WorldWideScience

Sample records for operators exploiting gas

  1. Structure of distribution gas network operation system; Structure du systeme d'exploitation du reseau de distribution du gaz

    Dzirba, E. [Institute of Oil and Gas (Poland); Osiadacz, A. [Warsaw Technical Uniwersity (Poland)

    2000-07-01

    Distribution networks have become increasingly complex to manage and potentially labor-intensive to operate safely and efficiently. Remote monitoring enables the operator to continually monitor the performance of the system from a central point(s). Where the system operates outside known parameters, the operator can respond very quickly. Remote control provides the additional functionality of enabling plant to be operated from a central point(s) directly or indirectly via operator. Communication can be through one or a combination of different communication media. The whole system for operation of gas distribution network may be looked at as 5-level general model based on ISO proposals adapted for modern control and management systems. The structure and requirements imposed on such a system are described in this paper. (authors)

  2. Shale gas exploitation: Status, problems and prospect

    Shiqian Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past five years, great progress has been made in shale gas exploitation, which has become the most driving force for global gas output growth. Hydrocarbon extraction from shale helps drive the USA on the road to energy independence. Besides, shale oil & gas production has been kept in a sustained growth by continuous improvement in drilling efficiency and well productivity in the case of tumbling oil prices and rig counts. Shale gas reserves and production have been in a rapid growth in China owing to the Lower Paleozoic Wufeng and Longmaxi shale gas exploitation in the Sichuan Basin, which has become an important sector for the future increment of gas reserves and output in China. However, substantial progress has been made neither in non-marine shale gas exploitation as previously expected nor in the broad complicated tectonic areas in South China for which a considerable investment was made. Analysis of the basic situation and issues in domestic shale gas development shows that shale gas exploitation prospects are constrained by many problems in terms of resources endowment, horizontal well fracturing technology, etc. especially in non-marine shale deposits and complicated tectonic areas in South China where hot shales are widely distributed but geological structures are found severely deformed and over matured. Discussion on the prospects shows that the sustained and steady growth in shale gas reserves and production capacity in the coming years lies in the discovery and supersession of new shale plays in addition to Wufeng and Longmaxi shale plays, and that a technological breakthrough in ultra-high-pressure and ultra-deep (over 3500 m buried in the Sichuan Basin marine shale gas exploitation is the key and hope. Keywords: Shale gas, Exploitation, Marine facies, Hot shale, Resource endowment, Sichuan Basin, South China, Complicated tectonic area, Gas play

  3. Method of approximate electric modeling of oil reservoir operation with formation of a gas cap during mixed exploitation regime

    Bragin, V A; Lyadkin, V Ya

    1969-01-01

    A potentiometric model is used to simulate the behavior of a reservoir in which pressure was dropped rapidly and solution gas migrated to the top of the structure forming a gas cap. Behavior of the system was represented by a differential equation, which was solved by an electrointegrator. The potentiometric model was found to closely represent past history of the reservoir, and to predict its future behavior. When this method is used in reservoirs where large pressure drops occur, repeated determination should be made at various time intervals, so that changes in relative permeability are taken into account.

  4. The economics of exploiting gas hydrates

    Döpke, Lena-Katharina; Requate, Till

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the optimal exploitation of methane hydrates, a recent discovery of methane resources under the sea floor, mainly located along the continental margins. Combustion of methane (releasing CO2) and leakage through blow-outs (releasing CH4) contribute to the accumulation of greenhouse gases. A second externality arises since removing solid gas hydrates from the sea bottom destabilizes continental margins and thus increases the risk of marine earthquakes. We show that in such a model three regimes can occur: i) resource exploitation will be stopped in finite time, and some of the resource will stay in situ, ii) the resource will be used up completely in finite time, and iii) the resource will be exhausted in infinite time. We also show how to internalize the externalities by policy instruments. - Highlights: • We set up a model of optimal has hydrate exploitation • We incorporate to types of damages: contribution to global warming and geo-hazards • We characterize optimal exploitation paths and study decentralization with an exploitation tax. • Three regimes can occur: • i) exploitation in finite time and some of the stock remaining in situ, • ii) exploitation in finite time and the resource will be exhausted, • iii) exploitation and exhaustion in infinite time

  5. Best practices within operations and engineering of the American Gas Association; Meilleures pratiques en exploitation et en ingenierie. American Gas Association

    Ingels, L. [American Gas Association (United States); Kaphing, W. [Northem States Power (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Since 1994, the American Gas Association's Operating Section has undertaken a 'best practices' benchmarking program involving their gas distribution company members. In general, four to six operating and engineering subjects, such as leak surveying or gas main and service renewals, have been studied each year to identify how well an activity is done and what the labor cost is. Topics are repeated every 4 or 5 years. The program goes beyond traditional benchmarking, which usually ends after data is compared. In 'best practices', we analyze the benchmark data from Phase I and select one of the top performing companies to host a detailed round table on the subject, which is Phase II. Here content experts from participating companies share practices. The top 20 or so money saving practices and contact names at each round table are selected, recorded and distributed to program participants. One company has saved almost $8 million dollars (US) over a 5-year period from implementation of Best Practices ideas. (authors)

  6. Exploitation and use of coal field gas

    Wang, K; Li, Z; Sun, Q

    1982-04-25

    There are slightly more than 440 mine shafts in the world from which gas is pumped at the same time coal is being mined, the volume pumped being 3.125 billion cubic meters. All the countries of the world today widely use gas as a fuel and as a raw material for the chemical industry. In China 40 percent of the total number of mine shafts are high gas mine shafts. In China, gas is used largely as fuel by the people, to fire boilers, to make formaldehyde, and to make carbon ink. Prospects are good for the exploitation of mine shaft gas that is produced in association with coal. Mine shaft gas is a top quality energy source with an extraction life that is longer than coals. (DP)

  7. Gas exploitation and gas conversion; Gassutnyttelse og gasskonvertering

    Laading, Gjert

    1998-07-01

    This presentation deals with some of the challenges and possibilities connected with ''stranded'' gas. These are offshore gas reserves, especially associated gas, that is not connected with the market and that cannot be piped onshore, and where reinjection is not profitable, and where flaring off is not an option. There is increasing interest all over the world to find economical and environmentally friendly solutions to this problem. A good solution will render such fields economically developable and will to a high degree increase the total volume of the world's exploitable gas reserves. Since synthesis gas is a dominating cost element in most chemical conversion processes for gas, the synthesis gases are discussed in some detail. There is also a discussion of the conversion of the gas to Methanol, Synthetic oil (Syncrude and Synfuels) and to DME (Di-methyl-ether). Two methods for gas transport from the field are discussed; LNG on floating production storage and off loading (FPSO), and Gas hydrates. Principles, limitations and conditions for placing those processes on a FPSO. Finally, the presentation discusses the most important economic factors related to the exploitation of offshore gas, and suggests some possibilities for future development.11 figs.

  8. Artificial intelligence in gas plant operation help; L'intelligence artificielle dans l'aide a l'exploitation des installations gazieres

    Pietrzak, J.M. [Gaz de France (GDF), Centre d' Expertise Operationnelle et de Service, Dir. de la Production et du Transport, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    The problems encountered in activities associated with the life cycle of gas plants - in the core business sectors of GDF- demonstrate the need to access this know how in a practical and efficient way for an optimise use and operation of these gas plants. Simulation is an excellent tool for integration and transfer of this know-how. It requires to use methods and technologies of Artificial Intelligence and objects in particular. The operation help tools and prototypes have been developed with the co-operation and investment of a little software company and derive from the commitment and desire of a number of experts and their senior managers to prepare the future and invest in the durability of know-how in the company's core business sectors. (author)

  9. Shale Gas Exploration and Exploitation Induced Risks - SHEER

    Capuano, Paolo; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Cesca, Simone; Gunning, Andrew; jaroslawsky, Janusz; Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Westwood, Rachel; Gasparini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Shale gas operations may affect the quality of air, water and landscapes; furthermore, it can induce seismic activity, with the possible impacts on the surrounding infrastructure. The SHEER project aims at setting up a probabilistic methodology to assess and mitigate the short and the long term environmental risks connected to the exploration and exploitation of shale gas. In particular we are investigating risks associated with groundwater contamination, air pollution and induced seismicity. A shale gas test site located in Poland (Wysin) has been monitored before, during and after the fracking operations with the aim of assessing environmental risks connected with groundwater contamination, air pollution and earthquakes induced by fracking and injection of waste water. The severity of each of these hazards depends strongly on the unexpected enhanced permeability pattern, which may develop as an unwanted by-product of the fracking processes and may become pathway for gas and fluid migration towards underground water reservoirs or the surface. The project is devoted to monitor and understand how far this enhanced permeability pattern develops both in space and time. The considered hazards may be at least partially inter-related as they all depend on this enhanced permeability pattern. Therefore they are being approached from a multi-hazard, multi parameter perspective. We expect to develop methodologies and procedures to track and model fracture evolution around shale gas exploitation sites and a robust statistically based, multi-parameter methodology to assess environmental impacts and risks across the operational lifecycle of shale gas. The developed methodologies are going to be applied and tested on a comprehensive database consisting of seismicity, changes of the quality of ground-waters and air, ground deformations, and operational data collected from the ongoing monitoring episode (Wysin) and past episodes: Lubocino (Poland), Preese Hall (UK), Oklahoma (USA

  10. Exploiting the potential of gas fermentation

    Redl, Stephanie; Diender, Martijn; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj; Machado de Sousa, Diana; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2017-01-01

    The use of gas fermentation for production of chemicals and fuels with lower environmental impact is a technology that is gaining increasing attention. Over 38 Gt of CO2 is annually being emitted from industrial processes, thereby contributing significantly to the concentration of greenhouse gases

  11. Exploiting the potential of gas fermentation

    Redl, Stephanie Maria Anna; Diender, Martijn; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj

    2017-01-01

    The use of gas fermentation for production of chemicals and fuels with lower environmental impact is a technology that is gaining increasing attention. Over 38 Gt of CO2 is annually being emitted from industrial processes, thereby contributing significantly to the concentration of greenhouse gases...... in the atmosphere. Together with the gasification of biomass and different waste streams, these gases have the potential for being utilized for production of chemicals through fermentation processes. Acetogens are among the most studied organisms capable of utilizing waste gases. Although engineering...... focus on the advantages of alternative fermentation scenarios, including thermophilic production strains, multi-stage fermentations, mixed cultures, as well as mixotrophy. Such processes have the potential to significantly broaden the product portfolio, increase the product concentrations and yields...

  12. The Potential Socio-economic Impacts of Gas Hydrate Exploitation

    Riley, David; Schaafsma, Marije; Marin-Moreno, Héctor; Minshull, Tim A.

    2017-04-01

    Gas hydrate has garnered significant interest as a possible clean fossil fuel resource, especially in countries with limited energy supplies. Whilst the sector is still in its infancy, there has been escalating development towards commercial production. To the best of our knowledge it appears that, despite its potential, existing analyses of the social and economic impacts of hydrate exploitation have been very limited. Before any viable commercial production commences, the potential impacts across society must be considered. It is likely that such impact assessments will become a legislative requirement for hydrate exploitation, similar to their requirement in conventional oil and gas projects. Social impact analysis should guide hydrate development to have the highest possible net benefits to the human and natural environment. Without active commercial hydrate operations, potential socio-economic impacts can only be inferred from other fossil fuel resource focused communities, including those directly or indirectly affected by the oil and gas industry either in the vicinity of the well or further afield. This review attempts to highlight potential impacts by synthesising current literature, focusing on social impacts at the extraction stage of operation, over time. Using a DPSIR (Driving forces; Pressures; States; Impacts; Responses) framework, we focus on impacts upon: health and wellbeing, land use and access, services and infrastructure, population, employment opportunities, income and lifestyles. Human populations directly or indirectly related with fossil fuel extraction activities often show boom and bust dynamics, and so any impacts may be finite or change temporally. Therefore potential impacts have to be reassessed throughout the lifetime of the exploitation. Our review shows there are a wide range of possible positive and negative socio-economic impacts from hydrate development. Exploitation can bring jobs and infrastructure to remote areas, although

  13. Preliminary exploitation of industrial facility for flue gas treatment

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.; Iller, E.; Tyminski, B.; Licki, J.

