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Sample records for ophthalmic artery

  1. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    TOMA, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  2. Dural AVM supplied by the ophthalmic artery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    Dural arteriovenous malformations in the anterior cranial fossa are rare and are especially prone to haemorrhage. These lesions are usually treated by surgical excision. We report the embolization of an anterior cranial fossa DAVM using an endovascular approach via the ophthalmic artery.

  3. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

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    Pham, Chi-Tuan; Blanc, Raphael; Pistocchi, Silvia; Bartolini, Bruno; Piotin, Michel [Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Livia [Institut Curie, Department of Ocular Oncology, Paris (France)

    2012-08-15

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  4. Flow analysis of the ophthalmic artery

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    Harada, Kuniaki; Hashimoto, Masato; Bandoh, Michio; Odawara, Yoshihiro; Kamagata, Masaki; Shirase, Ryuji [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the hemodynamics of ophthalmic artery flow using phase contrast MR angiography (PC-MRA). A total of 14 eyes from 10 normal volunteers and a patient with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) were analyzed. The optimal conditions were time repetition (TR)/echo time (TE)/flip angle (FA)/nex=40 ms/minimum/90 deg/2, field of view (FOV)=6 cm, matrix size=256 x 256. The resistive index (RI) and pulsatillity index (PI) values were significantly raised in the patient with NTG when compared to the control group. We therefore believe that PC-MRA may be a useful clinical tool for the assessment of the mechanism of NTG. (author)

  5. Selective thrombolysis performed through meningo-ophthalmic artery in central retinal artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel; Halpert, Michael; Itshayek, Eyal

    2012-03-01

    The poor natural history of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is usually not modified with conventional, conservative management techniques. Guidelines for selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis are still lacking. While many centers continue to perform this procedure with promising results, others are reluctant due to conflicting findings in recent studies. We present our experience in a 36-year-old male with CRAO. Based on the patient's clinical presentation, we planned to perform selective intraarterial ophthalmic thrombolysis via the ophthalmic artery. When angiography demonstrated that the retina was not supplied by the ophthalmic artery, but by a meningo-ophthalmic artery branching from the internal maxillary artery, we instead administered thrombolytic agents via the meningo-ophthalmic artery. The patient's vision recovered completely, with visual acuity and visual field examination at 30 day follow up comparable to his pre-treatment status. This case emphasizes the need for external carotid artery examination in cases of nonvisualization of the ophthalmic artery. In addition, it illustrates the successful use of the meningo-ophthalmic artery to perform selective intraarterial thrombolysis for CRAO. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intraorbital ophthalmic artery aneurysm associated with basilar tip saccular aneurysm

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    Dehdashti, A.R.; Tribolet, N. de [Department of Neurosurgery, HUG, Geneva (Switzerland); Safran, A.B. [Department of Ophthalmology, HUG, Geneva (Switzerland); Martin, J.B.; Ruefenacht, D.A. [Division of Neuroradiology, HUG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    We present a rare case of intraorbital ophthalmic artery aneurysm found incidentally, together with a ruptured aneurysm of the tip of the basilar artery. The intraorbital aneurysm was asymptomatic, and no treatment was offered. Angiographic control was recommended to detect any progression. Treatment may be indicated for documented enlargement or significant mass effect of the aneurysm. (orig.)

  7. Wavelet-based neural network analysis of ophthalmic artery Doppler signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Nihal Fatma; Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2004-10-01

    In this study, ophthalmic artery Doppler signals were recorded from 115 subjects, 52 of whom had ophthalmic artery stenosis while the rest were healthy controls. Results were classified using a wavelet-based neural network. The wavelet-based neural network model, employing the multilayer perceptron, was used for analysis of ophthalmic artery Doppler signals. A multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used to detect stenosis in ophthalmic arteries. In order to determine the MLPNN inputs, spectral analysis of ophthalmic artery Doppler signals was performed using wavelet transform. The MLPNN was trained, cross validated, and tested with training, cross validation, and testing sets, respectively. All data sets were obtained from ophthalmic arteries of healthy subjects and subjects suffering from ophthalmic artery stenosis. The correct classification rate was 97.22% for healthy subjects, and 96.77% for subjects having ophthalmic artery stenosis. The classification results showed that the MLPNN trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was effective to detect ophthalmic artery stenosis.

  8. Ophthalmic artery color Doppler ultrasonography in mild-to-moderate preeclampsia

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    Ayaz, Tunahan; Akansel, Gur. E-mail: gakansel@superonline.com; Hayirlioglu, Alper; Arslan, Arzu; Suer, Necdet; Kuru, Ihsan

    2003-06-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hemodynamic changes in mild-moderate preeclampsia using ophthalmic artery Doppler ultrasonography technique. Methods: Ophthalmic artery pulsatility and resistivity indices were calculated in 30 mild-moderate preeclamptic women and 30 normotensive gravid women of matched gestational age. Student's t-test was performed to test the significance of difference. Results: Both indices of peripheral resistance were found to be significantly lower in the ophthalmic arteries of mild-moderately preeclamptic women than those measured in normotensive gravid women at similar stage of pregnancy. In a small number patients whose disease progressed to severe preeclampsia, both indices increased. Conclusion: In patients with mild-moderate preeclampsia, ophthalmic artery color Doppler ultrasonography detects hemodynamic changes that are not present in normotensive gravid women. Reversal of Doppler patterns in a small number of patients with progressive disease supports the hypotheses suggesting the presence of early vasodilation and late vasospasm in the etiology of preeclampsia.

  9. Imaging of Dual Ophthalmic Arteries: Identification of the Central Retinal Artery

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    Louise Louw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the origin of the central retinal artery (CRA is imperative in tailoring angiographic studies to resolve a given clinical problem. A case with dual ophthalmic arteries (OAs, characterized by different origins and distinct branching patterns, is documented for training purposes. Pre-clinical diagnosis of a 9-year-old child who presented with a sharp wire in the left-side eyeball was primarily corneal laceration. For imaging, a selected six-vessel angiographic study with the transfemoral approach was performed. Embolization was not required and the wire could be successfully removed. Right-side OA anatomy was normal, while left-side dual OAs with external carotid artery (ECA and internal carotid artery (ICA origins were seen. The case presented with a left-side meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA anomaly via the ECA, marked by a middle meningeal artery (MMA (origin: Maxillary artery; course: Through foramen spinosum with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches, and an OA variant (course: Through superior orbital fissure with a distinct orbital branching pattern. A smaller OA (origin: ICA; course: Through optic foramen with a distinct ocular branching pattern presented with the central retinal artery (CRA. The presence of the dual OAs and the M-OA anomaly can be explained by disturbed evolutionary changes of the primitive OA and stapedial artery during development. The surgical interventionist must be aware of dual OAs and M-OA anomalies with branching pattern variations on retinal supply, because of dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomotic connections. It is of clinical significance that the origin of the CRA from the ICA or ECA must be determined to avoid complications to the vision.

  10. Unusual origin of the left ophthalmic artery from the basilar trunk.

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    Rivera, Rodrigo; Choi, In Sup; Sordo, Juan Gabriel; Giacaman, Pablo; Badilla, Lautaro; Bravo, Eduardo; Echeverria, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The formation of the ophthalmic artery (OA) is a complex process with two different proposed embryological steps for its development. Several anatomical variants have been described. We present a very unusual origin of the ophthalmic artery from the basilar trunk, in a 45-year-old male with a history of pontine hemorrhagic stroke. MRI and CTA showed evidence of previous hemorrhage in the pons and several intracranial arterial dysplastic dilatations. DSA confirmed several fusiform dilatations of the basilar trunk. In the left ICA, no ophthalmic artery was seen arising from the carotid siphon. The left ophthalmic artery arises from the basilar trunk and runs lateral to the cavernous sinus through the middle cranial fossa, entering the left orbit at the superior orbital fissure. The patient was treated conservatively. Two main theories for this anomaly are known, one from Lasjaunias and the other from Paget. To our knowledge, this basilar origin of the OA has only been described three times in the literature. For its origin, we propose a partial persistence of the trigeminal artery together with a dominance of the dorsal ophthalmic artery.

  11. Color Doppler imaging of the ophthalmic artery in patients with chronic heart failure

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    Daniela B. Almeida-Freitas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the ophthalmic artery hemodynamics in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: Doppler parameters of ophthalmic artery of 18 patients with chronic heart failure in different stages of the disease were compared with 21 healthy volunteers (control group. These parameters were also correlated with echocardiographic assessments and clinical cardiologic status. Results: Mean diastolic velocity was 5.14 ± 2.4 cm/s in the chronic heart failure group and 7.44 ± 3.5 cm/s in the control group (p=0.007. Mean resistance index of the ophthalmic artery was 0.76 ± 0.08 in the chronic heart failure group and 0.70 ± 0.08 in the control group (p=0.04. Mean systolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery was 22.03 ± 7.7 cm/s in the chronic heart failure group and 25.32 ± 9.2 cm/s in the control group (p=0.24. There was a negative correlation between the resistance index of the ophthalmic artery and systemic blood pressure of patients with chronic heart failure (r= -0.47, p=0.007. Diastolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery correlated positively with systemic blood pressure (r=0.44, p=0.02. Conclusion: Lower diastolic velocity and higher resistance index were observed in the ophthalmic artery of chronic heart failure patients when compared to the control group, which probably reflects the presence of orbital vasoconstriction in response to low cardiac output. Therefore, the influence of these findings on the structure and function of the optic nerve head deserves investigation.

  12. Relationship between the Direction of Ophthalmic Artery Blood Flow and Ocular Microcirculation before and after Carotid Artery Stenting

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    Masashi Ishii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When internal carotid artery stenosis is accompanied by ocular ischemic syndrome, intervention is recommended to prevent irreversible visual loss. In this study, we used laser speckle flowgraphy to measure the ocular microcirculation in the optic nerve head before and after carotid artery stenting (CAS of 40 advanced internal carotid stenosis lesions from 37 patients. The aim was to investigate the relationship between ocular microcirculation and the direction of ophthalmic artery blood flow obtained by angiography. We found that there was a significant increase in blood flow after CAS (P=0.003. Peak systolic velocity as an indicator of the rate of stenosis was also significantly higher in the group with retrograde/undetected flow of the ophthalmic artery than in the group with antegrade flow (P=0.002. In all cases where retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery was observed before stenting, the flow changed to antegrade after stenting. Through the use of laser speckle flowgraphy, this study found that CAS can improve ocular microcirculation. Furthermore, while patients displaying retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery before stenting have a poor prognosis, CAS corrected the flow to antegrade, suggesting that visual loss can be prevented by improving the ocular microcirculation.

  13. Endovascular Treatment of Persistent Epistaxis due to Pseudoaneurysm Formation of the Ophthalmic Artery Secondary to Nasogastric Tube

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    Selcuk, Hakan, E-mail: hakanselcuk73@yahoo.com; Soylu, Nur; Albayram, Sait; Selcuk, Dogan; Ozer, Harun; Kocer, Naci; Islak, Civan [Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology (Turkey)

    2005-04-15

    We present the case of a 60-year-old man with persistent epistaxis for 20 days that had started 2 weeks after removal of a nasogastric tube placed for an abdominal operation. There was no pathologic finding at selective facial and internal maxillary artery injections. An injury to the ethmoidal branches of the ophthalmic arteries or other arterial origins of bleeding was suspected. The internal carotid artery angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm of an anterior ethmoidal branch of the left ophthalmic artery. The pseudoaneurysm was occluded with NBCA-histoacryl (25%) injection.

  14. The Gatekeepers in the Mouse Ophthalmic Artery: Endothelium-Dependent Mechanisms of Cholinergic Vasodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicam, Caroline; Staubitz, Julia; Brochhausen, Christoph; Grus, Franz H; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Gericke, Adrian

    2016-02-02

    Cholinergic regulation of arterial luminal diameter involves intricate network of intercellular communication between the endothelial and smooth muscle cells that is highly dependent on the molecular mediators released by the endothelium. Albeit the well-recognized contribution of nitric oxide (NO) towards vasodilation, the identity of compensatory mechanisms that maintain vasomotor tone when NO synthesis is deranged remain largely unknown in the ophthalmic artery. This is the first study to identify the vasodilatory signalling mechanisms of the ophthalmic artery employing wild type mice. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasodilation was only partially attenuated when NO synthesis was inhibited. Intriguingly, the combined blocking of cytochrome P450 oxygenase (CYP450) and lipoxygenase (LOX), as well as CYP450 and gap junctions, abolished vasodilation; demonstrating that the key compensatory mechanisms comprise arachidonic acid metabolites which, work in concert with gap junctions for downstream signal transmission. Furthermore, the voltage-gated potassium ion channel, Kv1.6, was functionally relevant in mediating vasodilation. Its localization was found exclusively in the smooth muscle. In conclusion, ACh-induced vasodilation of mouse ophthalmic artery is mediated in part by NO and predominantly via arachidonic acid metabolites, with active involvement of gap junctions. Particularly, the Kv1.6 channel represents an attractive therapeutic target in ophthalmopathologies when NO synthesis is compromised.

  15. Flow diverter assisted coil embolization of a very small ruptured ophthalmic artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbos, David; Pillai, Promod; Sauvageau, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Small ruptured aneurysms present a unique problem to endovascular therapy. We report a case in which a patient presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage and a very small ruptured ophthalmic artery aneurysm, for which endovascular therapy was preferred secondary to severe cardiac comorbidities. Due to the aneurysm size, a small 1.5 mm coil was needed, but presented a significant risk of migration. Conventional stent assisted coiling was considered suboptimal as the small coil could have easily migrated through the strut. We present a novel technique of flow diverter assisted coil embolization in which a coil was placed within the aneurysm and a pipeline embolization device was then partially deployed, jailing the microcatheter and coil mass. Once in place, the coil was detached, securing the aneurysm, and preventing coil migration. Through the use of a flow diverter, some degree of aneurysm protection would still be expected in the event of coil migration toward the ophthalmic artery origin.

  16. Chronic perfusion changes and reduction in preeclampsia incidence in pregnant smokers: an ophthalmic artery Doppler study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Maria Marta B M; Diniz, Angélica L D

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the hemodynamic profile of the ophthalmic artery in preeclamptic women, pregnant smokers and pregnant controls with no known diseases. A prospective cross-sectional study using the performed ophthalmic artery Doppler ultrasonography in 20 mild preeclamptic women and 20 severe preeclamptic women, 37 pregnant smokers and 51 controls. Data evaluated by using Doppler ultrasonography were as follows: resistance index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, second peak systolic velocity and peak ratio. The Doppler results, gestational age, patient age and systolic and diastolic pressure of groups were subjected to analysis of variance (p pregnant smokers showed vasospasm (0.84 ± 0.04, 2.27 ± 0.43, 4.78 ± 1.28, respectively) indicating divergent vascular pattern between these two groups (p changes in pregnant smokers might reduce the number of sudden and catastrophic events in preeclampsia.

  17. Maternal ophthalmic artery Doppler velocimetry in pre-eclampsia in Southwestern Nigeria

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    Olatunji RB

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Richard Busayo Olatunji,1 Ademola Joseph Adekanmi,1 Millicent Olubunmi Obajimi,1 Olumuyiwa Adebola Roberts,2 Temitope Olumuyiwa Ojo3 1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, 3Department of Community Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE poses a serious challenge to maternal and fetal health in Africa. It is associated with hemodynamic changes that may affect the internal carotid/ophthalmic artery circulation with consequent neuro-ophthalmic manifestations. Ophthalmic artery Doppler (OAD ultrasound is an important tool that can be used to detect hemodynamic changes in PE and monitor its severity. In this study, we evaluated hemodynamic changes on OAD ultrasound in the ophthalmic arteries of pre-eclamptic women and compared these with values in healthy pregnant women. Methods: OAD parameters, such as, peak systolic velocity, peak diastolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, pulsatility index, and peak ratio, were measured on transorbital triplex ultrasound scan with a 7–10 MHz multifrequency linear transducer in 42 consenting pre-eclamptic patients and 41 pregnant controls matched for maternal age, gestational age, and parity at the Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, Ibadan. Univariate, bivariate, and receiver operating characteristic curve data analyses were performed. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean resistivity index, pulsatility index, and peak systolic velocity were significantly lower in pre-eclamptic patients than in the controls. Mean peak diastolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, and peak ratio were significantly higher in the pre-eclamptic group. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the resistivity index (sensitivity 75%, specificity 77.8% could distinguish mild from severe PE while the peak ratio

  18. Effects of prostaglandin analogs on blood flow velocity and resistance in the ophthalmic artery of rabbits

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    Amália Turner Giannico

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prostaglandin analogs on blood flow in the ophthalmic artery of clinically healthy rabbits. Methods: Fifty-five clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were divided into six groups, and the left eyes were treated for four weeks with the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK only or a topical formulation of different prostaglandin analogs (bimatoprost BAK, tafluprost BAK-free, travoprost BAK, travoprost POLYQUAD, and latanoprost BAK. Color Doppler imaging was performed before and after the treatments. The mean values of the peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity and the resistive index (RI were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the differences pre- and post-treatment for each drug and post-treatment among the drugs. Results: The prostaglandin analogs did not affect PSV. Bimatoprost BAK, travoprost POLYQUAD, and latanoprost BAK did not change RI. Tafluprost BAK-free and travoprost BAK therapy resulted in similar reductions in RI. No significant differences pre- and post-treatment were found when BAK was administered alone. Conclusion: The prostaglandin analogs tafluprost BAK-free and travoprost BAK improved blood flow in the ophthalmic artery in healthy New Zealand white rabbits, which suggests that these drugs enhance the prevention of the progression the progression of glaucoma.

  19. Doppler study and evidences of perfusion changes in the ophthalmic artery of pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Maria Marta Bini Martins; Diniz, Angélica Lemos Debs; Jorge, Ana Paula Lino

    2013-12-01

    To compare the ophthalmic artery (OA) perfusion of pregnant smokers and nonsmokers by Doppler indexes. Correlate these with the interval of last cigarette, cigarettes per day, years smoking and carbon monoxide expired (COex). Transversal study involving 70 pregnant smokers divided into 33 pregnant who smoked until 2 h: A group (AG) and B group (BG): 37, who smoked between 2 and 24 h before test. Control group (CG) was composed of 51 pregnant nonsmokers. Doppler indexes were assessed: PSV (Peak Systolic Velocity), EDV (End Diastolic Velocity), PI (Pulsatility Index), RI (Resistance Index) and PR (Peak Ratio). Groups were compared using ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, Student's t test, Mann-Whitney and Pearson's correlation coefficient, whereas p pregnant smokers shows a biphasic pattern of perfusion correlated with the time of consumption of the last cigarette. There are signs of vasoconstriction and hypoperfusion to tobacco exposure between 2 and 24 and hyperperfusion in A Group compared to B Group.

  20. Salvage/Adjuvant Brachytherapy After Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Intraocular Retinoblastoma

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    Francis, Jasmine H., E-mail: francij1@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; McCormick, Beryl; Segal, Kira; Cohen, Gil [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Brodie, Scott E. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Dunkel, Ira J.; Abramson, David H. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of brachytherapy after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, retrospective study of 15 eyes in 15 patients treated with OAC followed by brachytherapy at (blinded institution) between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, with a median 19 months' follow-up from plaque insertion. Outcome measurements included patient and ocular survival, visual function, and retinal toxicity measured by electroretinogram (ERG). Results: Brachytherapy was used as adjuvant treatment in 2 eyes and as salvage therapy in 13 eyes of which 12 had localized vitreous seeding. No patients developed metastasis or died of retinoblastoma. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of ocular survival was 79.4% (95% confidence interval 48.7%-92.8%) at 18 months. Three eyes were enucleated, and an additional 6 eyes developed out-of-target volume recurrences, which were controlled with additional treatments. Patients with an ocular complication had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 2.5 months (SD 2.3 months), which was statistically less (P=.045) than patients without ocular complication who had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 6.5 months (SD 4.4 months). ERG responses from pre- versus postplaque were unchanged or improved in more than half the eyes. Conclusions: Brachytherapy following OAC is effective, even in the presence of vitreous seeding; the majority of eyes maintained stable or improved retinal function following treatment, as assessed by ERG.

  1. Retinal protective effects of topically administered agmatine on ischemic ocular injury caused by transient occlusion of the ophthalmic artery

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    S. Hong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine and putative neuromodulator, is known to have neuroprotective effects on various neurons in the central nervous system. We determined whether or not topically administered agmatine could reduce ischemic retinal injury. Transient ocular ischemia was achieved by intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery of ddY mice (30-35 g for 2 h, which is known to also induce occlusion of the ophthalmic artery. In the agmatine group (N = 6, a 1.0 mM agmatine-containing ophthalmic solution was administered four times daily for 2 weeks before occlusion. In the control group (N = 6, a 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution was instilled at the same times. At 22 h after reperfusion, the eyeballs were enucleated and the retinal sections were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL. Transient ocular ischemia induced apoptosis of retinal cells in the entire retinal layer, and topically administered agmatine can significantly reduce this ischemic retinal injury. The proportion of apoptotic cells was definitely decreased (P < 0.001; Kruskal-Wallis test. Overall, we determined that topical agmatine application effectively decreases retinal damage in an in vivo ocular ischemic injury model. This implies that agmatine is a good candidate as a direct neuroprotective agent for eyes with ocular ischemic diseases.

  2. Unilateral absence of foramen spinosum with bilateral ophthalmic origin of the middle meningeal artery: case report and review of the literature.

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    Cvetko, E; Bosnjak, R

    2014-02-01

    Bilateral ophthalmic origin of the middle meningeal artery with an unilateral absence of foramen spinosum has not yet been described. We report on a skull with endocranial meningeal grooves indicating bilateral ophthalmic origin of the middle meningeal artery, however, its branches were normal both in their position and distribution. In addition, a rare venous sinus variation was present unilaterally - a sinus of Hyrtl. Imaging identification of the anomalous origin of the middle meningeal artery is important while planning surgical and endovascular interventions in the middle cranial fossa and the orbit.

  3. Enhanced Endothelin-1 Mediated Vasoconstriction of the Ophthalmic Artery May Exacerbate Retinal Damage after Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rat

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    Blixt, Frank W; Johansson, Sara Ellinor; Johnson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vasculature is often the target of stroke studies. However, the vasculature supplying the eye might also be affected by ischemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the transient global cerebral ischemia (GCI) enhances vascular effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and 5...... decreased function at 72 hours, but recovered almost completely after 7 days. In conclusion, we propose that the increased contractile response via ET-1 receptors in the ophthalmic artery after 48 hours may elicit negative retinal consequences due to a second ischemic period. This may exacerbate retinal...

  4. A fluid-structure interaction model of the internal carotid and ophthalmic arteries for the noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement method.

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    Misiulis, Edgaras; Džiugys, Algis; Navakas, Robertas; Striūgas, Nerijus

    2017-03-22

    Accurate and clinically safe measurements of intracranial pressure (ICP) are crucial for secondary brain damage prevention. There are two methods of ICP measurement: invasive and noninvasive. Invasive methods are clinically unsafe; therefore, safer noninvasive methods are being developed. One of the noninvasive ICP measurement methods implements the balance principle, which assumes that if the velocity of blood flow in both ophthalmic artery segments - the intracranial (IOA) and extracranial (EOA) - is equal, then the acting ICP on the IOA and the external pressure (Pe) on the EOA are also equal. To investigate the assumption of the balance principle, a generalized computational model incorporating a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) module was created and used to simulate noninvasive ICP measurement by accounting for the time-dependent behavior of the elastic internal carotid (ICA) and ophthalmic (OA) arteries and their interaction with pulsatile blood flow. It was found that the extra balance pressure term, which incorporates the hydrodynamic pressure drop between measurement points, must be added into the balance equation, and the corrections on a difference between the velocity of blood flow in the IOA and EOA must be made, due to a difference in the blood flow rate.

  5. Ciprofloxacin Ophthalmic

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    Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution is used to treat bacterial infections of the eye including conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection of ... in the clear front part of the eye). Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic ointment is used to treat conjunctivitis. Ciprofloxacin ...

  6. Evaluation the index of ophthalmic arteries in diabetic patients with retinopathy compared to diabetic patients without retinopathy using color Doppler ultrasound

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    Mohammad Ghasem Hanafi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is the most common eye complication in diabetic patients that early detection of this complication is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate ophthalmic artery index in diabetic retinopathy by Doppler ultrasound. . In this cross-sectional study, 64 patients were studied in 4 groups (healthy, diabetic without retinopathy, background retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy. Resistance index (RI and Pulsatile Index (PI were assessed by color Doppler ultrasound. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and chi-square test and ROC curve. RI in diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy has the highest mean (0.83 and the lowest mean was observed in healthy subjects (0.54 (P <0.001 as well as in PI, the highest rate was in diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy (1.41 and the lowest was in healthy subjects (0.92 (P <0.001. The results of our study showed that the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall accuracy of RI and PI in diabetic patients with proliferative retinopathy in the best cut-off points (0.645 and 1.0175 respectively were 100%.Ophthalmic artery index RI and PI was significantly increased in patients with diabetic retinopathy and the sensitivity and specificity for detection retinopathy was 100%. Color Doppler ultrasound method is more efficient for screening diabetic patients with retinopathy.

  7. Bimatoprost Ophthalmic

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    Bimatoprost ophthalmic is used to treat glaucoma (a condition in which increased pressure in the eye can ... condition which causes increased pressure in the eye). Bimatoprost is in a class of medications called prostaglandin ...

  8. Ophthalmic Lenses

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    Bhootra, Ajay Kumar

    2009-01-01

    This book is uniquely meant for the ophthalmologists, optometrists and opticians to help the world see better by excellent vision through the services of technicians and clinical principle based ophthalmology so that the management of ocular problems can be done for a better vision . Informs that a wide range of material and design of ophthalmic lenses with innovative developments is available. This book presents comprehensively rich information about the ophthalmic lenses and their dispensing tips . It will be highly useful mainly for the students of optometry and opticians, ophthalmologists,

  9. Ocular Complications Following Autologous Fat Injections into Facial Area: Case Report of a Recovery from Visual Loss After Ophthalmic Artery Occlusion and a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szantyr, Aleksandra; Orski, Michał; Marchewka, Ida; Szuta, Mariusz; Orska, Małgorzata; Zapała, Jan

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in popularity of the use of cosmetic fillers in plastic and esthetic surgery, the possibility of severe ocular complications should not be neglected. Of the fillers used, autologous fat is the most common to cause permanent visual deterioration, one of the most severe complications associated with the use of cosmetic fillers. Here we present the first report of a complete recovery of visual acuity from an instance of visual loss with no light perception caused by ophthalmic artery occlusion of the right eye following autologous fat injection in the facial area. Immediate ophthalmological intervention and comprehensive therapy with prostaglandins and vinpocetine made it possible to restore retinal perfusion and achieve complete recovery of visual acuity. Awareness of the iatrogenic artery occlusions associated with facial fillers and the need for immediate treatment should be popularized among injectors to prevent devastating consequences, such as permanent vision loss. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  10. Endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms of cavernous and ophthalmic segment of internal carotid artery with flow diverter device Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevsek Marko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intra-arterial treatment of aneurysms by redirecting blood flow is a newer method. The redirection is based on a significantly more densely braided wire stent. The stent wall keeps the blood in the lumen of the stent and slows down the turbulent flow in the aneurysms. Stagnation of blood in the aneurysm sac leads to the formation of thrombus and subsequent exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation. The aim of the study was to evaluate flow diverter device Pipeline for broad neck and giant aneurysm treatment.

  11. A traumatic dural arteriovenous fistula between the inferolateral trunk of the internal carotid artery and the ophthalmic vein: A case of transvenous coil embolization via the facial vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Young; Hong, Chang Ki; Suh, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Ik [Dept. of of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    A 31-year-old man was admitted with exophthalmos. He suffered from progressive exophthalmos, bruit and conjunctival chemosis 7 days after head trauma caused by falling down. Cerebral angiography showed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) draining into the ophthalmic vein caused by tear in the inferolateral trunk, which is a rare presentation of traumatic DAVF. Selective transvenous coil embolization was performed via the facial vein without neurologic complications.

  12. Ophthalmic masquerades of the atherosclerotic carotids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with carotid atherosclerosis can present with ophthalmic symptoms. These symptoms and signs can be due to retinal emboli, hypoperfusion of the retina and choroid, opening up of collateral channels, or chronic hypoperfusion of the globe (ocular ischemic syndrome. These pathological mechanisms can produce many interesting signs and a careful history can bring out important past symptoms pointing toward the carotid as the source of the patient′s presenting symptom. Such patients are at high risk for an ischemic stroke, especially in the subsequent few days following their first acute symptom. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with these ophthalmic symptoms and signs caused by carotid atherosclerosis for making an early diagnosis and to take appropriate measures to prevent a stroke. This review elaborates the clinical features, importance, and implications of various ophthalmic symptoms and signs resulting from atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

  13. Efeito da tibolona sobre parâmetros doplervelocimétricos das artérias oftálmica e retiniana Tibolone's effect on retinal and ophthalmic arteries flowmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Martins de Souza

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito do uso da tibolona sobre os parâmetros doplervelocimétricos das artérias oftálmica e retiniana. MÉTODOS: realizou-se ensaio clínico, prospectivo, longitudinal, aleatorizado, controlado com placebo, duplo-cego, no qual dentre 100 mulheres na menopausa, 50 usaram o princípio ativo tibolona 2,5 mg (Grupo Tib e 50, o placebo para formar o grupo controle (Grupo Plac. No Grupo Tib, das 50 mulheres que iniciaram o estudo, 44 retornaram após 84 dias para a finalização dos exames. No Grupo Plac retornaram 47 delas. As artérias oftálmica e retiniana foram estudadas, determinando-se o índice de resistência (IR, índice de pulsatilidade (IP e relação sístole/diástole (S/D. As aferições foram feitas antes e 84 dias após a medicação. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student para amostras independentes na comparação das medianas entre os grupos e para amostras dependentes na comparação entre as medianas dentro do mesmo grupo. RESULTADOS: as características das mulheres nos dois grupos foram semelhantes em relação à idade, ao tempo de menopausa, ao índice de massa corporal, à pressão arterial, à paridade e à freqüência cardíaca. O Grupo Tib apresentou as seguintes medianas: IR(pré=0,71±0,05, IR(pós=0,72±0,08 (p=0,43; IP(pré=1,29±0,22, IP(pós=1,30±0,25 (p=0,4 e SD(pré=3,49±0,77, SD(pós=3,65±0,94 (p=0,32. Na artéria retiniana foram obtidas as seguintes medianas na artéria oftálmica: IR(pré=0,67±0,09, IR(pós=0,69±0,10 (p=0,7; IP(pré=1,20±0,29, IP(pós=1,22±0,3 (p=0,2 e SD(pré=3,29±0,95, SD(pós=3,30±1,07 (p=0,3. Os grupos tibolona e controle não apresentaram diferenças significantes nos índices quando avaliados ao final do estudo. CONCLUSÕES: a tibolona, na dose de 2,5 mg, não apresenta efeitos sobre os índices doppler das artérias oftálmica e retiniana.PURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of tibolone use on dopplervelocimetric parameters of ophthalmic and retinal arteries

  14. Estudo do perfil hemodinâmico da artéria oftálmica em gestantes com diabetes mellitus gestacional Study of ophthalmic artery hemodynamic pattern in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizeli de Fátima Ribeiro dos Anjos

    2012-10-01

    .PURPOSES: To evaluate the hemodynamic patterns of the ophthalmic artery by Doppler analysis in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, comparing them to normal pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective case-control study that analyzed the ophthalmic artery Doppler indices in two groups: one consisting of 40 women diagnosed with GDM and the other of 40 normal pregnant women. Included were pregnant women with GDM criteria of the American Diabetes Association - 2012, with 27 weeks of pregnancy to term, and excluded were women with hypertension, use of vasoactive drugs on or previous diagnosis of diabetes. Doppler analysis was performed in one eye with a 10 MHz linear transducer and the Sonoace 8000 Live Medison® equipment . The following variables were analyzed: pulsatility index (PI, resistance index (RI, peak velocity ratio (PVR, peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity (EDV. To analyze the normality of the samples we used the Lillefors test, and to compare means and medians we used the Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test according to data normality, with the level of significance set at 95%. RESULTS: The median and mean values with standard deviation of the variables of the ophthalmic artery Dopplervelocimetry group GDM and normal pregnant women were: IP=1.7±0.6 and 1.6±0.4 (p=0.7; IR=0.7 and 0.7 (p=0.9; RPV=0.5±0.1 and 0.5±0.1 (p=0.1, PSV=33.6 and 31.9 cm/sec (p=0.7; VDF=6.3 and 7.9 cm/sec (p=0.4. There was no significant difference in the means and medians of these variables between the two groups of pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: The ophthalmic artery hemodynamic patterns, analyzed by means of a Doppler technique remained unchanged in the group of pregnant women with GDM compared to the group of normal pregnant women, suggesting that the time of exposure to the disease during pregnancy was too short to cause significant vascular disorders in the central territory.

  15. Ophthalmic imaging features of posterior scleritis

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    Zhi Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze, summarize and describe ophthalmic imaging features of posterior scleritis. METHODS: Clinical data of 16 patients(21 eyeswith posterior scleritis diagnosed in our hospital from October 2008 to June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The results of type-B ultrasonic, fundus chromophotograph, fundus fluorescein angiography, CT were recorded for comprehensive evaluation and analysis of ophthalmic imaging features of posterior scleritis. RESULTS: All patients underwent type-B ultrasonic examination and manifested as diffuse and nodular types. The diffuse type showed diffusely thickened sclera and a dark hypoechoic area that connected with the optic nerve to form a typical “T”-shaped sign. The nodular type showed scleral echogenic nodules and relatively regular internal structure. FFA showed that relatively weak mottled fluorescences were visible in the arterial early phase and strong multiple needle-like fluorescences were visible in the arteriovenous phase, which were then progressively larger and fused; fluorescein was leaked to the subretinal tissue in the late phase; varying degrees of strong fluorescences with less clear or unclear boundaries were visible in the optic disk. CT results showed thickened eyeball wall. CONCLUSION: Posterior scleritis is common in young female patients, whose ophthalmic imaging features are varied and more specific in type-B ultrasonic. Selection of rational ophthalmic imaging examination method, combined with clinical manifestations, can accurately diagnose posterior scleritis and avoid the incidence of missed and delayed diagnosis.

  16. 多普勒超声监测子宫动脉和眼动脉对子痫前期-子痫的预测价值%Predictive value of Doppler ultrasound monitoring in uterine artery and ophthalmic artery in preeclampsia-eclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勍; 余晓琴; 刘勇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the predictive value of Doppler ultrasound monitoring in uterine artery and oph-thalmic artery in preeclampsia-eclampsia. Methods 85 patients with mild preeclampsia,36 cases of severe preeclamp-sia and eclampsia from January 2008 to December 2014 in our hospital was selected as the research object,all patients were measured uterine artery S/D value and ophthalmic artery B/A value.80 cases of normal pregnant women parameter values from the same period were randomly selected and retrospectively analyzed.The detection results of the three groups was compared. Results The amount of urine protein less than 0.1 g/24 h in the mild preeclampsia group and se-vere preeclampsia and eclampsia group was less than that in the normal control group,with significant difference (P<0.01).The amount of urine protein in the 0.1-0.3 g/24 h in the mild preeclampsia group was more than that in the se-vere preeclampsia and eclampsia group and the normal control group,with significant difference (P<0.01).The amount of urine protein more than 0.1 g/24 h in the severe preeclampsia and eclampsia group was more than that in the normal control group and the mild preeclampsia group,with significant difference (P<0.01).The value of uterine artery S/D in the mild preeclampsia group and severe preeclampsia and eclampsia group was higher than that in the normal control group,with significant difference (P<0.01).The value of uterine artery S/D in severe preeclampsia and eclampsia group was higher than that in the mild preeclampsia group,with significant difference (P<0.01).The value of ophthalmic artery B/A in the severe preeclampsia and eclampsia group was higher than that in the normal control group and the mild preeclampsia group,with significant difference (P<0.01). Conclusion Uterine artery S/D value and ophthalmic artery B/A value can be more objectively reflect preeclampsia,eclampsia level,the uterine artery S/D ratio has higher sensitivity. The elevation of ophthalmic

  17. Updates in ophthalmic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pia R; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2017-05-01

    Ophthalmic pathology has a long history and rich heritage in the field of ophthalmology. This review article highlights updates in ophthalmic pathology that have developed significantly through the years because of the efforts of committed individuals and the confluence of technology such as molecular biology and digital pathology. This is an exciting period in the history of ocular pathology, with cutting-edge techniques paving the way for new developments in diagnostics, therapeutics, and research. Collaborations between ocular oncologists and pathologists allow for improved and comprehensive patient care. Ophthalmic pathology continues to be a relevant specialty that is important in the understanding and clinical management of ocular disease, education of eye care providers, and overall advancement of the field.

  18. Clinical observation on superselective ophthalmic artery chemotherapy for retinoblastoma%超选眼动脉化疗治疗视网膜母细胞瘤的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昌福; 李俊杰; 段国平

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过对视网膜母细胞瘤(retinoblastoma,RB)患者实施眼动脉化疗,观察化疗效果及副反应。  方法:根据RB最新国际分期,对11例11眼A~D期RB患者,通过股动脉插管至眼动脉,使用马法兰(melphalan)经眼动脉灌注,对RB患者实施动脉化疗。  结果:所选患者共实施眼动脉灌注化疗23次,随访3~12mo,其中8例肿瘤明显缩小、钙化,2例病情进展,实施眼球摘除,1例失访。除部分患者术后短暂的恶心、呕吐、发热,没有出现死亡、中风、骨髓抑制等严重并发症。  结论:所选患者中,A、B、C期9例,7例有效,1例继续进展,1例失访,有效率88%;2例D期患者1例有效,1例继续进展,有效率50%。%AIM: To observe the efficacy and side reaction of superselective ophthalmic artery chemotherapy for retinoblastoma ( RB) . METHODS:Eleven cases (11 eyes) of RB, ranging from stage A to D according to the latest International Intraocular Retinoblastoma classification, were treated with melphalan infusion by the ophthalmic artery. RESULTS: Such intra -arterial chemotherapy was administered for 23 times and the patients were followed up for 3-12 months.During the follow-up, 8 cases were effective with significant tumor shrinking and calcification;2 patients progressed and received enucleation of eyeballs; 1 case was lost to follow-up. Postoperative transient nausea, vomiting and fever appeared in some cases, but serious complications were not found, such as death, stroke, myelosuppression,etc. CONCLUSION:Among 9 cases from group A, B and C, 7 cases were effective, 1 case continued to progress and 1 case was lost to follow-up, and the effective rate was 88%.In the 2 cases of group D, 1 case was effective and the other continueed to progress, so the effective rate was 50%.

  19. Neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baughman RP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Baughman1, Kenneth L Weiss2, Karl C Golnik31Department of Medicine, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USAAbstract: Neuro-ophthalmic disease occurs in about a third of patients with neurosarcoidosis. Optic nerve involvement is the most common manifestation, but other cranial nerves and the optic chiasm can be involved. However, there are several other common diseases that cause optic neuropathy, including multiple sclerosis. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis can often be made based on the multi-organ nature of the disease and ancillary testing. Most patients with neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis require systemic therapy. While corticosteroids are usually the first step in therapy, cytotoxic agents such as methotrexate and azathioprine have been useful as steroid-sparing agents for chronic disease. The monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor necrosis factor have been reported as effective in refractory cases of neuro-ophthalmic disease.Keywords: sarcoidosis, methotrexate, infliximab, multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis, prednisone

  20. Diagnostic Ophthalmic Ultrasound for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Cynthia J; Prager, Thomas C; Cheng, Han; Gombos, Dan; Tang, Rosa A; Schiffman, Jade S

    2015-08-01

    Ophthalmic ultrasound is an invaluable tool that provides quick and noninvasive evaluation of the eye and the orbit. It not only allows the clinicians to view structures that may not be visible with routine ophthalmic equipment or neuroimaging techniques but also provides unique diagnostic information in various ophthalmic conditions. In this article, the basic principles of ophthalmic ultrasound and examination techniques are discussed. Its clinical application is illustrated through a variety of ocular pathologic abnormalities (eg, narrow angles, ciliary body tumor, detached retina, choroidal melanoma, and papilledema).

  1. 21 CFR 886.4390 - Ophthalmic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic laser. 886.4390 Section 886.4390 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4390 Ophthalmic laser. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic laser is an AC-powered device intended to coagulate or cut tissue of the eye, orbit, or surrounding...

  2. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze,...

  3. OPHTHALMIC MANIFESTATIONS OF LEUKEMIA

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    E. E. Grishina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmic manifestations of leukemia are variable and are predominantly represented by leukemic infiltration of the eye and hemodynamic abnormalities in the retinal vasculature. Leukemic infiltration of the retina should be differentiated from an inflammatory process, such as retinitis, chorioretinitis of viral or fungal origin that are not uncommon in patients with hematological malignancies. Retinal involvement is mainly seen in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia and is less common in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Retinopathy is more frequent during relapses of the underlying disease. Also, retinopathy can be the first sign of the disease. Leukemia should be included into the list for differential diagnosis with disorders that can be associated with optical nerve edema and retinal hemorrhages. Fundus abnormalities correlate with peripheral blood parameters. Retinopathy and leukemic optic neuropathy are predictors of unfavorable prognosis. Early diagnostics and timely and adequate treatment may fully eliminate ocular symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with hemoblastoses.

  4. Polymyxin B and Trimethoprim Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and trimethoprim ophthalmic combination is used to treat bacterial infections of the eye including conjunctivitis (pinkeye; infection ... follow these steps: Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. While tilting your head back, pull ...

  5. Artery by Neuropeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Sofia Costa Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Methods. Isolated rabbit eyes (n=12 were perfused in situ with tyrode through the external ophthalmic artery. Effects of intra-arterial injections of NPY 200 μg/ml (Group A; n=6 and VIP 200 μg/ml (Group B; n=6 on the recorded pressure were obtained. For statistical analysis, Student's paired t-test and Fast Fourier Transform were used. Results. Spontaneous oscillations were observed before any drug administration in the 12 rabbit models. NPY produced an increase in total vascular resistance and a higher frequency and amplitude of oscillations, while VIP evoked the opposite effects. Conclusions. This study provides evidence of vasomotion in basal conditions in rabbit external ophthalmic artery. Concerning drug effects, NPY increased arterial resistance and enhanced vasomotion while VIP produced opposite effects which demonstrates their profound influence in arterial vasomotion.

  6. Ophthalmic Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome

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    Sharon J. Krinsky-McHale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of ophthalmic disorders is associated with the phenotype of Down syndrome including strabismus, cataracts, and refractive errors potentially resulting in significant visual impairment. Ophthalmic sequelae have been extensively studied in children and adolescents with Down syndrome but less often in older adults. In-depth review of medical records of older adults with Down syndrome indicated that ophthalmic disorders were common. Cataracts were the most frequent ophthalmic disorder reported, followed by refractive errors, strabismus, and presbyopia. Severity of intellectual disability was unrelated to the presence of ophthalmic disorders. Also, ophthalmic disorders were associated with lower vision-dependent functional and cognitive abilities, although not to the extent that was expected. The high prevalence of ophthalmic disorders highlights the need for periodic evaluations and individualized treatment plans for adults with Down syndrome, in general, but especially when concerns are identified.

  7. Human Microbiota and Ophthalmic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Louise J; Liu, Ji

    2016-09-01

    The human ocular surface, consisting of the cornea and conjunctiva, is colonized by an expansive, diverse microbial community. Molecular-based methods, such as 16S rRNA sequencing, has allowed for more comprehensive and precise identification of the species composition of the ocular surface microbiota compared to traditional culture-based methods. Evidence suggests that the normal microbiota plays a protective immunological role in preventing the proliferation of pathogenic species and thus, alterations in the homeostatic microbiome may be linked to ophthalmic pathologies. Further investigation of the ocular surface microbiome, as well as the microbiome of other areas of the body such as the oral mucosa and gut, and their role in the pathophysiology of diseases is a significant, emerging field of research, and may someday enable the development of novel probiotic approaches for the treatment and prevention of ophthalmic diseases.

  8. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of ophthalmic tumors☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun D.; Biscotti, Charles V.

    2012-01-01

    A majority of intraocular tumors can be diagnosed based on clinical examination and ocular imaging studies, which obviate the need for diagnostic ophthalmic fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Overall, diagnostic accuracy of ophthalmic FNAB is high but limited cellularity can compromise the diagnostic potential of ophthalmic aspirate samples. The role of ophthalmic FNAB is limited in retinal tumors. Orbital FNAB should be considered in the evaluation of lacrimal gland tumors, orbital metastasis, and lymphoproliferative lesions. Negative cytologic diagnosis of malignancy should not be considered unequivocal proof that an intraocular malignancy does not exist. With improved understanding of genetic prognostic factors of uveal melanoma, ophthalmic FNAB is gaining popularity for prognostic purposes in combination with eye conserving treatment of the primary tumor. In special clinical indications, ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and FISH can be performed on ophthalmic FNAB samples. Assistance of an experienced cytopathologist cannot be overemphasized. PMID:23960981

  9. Ophthalmic lymphoma: epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjö, Lene Dissing

    2009-02-01

    With a lifetime risk of 1% and 700 new cases per year, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the seventh most frequent type of cancer in Denmark. The incidence of NHL has increased considerably in Western countries over the last decades; consequently, NHL is an increasing clinical problem. Ophthalmic lymphoma, (lymphoma localized in the ocular region, i.e. eyelid, conjunctiva, lacrimal sac, lacrimal gland, orbit, or intraocularly) is relatively uncommon, accounting for 5%-10% of all extranodal lymphomas. It is, however, the most common orbital malignancy. The purpose of this thesis was to review specimens from all Danish patients with a diagnosis of ophthalmic lymphoma during the period 1980-2005, in order to determine the distribution of lymphoma subtypes, and the incidence- and time trends in incidence for ophthalmic lymphoma. Furthermore, an extended analysis of the most frequent subtype, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALT lymphoma), was done to analyse clinical factors and cytogenetic changes with influence on prognosis. A total of 228 Danish patients with a biopsy-reviewed verified diagnosis of ocular adnexal-, orbital-, or intraocular lymphoma were identified. We found that more than 50% of orbital- and ocular adnexal lymphomas were of the MALT lymphoma subtype, whereas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) predominated intraocularly (Sjo et al. 2008a). Furthermore, lymphoma arising in the lacrimal sac was surprisingly predominantly DLBCL (Sjo et al. 2006). Incidence rates were highly dependent on patient age. There was an increase in incidence rates for the whole population from 1980 to 2005, corresponding to an annual average increase of 3.4% (Sjo et al. 2008a). MALT lymphoma arising in the ocular region was found in 116 patients (Sjo et al. 2008b). One third of patients had a relapse or progression of disease after initial therapy and relapses were frequently found at extra-ocular sites. Overall survival, however, was not significantly poorer for patients

  10. Alternative methods of ophthalmic treatment in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, L

    1994-04-01

    Russian ophthalmic nurses and physicians are using alternative methods of treatment to supplement traditional eye care. As acupuncture and iridology become more popular in the United States, ophthalmic nurses need to be more knowledgeable about these treatments and the implications for patients.

  11. An Insight into Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore K. S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Promising management of eye ailments take off effective concentration of drug at the eye for sufficient period of time. Dosage forms are administered directly to eye for localized ophthalmic therapy. Most of the treatments call for the topical administration of ophthalmic active drugs to the tissues around the ocular cavity. Conventional ophthalmic drug delivery systems including eye drops, ophthalmic ointments, are no longer sufficient to encounter eye diseases. This article reviews the constraints with conventional ocular therapy and explores various novel approaches like in-situ gel, ocular films or ocuserts, nanosuspension, collagen shields, latex systems, nanoparticles, liposomes, niosomes, iontophorosis, eye implants, etc to improve the ophthalmic bioavailability of drugs to the anterior chamber of the eye.

  12. Relationship between carotid artery stenosis and ischemic ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between carotid artery stenosis and ischemic ocular diseases.METHODS: The clinical data of 30 cases(37 eyesof patients with ischemic eye diseases were collected from November 2010 to May 2014, and they were accepted the fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA, transcranial Doppler(TCDultrasonic blood vessels of the eye, neck vascular color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI, the neck CT angiography(CTAand carotid artery digital subtraction angiography(DSAexamination, and then the ischemic eye disease patients with ocular symptoms were analyzed. The peak systolic velocity(PSVand resistance index(RIof ophthalmic artery and central retinal artery were compared. Correlation between the internal carotid artery intima-media thickness(IMTand ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery PSV and RI correlation risk; ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and ophthalmic artery PSV and RI; PSV and RI associated ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and central retinal artery were analyzed. RESULTS: Eye symptoms: a black dim, reduced vision, the eyes flash, and around the eye pain were 75.7%, 83.8%, 51.4% and 32.4%; The eye signs: the dilatation of retinal vein, retinal hemorrhage, arterial stenosis and cotton spot and the contralateral side were regarded as main signs. Ophthalmic artery PSV and RI value of the differences were statistically significant(PPP>0.05; The ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and ophthalmic artery PSV had no correlation with RI values(P>0.05; PSV and RI and the ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and central retinal artery had no correlation(P>0.05.CONCLUSION: The incidence of ischemic eye diseases and internal carotid artery stenosis is associated with very close, the clinical can regard the degree of internal carotid artery stenosis as an important basis for diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.

  13. 21 CFR 886.4350 - Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument. 886.4350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4350 Manual ophthalmic surgical instrument. (a) Identification. A manual ophthalmic surgical instrument is a nonpowered, handheld...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine position...

  16. 21 CFR 886.4250 - Ophthalmic electrolysis unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. 886.4250 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4250 Ophthalmic electrolysis unit. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic electrolysis unit is an AC-powered or battery-powered device intended to...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1860 - Ophthalmic instrument stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic instrument stand. 886.1860 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1860 Ophthalmic instrument stand. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic instrument stand is an AC-powered or nonpowered device intended to store...

  18. Big data and ophthalmic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Antony; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel; Semmens, James B

    2016-01-01

    Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, health services utilization, and health outcomes. Furthermore, the quantity of data available for research has increased exponentially in recent times, particularly as e-health initiatives come online in health systems across the globe. We review some big data concepts, the databases and data linkage systems used in eye research-including their advantages and limitations, the types of studies previously undertaken, and the future direction for big data in eye research.

  19. Anaesthesia for Ophthalmic Surgical Procedures | Onakpoya | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Background: Ophthalmic surgical procedures are performed under anaesthesia to enhance ... Local anaesthesia was the more commonly (92.1%) employed while general anaesthesia was ...

  20. The superior ophthalmic vein approach for the treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas: our first experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF are still a technical challenge to neurovascular team. The most commonly performed treatment consists in endovascular embolization of the lesion through an arterial or venous approach. Not always these conventional routes are feasible, requiring alternative routes. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with a complex indirect (Barrow D carotid cavernous sinus fistula treated by two interventional sessions that imposing a retrograde direct transvenous approach via the superior ophthalmic vein.

  1. The effect of live classical piano music on the vital signs of patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Jorge G; Ruszkowski, Joseph M; Worak, Sandra R

    2008-06-25

    Music and surgery. To determine the effect of live classical piano music on vital signs of patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. Retrospective case series. 203 patients who underwent various ophthalmologic procedures in a period during which a piano was present in the operating room of St. Francis Medical Center. [Note: St. Francis Medical Center has recently been renamed Hawaii Medical Center East.] Demographic data, surgical procedures, and the vital signs of 203 patients who underwent ophthalmic procedures were obtained from patient records. Blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate measured in the preoperative holding area were compared with the same parameters taken in the operating room, with and without exposure to live piano music. A paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate. 115 patients who were exposed to live piano music showed a statistically significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate in the operating room compared with their vital signs measured in the preoperative holding area (P piano music showed a statistically significant increase in mean arterial blood pressure (P piano music lowered the blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate in patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery.

  2. COLLOIDON BABY WITH OPHTHALMIC INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Collodion baby is a rare, genetic heterogeneous skin disorder. It refers to a clinicentity used for newborns who are encased by a translucent, tight and parchment paper like skin sheets so called collodion membrane, on the entire body surface. 1 Collodion baby is a phenotype which broadly describes the above condition which includes a number of phenotypes. The two most common phenotypes are lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous congenital erythroderma which account for 75% of cases and others like Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, Netherton syndrome, Gaucher disease etc account for 15% of the cases. 2 Lamellar ichthyosis which is more common, is an autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations in the transglutaminase-1 gene, defect on chromosome 14q11.Lid ectropion and ocular complications like exposure keratitis are seen commonly in colloidon babies. 3 15 day old male baby, first issue of a second degree consanguineously married couple, born at a gestation age of 36 weeks (normal vaginal delivery was referred to ophthalmic institute for management of ectropion. Child was diagnosed to have lamellar ichthyosis at the paediatric referral institute. At birth baby weighed 2500 grams, length 48 cm, head circumference of 34 cm.

  3. Treatment of neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohman, Larry P

    2015-03-01

    Because of the rarity of neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis, there are no therapeutic guidelines based on evidence-based medicine for this disorder. Review of literature combined with personal experience. Corticosteroids are the preferred initial therapy for neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis. If patients cannot tolerate the requisite dose of corticosteroid needed to control their disease, or if corticosteroids fail to adequately control the disease process, the choices of a second agent are based on the consideration of rapidity of clinical response and the safety profile. Although methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil are the medications that are often selected after corticosteroid failure, more rapidly acting agents that have been used are infliximab and intravenous cyclophosphamide.

  4. Fifty-eight cases of ocular ischemic diseases caused by carotid artery stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Rong-jiang; LIU Shao-rui; LI Xiao-min; ZHUO Ye-hong; TIAN Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Background The blood supply to the eye comes from the retinal central vascular system of the ophthalmic artery and the ciliary vascular system. The ophthalmic artery stems from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. If occlusion or stenosis occurs in the carotid artery, the blood perfusion to the ophthalmic artery becomes insufficient, leading to signs and symptoms of anterior and posterior ocular ischemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of ocular ischemic diseases caused by carotid artery stenosis.Methods This study was a retrospective review of 145 patients with carotid artery stenosis. Fifty-eight patients who had symptoms of ocular ischemic disease caused by carotid artery stenosis formed group A and the other 87 patients who only had carotid artery stenosis formed group B. We analyzed the causes and course of disease, and relative risk factors,by comparing the two groups.Results The degree of carotid artery stenosis in group A was higher than that in group B. And group A had a greater decrease of ophthalmic artery flow. Male, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking were significantly related to carotid artery stenosis. Amaurosis fugax was the most common ocular symptom in group A. The ocular ischemic diseases mainly included ischemic optic neuropathy, central/branch retinal artery occlusion, ophthalmoplegia externa, and ocular ischemic syndrome.Conclusions Carotid artery stenosis correlates with ocular ischemic diseases. Ophthalmologists must observe for ocular symptoms, which were the onset symptoms in some patients.

  5. 21 CFR 886.3130 - Ophthalmic conformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic conformer. 886.3130 Section 886.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... adhesions during the healing process following surgery. ] (b) Classification. Class II (special controls...

  6. Ophthalmic implications of seasonal affective disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, J.E.; King, V.M. (Ferris State Univ., Big Rapids, MI (USA))

    1989-07-01

    A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references.

  7. AN OPHTHALMIC HEALTH SURVEY IN NORTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Moradpour

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The province of Rudsar is located in the Caspian littoral zone of Iran. In 1970 an ophthalmic health survey was carried out in 25 units, which were selected by random sampling in these areas. A total of 2,165 persons were examined and the results of this evaluation have been prepared in 6 parts, consisting of ophthalmic conditions and health customs, infectious eye diseases, visual status and diseases, blindness and its causes, eye complications of malnutrition, and other eye disease. The prevalence of trachoma is 24% and of conjunctivitis 11.2%, but infectious eye diseases are mild in these areas and their complications are very rare, and trachoma is deviated mainly to inclusion conjunctivitis. Visual defect are important problem in the Rudsar area; 17.8% of the persons examined of 10 years of age and over, had visual defects. The most important causes of visual defects are refraction abnor­malities, especially myopic astigmatism and contact. Visual defects are more prevalent in females than in males. Of the total number of persons examined, 2.63% had infectious eye diseases, 2.77% had blindness in at least one eye and 56.7% of the blindness was caused by cataracts. The eye complications of avitaminosis A and ariboflavinosis were observed, especially in rural areas. The establish­ment of an ophthalmic clinic, the use of a mobile dispensary unit for diagnosis, procedures for introducing patients to the ophthalmic clinic, and special procedures for the health of school children would be beneficial and are recommended for the control of ophthalmic disease. It is also necessary to have a special survey on toxoplasmosis, an investigation for clarification of the causes of differences in visual defects in males and females, and a survey on the causes of blepharitis.

  8. Treatment of carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas retrograde via the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derang, J; Ying, H; Long, Y; Reifa, S; Qiming, W; Yimu, F; Guoxiang, S; Shimin, C; Lihua, X; Shi, W; Zunhua, C

    1999-09-01

    Carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is an old difficulty in neurosurgery. At present, the main way to deal with it is by embolizing the fistula via an arterial route. But if the fistula is small or supplied by several branches, it is difficult to embolize via an arterial approach. In this report, 21 patients with carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae were successfully cured by embolizing the fistula via the SOV approach. All patients were cured, and there were no serious postoperative complications. Follow-up has been carried out in 19 cases for 8 months to more than 4 years; no recurrence manifested. For carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae that cannot be embolized arterially, the superior ophthalmic vein route is an easy, safe, effective and promising approach.

