) agonist. Given the role of KOPs in analgesic processes, we set out to determine whether salvinorin A has antinociceptive activity in thermal and chemo-nociceptive assays. The tail-flick assay was employed to investigate 1) salvinorin A's (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg) dose-response and time-course (10, 20, and 30 min) effects in a thermal nociceptive assay, and 2) the ability for the KOP antagonist norBNI (10.0 mg/kg) to prevent salvinorin A antinociception. The hotplate assay was utilized as a second thermal nociceptive measure to test salvinorin A's dose-response effects. The acetic acid abdominal constriction assay was used to study salvinorin A's dose-response and time-course (over 30 min) effects in a chemo-nociceptive assay. Together, these studies revealed that salvinorin A produces a dose-dependent antinociception that peaked at 10 min post-injection but rapidly returned to baseline. Additionally, pretreatment with the KOP antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI) reversed salvinorin A-induced antinociception. These findings demonstrate that salvinorin A produces a KOP mediated antinociceptive effect with a short duration of action.

  12. Functional polymorphism of the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 influences reinforcement learning in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R Lee

    Full Text Available Previous reports on the functional effects (i.e., gain or loss of function, and phenotypic outcomes (e.g., changes in addiction vulnerability and stress response of a commonly occurring functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1 A118G have been inconsistent. Here we examine the effect of this polymorphism on implicit reward learning. We used a probabilistic signal detection task to determine whether this polymorphism impacts response bias to monetary reward in 63 healthy adult subjects: 51 AA homozygotes and 12 G allele carriers. OPRM1 AA homozygotes exhibited typical responding to the rewarded response--that is, their bias to the rewarded stimulus increased over time. However, OPRM1 G allele carriers exhibited a decline in response to the rewarded stimulus compared to the AA homozygotes. These results extend previous reports on the heritability of performance on this task by implicating a specific polymorphism. Through comparison with other studies using this task, we suggest a possible mechanism by which the OPRM1 polymorphism may confer reduced response to natural reward through a dopamine-mediated decrease during positive reinforcement learning.

  13. Gene Variants Reduce Opioid Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine ... variant of the gene for the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) with a decreased risk for addiction to ...

  14. δ-阿片受体抑制阿片诱发痛觉过敏的研究进展%The role of δ- opioid receptor in the inhibition of opioid induced hyperalgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李依泽; 王海云; 王国林

    2012-01-01

    Background Opioids are the most powerful analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe pain.Although opioids have analgesic effect,they have many side effects at the same time.Long term opioids exposure can induce hyperalgesia and tolerance.Moreover,increasing the dose of opioids,paradoxically,aggravates the hyperalgesia and tolerance,causing a vicious cycle.The use of opioids,therefore,is largely limited in the clinical setting. Objective The relevant literatures involved in the role of δ-opioid receptors in the attenuation of opioid induced hyperalgesia (OIH) in recent years were summarized,which helps readership to update the latest information about this topic. Content The structure,distribution,physiological function and the progress of antihyperalgesic effect of δ-opioid receptors were reviewed in this article.Those researches suggest that OIH and tolerance can be attenuated by the inhibition of δ-opioid receptor phosphorylation,knocking out δ-opioid receptor coding genes and the application of δ-opioid receptor antagonists. Trend Since the antihyperalgesia effect of δ-opioid receptor is widely acknowledged,δ- opioid receptor may become a new target to relieve pain in the clinical setting.%背景 阿片类药物是治疗中、重度疼痛的主要药物,长时间应用可出现阿片诱发的痛觉过敏和耐受,而增加药物剂量可造成更严重的痛觉过敏和耐受,从而形成恶性循环,很大程度上限制了阿片类药物在临床工作中的应用.目的 通过对近年δ-阿片受体在痛觉过敏中所起作用的研究进行总结,帮助读者了解国外相关研究的最新趋势和进展.内容 就δ-阿片受体的结构、分布、生理功能和δ-阿片受体的抗痛觉过敏作用的研究进展进行综述.得出如下结论,通过抑制δ-阿片受体磷酸化、敲除δ-阿片受体编码基因和应用δ-阿片受体拮抗剂等方法,可抑制痛觉过敏和耐受的形成.趋向 随着越来越多的学者对