    2001-01-01

    have shown that the construction solution of the reaction chamber (irradiation with scanning along the chamber axis and protective air curtain under the window to introduce the electron beam into the reaction chamber) approve themselves under industrial conditions. Calibration procedures of analytical equipment were applied to test instruments and obtain reliable data regarding facility running parameters. Experimental data obtained during preliminary exploitation show good agreement with results of theoretical calculations and performed pilot plant experiments. The results of the industrial facility preliminary exploitation indicate that: SO 2 and NO x desired pollutants removal efficiency from the flue gas can be obtained under certain conditions like sufficient humidity, suitable flue gas temperature, dose rate and ammonia stoichiometry; depends on local conditions SO 2 or NO x removal can be optimized to achieve primary goals of the installation; good reliability of the accelerators are crucial for smooth exploitation of the facility; by-product quality may be influenced by coal and water quality used in the process. The primary task of preliminary exploitation is related to facility and separate systems optimization in respect to pollutants removal efficiency, energy consumption, by-product filtration efficiency, by-product handling system perfection, accelerator testing and improvement control systems perfection. The details procedures regarding facility operation were established to achieve smooth facility exploitation under typical conditions related to EPS service. The successful implementation of this technology in EPS Pomorzany may led to decisions concerning designing and construction other flue gas treatment facilities to solve environmental problems in Poland. (author)

  14. Shale gas, Poland pioneer of exploitation in Europe

    Rybicka, Urszula; Khalatbari, Azar; Schneider, Frederic; Nabrdalik, Maciek

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an installation built by a Polish company to perform drillings in the search for shale gas pockets from which gas would be extracted by hydraulic fracturing. Some technical characteristics of the installation and process are evoked. The article outlines the confidence the population now has gained in this installation. However and despite the fact that the region possesses important underground water reserves, water consumption is reported to be too high with respect to farmer needs. Besides, some farmers have had a compulsory purchase order made on their land and could afford to buy new lands. However, in some other places, the population did not accept the arrival of the multinational company Chevron. In parallel, a brief overview of shale gas exploitation projects or status in other European countries is given

  15. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Engdahl, Marcus; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Gascon, Ferran; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Koetz, Benjamin; Arino, Olivier; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Foumelis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element are • to federate, support and expand the research community • to strengthen the leadership of European EO research community • to enable the science community to address new scientific research As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 and 2013 In particular the ESA Living Planet Symposium was successfully organized in Edinburgh September 2013 and involving 1700 participants from 60 countries. The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the 2014 SEOM work plan approved by ESA member states. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing open-source, multi-mission, scientific toolboxes : the new toolboxes for Sentinel 1/2/3 and 5P will be introduced 2. Research and development studies: the first SEOM studies are being launched such as the INSARAP studies for Sentinel 1 interferometry in orbit demonstration , the IAS study to generate an improved spectroscopic database of the trace gas species CH4, H2O, and CO in the 2.3 μm region and SO2 in the UV region for Sentinel 5 P. In addition larger Sentinels for science call will be tendered in 2014 covering grouped studies for Sentinel 1 Land , Sentinel 1 Ocean , Sentinel 2 Land, Sentinel 3 SAR Altimetry ,Sentinel 3 Ocean color, Sentinel 3 Land and Sentinels Synergy . 3. Science users consultation : the Sentinel 2 for Science workshop is planned from 20 to 22 may 2014 at ESRIN to prepare for scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission (http://seom.esa.int/S2forScience2014 ) . In addition the FRINGE workshop focusing on scientific explotation of Sentinel1 using SAR interferometry is planned to be held at ESA ESRIN in Q2 2015 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinels data: the Advanced Training course Land

  16. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  17. Exploitation of the in-seam miner and operational experience

    Wilson, W I.S.; Morris, A H

    1977-12-01

    The In-seam Miner started as an investigatory project at MRDE in 1969. Since that time it has passed through the classic development stages of design of prototype, surface trials, underground trials, modification, production of more machines, assessment of experience and then wider exploitation. At the present time well over 100 machines have been supplied to the National Coal Board. The original machine was hydraulically driven and all but five of the machines supplied to date are of this type. The variety of applications that the machine has found in the mining industry has caused derivative development to embrace machines of length varying from 12-ft centers to 44-ft centers, to work in seams ranging from 40 in. up to 68 in. The range of applications has included face drivages, stablehole operations, in-seam retreat roadways and dirt-absorbing headings. Five electrically driven machines are now coming onto the market and experience with them, though limited, is very encouraging. The paper concentrates on two major aspects of the overall development process: first, the management of exploitation; and second, some operational experience of the In-seam Miner in South Midlands area.

  18. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  19. Research on Factors Affecting the Optimal Exploitation of Natural Gas Resources in China

    Jianzhong Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an optimizing model for the long-term exploitation of limited natural gas reserves in China. In addition to describing the life cycle characteristics of natural gas production and introducing the inter-temporal allocation theory, this paper builds the optimal exploitation model of natural gas resources within a gas field in the Ordos Basin as an example to analyze its exploitation scale and how influence factors, such as recovery rate, discount rate and the gas well exhausting cycle, affect the optimal exploration path of this gas field. We determine that an increase in the discount rate stimulates investors to invest more aggressively in natural gas exploitation in the early period due to the lower discounted value, thereby increasing the pace of the exploitation of natural gas and the exhaustion of gas fields. A higher recoverable factor implies more recoverable reserves and greater potential of increasing the output of gas fields. The exhaustion rate of gas wells affects the capability of converting capacity to output. When exhaustion occurs quickly in gas wells, the output will likely increase in the output rising period, and the output will likely decrease at a faster rate in the output reduction period. Price reform affects the economic recoverable reserves of gas fields.

  20. Exploitation of low-temperature energy sources from cogeneration gas engines

    Caf, A.; Urbancl, D.; Trop, P.; Goricanec, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an original and innovative technical solution for exploiting low-temperature energy sources from cogeneration gas reciprocating engines installed within district heating systems. This solution is suitable for those systems in which the heat is generated by the use of reciprocating engines powered by gaseous fuel for combined heat and power production. This new technical solution utilizes low-temperature energy sources from a reciprocating gas engine which is used for a combined production of heat and power. During the operation of the cogeneration system low-temperature heat is released, which can be raised to as much as 85 °C with the use of a high-temperature heat-pump, thus enabling a high-temperature regime for heating commercial buildings, district heating or in industrial processes. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of utilizing low-temperature heat sources in the cogeneration system, an economic calculation is included which proves the effectiveness and rationality of integrating high-temperature heat-pumps into new or existing systems for combined heat and power production with reciprocating gas engines. - Highlights: • The use of low-temperature waste heat from the CHP is described. • Total energy efficiency of the CHP can be increased to more than 103.3%. • Low-temperature heat is exploited with high-temperature heat pump. • High-temperature heat pump allows temperature rise to up to 85 °C. • Exploitation of low-temperature waste heat increases the economics of the CHP.

  1. Monitoring environmental effects of shale gas exploitation at Wysin in Poland.

    Lasocki, Stanislaw; Mirek, Janusz; Bialon, Wojciech; Cielesta, Szymon; Lasak, Mateusz; Cesca, Simone; Lopez Comino, Jose Angel; Dahm, Torsten; Scarpa, Roberto; Gunning, Andrew; Montcoudiol, Nelly; Isherwood, Catherine; Jaroslawski, Janusz; Guzikowski, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    limits for methane, ethane, ethene and propane gases. Air pollution monitoring is performed by means of an automatic station. The station is situated east from the Wysin rig at the distance of some 1200 m. This distance is appropriate in order not to measure a direct emission of pollutants. The station monitors the content of NO, NO2, NOx, CO, PM10, O3, CO2, CH4, NMHC and Radon. At the beginning of SHEER project in May 2015, there was one vertical well at the site, reaching gas-bearing shale formations at the nearly 4km depth. Further on two horizontal wells, each of about 1.7km length, were drilled (late Autumn 2015) and fracked (June - August, 2016). This time table has provided the opportunity to record background seismicity and baseline levels of water and air quality, and then to record the immediate and delayed effects of hydrofracturing operations. The monitoring will continue at least 1.5 year after completion of technological activity at the site. This work was supported within SHEER: "Shale Gas Exploration and Exploitation Induced Risks" project funded from Horizon 2020 - R&I Framework Programme, call H2020-LCE-2014-1 and within statutory activities No3841/E-41/S/2016 of Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland.

  2. Gas-water-rock interactions induced by reservoir exploitation, CO2 sequestration, and other geological storage

    Lecourtier, J.

    2005-01-01

    Here is given a summary of the opening address of the IFP International Workshop: 'gas-water-rock interactions induced by reservoir exploitation, CO 2 sequestration, and other geological storage' (18-20 November 2003). 'This broad topic is of major interest to the exploitation of geological sites since gas-water-mineral interactions determine the physicochemical characteristics of these sites, the strategies to adopt to protect the environment, and finally, the operational costs. Modelling the phenomena is a prerequisite for the engineering of a geological storage, either for disposal efficiency or for risk assessment and environmental protection. During the various sessions, several papers focus on the great achievements that have been made in the last ten years in understanding and modelling the coupled reaction and transport processes occurring in geological systems, from borehole to reservoir scale. Remaining challenges such as the coupling of mechanical processes of deformation with chemical reactions, or the influence of microbiological environments on mineral reactions will also be discussed. A large part of the conference programme will address the problem of mitigating CO 2 emissions, one of the most important issues that our society must solve in the coming years. From both a technical and an economic point of view, CO 2 geological sequestration is the most realistic solution proposed by the experts today. The results of ongoing pilot operations conducted in Europe and in the United States are strongly encouraging, but geological storage will be developed on a large scale in the future only if it becomes possible to predict the long term behaviour of stored CO 2 underground. In order to reach this objective, numerous issues must be solved: - thermodynamics of CO 2 in brines; - mechanisms of CO 2 trapping inside the host rock; - geochemical modelling of CO 2 behaviour in various types of geological formations; - compatibility of CO 2 with oil-well cements

  3. The influence of supplier assessment in the termination of oil and gas exploitation and production contracts in Brazil

    Cleison Antonio Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The supplier performance assessment literature shows that the prior identification of contracts considered unsatisfactory may prove crucial to the maintenance of a company, especially in sectors with high operational and environmental risk and significant investments, such as the oil and gas exploitation sector. Although considered important, contract termination has been little studied in the Brazilian oil segment, due to the small number of firms operating in the sector and restricted access to information from these companies. This article aims to reduce this gap by analyzing what service assessment criteria most influence contract terminations in the Brazilian sector of oil and gas exploitation and production. Therefore, the assessments of service contracts terminated between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2014 by a business unit active in oil and gas exploitation and production located in Brazil were analyzed using logit regressions. In the resulting database, 273 contracts were found that include all specialized services in the activity, totaling 19,613 ratings. The results indicate that the Term and Logistics criteria reveal the greatest influence on contract cancelations of the sector activities. In addition, by segregating the analysis by specialty, it was found that different specialties have different requirements and therefore different contractual arrangements. These results empirically corroborate the theoretical discussions in the literature about the importance of compliance with contractual obligations, especially with regard to the negotiated deadlines.