  9. Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Lin, I-Chan; Shen, Yun-Dun; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2014-06-01

    We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery.

  10. Botulinum toxin in ophthalmic plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Milind

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin chemodenervation has evolved greatly over the past 30 years since its introduction in the 1970s for the management of strabismus. Among ophthalmic plastic surgeons, botulinum toxins are often used as the first line treatment for facial dystonias. These toxins are also efficacious for the temporary management of various other conditions including keratopathies (through so called chemo-tarsorraphy, upper eyelid retraction, orbicularis overaction-induced lower eyelid entropion, gustatory epiphora, Frey′s syndrome, and dynamic facial rhytids such as lateral canthal wrinkles (crow′s feet, glabellar creases and horizontal forehead lines. This article describes the pharmacology, reconstitution techniques and common current applications of botulinum toxins in ophthalmic plastic surgery.

  11. MRI manifestations of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Rui-li; MA Xiao-ye; CAI Ji-ping; ZHU Huang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To assess MRI in the evaluation of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). Methods: MRI manifestations and etiology of forty-six patients with enlarged SOV were analyzed. Results: SOV enlargement was noted to occur in carotid-cavernous fistula, ophthalmic Graves'disease, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, inflammation at the apex of the orbit, orbital pseudotumor and thrombosis of cavernous sinus. The dilated vein appeared as signal void tubular shadows on both T1 and T2 weighted images. The diameter of the enlarged vein was 3.5-6.0 mm. Extraocular muscle enlargement, orbital pathologies, enlarged carotid cavernous sinus etc were also revealed by MRI. Conclusion: The dilated SOV may be well demonstrated by MRI. The etiological diagnosis of enlarged SOV can be made in combination with the associated findings.

  12. Are we pharmacovigilant enough in ophthalmic practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No drug is absolutely safe. Pharmacovigilance is the science related to detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems. The ocular medications and devices can cause localized and systemic adverse effects. Not all adverse effects are known when a drug or device is launched in market because of limitations of clinical trials. Many adverse effects are recognized due to the spontaneous reporting of the vigilant doctors who observe and report such events encountered in their practice. Despite a large ophthalmic patient population base, India does not have robust adverse drug reaction (ADR database because of lack of reporting culture. Government of India recently launched the Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI to monitor ADRs and create awareness among the healthcare professionals about the importance of ADRs. Suspecting and reporting a possible drug reaction is very important in developing a safe and rational ophthalmic practice.

  13. Frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Jyotirmay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen section diagnosis is extensively used in various branches of pathology, but its application in ophthalmic pathology was recognised only in the 1970s. We studied 10 sections of ocular and adenexal lesions by frozen section diagnosis, which included orbital lesions (4 cases, lid lesions (3 cases, and intraocular tissue (1 case. The time taken for processing ranged between 10 to 15 minutes. Diagnoses based on frozen section evaluation included lymphoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, solar keratosis, compound naevus, silicone oil globules in cataractous lens, neurofibromatosis, pseudotumour, retinoblastoma, and chronic blepharitis. Although further histopathologic examination correlated well with the frozen section (100% observations, the diagnosis was deferred in the case of naevus and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Our study shows that frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic surgery is quite reliable and is particularly useful in ocular adenexal lesions

  14. Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens; Prause, Jan U; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to make a nationwide clinicopathological study of oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region and to characterize their cytokeratin (CK) expression. Methods: All histologically diagnosed oncocytic lesions in the ophthalmic region registered in Denmark over a 25-year period...... were collected and re-evaluated using a monoclonal antimitochondrial antibody (MU213-UC). Clinical data were registered. Immunohistochemical characterization was performed with a panel of anti-CK antibodies. Results: A total of 34 oncocytic lesions were identified and reviewed. The incidence...... that required surgical intervention in the Danish population could be approximated to 0.3 lesions per million capita per year. Patient ages ranged from 45 years to 89 years, with a peak incidence in the eighth decade. Female patients were twice as common as male. Lesions were typically described as red...

  15. Ophthalmic clues to the endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Chen, Y; Lin, Z; Shi, X

    2017-01-01

    Eye is a vital sense organ and reflects the physical and mental wellbeing of a person. Detailed examination of the eye is an essential part in the clinical evaluation of patients with any systemic disorder. The interaction between ophthalmologists and endocrinologists is often limited to Graves' ophthalmopathy and diabetic retinopathy. However, there are many ophthalmic manifestations, which are characteristically seen in endocrine disorders. In this review, we shall discuss the ocular manifestations of the endocrine syndromes excluding the Graves' ophthalmopathy and diabetic retinopathy. We performed a PubMed search of articles published in English showing the ophthalmic features in the endocrine disorders. Relevant cited articles were also retrieved. Most of the publications included in the review were case reports and review articles. Many endocrine disorders have characteristic manifestations pertaining to the various structures of the eye. The involvement is seen from the external structures of the eye to the inner most layers of the retina. Many ocular-endocrine syndromes also exist with characteristic clues to the clinical diagnosis. The endocrinologists need to be aware of these ocular signs that help in the early diagnosis of the underlying disorder. A syndromic approach is essential in the diagnosis of endocrinopathy in patients presenting with ophthalmic features.

  16. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palte HD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Howard D Palte Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it

  17. Adjustable fluidic lenses for ophthalmic corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Randall; Mathine, David L; Peyman, Gholam; Schwiegerling, Jim; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2009-02-15

    We report on two fluidic lenses that have been developed for ophthalmic applications. The lenses use a circular aperture to demonstrate optical powers between -20 and +20 D and a rectangular aperture to demonstrate astigmatism with values ranging from 0 to 8 D. Measurements of image quality were made with the fluidic lens using a model eye. Both lenses were variable and controllable by adjusting the fluid volume of the lens. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a continuously variable lens for control of astigmatism.

  18. Ion exchange tempering of glass ophthalmic lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, A H; Duerson, H L

    1975-08-01

    We performed low velocity drop-ball tests using 5/8-, 7/8-, and 1-inch diameter steel balls on ophthalmic crown glass lenses chemically tempered by the ion exchange process. Four representative dioptric strengths (+ 2.50 spherical, - 2.50 spherical, -2.50 cylindrical, and plano) were studied with the isolated lenses mounted, convex side up, on the American National Standards Institute Z80 test block. New ion exchange lenses exhibited a 100 to 350% greater capacity for attenuation of energy from low velocity, large size missiles than matched lenses of similar strength prepared by the conventional heat-treating and air-quenching process.

  19. 21 CFR 524.1200b - Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. 524.1200b Section 524.1200b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 524.1200b Kanamycin ophthalmic aqueous solution. (a) Specifications. The drug, which is in an...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1484a - Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1484a... § 524.1484a Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the ointment contains 5 milligrams of neomycin sulfate equivalent in activity to 3.5 milligrams of neomycin base....

  1. 75 FR 36101 - Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee... Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee scheduled for June 28, 2010, is cancelled. This meeting...

  2. 21 CFR 524.575 - Cyclosporine ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cyclosporine ophthalmic ointment. 524.575 Section... § 524.575 Cyclosporine ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains 2 milligrams of cyclosporine. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  3. Ophthalmic contributions of Raja Serfoji II (1798–1832)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Jyotirmay; Badrinath, Vasanthi; Badrinath, Sengamedu S

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and describe the ophthalmic contribution of Raja Serfoji II (1798-1832). Materials and Method: A team of 2 ophthalmologists, director of laboratory services, one archeologist and a photographer visited Sarasvathi Mahal Library, March 2004. Photographs of ophthalmic records were taken and analysed. An interview of the present prince, S Babaji Rajah Bhonsle was taken. Ophthalmologic case sheets of 44 patients, 18 pictures were found. Results: Forty-four patient's ophthalmic records were found. Six records were written in Modi script, 38 were written in English and 18 drawings were found. Conclusion: In Thanjavur, King Serfoji II carried out methodical ophthalmic practices between 1798 and 1832. Both European and Indian medicines were used. Cataract Surgery was performed. Detailed ophthalmic records were maintained. The only evidence of Serfoji's amazing contribution to medicine lies in 50 charts and manuscripts. PMID:22824599

  4. Ophthalmic contributions of Raja Serfoji II (1798-1832

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirmay Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate and describe the ophthalmic contribution of Raja Serfoji II (1798-1832. Materials and Method: A team of 2 ophthalmologists, director of laboratory services, one archeologist and a photographer visited Sarasvathi Mahal Library, March 2004. Photographs of ophthalmic records were taken and analysed. An interview of the present prince, S Babaji Rajah Bhonsle was taken. Ophthalmologic case sheets of 44 patients, 18 pictures were found. Results: Forty-four patient′s ophthalmic records were found. Six records were written in Modi script, 38 were written in English and 18 drawings were found. Conclusion: In Thanjavur, King Serfoji II carried out methodical ophthalmic practices between 1798 and 1832. Both European and Indian medicines were used. Cataract Surgery was performed. Detailed ophthalmic records were maintained. The only evidence of Serfoji′s amazing contribution to medicine lies in 50 charts and manuscripts.

  5. Ophthalmic contributions of Raja Serfoji II (1798-1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Jyotirmay; Badrinath, Vasanthi; Badrinath, Sengamedu S

    2012-07-01

    To investigate and describe the ophthalmic contribution of Raja Serfoji II (1798-1832). A team of 2 ophthalmologists, director of laboratory services, one archeologist and a photographer visited Sarasvathi Mahal Library, March 2004. Photographs of ophthalmic records were taken and analysed. An interview of the present prince, S Babaji Rajah Bhonsle was taken. Ophthalmologic case sheets of 44 patients, 18 pictures were found. Forty-four patient's ophthalmic records were found. Six records were written in Modi script, 38 were written in English and 18 drawings were found. In Thanjavur, King Serfoji II carried out methodical ophthalmic practices between 1798 and 1832. Both European and Indian medicines were used. Cataract Surgery was performed. Detailed ophthalmic records were maintained. The only evidence of Serfoji's amazing contribution to medicine lies in 50 charts and manuscripts.

  6. National Strategies of Ophthalmic Education in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Einollahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Academic medicine is in a state of dramatic transformation. For this reason strategic thinking is the most essential part of educational planning. The main purpose of the present study was developing the strategic educational planning of Ophthalmology in Iran from 2007 to 2010Methods: A qualitative investigation using focus group discussion has been implemented successfully for developing educational planning. Six to twelve representatives of key stakeholders in the ophthalmic education of Iran participated to this study.Results: Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of ophthalmology education in Iran were analyzed. Strategic goals in education, research, and health service providing domains were being developed. Educational goals were defined as training of human resources in accordance with the community needs at the level of general practitioner, specialist, and fellowships in ophthalmology. Research goals of the program were defined as scientific inter-departmental and international communications, in order to promote the level of education, research, and treatment in the country. Also, in the field of health services according to the community needs, providing services by the means of advanced and cost effective methods were defined as strategic objectives.Conclusion: Based on this strategic plan in the last three years ophthalmic education in Iran shall be many changes in educational, research and health care provision for social accountability.

  7. National Strategies of Ophthalmic Education in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, A; Javadi, MA; Einollahi, B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Academic medicine is in a state of dramatic transformation. For this reason strategic thinking is the most essential part of educational planning. The main purpose of the present study was developing the strategic educational planning of Ophthalmology in Iran from 2007 to 2010 Methods: A qualitative investigation using focus group discussion has been implemented successfully for developing educational planning. Six to twelve representatives of key stakeholders in the ophthalmic education of Iran participated to this study. Results: Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of ophthalmology education in Iran were analyzed. Strategic goals in education, research, and health service providing domains were being developed. Educational goals were defined as training of human resources in accordance with the community needs at the level of general practitioner, specialist, and fellowships in ophthalmology. Research goals of the program were defined as scientific inter-departmental and international communications, in order to promote the level of education, research, and treatment in the country. Also, in the field of health services according to the community needs, providing services by the means of advanced and cost effective methods were defined as strategic objectives. Conclusion: Based on this strategic plan in the last three years ophthalmic education in Iran shall be many changes in educational, research and health care provision for social accountability. PMID:23113125

  8. Ophthalmic abnormalities in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creavin, Alexandra L; Brown, Ray D

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed to determine the common ophthalmic disorders in children aged 0 to 16 years with Down syndrome. The UK National Library for Health interface was used to search seven electronic databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE. Terms related to Down syndrome, ophthalmology, and pediatrics were combined in the search strategy, which yielded 230 articles. Application of exclusion criteria left 23 articles to include in the review. Literature synthesis demonstrated that children with Down syndrome are at risk for several ocular disorders. Refractive error was a common finding, particularly hyperopia. Strabismus was also reported regularly, particularly esodeviation. Other frequent findings included poor visual acuity, nystagmus, and blepharitis, whereas cataract and glaucoma were less common but had potentially serious implications for future vision. Only one study compared routine pediatric examination to that of a pediatric ophthalmologist. The findings of this review confirm the need for an ophthalmic screening program for children with Down syndrome. Additional work should investigate how such a program could be best implemented and ascertain how to involve different professionals in such a service.

  9. [Lacrimal and salivatory glycoproteins in ophthalmic herpes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuk, S E; Terekhina, N A

    2016-01-01

    to compare tear, saliva, and plasma levels of acute phase proteins (APPs) of inflammation in patients with herpes keratitis and to use the RESULTS in treatment evaluation. APPs were measured in tears, oral fluid, and blood plasma from 22 adults and 34 children with ophthalmic herpes as well as 68 healthy controls using immunoturbidimetric and spectrophotometric methods of detection. High levels of C-reactive protein and orosomucoid, low levels of ceruloplasmin, α1-antitrypsin, and transferrin in tears from patients with herpes keratitis as well as abnormal tear, saliva, and plasma APPs levels at discharge are poor prognostic signs. They all indicate that corneal inflammation is still intense and that the treatment should not be ceased yet. Severity of APPs concentration changes in tear from patients with herpes keratitis correlates with the depth of corneal lesions, recurrence rate, and disease dynamics. Quantitative determination of acute phase proteins in tear and oral fluid is an early and sensitive inflammation test and may be also used for non-invasive monitoring and antiviral treatment evaluation. Oral fluid allows to extend the capabilities of non-invasive diagnostics of ophthalmic herpes.

  10. Pulsed UV laser technologies for ophthalmic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razhev, A. M.; Chernykh, V. V.; Bagayev, S. N.; Churkin, D. S.; Kargapol’tsev, E. S.; Iskakov, I. A.; Ermakova, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the results of multiyear joint researches of team of collaborators of Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS together with NF IRTC “Eye Microsurgery” for the period from 1988 to the present, in which were first proposed and experimentally realized laser medical technologies for correction of refractive errors of known today as LASIK, the treatment of ophthalmic herpes and open-angle glaucoma. It is proposed to carry out operations for the correction of refractive errors the use of UV excimer KrCl laser with a wavelength of 222 nm. The same laser emission is the most suitable for the treatment of ophthalmic herpes, because it has a high clinical effect, combined with many years of absence of recrudescence. A minimally invasive technique of glaucoma operations using excimer XeCl laser (λ=308 nm) is developed. Its wavelength allows perform all stages of glaucoma operations, while the laser head itself has high stability and lifetime, will significantly reduce operating costs, compared with other types of lasers.

  11. [Oclusion of upper ophthalmic vein--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kácerik, M; Alexík, M; Lipková, B

    2009-07-01

    Thrombosis of upper ophthalmic vein is both rare and serious pathologic event. Authors present a case of isolated unilateral upper ophthalmic vein thrombosis in 76-year-old woman, who despite treatment ended with amaurosis and secondary neovascular glaucoma. In differential diagnosis authors focused on searching for inflammatory process of orbit with adjacent structures as well as local and general causes leading to venous thrombosis. None of these were proven; it was a rare case of a patient with isolated upper ophthalmic vein thrombosis.

  12. A polycarbonate ophthalmic-prescription lens series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J K

    1978-08-01

    Improvements in polycarbonate material, production techniques, and scratch-resistant coatings, combined with a process-oriented design, have resulted in a precision lens series. Surface quality is comparable to that of untreated glass ophthalmic lenses. The repeatability of the process results in closely controlled axial power and off-axis performance. For most lens prescriptions, the ANSI Z80.1 optical-center specifications for prescription accuracy are maintained through a total field of view of 40 deg for an 8-mm range of center-of-rotation distances. Off-axis astigmatism is controlled for near-point seeing. The lenses are both lighter and thinner than those of crown glass. A scratch-resistant coating reduces the reflections normally associated with high-index (1.586) materials. Impact resistance exceeds that required by ANSI Z80.7 and is many times that required by ANSI Z80.1.

  13. An historical ophthalmic study of Jane Austen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Graham A

    2012-11-01

    Today, no other classic novelist has the popularity or power of Jane Austen, and in 2013 the world will celebrate 200 years of her comic masterpiece Pride and Prejudice. Her millions of fans have an abiding fascination with all aspects of her life, including her health and the cause of her death. This historical ophthalmic study of Jane Austen, based on very incomplete medical bibliographic data, finds that she had a mild ocular surface disorder from age 23. This disorder did not significantly impact on her visual performance for writing. There are many references to eyes in her novels, but Jane's eyes and those of her characters cannot contribute further to the debate around the cause of her death at age 41.

  14. Coherent methods for measuring ophthalmic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenkolber, Matthias; Podbielska, Halina

    1996-01-01

    Topographic analysis of the ophthalmic surfaces is an important task. Especially recently, when a laser assisted refractive surgery becomes more and more popular in a daily clinical praxis. Ophthalmologists need to know exact corneal parameters as a basis for proper operational approach, as well as for monitoring of the post-operative process. The fitting of the contact lenses can be more accurate when topography of both, cornea and contacts, can be precisely measured. We develop new coherent methods for measuring of the topography of curved optical surfaces. One of the proposed techniques is based on interferometry with a special distance measurement unit and spatial phase shifting interferogram evaluation. The other one uses deflectometry with spatial carrier frequency. The sensitivity of this method is adjustable and thus it closes the gap between the white light and interferometric measuring methods. The techniques proposed here can be suitable for measurement of the contact lenses or corneal surface.

  15. Mini drug pump for ophthalmic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saati, Saloomeh; Lo, Ronalee; Li, Po-Ying; Meng, Ellis; Varma, Rohit; Humayun, Mark S

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of developing a novel mini drug pump for ophthalmic use. Using principles of microelectromechanical systems engineering, a mini drug pump was fabricated. The pumping mechanism is based on electrolysis and the pump includes a drug refill port as well as a check valve to control drug delivery. Drug pumps were tested first on the bench-top and then after implantation in rabbits. For the latter, we implanted 4 elliptical (9.9 x 7.7 x 1.8 mm) non-electrically active pumps into 4 rabbits. The procedure is similar to implantation of a glaucoma aqueous drainage device. To determine the ability to refill and also the patency of the cannula, at intervals of 4-6 weeks after implantation, we accessed the drug reservoir with a transconjunctival needle and delivered approximately as low as 1 microL of trypan blue solution (0.06%) into the anterior chamber. Animals were followed by slit lamp examination, photography, and fluorescein angiography. Bench-top testing showed 2.0 microL/min delivery when using 0.4 mW of power for electrolysis. One-way valves showed reliable opening pressures of 470 mmHg. All implanted devices refilled at 4-6 weeks intervals for 4-6 months. No infection was seen. No devices extruded. No filtering bleb formed over the implant. A prototype ocular mini drug pump was built, implanted, and refilled. Such a platform needs more testing to determine the long term biocompatibility of an electrically-controlled implanted pump. Testing with various pharmacological agents is needed to determine its ultimate potential for ophthalmic use.

  16. Glaucoma awareness among ophthalmic patients at Menelik II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Raising awareness about glaucoma among the general public, ophthalmic patients and health professionals would ... media to be the main source of information about glaucoma. ..... This can be seen in relation to that of rural Indian study in ...

  17. HIV seroprevalence in patients undergoing Ophthalmic surgery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THAMPY

    3 HIV positive cases were detected out of 41 ophthalmic .... southern African countries, the national adult HIV prevalence rate has risen ... Africa with a population of 140 million people. ... Corneal transplantation is a possible route of viral.

  18. Sedative and physiological effects of brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Niwako; Kanda, Teppei; Kawahata, Mizuki; Ichikawa, Takayasu; Matsumoto, Yuki; Morimitsu, Waka; Nishino, Yukiko; Itoi, Takamasa; Furumoto, Kayo

    2017-07-03

    To determine the effects of brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution on sedation, heart rate (HR), respiratory frequency (fR), rectal temperature (RT) and noninvasive mean arterial pressure (MAP) in healthy cats. Randomized, blinded crossover study, with 1 week washout between treatments. Six healthy purpose-bred cats. Brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution 0.1% (one or two drops; 58.6 ± 3.3 μg per drop) or a control solution (artificial tear solution) was administered to six healthy cats. Behavioural observations and measurements of HR, fR, RT and MAP were recorded before and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 minutes after topical administration. Behavioural scores were analysed using Friedman's test for repeated measures to evaluate the time effect in each treatment and treatment effect at each time point. Physiological variables (HR, fR, RT and MAP) were analysed using two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures to evaluate the time and treatment effects. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Dose-dependent behavioural and physiological responses were noted. A dose of two drops of brimonidine resulted in sedation in the cats and decreased HR and MAP. Significant sedative effects occurred between 30 and 120 minutes and for physiological responses up to 360 minutes. The most frequent adverse reaction was vomiting, occurring within 40 minutes in all six cats administered two drops and five of the six cats administered one drop of brimonidine. The results demonstrated that ocular administration of brimonidine 0.1% ophthalmic solution induced sedation in cats and some cardiovascular effects usually associated with α2-adrenoceptor agonists. Further studies should be performed to determine clinical applications for this agent in cats. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk factors of ophthalmic disorders in children with developmental delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, L.N.; Jensen, H.; Skov, L.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12......PURPOSE: To identify diagnoses that increase the risk of ophthalmic disorders in developmentally delayed children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1126 Danish children with developmental delay (IQ Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12...

  20. Association between Ophthalmic Timolol and Hospitalisation for Bradycardia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Ophthalmic timolol, a topical nonselective beta-blocker, has the potential to be absorbed systemically which may cause adverse cardiovascular effects. This study was conducted to determine whether initiation of ophthalmic timolol was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for bradycardia. Materials and Methods. A self-controlled case-series study was undertaken in patients who were hospitalised for bradycardia and were exposed to timolol. Person-time after timolol ...

  1. Metabolic Acidosis with Ophthalmic Dorzolamide in a Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capino, Amanda C; Dannaway, Douglas C; Miller, Jamie L

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a common cause of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis; however, development is less commonly associated with ophthalmic administration of these agents. We report a case of a premature neonate who was being treated at our institution with betaxolol, dorzolamide, and latanoprost ophthalmic products for suspected bilateral congenital glaucoma. In addition, the patient was also receiving caffeine, ursodiol, and acidified liquid human milk fortifier. The patient developed a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, and both dorzolamide ophthalmic solution and the acidified human milk fortifier were considered potential causes. Upon discontinuation of the dorzolamide ophthalmic solution and the switching of liquid human milk fortifiers, the normal anion gap metabolic acidosis gradually resolved. As a result of the pH and acidity, the acidified liquid human milk fortifier is thought to be associated with an anion gap acidosis; therefore, dorzolamide is suspected to be the primary cause of a normal gap acidosis. This case demonstrates that systemic effects can occur with ophthalmic administration of dorzolamide in a premature neonate. Ophthalmic agents should not be overlooked as a potential cause of systemic toxicity.

  2. A case of a spontaneous intraorbital arteriovenous fistula: clinico-radiological findings and treatment by transvenous embolisation via the superior ophthalmic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Jawad; Laitt, Roger; Leatherbarrow, Brian; Herwadkar, Amit

    2013-04-01

    A 72-year-old male presented with progressive right axial proptosis and red eye. Catheter angiography demonstrated an intraorbital arteriovenous fistula (IAVF) distal to the central retinal artery (CRA). Transvenous embolisation following direct surgical exposure of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) resulted in rapid resolution of his symptoms and signs. Transvenous embolisation via the SOV is a safe, effective alternative to transarterial embolisation for treating spontaneous IAVF where transarterial embolisation poses a risk of CRA occlusion.

  3. Exploring leptin antagonism in ophthalmic cell models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scolaro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokine leptin might be implicated in ocular neovascularization. However, the potential of inhibiting leptin function in ophthalmic cells has never been explored. Here we assessed mitogenic, angiogenic, and signaling leptin activities in retinal and corneal endothelial cells and examined the capability of a specific leptin receptor (ObR antagonist, Allo-aca, to inhibit these functions. METHODS AND RESULTS: The experiments were carried out in monkey retinal (RF/6A and bovine corneal (BCE endothelial cells. Leptin at 50-250 ng/mL stimulated the growth of both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal mitogenic response (35±7 and 27±3% in RF6A and BCE cells, respectively was noted at 24 h of 250 ng/mL leptin treatments. Leptin-dependent proliferation was reduced to base levels with 10 and 100 nM Allo-aca in BCE and RF6A cells, respectively. In both cell lines, leptin promoted angiogenic responses, with the maximal increase in tube formation (163±10 and 133±8% in RF6A and BCE cultures, respectively observed under a 250 ng/mL leptin treatment for 3 h. Furthermore, in both cell lines 250 ng/mL leptin modulated the activity or expression of several signaling molecules involved in proliferation, inflammatory activity and angiogenesis, such as STAT3, Akt, and ERK1/2, COX2, and NFκB. In both cell lines, leptin-induced angiogenic and signaling responses were significantly inhibited with 100 nM Allo-aca. We also found that leptin increased its own mRNA and protein expression in both cell lines, and this autocrine effect was abolished by 100-250 nM Allo-aca. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide new insights into the role of leptin in ocular endothelial cells and represent the first original report on targeting ObR in ophthalmic cell models.

  4. Dose uniformity of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel (0.5% compared with branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension (1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe ZT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Zora T Marlowe, Stephen R DavioPharmaceutical Product Development, Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Bausch and Lomb, Inc, Rochester, NY, USAIntroduction: Loteprednol etabonate (LE ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax® is a new polycarbophil-based, nonsettling topical ophthalmic formulation. The formulation is a semisolid gel at rest and a shear thinning fluid when expressed through a dropper tip. The present study was undertaken to determine how the nonsettling character of LE ophthalmic gel affects dose uniformity. Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% (Pred Forte® and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension 1% were used as comparators.Methods: Drug concentrations of LE ophthalmic gel, Pred Forte, and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension were determined following simulated dosing – consisting of 2 drops, expressed four times daily for 2 weeks, with bottles that were shaken or not shaken immediately prior to expressing the drops. Drug concentrations were determined using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method and reported as a percentage of the declared (labeled concentration. Comparative kinetics of drug particle sedimentation were also determined for each formulation, using dispersion analysis under gravity.Results: Mean drug concentrations in drops of all three formulations were within a few percentage points of the declared concentration when the bottles were shaken for 5 seconds prior to dispensing. Only LE ophthalmic gel showed consistent and on-target concentrations when the bottles were unshaken prior to dispensing, with a mean (standard deviation [SD] percent declared concentration of 102% (1.92% over the 2-week dosing regimen. Drug concentrations for the branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions following expression from unshaken bottles were highly variable (overall relative SDs of 16.8% and 20.3%, respectively, with mean concentrations for both falling significantly

  5. OPHTHALMIC DISORDERS AMONG STUDENTS OF SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolase C O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and pattern of ophthalmic disorders among students of School for the Deaf, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.Methodology: This is a cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in October, 2011 as part of activities marking the Annual Physicians’ week of Nigerian Medical Association (NMA,Ondo State. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of Federal Medical Centre, Owo prior to commencement of this study. The permission of the School Authority was also obtained before the commencement of this study. The respondents were selected by simple random sampling technique. All enrolled participants were interviewed with the aid of the study instrument (questionnaire by the authors and interpreters (school teachers.Results: The respondents comprised of 91(56.9% Males and 69 Females (43.1%. Nearly all the respondents;158(98.8% were deaf and dumb. Most respondents; 116(72.5% had ocular examination in the past. Few respondents; 118(73.75% had ophthalmic disorder. The commonest ophthalmic disorder was refractive error which was found in 16 respondents (38.1%. Myopia was diagnosed in 9 respondents.CONCLUSION: Most of the respondents were deaf and dumb. Few respondents had ophthalmic disorder. The commonest ophthalmic disorder was refractive error. Myopia was the most predominant refractive error. There is need for periodic ocular screening and treatment atthe School for the Deaf.

  6. Reliability and validity of an indicator system for assessing the quality of ophthalmic nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Hua Shi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The indicator system for evaluating the quality of ophthalmic nursing has favorable reliability and validity, which means that it is a suitable clinical tool for assessing the quality of ophthalmic nursing.

  7. Dose uniformity of loteprednol etabonate ophthalmic gel (0.5%) compared with branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension (1%)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Zora T; Davio, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Loteprednol etabonate (LE) ophthalmic gel 0.5% (Lotemax®) is a new polycarbophil-based, nonsettling topical ophthalmic formulation. The formulation is a semisolid gel at rest and a shear thinning fluid when expressed through a dropper tip. The present study was undertaken to determine how the nonsettling character of LE ophthalmic gel affects dose uniformity. Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% (Pred Forte®) and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension 1% were used as comparators. Methods Drug concentrations of LE ophthalmic gel, Pred Forte, and a generic prednisolone acetate suspension were determined following simulated dosing – consisting of 2 drops, expressed four times daily for 2 weeks, with bottles that were shaken or not shaken immediately prior to expressing the drops. Drug concentrations were determined using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and reported as a percentage of the declared (labeled) concentration. Comparative kinetics of drug particle sedimentation were also determined for each formulation, using dispersion analysis under gravity. Results Mean drug concentrations in drops of all three formulations were within a few percentage points of the declared concentration when the bottles were shaken for 5 seconds prior to dispensing. Only LE ophthalmic gel showed consistent and on-target concentrations when the bottles were unshaken prior to dispensing, with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) percent declared concentration of 102% (1.92%) over the 2-week dosing regimen. Drug concentrations for the branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions following expression from unshaken bottles were highly variable (overall relative SDs of 16.8% and 20.3%, respectively), with mean concentrations for both falling significantly below the declared concentration for drops expressed at the beginning of the 2-week dosing regimen and significantly above the declared concentration for drops expressed

  8. Infraoptic course of the anterior cerebral artery: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Myong Hee; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Kwon, O Ki; Koh, Young Cho; Kim, Ho Kyun [Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    An infraoptic anterior cerebral artery (ACA) arising at a low bifurcation of the internal carotid artery is a rare anomaly, of which about 33 cases have been reported to date, often in association with cerebral aneurysms. We describe a case involving an infraoptic ACA in which a ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm was also present. Angiography revealed the presence of an abnormal solitary ACA, arising from the intracranial proximal internal carotid artery near the origin of the ophthalmic artery, and a contralateral middle cerebral artery aneurysm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the ACA passed below the ipsilateral optic nerve, anterior to the optic chiasm, to join the normally positioned anterior communicating artery above the optic chiasm.

  9. Increasing incidence of ophthalmic lymphoma in Denmark from 1980 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Lene D; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner; Prause, Jan U;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate patient characteristics and incidence of ophthalmic lymphoma in Denmark during the period 1980 to 2005. METHODS: All patients in Denmark with a diagnosis of ophthalmic lymphoma during the period 1980 to 2005 were retrieved from three different population-based registries......: In the Danish population ophthalmic lymphoma consists primarily of orbital MALT lymphoma. Although it is a rare disease in mostly elderly patients, the incidence of ophthalmic lymphoma is increasing at a rapid pace....

  10. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  11. Microbiological assay for the determination of azithromycin in ophthalmic solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hérida Regina Nunes SALGADO; Ana Flavia Ferreira RONCARI

    2005-01-01

    The validation of a simple, sensitive and specific agar diffusion bioassay, applying cylinder-plate method, for the determination of the antibiotic azithromycin in ophthalmic solutions is described. Using a strain of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372 as the test organism, azithromycin at concentrations ranging from 50.0 to 200.0 μg·mL -1 could be measured in 1.666 7 mg·mL -1 ophthalmic solutions. A prospective validation of the method showed that the method was linear (r=0.999 9) and precise (RSD=0.70) and accurate (it measured the added quantities). The results obtained by bioassay method could be statistically calculated by linear parallel model and by means of regression analysis and verified using analysis of variance (ANOVA). We conclude that the microbiological assay is satisfactory for quantification of azithromycin in ophthalmic solutions.

  12. Smart ophthalmics: the future in tele-ophthalmology has arrived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A.; Garcia, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Smart Ophthalmics© extends ophthalmic healthcare to people who operate/live in austere environments (e.g., military, third world, natural disaster), or are geographically dispersed (e.g., rural populations), where time, cost, and the possibility of travel/transportation make access to even adequate medical care difficult, if at all possible. Operators attach optical devices that act as ophthalmic examination extensions to smartphones and run custom apps to perform examinations of specific areas of the eye. The smartphone apps submit over wireless networks the collected examination data to a smart remote expert system, which provides in-depth medical analyses that are sent back in near real-time to the operators for subsequent triage.

  13. Turkish Contribution to Ophthalmic Literature From 1990 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Bayramlar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the frequency and distribution of ophthalmic articles with Turkish origin on Pubmed search engine and to compare these data with those of the world’s leading countries in that field. Materials and Methods: Using the words “ophthalmology” and “Turkey”, an online retrospective search was conducted on Pubmed for the period from 1990 to 2013. Additionally, same search was performed for each ophthalmic journal indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E (n=56 and not indexed in SCI-E (n=8, separately. The articles were divided into two groups (research articles and the other articles as case reports, letters, correspondence, editorials and reviews. Results: A total of 5044 articles in the area of ophthalmology were from Turkey in that period. The United States of America, Japan, and Germany had the maximum number of published articles (25%, 6.8%, and 4.9% of all, respectively. There were 3334 articles on ophthalmic journals. 2822 articles were published in SCI-E journals and of those, 2321 were research articles and 501 were other types of articles. Three SCI-E indexed ophthalmic journals which mostly published Turkish articles are the European Journal of Ophthalmology, Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, and the Ophthalmologica (361, 183, and 152, respectively. Conclusion: In this period, the rate of the published ophthalmic articles originated from Turkey was 1.5%. We observed that the number of Turkish ophthalmic articles has been increasing gradually. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 465-70

  14. Infra-optic Course of Both Anterior Cerebral Arteries Associated with a Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm and an Aortic Coarctation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Cheol; Ahn, Jae Geun; Cho, Song Mee [Catholic University, St. Paul' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    A ruptured aneurysm at the bifurcation of the left middle cerebral artery with an infra- optic course of the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries was found in a 28-year-old woman. Both abnormal anterior cerebral arteries arose from the ipsilateral internal carotid arteries, at the level of the origin of ophthalmic arteries, passed underneath the ipsilateral optic nerves and turned upward at the ventral portion of the optic chiasm. In addition, an aortic coarctation was found with the use of thoracic aortography. An infra-optic course of the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries is an extremely rare anomaly. An infra-optic course of the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries is frequently associated with cerebral aneurysms and possibly with a coarctation aorta. The clinical features, radiological findings and possible genesis of this anomaly are presented.

  15. 21 CFR 524.1880 - Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1880 Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment contains 2 milligrams prednisolone and 5 milligrams...

  16. 77 FR 8262 - Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee... Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of the meeting of the Dermatologic and Ophthalmic... that a meeting of the Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee would be held on February 27...

  17. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Syndrome in Colombia and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez, Juan B; Murati, Felipe A; Pettito, Michele; Peñaranda, Carlos F; de Yepez, Jazmin; Maestre, Gladys; Arevalo, J Fernando

    2017-05-01

    The ocular manifestations and sequelae of Zika virus infection are not well known. Recently, the World Health Organization changed the declaration of Zika as a public health emergency and designated the viral outbreak and related microcephaly clusters as a long-term program of work. This change indicates the urgent need to evaluate and document ophthalmic manifestations in patients for timely management of this disease. In addition, confirmation whether the public health problem in Brazil extends to other regions in South America is needed. To report the ocular manifestations of congenital Zika syndrome with microcephaly in Colombia and Venezuela. This prospective case series included 43 patients from 2 ophthalmic centers in Colombia and Venezuela who underwent evaluation from October 1, 2015, through June 30, 2016, and were clinically diagnosed with congenital Zika syndrome. Twenty patients were Hispanic; 13, African; 8, white; and 2, Native American. Ophthalmic and systemic evaluations and serologic testing were performed on all infants. Patients underwent external ocular examination and dilated ophthalmoscopy. Serologic testing ruled out toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus. Ophthalmic manifestations of congenital Zika syndrome. Of the 43 patients included in this series (28 female and 15 male), the mean (SD) age at examination was 2.1 (1.5) months. The mothers of all the children had no ophthalmic findings and did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. All patients had bilateral ophthalmic manifestations. Optic nerve findings included hypoplasia with the double-ring sign, pallor, and increased cup-disc ratio in 5 patients (11.6%). Macular abnormalities included mild to severe pigment mottling in 27 patients (63%) and lacunar maculopathy in 3 (6.9%). Chorioretinal scarring was present in 3 patients (7%). Eleven patients (26%) had a combination of lesions in the posterior pole. Five patients (12%) were

  18. Challenges Encountered Using Ophthalmic Anesthetics in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, T.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Moynihan, S.; LeBlanc, C.; Langford, K.; Magalhaes, L.

    2015-01-01

    On orbit, ophthalmic anesthetics are used for tonometry and off-nominal corneal examinations. Proparacaine has been flown traditionally. However, the manufacturers recently changed its storage requirements from room temperature storage to refrigerated storage to preserve stability and prolong the shelf-life. Since refrigeration on orbit is not readily available and there were stability concerns about flying proparacaine unrefrigerated, tetracaine was selected as an alternative ophthalmic anesthetic in 2013. We will discuss the challenges encountered flying and using these anesthetics on the International Space Station.

  19. Changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure in men and women with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An altered perfusion of the optic nerve head has been proposed as a pathogenic factor of glaucoma. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of the hemodynamic parameters in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in women and men with primary open angle glaucoma. Methods. The study included 60 patients (33 males and 27 females older than 50 years, with diagnosed and treated primary open angle glaucoma (77 eyes of 39 patients had increased IOP, >25 mm Hg. They were examined at the Clinic of Eye Diseases (complete ophthalmologic exam and Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from December 2009 to December 2010. Imaging of hemodynamic parameters of three retrobulbar arterial vessels: ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries with color Doppler was performed. Results. Among women, hemodynamic arterial parameter of the peak-systolic velocity was increased in the central retinal artery and decreased in the ophthalmic artery and posterior ciliary arteries; end- diastolic velocity was increased in all three retrobulbar vascular levels; Pourcelot resistivity index was increased, but pulsatility index was decreased in all three vessels. Among men, peak-systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and pulsatility index were decreased in all three vessels; resistivity index was increased in the ophthalmic artery, but decreased in the central retinal artery and posterior ciliary arteries. There was a significant change of the ophthalmic artery pulsatility index in women, and the end-diastolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery in men. Conclusion. There was a difference of the retrobulbar arterial circulation between women and men with primary open angle glaucoma after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure. The role of vascular factors in the supply of the optic disc neuroretinal rim is important.

  20. 21 CFR 524.390a - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... conjunctivitis, attempts should be made to determine through susceptibility testing, which antibiotics will be... animals producing meat, eggs, or milk. The length of time that residues persist in milk or tissues has...

  1. 21 CFR 524.390b - Chloramphenicol ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...) Limitations. Therapy for cats should not exceed 7 days. As with other antibiotics, prolonged use may result in... animals. The length of time that residues persist in milk or tissues has not been determined. Federal...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. 524.1982 Section 524.1982 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... longterm toxicity of proparacaine is unknown. Prolonged use may possibly delay wound healing. (d...

  3. 21 CFR 886.3100 - Ophthalmic tantalum clip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic tantalum clip. 886.3100 Section 886.3100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... or temporarily to bring together the edges of a wound to aid healing or prevent bleeding from small...

  4. Exposure Limits in Ophthalmic Imaging with Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roque, S.S.L.T.; Bicho, S.A.A. [IBILI-Biomedical Institute for Research on Light and Image, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, Celas 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Morgado, A.M.L.S. [IBILI-Biomedical Institute for Research on Light and Image, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, Celas 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga da Universidade, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2009-05-15

    We present an analysis of the exposure to laser radiation resulting from the use of scanning laser ophthalmoscopes in ophthalmic imaging of the ocular fundus. Exposures limits are determined, based on the IEC/EN 60825-1 standard. These limits are applied on the safety analysis of a commercial scanning laser ophthalmoscope. (author)

  5. Numerical implementation of generalized Coddington equations for ophthalmic lens design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, P.; Royo, S.; Ramírez, J.; Madariaga, I.

    2014-02-01

    A method for general implementation in any software platform of the generalized Coddington equations is presented, developed, and validated within a Matlab environment. The ophthalmic lens design strategy is presented thoroughly, and the basic concepts of generalized ray tracing are introduced. The methodology for ray tracing is shown to include two inter-related processes. Firstly, finite ray tracing is used to provide the main direction of propagation of the considered ray at the incidence point of interest. Afterwards, generalized ray tracing provides the principal curvatures of the local wavefront at that point, and its orientation after being refracted by the lens. The curvature values of the local wavefront are interpreted as the sagital and tangential powers of the lens at the point of interest. The proposed approach is validated using a double-check of the calculated lens performance in the spherical lens case: while finite ray tracing is validated using a commercial ray tracing software, generalized ray tracing is validated using a software application for ophthalmic lens design based on the classical version of Coddington equations. Equations of the complete tracing process are developed in detail for the case of generic astigmatic ophthalmic lenses as an example. Three-dimensional representation of the sagital and tangential powers of the ophthalmic lens at all directions of gaze then becomes possible, and results are presented for lenses with different geometries.

  6. CALCULATION AND RESEARCH OF CONTACT OPHTHALMIC DUAL APPLICATION LENSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Cherkasova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research. Algorithm for calculation of contact ophthalmic lenses for dual application has been suggested based on unified approach for their calculation. The algorithm has been tested on the composition of Goldmann ophthalmic lenses and Panfundoscope lens optical systems. Method. The condition of mutual unambiguous orientation of patient’s eye and instruments is performed at the initial calculation step by face mounting and movement of coordinate table with optical head. Then such type of patient's eye optical system model is selected that the lens would be combined with the front surface of eye cornea optical system. Pupil of patient eye is under anesthesia. At the final calculation step we determine the functions of optical lens image quality and their values based on medical and technical requirements for the components of the complex system. Main results. The algorithm for ophthalmic lenses calculation has been suggested and its correctness has been proved practically on the example of two basic models in the group of such type lenses being applied in practice as a part of complex system with ophthalmic laser coagulators. Optical calculation of Goldmann ophthalmic contact lenses and Panfundoscope is presented. The method of neutralization is optimal for Goldmann lenses. The first component in Panfundoscope operates the position of object planes whereas the second component operates the position of complex system with ophthalmocoagulator's pupils. Computer modeling of complex system "Computer model of eye-ophthalmic lens" in ZEMAX confirmed the correctness of calculation algorithm in which the criteria of diffraction image quality has been used. Application possibility of simplified computer eye model called "Reduced eye" by Verbitskiy has been demonstrated. Practical relevance. The general scientific approach to the problem of synthesis, calculation and research of complex system with contact ophthalmic lenses for diagnostics

  7. Intra-arterial high signals on arterial spin labeling perfusion images predict the occluded internal carotid artery segment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, Shu; Satomi, Junichiro; Tada, Yoshiteru; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Kenji; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Mure, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokushima (Japan); Abe, Takashi; Harada, Masafumi [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Radiology, Tokushima (Japan); Yamamoto, Nobuaki; Kaji, Ryuji [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Biomedical Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) involves perfusion imaging using the inverted magnetization of arterial water. If the arterial arrival times are longer than the post-labeling delay, labeled spins are visible on ASL images as bright, high intra-arterial signals (IASs); such signals were found within occluded vessels of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The identification of the occluded segment in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is crucial for endovascular treatment. We tested our hypothesis that high IASs on ASL images can predict the occluded segment. Our study included 13 patients with acute ICA occlusion who had undergone angiographic and ASL studies within 48 h of onset. We retrospectively identified the high IAS on ASL images and angiograms and recorded the occluded segment and the number of high IAS-positive slices on ASL images. The ICA segments were classified as cervical (C1), petrous (C2), cavernous (C3), and supraclinoid (C4). Of seven patients with intracranial ICA occlusion, five demonstrated high IASs at C1-C2, suggesting that high IASs could identify stagnant flow proximal to the occluded segment. Among six patients with extracranial ICA occlusion, five presented with high IASs at C3-C4, suggesting that signals could identify the collateral flow via the ophthalmic artery. None had high IASs at C1-C2. The mean number of high IAS-positive slices was significantly higher in patients with intra- than extracranial ICA occlusion. High IASs on ASL images can identify slow stagnant and collateral flow through the ophthalmic artery in patients with acute ICA occlusion and help to predict the occlusion site. (orig.)

  8. Peri-operative management of ophthalmic patients taking antithrombotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, G Y H; Durrani, O M; Roldan, V; Lip, P L; Marin, F; Reuser, T Q

    2011-03-01

    Increasing number of patients presenting for ophthalmic surgery are using oral anti-coagulant and anti-platelet therapy. The current practice of discontinuing these drugs preoperatively because of a presumed increased risk of bleeding may not be evidence-based and could pose a significant risk to the patient's health. To provide an evidence-based review on the peri-operative management of ophthalmic patients who are taking anti-thrombotic therapy. In addition, we briefly discuss the underlying conditions that necessitate the use of these drugs as well as management of the operative field in anti-coagulated patients. A semi-systematic review of literature was performed. The databases searched included MEDLINE, EMBASE, database of abstracts of reviews of effects (DARE), Cochrane controlled trial register and Cochrane systematic reviews. In addition, the bibliographies of the included papers were also scanned for evidence. The published data suggests that aspirin did not appear to increase the risk of serious postoperative bleeding in any type of ophthalmic surgery. Topical, sub-tenon, peri-bulbar and retrobulbar anaesthesia appear to be safe in patients on anti-thrombotic (warfarin and aspirin) therapy. Warfarin does not increase the risk of significant bleeding in most types of ophthalmic surgery when the INR was within the therapeutic range. Current evidence supports the continued use of aspirin and with some exceptions, warfarin in the peri-operative period. The risk of thrombosis-related complications on disruption of anticoagulation may be higher than the risk of significant bleeding by continuing its use for most types of ophthalmic surgery.

  9. [The rete mirabile of the maxillary artery of the lion (Panthera leo, L. 1758)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackowiak, H

    1989-12-01

    Seventeen lion heads were examined. Their arteries were injected with colored supervinyl-chloride (dissolved in acetone) after which the heads were macerated biologically. The rete mirabile of the maxillary artery was located extracranially and was formed by numerous arteries that arose from the dorsal and medial surfaces of the maxillary artery. The rete released branches (rami retis) which entered the cranial cavity through the orbital fissure where they anastomosed with the intracranial segment of the internal carotid artery. The extracranial portion of the internal carotid was found to be obliterated. Some other arteries leaving the rete anastomosed with the internal ophthalmic artery before it entered the optic canal. The following further arteries left the rete: A. ethmoidalis externa, A. ophthalmica externa, rami musculares and ramus pterygoideus. The rete mirabile of the maxillary artery in the lion provides the principal source of the blood for the brain; it also supplies the orbit.

  10. Video recording of ophthalmic surgery--ethical and legal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Andrew M J; Emsley, Elizabeth S

    2014-01-01

    Video documenting is increasingly used in ophthalmic training and research, with many ophthalmologists routinely recording their surgical cases. Although this modality represents an excellent means of improving technique and advancing knowledge, there are major ethical and legal considerations with its use. Informed consent to record is required in most situations. Patients should be advised of any risk of identification and the purpose of the recording. Systems should be in place to deal with issues such as data storage, withdrawal of consent, and patients requesting copies of their recording. Privacy and security of neither patients nor health care professionals should be compromised. Ownership and distribution of video recordings, the potential for their use in medical litigation, the ethics and legality of editing and the impact on surgeon performance are other factors to consider. Although video recording of ophthalmic surgery is useful and technically simple to accomplish, patient safety and welfare must always remain paramount. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluorometholone acetate. A new ophthalmic derivative of fluorometholone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, A; Berrospi, A R; Leibowitz, H M

    1982-04-01

    Hourly topical administration of 0.1% fluorometholone acetate ophthalmic suspension produced, on the average, a 47% reduction in the polymorphonuclear leukocytes invading the cornea during an experimentally induced inflammatory keratitis. This is a significantly greater anti-inflammatory effect than we have previously reported for the alcohol derivative of fluorometholone and is not significantly different from the therapeutic effect of 1.0% prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension, the most effective corneal anti-inflammatory agent that we have studied to date. Fluorometholone acetate (0.1%) formulated as a high-viscosity carbomer gel and applied at three-hour intervals reduced invading leukocytes in the cornea an average of 48%, an effect not significantly different from hourly administration of the suspension.

  12. Blindness resulting from orbital complications of ophthalmic zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowska, Magdalena; Zajkowska, Agata; Garkowski, Adam; Czupryna, Piotr; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivates in the trigeminal ganglion and ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. In the elderly, there is a sharp increase in the tendency of secondary skin bacterial infections occurrence due to the deterioration of capabilities of self-care and changed sanitation. We present a case of patient who developed phlegmon of the orbit, which resulted with complete unilateral blindness. Varicella zoster virus infection in the elderly may have a severe course due to the progressive weakening of the immune system related to the age. Moreover, skin lesions around the eye socket require special care in prevention of bacterial superinfections due to the extremely high risk of life-threatening complications or disability. Neuralgia resistant to pharmacological treatment present in the course of ophthalmic zoster and difficulty in caring about skin lesions predispose to the occurrence of complications. PMID:26759550

  13. Concurrent central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal vein occlusion in giant cell arteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Edward R.; Chen, Celia S

    2010-01-01

    Edward R Chu, Celia S ChenDepartment of Ophthalmology, Flinders Medical Centre and Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Ophthalmic involvement in giant cell arteritis can manifest in a number of ways. Central retinal artery occlusion is one of the common causes of visual loss in giant cell arteritis. On the contrary, branch retinal vein occlusion is rarely associated with the latter. We report an 89-year-old lady with acute left central retinal artery occlusion on a backg...

  14. Development of Absorbable, Antibiotic-Eluting Sutures for Ophthalmic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabuchi, Fabiana; Parikh, Kunal S.; Omiadze, Revaz; Zhang, Shuming; Luo, Lixia; Patel, Himatkumar V.; Xu, Qingguo; Ensign, Laura M.; Mao, Hai-Quan; Hanes, Justin; McDonnell, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate an antibiotic-eluting suture for ophthalmic surgery. Methods Wet electrospinning was used to manufacture sutures composed of poly(L-lactide), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and levofloxacin. Size, morphology, and mechanical strength were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy and tensile strength, respectively. In vitro drug release was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. In vitro suture activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis was investigated through bacterial inhibition studies. Biocompatibility was determined via histological analysis of tissue sections surrounding sutures implanted into Sprague-Dawley rat corneas. Results Sutures manufactured via wet electrospinning were 45.1 ± 7.7 μm in diameter and 0.099 ± 0.007 newtons (N) in breaking strength. The antibiotic release profile demonstrated a burst followed by sustained release for greater than 60 days. Increasing PEG in the polymer formulation, from 1% to 4% by weight, improved drug release without negatively affecting tensile strength. Sutures maintained a bacterial zone of inhibition for at least 1 week in vitro and elicited an in vivo tissue reaction comparable to a nylon suture. Conclusions There is a need for local, postoperative delivery of antibiotics following ophthalmic procedures. Wet electrospinning provides a suitable platform for the development of sutures that meet size requirements for ophthalmic surgery and are capable of sustained drug release; however, tensile strength must be improved prior to clinical use. Translational Relevance No antibiotic-eluting suture exists for ophthalmic surgery. A biocompatible, high strength suture capable of sustained antibiotic release could prevent ocular infection and preclude compliance issues with topical eye drops. PMID:28083445

  15. A Case of Hydranencephaly in Which Ophthalmic Examinations Were Performed

    OpenAIRE

    Shohei Eda; Tomoko Terai; Yuko Nishikawa; Masahiro Tonari; Teruyo Kida; Hidehiro Oku; Jun Sugasawa; Shuichi Shimakawa; Masashi  Hasegawa; Tohru Ogihara; Tsunehiko Ikeda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We performed ophthalmic examinations, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), on a case diagnosed with hydranencephaly. Case Report: This case involved a female infant born at the gestational age of 35 weeks and 4 days, with the birth weight of 2,152 g, who was one of monochorionic diamniotic twins, and the identical twin died in utero at the gestational age of 24 weeks. After that, examination by fetal echo indicated that she had microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Postnatal ma...

  16. Gradient-index ophthalmic lens design and polymer material studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David Joel

    Unifocal ophthalmic lenses are conventionally designed using homogeneous glass or plastic materials and aspheric surfaces. The desired power and aberration correction are provided by selection of surface shape and refractive index. This thesis studies the design of ophthalmic lenses utilizing gradient-index (GRIN) materials for both the optical power and aberration control. This is done using geometrical optical theory and ray-tracing simulations. Progressive addition lenses (PALS) are vision correction lenses with a continuous change in power used to treat presbyopia. The power variation is typically located in the lower half of the lens. Progressive addition lenses are currently made with aspheric surfaces to achieve the focal power transition and aberration control. These surfaces have at most, mirror symmetry about the vertical axis. The possible design of progressive addition lenses with GRIN materials has not been well studied. This thesis studies PALS and identifies how gradient-index materials can be used to provide both the power progression and aberration control. The optical theory for rotationally symmetric and asymmetric power additions is given. Analytical and numerical methods for calculating the index profile are used, and the results examined using ray-tracing simulations. The theory developed for ophthalmic lenses is applied to the design of GRIN axicon. This is the first GRIN axicon manufactured, and is fabricated using ion-exchanged GRIN glass. Experimental measurements of its performance are compared and found to match theoretical predictions. This demonstrates the generality of the theory developed: it may be applied to non-visual applications, and even to non-imaging applications. Realistic implementation of GRIN technology to ophthalmic application requires the fabrication of large scale refractive index gradients in polymer material systems. The methyl-methacrylate/styrene copolymer system is studied to develop an empirical model of its

  17. OPHTHALMIC FINDINGS IN LATE STAGE SJOGREN-LARSSON SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Tavish; Kovach, Jaclyn L

    2017-03-15

    To report spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence documentation of late stage macular findings associated with Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome in three adult siblings. Three adult siblings with Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome underwent ophthalmic examination and imaging. Crystalline maculopathy and subretinal deposits, presumably lipofuscin accumulation, with macular atrophy were present in varying degrees in all three adult siblings. In adults with Sjogren-Larsson Syndrome, crystalline retinopathy can progress to macular atrophy and the appearance of lipofuscin accumulation.

  18. Numerical implementation of generalized Coddington equations for ophthalmic lens design

    OpenAIRE

    Rojo Badenas, Pilar; Royo Royo, Santiago; RAMÍREZ,JORGE; Madariaga, Inés

    2014-01-01

    A method for general implementation in any software platform of the generalized Coddington equations is presented, developed, and validated within a Matlab environment. The ophthalmic lens design strategy is presented thoroughly, and the basic concepts of generalized ray tracing are introduced. The methodology for ray tracing is shown to include two inter-related processes. Firstly, finite ray tracing is used to provide the main direction of propagation of the considered ray at the incidence ...

  19. [Bibliometric analysis of the current international ophthalmic publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Norio

    2005-03-01

    To assess the current status of international ophthalmic publications. A collection of 55,591 original articles were found by an on-line National Library of Medicine database Medline search for 32 international ophthalmic journals during a 15-year period from 1988 to 2002 (internet access, November 11-13, 2003). The contributions to international ophthalmic publications were by 49.5% from North America, 31.3% from Western Europe, 15.1% from Asia and Oceania, 2.2% from Middle East, 0.85% from Central and South America, 0.53% from Eastern Europe, and 0.47% from Africa. Countries of Asia and Oceania showed an increasing trend in contributions while North America had a decreasing productivity in a relative sense. The top 10 productive countries were USA, United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, Canada, Australia, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, and France. Among the Asian countries India ranked 13th, China 18th, and Korea 21st. When related to population, small countries such as Israel, France, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark were more productive. When related to economic productivity as defined by GDP, Israel, the United Kingdom, Australia, Finland, and Sweden were among the most productive countries, whereas rich countries such as Japan and Germany had a lower number of publications relative to their GDP. As regards clinical research in terms of randomized controlled trials, The USA was by far the most productive. The number of authors per article has shown an increasing trend worldwide, so that Japan and France had a significantly larger proportion of multiauthored articles. There is an increasing trend in the productivity of international ophthalmic publications from non-English-speaking countries including Japan, China, and Korea.