  15. Oxytocin and Opioid Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Greeting Behavior in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikő Kubinyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Meeting humans is an everyday experience for most companion dogs, and their behavior in these situations and its genetic background is of major interest. Previous research in our laboratory reported that in German shepherd dogs the lack of G allele, and in Border collies the lack of A allele, of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR 19208A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was linked to increased friendliness, which suggests that although broad traits are affected by genetic variability, the specific links between alleles and behavioral variables might be breed-specific. In the current study, we found that Siberian huskies with the A allele approached a friendly unfamiliar woman less frequently in a greeting test, which indicates that certain polymorphisms are related to human directed behavior, but that the relationship patterns between polymorphisms and behavioral phenotypes differ between populations. This finding was further supported by our next investigation. According to primate studies, endogenous opioid peptide (e.g., endorphins receptor genes have also been implicated in social relationships. Therefore, we examined the rs21912990 of the OPRM1 gene. Firstly, we found that the allele frequencies of Siberian huskies and gray wolves were similar, but differed from that of Border collies and German shepherd dogs, which might reflect their genetic relationship. Secondly, we detected significant associations between the OPRM1 SNP and greeting behavior among German shepherd dogs and a trend in Border collies, but we could not detect an association in Siberian huskies. Although our results with OXTR and OPRM1 gene variants should be regarded as preliminary due to the relatively low sample size, they suggest that (1 OXTR and OPRM1 gene variants in dogs affect human-directed social behavior and (2 their effects differ between breeds.

  16. Opioid receptor mu 1 gene, fat intake and obesity in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, A; Melka, M G; Bernard, M; Abrahamowicz, M; Leonard, G T; Richer, L; Perron, M; Veillette, S; Xu, C J; Greenwood, C M T; Dias, A; El-Sohemy, A; Gaudet, D; Paus, T; Pausova, Z

    2014-01-01

    Dietary preference for fat may increase risk for obesity. It is a complex behavior regulated in part by the amygdala, a brain structure involved in reward processing and food behavior, and modulated by genetic factors. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to search for gene loci associated with dietary intake of fat, and we tested whether these loci are also associated with adiposity and amygdala volume. We studied 598 adolescents (12-18 years) recruited from the French-Canadian founder population and genotyped them with 530 011 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Fat intake was assessed with a 24-hour food recall. Adiposity was examined with anthropometry and bioimpedance. Amygdala volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. GWAS identified a locus of fat intake in the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1, rs2281617, P=5.2 × 10(-6)), which encodes a receptor expressed in the brain-reward system and shown previously to modulate fat preference in animals. The minor OPRM1 allele appeared to have a 'protective' effect: it was associated with lower fat intake (by 4%) and lower body-fat mass (by ∼2 kg, P=0.02). Consistent with the possible amygdala-mediated inhibition of fat preference, this allele was additionally associated with higher amygdala volume (by 69 mm(3), P=0.02) and, in the carriers of this allele, amygdala volume correlated inversely with fat intake (P=0.02). Finally, OPRM1 was associated with fat intake in an independent sample of 490 young adults. In summary, OPRM1 may modulate dietary intake of fat and hence risk for obesity, and this effect may be modulated by subtle variations in the amygdala volume.

  17. MOR is not enough: identification of novel mu-opioid receptor interacting proteins using traditional and modified membrane yeast two-hybrid screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petko, Jessica; Justice-Bitner, Stephanie; Jin, Jay; Wong, Victoria; Kittanakom, Saranya; Ferraro, Thomas N; Stagljar, Igor; Levenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) is the G-protein coupled receptor primarily responsible for mediating the analgesic and rewarding properties of opioid agonist drugs such as morphine, fentanyl, and heroin. We have utilized a combination of traditional and modified membrane yeast two-hybrid screening methods to identify a cohort of novel MOR interacting proteins (MORIPs). The interaction between the MOR and a subset of MORIPs was validated in pulldown, co-immunoprecipitation, and co-localization studies using HEK293 cells stably expressing the MOR as well as rodent brain. Additionally, a subset of MORIPs was found capable of interaction with the delta and kappa opioid receptors, suggesting that they may represent general opioid receptor interacting proteins (ORIPS). Expression of several MORIPs was altered in specific mouse brain regions after chronic treatment with morphine, suggesting that these proteins may play a role in response to opioid agonist drugs. Based on the known function of these newly identified MORIPs, the interactions forming the MOR signalplex are hypothesized to be important for MOR signaling and intracellular trafficking. Understanding the molecular complexity of MOR/MORIP interactions provides a conceptual framework for defining the cellular mechanisms of MOR signaling in brain and may be critical for determining the physiological basis of opioid tolerance and addiction.