  4. Numerical simulation of gas hydrate exploitation from subsea reservoirs in the Black Sea

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2017-04-01

    Natural gas (methane) is the most environmental friendly source of fossil energy. When coal is replace by natural gas in power production the emission of carbon dioxide is reduced by 50 %. The vast amount of methane assumed in gas hydrate deposits can help to overcome a shortage of fossil energy resources in the future. To increase their potential for energy applications new technological approaches are being discussed and developed worldwide. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e. g. depressurization and/or carbon dioxide injection) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR - Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs«. In order to simulate the exploitation of hydrate-bearing sediments in the subsea, an in-house simulation model HyReS which is implemented in the general-purpose software COMSOL Multiphysics is used. This tool turned out to be especially suited for the flexible implementation of non-standard correlations concerning heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate kinetics, and other relevant model data. Partially based on the simulation results, the development of a technical concept and its evaluation are the subject of ongoing investigations, whereby geological and ecological criteria are to be considered. The results illustrate the processes and effects occurring during the gas production from a subsea gas hydrate deposit by depressurization. The simulation results from a case study for a deposit located in the Black Sea reveal that the production of natural gas by simple depressurization is possible but with quite low rates. It can be shown that the hydrate decomposition and thus the gas production strongly depend on the geophysical properties of the reservoir, the mass and heat transport within the reservoir, and

  5. Exploitation of Unique Properties of Zeolites in the Development of Gas Sensors

    Prabir K. Dutta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties of microporous zeolites, including ion-exchange properties, adsorption, molecular sieving, catalysis, conductivity have been exploited in improving the performance of gas sensors. Zeolites have been employed as physical and chemical filters to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of gas sensors. In addition, direct interaction of gas molecules with the extraframework cations in the nanoconfined space of zeolites has been explored as a basis for developing new impedance-type gas/vapor sensors. In this review, we summarize how these properties of zeolites have been used to develop new sensing paradigms. There is a considerable breadth of transduction processes that have been used for zeolite incorporated sensors, including frequency measurements, optical and the entire gamut of electrochemical measurements. It is clear from the published literature that zeolites provide a route to enhance sensor performance, and it is expected that commercial manifestation of some of the approaches discussed here will take place. The future of zeolite-based sensors will continue to exploit its unique properties and use of other microporous frameworks, including metal organic frameworks. Zeolite composites with electronic materials, including metals will lead to new paradigms in sensing. Use of nano-sized zeolite crystals and zeolite membranes will enhance sensor properties and make possible new routes of miniaturized sensors.

  6. Incidents Associated with Gas Operation

    Szer J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows incidents associated with the use of gas as an energy carrier. It presents selected incidents which have occurred in Poland and around the world in recent decades. Based on this, consequences of gas and air mixture explosions were analysed as well. The article presents the main causes of gas incidents which have taken place, as per instances which are similar worldwide. Incidents associated with the use of gas are not frequent, but at the same time very tragic as they often lead to illness or even death. In Poland, in the last twenty years, construction area disasters caused by gas explosions account for only 5% of all which have occurred, but the number of fatalities resulting from these cases is approximately 14%. The number of individuals injured reached 39% of all construction disaster victims. Considering all these facts, it is necessary to undertake wide preventive measures in order to increase safety in the use of gaseous fuels.

  7. Soil Gas Sampling Operating Procedure

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  8. A critical comparison of constant and pulsed flow systems exploiting gas diffusion.

    Silva, Claudineia Rodrigues; Henriquez, Camelia; Frizzarin, Rejane Mara; Zagatto, Elias Ayres Guidetti; Cerda, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Considering the beneficial aspects arising from the implementation of pulsed flows in flow analysis, and the relevance of in-line gas diffusion as an analyte separation/concentration step, influence of flow pattern in flow systems with in-line gas diffusion was critically investigated. To this end, constant or pulsed flows delivered by syringe or solenoid pumps were exploited. For each flow pattern, two variants involving different interaction times of the donor with the acceptor streams were studied. In the first one, both the acceptor and donor streams were continuously flowing, whereas in the second one, the acceptor was stopped during the gas diffusion step. Four different volatile species (ammonia, ethanol, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide) were selected as models. For the flow patterns and variants studied, the efficiencies of mass transport in the gas diffusion process were compared, and sensitivity, repeatability, sampling frequency and recorded peak shape were evaluated. Analysis of the results revealed that sensitivity is strongly dependent on the implemented variant, and that flow pattern is an important feature in flow systems with in-line gas diffusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. CO Emissions from Gas Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, T. K.; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2004-01-01

    High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. CO emissions from engines operating on biomass producer gases are high, especially at very lean conditions where...

  10. Operational experience of the Marcoule reactors; Experience d'exploitation des reacteurs de Marcoule

    Conte, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The results obtaining from three years operation of the reactors G-2, G-3 have made it possible to accumulate a considerable amount of operational experience of these reactors. The main original points: - the pre-stressed concrete casing - the possibility of loading while under power - automatic temperature control have been perfectly justified by the results of operation. The author confirms the importance of these original solutions and draws conclusions concerning the study of future nuclear power stations. (author) [French] Les resultats atteints apres trois ans de fonctionnement des reacteurs G-2/G-3 permettent une accumulation considerable de l'experience d'exploitation de ces reacteurs. Les principales originalites: - caisson en beton precontraint - chargement en marche - surveillance automatique des temperatures sont largement justifiees par l'exploitation actuelle. L'auteur confirme l'interet de ces solutions d'avant-garde et en tire des conclusions pour les etudes de futures centrales nucleaires. (auteur)

  11. Noble Gas Concept Of Operation

    Carrigan, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-20

    The intent of this document is to provide the reader with an understanding of a general approach to performing the noble gas component of an On Site Inspection or OSI. The authors of this document recognize that owing to the wide range of scenarios that are possible for carrying out an underground nuclear explosion, the diverse sets of information that might be available to the inspection team initially and the potential range of political and physical constraints imposed during the inspection, a satisfactory prescriptive approach to carrying out the noble gas component of an OSI is unlikely. Rather, the authors intend only to aid the reader in understanding what a reasonable course of actions or responses may be as performed by an inspection team (IT) during a general OSI. If this document helps to inform the intuition of the reader about addressing the challenges resulting from the inevitable deviations from this general scenario, it will have achieved its intent.

  12. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  13. Geomechanical issues of anthropogenic CO2 sequestration in exploited gas fields

    Ferronato, Massimiliano; Gambolati, Giuseppe; Janna, Carlo; Teatini, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO 2 sequestration in deep geological formations may represent a viable option to fulfil the requirements of the 1997 Kyoto protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Scenarios of CO 2 sequestration through three injection wells in an exploited gas field located in the Po sedimentary basin (Italy) are simulated with the final target to understand the geomechanical consequences of the injection of carbon dioxide. Investigated scenarios include, as a hypothetical case, the long-term injection of CO 2 until the initial reservoir pressure is exceeded by as much as 40% over a period of about 100 years. The process is analyzed from the geomechanical point of view using a finite element-interface element (FE-IE) model with the following main issues addressed: (1) prediction of the possible land vertical uplift and corresponding impact on the ground infrastructures; (2) evaluation of the stress state induced in the reservoir formation with the possible generation of fractures and (3) a risk analysis for the activation of existing faults. The geomechanical constitutive law of the Northern Adriatic basin relying on the radioactive marker interpretation is implemented into the FE model, while an elasto-plastic relationship based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion is used for the IE reproducing the fault behaviour. The in situ stress prior to the gas field exploitation is compressive with the principal horizontal stress in the direction perpendicular to the major faults equal to the vertical stress. The results show that the ground surface rebound due to the overpressure generated by the CO 2 sequestration partially mitigates the land subsidence experienced by the area because of the previous gas field depletion with differential displacements that are confined within the safety bounds suggested in the literature for the surface infrastructures. Activation of a few faults lying close to the northern reservoir boundary points to a slip of a couple of

  14. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    Jeffrey Savidge

    2008-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  15. Low-level radioactive gas monitor for natural gas operations

    Armstrong, F.E.

    1969-11-01

    A portable radioactivity detection system for monitoring the tritium content of natural gas under field conditions has been developed. The sensing device employed is a complex proportional counting assembly operated without the use of massive shielding previously employed with such low-level radiation detectors. The practical limit of detection for the system is a tritium content of 10 -9 microcurie per cc of natural gas. All components of the system are packaged in three waterproof cases weighing slightly less than 30 kg each. Power requirement is 500 watts of 120 volt, 60 Hz current. Operation is fully automatic with a printed record produced at predetermined time intervals

  16. Dealing with a large installation of SRF cavities: Characterizing limitations and exploiting operational flexibility

    C. Reece; B. Madre; L. Doolittle; J. Delayen

    1999-01-01

    Linacs using a large number of SRF cavities can have an awkwardly large number of degrees of freedom for operational setup. The cost and robustness of operation as a function of operating gradient is a particular characteristic of each cavity system and the intended beamloading. A systematic characterization of these limitations has been developed which yields a valuable guide for development resource allocation. In addition, a software tool has been developed which enables the CEBAF machine operator to conveniently exploit the flexibility that results from the many degrees of freedom in response to changing programmatic needs. The two CEBAF SRF linacs each have about 160 independently-controlled SRF cavities. The software utility (LEM++) establishes the operationally optimum gradient in each cavity in response to the operator providing only three of the following four parameters: linac voltage, anticipated beam current, rf cryoheat load, and net rf trip rate. The utility is now fully operational at CEBAF. The methods employed and particular features useful for operations will be presented. The interactive process that has brought the software to its current form will also be discussed. The analysis scheme used to characterize the limitations of the ensemble of cavities will be presented as well

  17. Research of ios operating system security and the abuse of its exploits

    Jucius, Mindaugas

    2017-01-01

    iOS operating system, which is developed by Apple Inc., is claimed to be the most secure product in the market. In the light of worsening human rights conditions, mainly concerning data privacy breaches performed on governmental level, the need to be reassured about the security of software that runs in our pockets is strengthened. This thesis is focused on researching on potential iOS security exploits and their abuse to access private information or perform malicious actions without user’s ...

  18. The challenges of a possible exploitation of shale gas in Denmark

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Kidmose, Jacob; Johnsen, Anders R.; Gravesen, Peter; Schovsbo, Niels H.