  20. The effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on the intraocular pressure associated with endotracheal intubation in pediatric ophthalmic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Taek; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Jang, Kyu-Yong; Um, Dea Ja

    2013-02-01

    For ophthalmic surgery anesthesia, it is vital that intraocular pressure (IOP) is controlled. Most anesthetic drugs affect IOP dose-dependently, and inhalational anesthetics dose-dependently decrease IOP. In this study, we compared the effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on IOP and hemodynamics in pediatric ophthalmic surgery. Thirty eight pediatric patients from the age of 6 to 15 years, who were scheduled for strabismus surgery and entropion surgery, were randomized to be administered desflurane (group D, n = 19) or sevoflurane (group S, n = 19). IOPs and hemodynamic parameters were measured before induction of anesthesia (B), after induction but immediately before intubation (AI), 1 min after intubation (T1), 3 min after intubation (T3), and 5 min after intubation (T5). The mean arterial pressure (MAP) at T1 and heart rates (HRs) at T1 and T3 were significantly higher in group D than those in group S. There was no significant difference between the groups in IOP, cardiac index (CI) and stroke index (SI). There was a significant difference within the group in IOP, SI, MAP and HR. There was no significant difference within the group in CI. There was no significant difference between the groups in IOP and hemodynamic parameters. The two anesthetic agents maintained IOP and hemodynamic parameters in the normal range during anesthetic induction.

  1. Ophthalmic Morbidity in School Children in Hilly Areas of Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School children constitute about one fourth of population of India. Early detection and treatment of various eye diseases helps in avoiding many complications. The magnitude of blindness is 3-4 times greater in developing countries. Very few studies have been conducted in Uttarakhand revealing the ophthalmic morbidity in school children or general population. Hilly areas especially the remote ones face various problems like, poor transportation facilities, distant health facilities, use of traditional methods for treatment, faith healing, customs and belief system, lack of information.  Moreover   water supply, poor personal hygiene and other factors also add up to these problems. Aim: To study the ophthalmic morbidities in school children in 3 schools of Thatyur block. Methodology: It was a cross sectional study. Result: A total of 705 students were enrolled. Permission from school authorities was seeked before the start of study. Schools were visited twice in a week current and preliminary information was taken from the students & teacher regarding education, occupation, income etc. General examination and ophthalmic examination was done with day & torch light along with refraction, with the help of standard Snellen’s chart. Each eye was examined separately. A vision of 6/6 was considered as normal. Near vision was tested with new vision Snellen’s chart at 12-14 inches away from eye.

  2. Effects of viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions on cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan Hajib

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mild but significant inflammation probably attributable to viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions in cataract surgery was recently brought to the notice of the authors, and hence a study of the effects of these solutions available in India, on cell cultures was undertaken. We studied the effects of 6 viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions (2 sodium hyaluronate designated as A and B, and 4 hydroxypropylmethylcellulose designated as C, D, E and F on HeLa, Vero and BHK-21 cell lines in tissue culture microtitre plates using undiluted, 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of the solutions, and in cover slip cultures using undiluted solutions. Phase contrast microscopic examination of the solutions was also done to determine the presence of floating particles. The products D and F produced cytotoxic changes in HeLa cell line and these products also showed the presence of floating particles under phase contrast microscopy. Other products did not have any adverse effects on the cell lines nor did they show floating particles. The viscoelastic ophthalmic pharmaceutical products designated D and F have cytotoxic effects on HeLa cell line which appears to be a useful cell line for testing these products for their toxicity. The presence of particulate materials in products D and F indicates that the methods used for purification of the solution are not effective.

  3. Testing the long term stability of vancomycin ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Christine; Ngo, Van; Pasedis, Sophia; Dohlman, Claes H

    2008-01-01

    Some patients with a keratoprosthesis (artificial cornea) are required to use prophylactic vancomycin ophthalmic solution daily for life to prevent infection, a regimen which has proven to be highly successful. The objective of this study was to determine whether such vancomycin solutions would remain stable at room temperature for an extended period of time, beyond that suggested by available published stability data and used in current practice. By relaxing the storage requirement and extending the expiration date of this solution, it was hoped that patient adherence and satisfaction would increase. The studied vancomycin ophthalmic solutions were compounded at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Department of Pharmacy Services, Boston, Massachusetts, and were sent to an outside laboratory for high-performance liquid chromatography potency testing at predefined time points. Vancomycin 14-mg/mL ophthalmic solution compounded with 0.005% benzalkonium retains potency for at least 60 days at room temperature and 6 months frozen. Extending the beyond-use dating of vancomycin may lead to improved patient adherence by lowering costs and increasing convenience of storage and shipment of the medication.

  4. Anomalous Origin Of The Middle Meningeal Artery Case Report With Review Of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath KY

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its usual origin form the first part of the maxillary artery the middle meningeal artery (MMA may arise from a number of other sources, viz., third part of the maxillary artery, stapedial, ophthalmic, cavernous portion of the internal carotid and even the basilar artery, Six cases of MMA Originating from the orbit as observed in dry skulls and dissecting room cadavers are described here. Foramen spinosum in all these cases were either rudimentary or absent. The embryological basis and surgical importance of this anomaly is discussed.

  5. Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N.; Ying, Howard S.; Astratov, Vasily N.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Ophthalmic surgery may benefit from use of more precise fiber delivery systems during laser surgery. Some current ophthalmic surgical techniques rely on tedious mechanical dissection of tissue layers. In this study, chains of sapphire microspheres integrated into a hollow waveguide distal tip are used for erbium:YAG laser ablation studies in contact mode with ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. The laser’s short optical penetration depth combined with the small spot diameters achieved with this fibe...

  6. Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel as a topical ocular anesthetic for use in ophthalmic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Page

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Page, Frederick W FraunfelderDepartment of Ophthalmology (Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USAPurpose: To review the current literature on safety, efficacy, and measures of surgeon and patient satisfaction with lidocaine hydrochloride gel as a tool for ocular anesthesia.Methods: Pubmed search using keywords “lidocaine gel,” “ophthalmic,” and “surgery” and compiling cross-references. Twenty-six total references were reviewed, including 15 prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs, total N = 933, average N = 62, 6 nonrandomized prospective studies (total N = 234, average N = 39, 2 animal studies, 1 microbiologic study, and 2 letters to the editor.Results: The RCTs and nonrandomized prospective studies evaluated a number of measures including timing of onset of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia, intraoperative and postoperative pain, need for additional anesthetic applications, intracameral lidocaine levels, and adverse effects. Control groups received topical drops, subconjunctival anesthetic, retrobulbar anesthetic, or sham gel. Lidocaine gel was shown to be at least as effective for pain control as alternative therapies in all studies, with longer duration of action than topical drops. Patient and surgeon satisfaction were high, and adverse effects were rare and comparable to those for anesthetic drop formulations. Surgical settings included cataract, pterygium, trabeculectomy, strabismus, intravitreal injection, vitrectomy, and penetrating keratoplasty.Conclusions: Lidocaine gel is a safe, effective, and potentially underutilized tool for ophthalmic surgery.Keywords: lidocaine, gel, topical, ophthalmic, ocular, anesthetic

  7. ACUTE RETINAL ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh

    2011-01-01

    The initial section deals with basic sciences; among the various topics briefly discussed are the anatomical features of ophthalmic, central retinal and cilioretinal arteries which may play a role in acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Crucial information required in the management of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the length of time the retina can survive following that. An experimental study shows that CRAO for 97 minutes produces no detectable permanent retinal damage but there is a progressive ischemic damage thereafter, and by 4 hours the retina has suffered irreversible damage. In the clinical section, I discuss at length various controversies on acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders. Classification of acute retinal arterial ischemic disorders These are of 4 types: CRAO, branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), cotton wools spots and amaurosis fugax. Both CRAO and BRAO further comprise multiple clinical entities. Contrary to the universal belief, pathogenetically, clinically and for management, CRAO is not one clinical entity but 4 distinct clinical entities – non-arteritic CRAO, non-arteritic CRAO with cilioretinal artery sparing, arteritic CRAO associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and transient non-arteritic CRAO. Similarly, BRAO comprises permanent BRAO, transient BRAO and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO), and the latter further consists of 3 distinct clinical entities - non-arteritic CLRAO alone, non-arteritic CLRAO associated with central retinal vein occlusion and arteritic CLRAO associated with GCA. Understanding these classifications is essential to comprehend fully various aspects of these disorders. Central retinal artery occlusion The pathogeneses, clinical features and management of the various types of CRAO are discussed in detail. Contrary to the prevalent belief, spontaneous improvement in both visual acuity and visual fields does occur, mainly during the first 7 days. The incidence of spontaneous visual

  8. Cone pathway function in relation to asymmetric carotid artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Holfort, Stig K;

    2013-01-01

    in the same patient. Results:  Ophthalmic systolic pressure was 95.8 ± 13.1 mmHg on the side with the highest degree of carotid artery stenosis (mean 94.0%) and 111.7 ± 10.3 mmHg in the fellow eyes on the side with the lesser degree of stenosis (mean 33.9%). Summed mfERG implicit times (N1 and P1) were 3......Purpose:  To examine retinal function in relation to retinal perfusion pressure in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Methods:  Thirteen patients with carotid artery stenosis without clinical eye disease underwent assessment of ophthalmic artery systolic blood pressure (OSP) by ocular...... pneumoplethysmography, carotid artery obstructive disease by ultrasonography, intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry, retinal perfusion by fluorescein angiography and retinal function by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Data analysis compared the eye on the most stenotic side with the fellow eye...

  9. Polymer Micelles Laden Hydrogel Contact Lenses for Ophthalmic Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaohong; Tan, Huaping; Chen, Pin; Wang, Xin; Pang, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogel contact lens is an attractive drug carrier for the delivery of ophthalmic drugs. But limited drug loading capacity and burst release restricted its application in this field. Polymer micelle laden hydrogel contact lenses were designed for ophthalmic drug delivery in the work. β-CD/PAA/PEG ternary system was chosen to form polymer micelle. The micelle size could be adjusted by β-CD content and PAA/PEG concentration. The zeta potential of micelle was irrelevant to β-CD content, but influenced by PAA/PEG concentration. The absorbed drug concentration in micelle solution depended on both β-CD content and PAA/PEG concentration. Polymer micelle laden hydrogels were obtained by radical polymerization in situ. The transparency of polymer micelle laden hydrogel declined with PAA/PEG concentration increasing. The equilibrium water content and water loss showed that polymer micelle laden hydrogel with higher PAA/PEG concentration was in a higher swollen state. The dynamic viscoelastic properties howed that all polymer micelle laden hydrogels had some characteristics of crosslinked elastomers. The surface structure of freeze dried composite hydrogels was different from freeze dried pure hydrogel. The drug loading and releasing behaviors were detected to evaluate the drug loading and releasing capacity of hydrogels using orfloxacin and puerarin as model drugs. The results indicated the polymer micelle in hydrogel could hold or help to hold some ophthalmic drugs, and slow down orfloxacin release speed or keep puerarin stably stay for a time in hydrogels. In the end, it was found that the transparency of composite hydrogel became better after the hydrogel had been immersed in PBS for several weeks.

  10. A tolerability study of pirenzepine ophthalmic gel in myopic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jimmy D; Niemann, Katherine; Houde, Barbara; Allred, Troy; Edmondson, Marcia J; Crockett, R S

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the safety and tolerability of pirenzepine ophthalmic gel (PIR) and the magnitude of mydriatic and accommodative effects in myopic children. This was a placebo-controlled, parallel double-masked study of unequal (4:1) randomization. Children were randomized to receive 0.5% PIR, b.i.d., or vehicle (placebo) for one week, then titrated to 1% PIR for one week, then 2% PIR for two weeks, and then for an additional 11 months. Enrolled were 26 normal healthy children, 9-12 years old, with myopia (-0.75 to -3 D) and minimal astigmatism (pirenzepine in a larger patient population.

  11. International Council of Ophthalmology: Refocusing Ophthalmic Education in the Asia-Pacific Region and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Karl; Mayorga, Eduardo; Spivey, Bruce; Ritch, Robert; Gauthier, Tina-Marie

    2012-01-01

    The International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) is a global organization with a regional focus. Working in partnership with supranational and ICO member societies, the ICO is building a "World Alliance for Sight" to improve access to the highest-quality eye care worldwide. Designed to preserve and restore vision on an international scale, the ICO initiative, "Refocusing Ophthalmic Education," enhances ophthalmic education of residents, subspecialists, medical students, and allied eye care personnel by redefining the most effective ways to teach and in creating beneficial educational opportunities. The "Teaching the Teachers" program helps ophthalmic educators incorporate more effective methods of training and continuing professional development to meet societal needs, achieved in part through regional courses for residency program directors; symposia, and keynote talks presented by ICO's World Ophthalmology Educational Colloquium, Conferences for Ophthalmic Educators, and ophthalmic surgical competency rubrics. Recognizing that standardized curricula are essential for consistent ophthalmic education, the ICO has developed a curricular framework whereby goals, expectations, knowledge base, competencies, and technical training are delineated. The ICO is defining worldwide models of team training and compiling best practice, which will include training-program accreditation to ensure improvement in the education of ophthalmologists. International Council of Ophthalmology Web-based teaching courses, a Webinar Network, and a technology blog further support information and communication technologies for teaching and learning. At the ICO's Center for Ophthalmic Educators (educators.icoph.org), trainers will find valuable teaching resources in multiple languages as well as ways to share ideas and collaborate with peers and other ophthalmic educators.

  12. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution....

  13. 21 CFR 524.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone sodium phosphate-neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1484 - Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1484 Section 524.1484 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484 Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  15. 21 CFR 886.1430 - Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device... lens radius measuring device. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device is an AC-powered device that is a microscope and dial gauge intended to measure the radius of a...

  16. 76 FR 71349 - Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee...

  17. 75 FR 26264 - Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee...

  18. 76 FR 30176 - Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice... be open to the public. Name of Committee: Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee...

  19. A systematic study of the brain base arteries in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty heads with neck segments of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo were dissected for a systematic study of the arteries. The frequency of the arteries found was: Cerebral carotid artery, intercarotid anastomosis and internal ophthalmic artery (100%. Caudal branch of the cerebral carotid artery to the right (R vestigial artery (70% and developed (30% and to the left (L developed (70% and vestigial artery (30%. Ventral tectal mesencephalic artery in (70% to R and (30% to L was the direct branch of the cerebral carotid artery to L (70% and to R (30% collateral branch of the developed caudal branch. Basilar artery to L in (70% and to R (30% formed from the developed caudal branch; rostral ventral cerebellar artery present (86.7% and absent (13.3% to R and L. Caudal ventral cerebellar artery to R single (73.3%, double (23.3% and triple (3.3%; caudal ventral cerebellar artery to L single (73.3% and double (26.7%. Dorsal spinal artery branch of caudal ventral cerebellar artery to R (80% and to L (73.3%. The rostral branch of cerebral carotid artery showed as collateral branches the single caudal cerebral artery to R (100% and to L (96.7% while in (3.3% it was double. The middle cerebral artery was single to R and L (100%. Cerebroethmoidal artery to R and L (100% with its collateral branch to single rostral cerebral artery (90% to R and (86.7% to L and double (10% to R and (13.3% to L. Ethmoidal artery to R and to L (100% single. The cerebral arterial circle was rostrally and caudally opened, so that the cerebral blood supply was exclusively made by the carotid system.

  20. Arterial vascularization of the brain of the agouti (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sávio Bessa da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti, a rodent that is geographically distributed throughout South America, is greatly valued for its meat. This paper describes the arterial vascularization of the base of the agouti’s brain, characterizing behavior, and arterial origin and distribution. Ten animals from the Center for the Multiplication of Wild Animals (CEMAS/UFERSA were used and the study was approved by SISBIO (report number 32413- 1 and the Ethics Committee on Animal Use (CEUA/UFERSA (protocol 02/2010. After euthanasia, the animals were incised in the thoracic cavity by an injection of red-stained Neoprene latex 650 and the skulls were subsequently opened. The brains were extracted from the skulls for ventral surface analysis and then fixed in an aqueous 10% formaldehyde solution. The agouti’s arterial vascularization of the brain has two main components, namely the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. The agouti’s carotid system accounts for vascularization of almost the entire forebrain, while the vertebrobasilar system accounts for vascularization of almost the entire posterior brain (medulla oblongata, pyramid, trapezoid body, cerebellum, bridge, and part of the third caudal section of the forebrain through the caudal cerebral arteries originating from the terminal branches of the basilar artery. The main arteries on the brain surface include the basilar artery, which is unique, and the arterial pairs, specifically the vertebral arteries, cerebellar caudal arteries, trigeminal artery, rostral cerebellar artery, basilar terminal branch artery, cerebral caudal artery, communicating caudal branch of the cerebral carotid artery, cerebral carotid artery, communicating branch rostral cerebral carotid artery, choroidal rostral artery, medial branch of the communicating branch rostral artery, internal ophthalmic artery, middle cerebral artery, and rostral cerebral artery.

  1. 76 FR 71044 - Determination That TRAVATAN (Travoprost Ophthalmic Solution), 0.004%, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That TRAVATAN (Travoprost Ophthalmic Solution... refer to a listed drug. TRAVATAN (travoprost ophthalmic solution), 0.004%, is the subject of NDA 21-257... hypertension. TRAVATAN (travoprost ophthalmic solution), 0.004%, is currently listed in the ``Discontinued...

  2. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and methicillin in ophthalmic isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hee; Chae, Min-Joo; Yoon, Jang-Won; Lee, So-Young; Yoo, Jong-Hyun; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to fluoroquinolones and methicillin was determined for 49 ophthalmic isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs with and without ophthalmic disease. Resistance was observed for ciprofloxacin (40.8%), ofloxacin (38.8%), enrofloxacin (38.8%), levofloxacin (34.7%), and moxifloxacin (4.1%). Eighteen isolates, 16 of which were resistant to oxacillin, were mecA-positive. Nine of the 16 oxacillin-resistant mecA-positive S. pseudintermedius isolates were resistant to more than one fluoroquinolone and 2 isolates were resistant to 5 fluoroquinolones. The frequency of mecA gene occurrence and fluoroquinolone resistance was twice as high among S. pseudintermedius isolates derived from dogs with ophthalmic disease compared with isolates for dogs without ophthalmic disease. The high prevalence of methicillin and fluoroquinolone resistance in S. pseudintermedius from dogs with ophthalmic disease is a concern. PMID:24982521

  3. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  4. A Study To Evaluate Skills Of Ophthalmic Assistants For Assessment Of Cup Disc Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: 1. Whether paramedical ophthalmic assistants can be trained to examine vertical cup disc ratio? 2. Can the PMO As detect abnormal cup disc ratio after training? Objectives: 1. T o train ophthalmic assistants in cup disc ratio examination 2. To evaluate skills of trained ophthalmic assistants in cup disc ratio examination Study design: Cross sectional Setting: OPD of Ophthalmology department, Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak Participants: Five paramedical ophthalmic assistants, one ophthalmologist and 322 patients above 40 years of age. Statistical analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, Kappa values. Results: Data analysis of 322 cases was found by PMO As and ophthalmologist revealed sensitivity between 50-65% and specificity between 84.5-92.62%. A good agreement was found among all the examiners on computation of Kappa Values. It was concluded that ophthalmic assistants can examine vertical cup disc ratio after five days training.

  5. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  6. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and methicillin in ophthalmic isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hee; Chae, Min-Joo; Yoon, Jang-Won; Lee, So-Young; Yoo, Jong-Hyun; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-07-01

    Resistance to fluoroquinolones and methicillin was determined for 49 ophthalmic isolates of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs with and without ophthalmic disease. Resistance was observed for ciprofloxacin (40.8%), ofloxacin (38.8%), enrofloxacin (38.8%), levofloxacin (34.7%), and moxifloxacin (4.1%). Eighteen isolates, 16 of which were resistant to oxacillin, were mecA-positive. Nine of the 16 oxacillin-resistant mecA-positive S. pseudintermedius isolates were resistant to more than one fluoroquinolone and 2 isolates were resistant to 5 fluoroquinolones. The frequency of mecA gene occurrence and fluoroquinolone resistance was twice as high among S. pseudintermedius isolates derived from dogs with ophthalmic disease compared with isolates for dogs without ophthalmic disease. The high prevalence of methicillin and fluoroquinolone resistance in S. pseudintermedius from dogs with ophthalmic disease is a concern.

  7. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidney can often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury or trauma to ...

  8. Retinal arterial occlusion in Takayasu′s arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Sushmita

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Takayasu′s arteritis is an auto-immune disorder of the large and medium-sized arteries, commonly involving the heart and its main vessels. It is now recognised that the inflammatory process of the large arteries affects regions of the walls supplied by the vasa vasorum, suggesting that primary small vessel involvement may contribute to the development of the clinico-pathological features of Takayasu aorto-arteritis. Classical ophthalmic features of the disease result from reduced ocular perfusion, which manifests as hypoxic retinal changes such as microaneurysms, arterio-venous anastomosis and non-perfused areas. Branch retinal artery occlusion has not been previously described in this condition. This case illustrates retinal arterial occlusion as the presenting feature of Takayasu′s arteritis.

  9. Development of the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA) Ophthalmic Surgical Outcome Database (OSOD) project and the role of ophthalmic nurse reviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Smalling, Agueda; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Miller, Dawn; Redshirt, Ella; Williams, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Currently, ophthalmic surgical cases are not included in the Veterans Administration Surgical Quality Improvement Project data collection. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive protocol in the health system for prospectively measuring outcomes for eye surgery in terms of safety and quality. There are 400,000 operative cases in the system per year. Of those, 48,000 (12%) are ophthalmic surgical cases, with 85% (41,000) of those being cataract cases. The Ophthalmic Surgical Outcome Database Pilot Project was developed to incorporate ophthalmology into VASQIP, thus evaluating risk factors and improving cataract surgical outcomes. Nurse reviewers facilitate the monitoring and measuring of these outcomes. Since its inception in 1778, the Veterans Administration (VA) Health System has provided comprehensive healthcare to millions of deserving veterans throughout the U.S. and its territories. Historically, the quality of healthcare provided by the VA has been the main focus of discussion because it did not meet a standard of care comparable to that of the private sector. Information regarding quality of healthcare services and outcomes data had been unavailable until 1986, when Congress mandated the VA to compare its surgical outcomes to those of the private sector (PL-99-166). 1 Risk adjustment of VA surgical outcomes began in 1987 with the Continuous Improvement in Cardiac Surgery Program (CICSP) in which cardiac surgical outcomes were reported and evaluated. 2 Between 1991 and 1993, the National VA Surgical Risk Study (NVASRS) initiated a validated risk-adjustment model for predicting surgical outcomes and comparative assessment of the quality of surgical care in 44 VA medical centers. 3 The success of NVASRS encouraged the VA to establish an ongoing program for monitoring and improving the quality of surgical care, thus developing the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) in 1994. 4 According to a prospective study conducted between 1991-1997 in 123

  10. Association between Ophthalmic Timolol and Hospitalisation for Bradycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Pratt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ophthalmic timolol, a topical nonselective beta-blocker, has the potential to be absorbed systemically which may cause adverse cardiovascular effects. This study was conducted to determine whether initiation of ophthalmic timolol was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for bradycardia. Materials and Methods. A self-controlled case-series study was undertaken in patients who were hospitalised for bradycardia and were exposed to timolol. Person-time after timolol initiation was partitioned into risk periods: 1–30 days, 31–180 days, and >180 days. A 30-day risk period prior to initiating timolol was also included. All remaining time was considered unexposed. Results. There were 6,373 patients with at least one hospitalisation for bradycardia during the study period; 267 were exposed to timolol. Risk of bradycardia was significantly increased in the 31–180 days after timolol initiation (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.93; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.00–1.87. No increased risk was observed in the first 30 days or beyond 180 days of continuous exposure (IRR = 1.40; 95% CI 0.87–2.26 and IRR = 1.21; 95% CI 0.64–2.31, resp.. Conclusion. Bradycardia is a potential adverse event following timolol initiation. Practitioners should consider patient history before choosing a glaucoma regime and closely monitor patients after treatment initiation with topical nonselective beta-blocker eye drops.

  11. Operational morbidity analysis: ophthalmic presentations during Operation TELIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, J E; Hodgetts, T J

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyses all ophthalmic attendances to a deployed emergency department (ED) in Iraq to identify patterns of injury to optimise patient care, plan equipment tables for future operations and emphasise need for prevention of ocular morbidity. The Academic Department of Military Emergency Medicine at the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine in Birmingham maintains an electronic database with derails on all attendances to the emergency departments deployed on Operations. This Operational Emergency Department Attendance Register (OpEDAR) was searched for all patients with medical classification of Ophthalmology over a 52 month period between 1 March 2003 and 30 June 2007. During this period 30,195 patients were seen in the ED on Operation Telic and are available for analysis. Patients with ophthalmic complaints account for 5.3% of all presentations to the ED and rank as the 7th most common reason for attendance. This paper identifies patterns of injury to enable future planning of equipment tables and identifies the need for prevention of injury wherever possible. Implications on days lost from full active duty for the injured can be extrapolated. More data needs to be collated on the use of eye protection and the relevance of contact lenses in deployed personnel with eye injuries.

  12. TEAR SUBSTITUTES PREVENT OPHTHALMIC COMPLICATIONS IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kochergin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effects of Cationorm for the prevention of ophthalmic complications in intensive care unit (ICU patients and to compare the efficacy of ocular surface lubricants used in ICU. Patients and methods. 50 ICU patients (100 eyes with bilateral lagophthalmos (2 mm or more were enrolled in the study. Study group and control group each included 25 patients (50 eyes who were on deep sedation and ventilator. Before and after the treatment, general examination, biomicroscopy, tonometry, ophthalmoscopy, Schirmer’s test and Norn’s test (with fluorescein were performed. Results. Cationorm significantly improves tear film stability without any corneal epithelial defects (100 % of patients. In 7 controls (14 eyes, 28 %, initial signs of corneal xerosis and exposure keratitis were revealed. Conclusions. ICU patients are at high risk of complications due to hypodynamia and reduced innervation of the eye and its appendages. Bilateral lagophthalmos develops in 16.67 % of ICU patients who are on deep sedation and ventilator (up to 3 days. In the abscence of preventive therapy, lagophthalmos results in complications, i.e., keratitis and, occasionally, corneal ulceration and perforation. ICU patients require ophthalmological examination and tear substitutes. Regular instillations of Cationorm minimize ophthalmic complications due to intensive therapy. Cationorm restores tear firm architectonics and may be considered as a first-line choice for such disorders. 

  13. Antireflection coating standards of ophthalmic resin lens materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porden, Mark

    1991-12-01

    Current estimates of the percentage of anti-reflection coated lenses verses uncoated in the market today range from 3% in the United States (US.), to 60% in Europe, to 80% in Japan. Currently upwards of 80% of all prescription eyewear lenses dispensed are resin. Glass lenses lose market share yearly, as scratch resistant coatings on resin lenses are improved. Photochromic resin materials are also improving and will shortly equal the performance of glass photockromics. Until recently, the performance characteristics of ophthalmic lenses were divided into two schools. In Europe, the emphasis was on keeping the reflections to an absolute minimum, while in the Asian market the emphasis was on producing a lens, which had exceptional scratch resistance. A typical European lens may average .4% reflection across the visible spectrum (400 to 700 urn.), while the Asian lenses averaged in the 1.5% range. The growth ofAR coating in the U.S. 80 million pair a year total ophthalmic market has been lagging foreign markets for several reasons.

  14. Ophthalmic manifestations of methylmalonic aciduria accompanied with homocystinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Jing Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Methylmalonicaciduia(MMAaccompanied with homocystinuria is a rare autosomal-recessive with congenital metabolic disorder of Vitamin B12. There are three subtypes, cblC, cblD, cblF, in which cblC is the most common one. The diagnostic tests are tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tests for activity of enzyme in fibroblasts from skin, complementary assay and genetic analysis can be used to make the subtype clear. Early-onset patients, defined by onset of symptoms before the age of 1 year, may have severe ocular involvement, including visual loss, nystagmus, strabismus, retinopathy, maculopathy, optic atrophy, abnormal electroretinography. Late-onset patients, defined by onset of symptoms after the age of 4 year, rarely have ocular manifestations. The pathogenesis of the ophthalmic symptoms may be related to the high level of homocystine, oxidative stress and the abnormal development of nervous systems. The treatment for MMA accompanied with homocystinuria is mostly symptomatic based. Ophthalmic treatment is limited. Early supplement of methionine,GSH or other antioxidants may be helpful for retinopathy. There is no standard ophthalmological examination for those patients in China. It is critical to set up inter-departmental cooperation and early stage examination for the treatments and outcomes of the patients.

  15. Mucoadhesive ophthalmic vehicles: evaluation of polymeric low-viscosity formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saettone, M F; Monti, D; Torracca, M T; Chetoni, P

    1994-01-01

    A series of polyanionic natural or semi-synthetic polymers (polygalacturonic acid, hyaluronic acid, carboxymethylamylose, carboxymethylchitin, chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate and mesoglycan) were evaluated as potential mucoadhesive carriers for ophthalmic drugs. Solutions containing cyclopentolate (CY) or pilocarpine (PI) as salts (or polyanionic complexes) with the acidic polymers, all showing a low viscosity, were tested for miotic (resp. mydriatic) activity in albino rabbits. In the case of some polymeric complexes, small but significant increases of the areas under the activity vs. time curves (AUC) over reference cyclopentolate hydrochloride (CYHC1) or pilocarpine nitrate (PINO3) vehicles, and significant AUC decreases after removal of precorneal mucin by treatment with N-acetylcysteine were observed. A correlation was found between these data, considered indicative of the occurrence of a mucoadhesive interaction "in vivo", and "in vitro" viscometric data expressing the polymers-mucin force of interaction. The advantages and limitations of the mucoadhesive non-viscous approach in the formulation of ophthalmic vehicles are presented and discussed.

  16. Clinical utility of voriconazole eye drops in ophthalmic fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoud Al-Badriyeh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Daoud Al-Badriyeh, Chin Fen Neoh, Kay Stewart, David CM KongCentre for Medicine Use and Safety, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fungal keratitis is one of the major causes of ophthalmic mycosis and is difficult to treat. The range of common antifungal agents available for fungal keratitis remains inadequate and is generally associated with poor clinical outcomes. Voriconazole is a new generation triazole antifungal agent. Only marketed in systemic formulation and, with broad-spectrum activity and high intraocular penetration, voriconazole has demonstrated effectiveness against fungal keratitis. Systemic voriconazole, however, is not without side effects and is costly. Voriconazole eye drops have been prepared extemporaneously and used for the treatment of ophthalmic fungal keratitis. The current article sought to review the literature for evidence related to the effectiveness and safety of topical voriconazole and its corneal penetration into the aqueous humor of the eye. The voriconazole eye drops used are typically of 1% concentration, well tolerated by the eye, and are stable. Despite existing evidence to suggest that the eye drops are effective in the treatment of fungal keratitis, more studies are needed, especially in relation to using the eye drops as first-line and stand-alone treatment, preparation of higher concentrations, and optimal dosing frequency.Keywords: voriconazole, fungal keratitis, eye drops, corneal penetration

  17. Over the counter ophthalmic drug misuse, are we aware?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Kadri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the misuse of ‘over the counter’ ophthalmic medications in our city. Method: Responses of a structured questionnaire covering various aspects of over the counter drug use was obtained from pharmacy workers in and around our city. Results: Eighty nine pharmacy workers took part in this cross–sectional study. An average number of seven patients per day with ophthalmic complaints were seen by the pharmacy workers. Dispensing over the counter was practiced by 89.9% of the pharmacists. The most common complaint of the patients visiting the pharmacy, was redness and itching (86.5%. Antibiotics (96.6% were the most common eye drops dispensed over the counter, followed by steroids (55.1%, decongestants (54.1%, antibiotic-steroid combination eye drops (29.2% and lubricants (16.8%. Awareness regarding complications of steroid use was seen in 40.6% of pharmacists. 6.7% pharmacists had seen patients with complications following use of over the counter medications. In our study, majority of the eye drops dispensed were prescription drugs. Conclusion: Availability of prescription eye drops over the counter is an immense public threat. Educating the pharmacist and the population can decrease ocular morbidity. Research into methods to effectively deal with over-the-counter drug misuse is required and law can be enforced based on the findings.

  18. Endovascular Management of Central Retinal Arterial Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Gala, Nihar B; Baumrind, Benjamin; Hansberry, David R; Thabet, Ahmad M; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2016-11-01

    Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ophthalmologic emergency due to the sudden cessation of circulation to the inner retinal layer. Without immediate treatment, permanent blindness may ensue. Several treatment options exist, ranging from noninvasive medical management to thrombolysis. Nonetheless, ongoing debate exists regarding the best therapeutic strategy. The authors present the case of a 78-year-old woman with a medical history of hypercholesterolemia and rheumatoid arthritis who experienced complete loss of vision in her left eye. Following ophthalmologic evaluation demonstrating left CRAO, anterior chamber paracentesis was performed. Endovascular intervention was performed via local intra-arterial fibrinolysis with alteplase. Her vision returned to 20/20 following the procedure. In general, conventional therapies have not significantly improved patient outcomes. Several management options exist for CRAO. In general, conservative measures have not been reported to yield better patient outcomes as compared to the natural history of this medical emergency. Endovascular approaches are another option as observed with this case reported. In cases of CRAO, therapeutic strategies such as intra-arterial fibrinolysis utilize a local infusion of reactive tissue plasminogen activator directly at the site of occlusion via catheterization of the ophthalmic artery. Although several case series do show promising results after treating CRAO with intra-arterial fibrinolysis, further studies are required given the reports of complications.

  19. Ophthalmic manifestations in a Chinese family with familial amyloid polyneuropathy due to a TTR Gly83Arg mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Zhang, B; Jin, X; Wang, W; Lee, J; Li, J; Yuan, H; Cheng, X

    2014-01-01

    To describe the characteristic ophthalmic phenotypes of a large Chinese family with familial amyloid polyneuropathy due to a missense mutation in transthyretin (TTR) (c.307 C>G). Twenty-seven individuals (12 affected, 15 unaffected) from a five-generation Chinese family underwent general medical examination and comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including best correct visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurements, Schirmer test, slitlamp examination, fundoscopy, and ocular ultrasonography. Histological examination of vitreous biopsies using Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry was performed. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram were used to evaluate cardiac amyloidosis. Electromyography was used to evaluate nerve function. All four exons of TTR were amplified by PCR, sequenced using a Bigdye terminator v3.1 cycle sequencing kit and analyzed on an ABI 3700XL Genetic Analyzer. All 12 affected individuals in the family had ocular manifestations, including severe vitreous opacities, secondary glaucoma, xerophthalmia, dyscoria, and attenuated retinal arteries. Congo red staining demonstrated amyloid deposits in the vitreous, and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the deposition of TTR proteins in the vitreous. Twelve individuals had polyneuropathy, and electromyography detected functional damage in peripheral nerves. One individual was diagnosed with cardiac amyloidosis by CMR. Direct sequencing revealed the heterozygous missense mutation in TTR (c.307 C>G p.Gly83Arg) in all 12 affected individuals. The mutation co-segregated with the disease phenotype and was absent in 100 normal controls. Vitreous opacity is very common in patients with the TTR Gly83Arg mutation; other clinical characteristics associated with the mutation include polyneuropathy and cardiac amyloidosis.

  20. The ophthalmic branch of the Gutenberg Health Study: study design, cohort profile and self-reported diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Höhn

    Full Text Available This paper describes the study design, methodology, cohort profile and self-reported diseases in the ophthalmological branch of the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS.The GHS is an ongoing, prospective, interdisciplinary, single-center, population-based cohort study in Germany. The main goals of the ophthalmological section are to assess the prevalence and incidence of ocular diseases and to explore risk factors, genetic determinants and associations with systemic diseases and conditions. The eye examination at baseline included a medical history, self-reported eye diseases, visual acuity, refractive errors, intraocular pressure, visual field, pachymetry, keratometry, fundus photography and tear sampling. The 5-year follow-up visit additionally encompassed optical coherence tomography, anterior segment imaging and optical biometry. The general examination included anthropometry; blood pressure measurement; carotid artery ultrasound; electrocardiogram; echocardiography; spirometry; cognitive tests; questionnaires; assessment of mental conditions; and DNA, RNA, blood and urine sampling.Of 15,010 participants (aged 35-74 years at the time of inclusion, ocular data are available for 14,700 subjects (97.9%. The mean visual acuity (standard deviation, mean spherical equivalent, median decimal visual acuity, and mean intraocular pressure were 0.08 (0.17 logMar, -0.42 (2.43 diopters, 0.9 and 14.24 (2.79 mm Hg, respectively. The frequencies of self-reported strabismus, glaucoma, surgery for retinal detachment and retinal vascular occlusions were 2.7%, 2.3%, 0.2% and 0.4%, respectively.The GHS is the most extensive dataset of ophthalmic diseases and conditions and their risk factors in Germany and one of the largest cohorts worldwide. This dataset will provide new insight in the epidemiology of ophthalmic diseases and related medical specialties.

  1. Ranibizumab versus bevacizumab for ophthalmic diseases related to neovascularisation: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab is believed to be as effective and safe as ranibizumab for ophthalmic diseases; however, its magnitude of effectiveness and safety profile remain controversial. Thus, a meta-analysis and systematic review appears necessary.PubMed and EMBASE were systematically searched with no restrictions. All relevant citations comparing ranibizumab and bevacizumab were considered for inclusion. Pooled effect estimates were obtained using a fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis.Nine independent randomised-controlled clinical trials (RCTs involving 2,289 participants were identified. Compared with bevacizumab, the overall combined weighted mean difference (WMD of the mean change in visual acuity for ranibizumab was 0.52 letters (95% CI -0.11-1.14. The odds ratios (ORs of gaining ≥15, gaining 5-14, losing 5-14 and losing ≤15 letters were 1.10 (95% CI 0.90-1.33, 0.93 (95% CI 0.77-1.11, 0.89 (95% CI 0.65-1.22 and 0.95 (95% CI 0.73-1.25, respectively. The risk of serious systemic events increased by 17% (95% CI 6%-27%, p = 0.0042 for bevacizumab treatment in comparison with ranibizumab. No statistically significant differences between the two treatments were found for the nonfatal arterial thrombotic events, ocular serious adverse, death from vascular and all causes events.Bevacizumab is not inferior to ranibizumab as a treatment for achieving visual acuity. The use of bevacizumab was associated with an increased risk of developing serious systemic events. Weighing the costs and health outcomes is necessary when selecting between bevacizumab and ranibizumab for ophthalmic diseases. Due to the limitations of the available data, further research is needed.

  2. Neuro-ophthalmic manifestation of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-jun ZHANG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs include classic neuromyelitis optica (NMO, opticospinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS, limited form of NMO and isolated optic neuritis or myelitis accompanied by either systemic autoimmune diseases or typical MRI findings of NMO. The common neuro-ophthalmic features of NMOSDs include simultaneous or consecutive bilateral optic neuritis, more commonly seen optic disk edema and surrounding exudate, poor visual recovery, steroid responsiveness and dependency. Combined with serum aquaporin 4 (AQP4 antibody and brain MRI examination, these clinical features can be helpful to the early differential diagnosis between NMOSDs and MS. Some types of eye movement abnormalities have been reported in patients with NMOSDs, but further investigation needs to be done before the specificity of these features are confirmed. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.003

  3. Hydroimplantation: foldable intraocular lens implantation without an ophthalmic viscosurgical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Harshul

    2010-03-01

    I describe a technique for implantation of a 1-piece acrylic foldable intraocular lens (IOL) using an irrigation cannula of the phaco machine without using an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). The irrigating cannula introduced through a side port provides excellent stability and positioning to the eye; if required, the cannula tip is used to guide the leading haptic of the IOL into the capsular bag. The fluid coming from the side port via a bimanual irrigation cannula maintains adequate formation of the capsular bag and anterior chamber while the foldable IOL is inserted. The hydroimplantation technique has the advantage of increased efficiency, reduced surgical time and cost, no need for OVD removal from behind the IOL or for additional instrumentation, no OVD-induced intraocular pressure elevation postoperatively, and no risk of early capsular bag distension syndrome. Copyright 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Emily Dickinson's ophthalmic consultation with Henry Willard Williams, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Donald L

    2012-12-01

    Emily Dickinson is one of America's premier poets of the 19th century. Henry Willard Williams, MD, was one of the very first physicians to limit his practice to ophthalmology and was the established leader in his field in Boston, Massachusetts. They met during the time of the Civil War, when Emily consulted him about her ophthalmic disorder. No records of the diagnosis survive. Photophobia, aching eyes, and a restriction in her ability to work up close were her main symptoms. Iritis, exotropia, or psychiatric problems are the most frequent diagnoses offered to explain her difficulties. Rather than attempt a definitive conclusion, this article will offer an additional possibility that Dr Williams likely considered (ie, hysterical hyperaesthesia of the retina). This was a common diagnosis at that time, although it has currently faded from use.

  5. [Pediatric case series in an ophthalmic camp in Turkana (Kenya)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noval, S; Cabrejas, L; Jarrín, E; Ruiz-Guerrero, M; Ciancas, E

    2013-12-01

    Turkana is the largest district in Kenya, situated in the Northwest of the country. It features a semi-nomadic population of 850,000. Around 60% of population lives below the poverty threshold. The ratio of doctors is 1:75,000 inhabitants. Five ophthalmologists took part in the last deployment in November. Local staff had previously selected the patients from the rural areas, as well as in Lodwar, the capital of the district. Of the 371 patients who attended the clinic, 128 required surgery. To describe the pediatric population attended to in the last «Turkana Eye Project» Camp. Description of the ophthalmic pathologies of the children seen in the clinic in this surgical camp, and the diagnostic and therapeutic options according to the limitations of the environment. Of the 371 patients, 54 were younger than 15 years old (14.5%). Four children had surgery (3.25% of the 128 patients). In 2 more cases surgery was the indicated but not performed. Therefore, of the total of 54 cases, 6 could be considered as surgical (11.1%), and 17 suffered ophthalmic problems other than refraction defects, or mild ocular surface pathologies: traumatic cataracts, neuropathies, impetigo, exophthalmos, retinal dystrophies, dermoid cysts, or nyctalopia. The etiology was traumatic in four of the 17 children (23.5%). Surgical camps are increasing in the developing countries. They are usually focused on particular pathologies, such as cataracts or trachoma. Our case series shows the importance of pediatric teams and the need to be prepared to face complex pediatric pathologies. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. A Case of Hydranencephaly in Which Ophthalmic Examinations Were Performed

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    Shohei Eda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We performed ophthalmic examinations, including optical coherence tomography (OCT, on a case diagnosed with hydranencephaly. Case Report: This case involved a female infant born at the gestational age of 35 weeks and 4 days, with the birth weight of 2,152 g, who was one of monochorionic diamniotic twins, and the identical twin died in utero at the gestational age of 24 weeks. After that, examination by fetal echo indicated that she had microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Postnatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of her head indicated microcephaly and significant enlargement of the lateral ventricle on both sides, with no obvious signs of elevated intracranial pressure. The brain parenchyma of both sides of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and occipital lobe had marked thinning, yet that of the temporal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum had been maintained. Moreover, no obvious hematoma or neoplastic lesions were observed. Ophthalmic examinations indicated that both of her eyes had slight light reflex, attributed to optic nerve atrophy. Examination by use of a hand-held OCT system indicated a layered structure of the retina and thinning of the ganglion cell layer. Flicker electroretinogram (ERG examination by use of a hand-held ERG system indicated an almost normal wave. However, no clear visual reaction was observed when she was 10 months old. Conclusion: Our findings in this case of hydranencephaly revealed that even though the outer layer functions of the patient’s retina were maintained, extensive damage to her cerebral cortex resulted in poor visual function.

  7. In vitro testing of thiolated poly(aspartic acid) from ophthalmic formulation aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai-Szű Cs, Mária; Horvát, Gabriella; Gyarmati, Benjámin; Szilágyi, Barnabás Áron; Szilágyi, András; Csihi, Tímea; Berkó, Szilvia; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Mori, Michela; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Caramella, Carla; Csányi, Erzsébet

    2016-08-01

    Ocular drug delivery formulations must meet anatomical, biopharmaceutical, patient-driven and regulatory requirements. Mucoadhesive polymers can serve as a better alternative to currently available ophthalmic formulations by providing improved bioavailability. If all requirements are addressed, a polymeric formulation resembling the tear film of the eye might be the best solution. The optimum formulation must not have high osmotic activity, should provide appropriate surface tension, pH and refractive index, must be non-toxic and should be transparent and mucoadhesive. We would like to highlight the importance of in vitro polymer testing from a pharmaceutical aspect. We, therefore, carried out physical-chemical investigations to verify the suitability of certain systems for ophthalmic formulations. In this work, in situ gelling, mucoadhesive thiolated poly(aspartic acid)s were tested from ophthalmic formulation aspects. The results of preformulation measurements indicate that these polymers can be used as potential carriers in ophthalmic drug delivery.

  8. Clinical, Pharmacokinetic, and In Vitro Studies to Support Bioequivalence of Ophthalmic Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie H; Lionberger, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    For ophthalmic drug products, the determination of bioequivalence can be challenging, as drug concentrations at the site of action cannot always be measured. The FDA has recommended a variety of studies that can be used to demonstrate bioequivalence for different ophthalmic drug products. Product-specific bioequivalence recommendations for 28 ophthalmic products have been posted on FDA's website as of May 2016, outlining the specific tests which should be performed to demonstrate bioequivalence. The type of study that can be used to demonstrate bioequivalence depends on the drug product's active pharmaceutical ingredient(s), dosage form, indication, site of action, mechanism of action, and scientific understanding of drug release/drug availability and drug product characteristics. This article outlines the FDA's current guidance on studies to demonstrate bioequivalence through clinical endpoint studies, pharmacokinetic studies, and in vitro studies for generic ophthalmic drug products.

  9. Supraselective intra-arterial chemotherapy: evaluation of treatment-related complications in advanced retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Mutapcic Vajzovic

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lejla Mutapcic Vajzovic1, Timothy G Murray1, Mohammad A Aziz-Sultan2, Amy C Schefler1, Stacey Quintero Wolfe2, Ditte Hess1, Cristina E Fernandes3, Sander R Dubovy1,41Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 4Florida Lions Oculopathology Laboratory, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study is to report the complication profile and safety evaluation of supraselective intra-arterial melphalan chemotherapy in children undergoing treatment with advanced retinoblastoma.Methods: Twelve eyes of 10 children with advanced retinoblastoma (Reese-Ellsworth Group Vb or International Classification Group D were treated with supraselective intra-ophthalmic artery infusion of melphalan. Eleven eyes of nine children had previously failed traditional management with systemic chemotherapy and laser ablation and underwent intra-ophthalmic artery infusion of melphalan as an alternative to enucleation. Serial ophthalmic examinations, retinal photography, and ultrasonographic imaging were used to evaluate treatment regime.Results: Ophthalmic artery cannulation was successfully performed in 12 eyes of 10 patients (total 16 times. Striking regression of tumor, subretinal and vitreous seeds were seen early in each case. No severe systemic side effects occurred. Grade III neutropenia was seen in one patient. No transfusions were required. Three patients developed a vitreous hemorrhage obscuring tumor visualization. One patient developed periocular edema associated with inferior rectus muscle inflammation per orbital MRI. This same patient had scattered intraretinal hemorrhages and peripapillary cotton wool spots consistent with a Purtscher’s-like retinopathy that resolved spontaneously. At the 6-month follow-up examination

  10. [Double-blind method of using solcoseryl ophthalmic gel and 2,4% cysteine in ophthalmic gel in patients with chronic recurrent keratitis and keratitis sicca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzystkowa, K M; Hydzikowa, M; Szpytma, R

    1991-06-01

    A double blind study with Solcoseryl compounds in ophthalmic gel and with 2.4% cystein in ophthalmic gel was performed in the period 1985-1988; it was used in 18 cases: with chronic recurrent keratitis (11 patients) and sicca keratitis (7 patients). Observed was the influence of these compounds on the epithelialization of the cornea, on the improvement of corneal transparency, the diminutation of the troubles connected with dessication of the eye in sicca keratitis. In spite of the small number of cases the observations were interesting. In patients with a chronic recurrent keratitis the influence of both compounds showed to be beneficial for the condition of the cornea. In patients with keratitis sicca one could observe a better tolerance of the Solcoseryl ophthalmic gel which could be applied for a longer period in comparison with cystein in gel.

  11. Arterial Catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way of keeping the blood pressure up. The arterial catheter allows accurate, second-to-second measurement of the blood pressure; repeated meas- urement is called monitoring. ■ High blood pressure (hypertension)— In some sit- uations, ...

  12. Arterial Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts.

  13. The international council of ophthalmology: vision for ophthalmic education in an interdependent world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew G; Golnik, Karl C; Tso, Mark O M; Spivey, Bruce; Miller, Kathleen; Gauthier, Tina-Marie

    2012-10-01

    To describe the emerging strategic global perspective of the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) efforts in ophthalmic education. A global perspective describing how the development of sophisticated educational tools in tandem with information technology can revolutionize ophthalmic education worldwide. Review of ICO educational tools, resources, and programs that are available to ophthalmic educators across the globe. With the explosive growth of the Internet, the ability to access medical information in the most isolated of locations is now possible. Through specific ICO initiatives, including the ICO curricula, the "Teaching the Teachers" program, and the launching of the new ICO Center for Ophthalmic Educators, the ICO is providing ophthalmic educators across the globe with access to standardized but customizable educational programs and tools to better train ophthalmologists and allied eye care professionals throughout the world. Access to educational tools and strengthening of global learning will help providers meet the goals of VISION 2020 and beyond in eliminating avoidable blindness. It is the intent of the ICO that its programs for ophthalmic educators, including conferences, courses, curricula, and online resources, result in better-trained ophthalmologists and eye care professionals worldwide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Globe Salvage With Intra-Arterial Topotecan-Melphalan Chemotherapy in Children With a Single Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Leal, Carlos A; Asencio-López, Laura; Higuera-Calleja, Jesús; Bernal-Moreno, Max; Bosch-Canto, Vanessa; Chávez-Pacheco, Juan; Isaac-Otero, Gabriela; Beck-Popovic, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Intra-arterial chemotherapy is a novel therapeutic modality for retinoblastoma patients. Intra-arterial chemotherapy involves the administration of a super-selective drug through the ophthalmic artery, resulting in better ocular penetration and low systemic toxicity. The aim of this report was to evaluate the feasibility of intra-arterial chemotherapy in a large referral center in Mexico City. We included patients with bilateral retinoblastoma, one enucleation, and active disease in the other eye after at least two courses of systemic chemotherapy combined with topical treatments. All patients were treated with three courses of a combination of melphalan 4 mg and topotecan 1 mg. Patients were examined under general anesthesia three weeks after each chemotherapy cycle. From 14 eligible patients, three could not be treated due to inaccessibility of the ophthalmic artery. A complete response was observed in 5/11 patients, three in Stage C according to the International Classification for Intraocular Retinoblastoma, one in Stage D, and one in Stage B. The eyes of three patients were enucleated as a result of active/progressive disease, one in Stage B and two in Stage D. Eye preservation was 55% after a mean follow-up of 171 days (range 21-336). Super-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy is safe and effective for preventing the enucleation of 55% of affected eyes in this group of patients.

  15. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  16. Transvenous Coil Embolization for Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas of the Ophthalmic Sheath: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juyoung; Jo, Kyung-Il; Yeon, Je Young; Hong, Seung-Chyul

    2016-01-01

    We present two patients with a dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) of the ophthalmic sheath who developed progressive exophthalmos, conjunctival chemosis, and visual loss. These symptoms mimic those of cavernous sinus dAVFs. Dural AVFs of the ophthalmic sheath are extremely rare and their clinical management is controversial. We successfully treated these two patients by transvenous coil embolization. Transvenous embolization appears to be a safe and effective method to treat dAVFs of the ophthalmic sheath.

  17. Preparation of an Ultrafine Rebamipide Ophthalmic Suspension with High Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takakuni; Hiraoka, Shogo; Urashima, Hiroki; Ogura, Ako; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    A 2% commercially available, milky-white, rebamipide micro-particle suspension is used to treat dry eyes, and it causes short-term blurring of the patient's vision. In the current study, to improve the transparency of a rebamipide suspension, we attempted to obtain a clear rebamipide suspension by transforming the rebamipide particles to an ultrafine state. In the initial few efforts, various rebamipide suspensions were prepared using a neutralizing crystallization method with additives, but the suspensions retained their opaque quality. However, as a consequence of several critical improvements in the neutralizing crystallization methods such as selection of additives for crystallization, process parameters during crystallization, the dispersion method, and dialysis, we obtained an ultrafine rebamipide suspension (2%) that was highly transparent (transmittance at 640 nm: 59%). The particle size and transparency demonstrated the fewest level of changes at 25°C after 3 years, compared to initial levels. During that period, no obvious particle sedimentation was observed. The administration of this ultrafine rebamipide suspension (2%) increased the conjunctival mucin, which was comparable to the commercially available micro-particle suspension (2%). The corneal and conjunctival concentration of rebamipide following ocular administration of the ultrafine suspension was slightly higher than that of the micro-particle suspension. The ultrafine rebamipide suspension (eye-drop formulation) with a highly transparent ophthalmic clearness should improve a patient's QOL by preventing even a shortened period of blurred vision.

  18. Space Flight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension: An Ophthalmic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Charles Robert; Mader, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although physiologic and pathologic changes associated with microgravity exposure have been studied extensively, the effect of this environment on the eye is largely unknown. Over the last several years, NASA s Space Medicine Division has documented astronauts presenting with varying degrees of disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, and hyperopic shifts after long-duration space flight. Methods: Before and after long-duration space flight, six astronauts underwent complete eye examinations to include cycloplegic and/or manifest refraction and fundus photography. Five of these astronauts had Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) performed following their missions. Results: Following exposure to space flight of approximately 6-months duration, six astronauts had neuro-ophthalmic findings. These consisted of disc edema in four astronauts, globe flattening in four astronauts, choroidal folds in four astronauts, cotton wool spots in three astronauts, nerve fiber layer thickening by OCT in five astronauts, and decreased near vision in five astronauts. Four of the astronauts with near vision complaints had a hyperopic shift equal to or greater than + 0.50D between pre- and post-mission spherical equivalent refraction in one or both eyes (range +0.50D to +1.50D). These same four had globe flattening by MRI. Conclusions: The findings we describe may have resulted from a rise in intracranial pressure caused by microgravity fluid shifts, and could represent parts of a spectrum of ocular and cerebral responses to extended microgravity.

  19. Optical testing of progressive ophthalmic glasses based on galvo mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuerwald, S.; Schmitt, R.

    2014-03-01

    In production of ophthalmic freeform optics like progressive eyeglasses, the specimens are tested according to a standardized method which is based on the measurement of the vertex power on usually less than 10 points. For a better quality management and thus to ensure more reliable and valid tests, a more comprehensive measurement approach is required. For Shack Hartmann Sensors (SHS) the dynamic range is defined by the number of micro-lenses and the resolution of the imaging sensor. Here, we present an approach for measuring wavefronts with increased dynamic range and lateral resolution by the use of a scanning procedure. Therefore, the proposed innovative setup is based on galvo mirrors that are capable of measuring the vertex power with a lateral resolution below one millimeter since this is sufficient for a functional test of progressive eyeglasses. Expressed in a more abstract way, the concept is based on a selection and thereby encoding of single sub-apertures of the wave front under test. This allows measuring the wave fronts slope consecutively in a scanning procedure. The use of high precision galvo systems allows a lateral resolution below one millimeter as well as a significant fast scanning ability. The measurement concept and performance of this method will be demonstrated for different spherical and freeformed specimens like progressive eye glasses. Furthermore, approaches for calibration of the measurement system will be characterized and the optical design of the detector will be discussed.

  20. Pterygium: prevalence and severity in an Amazonian ophthalmic setting, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Joanna Coutts

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is a cross sectional ophthalmic clinic-based study to estimate the prevalence and severity of pterygium in a selected population in the Amazon Basin, Brazil. METHODS: The study included 225 subjects above 20 years age from three different places of residence of Manaus city (group 1, n=89, river based communities (group 2, n= 116 and indigenous rainforest inhabitants (group 3, n=20. Pterygia was graded 1-4 by torch examination and gender, age and occupation determined. RESULTS: were assessed to have pterygia (grades 2-4 117 people; 52% against 108 control subjects with bilateral disease in 43% of subjects. Prevalence of grades 2-4 increased from 36% in group 1 to 62.5 % in group 2 and 75% in group 3. Of these subjects the percentage with outdoor professions increased across the groups from 31.2% to 67.1 % and 70% respectively. Also subjects of group 2 who worked largely outdoors, showed increasing pterygia severity, from grades 2 at 57% (p=0.0002, grade 3 at 93.3% (p,0.0001 to grade 4 at 100% (p=0.0004 CONCLUSION: Amazonian communities have a high prevalence of pterygia, which correlates to greater outdoor occupation and sun exposure. This study agrees with previous worldwide reports and it is the first study to compare the prevalence of pterygium in rural and urban living in Amazonian in Brazil. This study highlights the public health significance and gross need for intervention studies.

  1. Coronary artery fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... A coronary artery fistula is often congenital, meaning that it is present at birth. It generally occurs when one of the coronary arteries ...