  18. The stereoisomer (+)-naloxone potentiates G-protein coupling and feeding associated with stimulation of mu opioid receptors in the parabrachial nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaijale, Nayla N; Aloyo, Vincent J; Simansky, Kenny J

    2013-03-01

    Classically, opioids produce their effects by activating Gi-proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity. Previous studies proposed that mu-opioid receptors can also stimulate adenylate cyclase due to an initial transient coupling to Gs-proteins. Treatment with ultra-low doses of the nonselective opioid antagonist (-)-naloxone or its inactive enantiomer (+)-naloxone blocks this excitatory effect and enhances Gi-coupling. Previously we reported that infusion of the mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Glycinol5]-Enkephalin (DAMGO) into the mu-opioid receptor expressing lateral parabrachial nucleus increases feeding. Pretreatment with (-)-naloxone blocks this effect. We used this parabrachial circuit as a model to assess cellular actions of ultra-low doses of (-)-naloxone and (+)-naloxone in modifying the effects of DAMGO. Our results showed that an ultra-low concentration of (-)-naloxone (0.001 nM) and several concentrations of (+)-naloxone (0.01-10 nM) enhanced DAMGO-stimulated guanosine-5'-0-(γ-thio)-triphosphate incorporation in parabrachial sections in vitro. Further, we analyzed the relevance of these effects in vivo. In the present study, we show that (+)-naloxone can potentiate DAMGO-induced feeding at doses at which (-)-naloxone was an antagonist. These results implicated (+)-naloxone as a novel tool for studying mu-opioid receptor functions and suggest that (+)-naloxone may have therapeutic value to enhance clinical actions of opiate drugs.

  19. The kappa-opioid receptor is involved in the stimulating effect of nicotine on adrenocortical activity but not in nicotine induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva Maria; Llorente, Ricardo; Pérez-Alvarez, Laura; Moreno, Enrique; Guaza, Carmen; Viveros, Maria Paz

    2005-09-01

    The kappa (kappa) opioid system appears to interact with nicotine in the modulation of locomotion and addiction related processes. In this study we have investigated the possible implication of the kappa-opioid system in the effects of nicotine on anxiety and adrenocortical activity. In two different experiments, we analysed the possible interaction between nicotine (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) and either the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (5 mg/kg i.p.) or the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U50,488H (1 mg/kg s.c.). Behavioural and endocrine experiments were performed in different groups of animals. Animals were exposed to the holeboard immediately followed by the plus-maze. Serum corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Nicotine induced an anxiogenic-like effect in the plus-maze and a significant decrease of holeboard activity. The anxiogenic-like effect in the plus-maze was not modified by any of the kappa-opioid receptor ligands. Nicotine also induced a significant increase in the corticosterone levels, and the kappa antagonist, which did not exert any effect per se, antagonised this effect. The kappa-agonist U50,488H induced a significant increase in corticosterone concentration when administered alone. We provide the first evidence for the involvement of the kappa-opioid receptor in the stimulatory effect of nicotine on adrenocortical activity.

  20. Salvinorin A, an active component of the hallucinogenic sage salvia divinorum is a highly efficacious kappa-opioid receptor agonist: structural and functional considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Charles; Sud, Sumit; Jin, Wenzhen; Stewart, Jeremy; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Siebert, Daniel J; Toth, Beth Ann; Hufeisen, Sandra J; Roth, Bryan L

    2004-03-01

    The diterpene salvinorin A from Salvia divinorum has recently been reported to be a high-affinity and selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist (Roth et al., 2002). Salvinorin A and selected derivatives were found to be potent and efficacious agonists in several measures of agonist activity using cloned human kappa-opioid receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Thus, salvinorin A, salvinorinyl-2-propionate, and salvinorinyl-2-heptanoate were found to be either full (salvinorin A) or partial (2-propionate, 2-heptanoate) agonists for inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Additional studies of agonist potency and efficacy of salvinorin A, performed by cotransfecting either the chimeric G proteins Gaq-i5 or the universal G protein Ga16 and quantification of agonist-evoked intracellular calcium mobilization, affirmed that salvinorin A was a potent and effective kappa-opioid agonist. Results from structure-function studies suggested that the nature of the substituent at the 2-position of salvinorin A was critical for kappa-opioid receptor binding and activation. Because issues of receptor reserve complicate estimates of agonist efficacy and potency, we also examined the agonist actions of salvinorin A by measuring potassium conductance through G protein-gated K(+) channels coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, a system in which receptor reserve is minimal. Salvinorin A was found to be a full agonist, being significantly more efficacious than (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane-sulfonate hydrate (U50488) or (trans)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-cyclohexyl] benzeneacetamide methane-sulfonate hydrate (U69593) (two standard kappa-opioid agonists) and similar in efficacy to dynorphin A (the naturally occurring peptide ligand for kappa-opioid receptors). Salvinorin A thus represents the first known naturally occurring non-nitrogenous full agonist at kappa-opioid receptors.