    2017-04-01

    Extraction of shale gas has in recent years attracted increasing interest internationally and in Denmark. The potential areas for shale gas extraction from Alum shale in Denmark are defined as areas where Alum shale is at least 20 m thick, gas mature and buried at 1.5 to 7 km depth. Sweet Spots are areas where Alum shale potentially has a high utility value. Sweet Spots are identified and cover an area of approximately 6,800 km2 and are divided into two subareas; where the shale is at 1.5-5 km depth (2,400 km2) or at 5-7 km depth (4,400 km2). The shale in the upper depth interval has the greatest interest, as these areas are localized most accurate as the production from the deep interval is less costly. Many potential risks has been identified by exploitation of unconventional gas, of which groundwater contamination, waste management and radioactive substances are classified as the most important. The international literature reports a water demand with an average of about 18,000 m3 for older wells whereas newer fracking methods have less water usage. Based heron the estimated water consumption is between 20 million to 66 million m3 water in Danish shale gas production well and thus significantly in the total water budget. Consumption of water for shale gas will however be distributed over a number of years. The temporal development in water usage will depend on how quickly the gas wells are developed. The available groundwater resource in Denmark is estimated to about 1 billion m3 / year. Groundwater abstraction has been slightly falling the last decades and is now totally 700 million m3 / year. The use of surface water in Denmark is thus negligible. Although groundwater attraction is only 70 % of the available, the resource is overexploited in many areas due to water consumption is very unevenly distributed varying from region to region. The composition of potential hydraulic fracturing liquids in Denmark is at present unknown, but is expected to be selected

  19. Environmental consequences of shale gas exploitation and the crucial role of rock microfracturing

    Renard, Francois

    2015-04-01

    The growing exploitation of unconventional gas and oil resources has dramatically changed the international market of hydrocarbons in the past ten years. However, several environmental concerns have also been identified such as the increased microseismicity, the leakage of gas into freshwater aquifers, and the enhanced water-rock interactions inducing the release of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the produced water. In all these processes, fluids are transported into a network of fracture, ranging from nanoscale microcracks at the interface between minerals and the kerogen of the source rock, to well-developed fractures at the meter scale. Characterizing the fracture network and the mechanisms of its formation remains a crucial goal. A major difficulty when analyzing fractures from core samples drilled at depth is that some of them are produced by the coring process, while some other are produced naturally at depth by the coupling between geochemical and mechanical forces. Here, I present new results of high resolution synchrotron 3D X-ray microtomography imaging of shale samples, at different resolutions, to characterize their microfractures and their mechanisms of formation. The heterogeneities of rock microstructure are also imaged, as they create local stress concentrations where cracks may nucleate or along which they propagate. The main results are that microcracks form preferentially along kerogen-mineral interfaces and propagate along initial heterogeneities according to the local stress direction, connecting to increase the total volume of fractured rock. Their lifetime is also an important parameter because they may seal by fluid circulation, fluid-rock interactions, and precipitation of a cement. Understanding the multi-scale processes of fracture network development in shales and the coupling with fluid circulation represents a key challenge for future research directions.

  20. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  1. The tightness of the globe valves in the exploitations practice of the gas pipe-lines

    Pietrak, T.; Rudzki, Z.; Surmacz, W.

    2006-01-01

    Technological units of the Transit Gas Pipeline (i.e. Compressor Stations, Valve Stations, Stations or National Network Service Installations) have been fitted with Ball Valves as shut-off devices (block valves). Internal tightness of the valves' seat becomes major factor in securing proper service conditions during normal pipeline operation as well as for isolating of pipeline sections in emergency situations (loss of pipeline integrity or uncontrolled gas escape). Internal tightness of the valves is being inspected during scheduled maintenance of the pipeline units. Any leak revealed during inspection is being repaired, following instructions provided in the Manufacturer's Valve Manual. After a time, some cases have been identified, when repair of the revealed leak was found to be difficult, despite close following of the repair manuals. The paper presents analysis of the issue and corrective actions taken accordingly. (authors)

  2. Drilling and exploitation of petroleum and gas wells. Burenie i ekspluatatsiya neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin

    Sidorov, N A

    1982-01-01

    An examination is made of the methods employed for well drilling, equipment, principal and auxiliary instrumentation. Considerable attention is given drilling systems, well flushing, separation, and exposure of productive seams. Also studied are the prevention and elimination of accidents and complications. A detailed description is given of methods employed for operating wells, including an examination of apparatus and instruments, methods of increasing well productivity, and supporting stratal energy. Considerable attention is given to the collection and transport of petroleum and gas, adn to automation and telemechanization. 16 references, 208 figures, 51 tables.

  3. The oil and gas operator as fiduciary

    Evans, Edward.

    1992-01-01

    What, if any, fiduciary duties are owed by those who direct oil and gas operations to their co-venturers? The question is a complex one that has led to much controversy among industry participants, lawyers, academics and judges. The law dealing with fiduciary duties has been constantly evolving in Canada as in other countries and has yet to reach its definitive form. The principles which underlie when a fiduciary relationship will exist and the scope of the duties that will be imposed on the fiduciary in a given relationship are elusive. Yet, while the courts in Canada have raised what amounts to a presumption against the existence of a fiduciary relationship in arm's length commercial transactions, it is clear that the presumption is rebuttable and may be disregarded in light of the facts of a particular case. Certain observations may be made about the potential fiduciary obligations of an operator of oil and gas properties from the decided cases in the oil and gas area and the trends in other areas of the law as they relate to fiduciaries. Such operators have routinely had imposed on them a duty of good faith or have been classified as in a fiduciary relationship with the non-operators, at least with respect to the management, administration and marketing of the product and ultimately the distribution of the revenues. These observations may provide useful guidelines to those companies who are operators or joint operators in a complex industry in which the same organisations may find themselves simultaneously to be conventurers in relation to one piece of property and intense competitors with respect to another. (Author)

  4. Retrofitting bus fleet for natural gas operation

    Stella, E.; Foresti, P.

    1992-01-01

    Buses, operating within a Florence (Italy) municipal transportation system, and equipped with Otto cycle engines, were selected for retrofitting taking into account the suitability of each vehicle's specific routing and service requirements. Cost benefit analyses indicated that it wouldn't be economically feasible to retrofit buses equipped with diesel engines. A computerized refuelling system was set up at the fleet's central service station which was hooked up to the natural gas utility's supply line. This paper tables the cost benefit analysis data comparing gasoline and methane operation and reflecting the cost savings which are expected to be accrued through this methanization program over a span of 14 years

  5. A System Dynamics Analysis of Investment, Technology and Policy that Affect Natural Gas Exploration and Exploitation in China

    Jianzhong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has an increasing role in Chinese energy transformation. We present a system dynamics model of the natural gas industry in China. A new system dynamics model for natural gas companies based on reserve exploration and well construction as well as investment dynamics is proposed. The contribution of the paper is to analyze the influence of technology, investment and policy factors on the natural gas industry. We found that the dynamics of the main variables, including gas policy, cost of investment, accounting depreciation and exploitation technology, are sensitive to the sustainable development of resources. The simulations and results presented here will be helpful for government to reform policies, and for upstream companies to make decisions.

  6. Noise characterization of oil and gas operations.

    Radtke, Cameron; Autenrieth, Daniel A; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2017-08-01

    In cooperation with The Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, researchers at Colorado State University performed area noise monitoring at 23 oil and gas sites throughout Northern Colorado. The goals of this study were to: (1) measure and compare the noise levels for the different phases of oil and gas development sites; (2) evaluate the effectiveness of noise barriers; and (3) determine if noise levels exceeded the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission noise limits. The four phases of oil and gas development include drilling, hydraulic fracturing, completion and production. Noise measurements were collected using the A- and C-weighted sound scales. Octave band analysis was also performed to characterize the frequency spectra of the noise measurements.  Noise measurements were collected using noise dosimeters and a hand-held sound-level meter at specified distances from the development sites in each cardinal direction. At 350 ft (107 m), drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion sites without noise barriers exceeded the maximum permissible noise levels for residential and commercial zones (55 dBA and 60 dBA, respectively). In addition, drilling and hydraulic fracturing sites with noise barriers exceeded the maximum permissible noise level for residential zones (55 dBA). However, during drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion operations, oil producers are allowed an exception to the noise permissible limits in that they only must comply with the industrial noise limit (80 dBA). It is stated in Rule 604.c.(2)A. that: "Operations involving pipeline or gas facility installation or maintenance, the use of a drilling rig, completion rig, workover rig, or stimulation is subject to the maximum permissible noise levels for industrial zones (80dBA)." [8] Production sites were within the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission permissible noise level criteria for all zones. At 350 ft (107 m) from the noise source, all drilling

  7. Un simulateur de production de puits exploité en gas-lift A Production Simulator for Gas-Lift Wells

    Caralp L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le procédé d'exploitation assisté de pétrole par gas-lift " est utilisé dans les applications off-shore. Sa dynamique lente nuit à la réalisation in situ d'études de conditions d'exploitation optimales. Si l'on veut apprendre à conduire ce type de procédé ou optimiser les conditions d'exploitation sur un ensemble de puits, disposer d'un logiciel de simulation est une nécessité. Réalisé à partir des modèles de connaissance : - d'écoulement diphasique incluant le taux de gaz dans les bouchons d'huile (régime poches-bouchons et les échanges de masse entre phases; - de gisement; - de l'injection de gaz; le simulateur, qui emploie les corrélations les plus fréquemment utilisées décrivant les mélanges huile-gaz, fournit des résultats physiquement acceptables qui sont présentés. Le processus est non linéaire et asymétrique. Help oil well process by gas-liftare use in off shore application. Slow dynamic is an handicap for a study of optimal exploitation conditions. To learn to drive this process and to optimize exploitation conditions on an oil field it is necessary to set of a simulator. It is realized from knowledge models :(a two-phases flows, (b oil pool,(c gaz injection, including gas rate in oil slug (slug regime and mass exchange into phases. The simulator work with the most commonly use oil-gas mixture correlations. This results are physically reasonable. Process is non linear and asymetrical.

  8. Degradation in the efficiency of glass Resistive Plate Chambers operated without external gas supply

    Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J.; Burns, J.; Quillin, S.; Stapleton, M.; Steer, C.

    2015-06-01

    Resistive plate chambers (RPC) are particle detectors commonly used by the high energy physics community. Their normal operation requires a constant flow of gas mixture to prevent self-poisoning which reduces the chamber's capability to detect particles. We studied how quickly the efficiency of two RPCs drops when operated in sealed mode, i.e. without refreshing the gas mixture. The test aim is to determine how RPCs could be used as particle detectors in non-laboratory applications, such as those exploiting muon tomography for geological imaging or homeland security. The two sealed RPCs were operated in proportional mode for a period of more than three months, and their efficiencies were recorded continuously and analysed in 8-hours intervals. The results show that the efficiency drops on average by 0.79 ± 0.01 % every 24 hours of operation and returns close to the initial value after purging the old gas mixture and flushing the chambers with fresh gas.

  9. The generalized heavy free gas thermalization operator

    Pitcher, H.H.W.

    1963-05-01

    This paper gives an introduction to the generalized heavy free gas (Horowitz) thermalization operator, which is a device for simplifying thermalization calculations. Analytical, experimental,and numerical methods for determining the energy-dependent function f in the operator are discussed. The dependence of f on the nature of the moderator, its temperature, and the absorption of the system are investigated, using a program FOCS which derives f's from DSN (multigroup) thermal spectra; it is found that for most purposes the dependence on absorption is negligible except when Pu240 is present. The sensitivity of calculated spectra and reaction rate to changes in f is considered. f is given for graphite at 300 and 600 deg. K. (author)

  10. Operation of high rate microstrip gas chambers

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Hoch, M; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1996-01-01

    We describe recent measurements carried out in well controlled and reproducible conditions to help understanding the factors affecting the short and long term behaviour of Microstrip Gas Chambers. Special care has been taken concerning the gas purity and choice of materials used in the system and for the detectors construction. Detectors built on glasses with surface resistivity in the range $10^{13}-10^{15} \\Omega/\\Box$ have shown satisfactory performance as they do not show charging-up process at high rate and stand the large doses required for the future high luminosity experiments (~10 mC·cm-1·yr-1). Concerning the lifetime measurements, it has been observed that chambers manufactured on high-resistivity glass are far more susceptible of suffering ageing than detectors made on low resistivity, electron-conducting supports, independently of the metal used for the artwork (chromium or gold) at least in clean gas conditions. The successfully operation in the laboratory of detectors manufactured on diamond-...