  2. OCULAR FINDINGS AND SELECT OPHTHALMIC DIAGNOSTIC TESTS IN CAPTIVE AMERICAN WHITE PELICANS (PELECANUS ERYTHRORHYNCHOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Matthew E; Ericsson, Aaron C; Franklin, Craig L; Whiting, Rebecca E H; Pearce, Jacqueline W

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normal ophthalmic parameters for select diagnostic tests in American white pelicans (Pelecanuserythrorhynchos). Twenty-one zoo-housed American white pelicans were manually restrained for noninvasive ocular diagnostic testing and complete ophthalmic examination. Tear production quantification using the phenol red thread test (PRTT), fluorescein staining, and intraocular pressure (IOP) evaluation were performed. In addition, conjunctival aerobic bacterial culture and culture-independent 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing were performed on select eyes. Normal variations and ocular abnormalities detected during complete ophthalmic examination were documented and photographed. Direct pupillary light reflex, menace response, and palpebral reflex were present in all birds. The value (mean ± SD) for PRRT and IOP was 14.9 ± 7.84 mm/15 sec and 9.0 ± 1.41 mm Hg oculus uterque, respectively. Conjunctival culture in nine birds revealed no growth for six birds and Staphylococcus aureus growth in three birds. A high relative abundance of Mycoplasma sp. was detected in all samples based on 16S rRNA sequencing. The normal pelican eye was found to have relative conjunctival hyperemia, absent filoplumes, iris color ranging from light blue to brown, and a subcircular vertically elongated pupil. Ophthalmic abnormalities were noted in 10 of 21 birds. Common findings included corneal fibrosis, cataracts, and asteroid hyalosis. The most common ophthalmic abnormality in this species was cataracts.

  3. Effect of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension on the success of lacrimal stent intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Masashi; Ueki, Mari; Oku, Hidehiro; Sato, Bunpei; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of the postoperative administration of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension on the success rate of lacrimal stent intubation (LSI) for the treatment of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO). This comparative interventional cohort study investigated 110 consecutive patients with PANDO who were treated with LSI and followed up for 12 months postoperatively at one institution. LSI was performed by one surgeon, and all patients received identical postoperative care. Among the total 110 patients, 71 underwent LSI with postoperative administration of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension, and 39 underwent LSI without administration of the suspension. Data related to patient age, gender, laterality, and postoperative administration of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension were collected and used as independent variables, and logistic regression analyses were performed to compare the anatomical success rate at 12 months postoperatively between patients with and without postoperative administration of the suspension. The anatomical success rate of LSI in patients with and without postoperative administration of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was 90.1 and 69.2 %, respectively. A comparison of these success rates showed statistical significance, in that the rate of treatment success was higher in PANDO patients who underwent LSI with postoperative administration of the suspension [odds ratio (OR), 3.37; P rebamipide ophthalmic suspension increases the rate of anatomical success in patients who undergo LSI for the treatment of PANDO.

  4. Surgical glove perforation among nurses in ophthalmic surgery: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Karen Mei-Yan; Chau, Janita Pak-Chun

    2014-04-01

    Many of the ophthalmic surgical instruments are extremely fine and sharp. Due to the dim light environment required for ophthalmic surgical procedures, the passing of sharp instruments among surgeons and scrub nurses also poses a risk for glove perforations. A case-control study was performed to determine the number and site of perforations in the surgical gloves used by a group of scrub nurses during ophthalmic surgery. All six nurses working in an eye and refractive surgery centre in Hong Kong participated in the study. A total of 100 (50 pairs) used surgical gloves were collected following 50 ophthalmic surgeries. Fifty pairs of new surgical gloves were also collected. Every collected surgical glove underwent the water leak test. The surgical procedure perforation rate was 8%, and none of the perforations were detected by the scrub nurses. No perforations were found in any unused gloves. The findings indicate that glove perforations for scrub nurses during ophthalmic surgery do occur and mostly go unnoticed. Future studies should continue to explore factors contributing to surgical glove perforation.

  5. Evaluations of refraction competencies of ophthalmic technicians in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kajal; Naidoo, Kovin; Chagunda, Margarida; Loughman, James

    2016-01-01

    Ophthalmic technicians (OT) work at health facilities in Mozambique and are trained to provide primary and secondary eye care services including basic refraction. This study was designed to assess OT competence and confidence in refraction, and investigate whether an upskilling programme is effective in developing their competence and confidence at refraction. Thirty-one trainee OTs and 16 qualified OTs were recruited to the study. A background questionnaire was administered to determine the demographic profile of the OTs. A confidence levels questionnaire explored their self-reported skills. Clinical competencies were assessed in relation to knowledge (theory exam) and clinical skills (patient exams). 11 OTs were upskilled and the clinical evaluations carried out post training. Initial evaluations demonstrated that confidence and competence levels varied depending on the OTs training (location and duration), and their location of work (clinical load, availability of equipment and other eye care personnel). The qualified OTs were more competent than trainee OTs in most of the evaluations. Post upskilling results demonstrated significant positive impact on confidence and competence levels. These evaluations identified factors affecting the refraction competencies of the OTs and demonstrated that upskilling is effective in improving confidence and competence levels for refraction. They demonstrate the need for a refraction competency framework. The overarching aim of this research was to inform the development of a nationwide programme of OT mentoring, upskilling and leading to the establishment of clinical competency standards for the new OT curricula, relevant to the professional demands. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal times and techniques of a viscoadaptive ophthalmic viscosurgical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffarth, Gerd U; Holzer, Mike P; Vissesook, Nithi; Apple, David J; Völcker, Hans E

    2004-04-01

    To analyze removal techniques for Healon5 (sodium hyaluronate 2.3%). Center for Research on Ocular Therapeutics and Biodevices, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, and Department of Ophthalmology, Ruprecht-Karls-University, Heidelberg, Germany. In a standardized laboratory setup, the Miyake-Apple posterior view video technique in human autopsy eyes was used to evaluate removal of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) from capsular bags implanted with poly(methyl methacrylate), silicone, and acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs). Healon5 was stained with fluorescein for better visualization. Open-sky preparation and an Alcon Legacy Series 20000 phaco machine with a flow rate of 25 mL/minute and a vacuum setting of +500 mm Hg (maximum irrigation/aspiration [I/A]) were used. With Technique 1, the I/A tip was placed on the center of the IOL and maximum aspiration was applied. With Technique 2 (modified rock 'n roll technique), the I/A tip was moved in quick circular movements on top of the IOL to break the OVD chains and facilitate aspiration. With Technique 1, the mean removal time was 59.0 seconds +/- 23.1 (SD) and with Technique 2, 23.6 +/- 10.3 seconds (P =.004). The removal time of Healon5 correlated with the IOL material. With Technique 2, removal was fastest with silicone IOLs (13.5 +/- 2.1 seconds) followed by PMMA IOLs (17.5 +/- 2.1 seconds). With acrylic IOLs, remnants of the OVD trapped behind the IOL optic resulted in a longer removal time of 34.1 +/- 1.2 seconds. Healon5 was completely removed from the capsular bag with the modified rock 'n roll technique. With acrylic IOLs, remnants can be trapped behind the optic and may be overlooked with an unstained OVD. Aspiration behind the optic is recommended with this IOL type.

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND CLONIDINE AS PREMEDICANT ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AND HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES IN NON-OPHTHALMIC SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are associated with hypertension, tachycardia, increased circulating catecholamines and increase in intraocular pressure. Aim of this study is to compare the effect of IV Dexmedetomidine and IV Clonidine premedication on the intraocular pressure changes, haemodynamic responses after succinylcholine injection and intubation. METHODS Sixty cases both male and female patients ranging between the age group 18 to 60 years belonging to ASA 1 or ASA 2 grades, undergoing elective non-ophthalmic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied. All patients were randomized into 3 groups of 20 patients each. Each group consists of 20 patients. Dexmedetomidine Group (Group 1 patients received intravenous Dexmedetomidine 1 micro/kg in 100 mL normal saline, Clonidine Group (Group 2 patients received intravenous Clonidine 1 micro/kg in 100 mL normal saline, Control Group (Group 3 patients received intravenous 100 mL saline infused over 10 minutes. Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP, Heart Rate (HR and IOP were recorded at before premedication 5 min. after premedication, 30 s after succinylcholine, 1 min. after intubation, 5 mins. after intubation. RESULT Fall in Pulse rate, Systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure, Mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure were observed following administration of dexmedetomidine and clonidine groups after suxamethonium injection and endotracheal intubation. Pulse rate, blood pressure (Systolic, Diastolic and Mean and IOP differences were statistically significant (p value between 0.000 and 0.5 in dexmedetomidine and clonidine group compared to control groups 1 min. and 5 minutes after intubation, but it was statistically not significant between dexmedetomidine and clonidine group. CONCLUSION Dexmedetomidine (1 micro/kg given 10 minutes before induction is much more effective in controlling both the tachycardia, hypertension and IOP following laryngoscopy and intubation

  8. Ophthalmic Start-Up Chief Executive Officers' Perceptions of Development Hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, William C; Nelson, Lindsay A; Kruft, Bonnie; Stewart, Jeanette A

    2017-08-26

    To identify current challenges facing ophthalmic pharmaceutical start-ups in developing new products. Surveys were distributed to the chief executive officer (CEO) or president of ophthalmic start-ups. The survey attracted 24 responses from 78 surveys distributed (31%). The CEOs stated that a lack of financial capital (n = 18, 75%), FDA regulations (n = 6, 25%), and failure to meet clinical endpoints (n = 6, 25%) were their greatest development hurdles. Risk aversion to medicines in early development (n = 18, 75%), mergers and acquisitions reducing corporate choice for licensing agreements (n = 7, 29%), the emergence of large pharmaceutical-based venture capital funding groups (n = 12, 50%), and the failure of many large pharmaceutical companies to develop their own medicines (n = 10, 42%) were noted as recent prominent trends affecting fundraising. The study suggests that development funding, regulatory burden, and meeting clinical endpoints are the greatest development challenges faced by ophthalmic start-up CEOs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Penicillin susceptibility of non-serotypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae from ophthalmic specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Fumiko; Nakagami, Yoshiko; Takemori, Koichi; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    Nontypeable (NT) Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from eyes were examined for both penicillin susceptibility by E-test and penicillin-binding protein (PBP) gene alterations using PCR. Of the 25 ophthalmic isolates, 15 proved to be sensitive (PSSP, MIC penicillin (PISP, MIC = 0.1-1 microg/ml). No penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP, MIC > or = 2 microg/ml) were found. PBP gene (pbp1a and pbp2b) alteration PCR indicated that 12 (80.0%) of the 15 ophthalmic PSSPs had unaltered pbp genes and that 3 (20.0%) had alterations in either pbp1a or pbp2b, whereas 8 (80.0%) of the 10 PISPs had unaltered pbp genes and 2 (20.0%) had alterations in both pbp1a and pbp2b. These data suggest that penicillin resistance is spread among NT pneumococci typically associated with ophthalmic infections.

  10. Use of the ophthalmic phacoemulsification instrument for tumors of the spinal cord: report of seven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, William R; Francis, Ian C

    2004-02-01

    In this retrospective cohort study, we examined the safety, efficacy, and benefits of utilizing the readily available ophthalmic phacoemulsification instrument for the surgery of seven intramedullary spinal cord tumors. Historically, the conventional neurosurgical ultrasonic aspirator was an adaptation of the original Cavitron Phaco-Emulsifier aspirator used in cataract surgery. The ophthalmic instrument has a 1.0-mm internal diameter operating tip. This is much smaller and provides improved visualization and surgical control when compared with the conventional neurosurgical instrument, which has a tip diameter of 3-4 mm. A satisfactory surgical and clinical outcome was achieved in all seven patients with safe and substantial subtotal excision of their tumors. We found the ophthalmic instrument provided excellent visualization and precision in operating on cases of intramedullary spinal cord tumor.

  11. Transvenous embolization of a dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula via the inferior ophthalmic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Kevin S; Ng, John D; Falardeau, Julie; Roberts, Warren G; Petersen, Bryan; Nesbit, Gary M; Barnwell, Stanley L

    2007-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented with an acute onset of right periocular pain, diplopia, ocular injection, progressive proptosis, and periocular swelling. She had an unremarkable past medical history, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and complete blood count were normal. A carotid-cavernous sinus fistula was suspected, and an MRI demonstrated enlargement of the superior ophthalmic vein posterior to the globe and enlargement of the inferior ophthalmic vein throughout its entire course. Cerebral arteriography demonstrated a dural cavernous sinus fistula. The inferior ophthalmic vein was accessed via the inferonasal orbital space and was catheterized for delivery of multiple platinum coils to the cavernous sinus fistula. Follow-up venograms demonstrated occlusion of the fistula. At 2-month follow-up, there was a residual sixth nerve palsy and resolution of symptoms, including proptosis and periocular swelling.

  12. 78 FR 27971 - Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution), 0.5%, Was Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That REV-EYES (Dapiprazole Hydrochloride... determined that REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, was not withdrawn from sale... refer to a listed drug. REV-EYES (dapiprazole hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 0.5%, is the...

  13. 76 FR 28045 - Determination That XIBROM (Bromfenac Ophthalmic Solution) 0.09% Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That XIBROM (Bromfenac Ophthalmic Solution) 0... refer to a listed drug. XIBROM (bromfenac ophthalmic solution) 0.09% is the subject of NDA 021664 held... solution) 0.09% in the ``Discontinued Drug Product List'' section of the Orange Book. The...

  14. Re-evaluation of Magnetic Resonance and Computerised Tomographic Imaging in Neuro-Ophthalmic Patients in an Academic Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekoek, Clarence G. J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Pott, Jan Willem R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to report the frequency of missed diagnoses on magnetic resonance and computerised tomographic imaging in neuro-ophthalmic patients who were referred to an academic ophthalmology department, with apparent normal imaging. The authors included all neuro-ophthalmic patients, ref

  15. Re-evaluation of Magnetic Resonance and Computerised Tomographic Imaging in Neuro-Ophthalmic Patients in an Academic Centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekoek, Clarence G. J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Pott, Jan Willem R.

    The aim of the study is to report the frequency of missed diagnoses on magnetic resonance and computerised tomographic imaging in neuro-ophthalmic patients who were referred to an academic ophthalmology department, with apparent normal imaging. The authors included all neuro-ophthalmic patients,

  16. Outpatients flow management and ophthalmic electronic medical records system in university hospital using Yahgee Document View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Gochi, Akira; Hirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Tadashi; Kohno, Yoshihisa

    2010-10-01

    General electronic medical records systems remain insufficient for ophthalmology outpatient clinics from the viewpoint of dealing with many ophthalmic examinations and images in a large number of patients. Filing systems for documents and images by Yahgee Document View (Yahgee, Inc.) were introduced on the platform of general electronic medical records system (Fujitsu, Inc.). Outpatients flow management system and electronic medical records system for ophthalmology were constructed. All images from ophthalmic appliances were transported to Yahgee Image by the MaxFile gateway system (P4 Medic, Inc.). The flow of outpatients going through examinations such as visual acuity testing were monitored by the list "Ophthalmology Outpatients List" by Yahgee Workflow in addition to the list "Patients Reception List" by Fujitsu. Patients' identification number was scanned with bar code readers attached to ophthalmic appliances. Dual monitors were placed in doctors' rooms to show Fujitsu Medical Records on the left-hand monitor and ophthalmic charts of Yahgee Document on the right-hand monitor. The data of manually-inputted visual acuity, automatically-exported autorefractometry and non-contact tonometry on a new template, MaxFile ED, were again automatically transported to designated boxes on ophthalmic charts of Yahgee Document. Images such as fundus photographs, fluorescein angiograms, optical coherence tomographic and ultrasound scans were viewed by Yahgee Image, and were copy-and-pasted to assigned boxes on the ophthalmic charts. Ordering such as appointments, drug prescription, fees and diagnoses input, central laboratory tests, surgical theater and ward room reservations were placed by functions of the Fujitsu electronic medical records system. The combination of the Fujitsu electronic medical records and Yahgee Document View systems enabled the University Hospital to examine the same number of outpatients as prior to the implementation of the computerized filing system.

  17. Persistent corneal epithelial defect responding to rebamipide ophthalmic solution in a patient with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Toshida, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Yusuke; Matsui, Asaki; Ohta, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was developed for the treatment of dry eyes and for other corneal diseases, promoting the secretion of both mucin in tear fluid and membrane-associated mucin, increasing the number of goblet cells, and restoring the barrier function of the corneal epithelium. We report a case of a persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes treated with topical application of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. A 73-year-old woman had a history of type 2 diabetes for 35 years and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy for 23 years. She presented to our department with discharge and ophthalmalgia in the left eye. A corneal ulcer was detected, and culture of corneal scrapings was performed, with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus canis being isolated. The infection was treated with levofloxacin eye drops and ofloxacin ophthalmic ointment based on the sensitivity profile of the isolate. However, a corneal epithelial defect persisted for approximately 2 months despite continuing treatment with 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic suspension and 0.3% ofloxacin eye ointment. Her hemoglobin A1c was 7.3%. The persistent corneal epithelial defect showed improvement at 2 weeks after treatment with rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension, and it did not recur even when vitrectomy was subsequently performed for vitreous hemorrhage due to progression of diabetic retinopathy. This is the first report about efficacy of rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension for presenting persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes. In the present case, the suggested mechanisms are the following: improving the corneal barrier function, stabilization of mucin on the keratoconjunctival epithelium, and improving the wettability and stability of the tear film, which resulted in the promotion of healing of the corneal epithelial defect in a short time period.

  18. Persistent corneal epithelial defect responding to rebamipide ophthalmic solution in a patient with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Hayashi, Hiroshi Toshida, Yusuke Matsuzaki, Asaki Matsui, Toshihiko Ohta Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, Japan Objective: Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was developed for the treatment of dry eyes and for other corneal diseases, promoting the secretion of both mucin in tear fluid and membrane-associated mucin, increasing the number of goblet cells, and restoring the barrier function of the corneal epithelium. We report a case of a persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes treated with topical application of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Case presentation: A 73-year-old woman had a history of type 2 diabetes for 35 years and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy for 23 years. She presented to our department with discharge and ophthalmalgia in the left eye. A corneal ulcer was detected, and culture of corneal scrapings was performed, with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus canis being isolated. The infection was treated with levofloxacin eye drops and ofloxacin ophthalmic ointment based on the sensitivity profile of the isolate. However, a corneal epithelial defect persisted for approximately 2 months despite continuing treatment with 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic suspension and 0.3% ofloxacin eye ointment. Her hemoglobin A1c was 7.3%. The persistent corneal epithelial defect showed improvement at 2 weeks after treatment with rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension, and it did not recur even when vitrectomy was subsequently performed for vitreous hemorrhage due to progression of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: This is the first report about efficacy of rebamipide unit dose 2% ophthalmic suspension for presenting persistent corneal epithelial defect in a patient with diabetes. In the present case, the suggested mechanisms are the following: improving the corneal barrier function, stabilization of mucin on the keratoconjunctival epithelium, and

  19. Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Solution for Treatment of Bacterial Conjunctivitis: Safety, Efficacy and Patient Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde Schultz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gatifloxacin is a fourth generation fluroquinolone antibiotic that has been prescribed for systemic use. However, the drug which was developed by Kyorin (Japan was linked to toxic reactions and death and was banned in the United States and Canada for use as an oral dosage form. It continues to be used as a topical application for ophthalmic conditions as the systemic toxicity seen when taking the drug orally has not been observed with ophthalmic use. The available data indicate that ocular use of gatifloxacin is safe, and effective against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including intracellular bacteria and anaerobes.

  20. Cyclosporine-Associated Leukoencephalopathy in a Case of Sympathetic Ophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuki Tagami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cyclosporine (CsA is currently widely used as a primary immunosuppressive agent in ocular disease, particularly in severe uveitis. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a significant complication of CsA therapy. However, there are no reports of the occurrence of PRES in response to the treatment of uveitis in the ophthalmological area. Case Presentation: We report a case with CsA-associated PRES. A 70-year-old woman with sympathetic ophthalmitis was treated with 50 mg/day of CsA for 1 week. However, the trough level in her blood was too low; thus, we increased the dose to 100 mg/day of CsA with prednisolone. She had headaches, hypertension (systolic blood pressure 180-200 mm Hg, loss of consciousness for several hours, and reduced limb movement, and her MRI showed a high signal intensity in both posterior lobes, consistent with PRES. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid indicated that it was within normal limits. Her CsA trough level in the blood was within normal ranges on the day of the attack. Her symptoms gradually improved over the next several days; however, she presented with cortical blindness, which lasted for several weeks. Finally, she returned to her baseline values from before the attack. Her MRI findings showed that PRES had essentially disappeared. Conclusion: PRES is not directly associated with the dosage of CsA administered; however, in general, it is well known that PRES can affect strongly immunosuppressed cases undergoing organ and bone marrow transplantation. Nevertheless, our CsA dose was only 100 mg (1.8 mg/kg. In this study, we report on the occurrence of PRES after the administration of CsA to treat sympathetic ophthalmia. To our knowledge, PRES can also occur after the administration of a small dose of CsA; thus, ophthalmologists using CsA should carefully observe the systemic conditions of CsA-treated patients.

  1. Prefilled syringes and usability of ophthalmic viscosurgical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiba T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Takuya Shiba, Hiroshi TsuneokaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To examine the influence of the configuration of prefilled syringes on the usability of ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs.Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.Design: Experimental study.Methods: The maximum force needed to extrude the whole OVD (extrusion force was compared among viscous cohesive OVDs (OPEGAN Hi® 0.85 mL and Healon® 0.85 mL and very low viscosity dispersive OVDs (OPEGAN® 0.6 mL and OPEGAN® 1.1 mL. Additionally, to exclude the influence of any differences between syringes of viscous cohesive OVDs on the extrusion force, empty syringes of the same configuration were refilled with the same products. In addition, the syringe inner surface and that of the piston attached to the tip of the plunger were measured.Results: The extrusion force of Healon 0.85 mL (3.28±0.19 kgf was significantly (P<0.01 higher than that of OPEGAN Hi 0.85 mL (2.54±0.23 kgf. The inner syringe chamber for Healon 0.85 mL was vial shaped and had a built-in needle in the Luer tip, which was clearly different from OPEGAN Hi 0.85 mL. There were no significant differences in the extrusion force between refilled syringes. The extrusion force of OPEGAN 1.1 mL (3.44±0.12 kgf was significantly (P<0.01 higher than that of OPEGAN 0.6 mL (1.63±0.06 kgf. The syringe of OPEGAN 1.1 mL was obviously bigger than that of OPEGAN 0.6 mL.Conclusion: It was confirmed that the configuration of the syringes is another determinant of the extrusion force and a factor related to the difference in usability among products that meet the same cohesive class.Keywords: configuration, syringe, extrusion force, viscous cohesive OVDs, low viscosity dispersive OVDs

  2. Carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis on MR angiography: a university hospital-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Okada, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Kaiji [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hidaka, Saitama (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Rarely in the anterior circulation, an anastomosis of the carotid and anterior cerebral arteries occurs when an anomalous branch arises from the ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery and anastomoses with the A1-A2 junction of the anterior communicating artery. Right-side predominance is known. To our knowledge, the incidence of carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis has not been reported, so we researched cases in our institution records to determine incidence and investigated characteristic features of the condition on magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. To isolate such cases, we retrospectively reviewed cranial MR angiographic images of 3,491 consecutive patients in our institution. We found three cases with carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis (two men, one woman), representing an incidence of 0.086%. The anastomosis was on the right in all three cases. A normal A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was present in two cases but could not be identified in the remaining case on MR angiographic images that included source images. Two of the three patients demonstrated associated arterial variations in their carotid systems. On MR angiography, we observed a 0.086% incidence of carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis in our institution and reaffirmed the right-side predominance of this anomaly. We found a high frequency of other associated arterial variations in the carotid system. (orig.)

  3. Comparative analysis of image classification methods for automatic diagnosis of ophthalmic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiyang; Long, Erping; Jiang, Jiewei; An, Yingying; Zhang, Jia; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jingjing; Cao, Qianzhong; Li, Jing; Wu, Xiaohang; Wang, Dongni; Li, Wangting; Lin, Haotian

    2017-01-01

    There are many image classification methods, but it remains unclear which methods are most helpful for analyzing and intelligently identifying ophthalmic images. We select representative slit-lamp images which show the complexity of ocular images as research material to compare image classification algorithms for diagnosing ophthalmic diseases. To facilitate this study, some feature extraction algorithms and classifiers are combined to automatic diagnose pediatric cataract with same dataset and then their performance are compared using multiple criteria. This comparative study reveals the general characteristics of the existing methods for automatic identification of ophthalmic images and provides new insights into the strengths and shortcomings of these methods. The relevant methods (local binary pattern +SVMs, wavelet transformation +SVMs) which achieve an average accuracy of 87% and can be adopted in specific situations to aid doctors in preliminarily disease screening. Furthermore, some methods requiring fewer computational resources and less time could be applied in remote places or mobile devices to assist individuals in understanding the condition of their body. In addition, it would be helpful to accelerate the development of innovative approaches and to apply these methods to assist doctors in diagnosing ophthalmic disease.

  4. 75 FR 26647 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule, technical amendment. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  5. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 524 Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to...

  6. A nuclear magnetic resonance approach to the comparison of mucoadhesive properties of polysaccharides for ophthalmic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Nazzi, Samuele; Balzano, Federica; Sansò, Marco

    2011-03-15

    Mucoadhesive properties of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) and larch arabinogalactan (AG), which are developed for ophthalmic applications, were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Polysaccharide to mucin affinities were compared by using ketotifen fumarate as low molecular weight interaction probe. Proton selective relaxation rate measurements revealed enhanced affinity of TSP to mucin with respect to AG.

  7. 78 FR 9349 - Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Eyelid Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 886 Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Eyelid Weight AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to classify the eyelid weight into class...

  8. 21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions. 524.960 Section 524.960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... fundamental healing mechanism. Adrenocorticoid compounds have been reported to cause an increase in...

  9. Application of ultrasound microbubble contrast technology in ophthalmic targeted therapy: literature analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Tang, Chong; Zhu, Hong; Xie, Hua; Gao, Shuan-Jie

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the application of microbubble contrast technology in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases, mainly analyzing its advantages and existing problems. A total of 30 representative literatures about the application of ultrasound contrast agent in gene targeted therapy at home and abroad were collected, and focusing on sorting out the literature reporting the treatment of ophthalmic diseases with microbubble contrast technology in recent years, then recalling its advantages and problems, finally making reasonable assessment on existing problems and proposing possible solutions to the problems. DUE TO ITS UNIQUE SAFETY AND EFFICACY, THE TREATMENT OF OPHTHALMIC DISEASES WITH MICROBUBBLE CONTRAST TECHNOLOGY HAS INCREASINGLY DRAWN THE ATTENTION OF CLINICIANS, BUT TWO RELEVANT ISSUES SHOULD BE CONSIDERED: first, the nature of contrast agent and the choice of corresponding ultrasound parameters; second, relative incidence of tissue bleeding, intravascular hemolysis, moderate or severe allergy as well as other side effects. Microbubble may become the carrier of targeted therapy, and as a kind of new non-invasive delivery system, the ultrasound contrast agent has broad application prospects, but its application in ophthalmic research is still in its initial stage and the safety of contrast-enhanced ultrasound still needs further study.

  10. Efficacy of Detergent and Water Versus Bleach for the Disinfection of Direct Contact Ophthalmic Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Ashkan M.; Gregori, Ninel Z.; Surapaneni, Krishna; Miller, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While manufacturers recommend cleaning ophthalmic lenses with detergent and water and then a specific disinfectant, disinfectants are rarely used in ophthalmic practices. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of detergent and water versus bleach, a recommended disinfectant, to eliminate common ocular bacteria and viruses from ophthalmic lenses. Methods Three bacterial strains (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium straitum, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and two viral strains (adenovirus and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1) were individually inoculated to 20 gonioscopy and laser lenses. Lenses were washed with detergent and water and then disinfected with 10% bleach. All lenses were cultured after inoculation, after detergent and water, and after the bleach. Bacterial cultures in thioglycollate broth were observed for 3 weeks and viral cultures for 2 weeks. The presence of viruses was also detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results All 20 lenses inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium straitum, adenovirus, and HSV-1 showed growth after inoculation, but no growth after detergent/water and after the bleach. All lenses showed positive HSV and adenovirus PCR after inoculation and negative PCR after detergent/water and after bleach. All MRSA contaminated lenses showed growth after inoculation and no growth after detergent and water. However, one lens showed positive growth after bleach. Conclusions Cleaning with detergent and water appeared to effectively eliminate bacteria and viruses from the surface of contaminated ophthalmic lenses. Further studies are warranted to design practical disinfection protocols that minimize lens damage. PMID:24747806

  11. Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N.; Ying, Howard S.; Astratov, Vasily N.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-06-01

    Ophthalmic surgery may benefit from use of more precise fiber delivery systems during laser surgery. Some current ophthalmic surgical techniques rely on tedious mechanical dissection of tissue layers. In this study, chains of sapphire microspheres integrated into a hollow waveguide distal tip are used for erbium:YAG laser ablation studies in contact mode with ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. The laser's short optical penetration depth combined with the small spot diameters achieved with this fiber probe may provide more precise tissue removal. One-, three-, and five-microsphere chain structures were characterized, resulting in FWHM diameters of 67, 32, and 30 μm in air, respectively, with beam profiles comparable to simulations. Single Er:YAG pulses of 0.1 mJ and 75-μs duration produced ablation craters with average diameters of 44, 30, and 17 μm and depths of 26, 10, and 8 μm, for one-, three-, and five-sphere structures, respectively. Microsphere chains produced spatial filtering of the multimode Er:YAG laser beam and fiber, providing spot diameters not otherwise available with conventional fiber systems. Because of the extremely shallow treatment depth, compact focused beam, and contact mode operation, this probe may have potential for use in dissecting epiretinal membranes and other ophthalmic tissues without damaging adjacent retinal tissue.

  12. Vitamin B2-sensitised photooxidation of the ophthalmic drugs Timolol and Pindolol: kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Susana; García, Norman A

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanistic aspects of the riboflavin-photosensitised oxidation of the topically administrable ophthalmic drugs Timolol (Tim) and Pindolol (Pin) were investigated in water-MeOH (9:1, v/v) solution employing light of wavelength > 400 nm. riboflavin, belonging to the vitamin B(2) complex, is a known human endogenous photosensitiser. The irradiation of riboflavin in the presence of ophthalmic drugs triggers a complex picture of competitive reactions which produces the photodegradation of both the drugs and the pigment itself. The mechanism was elucidated employing stationary photolysis, polarographic detection of dissolved oxygen, stationary and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser flash photolysis. Ophthalmic drugs quench riboflavin-excited singlet and triplet states. From the quenching of excited triplet riboflavin, the semireduced form of the pigment is generated, through an electron transfer process from the drug, with the subsequent production of superoxide anion radical (O(2)(*-)) by reaction with dissolved molecular oxygen. Through the interaction of dissolved oxygen with excited triplet riboflavin, the species singlet oxygen (O(2)((1)Delta(g))) is also generated to a lesser extent. Both O(2)(*-) and O(2)((1)Delta(g)) induce photodegradation of ophthalmic drugs, Tim being approximately 3-fold more easily photooxidisable than Pin, as estimated by oxygen consumption experiments.

  13. Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Thomas C; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N; Ying, Howard S; Astratov, Vasily N; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2012-06-01

    Ophthalmic surgery may benefit from use of more precise fiber delivery systems during laser surgery. Some current ophthalmic surgical techniques rely on tedious mechanical dissection of tissue layers. In this study, chains of sapphire microspheres integrated into a hollow waveguide distal tip are used for erbium:YAG laser ablation studies in contact mode with ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. The laser's short optical penetration depth combined with the small spot diameters achieved with this fiber probe may provide more precise tissue removal. One-, three-, and five-microsphere chain structures were characterized, resulting in FWHM diameters of 67, 32, and 30 μm in air, respectively, with beam profiles comparable to simulations. Single Er:YAG pulses of 0.1 mJ and 75-μs duration produced ablation craters with average diameters of 44, 30, and 17 μm and depths of 26, 10, and 8 μm, for one-, three-, and five-sphere structures, respectively. Microsphere chains produced spatial filtering of the multimode Er:YAG laser beam and fiber, providing spot diameters not otherwise available with conventional fiber systems. Because of the extremely shallow treatment depth, compact focused beam, and contact mode operation, this probe may have potential for use in dissecting epiretinal membranes and other ophthalmic tissues without damaging adjacent retinal tissue.

  14. Comparative studies of various hyaluronic acids produced by microbial fermentation for potential topical ophthalmic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillaumie, Fanny; Furrer, Pascal; Felt-Baeyens, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study of various hyaluronic acids (HA) produced by fermentation of either Bacillus subtilis or Streptococcus towards the selection of an optimal molecular weight (MW) HA for the preparation of topical ophthalmic formulations. The influence of HA MW on water bindin...

  15. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of ...

  16. Besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 0.6%: a novel topical fluoroquinolone for bacterial conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Terrence P

    2012-06-01

    Acute bacterial conjunctivitis, the most common cause of conjunctivitis, is responsible for approximately 1% of all primary-care consultations. Of the topical ophthalmic antibiotics used to treat acute bacterial conjunctivitis, fluoroquinolones are especially useful because they possess a broad antibacterial spectrum, are bactericidal in action, are generally well tolerated, and have been less prone to development of bacterial resistance. Besifloxacin, the latest advanced fluoroquinolone approved for treating bacterial conjunctivitis, is the first fluoroquinolone developed specifically for topical ophthalmic use. It has a C-8 chlorine substituent and is known as a chloro-fluoroquinolone. Besifloxacin possesses relatively balanced dual-targeting activity against bacterial topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase (topoisomerse II), two essential enzymes involved in bacterial DNA replication, leading to increased potency and decreased likelihood of bacterial resistance developing to besifloxacin. Microbiological data suggest a relatively high potency and rapid bactericidal activity for besifloxacin against common ocular pathogens, including bacteria resistant to other fluoroquinolones, especially resistant staphylococcal species. Randomized, double-masked, controlled clinical studies demonstrated the clinical efficacy of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% administered three-times daily for 5 days to be superior to the vehicle alone and similar to moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5% for bacterial conjunctivitis. In addition, besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% administered two-times daily for 3 days was clinically more effective than the vehicle alone for bacterial conjunctivitis. Besifloxacin has also been shown in preclinical animal studies to be potentially effective for the "off-label" treatment of infections following ocular surgery, prophylaxis of endophthalmitis, and the treatment of bacterial keratitis. Taken together, clinical and preclinical animal studies

  17. Complex carotid cavernous sinus fistulas Barrow type D: endovascular treatment via the ophthalmic vein, imaging control with standardized MRI, long-term results; Interdisziplinaere Embolisation spontaner Karotis-Cavernosus-Fisteln Typ D nach Barrow ueber die Vena ophthalmica: klinische Langzeitergebnisse und kernspintomografische Befunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes (Germany); Muecke, I. [Klinik fuer Augenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Purpose: Since feeding arteries from both the internal and external carotid artery are common, cavernous fistulas of Barrow type D are difficult to treat. Embolization using the transarterial approach is considered to be the standard therapy. However, it is often impossible to embolize feeders from the internal carotid artery. The transorbital approach after anterior orbitotomy through the ophthalmic vein is an alternative in this complex situation. The following reports our experience with three female patients who underwent transvenous embolization. Procedural success was documented using standardized MRI and clinical reevaluation. Materials and Methods: Three female patients between 57 and 78 years of age were diagnosed with carotid cavernous fistulas by conventional angiogram. All patients were suffering from exophthalmus and visual impairment. Two patients showed secondary glaucoma and diplopia. In one patient we performed a technically successful transarterial embolization using particles, but no relevant improvement of the patient's condition was seen. Transfemoral transvenous access via the sinus petrosus was not possible in any patient. All patients were then embolized via the ophthalmic vein using GDC detachable coils. All patients were clinically reevaluated by an ophthalmologist. Also a standardized MRI was performed for documentation. Follow-up was performed for the first patient for 32 months, for the second patient for 34 months and for the third patient for 50 months. Results: Transvenous embolization was technically successful in all three cases. Clinical symptoms disappeared rapidly. Postprocedural MRI showed a symmetric diameter of the ophthalmic vein. Venous congestion of the orbit caused by fatty tissue edema regressed completely. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography showed normal arterial vessels without evidence of fistula. (orig.)

  18. Application of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% for the treatment of eyebrow hypotrichosis: series of ten cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergilis-Kalner, Irene J

    2014-06-15

    In December 2008, bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% was approved in the United States for the treatment of hypotrichosis of the eyelashes. Since then, there have been several reports in the literature on the off-label use of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% for the treatment of thinning in other hair bearing areas, such as in the eyebrows and in the scalp. Herein, a prospective pilot study is presented in which bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% is evaluated for helping to re-grow hair in the eyebrow region of ten female patients.

  19. Molecular Modeling-Based Inclusion Mechanism and Stability Studies of Doxycycline and Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Complex for Ophthalmic Delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Haohao; Chen, Meiwan; He, Zixin; Wang, Zhouhua; Zhang, Meimei; He, Zhouyang; Wan, Qian; Liang, Dan; Repka, Michael A; Wu, Chuanbin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare a stable complex of doxycycline (Doxy) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) for ophthalmic delivery and investigate the inclusion mechanism and the inclusion effects on the stability of Doxy...

  20. Central retinal artery occlusion with concomitant ipsilateral cerebral infarction after cosmetic facial injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong-Ho; Ahn, Seong Joon; Woo, Se Joon; Jung, Cheolkyu; Chang, Jun Young; Chung, Jin-Heon; Han, Moon-Ku

    2014-11-15

    We report 2 cases of central retinal artery occlusion with concomitant ipsilateral cerebral infarction after cosmetic facial injections and a literature review. The 2 patients were two healthy women, in which cosmetic facial injections with autologous fat and filler were performed, respectively. The patients had no light perception at the final visit and their conditions led to memory retrieval disturbance in case 1 and right arm weakness, dysarthria, facial palsy, and ophthalmoplegia in case 2. Neuroimaging showed multifocal small infarctions in the ipsilateral frontal lobe with occlusion of the ophthalmic artery in case 1 and multiple infarctions in the ipsilateral anterior and middle cerebral artery territories with subsequent hemorrhagic transformation in case 2. Poor visual prognosis and neurological complications can occur in healthy adults undergoing cosmetic facial injection, and all patients should be informed of this risk before the procedure.

  1. Alkali Burn Treated with 2% Rebamipide Ophthalmic Suspension: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Sasaki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old man presented at the Ophthalmology Department of Saku City Asama General Hospital complaining of hyperemia and pain after industrial sodium hydroxide (approx. 40% concentration had entered his left eye. With an epithelial defect of the bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva, ischemia of the inferior third of the limbal conjunctiva, a total corneal epithelial defect and mild corneal stromal opacity, the damage was determined as Roper-Hall grade III. 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension, which is used for dry eye disease, was administered 4 times a day followed by conventional treatment for serious alkali injury. The corneal epithelial defect was resolved, and there were no side effects. The effectiveness of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension in both the repair and improvement of the damage in the conjunctival and corneal epithelia, and its anti-inflammatory effect suggest that it may be an effective treatment not only for dry eye disease but also for alkali ocular damage.

  2. Effect of methyl cellulose on gelation behavior and drug release from poloxamer based ophthalmic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Mitali; Bhowmick, Biplab; Sarkar, Gunjan; Rana, Dipak; Bain, Mrinal Kanti; Bhowmik, Manas; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    The effect of weight average molecular weight (Mw) of methyl cellulose (MC) on the gelation behavior of Poloxamer 407 (PM) and in vitro release of Ketorolac Tromethamine (KT) from different ophthalmic formulations based on PM is examined. A drop of gelation temperature of PM is observed using MC of various M(w) by test tube tilting method, UV-vis spectroscopy, viscometry and rheometry. It is also observed that the viscosity and gel strength of all the formulations are increased with the increase in Mw of MC. PM with highest Mw of MC provides best drug release property among all the formulations. It is evident from this investigation that there is a distinct effect of M(w) of MC on the gelation behavior of PM as well as on the drug release profile of KT from PM-MC based ophthalmic formulations.

  3. On the actual state of industrial quality assurance procedures with regard to (106)Ru ophthalmic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulich, Theodor W; Zurheide, Jens; Haug, Thomas; Budach, Wilfried; Nüsslin, Fridtjof; Bamberg, Michael

    2004-06-01

    In radiotherapy of intraocular tumors, e. g., in the case of malign choroid melanomas, episcleral brachytherapy with (106)Ru ophthalmic plaques has proven to be successful. In a study, the authors reported on the discovery of the following shortcomings in industrial quality assurance, which are relevant to therapy, during the course of an internal clinical acceptance test of (106)Ru ophthalmic plaques, manufactured by the company Bebig from Berlin, Germany. This consisted of inconsistent dose rate specifications in the manufacturer's certificate, covering a range of 111% and with the risk of leakage of the plaques. Bebig was called upon to adapt state-of-the-art production methods with regard to (106)Ru ophthalmic plaques. In the meantime, Bebig has modernized production of (106)Ru ophthalmic plaques and adopted all the quality assurance procedures proposed by the authors. Moreover, the requested traceability of the calibration of activity and dose rate of the (106)Ru ophthalmic plaques to standards of the federal authorities in charge of measurement procedures has been implemented. In the year 2002, Bebig updated, among other things, the ASMW (GDR) calibration of the dose rate of the (106)Ru ophthalmic plaques from the years 1987-1989 by a calibration of the NIST (USA). The current NIST calibration, together with the new equipment for the measurement of the depth dose curves, led to the consequence that the new NIST 2001 dose rate values show, in the mean, a deviation of 0.75 times (plaque type CCC) up to 2.06 times (plaque types CCX, CCY, and CCZ) compared to the dose rate values that had been indicated so far in Bebig's certificate, based on the ASMW 1987 calibration. For the 95% confidence interval, Bebig estimated the measurement uncertainty to be +/- 25%. If one takes into consideration the minimal and maximal values in such 95% confidence intervals, it follows that the new NIST 2001 dose rate values deviate between 0.56 times (plaque type CCC) and 2.58 times

  4. Two cases of myotonic dystrophy manifesting various ophthalmic findings with genetic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Min Ji Kang; Hye Bin Yim; Hyung Bin Hwang

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of myotonic dystrophy in one family; both diagnosed from genetic analysis following ophthalmic indications, but before the manifestation of systemic symptoms. A 39-year-old female visited our clinic for routine examination. Mild ptosis, sluggish pupillary response, and bilateral snowflake cataracts were found. Fundus examination revealed an increased cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) in both eyes and a defect in the retinal nerve fiber layer in the right eye. Intraocular pressure wa...

  5. The Ophthalmic Anomalies in Children with Down Syndrome in Split-Dalmatian County

    OpenAIRE

    Karlica, Dobrila; Skelin, Siniša; Culic, Vida; Galetović, Davor; Znaor, Ljubo; Karlica, Hana; Pavelić, Jasminka

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to present the ophthalmic anomalies in patients with Down syndrome in Split-Dalmatia County born from 1992 until 2009 year. It was a cross-sectional study. 153 children with Down syndrome aged 0–18 years from the Split-Dalmatia County were examined. One hundred twelve participants were borne in Split,13 in Vrgorac,16 in Makarska, 12 in Sinj. All enrolled children underwent a complete ophthalmological examination (anterior segment, ocular motility, refractive status, fu...

  6. Ion activated in situ gel system for ophthalmic delivery of moxifloxacin hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mali, Mahesh N.; Ashok A. Hajare

    2010-01-01

    Rapid precorneal elimination of drug is a major limitation of conventional ophthalmic formulations. An ion activated in situ gel forming systems of an antibacterial agent moxifloxacin hydrochloride for instillation as drops into eye undergoing a sol to gel transition in the cul-de-sac was formulated. Sodium alginate was used as the gelling agent in combination with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. Formulations were evaluated for gelling capacity, pH, in vitro release, rheological study, Draize ...

  7. Quantitative evaluation of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension by HPLC, application to bioassay method and cytotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Márcia C N; Barden, Amanda T; Andrade, Juliana M M; Oppe, Tércio P; Schapoval, Elfrides E S

    2014-02-01

    Besifloxacin (BSF) is a synthetic chiral fluoroquinolone developed for the topical treatment of ophthalmic infections. The present study reports the development and validation of a microbiological assay, applying the cylinder-plate method, for determination of BSF in ophthalmic suspension. To assess this methodology, the development and validation of the method was performed for the quantification of BSF by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method showed specificity, linearity in the range of 20-80 µg mL(-1) (r=0.9998), precision, accuracy and robustness. The microbiological method is based on the inhibitory effect of BSF upon the strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 used as a test microorganism. The bioassay validation method yielded excellent results and included linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness and selectivity. The assay results were treated statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were found to be linear (r=0.9974) in the range of 0.5-2.0 µg mL(-1), precise (inter-assay: RSD=0.84), accurate (101.4%), specific and robust. The bioassay and the previously validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method were compared using Student's t test, which indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between these two methods. These results confirm that the proposed microbiological method can be used as routine analysis for the quantitative determination of BSF in an ophthalmic suspension. A preliminary stability study during the HPLC validation was performed and demonstrated that BSF is unstable under UV conditions. The photodegradation kinetics of BSF in water showed a first-order reaction for the drug product (ophthalmic suspension) and a second-order reaction for the reference standard (RS) under UVA light. UVA degraded samples of BSF were also studied in order to determine the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity against mononuclear cells. The results indicated that BSF does not alter

  8. Antibiotic resistance and molecular characterization of ophthalmic Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Hee; Chae, Min-Joo; Yoon, Jang-Won; Kim, Seung-Gon; Lee, So-Young; Yoo, Jong-Hyun; Park, Hee-Myung

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence, virulence potential, and antibiotic resistance of ophthalmic Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) isolated from dogs were examined. Sixty-seven Staphylococcus species were isolated from ophthalmic samples and surveyed for species-specific sequences in the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) nuclease gene (SInuc), exfoliative toxin gene for SIG (siet), and antibiotic resistance genes (blaZ and mecA). PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the pta gene was also performed. Fifty isolates were identified as SIG strains, all of which were found to be SP. The blaZ gene was detected in 42 of the 50 SP strains and mecA gene was observed in 18 of the 50 SP strains. The 50 SP strains were most susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (94%) and chlorampenicol (70%), and highly resistant to tetracycline (94%) and penicillin (92%). It was also found that 16 (88.9%) mecA-positive SP strains were resistant to oxacillin, tetracycline and penicillin. All mecA-positive SP were resistant to more than four of the eight tested antibiotics and therefore considered SP with multi-drug resistance (MDR). Our results indicate a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in ophthalmic SP along with a close relationship between MDR SP strains and the mecA gene. Based on our findings, judicious administration of antibiotics to companion dogs is necessary.

  9. Needle Segmentation in Volumetric Optical Coherence Tomography Images for Ophthalmic Microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Needle segmentation is a fundamental step for needle reconstruction and image-guided surgery. Although there has been success stories in needle segmentation for non-microsurgeries, the methods cannot be directly extended to ophthalmic surgery due to the challenges bounded to required spatial resolution. As the ophthalmic surgery is performed by finer and smaller surgical instruments in micro-structural anatomies, specifically in retinal domains, difficulties are raised for delicate operation and sensitive perception. To address these challenges, in this paper we investigate needle segmentation in ophthalmic operation on 60 Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT cubes captured during needle injection surgeries on ex-vivo pig eyes. Furthermore, we developed two different approaches, a conventional method based on morphological features (MF and a specifically designed full convolution neural networks (FCN method, moreover, we evaluate them on the benchmark for needle segmentation in the volumetric OCT images. The experimental results show that FCN method has a better segmentation performance based on four evaluation metrics while MF method has a short inference time, which provides valuable reference for future works.

  10. Clinical utility of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shizuka Koh Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Diquafosol is a drug used for dry eye treatment with a novel mechanism of action. It stimulates the secretion of tear fluid and mucin on the ocular surface, thus enabling us to selectively treat the tear film layer, playing an important role in the establishment of the concept of “Tear Film Oriented Therapy (TFOT”, an effective therapeutic approach to dry eye in Japan. The 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution has been widely used for the treatment of dry eye in clinical practice, and it is currently available in Japan and South Korea. This review provides an overview of the clinical utility of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution, focusing on the results of clinical studies on various types of dry eye, including aqueous-deficient dry eye, short tear film breakup time-type dry eye, and post dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis. It also introduces the additive effect of diquafosol on sodium hyaluronate monotherapy for dry eye, and the effect of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution for dry eye-related conditions. Additionally, it summarizes the ocular effects of diquafosol in healthy human eyes. Lastly, the importance of improving tear film stability in dry eye treatment, as well as general advances in dry eye treatments, are described. Keywords: diquafosol, dry eye, mucin secretion, fluid secretion, ocular surface, vision

  11. Effectiveness and relevant factors of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension treatment in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kaori; Matsumiya, Wataru; Otsuka, Keiko; Maeda, Yoshifumi; Nagai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Makoto

    2015-06-06

    Rebamipide with mucin secretagogue activity was recently approved for the treatment of dry eye. The efficacy and safety in the treatment of rebamipide were shown in two pivotal clinical trials. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effect of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension in patients with dry eye and analyze relevant factors for favorable effects of rebamipide in clinical practice. This was a retrospective cohort study of 48 eyes from 24 patients with dry eye treated with 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Dry eye-related symptom score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein ocular surface staining score (FOS) and the Schirmer test were used to collect the data from patients at baseline, and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 week visits. To determine the relevant factors, multiple regression analyses were then performed. Mean dry eye-related symptom score showed a significant improvement from the baseline (14.5 points) at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks (9.80, 7.04, 7.04 and 7.83 points, corrected P value rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was an effective therapy for dry eye patients. Moreover the fluorescein conjunctiva staining score and dry eye-related symptom score might be good relevant factors for favorable effects of rebamipide.

  12. Effect of Rebamipide Ophthalmic Suspension on Intraocular Light Scattering for Dry Eye After Corneal Refractive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Akihito; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Kobashi, Hidenaga; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-08-01

    To assess the changes in intraocular scattering before and after instillation of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension in patients with dry eye after corneal refractive surgery. This study enrolled 60 eyes of 30 dry eye patients undergoing corneal refractive surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to start topical administration of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension (rebamipide group) or artificial tears (control group) 4 times daily for 4 weeks. Tear secretion, tear break-up time (TBUT), and the fluorescein score were measured before and after treatment. Intraocular light scattering was also measured as the objective scattering index (OSI) at 0.5-second intervals over 10 seconds. In the rebamipide group, the Schirmer I test, TBUT, and fluorescein score improved significantly, from 11.4 ± 9.0 mm, 2.2 ± 0.7 seconds, and 4.3 ± 1.3 to 14.9 ± 7.4 mm, 4.5 ± 1.7 seconds, and 1.9 ± 1.0, respectively (P = 0.006, P Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was effective for improving both ocular surface parameters and optical quality in patients with dry eye undergoing corneal refractive surgery, suggesting that it may hold promise for the treatment of such patients.

  13. Novel microsphere chain fiber tips for use in mid-infrared ophthalmic laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N.; Ying, Howard S.; Astratov, Vasily N.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Ophthalmic surgery may benefit from the use of more precise fiber delivery systems for laser surgery. In this study, chains of sapphire microspheres integrated into the distal tip of a hollow waveguide are used for preliminary mid-infrared, Erbium:YAG laser ablation studies in contact mode with ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. The combination of the Er:YAG laser's short optical penetration depth and small spot diameters achieved with this novel fiber probe may provide more precise tissue removal. One, three, and five microsphere chain structures were assembled and compared, resulting in spot diameters of 67, 32, and 30 μm, respectively. Single laser pulses of 0.1 mJ energy and 75 μs duration produced craters with average widths of 44, 30, and 17 μm and depths of 26, 10, and 8 μm, for one, three, and five sphere structures, respectively. Chains of microspheres produced spatial filtering of the multimode Er:YAG laser beam and fiber, thus providing spot diameters not otherwise available for precise tissue ablation using conventional fiber delivery systems. With further probe development, this novel approach to mid-IR laser ablation may provide an alternative to mechanical tools for ultra-precise surgical dissection and removal of ophthalmic tissues.

  14. Preparation, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ophthalmic thermosensitive in situ hydrogel of betaxolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Zhang, Nan; Hua, Haiying; Liu, Tuanbing; Tang, Yafang; Fu, Lingling; Yang, Yanan; Ma, Xiujie; Zhao, Yongxing

    2016-10-01

    Conventional ophthalmic formulations often eliminate rapidly after administration and cannot provide and maintain an adequate concentration of the drug in the precorneal area. To solve those problems, a thermosensitive in situ gelling and mucoadhesive ophthalmic drug delivery system was prepared and evaluated, the system was composed of poloxamer analogs and polycarbophil (PCP) and betaxolol hydrochloride (BH) was selected as model drug. The concentrations of poloxamer 407 (P407) (22% (w/v)) and poloxamer 188 (P188) (3.5% (w/v)) were identified through central composite design-response surface methodology (CCD-RSM). The BH in situ hydrogel (BH-HG) was liquid solution at low temperature and turned to semisolid at eye temperature. BH-HG showed good stability and biocompatibility, which fulfilled the requirements of ocular application. In vitro studies indicated that addition of PCP enhanced the viscosity of BH-HG and the release results of BH from BH-HG demonstrated a sustained release behavior of BH because of the gel dissolution. In vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies indicated that the BH-HG formulation resulted in an improved bioavailability and a significantly lower intraocular pressure (IOP). The results suggested BH-HG could be potentially used as an in situ gelling system for ophthalmic delivery to enhance the bioavailability and efficacy.

  15. Enduring influence of elizabethan ophthalmic texts of the 1580s: bailey, grassus, and guillemeau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Davenport, Byrd; Randolph, Jessica; Busscher, Joshua; Hadi, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    Three English ophthalmic texts of the 1580s were frequently republished: 1) Walter Bailey's A Briefe Treatise Touching the Preseruation of the Eie Sight, 2) The Method of Phisicke, an adaptation of the medieval treatise of Benevenutus Grassus, and 3) A Worthy Treatise of the Eyes, a translation of Jacques Guillemeau's treatise. Their history is intertwined through composite publications, some of which lacked clear attribution. At least 21 editions incorporated these texts. Although not previously realized, major elements of all 3 works are found in Two Treatises Concerning the Preseruation of Eie-sight, first published in 1616. To preserve eyesight, Bailey recommended eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis), fennel (Fæniculum vulgare), and a moderate lifestyle incorporating wine. In the works of Grassus and Guillemeau, cataracts were believed to lie anterior to the 'crystalline humor,' and were treated by the 'art of the needle,' or couching. Links are found between Grassus, Guillemeau, and eighteenth century glaucoma concepts. Although one of his students has traditionally received credit, it was English oculist John Thomas Woolhouse who first combined the early concepts and used the term glaucoma to describe the palpably hard eye in the early eighteenth century. The three primary ophthalmic texts of 1580s England influenced ophthalmic thought for over a century.

  16. Formulation and process factors influencing product quality and in vitro performance of ophthalmic ointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Yerlikaya, Firat; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Hunt, Robert L; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-09-30

    Owing to its unique anatomical and physiological functions, ocular surface presents special challenges for both design and performance evaluation of the ophthalmic ointment drug products formulated with a variety of bases. The current investigation was carried out to understand and identify the appropriate in vitro methods suitable for quality and performance evaluation of ophthalmic ointment, and to study the effect of formulation and process variables on its critical quality attributes (CQA). The evaluated critical formulation variables include API initial size, drug percentage, and mineral oil percentage while the critical process parameters include mixing rate, temperature, time and cooling rate. The investigated quality and performance attributes include drug assay, content uniformity, API particle size in ointment, rheological characteristics, in vitro drug release and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation. Using design of experiments (DoE) as well as a novel principle component analysis approach, five of the quality and performance attributes (API particle size, storage modulus of ointment, high shear viscosity of ointment, in vitro drug release constant and in vitro transcorneal drug permeation rate constant) were found to be highly influenced by the formulation, in particular the strength of API, and to a lesser degree by processing variables. Correlating the ocular physiology with the physicochemical characteristics of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment suggested that in vitro quality metrics could be a valuable predictor of its in vivo performance. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Development and characterization of in-situ gel for ophthalmic formulation containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, S B; Patel, V A; Parmar, S J

    2016-01-01

    In situ gels are systems which are applied as solutions or suspensions and are capable of undergoing rapid sol-to-gel transformation triggered by external stimulus such as temperature, pH etc. on instillation. The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate pH responsive in-situ gel for ophthalmic delivery. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is popularly used as a broad spectrum antibiotic in the treatment of corneal ulcers of ocular infections. However, rapid dilution on instillation, wash out, poor retention of drug concentration delimit the therapeutic benefits of the drug when used in form of conventional eye drops. Sodium alginate, an ophthalmic gel forming mucoadhesive polymer was chosen as polymer which undergoes instantaneous gel formation due to formation of calcium alginate by virtue of its interaction with divalent cation (Ca(+2)) present in lachrymal fluid. Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M and E5 0LV) was further incorporated as a viscosity enhancer in order to achieve the desired consistency so as to facilitate sustained drug release. The developed formulations were evaluated for clarity, pH measurement, gelling capacity, drug content, rheological study, and in vitro drug release. Thus, in situ gel based systems containing gums can be a valuable approach for ophthalmic drug delivery when compared to conventional systems.