  1. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  2. Association between Opioid Receptor mu 1 (OPRM1 Gene Polymorphisms and Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption in a Spanish Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Francès

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence gained from animals and humans suggests that the encephalic opioid system might be involved in the development of drug addiction through its role in reward. Our aim is to assess the influence of genetic variations in the opioid receptor mu 1 on alcohol and tobacco consumption in a Spanish population. 763 unrelated individuals (465 women, 298 men aged 18-85 years were recruited between October 2011 and April 2012. Participants were requested to answer a 35-item questionnaire on tobacco and alcohol consumption, as well as to complete the AUDIT and Fagerström tests. Individuals were genotyped for three polymorphisms in the opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1 gene, using a TaqMan® protocol. In males, the rs10485057 polymorphism was associated with total pure ethanol intake and with the risk of being an alcohol consumer. Also, this polymorphism was significantly associated with higher Fagerström scores. Rs1799971 had a different influence on adaptive and maladaptive patterns of alcohol use. Despite the limited sample size, our study might enrich current knowledge on patterns of alcohol use, because it encompasses both extreme and adaptive phenotypes, providing thus a wider perspective on this subject.

  3. Effects of ibogaine and noribogaine on the antinociceptive action of mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, H N; Cao, Y J; Zhao, G M

    1997-03-28

    Ibogaine, an alkaloid isolated from the bark of the African shrub, Tabernanthe iboga, has been claimed to decrease the self-administration of drugs of abuse like morphine, cocaine and alcohol. To determine whether these effects are mediated via opioid receptor systems, the effects of ibogaine and its metabolite, noribogaine on the antinociceptive actions of morphine, U-50,488H and [D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) which are mu- kappa- and delta-opioid receptor agonists, respectively, were determined in male Swiss-Webster mice. Administration of morphine (7 or 10 mg/kg, s.c.), U-50,488H (15 or 25 mg/kg, i.p.) or DPDPE (10 microg/mouse, i.c.v.) produced antinociception in mice as measured by the tail-flick test. Ibogaine (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg, i.p.) by itself did not alter the tail-flick latency. The same doses of ibogaine injected 10 min before the opioid drugs did not modify the antinociceptive actions of morphine, U-50,488H or DPDPE. Ibogaine administered 4 h or 24 h prior to morphine injection did not modify the antinociceptive action of the latter. A dose of 40 mg/kg (i.p.) of noribogaine enhanced the antinociceptive activity of morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.). Similarly, the doses of 40 and 80 mg/kg of noribogaine enhanced the antinociception produced by a smaller dose of morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.). However, antinociception induced by U-50,488H and DPDPE was not modified by noribogaine (10-40 mg/kg). It is concluded that ibogaine, which has been suggested to decrease the self-administration of cocaine and opiates like heroin in humans, does not produce such an action by interacting directly with multiple opioid receptors. However, the metabolite of ibogaine enhances the antinociception of morphine but not of U-50,488H or DPDPE. Thus, in vivo evidence has been provided for the possible interaction of ibogaine with mu-opioid receptor following its metabolism to noribogaine.

  4. Mu-Opioid (MOP) receptor mediated G-protein signaling is impaired in specific brain regions in a rat model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Edina; Büki, Alexandra; Kékesi, Gabriella; Horváth, Gyöngyi; Benyhe, Sándor

    2016-04-21

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental health disorder. Clinical reports suggest that many patients with schizophrenia are less sensitive to pain than other individuals. Animal models do not interpret schizophrenia completely, but they can model a number of symptoms of the disease, including decreased pain sensitivities and increased pain thresholds of various modalities. Opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides have a substantial role in analgesia. In this biochemical study we investigated changes in the signaling properties of the mu-opioid (MOP) receptor in different brain regions, which are involved in the pain transmission, i.e., thalamus, olfactory bulb, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Our goal was to compare the transmembrane signaling mediated by MOP receptors in control rats and in a recently developed rat model of schizophrenia. Regulatory G-protein activation via MOP receptors were measured in [(35)S]GTPγS binding assays in the presence of a highly selective MOP receptor peptide agonist, DAMGO. It was found that the MOP receptor mediated activation of G-proteins was substantially lower in membranes prepared from the 'schizophrenic' model rats than in control animals. The potency of DAMGO to activate MOP receptor was also decreased in all brain regions studied. Taken together in our rat model of schizophrenia, MOP receptor mediated G-proteins have a reduced stimulatory activity compared to membrane preparations taken from control animals. The observed distinct changes of opioid receptor functions in different areas of the brain do not explain the augmented nociceptive threshold described in these animals.

  5. Quantification of brain {mu}-opioid receptors with [{sup 11}C]carfentanil: reference-tissue methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Christopher J.; Bencherif, Badreddine; Hilton, John; Madar, Igal; James Frost, J. E-mail: jfrost@jhmi.edu

    2003-02-01

    [{sup 11}C]Carfentanil (CFN) is a {mu}-opioid agonist used for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) studies of {mu}-opioid receptors. Previously, a tissue-ratio method was validated for the quantification of CFN binding. However, since that initial validation, several other blood independent (reference-tissue) methods have become available. To evaluate these methods, CFN PET studies with arterial blood sampling were acquired in six healthy male control subject