  11. Safety in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Operations

    Buhrow, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Bergbau/Tiefbau; Niemann-Delius, C.; Okafor, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde 3

    2005-07-01

    Germany needs an LNG receiving terminal to import LNG and supplement expected future gas supply shortages. Enormous economic benefits also abound if Germany is to install an LNG receiving terminal. Jobs will be created for several hundred people. New tax revenues will be generated for state and local governments and this will further enhance the economic competitiveness of Germany. Additionally, it will provide Germany with a reliable source of clean-burning energy. Any proposed LNG receiving terminal should incorporate safety right from the start. These safety requirements will: ensure that certain public land uses, people, and structures outside the LNG facility boundaries are protected in the event of LNG fire, prevent vapour clouds associated with an LNG spill from reaching a property line that can be built upon, prevent severe burns resulting from thermal radiation, specify requirements for design, construction and use of LNG facilities and other equipments, and promote safe, secure and reliable LNG operations. The German future LNG business will not be complete without the evolution of both local and international standards that can apply to LNG operations. Currently existing European standards also appear inadequate. With an OHSAS 18001 management system integrated with other existing standards we can better control our LNG occupational health and safety risks, and improve performance in the process. Additionally, an OHSAS 18001 System will help future German LNG contractors and operators safeguard their most important assets - their employees. (orig.)

  12. Production optimization of remotely operated gas wells

    Juell, Aleksander

    2012-07-01

    From the introduction: The Remote Operations in Oklahoma Intended for Education (ROOKIE) project is a remote field laboratory constructed as a part of this research project. ROOKIE was initiated to provide data in research on production optimization of low productivity gas wells. In addition to this, ROOKIE is used as a teaching tool. Much of the remote operations technology used in the ROOKIE project has been used by the industry for several decades. The first use of remote data acquisition in Oklahoma was in 1989, as described by Luppens [7]. Even though this, for the most part, is old technology, the ROOKIE project is the first remote operations project set up with research and teaching as the main focus. This chapter will discuss the process of establishing the remote field laboratory and the data storage facilities. Results from the project will also be discussed. All testing, instrumentation installation, and modifications to the wells discussed in this chapter was performed by the author. The communication system between the well and NTNU, and the storage database was installed and configured by the author.(Author)

  13. Behavior in exploitation of gas-lift installations with differential valves. Pt. 2

    Bodea, I; Truica, V

    1969-07-01

    In this second installment, charts of casing and tubing pressure are shown to illustrate how they can be used as diagnostic tools, both for continuous and intermittent gas-lift installations. The desirable conditions for continuous gas lift are constant casing and tubing pressures; for intermittent gas lift, cycles of equal length and intensity. After discussion of the possible flow regimes in the production tubing, it is shown that pressure gradient and temperature measurements can also be used as diagnostic tools. The basic rules for designing a continuous flow gas-lift installation by multipoint injection are given. Application of these principles in several wells has resulted in an increase in the oil production rate, a decrease in the gas requirement, and a reduction in the frequency of well pulling jobs. A well-designed installation can be expected to function trouble- free for 2 to 4 yr.

  14. Exploiting Flexibility in Coupled Electricity and Natural Gas Markets: A Price-Based Approach

    Ordoudis, Christos; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas-fired power plants (NGFPPs) are considered a highly flexible component of the energy system and can facilitate the large-scale integration of intermittent renewable generation. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the coordination between electric power and natural gas systems....... Considering a market-based coupling of these systems, we introduce a decision support tool that increases market efficiency in the current setup where day-ahead and balancing markets are cleared sequentially. The proposed approach relies on the optimal adjustment of natural gas price to modify the scheduling...

  15. Solutions to operate transmission and distribution gas networks

    Neacsu Sorin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to respect the actual and future regulations, besides SCADA, there is a need for further modern operating solutions for the transmission and distribution gas network. The paper presents the newest operating principles and modern software solutions that represent a considerable help to operate the transmission and distribution gas networks.

  16. Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox - Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) Program Element

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Lucas, Bruno; Dinardo, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    The prime objective of the SEOM (Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions) element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have build up over the last 20 years for the future European operational Earth Observation missions, the Sentinels. Sentinel-3 builds directly on a proven heritage pioneered by ERS-1, ERS-2, Envisat and CryoSat-2, with a dual-frequency (Ku and C band) advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) that provides measurements at a resolution of ~300m in SAR mode along track. Sentinel-3 will provide exact measurements of sea-surface height along with accurate topography measurements over sea ice, ice sheets, rivers and lakes. The first of the Sentinel-3 series is planned for launch in early 2015. The current universal altimetry toolbox is BRAT (Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry mission's data, but it does not have the capabilities to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA will endeavour to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, the French Space Agency), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats, the BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with Matlab/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as net

  17. Offshore: nations needing our help to exploit oil and gas. [British offshore supply industry

    Laird, R

    1978-02-23

    The opportunities around the world for Great Britian to sell companies its expertise on petroleum and natural gas drilling are surveyed. Hydrocarbon reserves; development plans, especially offshore drilling plans; needed equipment and technology; and investment requirements are a few of the factors discussed for Venezuela, Brazil, Mexico, India, Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore. (MCW)

  18. Claims of operators, non-operators and third parties arising from oil and gas operations

    Block, R.W.; Semadeni, T.

    1999-01-01

    There has come a resurgence in the number of companies involved in the oil and gas industry seeking protection from their creditors because of the recent weakness in commodity prices. Because most operations in this industry are conducted jointly, a single insolvency can lead to a toppling of other participants in the joint venture and beyond. The problem is to minimize one's losses if other members of the joint venture become insolvent. An examination is included of some remedies which may be available to operators, non-operators and third parties when faced with an insolvent oil and gas participant. The remedies which may be available to the non-operator that is owed moneys by its operator are discussed. The remedies that the operator has against its non-operators, with an emphasis on the nature of the operator's lien and the right of set-off, are described. A brief review is included of some of the remedies that might be available to a third party as against the operators and non-operators. Some s uggestions are included for directors, bankers, third parties, non-operators and operators

  19. Design and operation of gas-heated thermal pumping units

    Rostek, H A [Ruhrgas A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-03-01

    The first gas heat pump systems have been operated since spring 1977. These are applied in living houses, school, swimming pools, and sport places and administration buildings. The heating performance of these systems is 150-3800 kW. Two of these systems, one in a swimming pool and one in a house for several families are operating, each of them for one heating period. The operational experiences with these gas heat pumps are reported on, basing on measurement results. The experience gathered from the operation of gas heat pumps systems is applied to the planning of other plants. The development of a standardized gas heat pump-series is emphasized.

  20. Methane leakage in natural gas operations

    Jennervik, A.

    1992-01-01

    The world gas industry is efficient in conservation of natural gas within its systems. As the influence of methane as an infra-red absorbent gas has been more widely recognized, the considerations of methane's greenhouse effect has become vitally important to gas companies around the world. The industry is universally environmentally conscious. natural gas transmission and distribution companies want to maintain their image as suppliers of clean fuel. Further reductions in methane leakage --- particularly in older distribution systems --- can, should and will be pursued. Unfortunately, there has been little exchange of views on methane leakages between commentators on environmental matters and gas companies and organizations. There is absolutely no need for the industry to avoid the issue of greenhouse gases. Without industry involvement, the environmental debate concerning fossil fuels could lead to selective interpretation of scientific views and available evidence. Companies and authorities would be presented with confusing, contradictory evidence on which to base policy approaches and regulations

  1. Gas characterization system operation, maintenance, and calibration plan

    Tate, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document details the responsibilities and requirements for operation, maintenance, and calibration of the Gas Characterization Systems (GCS) analytical instrumentation. It further, defines the division of responsibility between the Characterization Monitoring Development organization and Tank Farms Operations

  2. Natural gas co-operation in the Baltic region

    Jensen, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Co-operation between the gas companies in the Baltic Region has been in place for several years. The overview given in this paper shows that the co-operation has been developed in trade, investments, privatisation and participation in the restructuring process. Finally, through a broad technical co-operation, significant efforts are made to establish common operational practices, codes and standards and the integrity of gas transmission pipelines. The Baltic Region, from a resource and gas interconnection point of view, enjoys a strategic position in the future development of the gas industry in Europe. The Baltic gas sector represents an interesting and growing gas market with the significant gas storage capacity. The region is also located strategically for planned gas interconnections and could serve as a transit corridor for the future gas supplies from western Siberia or the North Sea. This co-operation in the region is being supported by international regulations and agreements such as the Energy Charter between the European Union and the central and east European countries. However, at present the gas industry in the Baltic Region seems to be ahead of these international agreements. It may well be seen that trade arrangements such as Third Party Access are implemented directly by market forces rather than through international agreements. The regional development may thus be a driving force for the implementation of the Internal Energy Market for the gas industry

  3. Investigation of Continuous Gas Engine CHP Operation on Biomass Producer Gas

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Jensen, Torben Kvist

    2005-01-01

    More than 2000 hours of gas engine operation with producer gas from biomass as fuel has been conducted on the gasification CHP demonstration and research plant, named “Viking” at the Technical University of Denmark. The gas engine is an integrated part of the entire gasification plant. The excess...... operates with varying excess of air due to variation in gas composition and thus stoichiometry, and a second where the excess of air in the exhaust gas is fixed and the flow rate of produced gas from the gasifier is varying. The interaction between the gas engine and the gasification system has been...... investigated. The engine and the plant are equipped with continuously data acquisition that monitors the operation including the composition of the producer gas and the flow. Producer gas properties and contaminations have been investigated. No detectable tar or particle content was observed...

  4. Quantitative Survey and Structural Classification of Fracking Chemicals Reported in Unconventional Gas Exploitation

    Elsner, Martin; Schreglmann, Kathrin

    2015-04-01

    Few technologies are being discussed in such controversial terms as hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") in the recovery of unconventional gas. Particular concern regards the chemicals that may return to the surface as a result of hydraulic fracturing. These are either "fracking chemicals" - chemicals that are injected together with the fracking fluid to optimize the fracturing performance or geogenic substances which may turn up during gas production, in the so-called produced water originating from the target formation. Knowledge about them is warranted for several reasons. (1) Monitoring. Air emissions are reported to arise from well drilling, the gas itself or condensate tanks. In addition, potential spills and accidents bear the danger of surface and shallow groundwater contaminations. Monitoring strategies are therefore warranted to screen for "indicator" substances of potential impacts. (2) Chemical Analysis. To meet these analytical demands, target substances must be defined so that adequate sampling approaches and analytical methods can be developed. (3) Transformation in the Subsurface. Identification and classification of fracking chemicals (aromatics vs. alcohols vs. acids, esters, etc.) is further important to assess the possibility of subsurface reactions which may potentially generate new, as yet unidentified transformation products. (4) Wastewater Treatment. For the same reason chemical knowledge is important for optimized wastewater treatment strategies. (5) Human and Ecosystem Health. Knowledge of the most frequent fracking chemicals is further essential for risk assessment (environmental behavior, toxicity) (6) Public Discussions. Finally, an overview of reported fracking chemicals can provide unbiased scientific into current public debates and enable critical reviews of Green Chemistry approaches. Presently, however, such information is not readily available. We aim to close this knowledge gap by providing a quantitative overview of chemical

  5. Some characteristics in operation of long exploited oil fields in Fergana depression. [USSR

    Gordinskii, E V; Ovanesov, M G; Irmatov, E K

    1969-01-01

    A review of geological and oil production data from 3 Fergana fields is presented. The reservoirs are small, tectonically bounded, and are anticlines of Paleogenic carbonates. Reservoirs are heterogeneous with porosity ranging from 3 to 25% and permeability ranging from a few to 500 md. Some of the reservoirs have expanding gas caps, some are solution drive, and others have been waterflooded. All are now in the final stage of depletion. Production history and characteristics of each group are given. One way of increasing present production rate appears to be injection of gas or air into the reservoirs. This can be done inexpensively, since additional injection wells would not have to be drilled and some produced gas is available. Increased fluid withdrawal from present wells should also be beneficial.