  18. Financial return-on-investment of ophthalmic interventions: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Gary C; Lieske, Heidi B; Lieske, P Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Although the patient value gain (improvement in quality-of-life and/or length-of-life) has been highlighted in Value-based Medicine cost-utility analyses, the financial value gain associated with healthcare interventions has received less emphasis. It is important for professional healthcare providers to realize their interventions often confer a large financial return-on-investment (ROI) to society. The societal costs associated with vitreoretinal and other ophthalmic interventions include: direct ophthalmic medical costs expended (hospital, physician, drug, diagnostic testing and so forth), direct medical costs saved (decreased costs for depression, injury, skilled nursing facility, nursing home and others), direct nonmedical costs saved (decreased costs for caregivers, transportation, residence costs, moving costs, and others), and indirect medical costs saved (improving employment incidence and wages). The financial ROI for direct ophthalmic medical costs expended for ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration is 450%, whereas that for cataract surgery is 4500% and for medical open-angle glaucoma therapy is 4000%. Many costs gained add to the Gross Domestic Product and increase the wealth of the nation. Many vitreoretinal and other ophthalmologic interventions confer considerable patient value, but also result in a large financial ROI to society. This financial ROI increases the wealth of the nation.

  19. Diffusion-Based Design of Multi-Layered Ophthalmic Lenses for Controlled Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Andreia F R; Serro, Ana Paula; Paradiso, Patrizia; Saramago, Benilde; Colaço, Rogério

    2016-01-01

    The study of ocular drug delivery systems has been one of the most covered topics in drug delivery research. One potential drug carrier solution is the use of materials that are already commercially available in ophthalmic lenses for the correction of refractive errors. In this study, we present a diffusion-based mathematical model in which the parameters can be adjusted based on experimental results obtained under controlled conditions. The model allows for the design of multi-layered therapeutic ophthalmic lenses for controlled drug delivery. We show that the proper combination of materials with adequate drug diffusion coefficients, thicknesses and interfacial transport characteristics allows for the control of the delivery of drugs from multi-layered ophthalmic lenses, such that drug bursts can be minimized, and the release time can be maximized. As far as we know, this combination of a mathematical modelling approach with experimental validation of non-constant activity source lamellar structures, made of layers of different materials, accounting for the interface resistance to the drug diffusion, is a novel approach to the design of drug loaded multi-layered contact lenses.

  20. Total Bolus Extraction Method Improves Arterial Image Quality in Dynamic CTAs Derived from Whole-Brain CTP Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyas Ghariq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purposes. The 320-detector row CT scanner enables visualization of whole-brain hemodynamic information (dynamic CT angiography (CTA derived from CT perfusion scans. However, arterial image quality in dynamic CTA (dCTA is inferior to arterial image quality in standard CTA. This study evaluates whether the arterial image quality can be improved by using a total bolus extraction (ToBE method. Materials and Methods. DCTAs of 15 patients, who presented with signs of acute cerebral ischemia, were derived from 320-slice CT perfusion scans using both the standard subtraction method and the proposed ToBE method. Two neurointerventionalists blinded to the scan type scored the arterial image quality on a 5-point scale in the 4D dCTAs in consensus. Arteries were divided into four categories: (I large extradural, (II intradural (large, medium, and small, (III communicating arteries, and (IV cerebellar and ophthalmic arteries. Results. Quality of extradural and intradural arteries was significantly higher in the ToBE dCTAs than in the standard dCTAs (extradural P=0.001, large intradural P<0.001, medium intradural P<0.001, and small intradural P<0.001. Conclusion. The 4D dCTAs derived with the total bolus extraction (ToBE method provide hemodynamic information combined with improved arterial image quality as compared to standard 4D dCTAs.

  1. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of ophthalmic solutions containing benzalkonium chloride on corneal epithelium using an organotypic 3-D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoh-Reiter, Su; Jessen, Bart A

    2009-01-01

    Background Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a common preservative used in ophthalmic solutions. The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of BAC-containing ophthalmic solutions with a BAC-free ophthalmic solution using an organotypic 3-dimensional (3-D) corneal epithelial model and to determine the effects of latanoprost ophthalmic solution and its BAC-containing vehicle on corneal thickness in a monkey model. Methods The cytotoxicity of commercially available BAC-containing ophthalmic formulations of latanoprost (0.02% BAC) and olopatadine (0.01% BAC) was compared to that of BAC-free travoprost and saline in a corneal organotypic 3-D model using incubation times of 10 and 25 minutes. To compare the extent of differentiation of 3-D corneal cultures to monolayer transformed human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cell cultures, expression levels (mRNA and protein) of the corneal markers epidermal growth factor receptor, transglutaminase 1 and involucrin were quantified. Finally, latanoprost ophthalmic solution or its vehicle was administered at suprapharmacologic doses (two 30 μL drops twice daily in 1 eye for 1 year) in monkey eyes, and corneal pachymetry was performed at baseline and at weeks 4, 13, 26 and 52. Results In the 3-D corneal epithelial culture assays, there were no significant differences in cytotoxicity between the BAC-containing latanoprost and olopatadine ophthalmic solutions and BAC-free travoprost ophthalmic solution at either the 10- or 25-minute time points. The 3-D cultures expressed higher levels of corneal epithelial markers than the HCE-T monolayers, indicating a greater degree of differentiation. There were no significant differences between the corneal thickness of monkey eyes treated with latanoprost ophthalmic solution or its vehicle (both containing 0.02% BAC) and untreated eyes. Conclusion The lack of cytotoxicity demonstrated in 3-D corneal cultures and in monkey studies suggests that the levels of BAC contained in ophthalmic

  2. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of ophthalmic solutions containing benzalkonium chloride on corneal epithelium using an organotypic 3-D model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessen Bart A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a common preservative used in ophthalmic solutions. The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of BAC-containing ophthalmic solutions with a BAC-free ophthalmic solution using an organotypic 3-dimensional (3-D corneal epithelial model and to determine the effects of latanoprost ophthalmic solution and its BAC-containing vehicle on corneal thickness in a monkey model. Methods The cytotoxicity of commercially available BAC-containing ophthalmic formulations of latanoprost (0.02% BAC and olopatadine (0.01% BAC was compared to that of BAC-free travoprost and saline in a corneal organotypic 3-D model using incubation times of 10 and 25 minutes. To compare the extent of differentiation of 3-D corneal cultures to monolayer transformed human corneal epithelial (HCE-T cell cultures, expression levels (mRNA and protein of the corneal markers epidermal growth factor receptor, transglutaminase 1 and involucrin were quantified. Finally, latanoprost ophthalmic solution or its vehicle was administered at suprapharmacologic doses (two 30 μL drops twice daily in 1 eye for 1 year in monkey eyes, and corneal pachymetry was performed at baseline and at weeks 4, 13, 26 and 52. Results In the 3-D corneal epithelial culture assays, there were no significant differences in cytotoxicity between the BAC-containing latanoprost and olopatadine ophthalmic solutions and BAC-free travoprost ophthalmic solution at either the 10- or 25-minute time points. The 3-D cultures expressed higher levels of corneal epithelial markers than the HCE-T monolayers, indicating a greater degree of differentiation. There were no significant differences between the corneal thickness of monkey eyes treated with latanoprost ophthalmic solution or its vehicle (both containing 0.02% BAC and untreated eyes. Conclusion The lack of cytotoxicity demonstrated in 3-D corneal cultures and in monkey studies suggests that the levels of BAC

  3. Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened and narrowed. This is due ...

  4. Mesenteric artery ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001156.htm Mesenteric artery ischemia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage ...

  5. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... off and blocks an artery downstream, if blood seeps into the lining of the artery causing a ... supply to heart muscle is adequate. Exposure to cold, which causes blood vessels to narrow (constrict) and ...

  6. Correlação entre a pressão arterial média e o fluxo sangüíneo na artéria oftalmica externa em gatos (felis catus linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Ferreira Gomçalves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There were used 20 mixed breed cats, both male and female, with body mass between 2 and 4 kilograms, that received anesthesia with tiletamine and zolazepam (6,0 mg/kg. The femoral artery was assepticale cannulated and a manometer connected to an air column was connected to the catheter. The MAP was surveyed before and every 15 minutes until the end of the ultrasound examination. The flow of the external ophthalmic artery was measured through the ultrasond equipment, with an echo-doppler and a sectorial transducer of 6.0 MHz, directly applied to the cornea. Each eye had the artery flow surveyed by the equipment's own device, 3 samples being taken. The vascular resistance index was calculated based on the mean values of systolic and diastolic flow of each vasses. An average value for the MAP of 144.9 ± 26.68 mmHg and a flow of 14.28 ± 41.3 cm/sec for the external ophthalmic artery in the right eye in systole, 23.95 ± 11.46 cm/sec in diastole and 42.75 ± 12.64 cm/sec in the left eye in systole, 25.45 ± 9.61 cm/sec in diastole, were verified, there being no significant difference between the eyes. The calculated index of vascular resistance was of 0.4175 ± 0.0774 for the external ophthalmic artery in the right eye and 0,4015 ± 0.0719 for the left eye, without any significant difference between the eyes. The results point to an intrinsic mechanism of flow control, controlled by local factors in the external ophthalmic artery. The values of the resistance index denote a low flow artery. Concluding, this study revealed the reference values, above cited, for the MAP and the blood flow in the external ophthalmic artery in mixed breed cats, anesthetized with tiletamine and zolazepam, and the information that there is no correlation between these values.

  7. Upper limb arterial thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L V; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Lindholt, J S;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to focus on risk factors, risk-modifying drugs and prognosis for upper limb arterial thromboembolism, and the relationship between upper limb arterial thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation (AF).......The aim of this review is to focus on risk factors, risk-modifying drugs and prognosis for upper limb arterial thromboembolism, and the relationship between upper limb arterial thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation (AF)....

  8. To Compare Efficacy of Hypnosis and Intravenous Sedation in Controlling of Important Variables of Vital Signs and Evaluate the Patient Anxiety Before and after Topical Anesthesia in Ophthalmic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Behnaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress is one of the most important problems among preoperative patients. In order to reduce these signs and symptoms, some medications are used for patients. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of hypnosis to intravenous sedation on controlling the important variables of vital signs and to evaluate the patient anxiety before and after regional or topical anesthesia in ophthalmic surgery.Materials and Methods: This study was designed as a double-blind stratified randomized clinical trial.  Hypnotism was administered to hypnotism group, and midazolam, fentanyl, and propofol were given intravenously to the IV sedation group. The patients were monitored and the baseline variables consisted of mean arterial pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and O2 saturation were registered every 15 minutes during surgery. Patient anxiety was measured via Spielbeger`s State Anxiety Index (STAI score before and after surgery.Results: 90 patients were participated in the study, with 50% (n=45 assigned to hypnosis group and 50% (N=45 assigned to IV sedation group. Patients characteristics, including age, gender, and body mass index (BMI duration of surgery were similar among the groups (P>0.05. Spielbeger`s State Anxiety Index (STAI score before and after surgery were not significantly different in both groups (P>0.05. Heart rate, respiratory rate, mean arterial pressure were lower among hypnosis group as well as this group had higher O2 saturation during surgery (P<0.05.Conclusion: Hypnosis can be an effective means of controlling vital signs at different intervals of starting the ophthalmic surgery compared to intravenous sedation. In the hypnosis group anxiety was similar to IV sedation group, but O2 saturation was more desirable. 

  9. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In coronary artery disease (CAD), the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to your heart muscle grow hardened and narrowed. You may try ... these treatments don't help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new ...

  10. Color Doppler imaging features in patients presenting central retinal artery occlusion with and without giant cell arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Jianu Dragos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Central retinal artery obstruction (CRAO represents an abrupt diminution of blood flow through the CRA that is severe enough to cause ischemia of the inner retina with permanent unilateral visual loss. We presented the role of color Doppler imaging (CDI of orbital vessels and of extracranial duplex sonography (EDS in the etiological diagnosis of CRAO in two patients with clinical suspicion of unilateral CRAO. Case report. Patients were examined following the protocol which included CDI of orbital vessels and EDS. Both patients had no emboli visible on ophthalmoscopy. The B-scan ultrasound evaluation of the first patient found a small round, moderately reflective echo within the right optic nerve, 1.5 mm behind the optic disc (emboli of cholesterol. CDI of retrobulbar vessels revealed the normal right ophthalmic artery (OA hemodynamic parameters, but the first patient had no arterial flow signal on CDI at the distance of 1.5 mm behind the right optic disc. In contrast, the left eye had the normal aspect on CDI of retrobulbar vessels. The right internal carotid artery EDS identified a severe stenosis at its origin as CRA’s emboli source. The second patient had characteristic CDI findings for giant cell arteritis (GCA with eye involvement: severe diminished blood flow velocities, especially end-diastolic velocities, in both CRAs. Less abnormalities were observed in the posterior ciliary arteries, and in the ophthalmic arteries. The second patient had no systemic symptoms or signs of GCA. Conclusion. In the presented cases, the ultrasound investigation enabled prompt differentiation between central retinal artery occlusion of embolic mechanism and CRAO caused by GCA.

  11. Comparative effiacy of marine Streptomyces formulation versus ciproflxacin ophthalmic solution for treating Staphylococcus aureus-induced conjunctivitis in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femina Wahaab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the efficacy of marine actinomycetes in controlling Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus-induced conjunctivitis in experimental rabbit. Methods: The ethyl acetate extracts of the best isolates of actinomycetes from the soil samples of Rameswaram coastal regions, Tamil Nadu, India, were concentrated and re-constituted in buffer and used as actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension in this study. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension was analysed in controlling S. aureusinduced conjunctivitis in rabbit in comparison with that of ciprofloxacin. Results: Among the four best isolates, the RAM25C4 isolate had the highest antimicrobial activity in the secondary screening. Shelf life studies indicated that the activity can be retained for 75 days when it was stored at 8 °C and the optimum temperature for storage was between –20°C and 30°C. The animal model studies indicated that there was a profound anti-conjunctivitis effect. The actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension had better activity than ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution. Conclusions: This is the first time to report that Streptomyces bacillaris strain RAM25C4 has antimicrobial effect in controlling ophthalmic pathogen S. aureus under in vitro condition and the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in controlling S. aureus-induced conjunctivitis.

  12. [Upper extremity arterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, F

    2007-02-01

    Compared to lower limb arterial diseases, upper limb arterial diseases look rare, heterogeneous with various etiologies and a rather vague clinical picture, but with a negligible risk of amputation. Almost all types of arterial diseases can be present in the upper limb, but the anatomical and hemodynamic conditions particular to the upper limb often confuse the issue. Thus, atherosclerosis affects mainly the subclavian artery in its proximal segment where the potential of collateral pathway is high making the symptomatic forms not very frequent whereas the prevalence of subclavian artery stenosis or occlusion is relatively high. The clinical examination and the etiologies are discussed according to the clinical, anatomical and hemodynamic context.

  13. Fundus artery occlusion caused by cosmetic facial injections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanyun; Wang Wenying; Li Jipeng; Yu Yajie; Li Lin; Lu Ning

    2014-01-01

    Background With the increasing popularity of cosmetic facial filler injections in recent years,more and more associated complications have been reported.However,the causative surgical procedures and preventative measures have not been studied well up to now.The aim of this stady was to investigate the clinical characteristics and visual prognosis of fundus artery occlusion resulting from cosmetic facial filler injections.Methods Thirteen consecutive patients with fundus artery occlusion caused by facial filler injections were included.Main outcome measures were filler materials,injection sites,best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA),fundus fluorescein angiography,and associated ocular and systemic manifestations.Results Eleven patients had ophthalmic artery occlusion (OAO) and one patient each had central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION).Injected materials included autologous fat (seven cases),hyaluronic acid (five cases),and bone collagen (one case).Injection sites were the frontal area (five cases),periocular area (two cases),temple area (two cases),and nose area and nasal area (4 cases).Injected autologous fat was associated with worse final BCVA than hyaluronic acid.The BCVA of seven patients with autologous fat injection in frontal area and temple area was no light perception.Most of the patients with OAO had ocular pain,headache,ptosis,ophthalmoplegia,and no improvement in final BCVA.Conclusions Cosmetic facial injections can cause fundus artery occlusion.Autologous fat injection tends to be associated with painful blindness,ptosis,ophthalmoplegia,and poor visual outcomes.The prognosis is much worse with autologous fat injection than hyaluronic acid injection.

  14. Transradial artery coronary angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J; de Melker, E

    1995-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and safety of percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA) with miniaturized PTCA equipment via the radial artery. Coronary angioplasty (PTCA) via the femoral or brachial arteries may be associated with rare vascular complications such as bleeding and damage to the artery and adjacent structures. It was postulated that PTCA via the radial artery with miniaturized angioplasty equipment is feasible and that no major puncture site-related complications occur because hemostasis is obtained easily and because no major structures are near the radial artery. With double blood supply to the hand, radial artery occlusion is well tolerated. In 100 patients with collateral blood supply to the right hand, PTCA was attempted with 6F guiding catheters and rapid-exchange balloon catheters for exertional angina (87 patients) or nonexertional angina (13 patients). Angioplasty was attempted in 122 lesions (type A n = 67 [55%], Type B n = 37 [30%], and type C n = 18 [15%]). Pre- and post-PTCA computerized quantitative coronary analysis was performed. Radial artery function and structure were assessed clinically and with Doppler and two-dimensional ultrasound on the day of discharge. Coronary catheterization via the radial artery was successful in 94 patients (94%). The 6 remaining patients had successful PTCA via the femoral artery (n = 5) or the brachial artery (n = 1). Procedural success (120 of 122 lesions) was achieved in 92 patients (98%) via the radial artery and in 98 patients of the total study population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Effect of pirenzepine ophthalmic solution on form-deprivation myopia in the guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Qi-hua; Cheng, Neng-neng; Wu, Wei; Chu, Ren-yuan

    2005-04-05

    Nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine, was believed to inhibit myopic progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy, through topical administration, of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine in preventing experimentally induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs. Fifty-three guinea pigs, which underwent monocular deprivation with their eyelids sutured, were divided into 6 groups. Three groups were treated with 1%, 2% or 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solutions; the fourth group with atropine; the fifth with saline and the last group left untreated. Ocular refraction, in vivo biometric measurements and wet eye weight were collected before and after the experiment. All the eyes were finally enucleated for histopathological examination to evaluate the possible toxic effects on ocular structures. Animals untreated or treated with saline produced (-2.31+/-1.47) D and (-2.25+/-0.88) D of axial myopia respectively. Those treated with 1% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution produced relative myopia of (-1.63+/-0.48) D, and those under the treatment of 2% and 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution only developed a relative myopia of (-0.89+/-0.42) D and (-0.70+/-0.41) D (F=9.56, Ppirenzepine treated animals was caused by significantly less vitreous chamber elongation and axial elongation of the deprived eyes [2% group: (0.009+/-0.052) mm, 4% group: (0.006+/-0.078) mm] when compared with untreated, saline treated or 1% pirenzepine treated guinea pigs (0.057+/-0.056) mm, (0.064+/-0.053) mm and (0.033+/-0.035) mm, respectively]. Histological examinations revealed no obviously toxic effects on the eyes treated with pirenzepine. Topical administration of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, can prevent induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs by inhibiting axial elongation without obvious damage to ocular tissues.

  16. Characterisation and comparison of ophthalmic instrument quality using a model eye with reverse ray-tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor; Goncharov, Alexander V.

    2013-05-01

    A physical model eye was constructed to test the quality of ophthalmic instruments. The accuracy and precision of two commercially available instruments were analysed. For these instruments, a particular model eye was obtained which mimicked the physical properties that would be usually measured e.g. corneal topography or optical path within the human eye. The model eye was designed using relatively simple optical components (e.g. plano-convex lenses) separated by appropriate intraocular distances taken from the literature. The dimensions of the model eye were known a priori: The lenses used in the construction of the model eye were characterised ac­ cording to values given in the manufacturers' data sheets and also through measurement using an interferometer. The distances between the lens surfaces were calculated using the interferometric data with reverse ray-tracing. Optical paths were calculated as the product of refractive index and axial distance. The errors inherent in mea­ suring these ocular parameters by different ophthalmic instruments can be considered as producing an erroneous value for the overall refractive power of the eye. The latter is a useful metric for comparing various ophthalmic devices where the direct comparison of quality is not possible or is not practical. For example, a 1% error in anterior corneal radius of curvature will have a more detrimental effect than the same error in posterior corneal radius, due to the relative differences in refractive indices at those surface boundaries. To quantify the error in ocular refractive power, a generic eye model was created in ZEMAX optical design software. The parametric errors were then used to compute the overall error in predicting ocular refractive power, thus highlighting the relative importance of individual errors. This work will help in future determination of acceptable levels of metrological errors in ocular instrumentation.

  17. Surfactant-laden soft contact lenses for extended delivery of ophthalmic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Yash; Thomas, Justin C; Tan, Grace; John, Vijay T; Chauhan, Anuj

    2009-02-01

    Eye drops are inefficient means of delivering ophthalmic drugs because of limited bioavailability and these can cause significant side effects due to systemic uptake of the drug. The bioavailability for ophthalmic drugs can be increased significantly by using contact lenses. This study focuses on the development of surfactant-laden poly-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (p-HEMA) contact lenses that can release Cyclosporine A (CyA) at a controlled rate for extended periods of time. We focus on various Brij surfactants to investigate the effects of chain length and the presence of an unsaturated group on the drug release dynamics and partitioning inside the surfactant domains inside the gel. The gels were imaged by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) to obtain direct evidence of the presence of surfactant aggregates in the gel, and to investigate the detailed microstructure for different surfactants. The images show a distribution of nano pores inside the surfactant-laden hydrogels which we speculate are regions of surfactant aggregates, possibly vesicles that have a high affinity for the hydrophobic drug molecule. The gels are further characterized by studying their mechanical and physical properties such as transparency, surface contact angle and equilibrium water content to determine their suitability as extended wear contact lenses. Results show that Brij surfactant-laden p-HEMA gels provide extended release of CyA, and possess suitable mechanical and optical properties for contact lens applications. The gels are not as effective for extended release of two other hydrophobic ophthalmic drugs, dexamethasone (DMS) and dexamethasone 21 acetate (DMSA) because of insufficient partitioning inside the surfactant aggregates.

  18. Effect of ophthalmic filter thickness on predicted monocular dichromatic luminance and chromaticity discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, S P; Little, A C; Adams, A J

    1984-11-01

    The majority of ophthalmic filters, whether they be in the form of spectacles or contact lenses, are absorbance type filters. Although color vision researchers routinely provide spectrophotometric transmission profiles of filters, filter thickness is rarely specified. In this paper, colorimetric tools and volume color theory are used to show that the color of a filter as well as its physical properties are altered dramatically by changes in thickness. The effect of changes in X-Chrom filter thickness on predicted monocular dichromatic luminance and chromaticity discrimination is presented.

  19. Herpes simplex virus ophthalmic disease induced using two different methods of mice inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves Pereira

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Two different procedures for inoculation of HSV on corneas of BALB/c mice were evaluated. The first was by the use of HSV suspensions directly on the corneas and the other was after corneal scarification. Animals by this later method presented greater morbidity and mortality than those of first group, suggesting that inoculation of HSV without scarification of the cornea should be the method of choice for the study of HSV ophthalmic infection. This model showed also be an efficient experimental system to testing antiviral drugs.

  20. Safety comparison of additives in antiglaucoma prostaglandin (PG analog ophthalmic formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Masamichi Fukuda, Shinsuke Shibata, Naoko Shibata, Kenta Hagihara, Hiromoto Yaguchi, Hiromi Osada, Nobuo Takahashi, Eri Kubo, Hiroshi SasakiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, JapanPurpose: To investigate the safety of five types of antiglaucoma prostaglandin analog ophthalmic formulations, and to clarify their differences in accordance with contained additives (preservatives and surface-active agents.Methods: The following five types of ophthalmic solutions and three types of additives were investigated: latanoprost (Xalatan®; latanoprost, tafluprost (Tapros®; tafluprost, bimatoprost (Lumigan®; bimatoprost, travoprost (Travatan®; travoprost, travoprost (Travatan Z®; travoprost-Z, benzalkonium chloride (BAK, polyoxyethylene hardening castor oil 40 (HCO-40, and polysorbate 80 (P-80. These experimental solutions were exposed to the cultured cells of a rabbit-derived corneal cell line for a certain time, and the exposure time causing 50% cell damage (CD50, indicated by the ratio of viable cells to total cells was calculated (in vitro. In addition, corneal resistance (CR was measured and CR ratio (post-treatment CR/pretreatment CR × 100 was calculated (in vivo.Results: CD50 of each ophthalmic solution was the longest with tafluprost, followed by travoprost-Z, bimatoprost, travoprost, and latanoprost. CD50 of 0.005%, 0.01%, and 0.02% BAK was 14.5 minutes, 8.1 minutes, and 4.0 minutes, respectively. The number of viable cells decreased to 60%, 8 minutes after exposure with HCO-40, and 30 minutes after being exposed to P-80. The CR ratio was 81.0% with travoprost and 82.0% with latanoprost, indicating a significant posttreatment reduction of CR (P < 0.05. The CR ratio did not decrease after treatment with tafluprost, travoprost-Z, or bimatoprost. The CR ratio of 0.005%, 0.01%, and 0.02% BAK was 105.0%, 90.5%, and 68.7%, respectively, and that of HCO-40 and P-80 was 108.7% and 114.2%, respectively.Conclusion: BAK

  1. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary sinus diagnosed with an ophthalmic complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtas, Nihat; Kazancioglu, Hakki Oguz; Ezirganli, Seref

    2014-07-01

    Ectopic teeth erupt into regions other than the natural position or should be impacted in unusual location. Etiology of these teeth includes trauma, infection, and developmental diseases; however, in many cases, it is idiopathic. In addition, dentigerous cysts that are related with ectopic teeth may also affect adjacent anatomic regions. The occurrence of ophthalmic complications related with ectopic teeth is a rare situation. In this article, we aimed to present a patient who had a blurred vision thought that resulted from the dentigerous cyst associated with the ectopic third molar in the maxillary sinus roof.

  2. Strategic regulatory entry deterrence: an empirical test in the ophthalmic market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas-Wilson, D

    1989-12-01

    This paper provides an empirical test of the theory of strategic regulatory entry deterrence--the theory that subgroups of firms within an industry will use the regulatory process to increase rivals' costs and thereby deter rivals' entry. The results suggest that the commercial practice restrictions present in the ophthalmic industry deterred chain optical firms' entry into the market. This result in combination with earlier findings that the restrictions increase optometrists' prices suggests that cost-raising strategies can be used to disadvantage rivals or drive them out of the market without the need to lower price.

  3. Herpes simplex virus ophthalmic disease induced using two different methods of mice inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves Pereira

    Full Text Available Two different procedures for inoculation of HSV on corneas of BALB/c mice were evaluated. The first was by the use of HSV suspensions directly on the corneas and the other was after corneal scarification. Animals by this later method presented greater morbidity and mortality than those of first group, suggesting that inoculation of HSV without scarification of the cornea should be the method of choice for the study of HSV ophthalmic infection. This model showed also be an efficient experimental system to testing antiviral drugs.

  4. Simulation of Ophthalmic Alterations at the Arctic, Antarctica and the International Space Station for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio; Gonçalves, Cristiane

    2016-07-01

    Well, we propose a series of long-period medical simulations in scientific bases at the Arctic, at Antarctica and aboard the International Space Station (ISS), involving natural ophthalmic diseases such as radiation, solar and trauma retinopathy, keratoconus, cataract, glaucoma, etc., and ophthalmic alterations by accidental injuries. These natural diseases, without a previous diagnosis, specially those specific retinopathy, appear after 1 month to 1.5 year, in average. Such studies will be valuable for the human deep-space exploration because during long-duration spaceflight, such as staying at the ISS, a Moon base and a manned trip to planet Mars, requires several months within such environments, and during such periods ophthalmic diseases and accidents might eventually occur, which could seriously affect the 'round-the-clock' work schedule of the astronauts and the long-duration spaceflight manned program.

  5. Acute occlusion of the left subclavian artery with artery dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Subclavian steal syndrome is cerebral or brain stem ischemia resulting from diversion of blood flow from the basilar artery to the subclavian artery, which is caused by occlusive disease of either the subclavian artery or the innominate artery before they branch off at the vertebral artery. In the patients with subclavian steal syndrome the subclavian artery is fed by retrograde flow from the vertebral artery via the carotids and the circle of Willis.

  6. Treatment of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula by deep orbital puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, G. [Neuroangiography, Department of Radiology, Charite, Humboldt University Berlin (Germany); Bender, A. [Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Charite, Humboldt University Berlin (Germany); Campi, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hospital San Raffaele, Milan (Italy); Menneking, H. [Dept. of Maxillofacial Surgery, Charite, Humboldt University Berlin (Germany); Lanksch, W.R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Charite, Humboldt University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13 353 Berlin (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    In a patient with progressive ophthalmological problems, including uncontrolled intraocular pressure related to a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula, urgent intervention may be necessary to prevent permanent visual loss. We report a case in which inadequate transarterial embolisation and lack of access for transvenous catheterisation, including a direct approach through the superior ophthalmic vein, preceded percutaneous puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein deep within the orbit, permitting venous occlusion without complications. This case demonstrates that deep orbital puncture of the vein is feasible for occlusion of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula. (orig.)

  7. Bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Totlis, Trifon; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2006-09-01

    The subscapular artery arises from the third part of the axillary artery and gives off the circumflex scapular and the thoracodorsal arteries. Although anatomical variations of the axillary artery are very common, the existence of a unilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery has been described in the literature only once. There are no reports of bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, in the literature. In the present study, a bilateral accessory thoracodorsal artery, originating on either side of the third part of the axillary artery, is described in a 68-year-old female cadaver. All the other branches of the axillary artery had a typical origin, course, distribution and termination. This extremely rare anatomical variation apart from the anatomical importance also has clinical significance for surgeons in this area. Especially, during the dissection or mobilization of the latissimus dorsi that is partly used for coverage problems in many regions of the body and also in dynamic cardiomyoplasty, any iatrogenic injury of this accessory artery may result in ischemia and functional loss of the graft.

  8. Human eye analytical and mesh-geometry models for ophthalmic dosimetry using MCNP6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelocci, Lucas V.; Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: hyoriyaz@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Eye tumors can be treated with brachytherapy using Co-60 plaques, I-125 seeds, among others materials. The human eye has regions particularly vulnerable to ionizing radiation (e.g. crystalline) and dosimetry for this region must be taken carefully. A mathematical model was proposed in the past [1] for the eye anatomy to be used in Monte Carlo simulations to account for dose distribution in ophthalmic brachytherapy. The model includes the description for internal structures of the eye that were not treated in previous works. The aim of this present work was to develop a new eye model based on the Mesh geometries of the MCNP6 code. The methodology utilized the ABAQUS/CAE (Simulia 3DS) software to build the Mesh geometry. For this work, an ophthalmic applicator containing up to 24 model Amersham 6711 I-125 seeds (Oncoseed) was used, positioned in contact with a generic tumor defined analytically inside the eye. The absorbed dose in eye structures like cornea, sclera, choroid, retina, vitreous body, lens, optical nerve and optical nerve wall were calculated using both models: analytical and MESH. (author)

  9. Quality by design approach for understanding the critical quality attributes of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Xu, Xiaoming; Katragadda, Usha; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Yu, Lawrence; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-03-03

    Restasis is an ophthalmic cyclosporine emulsion used for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. There are no generic products for this product, probably because of the limitations on establishing in vivo bioequivalence methods and lack of alternative in vitro bioequivalence testing methods. The present investigation was carried out to understand and identify the appropriate in vitro methods that can discriminate the effect of formulation and process variables on critical quality attributes (CQA) of cyclosporine microemulsion formulations having the same qualitative (Q1) and quantitative (Q2) composition as that of Restasis. Quality by design (QbD) approach was used to understand the effect of formulation and process variables on critical quality attributes (CQA) of cyclosporine microemulsion. The formulation variables chosen were mixing order method, phase volume ratio, and pH adjustment method, while the process variables were temperature of primary and raw emulsion formation, microfluidizer pressure, and number of pressure cycles. The responses selected were particle size, turbidity, zeta potential, viscosity, osmolality, surface tension, contact angle, pH, and drug diffusion. The selected independent variables showed statistically significant (p quality control or sameness of cyclosporine ophthalmic products.

  10. IN-SITU OPHTHALMIC GELS FOR THE TREATMENT OF EYE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jothi, S.L. Harikumar* and Geeta Aggarwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Topical administration of a drug in the conjunctival cul-de-sac is the treatment of choice for diseases of the anterior segment of eye. Development of ophthalmic drug delivery systems has always been challenging because of the drawbacks with this route, like non-productive absorption, drainage, induced lacrimation, tear turn over, impermeability of drugs to cornea. New approaches have been investigated for delivery of drugs to the eye by means of polymeric delivery of ophthalmic drugs to the pre-and intra ocular tissues, have been attempted to increase the bioavailability and the duration of therapeutic action of ocular drug. Certain new approaches to increase the ocular bioavailability, duration of the drug action and to reduce the undesirable side effects are by using drug carriers that regulate pre-corneal drug loss and improve the corneal contact time. Many of these systems prolong ocular bioavailability but do not control drug penetration through the cornea. Consequently, the drug concentration at the site of action might remain inadequate. Therefore, it is necessary to develop safer, efficacious and more acceptable ocular therapeutic system. The ocular bioavailability of the drugs can be improved by prolonging their residence time in the cul-de-sac and by increasing their corneal permeability. There are various new dosage forms like in-situ gel, collagen shield, etc.

  11. Declaring Conflict of Interest - Current State of Affairs in the Ophthalmic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jamie Lea; Aubert Bonn, Noemie; Craenen, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The importance of transparency with financial ties in biomedical research is widely recognized, and most peer-reviewed journals require declarations of Conflicts of Interest (COI). Nonetheless, variability in the consistency of declarations of COI has been sparsely assessed. To assess consistency and rates of COI declarations in the ophthalmic literature and the effectiveness of journal COI policies. We analyzed consistency and completeness of declaration of COI in the ophthalmic literature and compared the levels of completeness to specific journal requirements. Six-hundred forty-two peer reviewed articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. In 64%, COIs were unreported, in 25% declaration of COI was incomplete, and 11% of the articles reviewed had complete declaration of COI. Of the 33 journals in which the most frequently published authors' articles appeared, 10 required the authors to complete the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) form or an equivalent form, but this did not affect the rates of COI declaration. In a random sampling of the most frequently published authors in the field of ophthalmology, declaration of COI was low and highly inconsistent. Requiring a standardized COI form has no significant effect on the rate of accurate COI reporting. Our findings lend support to the growing body of literature that shows that journals and editors may need to take a more active role in ensuring accurate and consistent COI reporting.

  12. The rule of five for non-oral routes of drug delivery: ophthalmic, inhalation and transdermal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Young Bin; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2011-05-01

    The Rule of Five predicts suitability of drug candidates, but was developed primarily using orally administered drugs. Here, we test whether the Rule of Five predicts drugs for delivery via non-oral routes, specifically ophthalmic, inhalation and transdermal. We assessed 111 drugs approved by FDA for those routes of administration and found that >98% of current non-oral drugs have physicochemical properties within the limits of the Rule of Five. However, given the inherent bias in the dataset, this analysis was not able to assess whether drugs with properties outside those limits are poor candidates. Indeed, further analysis indicates that drugs well outside the Rule of Five limits, including hydrophilic macromolecules, can be delivered by inhalation. In contrast, drugs currently administered across skin fall within more stringent limits than predicted by the Rule of Five, but new transdermal delivery technologies may make these constraints obsolete by dramatically increasing skin permeability. The Rule of Five does appear to apply well to ophthalmic delivery. We conclude that although current non-oral drugs mostly have physicochemical properties within the Rule of Five thresholds, the Rule of Five should not be used to predict non-oral drug candidates, especially for inhalation and transdermal routes.

  13. Determination of benzalkonium chloride in viscous ophthalmic drops of azithromycin by high-performance liquid chromatography *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Xu, Sheng-jie; Wang, Shi-chun; Tu, Jia-sheng

    2009-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system was used in the reversed phase mode for the determination of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) in azithromycin viscous ophthalmic drops. A Venusil-XBP(L)-C18 (150 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column was used at 50 °C. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol-potassium phosphate (16:5, v/v). Two sample preparation methods were compared. The results suggested that, compared with an extraction procedure, a deproteinization procedure was much quicker and more convenient. Using the deproteinization procedure for sample preparation, calibration curves were linear in the range 5.0~50 μg/ml. The within-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%. The average recoveries were determined as 96.70%, 98.52%, and 97.96% at concentrations of 10.0, 30.0, and 50.0 μg/ml, respectively. Variability in precision did not exceed 5%. In conclusion, this HPLC method using a simple sample treatment procedure appears suitable for monitoring BKC content in azithromycin viscous ophthalmic drops. PMID:19946951

  14. Two cases of myotonic dystrophy manifesting various ophthalmic findings with genetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of myotonic dystrophy in one family; both diagnosed from genetic analysis following ophthalmic indications, but before the manifestation of systemic symptoms. A 39-year-old female visited our clinic for routine examination. Mild ptosis, sluggish pupillary response, and bilateral snowflake cataracts were found. Fundus examination revealed an increased cup-to-disc ratio (CDR in both eyes and a defect in the retinal nerve fiber layer in the right eye. Intraocular pressure was low, but within the normal range in both eyes. Because cataracts are characteristic of myotonic dystrophy, we suggested that her 14-year-old daughter, who did not have any systemic complaints, undergo ophthalmic examination. She also had mild ptosis and snowflake cataracts. Both patients underwent genetic evaluation and were diagnosed with myotonic dystrophy caused by unstable expansion of cytosine-thymine-guanine trinucleotide repeats in the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase gene. Ophthalmologists can diagnose myotonic dystrophy based on clinical and genetic findings, before the manifestation of systemic abnormalities.

  15. [Case of ruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm splitting the optic nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taku; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Sakuma, Jun; Suzuki, Kyouichi; Matsumoto, Masato; Sato, Masanori; Itakura, Takeshi; Kodama, Namio

    2009-04-01

    A rare case of ruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm splitting the optic nerve was reported. A 52-year-old man presented with a sudden severe headache and bilateral visual deterioration. His right visual acuity was hand motion and the left was 2.0. His left visual field revealed a partial defect of the temporal visual field. Three-dimensional CT angiography revealed an ophthalmic aneurysm of 9 mm projecting superior-medially, The operation was performed to preserve the visual function as much as possible. The C2 portion aneurysm splitting the right optic nerve was visible. Before aneurysm clipping, the right anterior clinoid process and optic canal were drilled out to reduce the tension of the optic nerve. Intraoperative monitoring of visual evoked potential (VEP) under propofol anesthesia was performed to prevent further visual disturbance. Electroretinogram (ERG) was introduced to ascertain the arrival of the light stimulus at the retina even when the VEP could not be recorded. The right ERG was recorded, but the right VEP was flat. Both ERG and VEP were reproducible on the left side. Six months after the operation, the right visual acuity had improved to 0.08 and the visual field revealed nasal hemianopsia. The left visual acuity was unchanged while the visual field had improved to upper temporal quadrant hemianopsia. Various attempts to preserve the visual function were discussed.

  16. Voriconazole Composited Polyvinyl Alcohol/Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Nanofibers for Ophthalmic Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyi; Cai, Zhengyuan; Yu, Lingyan; Lv, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole (VRC) incorporated in composited polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) blended nanofibers were produced via electrospinning for efficient ophthalmic delivery. The VRC loading capacity increased with increasing HPβCD content. The optimal solution for electrospinning consisted of 8% (w/v) PVA, 4% (w/v) HPβCD and 0.5% (w/v) VRC. The nanofibers exhibited bead-free average fiber diameters of 307±31 nm and VRC was released in vitro in a sustained manner. The VRC nanofibers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) was used to analyze the molar ratio of HPβCD/VRC in the nanofibers. Compared with a VRC solution, the nanofibers significantly prolonged the half life, and increased the bioavailability of VRC in rabbit tears. No obvious signs of irritation were observed after application in the conjunctival sac. VRC nanofibers are promising for ophthalmic drug delivery and further pharmacodynamics studies are needed. PMID:27974859

  17. Doxycycline and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex in poloxamer thermal sensitive hydrogel for ophthalmic delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-xin He

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to prepare a chemically and physically stable formulation of doxycycline (Doxy in an in situ thermally sensitive hydrogel for ophthalmic delivery. An inclusion complex of Doxy and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD was first developed to increase the stability of Doxy in aqueous solution. The physical characteristics (phase solubility profiles, thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffractograms and infrared spectra of the Doxy-HP-β-CD inclusion complex indicated the formation of a stable 1:1 complex. Poloxamers P407 (16–22% and P188 (0–5% were mixed to obtain a hydrogel with an appropriate gelation temperature for opthalmic use. Formulation of the inclusion complex in the poloxamer hydrogel exhibited a suitable gelation temperature (33.3 °C after dilution with simulated tear fluid (Gel:STF=40:7, v/v. The release of Doxy from the poloxamer hydrogel followed a zero order equation suggesting it occurs through corrosion of the poloxamer hydrogel. Stability studies demonstrated that the inclusion of Doxy by HP-β-CD markedly improved its stability in aqueous solution both at 8 and 40 °C. This formulation of a doxycycline-HP-β-CD inclusion complex in an in situ thermally sensitive poloxamer hydrogel represents a potentially effective ophthalmic Doxy delivery system.

  18. Reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests of the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Shaw, Gillian; Mattos, Bianca Chaim; Russ, Heloisa Helena Abil; Vilani, Ricardo G D'O C

    2008-01-01

    To perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in healthy capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with the aim of establishing normal physiological reference values for this species. A total of 15 healthy, capuchin monkeys were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Five of the 15 monkeys were used for the evaluation of normal conjunctival flora. Ages varied from 6 to 20 years of age. Selected diagnostic ocular tests were performed including Schirmer tear test (STT), tonometry using an applanation tonometer (Tonopen), central corneal thickness (CCT) using an ultrasonic pachymeter (Sonomed, Micropach), Model 200P+) and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial flora. Results for selected ocular diagnostic tests investigated here for the capuchin monkey eye were as follows: IOP: 18.4 +/- 3.8 mmHg; STT: 14.9 +/- 5.1 mm/min; CCT: 0.46 +/- 0.03 mm. No statistically significant differences between ages or genders were found for any of the results. Streptococcus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. were isolated from healthy conjunctival and eyelid margins, suggesting they are normal constituents of the conjunctival flora of the capuchin monkey. The data obtained in this investigation will help veterinary ophthalmologists and laboratory animal medicine specialists to more accurately diagnose ocular diseases in the capuchin monkey. These ophthalmic reference values will be particularly useful to diagnose discrete or unusual pathological changes of the capuchin monkey eye.

  19. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  20. Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muqeetadnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy.

  1. Arterial waveform analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Stephen A; Pinsky, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    The bedside measurement of continuous arterial pressure values from waveform analysis has been routinely available via indwelling arterial catheterization for >50 years. Invasive blood pressure monitoring has been utilized in critically ill patients, in both the operating room and critical care units, to facilitate rapid diagnoses of cardiovascular insufficiency and monitor response to treatments aimed at correcting abnormalities before the consequences of either hypo- or hypertension are seen. Minimally invasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (CO) have gained increased appeal. This has led to the increased interest in arterial waveform analysis to provide this important information, as it is measured continuously in many operating rooms and intensive care units. Arterial waveform analysis also allows for the calculation of many so-called derived parameters intrinsically created by this pulse pressure profile. These include estimates of left ventricular stroke volume (SV), CO, vascular resistance, and during positive-pressure breathing, SV variation, and pulse pressure variation. This article focuses on the principles of arterial waveform analysis and their determinants, components of the arterial system, and arterial pulse contour. It will also address the advantage of measuring real-time CO by the arterial waveform and the benefits to measuring SV variation. Arterial waveform analysis has gained a large interest in the overall assessment and management of the critically ill and those at a risk of hemodynamic deterioration.

  2. Urgent treatment of severe symptomatic direct carotid cavernous fistula caused by ruptured cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm using high-flow bypass, proximal ligation, and direct distal clipping: Technical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF secondary to ruptured carotid cavernous aneurysms (CCAs is rare, but patients with this condition who develop acutely worsening and severe neuro-ophthalmic symptoms require urgent treatment. Endovascular methods are the first-line option, but this modality may not be available on an urgent basis. Case Description: In this article, we report a 45-year-old female with severe direct CCF due to rupture of the CCA. She presented with intractable headache and acute worsening of double vision and visual acuity. Emergent radiographic study revealed high-flow fistula tracked from the CCA toward the contralateral cavernous sinus and drained into the engorged left superior orbital vein. To prevent permanent devastating neuro-ophthalmic damages, urgent high-flow bypass with placement of a radial artery graft was performed followed by right cervical internal carotid artery (ICA ligation and the clipping of the ICA at the C3 portion, proximal to the ophthalmic artery. In the immediate postoperative period, her symptoms resolved and angiography confirmed patency of the high-flow bypass and complete occlusion of the CCF. Conclusion: With due consideration of strategy and techniques to secure safety, open surgical intervention with trapping and bypass is a good treatment option for direct severe CCF when the endovascular method is not available, not possible, or is unsuccessful.

  3. Anomalous origin of right coronary artery from pulmonary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous origin of coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare anomaly that most frequently involves the left coronary artery and very rarely the right coronary artery. These lesions can be missed on echocardiography unless carefully looked for. We describe a case of isolated anomalous origin of right coronary artery from pulmonary artery diagnosed on echocardiography and confirmed by computed tomography (CT angiography.

  4. Ophthalmic experience over 10 years in an observational nationwide Danish cohort of Fabry patients with access to enzyme replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C.; Sandfeld, Lisbeth; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was offered from year 2001 to patients with Fabry disease. The ophthalmic experience was analysed, as part of a general 10-year status. METHODS: A retrospective observational series comprising 39 patients (25 females, 14 males) closely followed by the end...

  5. Protective Effect of Tea Polyphenol Ophthalmic Gel on Lens Epithelial Cells in Rabbits with Silicone Oil Tamponade after Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhen Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols (TP ophthalmic gel on lens epithelial cells (LECs in rabbits with silicone oil tamponade after vitrectomy. Methods. In this study, unilateral vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade was performed using 2-month-old New Zealand white rabbits (n = 72; meanwhile, age-matched nonoperated rabbits (n = 18 were used as controls. The TP ophthalmic gel was administered topically in the surgical eyes till they were sacrificed. On days 45 and 90 after operation, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, and apoptosis of LECs were analyzed, respectively. Meanwhile, caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels were also determined. Results. The results indicate that the levels of ROS and apoptosis were elevated for LECs in rabbits after operation, whereas ΔΨm was decreased. Caspase-3 was apparently increased at both mRNA and protein levels. Treatment of TP ophthalmic gel could reduce the generation of ROS, maintain ΔΨm, inhibit the overexpression of caspase-3, and thus decrease the apoptosis of LECs of rabbits after operation. Conclusions. TP ophthalmic gel can efficiently inhibit caspase-3 overexpression, reduce the apoptosis of LECs, and prevent LECs from damage. Our result provides a new approach to prevent the development of complicated cataract after vitrectomy.

  6. A European perspective on costs and cost effectiveness of ophthalmic combinations in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommer, A.; Thygesen, J.; Ferreras, A.;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Efficacy, safety, and cost implications are important considerations when choosing an ophthalmic treatment. Fixed-combination glaucoma medications containing brimonidine 0.2% and timolol 0.5%, or dorzolamide 2% and timolol 0.5%, were compared with brimonidine 0.2% and dorzolamide 2...

  7. The north Jutland county diabetic retinopathy study (NCDRS) 2. Non-ophthalmic parameters and clinically significant macular oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Loumann; Lervang, Hans-Henrik; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Background: The influence of non-ophthalmic parameters on the prevalence of clinically significant macular oedema has not been unambiguously established. The present study was initiated with the aim of clarification. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 656 type 1 and 328 type 2 diabetic...

  8. Epinastine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not wear contact lenses if your eyes are red or irritated, and you should not use epinastine eye drops to treat irritation that you think may be caused by contact lenses. You should also not instill epinastine eye drops while you are wearing contact lenses. Remove your contact lenses before you ...

  9. OPHTHALMIC EDUCATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-04-24

    Apr 24, 2008 ... Evaluation of Competence of Medical Students in Performing ... satisfactory and may have reflected self-reported challenges faced in CDR estimation by the ... Examination-Success ... in update courses, If the courses improved understanding, If part 1 ... and14 (27.45%) were fellows of West African College.

  10. Sulfacetamide Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discolored eye drops (yellowish brown to deep reddish brown).Unneeded medications should be disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, you should not flush this medication down the toilet. Instead, the best way to dispose ...

  11. Dexamethasone Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and swelling of eye caused by chemicals, heat, radiation, infection, allergy, or foreign bodies in the eye. ... open them easily. To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the ...

  12. Prednisolone Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swelling of eye inflammation caused by chemicals, heat, radiation, infection, allergy, or foreign bodies in the eye. ... open them easily. To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the ...

  13. Atropine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye examinations to dilate (open) the pupil, the black part of the eye through which you see. ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ...

  14. Metipranolol Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Metipranolol is in a class of medications called beta-blockers. It works by decreasing the pressure in the ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to metipranolol, beta blockers, or any other medications.tell your doctor and ...

  15. Timolol Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Timolol is in a class of medications called beta-blockers. It works by decreasing the pressure in the ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to timolol, beta blockers, or any other drugs.tell your doctor and ...

  16. Levobunolol Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Levobunolol is in a class of medications called beta blockers. It works by decreasing the pressure in the ... pharmacist if you are allergic to levobunolol, other beta blockers, sulfites, or any other drugs.tell your doctor ...

  17. Pilocarpine Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the gel. Remove ... not go away: blurred or dim vision stinging, burning, or discomfort in the eye itching or redness ...

  18. Tobramycin Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ... not go away: eye tearing itching, stinging, or burning of the eye swelling of the eye temporary ...

  19. Bacitracin Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ... or do not go away: itching, stinging, or burning of the eye Bacitracin eye ointment may cause ...

  20. Erythromycin Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone else apply the ointment. Avoid ... do not go away: redness, itching, stinging, or burning of the eye Erythromycin eye ointment may cause ...

  1. Ophthalmic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Stevens

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Eye health workers carry out many basic routine procedures. Sometimes bad practice develops and this, in turn, may lead to new members of staff learning unsafe methods. Community Eye Health Journal plans to run a series on practical procedures, when applicable, relating to the theme.

  2. Unoprostone Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color, or number of your eyelashes, or fine hair on your eyelids. The eyelash changes and any ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  3. Tafluprost Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color, or number of your eyelashes, or fine hair on your eyelids. The eyelash changes and any ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  4. Betaxolol Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go away: eye irritation eye tearing headache dizziness insomnia Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: difficulty breathing change in ...

  5. Tetrahydrozoline Ophthalmic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... irritation and redness caused by colds, pollen, and swimming. ... must be kept clean. While tilting your head back, pull down the lower lid of your eye ... of your medication is through a medicine take-back program. Talk to your pharmacist or contact your ...

  6. Effects of pirenzepine ophthalmic solution on form-deprivation myopia in the guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Qi-hua; CHENG Neng-neng; WU Wei; CHU Ren-yuan

    2005-01-01

    Background Nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine, was believed to inhibit myopic progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy, through topical administration, of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine in preventing experimentally induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs.Methods Fifty-three guinea pigs, which underwent monocular deprivation with their eyelids sutured, were divided into 6 groups. Three groups were treated with 1%, 2% or 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solutions; the fourth group with atropine; the fifth with saline and the last group left untreated. Ocular refraction, in vivo biometric measurements and wet eye weight were collected before and after the experiment. All the eyes were finally enucleated for histopathological examination to evaluate the possible toxic effects on ocular structures.Results Animals untreated or treated with saline produced (-2.31±1.47) D and (-2.25±0.88) D of axial myopia respectively. Those treated with 1% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution produced relative myopia of (-1.63±0.48) D, and those under the treatment of 2% and 4% pirenzepine ophthalmic solution only developed a relative myopia of (-0.89±0.42) D and (-0.70±0.41) D (F=9.56, P<0.05). The significant reduction in myopia in 2% and 4% pirenzepine treated animals was caused by significantly less vitreous chamber elongation and axial elongation of the deprived eyes [2% group: (0.009±0.052) mm, 4% group: (0.006±0.078) mm] when compared with untreated, saline treated or 1% pirenzepine treated guinea pigs [(0.057±0.056) mm, (0.064±0.053) mm and (0.033±0.035) mm, respectively]. Histological examinations revealed no obviously toxic effects on the eyes treated with pirenzepine.Conclusion Topical administration of the M1-selective muscarinic antagonist, pirenzepine, can prevent induced form-deprivation myopia in guinea pigs by inhibiting axial elongation without obvious damage to ocular tissues.

  7. Optimization and evaluation of a thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gel containing curcumin-loaded albumin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jie Lou,1 Wenjing Hu,2 Rui Tian,3 Hua Zhang,1 Yuntao Jia,4 Jingqing Zhang,1 Liangke Zhang11Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2Chongqing Xijiao Hospital, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 3The Experimental Teaching Centre, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pharmacy, Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: This study aimed to optimize and evaluate a thermoresponsive ophthalmic in situ gel containing curcumin-loaded albumin nanoparticles (Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel. Albumin nanoparticles were prepared via a desolvation method, and the gels were prepared via a cold method. The central composite design and response surface method was used to evaluate the effects of varying Pluronic® F127 and Pluronic® F68 concentrations on the sol–gel transition temperature, which is an indicator of optimum formulations. The optimized formulation was a free-flowing liquid below 30.9°C that transformed into a semi-solid gel above 34.2°C after dilution with simulated tear fluid. Results of the in vitro release and erosion behavior study indicated that Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel achieved superior sustained-release effects and that incorporation of albumin nanoparticles exerted minimal effects on the gel structure. In addition, in vivo ophthalmic experiments employing Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel were subsequently performed in rabbits. In vivo eye irritation results showed that Cur-BSA-NPs-Gel might be considered safe for ophthalmic drug delivery. The in vivo study also revealed that the formulation could significantly increase curcumin bioavailability in the aqueous humor. In conclusion, the optimized in situ gel formulation developed in this work has significant potential for ocular application.Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, sustained release

  8. Scientific publications in ophthalmic journals from China and other top-ranking countries: a 12-year review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Wang, Wei; Zhan, Jiao; Zhou, Minwen; Chen, Shida; Zhang, Xiulan

    2013-06-26

    Eye diseases with increasing mortality are common health problems that affect people of all ages and demographic backgrounds. In this study, we study the publication characteristics in international ophthalmic journals of the US, the UK, Germany, Australia, Japan, and China. Articles published in 53 ophthalmic journals from 2000 to 2011 were retrieved from the PubMed database. We recorded the number of articles published each year, analyzed the publication type, and evaluated the accumulated and average impact factors (IFs), and the distribution of articles in ophthalmic journals in relation to IFs. The characteristics of publication outputs from China and other top-ranking countries were compared. The total number of articles increased significantly during the past 12 years, with an increase of 51.0%. The growth in the annual number of articles from the US, the UK, Australia, and China showed a significantly positive trend. Publications from the US exceeded those from any other country and had the highest IFs, largest number of total citations of articles, and the most articles published in leading ophthalmic journals. During the past 12 years, China contributed 3.5% of the total publications, and the number of Chinese articles showed a more than 6-fold increase (from 99 to 605, R2 =0.947, P<0.001). The numbers of IFs and citations of articles originating in China were mostly lower than for other top-ranking counties. Research on ophthalmic journals has maintained an upward growing trend from 2000 to 2011. Chinese ophthalmology research has developed rapidly, but the gap still exists between China and other top-ranking countries for the advanced level of research.

  9. Arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Hillingsø, Jens; Christensen, E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although low arterial oxygen tension (Po2) has been claimed to occur in one to two thirds of patients with cirrhosis, hypoxaemia appears to be rare in clinical practice. AIMS: To assess the frequency of arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis in relation to clinical and haemodynamic......%, 96%, 96%, and 93% (NS). So2 was below the lower limit of 92% in 0%, 9%, 7%, and 24% (p arterial carbon dioxide tension, a low systemic vascular...... resistance, and a low indocyanine green clearance (p arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis is about 22% in patients without encephalopathy, but it varies from 10-40% depending on the degree of hepatic dysfunction. Arterial hypoxaemia in patients with cirrhosis of differing...

  10. Color Doppler evaluation of the ocular arterial flow changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Tulay [Department of Radiology, Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Tip Fakueltesi, Radyoloji AD, 67600-Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozertulay@yahoo.com; Altin, Remzi [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Ugurbas, Suat Hayri [Department of Ophthalmology, Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Ozer, Yetkin [Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Mahmutyazicioglu, Kamran [Department of Radiology, Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Tip Fakueltesi, Radyoloji AD, 67600-Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Kart, Levent [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Karaelmas University, School of Medicine, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2006-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the hemodynamic changes in the extraocular orbital vessels of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) technique, and to compare the results with those of healthy control subjects. Methods: Forty-five patients with COPD and 17 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Patients with COPD were classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Fifteen patients of stage I COPD (mild airflow limitation), stage II COPD (worsening airflow limitation) or stage III COPD (severe airflow limitation) were enrolled into Group I, II and III, respectively. End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO{sub 2}), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}), pulse rate (PR) and respiratory rate (RR) were measured by using capnograph/pulse oximeter in all patients. Measurements were performed in only one randomly chosen eye of each participant. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistance index (RI) were measured in the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), lateral short posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) and medial short posterior ciliary artery (MPCA), using CDU technique. Results: The PSV measurements of the OA were significantly higher in Groups II and III compared to control group (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively). The RI values from OA and CRA were significantly higher in Group II and III than the control group (p < 0.05). The RI values of LPCA and MPCA were also significantly higher in Group II than the control subjects (p < 0.05). When RI values were compared, mean values of LPCA and MPCA were significantly lower in Group III than in Group II (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between Group I and control patients about PSVs, EDVs and RI values of all arteries Statistically significant correlations were found for the EtCO{sub 2} with PSV (r = 0.53, p < 0.01) and EDV (r = 0.51, p < 0.01) of the

  11. Transorbital superior ophthalmic vein sacrifice to preserve vision in ocular hypertension from aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; Davis, Brandon J; He, Lucy; Mawn, Louise A; Mocco, J

    2015-12-01

    Aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is rare and may clinically masquerade as a carotid cavernous fistula. Conventional management includes oral anticoagulation, but cases of ocular hypertension affecting vision may require more aggressive intervention. We report a case of a woman with spontaneous bilaterally occluded cavernous sinuses with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which resolved immediately following unilateral superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) sacrifice. She was subsequently placed on oral anticoagulants. By 4 months postoperatively her IOP was normalized and her vision had improved. Repeat angiography demonstrated stable venous filling, with some mild improvement of flow through the cavernous sinus. Coil-mediated sacrifice of the SOV might be an effective means to relieve ocular hypertension and preserve vision in the setting of aseptic CST.

  12. Broadband superluminescent diode–based ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography for ophthalmic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dexi; Shen, Meixiao; Jiang, Hong; Li, Ming; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Yuhong; Ge, Lili; Qu, Jia; Wang, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with ultrahigh resolution can be used to measure precise structures in the context of ophthalmic imaging. We designed an ultrahigh resolution SD-OCT system based on broadband superluminescent diode (SLD) as the light source. An axial resolution of 2.2 μm in tissue, a scan depth of 1.48 mm, and a high sensitivity of 93 dB were achieved by the spectrometer designed. The ultrahigh-resolution SD-OCT system was employed to image the human cornea and retina with a cross-section image of 2048 × 2048 pixels. Our research demonstrated that ultrahigh -resolution SD-OCT can be achieved using broadband SLD in a simple way. PMID:22191923

  13. Broadband superluminescent diode-based ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography for ophthalmic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dexi; Shen, Meixiao; Jiang, Hong; Li, Ming; Wang, Michael R; Wang, Yuhong; Ge, Lili; Qu, Jia; Wang, Jianhua

    2011-12-01

    Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with ultrahigh resolution can be used to measure precise structures in the context of ophthalmic imaging. We designed an ultrahigh resolution SD-OCT system based on broadband superluminescent diode (SLD) as the light source. An axial resolution of 2.2 μm in tissue, a scan depth of 1.48 mm, and a high sensitivity of 93 dB were achieved by the spectrometer designed. The ultrahigh-resolution SD-OCT system was employed to image the human cornea and retina with a cross-section image of 2048 × 2048 pixels. Our research demonstrated that ultrahigh -resolution SD-OCT can be achieved using broadband SLD in a simple way.

  14. Automatic segmentation of closed-contour features in ophthalmic images using graph theory and dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephanie J; Toth, Cynthia A; Bowes Rickman, Catherine; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a generalized framework for segmenting closed-contour anatomical and pathological features using graph theory and dynamic programming (GTDP). More specifically, the GTDP method previously developed for quantifying retinal and corneal layer thicknesses is extended to segment objects such as cells and cysts. The presented technique relies on a transform that maps closed-contour features in the Cartesian domain into lines in the quasi-polar domain. The features of interest are then segmented as layers via GTDP. Application of this method to segment closed-contour features in several ophthalmic image types is shown. Quantitative validation experiments for retinal pigmented epithelium cell segmentation in confocal fluorescence microscopy images attests to the accuracy of the presented technique.

  15. Ophthalmic effects of petroleum dispersant exposure on common murres (Uria aalge): An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V; Freeman, Kate; Elias, Becky A; Whitmer, Emily; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2016-12-15

    The safety of chemical dispersants used during oil spill responses is largely unknown in birds. We captured common murres in Monterey Bay, CA and exposed them to Corexit EC9500a, crude oil, or a combination in artificial seawater. We performed ophthalmic examinations and measured intraocular pressures and tear production before and after exposure. Loglinear analysis found that exposure to oil or dispersant was related to the development of conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers. Odds ratios for birds exposed to oil or dispersant were positive and significant for the development of conjunctivitis, while odds ratios for the development of corneal ulcers were positive and significant only for birds exposed to a high concentration of oil. Ocular exposure to dispersants and petroleum in seabirds may cause conjunctivitis and may play a role in the development of corneal ulcers. These results have implications for policymakers who develop protocols for the use of dispersants during marine oil spills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Profiling extractable and leachable inorganic impurities in ophthalmic drug containers by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paige; Nelson, Jenny

    2017-08-24

    In this study, we investigated the elemental impurities present in the plastic material of ophthalmic eye drop bottles using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Metallic contaminations, especially localized within the small cavity of the eye, can significantly perturb the ocular metallome. The concern is two-fold: first certain elements, for example heavy metals, can be toxic to humans at even trace levels, and second, these contaminations can have adverse reactions with other medicines or enzymatic processes in the eye. The implication of redox-active metals in cataract formation is one such biological consequence. The analysis demonstrated the effect of aggressive storage and transportation conditions on elemental extractable and leachable contamination, and posits that release of these elemental impurities can disrupt metallome equilibrium in the ocular compartment, leading to toxicity and disease.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Ultraviolet and Visible Light Transmittance through Prescriptive Ophthalmic Minus Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Nazari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wearing spectacles is the most common approach in correcting the refractive errors worldwide. Due to harmful effects of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiations, the usage of multi-layer coatings in ophthalmic lenses has recently been increased. These lenses can reduce the reflections and hence increase the transmission of visible light; they can also decrease the transmission of ultraviolet rays. This study aims to compare the transmission of ultraviolet (A and B and visible rays through coated and uncoated prescriptive ophthalmic plastic lenses.Materials and Methods: In this study, 39 minus non-photochromic multi-coated white plastic single-vision lenses; 9 similar lenses but without any coatings were assessed by spectral transmittancemeter for evaluation of the transmission of visible and ultraviolet rays.Results: The transmission of visible light was 97.9%±1.07% for coated lenses and 93.5%±0.54% for lenses without coating. Ultraviolet-A transmission was 12.15%±8.02% for coated lenses compared to 66.27%±23.92% in lenses without coating. The transmission of ultraviolet-B rays was 1.21%±0.4% and 23.0%±15.97% for lenses with and without coatings, respectively.Conclusion: The transmission of visible light was significantly higher in multi-coated lenses compared to uncoated samples; whereas the transmissions of ultraviolet rays in multi-coated lenses were significantly lower than uncoated ones. Therefore, it is recommended that, except for particular cases, prescribed lenses be equipped with this multi-layer coating.

  18. Evaluation of dacryocystorhinostomy using optical coherence tomography and rebamipide ophthalmic suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Masahiro Fujimoto,1 Ken Ogino,1 Chika Miyazaki,1,2 Miou Hirose,1,3 Hiroko Matsuyama,1,4 Takeshi Moritera,1,5 Nagahisa Yoshimura1 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo Prefectural Tsukaguchi Hospital, Hyogo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki Hospital, Hyogo, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology, National Hospital Organization Himeji Medical Center, Hyogo, Japan; 5Moritera Eye Clinic, Shiga, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the surgical outcome of dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR by measuring the tear meniscus, using optical coherence tomography and rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Methods: Patients with nasolacrimal obstruction and chronic dacryocystitis who were scheduled for an endonasal DCR underwent tear meniscus examinations before and 2 months after surgery. Vertical scans of the inferior menisci were performed before and at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 minutes after the instillation of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. The tear menisci areas were measured with imaging software. Ten young adults without epiphora formed the control group.Results: Anatomical success was achieved on 22 sides of 21 patients. The patients’ postoperative tear menisci were significantly smaller than the preoperative menisci at all points during the test, and the response to volume loading in the postoperative patients was corrected to nearly that of the young, healthy adults. Nevertheless, the postoperative meniscus area tended to be larger than that of the young adults at all points.Conclusion: The reduced tear meniscus area after DCR reflected the success of the surgical procedure. However, incomplete recovery of the meniscus after the test might suggest a residual disorder of the lacrimal drainage system after DCR. Keywords: dacryocystorhinostomy, tear meniscus, rebamipide, optical coherence tomography

  19. Short term general anesthesia for retro-bulbar block in ophthalmic surgery generates no significant hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulig, Werner; Weber, Monica; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice; Theusinger, Oliver M; Biro, Peter

    2017-03-11

    To assess the impact of short time hypnosis for retro-bulbar anesthesia on ventilation in patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery of the anterior eye chamber. In all patients, a combined continuous transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO2) and partial oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurement was applied in addition to routine monitoring. To enable unconscious application of retro-bulbar anesthesia, intravenous thiopental was given in one to multiple bolus doses. Transient breathing support included chin lift, Esmarch maneuver and manual hand-bag ventilation via face mask. Main endpoints were apnea time, recovery time according to the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, as well as SpO2 and PtcCO2 readings at predefined time points. Fifty-two patients with a mean age of 68 ± 13 years were included. Average thiopental dose was 2.7 ± 0.6 mg/kg. In seven (13.5%) patients repeated doses of thiopental were necessary to a total of 3.3 ± 1.1 mg/kg. Except one patient, no severe, significant or clinical relevant hypercapnia or desaturation periods were observed, and the occurring elevation of PtcCO2 values did not correlate with the application of repeated doses of thiopental or the need for the Esmarch maneuver. Higher PtcCO2 values were associated with the presence of hypertension and smoking. Apnea (p < 0.001) and recovery (p = 0.003) time were significantly prolonged in the patients needing the Esmarch maneuver. Short term anesthesia with thiopental in ophthalmic surgery is associated with a mild but not clinically relevant hypercapnia.

  20. Risk factors associated with postoperative pain after ophthalmic surgery: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesin M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mladen Lesin,1,* Mirna Dzaja Lozo,1,* Zeljka Duplancic-Sundov,1 Ivana Dzaja,1 Nikolina Davidovic,2 Adriana Banozic,3 Livia Puljak3 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Split, 3Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Risk factors associated with postoperative pain intensity and duration, as well as consumption of analgesics after ophthalmic surgery are poorly understood. Methods: A prospective study was conducted among adults (N=226 who underwent eye surgery at the University Hospital Split, Croatia. A day before the surgery, the patients filled out questionnaires assessing personality, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, sociodemographics were given and details about the procedure, anesthesia, and analgesia for each postoperative day. All scales were previously used for the Croatian population. The intensity of pain was measured using a numerical rating scale from 0 to 10, where 0 was no pain and 10 was the worst imaginable pain. The intensity of pain was measured before the surgery and then 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery, and then once a day until discharge from the hospital. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: A multivariate analysis indicated that independent predictors of average pain intensity after the surgery were: absence of premedication before surgery, surgery in general anesthesia, higher pain intensity before surgery and pain catastrophizing level. Independent predictors of postoperative pain duration were intensity of pain before surgery, type of anesthesia, and self-assessment of health. Independent predictors of pain intensity ≥5 during the first 6 hours after the procedure were the type of procedure, self-assessment of health, premedication, and the level of pain catastrophizing. Conclusion: Awareness about independent predictors associated

  1. A standard model eye with micro scale multilayer structure for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhenggang; Ding, Zengqian; Hu, Zhixiong; Wen, Tao; Qiao, Wen; Liu, Wenli

    2016-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely applied in diagnosis of eye diseases during the last 20 years. Differing from traditional two-dimension imaging technologies, OCT could also provide cross-sectional information of target tissues simultaneously and precisely. As well known, axial resolution is one of the most critical parameters impacting the OCT image quality, which determines whether an accurate diagnosis could be obtained. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the axial resolution of an OCT equipment. Phantoms always play an important role in the standardization and validation process. Here, a standard model eye with micro-scale multilayer structure was custom designed and manufactured. Mimicking a real human eye, analyzing the physical characteristic of layer structures of retina and cornea in-depth, appropriate materials were selected by testing the scattering coefficient of PDMS phantoms with difference concentration of TiO2 or BaSO4 particles. An artificial retina and cornea with multilayer-films which have a thickness of 10 to 60 micrometers for each layer were fabricated using spin coating technology. Considering key parameters of the standard model eye need to be traceable as well as accurate, the optical refractive index and layer structure thicknesses of phantoms were verified by utilizing Thickness Monitoring System. Consequently, a standard OCT model eye was obtained after the retinal or corneal phantom was embedded into a water-filled model eye which has been fabricated by 3D printing technology to simulate ocular dispersion and emmetropic refraction. The eye model was manufactured with a transparent resin to simulate realistic ophthalmic testing environment, and most key optical elements including cornea, lens and vitreous body were realized. By investigating with a research and a clinical OCT system respectively, the OCT model eye was demonstrated with similar physical properties as natural eye, and the multilayer film measurement

  2. Ophthalmic variables in rehabilitated juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornik, Kara R; Pirie, Christopher G; Marrion, Ruth M; Wocial, Julika N; Innis, Charles J

    2016-03-15

    To determine central corneal thickness (total corneal thickness [TCT], epithelial thickness [ET], and stromal thickness [ST]), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and intraocular pressure (IOP) in Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii). Prospective cross-sectional study. 25 healthy rehabilitated juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles. PROCEDURES; Body weight and straight-line standard carapace length (SCL) were recorded. All turtles underwent a complete anterior segment ophthalmic examination. Central TCT, ET, ST, and ACD were determined by use of a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device. Intraocular pressure was determined with a rebound tonometer; the horse setting was used to measure IOP in all 25 turtles, and the undefined setting was also used to measure IOP in 20 turtles. For each variable, 3 measurements were obtained bilaterally. The mean was calculated for each eye and used for analysis purposes. The mean ± SD body weight and SCL were 3.85 ± 1.05 kg (8.47 ± 2.31 lb) and 29 ± 3 cm, respectively. The mean ± SD TCT, ET, ST, and ACD were 288 ± 23 μm, 100 ± 6 μm, 190 ± 19 μm, and 581 ± 128 μm, respectively. Mean ± SD IOP was 6.5 ± 1.0 mm Hg when measured with the horse setting and 3.8 ± 1.1 mm Hg when measured with the undefined setting. Results provided preliminary reference ranges for objective assessment of ophthalmic variables in healthy juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles.

  3. Ophthalmic diagnostic tests, orbital anatomy, and adnexal histology of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriá, Arianne P; Oliveira, Alberto Vinícius D; Pinna, Melissa H; Martins Filho, Emanoel F; Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Peixoto, Tiago C; Silva, Renata Maria M da; Santana, Fernanda O; Meneses, Íris Daniela S; Requião, Kátia G; Ofri, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normal ophthalmic parameters for selected diagnostic tests, and to describe the orbital anatomy and adnexal histology of the broad-snouted caiman. A total of 35 Caiman latirostris that were free of obvious ocular diseases were used to measure the parameters in this investigation. Ages ranged from 5 to 15 years. Ophthalmic diagnostic tests were conducted, including evaluation of tear production with Schirmer Tear test-1 (STT1), culture of the conjunctival bacterial flora, applanation tonometry, conjunctival cytology, nictiating membrane incursion frequency test (NMIFT), endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT), palpebral fissure length measurement (PFL) and B-mode ultrasonography. Adnexal histology and skull samples were studied. Mean (±SD) STT1 was 3.4 ± 3.6 mm/min (95% confidence interval of 2.01-4.78 mm/min), intraocular pressure (IOP) was 12.9 ± 6.2 mmHg, NMIFT was 6.0 ± 3.5, EAPPTT was 17.1 ± 2.5 mm/min, PFL was 28.9 ± 3.0 mm, anterior chamber depth was 3.1 ± 0.3 mm, lens axial length was 8.4 ± 0.6 mm, vitreous chamber depth was 7.9 ± 0.7 mm and axial globe length was 19.9 ± 1.3 mm. For all animals evaluated, Bacillus sp., Diphteroids and Staphylococcus sp. were predominant. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. A European Perspective on Topical Ophthalmic Antibiotics: Current and Evolving Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bremond-Gignac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Eye infections can be vision-threatening and must be treated effectively by appropriate and safe use of topical ophthalmic anti-infectives. This review will essentially consider the current and evolving treatment options for the various types of bacterial eye infections. Ocular surface bacterial infections affect subjects of all ages with a high frequency in newborns and children. Methods This article presents a review of the peer-reviewed published scientific literature in order to define the well-established uses of anti-infective eye drops in the field of ocular infections. A comprehensive search of the recent published literature including topical ophthalmic anti-infectives effective in bacterial ocular infections was performed. Clinical studies provide relevant data concerning the characteristics and clinical efficacy of antibacterial eye drops in ocular anterior segment infections or for perioperative prophylaxis. Publications were included to cover the current options of antibacterial eye drops available in Europe. Results Several recent publications identified effective topical ocular antibacterials requiring a reduced dose regimen and a short treatment course. Additional literature reviewed included data on novel perioperative prophylaxis, indications for topical fortified antibiotics and innovative research including the risk of resistance. Conclusions Safe and effective topical antibiotic eye drops for the treatment and prevention of ocular infections must be adapted to the type of bacteria suspected. Usual topical antimicrobials should be replaced by more recent and more effective treatments. The use of highly effective fluoroquinolones should be reserved for the most severe cases to avoid resistance. Short treatment courses, such as azithromycin, can be easily used in children, thereby improving quality of life.

  5. Coronary Artery Bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Ceberut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of neural tumors though rarely seen in the thorax. The combination with coronary artery diseases is also rare. Here we describe a 66 year-old male who had undergone one-stage combined surgery for thoracic ancient schwannomas removal and coronary artery disease. The masses were, respectively, 13 cm in the middle mediastinum and 5 cm in diameter originating from the intercostal nerve. The tumors were successfully removed using sternotomy, and then a coronary artery bypass grafting was performed. Here we discuss this rare tumor in relation to the relevant literature.

  6. Coronary artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koischwitz, D.; Harder, T.; Schuppan, U.; Thurn, P.

    1982-04-01

    Seven saccular coronary artery aneurysms have been demonstrated in the course of 1452 selective coronary artery angiograms. In six patients they were arterio-sclerotic; in one patient the aneurysm must have been congenital or of mycotic-embolic origin. The differential diagnosis between true aneurysms and other causes of vascular dilatation is discussed. Coronary artery aneurysms have a poor prognosis because of the possibility of rupture with resultant cardiac tamponade, or the development of thrombo-embolic myocardial infarction. These aneurysms can only be diagnosed by means of coronary angiography and require appropriate treatment.

  7. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout your body. While the heart is one organ, it ...

  8. Neonatal pulmonary artery thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh Jadhav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery thrombosis in neonates is a rare entity. We describe two neonates with this diagnosis; their presentation, evaluation, and management. These cases highlight the importance of this differential diagnosis when evaluating the cyanotic neonate.

  9. Renal arteries (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  10. Heritability of cilioretinal arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina Charlotte; Munch, Inger C; Kyvik, Kirsten O;

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether the presence of one or more cilioretinal arteries, a distinct element of the pattern of fundus vessels, is genetically programmed, influenced by environmental factors, or the result of random mechanisms of vascular development. METHODS: The fundi of 112 pairs...... environmental factors. CONCLUSIONS: The presence or absence of one or more cilioretinal arteries in healthy persons is markedly influenced by genetic factors....

  11. Prolonged increase in tear meniscus height by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in eyes with contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagahara Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Nagahara,1 Shizuka Koh,1 Kohji Nishida,1 Hitoshi Watanabe1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 2Kansai Rosai Hospital, Amagasaki, Hyogo, Japan Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the increase in tear meniscus height (TMH induced by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in eyes with contact lens (CL.Methods: Ten healthy subjects wearing high-water-content CLs received topical instillation of two ophthalmic solutions – 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in one eye and artificial tears in the other eye. Lower TMH was measured at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after instillation by anterior segment optical coherence tomography.Results: TMH increased significantly (P<0.001 at 5 minutes and 15 minutes after instillation of saline compared with the baseline values. After instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution, TMH significantly increased (P<0.05 at 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes compared with the baseline values. Increases in TMH after diquafosol instillation were significantly greater (P<0.05 at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes than increases in TMH after saline instillation.Conclusion: Topical instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution increases TMH for up to 60 minutes in eyes with high-water-content CLs. Keywords: diquafosol ophthalmic solution, tear meniscus height, dry eye, contact lenses, tear film

  12. [Applying graphics processing unit in real-time signal processing and visualization of ophthalmic Fourier-domain OCT system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoyan; Li, Yuejie; Xu, Qiujing; Zhao, Jincheng; Wang, Liwei; Gao, Yonghe

    2013-01-01

    This investigation introduces GPU (Graphics Processing Unit)- based CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) technology into signal processing of ophthalmic FD-OCT (Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography) imaging system, can realize parallel data processing, using CUDA to optimize relevant operations and algorithms, in order to solve the technical bottlenecks that currently affect ophthalmic real-time imaging in OCT system. Laboratory results showed that with GPU as a general parallel computing processor, the speed of imaging data processing using GPU+CPU mode is more than dozens times faster than traditional CPU platform based serial computing and imaging mode when executing the same data processing, which reaches the clinical requirements for two dimensional real-time imaging.

  13. Coronary anomaly: the single coronary artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Xu-guang; XIONG Wei-guo; LU Chun-peng; GONG Cheng-jie; SHANG Li-hua

    2010-01-01

    @@ Single coronary artery (SCA), defined as an artery that arises from the arterial trunk and nourishes the entire myocardium, is rare. We report two cases of SCA, one is the right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the middle of left descending artery (LAD), and the other is the left main coronary artery (LMCA) arising from the proximal right coronary artery.

  14. Coronary Artery and Pulmonary Artery Fistula Originated from Significant Stenosis in the Left Anterior Descending Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Sami Kunt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery fistula (CAF is defined as a rare anomalous connection between a coronary artery and a major vessel or a cardiac chamber. We report a case of a left anterior descending coronary (LAD stenosis and coronary artery fistula between the LAD coronary artery and the pulmonary artery (PA. CAF is often diagnosed by coronary angiogram. We describe our diagnostic approach and review the literature on the epidemiology, the pathophysiology, the diagnostic modalities, and the treatment options.

  15. The impact of the European Working Time Regulations on Ophthalmic Specialist Training--a national trainee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gallagher, M K; Lewis, G; Mercieca, K; Moutray, T

    2013-01-01

    To assess ophthalmic trainees' perspective of the impact of the European Working Time Regulations (EWTR) on their training. All trainees in ophthalmology in the UK were emailed a link to an electronic survey asking about their experiences of the EWTR. 324 trainees (46% of those invited) responded to the survey. 44.4% of trainees reported that their posts were compliant with the EWTR. 40.7% felt that training had been adversely affected. 49.1% thought that ophthalmic trainees should opt out of the EWTR to work more than 48 h per week, with 57 the mean number of hours suggested appropriate. Many ophthalmic trainees in the United Kingdom are working in rotas which are not compliant with the European Working Time Directive. Many trainees feel that implementation of the EWTD has had a negative effect on training and feel it would be acceptable to work a higher number of hours per week. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used for the Treatment of Stomach, Diabetes, and Ophthalmic Diseases in Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Waseem; M. Amin Ullah Shah; Rizwana Aleem Qureshi; Iqbal Muhammad; Rabia Afza; Saeeda Yousaf

    2006-01-01

    The present paper represents the ethnopharmacological survey of Sudhan Gali, Kashmir, Pakistan. The study revealed that 12 plant species belonging to 11 famihes were used for the treatment of stomach, diabetes and ophthalmic diseases by the local people in Sudhan GaB. Achillea millefolium, Aconitun heterophyllum, Berberis lycium, Polygonum amplexicaule, Mentha longifolia, Paeonia emodi, Plantago lanceolata were locally used for stomach related problemstreatment; Berberis lycium, Skimmia lareola, Solanum dulcamara for diabetes and Geranium wallichianum, Artemisia vulgaris, Solanum dulcamara, and Corydalis crassifolia used for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. Two species Berberis lycium and Solanum dulcamara have multipurpose value. Former is used to treat stomach as well as diabetes while latter is used to treat not only to diabetes but also ophthalmic diseases. According to IUCN categories, out of these 12 plant species collected and marketed, Polygonum amplexicaule and Paeonia emodi are endangered, Aconitum heterophyllum; Berberis lycium species are vulnerable while Plantago lanceolata and Skimmia lareola species are rare.The availability of these medicinal plants has decreased during the past 20 years and these are facing a drastic biotic pressure due to their extensive usage and non-scientific methods of collection. It is quite evident that these valuable native medicinal plants species are going to decline in number and ultimately will become extinct if no timely proper conservation strategies are adopted.

  17. Influence of drug loading and type of ointment base on the in vitro performance of acyclovir ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Xu, Xiaoming; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Rahman, Ziyaur; Yang, Yang; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-11-30

    The availability of in vitro performance tests such as in vitro drug release testing (IVRT) and in vitro permeation testing (IVPT) are critical to comprehensively assure consistent delivery of the active component(s) from semisolid ophthalmic drug products. The objective was to study the impact of drug loading and type of ointment base on the in vitro performance (IVRT and IVPT) of ophthalmic ointments using acyclovir as a model drug candidate. The in vitro drug release for the ointments was evaluated using a modified USP apparatus 2 with Enhancer cells. The transcorneal permeation was carried out using rabbit cornea on modified vertical Franz cells. The drug retention in cornea (DRC) was also determined at the end of transcorneal drug permeation study. The in vitro drug release, transcorneal drug permeation as well as DRC exhibited a proportional increase with increasing drug loading in the ointment. On comparing the in vitro drug release profile with transcorneal permeation profile, it appears that drug release from the ointment is controlling acyclovir transport through the cornea. Furthermore, enhanced in vitro transcorneal permeation relative to the in vitro drug release underscores the importance of the interplay between the physiology of the ocular tissue and ointment formulation. The results indicated that IVRT and IVPT could be used to discriminate the impact of changes in drug load and formulation composition of ophthalmic ointments.

  18. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Xeroderma Pigmentosum: A Perspective from the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rongxuan; Sethi, Mieran; Morley, Ana M S

    2017-05-26

    To document the ocular manifestations of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), presenting via the United Kingdom (UK) XP service, and to analyze the correlations between XP genotype and ophthalmic phenotype. Prospective observational case series. Eighty-nine patients seen by the UK Nationally Commissioned XP Service, from April 2010 to December 2014, with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of XP. Patients underwent a full ophthalmic examination at each visit. Clinical features from both eyes were recorded on a standard proforma. The most recent assessments were analyzed. A 2-tailed Fisher exact test was used to assess for differences in ocular features between patients in XP subgroups with impaired transcription coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) (category 1: XP-A, B, D, F, and G) and preserved TC-NER (category 2: XP-C, E, and V). Lid and periocular abnormalities, ocular surface pathologies, neuro-ophthalmologic abnormalities, lens and retinal abnormalities, and visual acuity (VA). Ninety-three percent of XP patients in our cohort had ocular involvement, with 65% describing photophobia. The most common abnormalities were in the periocular skin and ocular surface, including interpalpebral conjunctival melanosis (44%) and conjunctival injection (43%). Eleven percent of patients had required treatment for periocular cancers and 2% for ocular surface cancers. The most common neuro-ophthalmologic finding was minimal pupillary reaction to light (25%). Patients in category 2 had significantly more ocular surface abnormalities than patients in category 1, including a greater proportion of conjunctival injection (P = 0.003), conjunctival corkscrew vessels (P surface signs related to XP, before any formal diagnosis of XP was made. A large proportion of XP patients have ocular involvement. Regular examination by an ophthalmologist is essential, especially in screening for eyelid and ocular surface tumors. The ocular phenotype-genotype segregation within XP patients suggests

  19. The chinchilla eye: morphologic observations, echobiometric findings and reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leandro; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabaino; Tramontin, Mariana; Leigue Dos Santos, Lucianne; Machado, Marcello; Ribas Lange, Rogério; Helena Abil Russ, Heloisa

    2010-09-01

    To carry out a descriptive investigation into the most relevant morphological features of the chinchilla eye and bony orbit, as well as to perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests with the aim of establishing normal anatomic and physiologic references for this species. A total of 57 healthy, chinchillas were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Besides morphologic observations of the globe and adnexa, selected ocular tests and parameters were investigated, including blink frequency, palpebral fissure length (PFL), Schirmer tear test (STT), esthesiometry, intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), B-mode echobiometric measurements of the globe and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial microbiota. Morphologic observations were made using six formalin-fixed globes and four macerated skulls. Normal parameters found for selected ocular diagnostic tests were: blink frequency: 2.6 ± 0.84 blinks per 10 min; STT: 1.07 ± 0.54 mm; esthesiometry: 1.24 ± 0.46 cm; IOP: 17.71 ± 4.17 mmHg; CCT: 0.34 ± 0.03 mm; PFL: 1.44 ± 0.11 cm; anterior chamber depth: 2.01 ± 0.2 mm; axial lens thickness: 5.49 ± 0.43 mm; vitreous chamber depth (internal): 3.69 ± 0.52 mm; axial globe length: 1.14 ± 0.07 cm. The most frequent bacteria isolated from the conjunctiva were Streptococcus sp. (27.45%), Staphylococcus aureus (23.52%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (19.60%). No statistically significant differences between left or right eyes or genders were found for any of the results. Reference data and morphologic observations obtained in this investigation will help veterinary ophthalmologists to recognize unique morphological features and more accurately diagnose ocular diseases in the chinchilla, an animal already being used as a biological model for ophthalmic studies.

  20. Ophthalmic viscosurgical device backflow into cartridge during intraocular lens insertion using injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kazuki Matsuura,1 Yoshitsugu Inoue2 1Nojima Hospital, 2Tottori University, Kurayoshi City, Tottori, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of intraocular contamination caused by intraocular lens (IOL insertion with injectors by observing the dynamics of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD. Methods: Each type of injector was equipped with a colored OVD and IOL, and a 2 mm length from the tip of the cartridge was replaced with a colored OVD. The various combinations of IOLs and injectors used were: a three-piece shaped IOL, VA60BBR + TypeE1 (HOYA incision size 2.5 mm; group A, n=5; a single-piece IOL, 251+ iSert micro, preloaded (HOYA, incision size 2.2 mm; group G, n=5; and a single-piece IOL, SN6CWS preloaded (Alcon, incision size 2.7 mm; group C, n=5. Results: In group A, the intraocular OVD instantly flowed backward into the injector, whereas the colored OVD was pushed backward deep inside the cartridge without flowing into the eye. In group B, the backflow of the intraocular OVD into the injector was limited, resulting in the influx of a large amount of the colored OVD into the eye along with the IOL. In group C, as in group A, a large amount of the intraocular OVD flowed backward into the injector. Consequently, a small amount of the colored OVD flowed into the eye. Conclusion: The tip of the injector and OVD could be contaminated because the surgical field cannot be completely sterile, even after preoperative disinfection. Our experiments revealed that OVD backflow into the injector cavity occurs during IOL insertion, and this phenomenon may have minimized intraocular contamination. However, small-diameter cartridges along with plate-type haptics allow insufficient OVD backflow, resulting in intraocular influx of the contaminated OVD. Surgeons have to be notified that intraoperative bacterial contamination can occur even after IOL insertion using injectors. Keywords: intraocular lens insertion

  1. Traumatic Distal Ulnar Artery Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet A. Karaarslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about a posttraumatic distal ulnar artery thrombosis case that has occurred after a single blunt trauma. The ulnar artery thrombosis because of chronic trauma is a frequent condition (hypothenar hammer syndrome but an ulnar artery thrombosis because of a single direct blunt trauma is rare. Our patient who has been affected by a single blunt trauma to his hand and developed ulnar artery thrombosis has been treated by resection of the thrombosed ulnar artery segment. This report shows that a single blunt trauma can cause distal ulnar artery thrombosis in the hand and it can be treated merely by thrombosed segment resection in suitable cases.

  2. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

  3. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe: the "European Eye Epidemiology" (E3) consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Foster, Paul J; Hammond, Christopher J; Piermarocchi, Stefano; Peto, Tunde; Jansonius, Nomdo; Mirshahi, Alireza; Hogg, Ruth E; Bretillon, Lionel; Topouzis, Fotis; Deak, Gabor; Grauslund, Jakob; Broe, Rebecca; Souied, Eric H; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Sahel, José; Daien, Vincent; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hense, Hans-Werner; Prokofyeva, Elena; Oexle, Konrad; Rahi, Jugnoo S; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Fauser, Sascha; Bertelsen, Geir; Hoyng, Carel; Bergen, Arthur; Silva, Rufino; Wolf, Sebastian; Lotery, Andrew; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid; Klaver, Caroline C W

    2016-02-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact of visual outcomes in European populations (including temporal trends and European subregions), identification of risk factors and pathways for eye diseases (lifestyle, vascular and metabolic factors, genetics, epigenetics and biomarkers) and development and validation of prediction models for eye diseases. Coordinating these existing data will allow a detailed study of the risk factors and consequences of eye diseases and visual impairment, including study of international geographical variation which is not possible in individual studies. It is expected that collaborative work on these existing data will provide additional knowledge, despite the fact that the risk factors and the methods for collecting them differ somewhat among the participating studies. Most studies also include biobanks of various biological samples, which will enable identification of biomarkers to detect and predict occurrence and progression of eye diseases. This article outlines the rationale of the consortium, its design and presents a summary of the methodology.

  4. Evaluation of the ophthalmic and dermal irritability of the OLEOMASAJE formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza F. Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ozonized vegetable oils present germicidal effects which can be used as active principle in different cosmetological compositions. The thematic about of the corporal massage advantage have been very treatment by aesthetics, dermatologic and consumers. OLEOMASAJE formulation content ozonized sunflower oil OLEOZON as active principle active which present moisturizer and conditioner effects. Aims: To determine the possible dermal and ophthalmic irritability effects of the OLEOMASAJE. Methods: The trial was conducted in rabbits and the techniques described in the standardized procedures of the work established by the Center of Biological Research and Evaluations from Pharmacy and Food Institute of Havana University were used according to Norma ISO 10993-10. The ethical principles of the Good Practices of Laboratory were fulfilled to avoid suffering to the animals during the experimentation. Male rabbits with body weight between 2.05 and 2.48 kg were used. In the skin and the ocular structures the effects were observed immediately after of the application at 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Draize´s scale was applied to evaluate skin and ocular structures lesions. Results: The OLEOMASAJE formulation does not irritate de skin of the assayed rabbits. However, the ocular structures irritability index was of 4.5 after of first hour to apply of product. These wounds were missing before of 24 hours to apply of product. Conclusions: The OLEOMASAJE formulation obeys the indispensable requirements for the acceptance as cosmetic product and for it is used in corporal massage.

  5. Attention attraction in an ophthalmic diagnostic device using sound-modulated fixation targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatikov, Boris I; Rangarajan, Shreya; Irsch, Kristina; Guyton, David L

    2016-08-01

    This study relates to eye fixation systems with combined optical and audio systems. Many devices for eye diagnostics and some devices for eye therapeutics require the patient to fixate on a small target for a certain period of time, during which the eyes do not move and data from substructures of one or both eyes are acquired and analyzed. With young pediatric patients, a monotonously blinking target is not sufficient to retain attention steadily. We developed a method for modulating the intensity of a point fixation target using sounds appropriate to the child's age and preference. The method was realized as a subsystem of a Pediatric Vision Screener which employs retinal birefringence scanning for detection of central fixation. Twenty-one children, age 2-18, were studied. Modulation of the fixation target using sounds ensured the eye fixated on the target, and with appropriate choice of sounds, performed significantly better than a monotonously blinking target accompanied by a plain beep. The method was particularly effective with children of ages up to 10, after which its benefit disappeared. Typical applications of target modulation would be as supplemental subsystems in pediatric ophthalmic diagnostic devices, such as scanning laser ophthalmoscopes, optical coherence tomography units, retinal birefringence scanners, fundus cameras, and perimeters. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of an Ophthalmic Viscosurgical Device for Experimental Retinal Detachment in Rabbit Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Okinami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the temporary tamponade effects of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD for experimental retinal tears, we performed vitrectomy in four rabbit eyes and created a posterior vitreous detachment and artificial retinal tear to produce retinal detachment. The retina was flattened with liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC, the area peripheral to the tear was photocoagulated, an OVD was applied to the retinal tear surface below the PFC and the PFC was removed by aspiration. In the control group, PFC was removed without application of OVD. At one, three and seven days postoperatively, funduscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT were performed to examine the sealing process of the retinal tear. In OVD-treated eyes, the OVD remained on the retinal surface, and the retinal tear was patched for ≥ 3 days postoperatively. By seven days postoperatively, the OVD on the retinal surface had disappeared, and the retina was reattached. In control eyes, the edge of the retinal tear was rolled, and retinal detachment persisted. In OVD-treated eyes, the border of the retinal tear was indistinct, and the defect area was significantly decreased. These results show that application of an OVD effectively seals retinal tears and eliminates retinal detachments.

  7. PMMA-based ophthalmic contact lens for vision correction of strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh Shishavan, Amir; Nordin, Leland; Tjossem, Paul; Abramoff, Michael D.; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present the design of a novel ophthalmic prismatic contact lens to correct for strabismus. Strabismus, colloquially called "crossed-eyes" or "wall eyes," is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. To our knowledge there are no contact lenses that allow for strabismus correction. To address this, we have designed a poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) based prismatic correction contact lens. Therefore, we modeled a Fresnel lens with the appropriate optical properties and a human eye in COMSOL Multiphysics Ray Optics module. Our first design was created by mapping Fresnel lenses onto the curved surface of the eye, the focus of light on retina was suboptimal. Next we determined two more potential solutions and improved the light focus on the retina but there were still some issues. A small fraction of light ( 5%) diverged and could not be focused. Due to dispersive characteristic of PMMA, chromatic aberration was present. We will use our ray optics solution and convert into a metasurface nanophotonic lens that has the identical behavior and mitigates the issues related with prismatic lens.

  8. Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension for the treatment of dry eye syndrome: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashima T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Kashima,1 Hirotaka Itakura,1,2 Hideo Akiyama,1 Shoji Kishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Gunma University, School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Maebashi Red Cross Hospital, Maebashi, Gunma, JapanAbstract: Rebamipide was initially developed and approved for use in treating gastric ulcers and lesions associated with gastritis. Discovery of its ability to increase gastric mucin led to investigations of its effect on ocular surface mucin and the subsequent development for use in dry eye patients. Investigations have confirmed that rebamipide increases corneal and conjunctival mucin-like substances along with improving corneal and conjunctival injury. Clinically, rebamipide ophthalmic suspensions can effectively treat tear deficiency and mucin-caused corneal epithelial damage, and can restore the microstructure responsible for tear stability. Topical rebamipide has also been shown to be effective in treating other ocular surface disorders such as lagophthalmos, lid wiper epitheliopathy, and persistent corneal erosion. Rebamipide’s ability to modify epithelial cell function, improve tear stability, and suppress inflammation in the absence of any known major side effects suggest that it may be a beneficial first drug of choice for severe dry eye treatment and other ocular surface disorders. This review summarizes the history and development of this innovative dry eye treatment from its initial use as an effective stomach medication to its current use in the treatment of dry eye in Japan.Keywords: quinolinone derivative, tear deficiency, ocular surface disorder, mucin secretion, Mucosta

  9. Ophthalmic Evaluation of Children from the Tibet Plateau with Congenital Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiqin Wang; Qian Shi; Lin Sun; Jing Wang; Lei Li; Tianchang Li; Wei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To perform ophthalmic examinations to evaluate the ocular characteristics of children living in the Tibet plateau and diagnosed with congenital heart disease.Methods:.Children with congenital heart disease underwent a conventional ocular examination including distant acuity test, slit-lamp examination,.fundus examination,.non-contact in-traocular pressure measurement,.measurement of corneal thickness, and fundus photography.Results: Forty-two Tibetan children, aged between 4 and 18 years and diagnosed with congenital heart disease,.were en-rolled in this study..The percentage of low visual acuity was 4.76%, mean intraocular pressure was (13.67±2.15) mmHg, average corneal thickness was (492.55±33.79) μm,.96.43%had an anterior chamber depth of 1 / 2 corneal thickness (CT), and 35.7% had an obvious fundus vascular tortuosity.Conclusion:.This study adds to the understanding of the ocu-lar status of the population living in the Tibet plateau, thereby offering clinical evidence for the prevention and treatment of eye diseases in this area. (Eye Science 2014; 29:134-137)

  10. Bioavailability of vitamin B using a small-volume nebulizer ophthalmic drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Monte

    2005-08-01

    To determine the intraocular bioavailability of a novel embodiment for vitamin B(12) delivered to the ocular surface by a piezo-electric ultrasonic nebulizer. The semisolid embodiment contained 0.02% (w/w) vitamin B(12) in 1 g of ointment, which was immiscible and insoluble in 5 mL sterilized warm water. To confirm in vitro functionality, nebulized mist particles of the embodiment were collected and analysed for vitamin B(12) content. The in vivo arm of the study was designed as randomization of 23 patients who were scheduled to undergo cataract surgery in hospital. Fourteen patients were treated with nebulized vitamin B(12), five patients had one drop of 0.02% vitamin B(12) instilled in the conjunctival cul de sac, and four control patients had no medication. Twelve hours after the vitamin was delivered, the patients underwent the cataract procedure and a sample of aqueous humour was collected from each. High performance liquid chromatography was used for detection of vitamin B(12) in all samples. The in vitro analysis of mist particles showed increasing concentrations of vitamin B(12). In the patient tests, analysis of the aqueous humour samples showed that none of the controls or those receiving eye drops had detectable vitamin B(12) in the aqueous humour. However, 4 of 14 in the nebulizer group had vitamin B(12) detected in the aqueous humour in the amount of 10(-7) mol. The small-volume nebulizer system might provide another method of ophthalmic drug delivery.

  11. New developments in eye models with retina tissue phantoms for ophthalmic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, T. Scott; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2012-03-01

    We document our latest work in developing eye models with solid-state retinal tissue phantoms designed for demonstrating, validating and comparing ophthalmic Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) instruments. Eye models with retina tissue phantoms can serve a variety of purposes, including demonstrating OCT functionality and performance in both the clinic and exhibit hall, validating retina layer thickness measurements from different commercial OCT instruments and as an aide for the R&D engineer and field service technician in the development and repair of instruments, respectively. The ideal eye model for OCT, the optical cross-sectional imaging modality, would have a volumetric morphology and scattering and absorption properties similar to that of normal human retina. These include a multi-layered structure of equivalent thickness to nominal human retina layers, a foveal pit that can be used to orient the image, and a RPE/OS and choroid like layers to demonstrate the depth penetration of the OCT system. A solid state tissue phantom relieves the user of constant cleaning and maintenance associated with the more common water bath model eyes. Novel processes12 have been developed to create retinal layers model that closely mimic the reflectance and scattering coefficients of the real layers of the retina, as imaged by spectral bandwidth of OCT.

  12. Azelastine hydrochloride, a dual-acting anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solution, for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia B Williams

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Patricia B Williams1,2, Elizabeth Crandall2, John D Sheppard1,21Thomas R Lee Center for Ocular Pharmacology, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, A, USAAbstract: Over 50% of patients who seek treatment for allergies present with ocular ­symptoms. Our current ability to control ocular allergic symptoms is greater than ever before. Newer dual-acting topical eyedrops attack multiple facets of the allergic cascade. Azelastine has antihistaminic effects providing immediate relief, mast cell stabilization providing early-phase intervention, and inhibition of expression and activation of anti-inflammatory mediators which characterize the late phase of the immune reaction. The ophthalmic eyedrop formulation is approved for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in adults and children aged over 3 years. In clinical trials comparing azelastine with other dual-acting eyedrops, such as levocabastine and olopatadine, azelastine was reported to be slightly less efficacious and to sting briefly upon administration. Even so, many patients experienced the full benefit of symptom relief, and preferred azelastine. As a broad-spectrum drug, azelastine offers many desirable properties for management of ocular allergies. Because it can often produce maximal effect with just twice-daily dosing, azelastine is a particularly good choice for the allergic population in whom minimizing exposure to topical products and preservatives is a key concern.Keywords: allergic conjunctivitis, dual acting anti-inflammatory, H1 receptor antagonism, mast cell stabilization, inflammatory mediator inhibition

  13. CONTROLLED RELEASE IN SITU FORMING GATIFLOXACIN HCl HYDROGEL FOR OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar Sagar D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, controlled drug delivery has become the standard in modern Pharmaceutical design and an intensive research have been undertaken in achieving much better drug product effectiveness, reliability and safety. This interest has been sparked by the advantages shown by in situ forming polymeric delivery systems such as ease of administration and reduced frequency of administration, improved patient compliance and comfort. In situ hydrogels are instilled as drops into the eye and undergoes a sol to gel transition in the cul-de-sac, improved ocular bioavailability by increasing the duration of contact with corneal tissue, thereby reducing the frequency of administration. The purpose of the present work was to develop an ophthalmic drug delivery system using the three different gelling agents with different mechanisms for in situ gelation of Gatifloxacin hydrochloride, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Polyox – a pH sensitive gelling agent and sodium alginate is an ion sensitive gelling agent and Poloxamer – a temperature sensitive gelling agent were employed for the formation of in situ hydrogel along with HPMC K4M as viscofying agent. The promising formulations were evaluated for pH, drug content, in vitro gelation, in vitro drug release, in vivo drug release, ocular irritation.

  14. IN SITU GELS- A NEW TRENDS IN OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanjit Saini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavor facing the pharmaceutical scientist. The conventional ocular drug delivery systems like solutions, suspensions, and ointments show drawbacks such as increased precorneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision respectively so there was a need for developing advanced drug delivery system. In situ forming polymeric formulations were developed to overcome the conventional drug therapy drawbacks these systems are in solution form before administering in the body, but once administered these systems undergo gelation. The formation of gels depends on factors like change in a specific physico-chemical parameter (pH, temperature, ion-sensitive by which the drug gets released in a sustained and controlled manner. These systems were evaluated for drug content, clarity, pH, gelling capacity, viscosity, in vitro drug release studies, texture analysis, sterility testing , isotonicity evaluation, accelerated studies and irritancy test. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to know drug and polymer incompatibilities.

  15. [Real-time UV imaging of chloramphenicol intrinsic dissolution characteristics from ophthalmic in situ gel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Xiu; Guo, Zhen; Li, Hai-Yan; Wu, Li; He, Zhong-Gui; Hu, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Ji-Wen

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, chloramphenicol was selected as a model drug to prepare in situ gels. The intrinsic dissolution rate of chloramphenicol from in situ gel was evaluated using the surface dissolution imaging system. The results indicated that intrinsic dissolution rate of chloramphenicol thermosensitive in situ gel decreased significantly when the poloxamer concentration increased. The addition of the thickener reduced the intrinsic dissolution rate of chloramphenicol thermosensitive gel, wherein carbomer had the most impact. Different dilution ratios of simulated tear fluid greatly affected gel temperature, and had little influence on the intrinsic dissolution rate of chloramphenicol from the thermosensitive in situ gel. The pH of simulated tear fluid had little influence on the intrinsic dissolution rate of chloramphenicol thermosensitive in situ gel. For the pH sensitive in situ gel, the dissolution rates of chloramphenicol in weak acidic and neutral simulated tear fluids were slower than that in weak alkaline simulated tear fluid. In conclusion, the intrinsic dissolution of chloramphenicol from in situ gel was dependent on formulation and physiological factors. With advantages of small volume sample required and rapid detection, the UV imaging method can be an efficient tool for the evaluation of drug release characteristics of ophthalmic in situ gel.

  16. Ophthalmic findings in acute mercury poisoning in adults: A case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Lokman; Aslankurt, Murat; Bozkurt, Selim; Aksoy, Adnan; Ozdemir, Murat; Gizir, Harun; Yasar, Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to report ophthalmic findings of acute mercury poisoning in 48 adults referred to emergency department. Full ophthalmologic examination including the best corrected visual acuity, external eye examination, reaction to light, a slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, intraocular pressure measurements, and visual field (VF) and color vision (CV) tests were performed at the presentation and repeated after 6 months. The parametric values of VF test, the mean deviation (MD), and pattern standard deviation (PSD) were recorded in order to compare patients and the 30 healthy controls. The mean parameter of color confusion index in patients was found to be statistically different than controls (p < 0.01). The MD and PSD in patients were different from controls statistically significant (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). There was no correlation between the ocular findings and the urine and blood mercury levels. Methyl mercury, held in the school laboratory for experimental purpose, may be a source of poisoning. In this case series, we showed that acute exposure to mercury had hazardous effect on the visual system, especially CV and VF. We propose that emphasizing the public education on the potential hazards of mercury is crucial for preventive community health.

  17. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of infectious keratitis at Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Amani E; Moemen, Dalia; El-Tantawy, Nora L

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of infectious keratitis. METHODS A retrospective study on cases of infective keratitis, attended our institution from Mar. 2013 to Feb. 2015, was done at Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Egypt. Corneal scrapings were performed and processed for direct microscopy and culture in appropriate media using standard laboratory protocols. RESULTS Out of 245 patients enrolled for study, 247 corneal scrapings were obtained. Ocular trauma was the most common predisposing factor (51.4%), followed by diabetes mellitus (15.1%). Cultures were positive in 110 scraping samples (44.5%): 45.5% samples had pure fungal infection, 40% had pure bacterial infections and 10% had mixed fungal and bacterial growths. Acanthamoeba was detected in 5 (4.5%) samples. The most common fungal pathogen was Aspergillus spp. (41%). The most common bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (38.2%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.8%). CONCLUSION Incidence of fungal keratitis is high in our region. Therapeutic approach can initially be based on clinical features and sensitivity/resistance patterns. Microbiological research should direct the antimicrobial treatment. Antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides is an important consideration. PMID:28149778

  18. Effects of ophthalmic disease on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, A L; Hamor, R E; Macneill, A L; Lascola, K M; Breaux, C B; Tolar, E L

    2011-07-01

    There is little scientific information available about the ability of ocular disease to cause a systemic inflammatory response. Horses are frequently affected with ocular disease and ensuring their systemic health prior to performing vision saving surgery under anaesthesia is essential for the successful treatment of ophthalmic disease. Ocular disease will cause elevations in the concentration of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in peripheral blood. Whole blood and serum samples were obtained from 38 mature horses with ulcerative keratitis or uveitis and no evidence of systemic disease, 9 mature horses with no evidence of ocular or systemic disease (negative controls) and 10 mature horses with systemic inflammatory disease and no evidence of ocular disease (positive controls). Blood samples were assayed for concentrations of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A. Fibrinogen and serum amyloid A were significantly different in the positive control group compared to the negative control, corneal disease and uveitis groups (P<0.126). There was no significant difference between the negative control, corneal disease and uveitis groups (P<0.001). Ulcerative keratitis and anterior uveitis are not associated with elevated concentrations of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in peripheral blood. When the clinician is presented with a patient with ocular disease and elevated plasma fibrinogen or serum amyloid A concentrations, a nonocular inflammatory focus should be suspected. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension for the treatment of dry eye syndrome: a critical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Tomoyuki; Itakura, Hirotaka; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Rebamipide was initially developed and approved for use in treating gastric ulcers and lesions associated with gastritis. Discovery of its ability to increase gastric mucin led to investigations of its effect on ocular surface mucin and the subsequent development for use in dry eye patients. Investigations have confirmed that rebamipide increases corneal and conjunctival mucin-like substances along with improving corneal and conjunctival injury. Clinically, rebamipide ophthalmic suspensions can effectively treat tear deficiency and mucin-caused corneal epithelial damage, and can restore the microstructure responsible for tear stability. Topical rebamipide has also been shown to be effective in treating other ocular surface disorders such as lagophthalmos, lid wiper epitheliopathy, and persistent corneal erosion. Rebamipide’s ability to modify epithelial cell function, improve tear stability, and suppress inflammation in the absence of any known major side effects suggest that it may be a beneficial first drug of choice for severe dry eye treatment and other ocular surface disorders. This review summarizes the history and development of this innovative dry eye treatment from its initial use as an effective stomach medication to its current use in the treatment of dry eye in Japan. PMID:24940041

  20. Azithromycin 1.5% ophthalmic solution: efficacy and treatment modalities in chronic blepharitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fadlallah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of topical 1.5% azithromycin in the treatment of moderate to severe chronic blepharitis and to compare the efficacy of two different treatment modalities. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial included 67 patients with chronic anterior and/or posterior blepharitis, followed-up for 3 months. Signs and symptoms were graded according to severity. Patients were randomized into two groups: 33 patients in group I and 34 patients in group II. Group I patients were treated with topical 1.5% azithromycin twice a day for three days, and Group II patients were treated with topical 1.5% azithromycin twice a day for three days then at bedtime for the rest of the month. All patients were instructed to apply warm compresses and an eye-friendly soap twice daily. RESULTS: Patients in both groups tolerated the treatment with minimal irritation. A significant improvement in signs and symptoms was noted at the one week follow-up visit. Group II showed a more pronounced and longer-lasting improvement that persisted after three months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Topical 1.5% azithromycin ophthalmic solution is an effective treatment option for chronic blepharitis. In moderate to severe blepharitis, a one month treatment is safe and shows better improvement than the three-day protocol with no significant relapse until three months of follow-up.

  1. Evaluation of tropicamide-loaded tamarind seed xyloglucan nanoaggregates for ophthalmic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Kaur, Harmanmeet; Ahuja, Munish; Kumar, Sandeep

    2013-04-15

    The present study was aimed to prepare tamarind seed nanoaggregates and its evaluation for ophthalmic delivery. The preparation of tropicamide-loaded tamarind seed xyloglucan nanoaggregates was optimized using face centred central composite experimental design, employing the concentrations of tamarind seed xyloglucan and Poloxamer-407, as independent variables. The results revealed that concentration of TSX has a significant antagonistic effect on particle size, while poloxamer displayed a significant synergistic effect on encapsulation efficiency. The optimal concentrations of TSX and poloxamer were found to be 0.45% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) respectively. The optimized formulation of tropicamide-loaded TSX nanoaggregates showed a significantly higher corneal permeation of tropicamide across the isolated goat cornea compared to commercial conventional aqueous formulation. The results revealed excellent mucoadhesive properties of TSX nanoaggregates. Further, the tropicamide-loaded TSX nanoaggregates formulation showed excellent ocular tolerance and biocompatibility as determined by hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane and resazurin assay on Vero cell lines.

  2. Double peacock eye optical element for extended focal depth imaging with ophthalmic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Lenny A; Millán, María S; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej

    2012-04-01

    The aged human eye is commonly affected by presbyopia, and therefore, it gradually loses its capability to form images of objects placed at different distances. Extended depth of focus (EDOF) imaging elements can overcome this inability, despite the introduction of a certain amount of aberration. This paper evaluates the EDOF imaging performance of the so-called peacock eye phase diffractive element, which focuses an incident plane wave into a segment of the optical axis and explores the element's potential use for ophthalmic presbyopia compensation optics. Two designs of the element are analyzed: the single peacock eye, which produces one focal segment along the axis, and the double peacock eye, which is a spatially multiplexed element that produces two focal segments with partial overlapping along the axis. The performances of the peacock eye elements are compared with those of multifocal lenses through numerical simulations as well as optical experiments in the image space. The results demonstrate that the peacock eye elements form sharper images along the focal segment than the multifocal lenses and, therefore, are more suitable for presbyopia compensation. The extreme points of the depth of field in the object space, which represent the remote and the near object points, have been experimentally obtained for both the single and the double peacock eye optical elements. The double peacock eye element has better imaging quality for relatively short and intermediate distances than the single peacock eye, whereas the latter seems better for far distance vision.

  3. The use of retinal photography in non-ophthalmic settings and its potential for neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Mario A.; Bruce, Beau B.; Newman, Nancy J.; Biousse, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Background Ocular fundus examination is an important element of the neurological examination. However, direct ophthalmoscopy is difficult to perform without pupillary dilation and requires extensive practice to accurately recognize optic nerve and retinal abnormalities. Recent studies have suggested that digital retinal photography can replace direct ophthalmoscopy in many settings. Review Summary Ocular fundus imaging is routinely used to document and monitor disease progression in ophthalmology. Advances in optical technology have made it easier to obtain high-quality retinal imaging, even without pupillary dilation. Retinal photography has a high sensitivity, specificity, and inter-/intra-examination agreement compared to in-person ophthalmologist examination, suggesting that photographs can be used in lieu of ophthalmoscopy in many clinical situations. Non-mydriatic retinal photography has recently gained relevance as a helpful tool for diagnosing neuro-ophthalmologic disorders in the emergency department. Additionally, several population-based studies have used retinal imaging to relate ophthalmic abnormalities to the risk of hypertension, renal dysfunction, cardiovascular mortality, subclinical and clinical stroke, and cognitive impairment. The possibility of telemedical consultation offered by digital retinal photography has already increased access to timely and accurate subspecialty care, particularly for underserved areas. Conclusion Retinal photography (even without pupillary dilation) has become increasingly available to medical fields outside of ophthalmology, allowing for faster and more accurate diagnosis of various ocular, neurologic and systemic disorders. The potential for telemedicine may provide the additional benefits of improving access to appropriate urgent consultation in both clinical and research settings. PMID:23114666

  4. Selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, bony orbit anatomy, and ocular histology in sambar deer (Rusa unicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriá, Arianne P; Gomes Junior, Deusdete C; Oliveira, Alberto Vinícius D; Curvelo, Victor P; Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Pinna, Melissa H; Meneses, Íris D S; Filho, Emanoel F M; Ofri, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for diagnostic ophthalmic tests in sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) as well as to describe the most relevant features of the bony orbital anatomy and ocular histology. Twenty healthy animals, free living in a forest reserve, that were captured for clinical evaluation as part of a health survey were evaluated. Schirmer tear test-1 (STT1), conjunctival microbiota, intraocular pressure (IOP), conjunctival cytology, anatomy of the bony orbit, and ocular histology were studied. Mean ± SD STT1 and IOP values were 18.8 ± 4.7 mm and 11.4 ± 2.8 mmHg, respectively. IOP was significantly higher in adult (4-8 years) animals (P = 0.04). Bacterial growth was present in 100% of the samples, with a prevalence for Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. The conjunctival cytology revealed predominance of columnar epithelial cells with mild pigmentation. The sambar deer orbit is completely encompassed by bone. The ocular histology was very similar to most mammalians. The findings in this study will be useful in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in Rusa unicolor. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Ophthalmic drug delivery utilizing two-photon absorption: a novel approach to treat posterior capsule opacification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.-C.; Träger, J.; Zorn, M.; Haberkorn, N.; Hampp, N.