  6. Exploitation of a microporous organic polymer as a stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography

    Lu, Cuiming; Liu, Shuqin; Xu, Jianqiao; Ding, Yajuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Microporous organic polymers (MOPs) have emerged as a new class of functional porous materials with unique characteristics and potential uses in diverse areas. However, the field of MOPs for gas chromatographic (GC) separations has not been well explored. Herein, a MOP namely KAPs-1 was dynamic coated onto a capillary column for the first time. The fabricated column exhibited a nonpolar nature and the column efficiency for n-dodecane was up to 7769 plates m"−"1. The KAPs-1 coated column showed high GC separation performance for a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, which could not be resolved at baseline on the commercial 5% phenyl polysiloxane stationary phase. Moreover, the relative standard deviations for five replicate determinations of the studied analytes were 0.0–0.6%, 0.9–3.2%, 1.1–5.9%, 0.8–3.7% for retention time, peak area, peak height and peak width, respectively. To investigate the interaction between some analytes and the stationary phase, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were also evaluated. The results of this study show it is very promising to utilize MOPs as stationary phases for capillary GC. - Highlights: • A microporous organic polymer was explored as a novel stationary phase for capillary GC. • The column showed high separation performance for VOCs including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers. • Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for BTEXs were determined to study the analyte-stationary phase interaction.

  7. Exploitation of a microporous organic polymer as a stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography

    Lu, Cuiming; Liu, Shuqin; Xu, Jianqiao; Ding, Yajuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail: cesoygf@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Microporous organic polymers (MOPs) have emerged as a new class of functional porous materials with unique characteristics and potential uses in diverse areas. However, the field of MOPs for gas chromatographic (GC) separations has not been well explored. Herein, a MOP namely KAPs-1 was dynamic coated onto a capillary column for the first time. The fabricated column exhibited a nonpolar nature and the column efficiency for n-dodecane was up to 7769 plates m{sup −1}. The KAPs-1 coated column showed high GC separation performance for a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers, which could not be resolved at baseline on the commercial 5% phenyl polysiloxane stationary phase. Moreover, the relative standard deviations for five replicate determinations of the studied analytes were 0.0–0.6%, 0.9–3.2%, 1.1–5.9%, 0.8–3.7% for retention time, peak area, peak height and peak width, respectively. To investigate the interaction between some analytes and the stationary phase, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were also evaluated. The results of this study show it is very promising to utilize MOPs as stationary phases for capillary GC. - Highlights: • A microporous organic polymer was explored as a novel stationary phase for capillary GC. • The column showed high separation performance for VOCs including the challenging ethylbenzene and xylene isomers. • Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for BTEXs were determined to study the analyte-stationary phase interaction.

  8. Operation of flooded wells by the gas-lift method

    Li, G S; Kabirov, M M; Nigay, Yu V

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of the factors which influence the effectiveness of operation of the gas-lift lifter during progressive flooding of a well. The law governing the change in its efficiency under the given conditions is also examined.

  9. Physics and operation oriented activities in preparation of the JT-60SA tokamak exploitation

    Giruzzi, G.; Yoshida, M.; Artaud, J. F.; Asztalos, Ö.; Barbato, E.; Bettini, P.; Bierwage, A.; Boboc, A.; Bolzonella, T.; Clement-Lorenzo, S.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Day, Chr.; De Tommasi, G.; Dibon, M.; Douai, D.; Dunai, D.; Enoeda, M.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Fukumoto, M.; Galazka, K.; Galdon, J.; Garcia, J.; Garcia-Muñoz, M.; Garzotti, L.; Gil, C.; Gleason-Gonzalez, C.; Goodman, T.; Granucci, G.; Hayashi, N.; Hoshino, K.; Ide, S.; Imazawa, R.; Innocente, P.; Isayama, A.; Itami, K.; Joffrin, E.; Kamada, Y.; Kamiya, K.; Kawano, Y.; Kawashima, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Kojima, A.; Kubo, H.; Lang, P.; Lauber, Ph.; de la Luna, E.; Maget, P.; Marchiori, G.; Mastrostefano, S.; Matsunaga, G.; Mattei, M.; McDonald, D. C.; Mele, A.; Miyata, Y.; Moriyama, S.; Moro, A.; Nakano, T.; Neu, R.; Nowak, S.; Orsitto, F. P.; Pautasso, G.; Pégourié, B.; Pigatto, L.; Pironti, A.; Platania, P.; Pokol, G. I.; Ricci, D.; Romanelli, M.; Saarelma, S.; Sakurai, S.; Sartori, F.; Sasao, H.; Scannapiego, M.; Shimizu, K.; Shinohara, K.; Shiraishi, J.; Soare, S.; Sozzi, C.; Stępniewski, W.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Szepesi, T.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Terranova, D.; Toma, M.; Urano, H.; Vega, J.; Villone, F.; Vitale, V.; Wakatsuki, T.; Wischmeier, M.; Zagórski, R.

    2017-08-01

    The JT-60SA tokamak, being built under the Broader Approach agreement jointly by Europe and Japan, is due to start operation in 2020 and is expected to give substantial contributions to both ITER and DEMO scenario optimisation. A broad set of preparation activities for an efficient start of the experiments on JT-60SA is being carried out, involving elaboration of the Research Plan, advanced modelling in various domains, feasibility and conception studies of diagnostics and other sub-systems in connection with the priorities of the scientific programme, development and validation of operation tools. The logic and coherence of this approach, as well as the most significant results of the main activities undertaken are presented and summarised.

  10. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  11. Issues of Exploitation of Induction Motors in the Course of Underground Mining Operations

    Gumula, Stanisław; Hudy, Wiktor; Piaskowska-Silarska, Malgorzata; Pytel, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Mining industry is one of the most important customers of electric motors. The most commonly used in the contemporary mining industry is alternating current machines used for processing electrical energy into mechanical energy. The operating problems and the influence of qualitative interference acting on the inputs of individual regulators to field-oriented system in the course of underground mining operations has been presented in the publication. The object of controlling the speed is a slip-ring induction motor. Settings of regulators were calculated using an evolutionary algorithm. Examination of system dynamics was performed by a computer with the use of the MATLAB / Simulink software. According to analyzes, large distortion of input signals of regulators adversely affects the rotational speed that pursued by the control system, which may cause a large vibration of the whole system and, consequently, its much faster destruction. Designed system is characterized by a significantly better resistance to interference. The system is stable with the properly selected settings of regulators, which is particularly important during the operation of machinery used in underground mining.

  12. Safe Management of Waste Generated during Shale Gas Operations

    Kukulska-Zając, Ewa; Król, Anna; Holewa-Rataj, Jadwiga

    2017-04-01

    Exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbon deposits, regardless of their type, are connected with the generation of waste, which may have various environmental effects. Such wastes may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because they usually contain numerous potentially toxic chemicals. Waste associated with exploration and exploitation of unconventional hydrocarbon deposits is composed of a mixture of organic and inorganic materials, the qualitative and quantitative composition of which changes widely over time, depending on numerous factors. As a result the proper characteristic of this type of waste is very important. Information gained from detailed chemical analyses of drilling chemicals, drilling wastes, and flowback water can be used to manage shale gas-related wastes more appropriately, to develop treatment methods, to store the waste, and assess the potential environmental and health risk. The following paper will focus mainly on the results of research carried out on waste samples coming from the unconventional hydrogen exploration sites. Additionally, regulatory frameworks applicable to the management of wastes produced during this type of works will be discussed. The scope of research concerning physicochemical parameters for this type of wastes will also be presented. The presented results were obtained during M4ShaleGas project realization. The M4ShaleGas project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 640715.

  13. A simple operational gas release and swelling model. Pt. 1

    Wood, M.H.; Matthews, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A new and simple model of fission gas release and swelling has been developed for oxide nuclear fuel under operational conditions. The model, which is to be incorporated into a fuel element behaviour code, is physically based and applicable to fuel at both thermal and fast reactor ratings. In this paper we present that part of the model describing the behaviour of intragranular gas: a future paper will detail the treatment of the grain boundary gas. The results of model calculations are compared with recent experimental observations of intragranular bubble concentrations and sizes, and gas release from fuel irradiated under isothermal conditions. Good agreement is found between experiment and theory. (orig.)

  14. European standards applied by Gas Transmission System Operator

    Witek, M.; Kuchta, K.; Oleszkiewicz, J.; Teperek, T.

    2005-01-01

    The lecture described actual state of implementation of European standards concerning transmission of natural gas and underlined their importance for proper performance of Transmission System Operator (TSO). European standards implemented to Polish Standards as PN-EN, necessary for TSO, related to design, construction and operation of high pressure gas network were also described. The lecture underlined as well the impact of standards application on preparation process of national regulations. They obligate TSO to create the technical conditions that ensure safety of gas transmission network functioning as well as environmental and surroundings safety. (authors)

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel power plant with LNG (liquefied natural gas) cold exergy exploitation and CO_2 capture

    Romero Gómez, Manuel; Romero Gómez, Javier; López-González, Luis M.; López-Ochoa, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    The LNG (liquefied natural gas) regasification process is a source of cold exergy that is suitable to be recovered to improve the efficiency of thermal power plants. In this paper, an innovative power plant with LNG (liquefied natural gas) exergy utilisation and the capture of CO_2 proceeding from the flue gases is presented. It is characterised by the recovery of LNG cold exergy in a closed Brayton cycle and through direct expansion in an expander coupled to an electrical generator. Moreover, this novel power plant configuration allows CO_2 capture, through an oxy-fuel combustion system and a Rankine cycle that operates with the flue gases themselves and in quasi-critical conditions. The greatest advantage of this plant is that all the recoverable LNG exergy is used to increase the efficiency of the CBC (closed Brayton cycle) and in direct expansion whereas, in other power cycles found in literature that associate LNG regasification and CO_2 capture, part of the LNG exergy is used for condensing flue gas CO_2 for its subsequent capture. As a result, a high efficiency power plant is achieved, exceeding 65%, with almost zero greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: • LNG cold exergy can be recovered to improve the efficiency of power plants. • High efficiency power plant with almost zero greenhouse gas emissions. • CO_2 capture through an oxy-fuel combustion system and a Rankine cycle. • Sensitivity analysis of key parameters to evaluate the effect on the efficiency. • The exergy available in the LNG represents 34.79% of the fuel exergy.

  16. Kaunas gas, Lithuania. Operation and maintenance report. Final report

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The main objective of this project was to transfer knowledge accumulated in Denmark about modern techniques of natural gas distribution to employees of the Lithuanian gas sector by informing them about modern measuring equipment and evaluating the results. The main objectives were: To improve the efficiency of maintenance and repair works of the distribution network in Kaunas; To decrease the number of leakages and to improve the operation of the cathodic protection system; To ensure protection of the pipelines and to avoid damages on other constructions and installations. The project consisted of four components which will all exert an influence on the future rehabilitation of steel pipe networks in the gas sector of Lithuania. The components were the following: Preparation of Operation and Maintenance Manual for Kaunas Gas Company; Cathodic measuring and pilot investigation; Analysis and improvement of the organisation of the Kaunas Gas Company; Training material for cathodic protection in Lithaunia. (au)

  17. Progress Toward Steady State Tokamak Operation Exploiting the high bootstrap current fraction regime

    Ren, Q.