    2007-07-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is the standard technique to treat cataract. Despite recent progress in surgical procedures, posterior capsule opacification is one of the sill remaining postoperative complications of cataract surgery. We present a novel strategy to reduce the incidence of posterior capsule opacification. A drug delivery polymer suitable for manufacturing intraocular lenses has been developed which enables repeated drug release in a non-invasive and controlled manner. The therapeutic molecules are attached through a UV light sensitive linkage to the polymer backbone which is mainly responsible for the optical properties of the intraocular lenses. However, UV light can not trigger the release of drug from the polymer due to the high absorption of the cornea. We developed linkers which enable drug release by two-photon absorption induced cleavage of the linker structure. Since the two-photon absorption requires high photon densities, this does not occur in ambient light conditions in daily life, but is easily triggered by focused laser beams from a pulsed laser. In this proof-of-principle study we have employed a cyclobutane type linker and investigated the properties of the therapeutic system with the approved drugs 5-fluorouracil and chlorambucil. The controlled drug delivery was successfully demonstrated in vitro and additional cell tests confirmed that the device itself shows no cytotoxicity until photochemical activation. This presented concept can provide a powerful method in ophthalmic drug delivery.

  6. Screening for ophthalmic disorders and visual impairment in a Nigerian school for the deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Oluwatoyin Helen; Omotoye, Olusola J

    2010-01-01

    To detect the presence of ophthalmic abnormalities and visual impairment in deaf students. A cross-sectional survey of all students in the school for the deaf was conducted following ethical clearance from the Ministry of Health. Age, sex, and previous eye examination was recorded for each student as well as visual acuity, penlight eye examination, intraocular pressure, dilated funduscopy, and refraction (when applicable). Data were analyzed with SPSS version 11 and statistical significance inferred at pvisually impaired, 4 (2.6%) had unilateral visual impairment, and 4 (2.6%) had unilateral blindness. Blindness was caused by Usher syndrome in 1 (50%) and bilateral pigmented macular scar in 1 (50%) patient. Uncorrected refractive errors were the leading cause of unilateral visual impairment (75%), visual impairment (60%), and unilateral blindness (50%). Ocular abnormality was present in 53 (34%) students while uncorrected refractive error (18.6%), retina changes (7%), and allergic conjunctivitis (3.8%) were the leading disorders. Previous eye examination was more common among primary school students (pdevelopment of a deaf child, and conduct an initial and periodic eye examination for every intake.

  7. Development and characterisation of thermo reversible mucoadhesive moxifloxacin hydrochloride in situ ophthalmic gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dholakia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustain release thermo reversible in situ gel of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride using mucoadhesive polymer was prepared. Mucoadhesive polymer was used to obtain an ophthalmic delivery system with improved mechanical and mucoadhesive properties that will provide prolong retention time for treatment of ocular diseases. Developed formulations were evaluated for drug-excipient compatibility study, pH, Clarity, Gelation temperature study, Mucoadhesion properties and in-vitro release studies. Drug-excipient compatibility study was performed by FTIR technique.The individual IR spectra of the pure drug and polymers as well as the combination spectra of the drug and polymer were taken, which indicate no interaction between Moxifloxacin and polymers when compared with infrared spectrum of pure drug as all functional group frequencies were present. The values of other parameters obtained were in acceptable range. In vitro release tests revealed that 98% drug was released from the in situ gel containing 0.5% and 1.00% HPMC in 12 hr. provides prolonged release.

  8. Reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Mattos, Bianca Chaim; Russ, Heloisa Helena Abil

    2006-01-01

    To perform selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests in healthy ferrets with the aim of establishing normal physiological reference values for this species. A total of 15 healthy, unrelated ferrets were used to test most of the parameters in this investigation. Eight of the 15 ferrets were used for central corneal thickness evaluation. Ages varied from 1.5 to 6 years of age. Selected diagnostic ocular tests were performed including Schirmer tear test, tonometry using an applanation tonometer (Tonopen), central corneal thickness using an ultrasonic pachymeter (Sonomed, Micropach, Model 200P +) and culture of the normal conjunctival bacterial flora. Staphylococcus sp. and Corynebacterium sp. were isolated from healthy conjunctival and eyelid margins, suggesting they are normal constituents of the conjunctival flora of the ferret. Results for selected ocular diagnostic tests investigated here for the ferret eye were as follows: intraocular pressure: 14.50 +/- 3.27 mmHg; Schirmer tear test: 5.31 +/- 1.32 mm/min; central corneal thickness: 0.337 +/- 0.020 mm. No statistically significant differences between ages or genders were found for any of the results. The reference data for the ocular tests obtained in this investigation will help veterinary ophthalmologists to more accurately diagnose ocular diseases in the ferret. Knowledge of these reference values will be particularly useful to diagnose discrete or unusual pathological changes of the ferret eye.

  9. Dynamic light scattering as an objective noninvasive method in veterinary ophthalmic diagnosis and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Stephen; Ansari, Rafat R.; Tulp, Orien; Steinberg, Sheldon; Koch, Seth; DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Cozmi, Mihaela; Victor, Mary

    1999-06-01

    The absence of verbal feedback, available from most human patients, is a major limitation in veterinary diagnosis in general and in the evaluation of ophthalmic lens opacity in particular. A novel compact dynamic light scattering (DLS) instrument, developed at NASA, offers significant mitigation to this limitation. It not only yields objective repeatable non-invasive estimation of lens opacity but also provides insight into the nature of chemical and physical alternations in the lens and other eye structures. For example, DLS measurements of the cataractous lens may be interpreted in terms of alpha crystalline protein size. In contrast to most conventional methods, the examination results are numerical and readily accommodate statistical analysis. We present results of DLS measurements in laboratory rabbits with naphthalene induced cataracts, rodents with genetically conditioned hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus; as well as applications of the DLS method in clinical veterinary patients. Use of DLS in examination of phacoemulsification fluid, urine and other biological materials, and potential applications in ocular toxically will also be discussed.

  10. Chitosan/alginate based multilayers to control drug release from ophthalmic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diana; Pinto, Luís F V; Bozukova, Dimitriya; Santos, Luís F; Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde

    2016-11-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using layer-by-layer deposition, based in natural polymers (chitosan and alginate), to control the release of different ophthalmic drugs from three types of lens materials: a silicone-based hydrogel recently proposed by our group as drug releasing soft contact lens (SCL) material and two commercially available materials: CI26Y for intraocular lens (IOLs) and Definitive 50 for SCLs. The optimised coating, consisting in one double layer of (alginate - CaCl2)/(chitosan+glyoxal) topped with a final alginate-CaCl2 layer to avoid chitosan degradation by tear fluid proteins, proved to have excellent features to control the release of the anti-inflammatory, diclofenac, while keeping or improving the physical properties of the lenses. The coating leads to a controlled release of diclofenac from SCL and IOL materials for, at least, one week. Due to its high hydrophilicity (water contact angle≈0) and biocompatibility, it should avoid the use of further surface treatments to enhance the useŕs comfort. However, the barrier effect of this coating is specific for diclofenac, giving evidence to the need of optimizing the chemical composition of the layers in view of the desired drug.

  11. Interactive videodisc and compact disc-interactive for ophthalmic basic science and continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberg, R; Dickinson, L K; Christiansen, R A; Huntley, J S; Lind, D G

    1993-06-01

    The authors designed and implemented a complete curriculum in ophthalmic pathology using IBM- and Macintosh-based interactive videodisc (IVD) technology. They also redesigned a portion of this curriculum for a new television-based platform, compact disc-interactive (CD-I). The following issues were addressed: curriculum design, instructional design, the assembly of illustrations and the ownership of such materials, the generation of computer-based medical art and animation, and programming. The issue of academic credit for faculty participating in this effort also was considered. The computer-based IVD program provides the following features: (1) rapid access to thousands of high-quality illustrations with the option of superimposing graphic labels and text directly over pictures; (2) the ability to view enlargements of photographs; (3) an online glossary to view definition of terms coupled with high-quality photographs; and (4) a dynamic introduction to pathophysiology using interactive animation sequences. The authors were able to incorporate the same interactive features into the CD-I version. High-quality medical illustrations can be used effectively on the CD-I platform. Computer-based multimedia workstations are relatively expensive for personal use but may be useful if the equipment can be shared in a learning center or library. Compared with interactive computer-based solutions, consumer-oriented television-based technology such as CD-I is a relatively inexpensive vehicle for providing continuing medical education programs intended for use in the individual practitioner's office or home.

  12. Left Coronary Artery-Pulmonary Artery Fistula in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Veli Doğan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Coroner artery fistula which is rare and congenital or acquired arise from whole coroner artery drainage all of cardiac chamber and great artery. Although coroner artery fistula is uncommon, it can cause significant mortality and morbidity rates. The article is presented which coroner artery disease and coroner-pulmonary artery fistula was accomplishment committed. Sixty three year-old male patient admitted to the hospital with chest pain. Non-ST myocardial infarction was diagnosed in the examinations. After coroner angiography, it was found coronary artery disease in addition between LAD proximal portion and main pulmonary artery fistula. Fistula repair and coronary bypass were performed successfully under cardiopulmonary bypass. Without hemodynamic problem in intensive care and service follow-up, the patient was discharged from the hospital in the seventh postoperative day. We think that surgical treatment of coronary fistulas in patients with coronary artery lesion is done at the earliest time would enable improvement in mortality and morbidity rates.

  13. Effects of Long Duration Spaceflight on Venous and Arterial Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Stenger, M. B.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2014-01-01

    The visual impairment and intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP) is a newly described space flight-associated medical condition made up of a constellation of symptoms affecting at least 34% of American astronauts who have flown International Space Station (ISS) missions. VIIP is defined primarily by visual acuity deficits and anatomical changes to eye structures, and is thought to be related to elevated intracranial pressure secondary to space flightinduced cephalad fluid shifts. Loss of visual acuity could be a significant threat to crew health and performance and may be suggestive of other adaptations with implications for years post-flight. Our primary objective is to determine whether vascular compliance is altered by space flight and whether such adaptations are related to the incidence of VIIP. In particular, we will measure ocular parameters and vascular compliance in vessels of the head and neck in astronauts who have no space flight experience, in astronauts before, during, and after space flight, and in bed rest subjects with conditions similar to space flight. Additionally, we will analyze astronaut data from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) archive to determine which factors might be predictive of the development of VIIP. The project will be conducted in four separate but related parts. To understand the baseline condition of astronauts without any prior space flight experience, we will study 10 astronauts who have never flown in space by performing a comprehensive evaluation of the vasculature of the head, neck and eyes. Hemodynamic data (stroke volume and blood pressure), ocular (tonometry and ocular ultrasound), venous and arterial parameters will be acquired across a range of tilt angles (20, 10, 0, -10, -20 degrees). Vessels to be studied include the temporal, jugular, and vertebral veins and the cerebral, carotid and vertebral arteries. Ophthalmic data from the annual physical will be obtained through data sharing. To examine

  14. Idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwica, Tomasz; Szumarska, Joanna; Staniszewska-Marszalek, Edyta; Mazurek, Walentyna; Kosmala, Wojciech

    2009-05-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is an uncommon lesion, which may be associated with different etiologies including congenital cardiovascular diseases, systemic vasculitis, connective tissue diseases, infections, and trauma. Idiopathic PAA is sporadically diagnosed by exclusion of concomitant major pathology. We report a case of a 56-year-old female with an idiopathic pulmonary artery dilatation identified fortuitously by echocardiography and confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Neither significant pulmonary valve dysfunction nor pulmonary hypertension and other cardiac abnormalities which might contribute to the PAA development were found. Here, we describe echocardiographic and computed tomography findings and review the literature on PAA management.

  15. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in children after neonatal arterial switch operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Willemijn Mh; Elmasry, Ola; Pepplinkhuizen, Shari; Ivy, D Dunbar; Bonnet, Damien; Lévy, Marilyne; Gavilan, Jose Luis; Torrent-Vernetta, Alba; Mendoza, Alberto; Del Cerro, Maria Jesus; Moledina, Shahin; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Paediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) after neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) for transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a clinically recognised entity with an estimated incidence of 0.6%-1.0%. Nevertheless, a clinical characterisation is lacking. We present an in

  16. Left Anterior Descending Artery-Pulmonary Artery Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Ege

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that coronary arteriovenous fistulas constitute approximately half (48% of coronary artery anomalies, they are rarely seen anomalies. In this report,we aim to present a coronary arteriovenous fistula case detected during a coronary angiography between left anterior descending artery and pulmonary artery.

  17. Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-09-10

    Arterial stiffness has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular risk in various populations and reflects the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors on large arteries, which in turn is modulated by genetic background. Arterial stiffness is determined by the composition of the arterial wall and the arrangement of these components, and can be studied in humans non-invasively. Age and distending pressure are two major factors influencing large artery stiffness. Change in arterial stiffness with drugs is an important endpoint in clinical trials, although evidence for arterial stiffness as a therapeutic target still needs to be confirmed. Drugs that independently affect arterial stiffness include antihypertensive drugs, mostly blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hormone replacement therapy and some antidiabetic drugs such as glitazones. While the quest continues for \\'de-stiffening drugs\\

  18. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance

  19. Pulmonary artery sling: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Gil Hyun; Lee, Sun Wha; Cha, Sung Ho [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Aberrant left-sided pulmonary artery(pulmonary artery sling) is an uncommon anomaly,which may cause significant respiratory abnormality. We report a case of pulmonary artery sling which is combined with persistent left superior vena cava and dextrocardia. This case were identified by esophagogram and CT and confirmed by MRI and angiography. We consider that MRI is a valuable new method for the diagnosis of aberrant left-sided pulmonary artery.

  20. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altintas, Ümit; Helgstrand, Ulf Johan Vilhelm; Hansen, Marc A;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience with popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) with special emphasis on the applicability of duplex ultrasound scanning (DUS) when diagnosing PAES. In addition to examining the correlation between DUS and intraoperative findings...

  1. Intracranial artery dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, T.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Eshghi, O.; De Keyser, J.; Brouns, R.; van Dijk, J.M.C.; Luijckx, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this narrative review is to evaluate the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of intracranial artery dissection (IAD). IAD is a rare and often unrecognized cause of stroke or subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), especially in young adults. Two types of IAD can be

  2. Intracranial artery dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, T.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Eshghi, O.; De Keyser, J.; Brouns, R.; van Dijk, J.M.C.; Luijckx, G. J.

    The aim of this narrative review is to evaluate the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of intracranial artery dissection (IAD). IAD is a rare and often unrecognized cause of stroke or subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), especially in young adults. Two types of IAD can be

  3. Arterial Emboli Complicating Cisplatin Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, Campbell D.; Rankin, Elaine M

    2012-01-01

    We report three cases of arterial emboli in patients with lung cancer treated with cisplatin chemotherapy. All three patients were managed without surgical intervention but subsequent oncological treatment was complicated by the sequelae of arterial emboli. We discuss the issues surrounding these patients and the importance of identifying patients at risk of arterial embolic phenomena with cisplatin treatment.

  4. Clinical importance of the middle meningeal artery: A review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinlu; Guo, Yunbao; Xu, Baofeng; Xu, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is a very important artery in neurosurgery. Many diseases, including dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), pseudoaneurysm, true aneurysm, traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF), moyamoya disease (MMD), recurrent chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), migraine and meningioma, can involve the MMA. In these diseases, the lesions occur in either the MMA itself and treatment is necessary, or the MMA is used as the pathway to treat the lesions; therefore, the MMA is very important to the development and treatment of a variety of neurosurgical diseases. However, no systematic review describing the importance of MMA has been published. In this study, we used the PUBMED database to perform a review of the literature on the MMA to increase our understanding of its role in neurosurgery. After performing this review, we found that the MMA was commonly used to access DAVFs and meningiomas. Pseudoaneurysms and true aneurysms in the MMA can be effectively treated via endovascular or surgical removal. In MMD, the MMA plays a very important role in the development of collateral circulation and indirect revascularization. For recurrent CDSHs, after burr hole irrigation and drainage have failed, MMA embolization may be attempted. The MMA can also contribute to the occurrence and treatment of migraines. Because the ophthalmic artery can ectopically originate from the MMA, caution must be taken to avoid causing damage to the MMA during operations. PMID:27766029

  5. Simultaneous occlusion of three cilioretinal arteries following scleral buckling surgery under local anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoli PE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pietro Emanuele Napoli,* Alberto Cuccu,* Roberta Farci, Maurizio Fossarello Department of Surgical Sciences, Eye Clinic, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cilioretinal artery (CRA occlusions are rare in young patients. In these cases, the most commonly associated causes are considered to be the same as those implicated in central retina artery occlusions, such as vasculitic processes, migraine, cardiac disorder, and coagulation abnormality. The aim of this article was to report for the first time the medical records and investigational results of an unusual case of simultaneous occlusion of three CRAs after scleral buckling surgery under local anesthesia.Methods: A complete ophthalmic examination, including color fundus image, fundus fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, visual field, as well as systemic and laboratory assessments, was performed.Results: A case of contemporaneous blockage of three CRAs after ab externo surgery for retinal detachment in a 29-year-old Caucasian woman was reported. The interdisciplinary approach and the imaging results have allowed us the clinical definition of such a very rare case.Conclusion: Here, we reported that optical coherence tomography is an indispensable tool to better delineate the pathological process and follow atrophic changes in the macula, especially in cases in which fundus fluorescein angiography and systemic tests may be poorly informative. Keywords: cilioretinal artery occlusion, optical coherence tomography, retinal detachment

  6. Cerebral Arterial Fenestrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Daniel L; Stout, Charles E; Kim, Warren T; Kansagra, Akash P; Yu, John Paul; Gu, Amy; Jewell, Nicholas P; Hetts, Steven W; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; Halbach, Van V

    2014-01-01

    Summary Arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant with indeterminate significance. Given the controversy surrounding fenestrations we sought their prevalence within our practice along with their association with other cerebrovascular anomalies. We retrospectively reviewed 10,927 patients undergoing digital subtraction angiography between 1992 and 2011. Dictated reports were searched for the terms “fenestration” or “fenestrated” with images reviewed for relevance, yielding 228 unique cases. A Medline database search from February 1964 to January 2013 generated 304 citations, 127 cases of which were selected for analysis. Cerebral arterial fenestrations were identified in 228 patients (2.1%). At least one aneurysm was noted in 60.5% of patients, with an aneurysm arising from the fenestration in 19.6% of patients. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage or non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were present in 60.1% and 15.8%, respectively. For the subset of patients with an aneurysm arising directly from a fenestration relative to those patients with an aneurysm not immediately associated with a fenestration, the prevalence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was 66.7% vs. 58.6% (p = 0.58). Fenestrations were more often within the posterior circulation (73.2%) than the anterior circulation (24.6%), though there was no difference in the prevalence of aneurysms within these groups (61.1% vs. 60.7%, p = 1.0). Cerebral arterial fenestrations are an anatomic variant more often manifesting at the anterior communicating arterial complex and basilar artery and with no definite pathological relationship with aneurysms. PMID:24976087

  7. Development of a new valid, reliable, and internationally applicable assessment tool of residents' competence in ophthalmic surgery (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, C; Beaver, Hilary; Gauba, Vinod; Lee, Andrew G; Mayorga, Eduardo; Palis, Gabriela; Saleh, George M

    2013-09-01

    To test the validity and reliability of a new tool for assessing residents' competence in ophthalmic surgery. Changing paradigms of ophthalmic education in the United States have influenced worldwide ophthalmic education and necessitated new methods of assessing resident competence. Accordingly, a new tool for assessing residents' competence in ophthalmic surgery (phacoemulsification) that could be applicable internationally was developed. We hypothesize that this instrument is valid and reliable. A panel of six international content experts adapted a previously published tool for assessing phacoemulsification. The tool (called the International Council of Ophthalmology's Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric, or ICO-OSCAR:phaco) was reviewed by 12 international content experts for their constructive comments, which were incorporated to ensure content validity. Ten expert cataract surgery teachers then graded six recorded phacoemulsification surgeries with the ICO-OSCAR:phaco to investigate inter-rater reliability. The coefficient alpha statistic (a measure of reliability/internal consistency) for the ICO-OSCAR:phaco as a whole was 0.92, and 17 of its 20 dimensions had alpha coefficients greater than 0.70. The ICO-OSCAR:phaco is a valid and reliable assessment tool that could be applied internationally to satisfy the global need of new instruments to comply with emerging trends in ophthalmic education. A toolbox of similar surgical competency assessment tools is being developed.

  8. Development of a New Valid, Reliable, and Internationally Applicable Assessment Tool of Residents’ Competence in Ophthalmic Surgery (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, C.; Beaver, Hilary; Gauba, Vinod; Lee, Andrew G.; Mayorga, Eduardo; Palis, Gabriela; Saleh, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the validity and reliability of a new tool for assessing residents’ competence in ophthalmic surgery. Changing paradigms of ophthalmic education in the United States have influenced worldwide ophthalmic education and necessitated new methods of assessing resident competence. Accordingly, a new tool for assessing residents’ competence in ophthalmic surgery (phacoemulsification) that could be applicable internationally was developed. We hypothesize that this instrument is valid and reliable. Methods: A panel of six international content experts adapted a previously published tool for assessing phacoemulsification. The tool (called the International Council of Ophthalmology’s Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubric, or ICO-OSCAR:phaco) was reviewed by 12 international content experts for their constructive comments, which were incorporated to ensure content validity. Ten expert cataract surgery teachers then graded six recorded phacoemulsification surgeries with the ICO-OSCAR:phaco to investigate inter-rater reliability. Results: The coefficient alpha statistic (a measure of reliability/internal consistency) for the ICO-OSCAR:phaco as a whole was 0.92, and 17 of its 20 dimensions had alpha coefficients greater than 0.70. Conclusions: The ICO-OSCAR:phaco is a valid and reliable assessment tool that could be applied internationally to satisfy the global need of new instruments to comply with emerging trends in ophthalmic education. A toolbox of similar surgical competency assessment tools is being developed. PMID:24072944

  9. Comparative efifcacy of marineStreptomyces formulation versus ciprolfoxacin ophthalmic solution for treatingStaphylococcus aureus-induced conjunctivitis in animal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Femina Wahaab; Kalidass Subramaniam; Morris Jawahar

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To report the efficacy of marine actinomycetes in controllingStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced conjunctivitis in experimental rabbit. Methods: The ethyl acetate extracts of the best isolates of actinomycetes from the soil samples of Rameswaram coastal regions, Tamil Nadu, India, were concentrated and re-constituted in buffer and used as actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension in this study. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension was analysed in controllingS. aureus-induced conjunctivitis in rabbit in comparison with that of ciprofloxacin. Results:Among the four best isolates, theRAM25C4isolate had the highest antimicrobial activity in the secondary screening. Shelf life studies indicated that the activity can be retained for 75 days when it was stored at 8°C and the optimum temperature for storage was between –20°°C and 30°°C. The animal model studies indicated that there was a profound anti-conjunctivitis effect. The actinomycetes ophthalmic suspension had better activity than ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution. Conclusions:This is the first time to report thatStreptomyces bacillaris strainRAM25C4 has antimicrobial effect in controlling ophthalmic pathogenS. aureus underin vitro condition and thein vivo anti-inflammatory activity in controllingS. aureus-induced conjunctivitis.

  10. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: First Indian report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe treatment outcomes and complications of selective intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC for retinoblastoma (RB in Indian eyes. Materials and Methods: Single center, retrospective interventional case series of 6 eyes with RB who underwent IAC using Melphalan (3 mg/5 mg/7.5 mg and topetecan (1 mg (n = 4 or melphalan (3 mg/5 mg/7.5 mg alone (n = 2 between December 2013 and June 2014. In all, 17 IAC procedures were performed using selective ophthalmic artery cannulation. Treatment outcomes were evaluated in terms of tumor control, vitreous and subretinal seeds control and globe salvage rates. Results: IAC was employed as primary (n = 1 or secondary (n = 5 modality of treatment. Each eye received mean 3 IAC sessions (median: 3; range: 1-4 sessions. Eyes were classified according to international classification of RB as Group B (n = 1, C (n = 1, D (n = 2 and E (n = 2. Following IAC, complete regression of the main tumor was seen in 3 cases (50%, partial regression in 2 (33%, while 1 case (15% showed no response. Of 4 eyes with subretinal seeds, 1 (25% eye had complete regression while 3 (75% eyes had partial regression. Of 5 eyes with vitreous seeds, 2 (40% eyes had complete regression while 3 (60% eyes had a partial response. Globe salvage was achieved in 5 of 6 eyes (83%. Diffuse choroidal atrophy and vitreous hemorrhage were observed in 1 (17% eye, each. No hematologic toxicity or cerebro-vascular events were observed. Mean follow-up period was 5.5 months (median: 6 months, range: 1-6 months. Conclusion: IAC is an effective therapy for globe preservation in eyes with RB. Larger studies with longer follow-up are required to validate these results.

  11. Publication rates from the All India Ophthalmic Conference 2010 compared to 2000: Are we improving?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kumaragurupari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the publication rates of free papers and posters presented at the All India Ophthalmic Conference (AIOC 2010 in peer-reviewed journals up to December 2015 and compare this with publication rates from AIOC2000 published previously. Methods: A thorough literature search was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, and the general Google search engine by two independent investigators. The title of the paper, keywords and author names were used to “match” the AIOC free-paper with the published paper. In addition, the “purpose,” “methods,” and “outcome measures” between the two were studied to determine the “match.” Results: A total of 58 out of 394 free-papers (14.7% from AIOC2010 were published till December 2015 compared to 16.5% from AIOC2000. Out of these, 52 (90% were published in PubMed indexed journals. Maximum publications were seen in pediatric ophthalmology (50% followed by glaucoma (24.4% and cornea (23.8%. Fifteen out of 272 posters (5.5% were published; orbit/oculoplastics had the highest poster publications (13%. Excluding papers in nonindexed journals and those by authors with international affiliations, the publication rate was approximately 12%. Conclusion: The publication rate of free papers from AIOC2010 has marginally reduced compared to AIOC2000. Various causes for this such as lack of adequate training, motivation, and lack of incentives for research in the Indian scenario have been explored, and measures to improve this paradigm have been discussed. It will be prudent to repeat this exercise every decade to compare publication rates between periodic AIOC, stimulate young minds for quality research and educate policy makers toward the need for developing dedicated research departments across the country.

  12. Ophthalmic examination of the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, David; Alvarado, Thomas P; Oral, Deniz; Vargas, Jose M; Denena, Melissa M; McCulley, James P

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) eye as compared and contrasted with the human eye. Bilateral ophthalmic examinations of western lowland gorillas (n = 5) while under general anesthesia were performed opportunistically, including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, dilated fundus examination, cycloplegic retinoscopy, Schiotz tonometry, corneal diameter and thickness measurements, A-scan and B-scan ultrasonography, keratometry, and cultures of the eyelid margins and bulbar conjunctiva. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error by cycloplegic retinoscopy was +1.20 +/- 0.59 diopters. Mean intraocular pressure by Schiotz tonometry was 12.0 +/- 4.3 mm Hg. Mean optic nerve head cup to disc ratio was 0.42 +/- 0.11. Mean horizontal corneal diameter was 13.4 +/- 0.8 mm, and mean vertical cornea diameter was 12.7 +/- 0.8 mm. Mean central corneal thickness by ultrasound pachymetry was 489 +/- 52 microm. Mean axial length of the eye by A-scan was 22.75 +/- 0.71 mm. Mean lens thickness by A-scan was 4.23 +/- 0.34 mm. Mean anterior chamber depth by A-scan was 4.00 +/- 0.26 mm. Mean keratometry reading was 44.38 +/- 1.64 diopters. Eyelid margin and bulbar conjunctival cultures isolated Candida sp. (n = 5), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 4), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 3), Staphylococcus saccharolyticus (n = 3), and Micrococcus sp. (n = 3). This study suggests important similarities between western lowland gorilla and human eyes. These similarities may allow diagnostics, techniques, and equipment for human eye surgery, such as those used for cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, to be successfully utilized for gorillas.

  13. Neurofibromatosis: an update of ophthalmic characteristics and applications of optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrahimzadeh B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Barmak Abdolrahimzadeh,1 Domenica Carmen Piraino,2 Giorgio Albanese,2 Filippo Cruciani,2 Siavash Rahimi3 1Polimed Beltramelli Medical Center, Rome, Italy; 2Section of Ophthalmology, Department of Sense Organs, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Pathology Centre, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth, UK Abstract: Neurofibromatosis (NF is a multisystem disorder and tumor predisposition syndrome caused by genetic mutation on chromosome 17-17q11.2 in NF type 1 (NF1, and on chromosome 22-22q12.2 in NF type 2. The disorder is characterized by considerable heterogeneity of clinical expression. NF1 is the form with the most characteristic ocular manifestations. Lisch nodules of the iris are among the well-known diagnostic criteria for the disease. Glaucoma and associated globe enlargement have been described in a significant proportion of patients with NF1 and orbital–facial involvement. Optic nerve glioma may cause strabismus and proptosis, and palpebral neurofibroma may reach considerable size and occasionally show malignant transformation. Near infrared reflectance has greatly contributed to enhancing our knowledge on choroidal alterations in NF1. Indeed, some authors have proposed to include these among the diagnostic criteria. Optical coherence tomography has given new insight on retinal alterations and is a noninvasive tool in the management of optic nerve gliomas in children. Ocular manifestations in NF type 2 can range from early-onset cataracts in up to 80% of cases to optic nerve hamartomas and combined pigment epithelial and retinal hamartomas. Keywords: neurofibromatosis, ophthalmic, optical coherence tomography, infrared reflectance, choroideal nodules, Lisch nodules

  14. Increased ophthalmic acid production is supported by amino acid catabolism under fasting conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sho; Lee, Jaeyong; Takao, Toshifumi; Fujii, Junichi

    2017-09-23

    Glutathione (GSH) plays pivotal roles in antioxidation and detoxification. The transsulfuration pathway, in conjunction with methionine metabolism, produces equimolar amounts of cysteine (Cys) and 2-oxobutyric acid (2OB). The resulting 2OB is then converted into 2-aminobutyric acid (2AB) by a transaminase and is utilized as a substitute for Cys by the GSH-synthesizing machinery to produce ophthalmic acid (OPT). By establishing a method for simultaneously measuring Cys, GSH, and OPT by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that fasting causes an elevation in OPT levels in the liver and blood plasma, even though the levels of Cys and GSH are decreased. Autophagy was activated, but the levels of GSH/OPT-synthesizing enzymes remained unchanged. After 6 h of fasting, the mice were given 1% 2AB and/or 5% glucose in the drinking water for an additional 24 h and the above metabolites analyzed. 2AB administration caused an increase in OPT levels, and, when glucose was co-administered with 2AB, the levels of OPT were elevated further but GSH levels were decreased somewhat. These results suggest that, while Cys is utilized for glyconeogenesis under fasting conditions, reaching levels that were insufficient for the synthesis of GSH, 2OB was preferentially converted to 2AB via amino acid catabolism and was utilized as a building block for OPT. Thus the consumption of Cys and the parallel elevation of 2AB under fasting conditions appeared to force γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase to form γ-glutamyl-2AB, despite the fact that the enzyme has a higher Km value for 2AB than Cys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Virulence Attributes and Antifungal Susceptibility Profile of Opportunistic Fungi Isolated from Ophthalmic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sav, Hafize; Ozdemir, Havva Gül; Altınbas, Rabiye; Kiraz, Nuri; Ilkit, Macit; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-10-01

    Investigations of both virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility profiles are crucial for understanding the pathogenesis and prognosis of ophthalmic mycoses. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole (VRC), and natamycin (NAT) against a set of 50 fungal isolates obtained from patients with ocular mycoses using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. In addition, putative virulence factor, such as secretory phospholipases and proteinases, and biofilm formation activity were analyzed. The geometric means (GMs) of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antifungals across all isolates were the following (in increasing order): VRC (0.70 μg/mL), AMB (0.81 μg/mL), and NAT (1.05 μg/mL). The highest activity against 14 Aspergillus strains was exhibited by VRC (GM MIC: 0.10 μg/mL), followed by AMB and NAT (GM MICs: 0.21 and 0.27 μg/mL), respectively. However, for 12 Fusarium spp., the GM MIC of VRC (2.66) was higher than those of NAT and AMB (GM MICs 1.3 and 0.8 μg/mL, respectively). Proteinase and phospholipase activity were observed in 30 % and 42 % of the isolates, respectively, whereas only 8 % of the isolates were able to produce biofilms. Phospholipase activity was observed in all Fusarium isolates, but not in any of the Aspergillus isolates. In contrast, biofilm-forming capability was detected in 25 % of the Fusarium isolates, but none of the Aspergillus isolates. The differences in the MICs of AMB, VRC, and NAT, biofilm-forming ability and proteinase and phospholipase activities among the isolates were not significant (p > 0.05). Overall, our study suggests no significant correlation between the antifungal susceptibility profiles and virulence attributes of ocular fungal isolates.

  16. Sympathetic ophthalmitis following vitreoretinal surgery: Does antecedent trauma make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sympathetic ophthalmitis (SO has been reported following vitrectomy; however, there is a lack of data on the role of antecedent penetrating ocular trauma impacting the disease manifestation in eyes developing SO following vitrectomy. Aim: To report differences in the presentation and outcomes of SO in eyes with or without a history of antecedent penetrating trauma; SO being diagnosed after vitreoretinal (VR surgery. Design: Comparative case series. Methods: Seventeen consecutive patients presenting with SO following VR surgery, diagnosed between 1995 and 2011 were included. Eyes with and without prior penetrating injury were included in Group I (n = 7 and Group II (n = 10, respectively. All Group I patients had received systemic steroids prior to presentation. Demographic and clinical parameters were evaluated. Results: Differences were observed between Group I and Group II mainly with regards to time interval between VR surgery and diagnosis of SO (1.5 months vs. 8 months, P = 0.10, presence of neurosensory detachments (100% vs. 30%, P = 0.01, and the inciting eye vision at presentation (nil light perception in 28.5% vs. 80%, P = 0.049. Other differences observed though not statistically significant were optic disc and retinal vessel involvement (42% vs. 70%, P = 0.28, Dalen-Fuchs nodules (localized vs. diffuse and leaks on fundus fluorescein angiography (pin-head vs. pin-point leak. Conclusion: SO in patients with antecedent penetrating ocular trauma present early with the central serous chorioretinopathy-like picture. Prior use of systemic steroids might have a bearing on the differences in presentation and the visual acuities between the two groups.

  17. Solvent Composition is Critical for Carbodiimide Cross-Linking of Hyaluronic Acid as an Ophthalmic Biomaterial

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    Jui-Yang Lai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA is one of the most important ophthalmic biomaterials, while also being used for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Although chemical cross-linking is an effective way to improve the material performance, it may as a consequence be detrimental to the living cells/tissues. Given that the cross-linking efficiency is mediated by the solvent composition during the chemical modification, this study aims to explore the stability and biocompatibility of carbodiimide cross-linked HA in relation to material processing conditions by varying the acetone/water volume ratio (from 70:30 to 95:5 at a constant 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC concentration of 100 mM. Our results indicated that after the EDC treatment in the presence of an acetone/water mixture (85:15, v/v, the HA hydrogel membranes have the lowest equilibrium water content, the highest stress at break and the greatest resistance to hyaluronidase digestion. Live/Dead assays and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression analyses showed that the cross-linked HA hydrogel membranes, irrespective of the solvent composition, are compatible with human RPE cell lines without causing toxicity and inflammation. However, it should be noted that the test samples prepared by the cross-linking in the presence of acetone/water mixtures containing 70, 75, and 95 vol % of acetone slightly inhibit the metabolic activity of viable ARPE-19 cultures, probably due to the alteration in the ionic interaction between the medium nutrients and polysaccharide biomaterials. In summary, the water content, mechanical strength and RPE cell proliferative capacity strongly depends on the solvent composition for carbodiimide cross-linking of HA materials.

  18. Safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman; Sevki; Arslan; Ceyhun; Arici; Mustafa; Unal; Erdogan; Cicik; Mehmet; Serhat; Mangan; Eray; Atalay

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To determine the safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty(PKP).METHODS:In this retrospective study of consecutive patients who had phacoemulsification cataract surgery after PKP, were treated with intracameral moxifloxacin0.5% ophthalmic solution(0.5 mg/0.1 mL). The main outcome measures were anterior chamber reaction, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), corneal endothelial cell count(ECC), and central corneal thickness(CCT).RESULTS:Fifty-five patients were recruited(26 males,29 females). The mean age was 54.36±4.97y(range 45-64y).All eyes had improved postoperative BCVA. The mean BCVA was 0.25 preoperatively and 0.57 postoperatively,which was statistically significant(P <0.001). One eye had 3+, 7 eyes had 2+, 12 eyes had 1+ and 8 eyes had trace amount of aqueous cells on the first day after surgery. All eyes had no anterior chamber cells at subsequent follow up examinations. Effective phacoemulsification time was 4.33 ±1.01 s. The mean ECC was 2340.20 cells/mm2 preoperatively and 1948.75 cells/mm21 mo postoperatively(P <0.001). The increase of21.09 μm in postoperative pachymetry 1mo after surgery was statistically significant(P <0.001).CONCLUSION:Nountowardeffectswereobservedafter intracameral injection of moxifloxacin(0.5 mg/0.1 mL) in terms of anterior chamber reaction, CCT, ECC, and visual rehabilitation at the conclusion of cataract surgery in patients with PKP.

  19. Influence of container structures and content solutions on dispensing time of ophthalmic solutions

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    Keiji Yoshikawa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Keiji Yoshikawa1, Hiroshi Yamada21Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 2Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, JapanPurpose: To investigate the influence of container structures and content solutions on the time of dispensing from eye dropper bottles.Methods: Eye dropper bottle models, solution models (filtrate water/surfactant solution and a dispensing time measuring apparatus were prepared to measure the dispensing time.Results: With filtrate water and pressure thrust load of 0.3 MPa, the dispensing time significantly increased from 1.1 ± 0.5 seconds to 4.6 ± 1.1 seconds depending on the decrease of inner aperture diameters from 0.4 mm to 0.2 mm (P < 0.0001. When using the bottle models with inner aperture diameters of 0.4 mm or larger, the dispensing time became constant. The dispensing time using surfactant solution showed the same tendency as above. When pressure thrust load was large (0.07 MPa, the solution flew out continuously with inner aperture diameters of 0.4 mm or larger and the dispensing time could not be measured. The inner aperture diameter most strongly explained the variation of the dispensing time in both the content solutions in the multiple linear regression analysis (filtrate water: 46%, R2 = 0.462, surfactant solution: 56%, R2 = 0.563.Conclusions: Among content solutions and container structures, the dispensing time was mostly influenced by the diameter of the inner aperture of bottles.Keywords: dispensing time, model eye dropper bottle, model ophthalmic solution, nozzle internal space volume, nozzle inner aperture diameter

  20. Detachable microsphere scalpel tips for potential use in ophthalmic surgery with the erbium:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Thomas C; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N; Ying, Howard S; Astratov, Vasily N; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2014-01-01

    Vitreoretinal surgery is performed using mechanical dissection that sometimes results in iatrogenic complications, including vitreous hemorrhage, retinal breaks, incomplete membrane delamination, retinal distortion, microscopic damage, etc. An ultraprecise laser probe would be an ideal tool for cutting away pathologic membranes; however, the depth of surgery should be precisely controlled to protect the sensitive underlying retina. The ultraprecise surgical microprobe formed by chains of dielectric spheres for use with the erbium:YAG laser source (λ=2940  nm), with extremely short optical penetration depth in tissue, was optimized. Numerical modeling demonstrated a potential advantage of five-sphere focusing chains of sapphire spheres with index n=1.71 for ablating the tissue with self-limited depth around 10 to 20 μm. Novel detachable microsphere scalpel tips formed by chains of 300 μm sapphire (or ruby) spheres were tested on ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. Detachable scalpel tips could allow for reusability of expensive mid-infrared trunk fibers between procedures, and offer more surgical customization by interchanging various scalpel tip configurations. An innovative method for aiming beam integration into the microsphere scalpel to improve the illumination of the surgical site was also shown. Single Er:YAG pulses of 0.2 mJ and 75-μs duration produced ablation craters in cornea epithelium for one, three, and five sphere structures with the latter generating the smallest crater depth (10 μm) with the least amount of thermal damage depth (30 μm). Detachable microsphere laser scalpel tips may allow surgeons better precision and safety compared to mechanical scalpels when operating on delicate or sensitive areas like the retina.

  1. The ocular distribution of 14C-labeled bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.07% in a rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baklayan GA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available George A Baklayan, Mauricio Muñoz Bausch + Lomb, Irvine, CA, USA Purpose: To evaluate the ocular distribution of an advanced formulation of bromfenac ophthalmic solution. Two studies were conducted in rabbits: 1 a 12-hour parallel-group study comparing the ocular distribution of 14C-bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.07%, pH 7.8 with that of 14C-bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09%, pH 8.3, and 2 a 24-hour study evaluating the ocular distribution of 14C-bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.07%, pH 7.8.Methods: In the 12-hour study, rabbits were randomized to receive 50 µL of 14C-bromfenac 0.07%, pH 7.8 or 50 µL 14C-bromfenac 0.09%, pH 8.3 in one eye, whereas, in the 24-hour, study both eyes received 50 µL of 14C-bromfenac 0.07%, pH 7.8. Ocular tissues were collected at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 (both studies and 24 hours (second study only following drug instillation, and tissue radioactivity was determined using liquid scintillation chromatography. Results: Measureable levels of bromfenac were observed in all ocular tissues, with the exception of vitreous humor, regardless of formulation. In the 12-hour study, high concentrations of 14C-bromfenac were found in the sclera, followed by the iris/ciliary body, aqueous humor, choroid, retina, and lens. There was no significant difference between the bromfenac 0.07%, pH 7.8 and bromfenac 0.09%, pH 8.3 formulations in any 14C-bromfenac tissue levels at any time point, with the exception of in sclera at 2 hours post-instillation (0.451 µg eq/g versus 0.302 µg eq/g, respectively, P<0.001. There was also no significant difference in the total amount of 14C-bromfenac in the tissues evaluated following instillation of the two formulations. In the 24-hour study evaluating bromfenac 0.07%, pH 7.8 only, high concentrations of 14C-bromfenac were found 1 hour post-instillation in the cornea (2.402 µg eq/g and conjunctiva (1.049 µg eq/g, two tissues not evaluated in the 12-hour study. The rank order of 14C

  2. Pediatric nonaortic arterial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frank M; Eliason, Jonathan L; Ganesh, Santhi K; Blatt, Neal B; Stanley, James C; Coleman, Dawn M

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric arterial aneurysms are extremely uncommon. Indications for intervention remain poorly defined and treatments vary. The impetus for this study was to better define the contemporary surgical management of pediatric nonaortic arterial aneurysms. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 41 children with 61 aneurysms who underwent surgical treatment from 1983 to 2015 at the University of Michigan. Arteries affected included: renal (n = 26), femoral (n = 7), iliac (n = 7), superior mesenteric (n = 4), brachial (n = 3), carotid (n = 3), popliteal (n = 3), axillary (n = 2), celiac (n = 2), ulnar (n = 2), common hepatic (n = 1), and temporal (n = 1). Intracranial aneurysms and aortic aneurysms treated during the same time period were not included in this study. Primary outcomes analyzed were postoperative complications, mortality, and freedom from reintervention. The study included 27 boys and 14 girls, with a median age of 9.8 years (range, 2 months-18 years) and a weight of 31.0 kg (range, 3.8-71 kg). Multiple aneurysms existed in 14 children. Obvious factors that contributed to aneurysmal formation included: proximal juxta-aneurysmal stenoses (n = 14), trauma (n = 12), Kawasaki disease (n = 4), Ehlers-Danlos type IV syndrome (n = 1), and infection (n = 1). Preoperative diagnoses were established using arteriography (n = 23), magnetic resonance angiography (n = 6), computed tomographic arteriography (n = 5), or ultrasonography (n = 7), and confirmed during surgery. Indications for surgery included risk of expansion and rupture, potential thrombosis or embolization of aneurysmal thrombus, local soft tissue and nerve compression, and secondary hypertension in the case of renal artery aneurysms. Primary surgical techniques included: aneurysm resection with reanastomsis, reimplantation, or angioplastic closure (n = 16), interposition (n = 10) or bypass grafts (n = 2), ligation (n = 9), plication (n = 8), endovascular occlusion (n = 3), and nephrectomy (n = 4) in

  3. The safety and efficacy of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed combination ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnebey, Howard S; Orengo-Nania, Silvia; Flowers, Brian E; Samples, John; Mallick, Sushanta; Landry, Theresa A; Bergamini, Michael V W

    2005-07-01

    To compare the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed combination ophthalmic solution (Trav/Tim) to its components travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution, TRAVATAN, (Trav) and timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution (Tim) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Randomized multicenter, double-masked, active-controlled, parallel group study. Two hundred sixty-three patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were randomized to receive Trav/Tim once daily AM (and vehicle PM), Trav once daily PM (and vehicle AM), or Tim twice daily (AM and PM). Efficacy and safety were compared across treatment groups over 3 months. Trav/Tim produced a mean IOP decrease from baseline of 1.9 mm Hg to 3.3 mm Hg more than Tim, with a significant decrease in mean IOP at each of the nine study visits (P Trav/Tim decreased mean IOP by 0.9 mm Hg to 2.4 mm Hg more than Trav, with a significant decrease in mean IOP at seven of the nine study visits (P Trav/Tim was comparable to Trav or Tim alone. Over the 3 months of treatment, Trav/Tim produced clinically relevant IOP reductions in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension that were greater than those produced by either Trav or Tim alone. The clinical results that Trav/Tim was safe and well tolerated with an incidence of adverse events was comparable to the results of Trav or Tim alone. Trav/Tim provides both more effective IOP reduction than its components and the benefits of once-daily dosing.

  4. The eye of the red-eared slider turtle: morphologic observations and reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, André T; Lima, Leandro; Lange, Rogério R; Turner-Giannico, Amália; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    To perform a descriptive investigation of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) eye, performing selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests with the aim of establishing normal reference values for this species. Thirty adult healthy red-eared slider turtles were used to establish normal ophthalmic test values in this investigation. Selected ophthalmic tests included: collection of material for bacterial culture analysis, esthesiometry, intraocular pressure (IOP), A- and B-mode ultrasonic biometry, fundus photography, and central corneal thickness (CCT). Normal parameters found for the ocular diagnostic tests were: esthesiometry: 5.84 ± 0.48 cm; IOP: 5.42 ± 1.70 mmHg; CCT: 154.5 ± 0.14 μm; palpebral fissure length: 9.71 ± 0.55 mm; modified Schirmer tear test: 2.55 ± 3.4 mm; globe axial length: 7.60 ± 0.23 mm; anterior chamber depth: 0.76 ± 0.23 mm; lens axial length: 2.45 ± 0.28 mm; vitreous chamber depth: 4.31 ± 0.42 mm. An avascular retinal pattern with nerve fibers radiating from the small white circular optic disk was observed. None of the animals had a conus papillaris. The most frequent bacteria found were Bacillus spp. (33.33%) followed by Proteus vulgaris (20.69%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18.39%). No significant differences between left and right eyes or genders were found for any of the results. Reference data and morphologic observations obtained in this investigation might help veterinary ophthalmologists to diagnose ocular diseases in the red-eared slider turtle. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Risk of Hemorrhage during Needle-Based Ophthalmic Regional Anesthesia in Patients Taking Antithrombotics: A Systematic Review.

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    Augusto Takaschima

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery are usually elderly and, due to systemic disease, may be on long-term therapy, such as antithrombotic agents. Rates of hemorrhagic complications associated with invasive procedures may be increased by the use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.To compare the incidence of hemorrhagic complications in patients undergoing needle-based ophthalmic regional anesthesia between patients on antithrombotic therapy and those not on such therapy.A systematic review was conducted by two independent reviewers based on searches of Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and the "gray" literature (Google Scholar. The end search date was May 8, 2015, across all databases.Five studies met the eligibility criteria. In three studies, individual risk of bias was low, and in two of them, moderate. In all studies, no differences regarding mild to moderate incidence of hemorrhagic complications were found between patients using antithrombotics (aspirin, clopidogrel, and warfarin and those not using them. Rates of severe hemorrhagic complication were very low (0.04% in both groups, supporting the safety of needle blocks, even in patients using antithrombotics. High heterogeneity across studies prevented meta-analysis. Limitations to these results include low statistical power in three experimental studies and a large 95% confidence interval in the two retrospective cohorts.In this review, none of the selected studies showed significant bleeding related to needle-based ophthalmic regional anesthesia in association with the use of aspirin, clopidogrel, or vitamin K inhibitors. Since the available data is not powerful enough to provide a reliable evaluation of the true effect of antithrombotics in this setting, new studies to address these limitations are necessary.

  6. Failure of unilateral carotid artery ligation to affect pressure-induced interruption of rapid axonal transport in primate optic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Schwartz, E L; Anderson, D R

    1980-02-01

    Previous experiments showed that optic nerve axonal transport can be blocked at the level of the lamina cribrosa by elevated intraocular pressure. In an effort to discover if this blockage might be secondary to pressure-induced ischemia, we studied the effect of unilateral common carotid artery ligation upont the pressure-induced interruption of axonal transport. In 13 owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus), the right common carotid artery was ligated within the anterior cervical triangle. Three days later, ophtalmodynomometry was performed on all experimental eyes. In nine of the 13 animals, this estimate of ophthalmic artery pressure was 10 to 20 mm Hg less in the right compared to the left eye. Optic nerve axonal transport was studied in right and left eyes during 5 hours of increased intraocular pressure (ocular pressure 35 mm Hg less than mean femoral artery blood pressure). No significant difference in the extent to which the transport mechanisms were interrupted could be demonstrated when comparing right and left eyes of the experimental animals. These observations fail to support a vascular mechanism for this pressure-induced interruption of axonal transport.

  7. Caliber-Persistent Artery

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    Sabrina Araújo Pinho Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints.

  8. Renal Artery Stent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy P.; Cooper, Christopher J.; Matsumoto, Alan H.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Pencina, Karol M.; Jamerson, Kenneth; Tuttle, Katherine R.; Shapiro, Joseph I.; D’Agostino, Ralph; Massaro, Joseph; Henrich, William; Dworkin, Lance D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multiple randomized clinical trials comparing renal artery stent placement plus medical therapy with medical therapy alone have not shown any benefit of stent placement. However, debate continues whether patients with extreme pressure gradients, stenosis severity, or baseline blood pressure benefit from stent revascularization. OBJECTIVES The study sought to test the hypothesis that pressure gradients, stenosis severity, and/or baseline blood pressure affects outcomes after renal artery stent placement. METHODS Using data from 947 patients with a history of hypertension or chronic kidney disease from the largest randomized trial of renal artery stent placement, the CORAL (Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions) study, we performed exploratory analyses to determine if subsets of patients experienced better outcomes after stent placement than the overall cohort. We examined baseline stenosis severity, systolic blood pressure, and translesion pressure gradient (peak systolic and mean) and performed interaction tests and Cox proportional hazards analyses for the occurrence of the primary endpoint through all follow-up, to examine the effect of these variables on outcomes by treatment group. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences in outcomes based on the examined variables nor were there any consistent nonsignificant trends. CONCLUSIONS Based on data from the CORAL randomized trial, there is no evidence of a significant treatment effect of the renal artery stent procedure compared with medical therapy alone based on stenosis severity, level of systolic blood pressure elevation, or according to the magnitude of the transstenotic pressure gradient. (Benefits of Medical Therapy Plus Stenting for Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions [CORAL]; NCT00081731) PMID:26653621

  9. The superior ophthalmic vein approach for the treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas: our first experience

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac A.; Dobrin N.; Ion Georgiana; Costan V.; Poeata I.

    2016-01-01

    Complex cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF) are still a technical challenge to neurovascular team. The most commonly performed treatment consists in endovascular embolization of the lesion through an arterial or venous approach. Not always these conventional routes are feasible, requiring alternative routes. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with a complex indirect (Barrow D) carotid cavernous sinus fistula treated by two interventional sessions that imposing a retrograde direct transvenous ...

  10. Case Report: Coronary arterial spasm in single right coronary artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-zhi JIA; Qi-jun SHAN; Zhi-jian YANG; Tie-bing ZHU; Lian-sheng WANG; Ke-jiang CAO; Wen-zhu MA

    2009-01-01

    We presented a case of anomalous single-coronary artery detected incidentally during routine coronary angiography. A 32-year-old male Chinese patient presented with recurrent pre-syncope and six episodes of syncope. Coronary angiography and coronary-computed tomography (CT)-angiography performed by a dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) revealed that the patient had a single large right coronary artery. A moderately large branch originated from the proximal part of the single right coronary artery and extended to the left, passing the anterior to the pulmonary artery, and divided into the anterior descending artery branch and circumflex branch at the base of the left auricular appendage. The episodes of the syncope were suspected to be caused by coronary arterial spasm, so this patient was on a regimen of 30 mg of diltiazem every 6 h and had no recurrence of syncope during follow-up.

  11. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

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    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  12. Massive cerebral arterial air embolism following arterial catheterization

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    Yang, C.W. [Northwestem University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yang, B.P. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Microscopic cerebral arterial air embolism (CAAE) has been described in many patients undergoing cardiac surgery as well as other invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, massive CAAE is rare. We report a 42-year-old woman who initially presented with thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Shortly after a radial arterial catheter was inserted, the patient suffered a generalized seizure and CT demonstrated intra-arterial air in bilateral cerebral hemispheres. (orig.)

  13. An Aberrant Artery Arising From Common Hepatic Artery

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    Surekha D. Jadhav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Common hepatic artery is the branch of celiac trunk which is chief artery of the foregut. Branches of celiac trunk supply the gastrointestinal tract and its associated glands which are derived from foregut. Anatomy and variations of hepatic arterial system have become increasingly important due to increasing number of laparoscopic procedures, oncologic surgical interventions, and organ transplant cases. This case report describes a rare anatomical variation of an aberrant artery arising from common hepatic artery before the origin of gastroduodenal artery and proper hepatic artery.The aberrant artery traversed inferiorly and behind the body of the pancreas which divided into a right and left branches. The right branch ran behind the neck of the pancreas and it ended after giving few branches to head and body of pancreas. However, the left branch gave off branches to the proximal part of the jejunum. The presence of a branch arising directly from the common hepatic artery supplying the pancreas and jejunum is uncommon. Knowledge of such a rare variation is important not only for surgeons but also interventional radiologists and those studying anatomy

  14. Arterial stiffness as a risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Josh; Farmer, John

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor, and clinical trials have demonstrated that successful reduction of elevated blood pressure to target levels translates into decreased risk for the development of coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, and renal failure. The arterial system had previously been regarded as a passive conduit for the transportation of arterial blood to peripheral tissues. The physiologic role the arterial system was greatly expanded by the recognition of the central role of the endothelial function in a variety of physiologic processes. The role of arterial function and structure in cardiovascular physiology was expanded with the development of a variety of parameters that evaluate arterial stiffness. Markers of arterial stiffness have been correlated with cardiovascular outcomes, and have been classified as an emerging risk factor that provides prognostic information beyond standard stratification strategies involving hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and smoking. Multiple epidemiologic studies have correlated markers of arterial stiffness such as pulse-wave velocity, augmentation index and pulse pressure with risk for the development of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Additionally, measurements of arterial stiffness had clarified the results of clinical trials that demonstrated differing impacts on clinical outcomes, despite similar reductions in blood pressure, as measured by brachial and sphygmomanometry.

  15. Congenital cataract: prevalence and surgery age at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (ZOC.

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    Haotian Lin

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract (CC is the primary cause of treatable childhood blindness. Population-based assessments of prevalence and surgery age of CC, which are critical for improving management strategies, have been unavailable in China until now. We conducted a hospital-based, cross-sectional study of the hospital charts of CC patients younger than 18 years old from January 2005 to December 2010 at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (ZOC in Guangzhou, China. Residence, gender, age at surgery, hospitalization time, and the presence of other ocular abnormalities were extracted and statistically analyzed in different subgroups. The search identified 1314 patients diagnosed with CC from a total of 136154 hospitalizations, which accounted for 2.39% of all the cataract in-patients and 1.06% of the total in-patients over the six-year study period. Of the identified CC patients, 9.2% had ≥ 2 hospitalizations due to the necessity of additional surgeries, with a total ratio of boys to girls of 1.75 ∶ 1. Based on a subgroup analysis according to age, patients 2-6 years old constituted the highest proportion (29.22% of all hospitalized CC patients, and those 13-18 years old constituted the lowest proportion (13.47% of the total number. The average age at surgery was 27.62 ± 23.36 months, but CC patients ≤ 6 years old (especially ≤ 6 months old became increasingly prevalent throughout the 6-year study period. A total of 276 cases (20.93% of CC were associated with one or more other ocular abnormalities, the highest incidence rates were observed for exotropia (6.24%, nystagmus (6.16%, and refractive error (3.65%. In conclusion, CC patients accounted for 2.39% of all cataract in-patients in a review of 6 years of hospitalization charts from ZOC. The age at the time of surgery decreased over the 6-year study period, which probably reflects the continuing improvement of public awareness of children's eye care in China.

  16. Congenital cataract: prevalence and surgery age at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (ZOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haotian; Yang, Ye; Chen, Jingjing; Zhong, Xiaojian; Liu, Zhaochuan; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Wan; Luo, Lixia; Qu, Bo; Zhang, Xinyu; Zheng, Danying; Zhan, Jiao; Wu, Hanfu; Wang, Zhirong; Geng, Yu; Xiang, Wu; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cataract (CC) is the primary cause of treatable childhood blindness. Population-based assessments of prevalence and surgery age of CC, which are critical for improving management strategies, have been unavailable in China until now. We conducted a hospital-based, cross-sectional study of the hospital charts of CC patients younger than 18 years old from January 2005 to December 2010 at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center (ZOC) in Guangzhou, China. Residence, gender, age at surgery, hospitalization time, and the presence of other ocular abnormalities were extracted and statistically analyzed in different subgroups. The search identified 1314 patients diagnosed with CC from a total of 136154 hospitalizations, which accounted for 2.39% of all the cataract in-patients and 1.06% of the total in-patients over the six-year study period. Of the identified CC patients, 9.2% had ≥ 2 hospitalizations due to the necessity of additional surgeries, with a total ratio of boys to girls of 1.75 ∶ 1. Based on a subgroup analysis according to age, patients 2-6 years old constituted the highest proportion (29.22%) of all hospitalized CC patients, and those 13-18 years old constituted the lowest proportion (13.47%) of the total number. The average age at surgery was 27.62 ± 23.36 months, but CC patients ≤ 6 years old (especially ≤ 6 months old) became increasingly prevalent throughout the 6-year study period. A total of 276 cases (20.93%) of CC were associated with one or more other ocular abnormalities, the highest incidence rates were observed for exotropia (6.24%), nystagmus (6.16%), and refractive error (3.65%). In conclusion, CC patients accounted for 2.39% of all cataract in-patients in a review of 6 years of hospitalization charts from ZOC. The age at the time of surgery decreased over the 6-year study period, which probably reflects the continuing improvement of public awareness of children's eye care in China.

  17. Ophthalmic manifestations of children with Down syndrome in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    Adio AO

    2012-11-01

    need for ophthalmic care in children with DS. Routine eye care such as the use of spectacles when necessary is recommended for people with DS at all ages to improve their educational and social needs as well as overall quality of life.Keywords: Down syndrome, refractive errors, strabismus, ocular diseases

  18. A novel smartphone ophthalmic imaging adapter: User feasibility studies in Hyderabad, India

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    Cassie A Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study: To evaluate the ability of ancillary health staff to use a novel smartphone imaging adapter system (EyeGo, now known as Paxos Scope to capture images of sufficient quality to exclude emergent eye findings. Secondary aims were to assess user and patient experiences during image acquisition, interuser reproducibility, and subjective image quality. Materials and Methods: The system captures images using a macro lens and an indirect ophthalmoscopy lens coupled with an iPhone 5S. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 229 consecutive patients presenting to L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. Primary outcome measure was mean photographic quality (FOTO-ED study 1–5 scale, 5 best. 210 patients and eight users completed surveys assessing comfort and ease of use. For 46 patients, two users imaged the same patient's eyes sequentially. For 182 patients, photos taken with the EyeGo system were compared to images taken by existing clinic cameras: a BX 900 slit-lamp with a Canon EOS 40D Digital Camera and an FF 450 plus Fundus Camera with VISUPAC™ Digital Imaging System. Images were graded post hoc by a reviewer blinded to diagnosis. Results: Nine users acquired 719 useable images and 253 videos of 229 patients. Mean image quality was ≥ 4.0/5.0 (able to exclude subtle findings for all users. 8/8 users and 189/210 patients surveyed were comfortable with the EyeGo device on a 5-point Likert scale. For 21 patients imaged with the anterior adapter by two users, a weighted κ of 0.597 (95% confidence interval: 0.389–0.806 indicated moderate reproducibility. High level of agreement between EyeGo and existing clinic cameras (92.6% anterior, 84.4% posterior was found. Conclusion: The novel, ophthalmic imaging system is easily learned by ancillary eye care providers, well tolerated by patients, and captures high-quality images of eye findings.

  19. Success of patient training in improving proficiency of eyedrop administration among various ophthalmic patient populations

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    Feng A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Feng, John O’Neill, Mitchell Holt, Catherine Georgiadis, Martha M Wright, Sandra R Montezuma Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the success and usefulness of patient education in eyedrop self-administration technique via an educational handout and a short instructional video. Patients and methods: We conducted a prospective study that included 34 patients who were self-administering ophthalmic drops. Of the total patients included, 12% had used drops for <12 months, and 88% had used drops for >12 months. Average age of patients in the study was 67 years, with an age range of 19–91 years. Of the total patients included, 82% had glaucoma, 6% had dry eyes, and 12% did not have a specific diagnosis. Subjects were video recorded and assessed by a trained observer on two occasions: at baseline and after they viewed a demonstrational video and handout. A maximum score of 15 points was awarded based on 15 criteria. A written self-assessment was administered at the end of each study. Results: Pre- and post-teaching assessment scores improved significantly with education. Patients initially scored an average 2.53 points compared to a post-education score of 6.15 out of 15 points, demonstrating a 2.43 (P=0.008 factor of improvement. After education, 94% of patients versus 47% pre-teaching (P=0.0001 pulled down their lower eyelids. A total of 91% pre-teaching versus 59% post-teaching (P=0.0042 patients squeezed one drop into the lower fornix, 74% pre-teaching versus 26% post-teaching (P=0.0002 patients released the eyelid and closed the eye for 1 minute, and 56% pre-teaching versus 3% post-teaching (P=0.0001 patients applied nasal digital pressure on each eye. We found no significant difference in score changes between those who previously received education and those who had not (P=0.37. A total of 91% patients responded in a

  20. Development and validation of HPLC analytical method for nepafenac in ophthalmic dosage form (suspension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Shahnaz; Akram, Muhammad; Aziz, Asif; Ramesh, Venkat; Sarheed, Omar Abdulraheem

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an analytical method for the estimation of nepafenac as a raw material as well as in dosage form (suspension) by using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC). The target was to obtain an easy, rapid, reproducible as well as a rugged method. The HPLC system that was used in the proposed study was LC-20AD liquid chromatograph equipped with SPD-20A UV-VIS detector. The separation was performed on C18 column which was attached with loop 20 β l. Elution was done at ambient temperature with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: Water (40: 60v/v) at a flow rate of 1ml/min and at a wavelength of 254 nm. The proposed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The retention time for nepafenac was 7.49 minutes (% CV=0.0076). The percentage coefficient variation (CV) of six consecutive peak areas of injections was 0.34% with tailing factor 1.76. The peak area responses were linear within the concentration range of 0.078-20.0 βg/ml (R(2)=0.9993). The sensitivity of the method could be evaluated by limits of detection (LOD) (0.0195 β g/ml) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) (0.039 β g/ml). Nepafenac drug is s in its diluent that could see by intra-day (% CV =0.45-1.96) and inter-day variation (%CV=0.173-1.898%). The accuracy and recovery results of 80%, 100% and 120% were 97.40% to 102.10% with % CV of 0.3201% to 1.3496%. The robustness and ruggedness of the method are significantly broader and is reproducible. It could be used as a more convenient, efficient, easy and time saving method for the analysis of drug in raw material as well as in dosage form (ophthalmic suspension).

  1. Mechanistic modeling of ophthalmic drug delivery to the anterior chamber by eye drops and contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, Samuel; Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Shafor, Chancellor; Dixon, Phillip; Powell, Kristin Conrad; Chauhan, Anuj

    2016-07-01

    Ophthalmic drug for the anterior chamber diseases are delivered into tears by either eye drops or by extended release devices placed in the eyes. The instilled drug exits the eye through various routes including tear drainage into the nose through the canaliculi and transport across various ocular membranes. Understanding the mechanisms relevant to each route can be useful in predicting the dependency of ocular bioavailability on various formulation parameters, such as drug concentration, salinity, viscosity, etc. Mathematical modeling has been developed for each of the routes and validated by comparison with experiments. The individual models can be combined into a system model to predict the fraction of the instilled drug that reaches the target. This review summarizes the individual models for the transport of drugs across the cornea and conjunctiva and the canaliculi tear drainage. It also summarizes the combined tear dynamics model that can predict the ocular bioavailability of drugs instilled as eye drops. The predictions from the individual models and the combined model are in good agreement with experimental data. Both experiments and models predict that the corneal bioavailability for drugs delivered through eye drops is less than 5% due to the small area of the cornea in comparison to the conjunctiva, and the rapid clearance of the instilled solution by tear drainage. A contact lens is a natural choice for delivering drugs to the cornea due to the placement of the contact in the immediate vicinity of the cornea. The drug released by the contact towards the cornea surface is trapped in the post lens tear film for extended duration of at least 30min allowing transport of a large portion into the cornea. The model predictions backed by in vivo animal and clinical data show that the bioavailability increases to about 50% with contact lenses. This realization has encouraged considerable research towards delivering ocular drugs by contact lenses. Commercial

  2. Ophthalmic branch radiofrequency thermocoagulation for atypical trigeminal neuralgia:a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shibin; Ma, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiaoqin; Yuan, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is an intense neuralgia involving facial areas supplied by trigeminal nerve. The pain is characterized by sudden onset, short persistence, sharp or lancinating. Trigeminal neuralgia commonly affects frontal areas, infraorbital or paranasal areas, mandibular areas and teeth. While Trigeminal neuralgia affecting merely the upper eyelid is rare. Here we report a case of atypical Trigeminal neuralgia confined to the upper eyelid. The patient was pain free during the follow-up period of 6 months after unusual ophthalmic branch radiofrequency thermocoagulation. A 55-year-old female patient was diagnosed as primary trigeminal neuralgia involving the right upper eyelid. As the pain could not be controlled by drug therapy, peripheral nerve branch radiofrequency thermocoagulation was recommended. A combination of infratrochlear, supratrochlear and lacrimal radiofrequency thermocoagulation was implemented in this case. The point where the bridge of the nose abuts the supraorbital ridge and the point slightly above the lateral canthus along outer border of the orbit were selected respectively as the puncture sites. After positive diagnostic test, radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the above-mentioned nerve branches was performed respectively. The patient was pain free immediately after the treatment and during the follow-up period of 6 months. Trigeminal neuralgia is a common severe and chronic facial neuralgia which requires accurate diagnosis and effective therapy. With typical clinical symptoms, normal neurological signs, normal CT and MRI findings, the patient was diagnosed as classic trigeminal neuralgia. As the patient was drug resistant, some invasive treatments were considered. Peripheral branch neurolysis was chosen for its minimal invasiveness, convenience, low risk and not affecting further invasive treatments. According to the anatomic data and the diagnostic test results, infratrochlear, supratrochlear and lacrimal nerve were responsible

  3. Formulation and comparative evaluation of HPMC and water soluble chitosan-based sparfloxacin nanosuspension for ophthalmic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambhore, Nitin Prabhakar; Dandagi, Panchaxari Mallapa; Gadad, Anand Panchakshari

    2016-02-01

    Ophthalmic nanosuspensions (ONS) have shown a potential for ophthalmic delivery over the conventional ocular formulations. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of surfactants and polymers on particle size and drug release. Sparfloxacin ONS were prepared by optimizing the concentration of HPMC E5 and water soluble chitosan by using solvent diffusion method followed by probe sonication. The Poloxamer 407 and Kolliphor P188 were used as a surfactant. The produced nanosuspensions were characterized for particle size, shape, zeta potential and drug release. The average particle size of the nanosuspension was 300 to 500 nm. The in vitro drug release study showed that the optimized nanosuspension of water soluble chitosan sustained drug release up to 9 h compared to 6 h for the hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) nanosuspension. Further, the sparfloxacin ONS formulation showed excellent ocular tolerance and biocompatibility as determined by hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane (HET CAM) and resazurin assay on Vero cell lines. Moreover, optimized formulation was found to be stable, isotonic, non-toxic with higher in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial potential.

  4. Thermosensitive and pH induced in situ ophthalmic gelling system for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Berrin; Bozkir, Asuman

    2012-01-01

    The prolonged residence of drug formulation in the ocular cavity is important for ocular drug delivery. The purpose of the present study was to develop ophthalmic in situ gelling systems of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride with reduced pre-corneal elimination in order to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic response. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was used in order to increase the stability of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride. In situ gels were prepared based on the concept of thermosensitive and pH induced in situ gelation. The inclusion complex of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was prepared at a 1:1 molar ratio. The complex formation was thoroughly confirmed using various techniques, including (1)H NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectrophotometry and differential scanning calorimetry. Both pure ciprofloxacin HCI and the inclusion complex were individually used in the formulations. Formulations were successfully prepared which were liquid at room temperature and exhibited viscosity increase and gelation at ophthalmic temperature. As a result of antimicrobial efficacy and in vitro release experiments, the developed formulations were found therapeutically efficient and provided sustained release of the drug over an 8 h period. These systems can be more advantageous than conventional eye drops.

  5. Direct Surgery of Previously Coiled Large Internal Carotid Ophthalmic Aneurysm for the Purpose of Optic Nerve Decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Shuhei; Toyota, Shingo; Kumagai, Tetsuya; Goto, Tetsu; Mori, Kanji; Taki, Takuyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Progressive visual loss after coil embolization of a large internal carotid ophthalmic aneurysm has been widely reported. It is generally accepted that the primary strategy for this complication should be conservative, including steroid therapy; however, it is not well known as to what approach to take when the conservative therapy is not effective. Case Presentation We report a case of a 55-year-old female presenting with progressive visual loss after the coiling of a ruptured large internal carotid ophthalmic aneurysm. As the conservative therapy had not been effective, we performed neck clipping of the aneurysm with optic canal unroofing, anterior clinoidectomy, and partial removal of the embolized coils for the purpose of optic nerve decompression. After the surgery, the visual symptom was improved markedly. Conclusions It is suggested that direct surgery for the purpose of optic nerve decompression may be one of the options when conservative therapy is not effective for progressive visual disturbance after coil embolization. PMID:28229036

  6. True aneurysm of brachial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorović, Narcis; Lovričević, Ivo; Franjić, Dario Bjorn; Brkić, Petar; Tomas, Davor

    2010-10-01

    True upper extremity peripheral artery aneurysms are a rarely encountered arterial disorder. Following computer-tomography angiographic (CT-a) imaging examination, true saccular aneurysm, originating from the left brachial artery was diagnosed in the 77-year-old female without history of trauma. The aneurysm was resected by surgical intervention, and primary repair of the brachial artery was performed by interposition of a part of great saphenous vein harvested from the left groin and creation of two end-to-end anastomoses between interposition graft and previously resected part of brachial artery. No complication was observed during the follow-up. Surgical intervention for upper extremity aneurysms should be initiated without delay. Factors combined with minimal morbidity associated with repair suggest that surgical repair should be performed routinely for true upper extremity arterial aneurysms.

  7. Arterial responses during migraine headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Nielsen, T H; Olesen, J

    1990-01-01

    The superficial temporal artery has been thought to be the main focus of pain during migraine attacks, but its diameter has never been measured directly. The use of a new, high-resolution ultrasound machine to measure arterial size in 25 migraine patients with unilateral head pain showed...... that the lumen was wider on the painful than on the non-painful side during a migraine attack. The diameters of both radial arteries and the temporal artery on the non-painful side were smaller during than between attacks. The generalised vasoconstriction was not shared by the temporal artery on the affected...... side, which suggests a local vasodilatory response. The findings suggest that cephalic arteries may play a role in migraine pathogenesis....

  8. Residual strains in conduit arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, A; Greenwald, S E

    2003-05-01

    Residual strains and stresses are those that exist in a body when all external loads are removed. Residual strains in arteries can be characterized by the opening angle of the sector-like cross-section which arises when an unloaded ring segment is radially cut. A review of experimental methods for measuring residual strains and the main results about the variation of the opening angle with arterial localization, age, smooth muscle activity, mechanical environment and certain vascular pathologies are presented and discussed. It is shown that, in addition to their well-established ability to homogenize the stress field in the arterial wall, residual strains make arteries more compliant and thereby improve their performance as elastic reservoirs and ensure more effective local control of the arterial lumen by smooth muscle cells. Finally, evidence that, in some cases, residual strains remain in arteries even after they have been cut radially is discussed.

  9. The right hepatic artery syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazumi Miyashita; Katsuya Shiraki; Takeshi Ito; Hiroki Taoka; Takeshi Nakano

    2005-01-01

    Various benign and malignant conditions could cause biliary obstruction. Compression of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) by right hepatic artery was reported as a right hepatic artery syndrome but all cases were compressed EBD from stomach side. Our case compressed from dorsum was not yet reported, so it was thought to be a very rare case. We present here the first case of bile duct obstruction due to the compression of EBD from dorsum by right hepatic artery.

  10. Age, hypertension and arterial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Avolio, Albert P

    2007-07-01

    1. Ageing exerts a marked effect on the cardiovascular system and, in particular, the large arteries. Using a variety of techniques to assess arterial stiffness, many cross-sectional studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between age and aortic stiffness, although the age-related changes observed in peripheral arteries appear to be less marked. 2. The relationship between arterial stiffness and hypertension is more complex. The distending, or mean arterial, pressure is an important confounder of measurements of arterial stiffness and, therefore, must be taken into consideration when assessing arterial stiffness in hypertensive subjects or investigating the effect of antihypertensive agents. Current methods for correcting for differences in distending pressure involve pharmacological manipulation, statistical correction or mathematical manipulation of stiffness indices. 3. Many studies have provided evidence that both peripheral (muscular) and central (elastic) arteries are stiffer in subjects with mixed (systolic/diastolic) hypertension compared with normotensive subjects. However, it is unclear to what extent differences in mean arterial pressure explain the observed differences in hypertensive subjects. In contrast, isolated systolic hypertension is associated with increased aortic, but not peripheral artery, stiffness, although the underlying mechanisms are somewhat unclear. 4. Traditional antihypertensive agents appear to reduce arterial stiffness, but mostly via an indirect effect of lowering mean pressure. Therefore, therapies that target the large arteries to reduce stiffness directly are urgently required. Agents such as nitric oxide donors and phosphodiesterase inhibitors may be useful in reducing stiffness via functional mechanisms. In addition, inhibitors or breakers of advanced glycation end-product cross-links between proteins, such as collagen and elastin, hold substantial promise.

  11. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Običan, Sarah G; Cleary, Kirsten L

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right heart failure. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a subset of pulmonary hypertension, which is characterized by an underlying disorder of the pulmonary arterial vasculature. Pulmonary hypertension can also occur secondarily to structural cardiac disease, autoimmune disorders, and toxic exposures. Although pregnancies affected by pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension are rare, the pathophysiology exacerbated by pregnancy confers both high maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. In light of new treatment modalities and the use of a multidisciplinary approach to care, maternal outcomes may be improving.

  12. Arterial Abnormalities Leading to Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy R; Serulle, Yafell; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2016-05-01

    Tinnitus is a common symptom that usually originates in the middle ear. Vascular causes of pulsatile tinnitus are categorized by the location of the source of the noise within the cerebral-cervical vasculature: arterial, arteriovenous, and venous. Arterial stenosis secondary to atherosclerotic disease or dissection, arterial anatomic variants at the skull base, and vascular skull base tumors are some of the more common causes of arterial and arteriovenous pulsatile tinnitus. Noninvasive imaging is indicated to evaluate for possible causes of pulsatile tinnitus, and should be followed by catheter angiography if there is a strong clinical suspicion for a dural arteriovenous fistula.

  13. Countercurrent aortography via radial artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Hyung Kuk; Lee, Young Chun; Lee, Seung Chul; Jeon, Seok Chol; Joo, Kyung Bin; Lee, Seung Ro; Kim, Soon Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    Countercurrent aortography via radial artery was performed for detection of aortic arch anomalies in 4 infants with congenital heart disease. Author's cases of aortic arch anomalies were 3 cases of PDA, 1 case of coarctation of aorta, and 1 case of occlusion of anastomosis site on subclavian artery B-T shunt. And aberrant origin of the right SCA, interrupted aortic arch, hypoplastic aorta, anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta can be demonstrated by this method. Countercurrent aortography affords an safe and simple method for detection of aortic arch anomalies without retrograde arterial catheterization, especially in small infants or premature babies.

  14. [Measurement of arterial pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorive, G

    1998-03-01

    The casual determination of blood pressure remains the basis of the diagnosis of arterial hypertension and the criteria for usefulness of drug therapy. The reference values usually in use concern determinations by the doctor in very well defined conditions, rest, size of the bladder, etc.... The poor reproductibility of the determinations made by the doctor in casual conditions has produced a large interest for new approaches: autodetermination by the patient at home, and ambulatory blood pressure determinations using automatic devices. These new approaches have their own reference values, specific indications and limitations.

  15. Dual anterior descending coronary artery associated with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Luciane da L. V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a male with risk factors for coronary artery disease, who was referred for cardiac catheterization after acute myocardial infarction in the inferior wall. The patient underwent transluminal coronary angioplasty in the right coronary artery with successful stent implantation.

  16. Reference values for local arterial stiffness. Part B : femoral artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossuyt, Jelle; Engelen, Lian; Ferreira, Isabel; Stehouwer, Coen D; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Laurent, Stéphane; Segers, Patrick; Reesink, Koen; Van Bortel, Luc M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered the gold standard measure of arterial stiffness, representing mainly aortic stiffness. As compared with the elastic carotid and aorta, the more muscular femoral artery may be differently associated with cardiovascular risk factors (C

  17. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Radiology, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliero Brotzu (A.O.B.), Department of Radiology, di Cagliari (Italy); Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max [Neuroradiology Division, Neuroradiology, UVA Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Raz, Eytan [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Rome (Italy); Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Vascular Surgery, di Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-10-18

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  18. 重视我国眼整形眼眶病专业的发展%Pay attention to development of ophthalmic plastics and orbital diseases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范先群

    2011-01-01

    眼整形眼眶病是一门年轻而发展迅猛的眼科学分支专业,包括眼整形、眼美容和眼眶外科.近年来,眼整形眼眶病领域的新技术和新手术不断涌现,技术创新和学科交叉使其对眼睑和眼眶等疾病的治疗力求达到功能重建及形态修复的完美结合.我国眼整形眼眶病专业起步较晚,但立足于创新性研究,积极开展学科交叉、医工合作和国际学术交流,取得了快速发展.针对目前我国眼整形眼眶外科发展中存在的问题,必须规范专业化人才培养、加强国内外多渠道交流、重视基础与临床转化研究,进一步促进眼整形眼眶病专业的发展.%Ophthalmic plastics and orbital diseases have developed rapidly as a young branch of ophthalmology in recent years. The current situation and development of ophthalmic aesthetics,plastics and orbital surgery are discussed in this paper. The functional reconstruction and appearance rehabilitation are both important to the ophthalmic plastic surgery. Although the ophthalmic plastics and orbital surgery started late in China,it developmented rapidly. The development of this branch is based on innovative research,active interdisciplinary,medical-engineering cooperation and academic exchange. However,there are still some problems about ophthalmic plastics and orbital surgery in China. To promote the development of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery,we should regulate the training of ophthalmic plastic surgeons,and pay attention to the clinical translational research.

  19. Impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes of carotid artery stenting in acute ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Sheng Yu,1,* Chih-Ming Lin,2,3,* Chi-Kuang Liu,4 Henry Horng-Shing Lu1 1Institute of Statistics and Big Data Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 2Stroke Centre and Department of Neurology, Chunghua Christian Hospital, Chunghua, 3Graduate Institute of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 4Department of Medical Imaging, Chunghua Christian Hospital, Chunghua, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Carotid artery stenting is an effective treatment for ischemic stroke patients with moderate-to-severe carotid artery stenosis. However, the midterm outcome for patients undergoing this procedure varies considerably with baseline characteristics. To determine the impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes following carotid artery stenting, data from 107 eligible patients with a first episode of ischemic stroke were collected by retrospective chart review. A modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to divide patients into two baseline groups, mRS ≤2 and mRS >2. A three-step decision-tree statistical analysis was conducted. After weighting the decision-tree parameters, the following impact hierarchy was obtained: admission low-density lipoprotein, gouty arthritis, chronic kidney disease, ipsilateral common carotid artery resistance index, contralateral ophthalmic artery resistance index, sex, and dyslipidemia. The finite-state machine model demonstrated that, in patients with baseline mRS ≤2, 46% had an improved mRS score at follow-up, whereas 54% had a stable mRS score. In patients with baseline mRS >2, a stable mRS score was observed in 75%, improved score in 23%, and a poorer score in 2%. Admission low-density lipoprotein was the strongest predictive factor influencing poststenting outcome. In addition, our study provides further evidence that carotid artery stenting can be of benefit in first-time ischemic stroke patients with baseline m

  20. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions pulmonary arterial hypertension pulmonary arterial hypertension Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized by abnormally high ...

  1. The Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) Leachables and Extractables Working Group Initiatives for Parenteral and Ophthalmic Drug Product (PODP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskiet, Diane; Jenke, Dennis; Ball, Douglas; Houston, Christopher; Norwood, Daniel L; Markovic, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) is a non-profit consortium of organizations working together to generate and share timely, relevant, and impactful information that advances drug product quality and development. The collaborative activities of PQRI participants have, in the case of orally inhaled and nasal drug products (OINDPs), resulted in comprehensive and widely-accepted recommendations for leachables assessments to help ensure patient safety with respect to this class of packaged drug products. These recommendations, which include scientifically justified safety thresholds for leachables, represent a significant milestone towards establishing standardized approaches for safety qualification of leachables in OINDP. To build on the success of the OINDP effort, PQRI's Parenteral and Ophthalmic Drug Products (PODP) Leachables and Extractables Working Group was formed to extrapolate the OINDP threshold concepts and best practice recommendations to other dosage forms with high concern for interaction with packaging/delivery systems. This article considers the general aspects of leachables and their safety assessment, introduces the PODP Work Plan and initial study Protocol, discusses the laboratory studies being conducted by the PODP Chemistry Team, outlines the strategy being developed by the PODP Toxicology Team for the safety qualification of PODP leachables, and considers the issues associated with application of the safety thresholds, particularly with respect to large-volume parenterals. Lastly, the unique leachables issues associated with biologics are described. The Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) is a non-profit consortium involving industry organizations, academia, and regulatory agencies that together provide recommendations in support of regulatory guidance to advance drug product quality. The collaborative activities of the PQRI Orally Inhaled and Nasal Drug Products Leachables and Extractables Working Group resulted in a

  2. Isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Palle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA dissection without involvement of the aorta and the SMA origin is unusual. We present a case of an elderly gentleman who had chronic abdominal pain, worse after meals. CT angiography, performed on a 64-slice CT scanner, revealed SMA dissection with a thrombus. A large artery of Drummond was also seen. The patient was managed conservatively.

  3. Epigenetics and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golledge, Jonathan; Biros, Erik; Bingley, John; Iyer, Vikram; Krishna, Smriti M

    2016-04-01

    The term epigenetics is usually used to describe inheritable changes in gene function which do not involve changes in the DNA sequence. These typically include non-coding RNAs, DNA methylation and histone modifications. Smoking and older age are recognised risk factors for peripheral artery diseases, such as occlusive lower limb artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm, and have been implicated in promoting epigenetic changes. This brief review describes studies that have associated epigenetic factors with peripheral artery diseases and investigations which have examined the effect of epigenetic modifications on the outcome of peripheral artery diseases in mouse models. Investigations have largely focused on microRNAs and have identified a number of circulating microRNAs associated with human peripheral artery diseases. Upregulating or antagonising a number of microRNAs has also been reported to limit aortic aneurysm development and hind limb ischemia in mouse models. The importance of DNA methylation and histone modifications in peripheral artery disease has been relatively little studied. Whether circulating microRNAs can be used to assist identification of patients with peripheral artery diseases and be modified in order to improve the outcome of peripheral artery disease will require further investigation.

  4. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance a

  5. Bilateral congenital venous tortuosity and dilatation combined with cilioretinal artery: a photographic essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuo Xu,1 Yi Cui,2 Zhonghai Gao1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Fujian Provincial Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: To report the case of bilateral congenital venous tortuosity and dilatation combined with cilioretinal artery. A 48-year-old woman complained of headache and underwent routine ophthalmic examination. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. The examination of the fundus through a dilated pupil revealed that the retinal veins were strikingly tortuous and slightly dilated in the posterior pole and mid-peripheral retina of both eyes. However, the course and shape of the veins were normally straight in the peripheral retina. There was no change in the appearance and shape of the vein. The visual acuity remained unaffected during a 2-year follow-up. Keyword: retinal vascular anomalies, retinal disease, retinal vessels, cilioretinal artery, retina, congenital

  6. Central retinal artery resistive index and optical coherence tomography in assessment of glaucoma progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed; F.Abdel; Ghany; Samer; M.Botros; Tamer; M.El-Raggal

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relation between central retinal artery(CRA) resistive index(RI) and retinal nerve fiber thickness measured by optical coherence tomography(OCT) in assessment of disease progress in cases of open angle glaucoma.METHODS: Twenty-three patients with diagnosed open angle glaucoma were included in this study. They were examined by colored duplex ultrasonography of CRA with estimation of RI of CRA and ophthalmic artery(OA)with estimation of CRA/OA RI ratio as well as OCT measurement of the average retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) thickness in order to assess the disease progress.RESULTS: There was strong inverse relation between the increased RI in CRA as well as the increased CRA/OA RI ratio and the decrease in average RNFL thickness in cases of open angle glaucoma.CONCLUSION: Assessment of CRA RI can indirectly assess the vascular changes associated with glaucoma and can assess the degree of retinal atrophy helping in evaluating prognosis thus guiding the choice of treatment.

  7. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution on ocular surface in patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walimbe T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tejaswini Walimbe,1 Vidya Chelerkar,2 Purvi Bhagat,3 Abhijeet Joshi,4 Atul Raut4 1Walimbe Eye Clinic, 2PBMA’s H.V. Desai Eye Hospital, Pune, 3Glaucoma Clinic, M and J Western Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, 4Clinical Research Department, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, India Introduction: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK, included as a preservative in many topical treatments for glaucoma, induces significant toxicity and alters tear breakup time (TBUT. BAK-containing latanoprost, an ester prodrug of prostaglandin F2a, can cause ocular adverse events (AEs associated with BAK. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BAK-free latanoprost. Patients and methods: A prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, 8-week study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension taking BAK-containing latanoprost for ≥12 months was performed. Patients were switched to BAK-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution 0.005% administered once daily, and eyes were assessed after 28 and 56 days. Primary efficacy and safety variables were TBUT and treatment-emergent AEs, respectively. Results: At day 56, 40 eyes were evaluable. Mean TBUT increased significantly from baseline (3.67±1.60 seconds to 5.03±2.64 and 6.06±3.39 seconds after 28 and 56 days of treatment with BAK-free latanoprost (P<0.0001. Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI© score also decreased significantly to 12.06±13.40 and 7.06±10.75 at 28 and 56 days, respectively, versus baseline (18.09±18.61, P<0.0001. In addition, inferior corneal staining score decreased significantly to 0.53 from baseline (0.85, P=0.0033. A reduction in conjunctival hyperemia and intraocular pressure was observed at both time points. No treatment-related serious AEs were evident and 12 (26.08% treatment-emergent AEs occurred in seven patients, with eye pain and irritation being the most frequent. No clinically significant changes

  8. Bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution (Ganfort) for glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a 12-week randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ivan; Gil Pina, Rafael; Lanzagorta-Aresti, Aitor; Schiffman, Rhett M; Liu, Charlie; Bejanian, Marina

    2014-07-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of single-dose bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free (PF) ophthalmic solution with bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. In this multicentre, randomised, parallel-group study, patients were randomised to bimatoprost/timolol PF or bimatoprost/timolol once daily in the morning for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy endpoints, reflecting differing regional regulatory requirements, included change from baseline in worse eye intraocular pressure (IOP) in the per-protocol population at week 12, and the average eye IOP at weeks 2, 6 and 12 in the intent-to-treat population. 561 patients were randomised (278 to bimatoprost/timolol PF; 283 to bimatoprost/timolol); 96.3% completed the study. Both treatment groups showed statistically and clinically significant mean decreases from baseline in worse eye IOP and in average eye IOP at all follow-up time points (p<0.001). Bimatoprost/timolol PF met all pre-established criteria for non-inferiority and equivalence to bimatoprost/timolol. Ocular adverse events were similar between treatment groups, with conjunctival hyperaemia being the most frequent. Most were mild or moderate in severity. Bimatoprost/timolol PF demonstrated non-inferiority and equivalence in IOP lowering compared with bimatoprost/timolol, with no significant differences in safety and tolerability. NCT01177098. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Multiple arterial phase MRI of arterial hypervascular hepatic lesions: improved arterial phase capture and lesion enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Nabia S; Yee, Judy; Weinstein, Stefanie; Yeh, Benjamin M; Corvera, Carlos U; Monto, Alexander; Hope, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    To establish if triple-phase arterial imaging improves the detection of arterial phase hyperintense lesions based on arterial phase capture, motion artifact degradation, and lesion enhancement when compared to single-phase imaging. Patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma were imaged at 3.0T. Seventy-three consecutive patients with a standard single-phase MRI and eighty-five consecutive patients were imaged using extracellular contrast with triple arterial phase MRI using three sequential accelerated acquisitions of 8 s. Arterial phase capture and image quality were qualitatively categorized. Forty single-phase and forty-four triple-phase studies contained arterially enhancing lesions > 1 cm with washout appearance. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the lesions was calculated. We compared the differences in means with Student t-tests and those in arterial phase capture with a Chi squared test with Yates correction. The triple-phase acquisitions captured the early or late arterial phases more frequently than did the single-phase acquisition (99% vs 86%; P value = 0.006). Triple-phase also provided greater number of patients with early or late arterial phase imaging without motion artifact (92% vs 79%, P-value = 0.05). The lesion analysis revealed increased maximum CNR in the triple-phase imaging (704.4) vs. single-phase imaging (517.2), P-value phase acquisition provides more robust arterial phase imaging for hepatic lesions, with increased lesion CNR, compared to standard single-phase arterial phase imaging.

  10. Obesity and arterial compliance alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifalian, Alexander M; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Joshi, Jatin; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2010-03-01

    Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, especially when excess body fat is distributed preferentially within the abdominal region. Obese subjects usually have increased arterial stiffness compared with non-obese subjects of similar age. The factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in obesity include endothelial dysfunction (decreased nitric oxide bioavailability), impaired smooth muscle cell function, insulin resistance, as well as elevated cholesterol and C-peptide levels. Furthermore, visceral fat, the adipose tissue-related renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and hyperleptinaemia contribute to the obesity-associated impaired arterial compliance. Weight loss improves CVD risk factors and arterial compliance. Because increased arterial stiffness is a marker of CVD risk these findings support the concept that the presence of obesity has vascular implications.

  11. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most......Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release...

  12. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...... likely includes the combination of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction in parallel. Arterial compliance; Central vascular filling; Chyperdynamic circulation; Kidney function, Nitric oxide; Blood pressure regulation; Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system; Sympathetic nervous system; Vasodilatation...

  13. Arterial Stiffness: Recommendations and Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Raymond R.

    2017-01-01

    The use of arterial stiffness measurements in longitudinal cohorts of normal populations, hypertensive patients, diabetic patients, healthy elderly, and patients on hemodialysis have confirmed the value of this important measure of arterial health, and established its complementary role to measures of blood pressure. Its contribution to understanding cardiovascular and mortality risk beyond blood pressure measurements has moved measures of arterial stiffness into the ranks of factors such as elevated cholesterol, diabetes, and left ventricular hypertrophy in considering cardiovascular risk. The recent international collaboration's publication of reference ranges for normal people and those with hypertension, along with the American Heart Association's recent scientific statement on standardizing arterial stiffness measurements are important aspects to consider in future studies employing these valuable methods, particularly as interventions that not only lower blood pressure but improve arterial function are tested in the clinical arena. PMID:28275588

  14. Fatal dissection of the pulmonary artery in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Degano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 41-yr-old patient with chronic stable idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH presented with sudden chest pain and unusual dyspnoea during physical exertion. The patient had been diagnosed with PAH at the age of 12 yrs and was in New York Heart Association functional class I/II. The patient was being treated with an anticoagulant regimen, low-dose diuretics and continuous intravenous epoprostenol therapy. A computed tomography scan showed ancient massive thrombi in dilated central pulmonary arteries, which were not haemodynamically significant (perfusion lung scans did not demonstrate segmental or larger defects, and extensive dissection of the right pulmonary artery starting from the intermediate branch. Due to the extensiveness of the dissection, the patient was immediately considered for heart–lung transplantation, but died 72 h after the onset of symptoms. Permission for post mortem examination was denied. Pulmonary artery dissection should be suspected in PAH patients presenting with chest pain and worsening dyspnoea. In the current case, the factors possibly associated with increased risk for dissection may include dilatation of the pulmonary artery, local inflammation favoured by in situ thrombosis, and acute increase of pulmonary pressure secondary to physical exertion. Extensive pulmonary artery dissection is a life-threatening complication of PAH, and urgent heart/lung transplantation might be the treatment of choice in eligible patients. In addition, better identification of the risk factors for pulmonary artery dissection may help in considering transplantation for selected patients at risk.

  15. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweet, Marysia S; Gulati, Rajiv; Hayes, Sharonne N

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an important etiology of nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Innovations in the catheterization laboratory including optical coherence tomography and intravascular ultrasound have enhanced the ability to visualize intimal disruption and intramural hematoma associated with SCAD. Formerly considered "rare," these technological advances and heightened awareness suggest that SCAD is more prevalent than prior estimates. SCAD is associated with female sex, young age, extreme emotional stress, or extreme exertion, pregnancy, and fibromuscular dysplasia. The clinical characteristics and management strategies of SCAD patients are different than for atherosclerotic heart disease and deserve specific consideration. This review will highlight recent discoveries about SCAD as well as describe current efforts to elucidate remaining gaps in knowledge.

  16. [Grafting of carotid arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Iu V; Stepanenko, A B; Gens, A P; Bazylev, V V; Seleznev, M N; Savichev, D D

    2005-01-01

    Over 5-years, 167 reconstructive surgeries for stenosis of internal carotid arteries (ICA) were performed in 124 patients. Mean age of the patients was 63.5 years. One hundred and twenty-nine carotid endarterectomies (CEAE) in 86 patients and 38 reconstructive operations of ICA in 38 patients were performed. There were no lethal outcomes in short- and long-term postoperative period. In short-term period after prosthesis of ICA restenosis was revealed in 3% patients, after eversion CEAE in 3% patients the embolism was seen, after standard CEAE restenosis were diagnosed in 8% patients and thrombosis -- in 3%. In long-term period after grafting of ICA the strokes were seen in 3%, stenosis -- in 6% patients, after eversion endarterectomy -- in 0 and 3% patients, and after standard CEAE -- in 3 and 24% patients, respectively. It is concluded that grafting of ICA is adequate surgical method of reconstruction and stroke prevention in specific variants of carotid atherosclerosis.

  17. Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh

    2017-01-01

    A family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important risk factor for adverse coronary events, in particular if the disease has an early onset. The risk of CAD is influenced by genetic and environmental factors with a greater genetic contribution earlier in life. Through recent years...... Registry and risk factor control was evaluated. The study revealed that risk factors are common in early-onset CAD and that a large room for risk factor improvement remains. In study II, we used coronary computed tomography angiography to compare the coronary plaque burden and characteristics between 88...... first-degree relatives of patients with early-onset CAD and 88 controls with no familial predisposition. Relatives had a significantly increased coronary plaque burden, which displayed characteristics associated with myocardial ischemia and adverse coronary events. In study III, 134 patients with early...

  18. Ophthalmic manifestations of vitamin A and D deficiency in two autistic teenagers: case reports and a review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duignan, Emma

    2015-01-01

    We describe the cases of 2 autistic children with ophthalmic and systemic manifestations of vitamin A deficiency due to food faddism. Although vitamin A deficiency is common in the developing world, reports in developed societies are rare. Our patients presented over a 1-year period. The patients were 14 and 13 years old at the time of presentation and were both found to have marked features of vitamin A deficiency related to unusual dietary habits. Anterior segment signs of xerophthalmia were present in both patients. In addition, patient 1 showed evidence of a rod-predominant retinopathy, which resolved with vitamin A supplementation. Due to its rare occurrence, hypovitaminosis A must be highlighted and anticipated in this cohort.

  19. Bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09 %: human aqueous humor concentration detected by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, Angelo; Vagge, Aldo; Salis, Annalisa; Fucile, Carmen; Marini, Valeria; Martelli, Antonietta; Giuffrida, Sebastiano; Iester, Michele; Damonte, Gianluca; Mattioli, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aqueous humor concentrations of bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09 % in patients undergoing phacoemulsification. Patients requiring cataract extraction received one drop (50 µL) of bromfenac 0.09 % solution in the eye to be operated, before bedtime the day before surgery or the morning of the surgery. The last administration was recorded. At the time of paracentesis, an aqueous humor sample was collected with a 30-gauge needle attached to a TB syringe and was later analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for drug concentration. 188 treated volunteers and 48 control, untreated, subjects were included in the study. The mean aqueous concentration of bromfenac in the treated group was 37.60 ± 68.86 and 0 nM (nmol/L) in the control group (p humor up to about 12 h after instillation.

  20. Little known ophthalmic interests of Emil von Behring, the first Nobel Prize Laureate in Medicine or Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Wilhelm, Helmut

    2013-06-01

    Although the work for which Emil von Behring (1854-1917) was awarded the first Nobel Prize Winner for Medicine or Physiology in 1901 was on serum therapy, not only was he trained and worked as an ophthalmologist but he also wrote his doctoral dissertation on a practical ophthalmological topic whilst in Berlin under Carl Schweigger (1830-1905). He later worked for 3 years as an assistant and co-worker with the famous Polish ophthalmologist Boleslaw Wicherkiewicz (1847-1915), in Poznan where he described an interesting ophthalmic case in a scientific journal. His life and work in other fields have been well studied, but his interests and relationship to ophthalmology that played an important role in, at least part of, Behring's life have never previously been analysed thoroughly.

  1. Compatibility testing and rheological characterization in development of novel in situ guar gum-based ophthalmic dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Nanjundaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Guar gum is derived from the seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus. Guar has certain drawbacks such as uncontrolled rate of hydration, fall in viscosity on storage, susceptibility to microbial degradation, and turbidity in aqueous dispersion. Many of these drawbacks can be overcome by using guar derivatives. Guar derivatives upon contact with water hydrate to form hydrogels for controlled-release mechanism and show stimuli-responsive changes in their structural network, and hence, the drug release. The present investigation aims at screening guar derivative (hydroxyl propyl guar during preformulation stage by spectral (FTIR spectroscopy, thermal (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, isothermal (HPLC technique, and rheological characterization for the development of stable in situ ophthalmic dosage using linezolid as the model drug.

  2. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Vitamin A and D Deficiency in Two Autistic Teenagers: Case Reports and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Duignan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the cases of 2 autistic children with ophthalmic and systemic manifestations of vitamin A deficiency due to food faddism. Although vitamin A deficiency is common in the developing world, reports in developed societies are rare. Our patients presented over a 1-year period. The patients were 14 and 13 years old at the time of presentation and were both found to have marked features of vitamin A deficiency related to unusual dietary habits. Anterior segment signs of xerophthalmia were present in both patients. In addition, patient 1 showed evidence of a rod-predominant retinopathy, which resolved with vitamin A supplementation. Due to its rare occurrence, hypovitaminosis A must be highlighted and anticipated in this cohort.

  3. RETRACTED: Azithromycin 1.5% Ophthalmic Solution for Blepharitis Treatment: Comparison of 14- Versus 30-Day Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Yesim; Demirok, Gulizar; Balta, Ozgur; Bolu, Hulya

    2017-06-05

    The online-ahead-of-print published article, "Azithromycin 1.5% Ophthalmic Solution for Blepharitis Treatment: Comparison of 14- Versus 30-Day Treatment," by Altay Yesim, Demirok Gulizar, Balta Ozgur, and Bolu Hulya (DOI: 10.1089/jop.2015.0099) is being officially retracted from Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (JOPT) due to post-publication authorship disputes and the discovery of simultaneous submission to both JOPT and the International Journal of Ophthalmology, which is a violation of the proper protocols of peer review. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics and its editorial leadership are committed to maintaining the highest levels of scientific reporting and publishing, and therefore officially retracts the article based on the infringements listed herein.

  4. From Eye Drops to ICU, a Case Report of Three Side Effects of Ophthalmic Timolol Maleate in the Same Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asim Rana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Timolol Maleate (also called Timolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker and a class II antiarrhythmic drug, which is used to treat intraocular hypertension. It has been reported to cause systemic side effects especially in elderly patients with other comorbidities. These side effects are due to systemic absorption of the drug and it is known that Timolol is measurable in the serum following ophthalmic use. Chances of life threatening side effects increase if these are coprescribed with other cardiodepressant drugs like calcium channel or systemic beta blockers. We report a case where an elderly patient was admitted with three side effects of Timolol and his condition required ICU admission with mechanical ventilation and temporary transvenous pacing. The case emphasizes the need of raising awareness among physicians of such medications about the potential side effects and drug interactions. A close liaison among patient’s physicians is suggested.

  5. Middle meningeal artery arising from the basilar artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed M; Fusco, Matthew R; Dolati, Parviz; Reddy, Arra S; Gross, Bradley A; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Thomas, Ajith J

    2014-12-01

    Various anomalies for the origin of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) have been described in the literature. However, origin of the MMA from the basilar trunk is an extremely rare variant. We report on a 54-year-old female who presented with frequent headaches; magnetic resonance imaging showed a right parietal meningioma. The abnormal origin of the middle meningeal artery from the basilar artery was diagnosed by angiography performed for preoperative embolization of the tumor. We report on the case with a review of the embryologic basis, possible explanations for this aberrant origin, and its clinical implications.

  6. A novel ion-exchange carrier based upon liposome-encapsulated montmorillonite for ophthalmic delivery of betaxolol hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Tao, Qi; Hou, Dongzhi; Hu, Sheng; Tian, Shuangyan; Chen, Yanzhong; Gui, Ruyi; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    As a novel ion-exchange carrier with high surface area and excellent exchangeability, montmorillonite (Mt) was intercalated with betaxolol hydrochloride (BH) to form a nanocomposite and then encapsulated by liposomes (Mt-BH-LPs) for an ophthalmic drug-delivery system. The Mt-BH and Mt-BH-LPs were prepared by an acidification process and ethanol injection combined with ammonium sulfate gradient methods. The successful formation of Mt-BH and Mt-BH-LPs was verified by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and transmission electron microscopy. Mt-BH-LPs possessed the favorable physical characteristics of encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, mean particle size, and ζ-potential. In vitro release studies indicated Mt-BH-LPs effectively maintained a relatively sustained slow release. Immortalized human corneal epithelial cell cytotoxicity, in vivo rabbit eye-irritation tests, and chorioallantoic membrane–trypan blue staining all revealed that Mt-BH-LPs had no obvious irritation on ocular tissues. A new in vitro tear-turnover model, including inserts containing human corneal epithelial cells, was designed to evaluate the precorneal retention time of Mt-BH-LPs. The results showed that Mt-BH-LPs maintained a certain BH concentration in tear fluid for a longer period than the BH solution. In vivo precorneal retention studies also indicated Mt-BH-LPs prolonged drug retention on the ocular surface more than the BH solution. Furthermore, pharmacodynamic studies showed that Mt-BH-LPs had a prolonged effect on decreasing intraocular optical pressure in rabbits. Our results demonstrated that Mt-BH-LPs have potential as an ophthalmic delivery system. PMID:28280338

  7. Stability of an ophthalmic micellar formulation of cyclosporine A in unopened multidose eyedroppers and in simulated use conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennell, P; Delaborde, L; Wasiak, M; Jouannet, M; Feschet-Chassot, E; Chiambaretta, F; Sautou, V

    2017-03-30

    Cyclosporine A eye drops are used at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 20mg/mL to treat a variety of ophthalmic diseases. Cyclosporine A formulations at high concentrations are difficult to manufacture because of cyclosporine's lipophilicity, and generally require an oil based vector. In this study, we investigated the physicochemical and microbiological stability of two high concentrations (10mg/mL and 20mg/mL) of an ophthalmic cyclosporine A micellar solution in a low density polyethylene multidose eyedropper, at two conservation conditions (5°C and 25°C), before and with simulated use. Analyses used were the following: visual inspection, cyclosporine quantification by a stability-indicating liquid chromatography method, osmolality and pH measurements and turbidity. A complementary analysis by dynamic light scattering was implemented to evaluate potential particle formation or micelle size change. In the in-use study, cyclosporine quantification was also performed on the drops emitted from the multidose eyedroppers. Our results show that the cyclosporine micellar formulation retains good physicochemical and microbiological stability, as all parameters stayed within acceptable range limits, however a higher variability in cyclosporine concentrations was observed for 20mg/mL units stored at 25°C. The in-use study showed that cyclosporine concentrations in the emitted drops were also within acceptable range limits. The micellar formulation presented in this study can therefore be stored at 5°C or at ≤25°C for up to 6months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Total Arterial Revascularization with Internal Mammary Artery or Radial Artery Graft Configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the clinical use of π graft in total arterial revascularization and its outcomes, a retrospective analysis of 23 patients out of 1000 patients undergoing total arterial coronary bypass surgery with a π graft between September 1994 and December 2004 was performed. In the selected patients for the management of triple vessel disease with middle diagonal/intermediate ramus disease such that a skip with the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) or radial artery (RA),the main stem of π graft, to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) will not work and the right internal mammary artery (RIMA) or right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) cannot pick up the diagonal/intermediate ramus, hence the LAD and diagonal/intermediate ramus were grafted with a mini Y graft using the distal segment of LIMA, RIMA, RA or RGEA, together with the bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) or LIMA-RA T graft to compose π graft. Twenty-three patients (18 males, 5 females) underwent the π graft procedure. There were no deaths or episodes of myocardial infarction, stroke, and deep sternal wound infection. One patient required reopening for controlling bleeding. Until the end of 2004, during a mean follow-up of 81.0 ±28.4 months, no angina needing re-intervention or operative therapy or coronary related death occurred. In conclusion, in patients with specific coronary artery anatomy/stenosis, the BIMA (sometimes LIMA with RA or RGEA) π graft can be successfully performed for total arterial revascularization with good midterm outcomes.

  9. Embolisation of the splenic artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essler, G.; Duex, A.

    1982-09-01

    In bleeding of oesophageal varices with resistance to common treatment embolisation of the splenic artery causes depression of the portal hypertension by forty per cent. Thrombosis of the splenic or portal vein as in splenectomies are not to be expected. The splenic vein remains open for later spleno-renal anastomosis. By occlusion of the splenic artery we were successful in stopping oesophageal bleeding. In a patient with dominant hypersplenism in portal hypertension the severity of the syndrome decreased after embolisation of the splenic artery. Thrombocytes, leukocytes and gammaglobulin increased.

  10. Cerebellar arteries originating from the internal carotid artery: angiographic evaluation and embryologic explanations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Young; Han, Moon Hee; Yu, In Gyu; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eui Jong [Kyunghee Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Ho [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Asan(Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To find and describe the cerebellar arteries arising from the internal carotid artery, explain them embryologically, and evaluate their clinical implication. To determine the point in the internal carotid artery from which the cereballar artery arose anomalously, consecutive angiographic studies performed in the last three years were reviewed. The distribution of such anomalous cerebellar arteries, the point in the internal carotid artery from which the anomalous vessels originated, and associated findings were analyzed. Five anomalous origins of cerebellar arteries arising arising directly from the internal carotid artery were found in five patients. Three anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA) and one common trunk of an AICA and a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were found to originate from the internal carotid artery at a point close to the origin of the primitive trigeminal artery. A PICA arose from an artery presenting a course similar to the proatlantal intersegmental artery. Intracranial aneurysms in two patients, Moyamoya disease in one, and facial arteriovenous malformation in one. In our series, AICAs supplied from the arteries considered to be persistent trigeminal artery variants were the most common type. A correlation between type of anomalous cerebellar artery and type of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis may exist. Cerebellar arteries originating anomalously from the internal carotid artery seem to occur as a result of the persistence of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses associated with incomplete fusion of the longitudinal neural arteries. An understanding of these anomalous cerebellar arteries may help prevent accidents during therapeutic embolization and surgical treatment, as well as misinterpretation.

  11. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  12. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ta-Chen; Torng, Pao-Ling; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chen, Ming-Fong; Liau, Chiau-Suong

    2011-01-01

    Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited. This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD), compliance (BAC), and resistance (BAR). Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured. Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity. Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than omnivores. Prevention of vitamin B12 deficiency might be beneficial for cardiovascular health in vegetarians.

  13. Improvement in Cerebral and Ocular Hemodynamics Early after Carotid Endarterectomy in Patients of Severe Carotid Artery Stenosis with or without Contralateral Carotid Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the alternation in cerebral and ocular blood flow velocity (BFV in patients of carotid stenosis (CS with or without contralateral carotid occlusion (CO early after carotid endarterectomy (CEA. Patients and Methods. Nineteen patients underwent CEA for ≥50% CS. Fourteen patients had the unilateral CS, and five patients had the ipsilateral CS and the contralateral CO. Transcranial Doppler (TCD and Color Doppler Imaging (CDI were performed before and early after CEA. Results. In patients with unilateral CS, significant improvements in BFV were observed in anterior cerebral artery (ACA and middle cerebral artery (MCA on the ipsilateral side after CEA. In patients of ipsilateral CS and contralateral CO, significant improvements in BFV were observed in the ACA and MCA not only on the ipsilateral side but also on the contralateral side postoperatively. The ipsilateral ophthalmic artery (OA retrograde flows in two patients were recovered to anterograde direction following CEA. The BFV in short posterior ciliary artery (SPCA of the ipsilateral side significantly increased postoperatively irrespective of the presence of contralateral CO. Conclusions. CEA improved cerebral anterior circulation hemodynamics especially in patients of unilateral CS and contralateral CO, normalized the OA reverse flow, and increased the blood perfusion of SPCA.

  14. Robotics and coronary artery surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Mitchell J; Mack, Michael J

    2002-11-01

    Significant progress in cardiac surgery, and specifically the surgical management of coronary artery disease, has been due in large part to enabling technology. Robotic systems have been recently developed and refined for use in cardiac surgery to facilitate, among other procedures, a totally endoscopic approach to coronary artery bypass surgery. These systems enhance precision through endoscopic approaches by specifically addressing the inherent limitations of conventional endoscopic coronary microsurgical instrumentation via computerized, digital interface, telemanipulation technology. With a combined experience of 125 patients, several groups have independently demonstrated the clinical feasibility of totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass with two commercially available robotic telemanipulation systems. Additional enabling technology is needed to overcome the challenges currently limiting development and widespread application of totally endoscopic off-pump multivessel coronary artery bypass surgery.

  15. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release of...

  16. Depression, Anxiety, and Arterial Stiffness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; de Groot, Eric; Gort, Johan; Rustemeijer, Cees; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Arterial stiffness gains attention as a potential mechanism underlying the frequently found association between depression or anxiety and cardiovascular disease. However, observations regarding stiffness and psychopathology were often based on small samples. The current study aimed to

  17. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  18. Update in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía Chew, C R; Alcolea Batres, S; Ríos Blanco, J J

    2016-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare and progressive disease that mainly affects the pulmonary arterioles (precapillary), regardless of the triggering aetiology. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension in Spain is estimated at 19.2 and 16 cases per million inhabitants, respectively. The diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension is based on haemodynamic criteria (mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25mmHg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤15mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance >3 Wood units) and therefore requires the implementation of right cardiac catheterisation. Sequential therapy with a single drug has been used in clinical practice. However, recent European guidelines recommend combined initial therapy in some situations. This review conducts a critical update of our knowledge of this disease according to the latest guidelines and recommendations.

  19. Idiopathic arterial calcification in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Maya [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Red Cross Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Andronikou, Savvas; Solomon, Rustum; Sinclair, Paul; McCulloch, Mignon [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2004-08-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification in infancy is usually fatal with death in early life and diagnosis at post mortem. This report describes a unique, late presentation with hypertension and cardiac failure in a child aged 33 months, found to have widespread arterial calcification at radiological imaging. The calcium-phosphate axis was normal and there was no other demonstrable cause for calcification. Additionally, the histological features of arterial calcification at renal biopsy paralleled the findings in infants with this disorder. The late presentation in this case is unusual and has not been previously reported. Ultrasound and CT are sensitive for calcification, and the disease should be suspected in children presenting with cardiac or respiratory manifestations and features of arterial calcification, where no metabolic cause is established. (orig.)

  20. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 26,2016 People with diabetes are ... life. This content was last reviewed January 2016. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...