    2015-11-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments have advanced the normalized fusion performance of the high bootstrap current fraction tokamak regime toward reactor-relevant steady state operation. The experiments, conducted by a joint team of researchers from the DIII-D and EAST tokamaks, developed a fully noninductive scenario that could be extended on EAST to a demonstration of long pulse steady-state tokamak operation. Fully noninductive plasmas with extremely high values of the poloidal beta, βp >= 4 , have been sustained at βT >= 2 % for long durations with excellent energy confinement quality (H98y,2 >= 1 . 5) and internal transport barriers (ITBs) generated at large minor radius (>= 0 . 6) in all channels (Te, Ti, ne, VTf). Large bootstrap fraction (fBS ~ 80 %) has been obtained with high βp. ITBs have been shown to be compatible with steady state operation. Because of the unusually large ITB radius, normalized pressure is not limited to low βN values by internal ITB-driven modes. βN up to ~4.3 has been obtained by optimizing the plasma-wall distance. The scenario is robust against several variations, including replacing some on-axis with off-axis neutral beam injection (NBI), adding electron cyclotron (EC) heating, and reducing the NBI torque by a factor of 2. This latter observation is particularly promising for extension of the scenario to EAST, where maximum power is obtained with balanced NBI injection, and to a reactor, expected to have low rotation. However, modeling of this regime has provided new challenges to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities: quasilinear models can dramatically underpredict the electron transport, and the Sauter bootstrap current can be insufficient. The analysis shows first-principle NEO is in good agreement with experiments for the bootstrap current calculation and ETG modes with a larger saturated amplitude or EM modes may provide the missing electron transport. Work supported in part by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC52-07NA

  18. Results of cost estimates for the exploitation of the Natuna gas field in Indonesia using the HTR: A new momentum for commercialization

    Barnert, H.

    1997-01-01

    The results of a simplified method for cost estimations are presented. The main result is: There exists a potential of economical competitiveness for the exploitation of the gas of the Natuna Gas Field in Indonesia. The potential consists in the production of Energy Alcohol from the gas of the Natuna Gas Field, making use of nuclear energy in the form of high temperature heat and electricity from the High Temperature reactor, HTR. The reason is that Energy Alcohol is a readily marketable product as a substitute for gasoline and diesel, with their relatively high market values. This is not so for methane, because of its lower market value, being used mainly in the heat market only. In the conversion process some - or a little more - of the carbondioxide CO 2 , the main constituent of the gas of the Natuna Gas Field, is used; the competitiveness of the product decreases with the increasing consumption of CO 2

  19. Allowing variance may enlarge the safe operating space for exploited ecosystems.

    Carpenter, Stephen R; Brock, William A; Folke, Carl; van Nes, Egbert H; Scheffer, Marten

    2015-11-17

    Variable flows of food, water, or other ecosystem services complicate planning. Management strategies that decrease variability and increase predictability may therefore be preferred. However, actions to decrease variance over short timescales (2-4 y), when applied continuously, may lead to long-term ecosystem changes with adverse consequences. We investigated the effects of managing short-term variance in three well-understood models of ecosystem services: lake eutrophication, harvest of a wild population, and yield of domestic herbivores on a rangeland. In all cases, actions to decrease variance can increase the risk of crossing critical ecosystem thresholds, resulting in less desirable ecosystem states. Managing to decrease short-term variance creates ecosystem fragility by changing the boundaries of safe operating spaces, suppressing information needed for adaptive management, cancelling signals of declining resilience, and removing pressures that may build tolerance of stress. Thus, the management of variance interacts strongly and inseparably with the management of resilience. By allowing for variation, learning, and flexibility while observing change, managers can detect opportunities and problems as they develop while sustaining the capacity to deal with them.

  20. Shale gas, let us exploit our reserves. Let us reduce the energy cost in France, let us revitalise industry, economy and employment

    2012-09-01

    This report first recalls what shale gas is, and then comments its recent development in the USA and in the world while noticing the different attitudes of European countries with respect to this issue. It proposes an overview of resources and of existing extraction techniques, and discusses issues related to environmental risks (additives, water, sound and visual pollution, seismicity) and how risk can be prevented. It discusses to which extent shale gas can be considered as a resource for the future, and discusses the French potential related to shale gas exploitation (overview of the French energy situation, possible economic boom due to this exploitation, an energy independence asset, a possible asset for the environment). The French stand-off situation (recall of the law vote situation, a not valorised industrial sector) is discussed in terms of permit delivery practices, of poor support by elected representatives, and of influence of the ecologist lobby. The authors finally call for a new debate on this issue

  1. Clad failure detection in G 3 - operational feedback; Detection de rupture de gaines G 3 - experience d'exploitation

    Plisson, J [CEA Marcoule, Centre de Production de Plutonium, 30 (France)

    1964-07-01

    After briefly reviewing the role and the principles of clad failure detection, the author describes the working conditions and the conclusions reached after 4 years operation of this installation on the reactor G 3. He mentions also the modifications made to the original installation as well as the tests carried out and the experiments under way. (author) [French] Apres un rappel succinct du role et des principes de la detection de rupture de gaines, l'auteur fait un expose des conditions de fonctionnement et de l'experience tiree de 4 annees d'exploitation de cette installation sur le reacteur G 3. Il signale au passage les modifications apportees a l'installation d'origine, ainsi que les essais effectues, et les experiences en cours.

  2. Technological exploitation of Deuterium–Tritium operations at JET in support of ITER design, operation and safety

    Batistoni, P., E-mail: paola.batistoni@enea.it [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Campling, D. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Conroy, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Croft, D. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Giegerich, T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O.Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Huddleston, T.; Lefebvre, X. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lengar, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Department, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lilley, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Peacock, A. [JET Exploitation Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pillon, M. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Popovichev, S.; Reynolds, S. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vila, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Villari, R. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Bekris, N. [ITER Physics Department, EUROfusion Consortium, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Within the framework of the EUROfusion programme, a work-package of technology projects (WPJET3) is being carried out in conjunction with the planned Deuterium–Tritium experiment on JET (DTE2). • The objective is to maximise the scientific and technological return of DT operations at JET in support of ITER. • Preparatory experiments, analyses and studies are carried out in several fusion nuclear technology areas. • These are: neutronics, neutron induced activation and damage in ITER materials, nuclear safety, tritium retention, permeation and outgassing, and waste production. • This paper presents the progress since the start of the project in 2014. - Abstract: Within the framework of the EUROfusion programme, a work-package of technology projects (WPJET3) is being carried out in conjunction with the planned Deuterium–Tritium experiment on JET (DTE2) with the objective of maximising the scientific and technological return of DT operations at JET in support of ITER. This paper presents the progress since the start of the project in 2014 in the preparatory experiments, analyses and studies in the areas of neutronics, neutron induced activation and damage in ITER materials, nuclear safety, tritium retention, permeation and outgassing, and waste production in preparation of DTE2.

  3. Mapping reactor operating regimes for heavy gas oil hydrotreating

    Munteanu, Mugurel Catalin; Chen, Jinwen [CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Hydrotreating (HDT) is used in oil refineries at temperatures of 350-400 degree C and pressure of 50-100 bars in a fixed bed to improve the quality of distillate fraction. HDT operates as a gas-liquid-solid process, trickle bed. Efforts have been made to model it but volatilization of liquid oil is often ignored. The aim of this paper is to predict vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) for a typical heavy distillate feed in pilot plant hydrotreaters. The study was conducted under various operating conditions and a flash calculation program calibrated in-house was used to predict VLE. VLE values were found and results showed that higher pressure, lower gas/oil ratio and temperature should be used to maintain the desired operating regimes when hydrotreating heavy distillate feed. This study determined the operating conditions for maintaining the desired operating regimes and these findings could be useful for operators.

  4. New European context for gas producers/operators

    Deyirmendjian, J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the European Union towards more integration would enter a new phase if the draft Third Directive regarding the natural gas industry and the deregulation of gas markets would be validated as it stands. The stakes for gas producing/operating companies are very high: they must position themselves either as networks and installations companies or as production and trading companies - meaning regulation and recurring revenues or the opportunities and risks of production and trade. Changes such these, added to the globalisation of gas flows linked to the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG), require more investments than in the past. These additional investments and this technological progress nevertheless give hope that this transformation will not noticeably weaken the security of gas supplies within the European Union (EU) despite the greater volatility of the markets, which are increasingly dominated by the strategies of financial operators. The author reviews the history of the development of the gas distribution networks in Europe and discusses details of the new draft directive aiming at more competition on a market that has been dominated so far by vertical structures. Similarities and differences to the deregulation of the European electricity market are discussed. The divergent attitudes of the EU Member States and the negotiation strategy of the European Commission are discussed. Merges of gas and electricity utilities are on the agenda. The author then reviews the current situation of natural gas consumption and supplies and the transportation and distribution facilities. Political factors influencing the security of supply are discussed. Underground gas storage facilities are crucial in this context. Several projects for new main gas pipelines are discussed. Diversification of supply sources is considered as of strategic relevance. The article is richly illustrated and includes several maps and diagrams.

  5. Exploiting gas diffusion for non-invasive sampling in flow analysis: determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages

    Simone Vicente

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A tubular gas diffusion PTFE membrane is exploited for non-invasive sampling in flow analysis, aiming to develop an improved spectrophotometric determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. The probe is immersed into the sample, allowing ethanol to diffuse through the membrane. It is collected into the acceptor stream (acidic dichromate solution, leading to formation of Cr(III, monitored at 600 nm. The analytical curve is linear up to 50% (v/v ethanol, baseline drift is Uma membrana tubular de PTFE permeável a espécies gasosas foi empregada como sonda em sistemas de análises em fluxo visando a proposta de uma estratégia de amostragem não invasiva. Como aplicação, foi selecionada a determinação espectrofotométrica de etanol em bebidas alcoólicas. A sonda é imersa na amostra, permitindo que o analito se difunda através desta e seja coletado pelo fluxo aceptor (solução ácida de dicromato, levando à formação de Cr(III, o qual é monitorado a 600 nm. Linearidade da curva analítica é verificada até 50,0% (v/v de etanol (r > 0,998; n = 8, derivas de linha base são menores do que 0,005 absorbância durante períodos de 4 horas de operação e a velocidade analítica é de 30 h-1 o que corresponde a 0.6 mmol K2Cr2O7 por determinação. Os resultados são precisos (d.p.r. < 2% e concordantes com aqueles obtidos por um método oficial.

  6. Gas sensor based on photoconductive electrospun titania nanofibres operating at room temperature

    Zampetti, E., E-mail: emiliano.zampetti@artov.imm.cnr.it; Macagnano, A.; Bearzotti, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi (CNR IMM) (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    An important drawback of semiconductor gas sensors is their operating temperature that needs the use of heaters. To overcome this problem a prototyping sensor using titania nanofibres (with an average diameter of 50 nm) as sensitive membrane were fabricated by electrospinning directly on the transducer of the sensor. Exploiting the effect of titania photoconductivity, resistance variations upon gas interaction under continuous irradiation of ultra violet light were measured at room temperature. The resistive sensor response was evaluated towards ammonia, nitrogen dioxide and humidity. The sensor exhibited a higher response to ammonia than to nitrogen dioxide, especially for concentrations larger than 100 ppb. For 200 ppb of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide, the responses were {approx}2.8 and 1.5 %, respectively.

  7. Gas turbine control for islanding operation of distribution systems

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Danish distribution systems are characterized by a significant penetration of small gas turbine generators (GTGs) and fixed speed wind turbine generators (WTGs). Island operation of these distribution systems are becoming a viable option for economical and technical reasons. However, stabilizing...... frequency in an islanded system is one of the major challenges. This paper presents three different gas turbine governors for possible operation of distribution systems in an islanding mode. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of these governors in grid connected and islanding mode....

  8. Effect of zero discharge permits on oil and gas operations

    Higdon, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines one of the more prominent effects of the Clean Water Act (CWA) upon oil and gas operations. To that end, the paper begins with a general discussion of the regulatory background and permitting framework which serves as the foundation for water pollution control. From this discussion, the paper will then move into a discussion of particular permit provisions which govern the discharge of wastes generated from oil and gas operations. Upon discussing these provisions, the paper will then discuss potential enforcement options available to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address violations of the regulations and permits it has issued to implement the CWA. In that regard, the paper will also discuss some recent enforcement theories advocated by the EPA which may have significant impacts upon oil and gas operators and the way in which they conduct their operations. In light of some of these recent enforcement activities, the paper will close with a discussion of the implications of the theories of liability espoused by EPA and steps which oil and gas operators may taking in response to the positions assumed by EPA

  9. Experience with managing, operating and maintaining gas turbine powerplants

    Wadman, B.

    1994-01-01

    Stewart ampersand Stevenson, a major supplier of gas turbine powered cogeneration systems to worldwide markets, established plant management, operations and maintenance capabilities in 1985 in order to provide complete service capability to the customer. As of the fall of 1993, twenty-two individual cogeneration facilities are now being operated and maintained by this company with a total capacity of 1100+ MW. More than 300 plant management and operating personnel are employed in this operation. To date, activities have been concentrated in North and South America. Negotiations are in process in a number of other areas including the Pacific Rim, China, and several Middle East countries. 7 figs

  10. Operation and planning of coordinated natural gas and electricity infrastructures

    Zhang, Xiaping

    Natural gas is becoming rapidly the optimal choice for fueling new generating units in electric power system driven by abundant natural gas supplies and environmental regulations that are expected to cause coal-fired generation retirements. The growing reliance on natural gas as a dominant fuel for electricity generation throughout North America has brought the interaction between the natural gas and power grids into sharp focus. The primary concern and motivation of this research is to address the emerging interdependency issues faced by the electric power and natural gas industry. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of the interactions between the two systems regarding the short-term operation and long-term infrastructure planning. Natural gas and renewable energy appear complementary in many respects regarding fuel price and availability, environmental impact, resource distribution and dispatchability. In addition, demand response has also held the promise of making a significant contribution to enhance system operations by providing incentives to customers for a more flat load profile. We investigated the coordination between natural gas-fired generation and prevailing nontraditional resources including renewable energy, demand response so as to provide economical options for optimizing the short-term scheduling with the intense natural gas delivery constraints. As the amount and dispatch of gas-fired generation increases, the long-term interdependency issue is whether there is adequate pipeline capacity to provide sufficient gas to natural gas-fired generation during the entire planning horizon while it is widely used outside the power sector. This thesis developed a co-optimization planning model by incorporating the natural gas transportation system into the multi-year resource and transmission system planning problem. This consideration would provide a more comprehensive decision for the investment and accurate assessment for system adequacy and

  11. Considerations in modeling fission gas release during normal operation

    Rumble, E.T.; Lim, E.Y.; Stuart, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The EPRI LWR fuel rod modeling code evaluation program analyzed seven fuel rods with experimental fission gas release data. In these cases, rod-averged burnups are less than 20,000 MWD/MTM, while the fission gas release fractions range roughly from 2 to 27%. Code results demonstrate the complexities in calculating fission gas release in certain operating regimes. Beyond this work, the behavior of a pre-pressurized PWR rod is simulated to average burnups of 40,000 MWD/MTM using GAPCON-THERMAL-2. Analysis of the sensitivity of fission gas release to power histories and release correlations indicate the strong impact that LMFBR type release correlations induce at high burnup. 15 refs

  12. Hysteresis phenomenon during operation of gas condensate fields

    Sadykh-Zade, E S; Karakashev, V K; Ismailov, D Kh

    1966-01-01

    Hysteresis behavior of gas-condensate mixtures was studied with a PVT apparatus. The study was conducted at 26 and 80/sup 0/C, with recombined samples having gas factors of 3,000, 6,500, and 10,000 cu meters per ton. Pressure on samples was decreased or increased at rates of 0.2; 0.1; 0.05; and 0.025 atm per sec. Composition of gas- condensate is given. It is reported that different amounts of liquid were produced by condensation and evaporation processes, i.e., results depended on whether pressure was being increased or decreased. It is suggested that the effect of hysteresis should be considered in operation of gas-condensate fields.

  13. Design requirements, operation and maintenance of gas-cooled reactors

    1989-06-01

    At the invitation of the Government of the USA the Technical Committee Meeting on Design Requirements, Operation and Maintenance of Gas-Cooled Reactors, was held in San Diego on September 21-23, 1988, in tandem with the GCRA Conference. Both meetings attracted a large contingent of foreign participants. Approximately 100 delegates from 18 different countries participated in the Technical Committee meeting. The meeting was divided into three sessions: Gas-cooled reactor user requirement (8 papers); Gas-cooled reactor improvements to facilitate operation and maintenance (10 papers) and Safety, environmental impacts and waste disposal (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 23 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Characterization of Methane-Seep Communities in a Deep-Sea Area Designated for Oil and Natural Gas Exploitation Off Trinidad and Tobago

    Diva J. Amon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of the deep ocean (>200 m is taking on added importance as human development encroaches. Despite increasing oil and natural gas exploration and exploitation, the deep ocean of Trinidad and Tobago is almost entirely unknown. The only scientific team to image the deep seafloor within the Trinidad and Tobago Exclusive Economic Zone was from IFREMER in the 1980s. That exploration led to the discovery of the El Pilar methane seeps and associated chemosynthetic communities on the accretionary prism to the east of Trinidad and Tobago. In 2014, the E/V Nautilus, in collaboration with local scientists, visited two previously sampled as well as two unexplored areas of the El Pilar site between 998 and 1,629 m depth using remotely operated vehicles. Eighty-three megafaunal morphospecies from extensive chemosynthetic communities surrounding active methane seepage were observed at four sites. These communities were dominated by megafaunal invertebrates including mussels (Bathymodiolus childressi, shrimp (Alvinocaris cf. muricola, Lamellibrachia sp. 2 tubeworms, and Pachycara caribbaeum. Adjacent to areas of active seepage was an ecotone of suspension feeders including Haplosclerida sponges, stylasterids and Neovermilia serpulids on authigenic carbonates. Beyond this were large Bathymodiolus shell middens. Finally there was either a zone of sparse octocorals and other non-chemosynthetic species likely benefiting from the carbonate substratum and enriched production within the seep habitat, or sedimented inactive areas. This paper highlights these ecologically significant areas and increases the knowledge of the biodiversity of the Trinidad and Tobago deep ocean. Because methane seepage and chemosynthetic communities are related to the presence of extractable oil and gas resources, development of best practices for the conservation of biodiversity in Trinidad and Tobago waters within the context of energy extraction is critical. Potential impacts

  15. Effects of Operating Conditions on Gas Release Thermal ...

    The gas release rates and the flame length of the potential jet fires were initially estimated using Simplex Source Term Models which pay limited attention to operating conditions. Finally a more detailed follow-up study, accounting for a range of practical factors was conducted. A number of useful risk management metrics ...

  16. Operation of Ferroelectric Plasma Sources in a Gas Discharge Mode

    Dunaevsky, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    Ferroelectric plasma sources in vacuum are known as sources of ablative plasma, formed due to surface discharge. In this paper, observations of a gas discharge mode of operation of the ferroelectric plasma sources (FPS) are reported. The gas discharge appears at pressures between approximately 20 and approximately 80 Torr. At pressures of 1-20 Torr, there is a transition from vacuum surface discharge to the gas discharge, when both modes coexist and the surface discharges sustain the gas discharge. At pressures between 20 and 80 Torr, the surface discharges are suppressed, and FPS operate in pure gas discharge mode, with the formation of almost uniform plasma along the entire surface of the ceramics between strips. The density of the expanding plasma is estimated to be about 1013 cm-3 at a distance of 5.5 mm from the surface. The power consumption of the discharge is comparatively low, making it useful for various applications. This paper also presents direct measurements of the yield of secondary electron emission from ferroelectric ceramics, which, at low energies of primary electrons, is high and dependent on the polarization of the ferroelectric material

  17. Operation and management of aging gas distribution systems

    McNorgan, J.D. (Southern California Gas Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Southern California Gas Company, transports billions of cubic feet of natural gas through large-diameter, high-pressure transmission lines, across hundreds of miles of varying terrain, to satisfy the needs of over four and a half million customers. Operating an aging gas system can be truly expensive. Repair costs are very high. Recent figures experienced by our company show that it cost over $800 to repair a main leak, $400 to replace a service, and over $40 a foot to replace even small sized mains. A hidden cost is the effect of the physical limitations imposed by an aging system. It could be under-sized, or limited to a low pressure, thus restricting the volume of gas that can be delivered. Additionally there is the potential loss of valuable gas through leaks or blow downs when making repairs or replacements, and the damage it could do to the environment. For some years Southern California Gas Company has had on-going special and routine pipe replacement programs. The special pipe replacement program is driven primarily to increase the safety of the system, while at the same time improving reliability of service to the customers and reducing their total costs.

  18. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through operations and supply chain management

    Plambeck, Erica L.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of the largest corporation in the world and those of a start-up company show how companies can profitably reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains. The operations management literature suggests additional opportunities to profitably reduce emissions in existing supply chains, and provides guidance for expanding the capacity of new “zero emission” supply chains. The potential for companies to profitably reduce emissions is substantial but (without effective climate policy) likely insufficient to avert dangerous climate change. - Highlights: ► Describes how firms are profitably reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains ► Highlights academic literature relevant to supply chain emission reduction

  19. Simulation of gas turbines operating in off-design condition

    Walter, Arnaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: walter@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    In many countries thermal power plants based on gas turbines have been the main option for new investment into the electric system due to their relatively high efficiency and low capital cost. Cogeneration systems based on gas turbines have also been an important option for the electric industry. Feasibility studies of power plants based on gas turbine should consider the effect of atmospheric conditions and part-load operation on the machine performance. Doing this, an off-design procedure is required. A G T off-design simulation procedure is described in this paper. Ruston R M was used to validate the simulation procedure that, general sense, presents deviations lower than 2.5% in comparison to manufacturer's data. (author)

  20. Gas turbines and operation of gas turbines 2011; Gasturbinen und Gasturbinenbetrieb 2011

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the VGB Conference at 11th and 12th May, 2011 in Offenbach/Main (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The future of high temperature gas turbines in power plants (Konrad Vogeler); (2) Development of reliable thermal barrier coatings for high-loaded turbine and combustor parts (Hans-Peter Bossmann); (3) CCPP Irsching 4 with gas turbine SGT5-8000H, on the way to 60 % CC efficiency (Willibald Fischer); (4) First test results of MAN's new 6 MW gas turbine (Markus Beukenberg); (5) Design characteristics and key thermodynamic parameters of the recuperated 4 MW solar turbines Mercury 50 gas turbines: - Economics and environmental feasibility, - operating experience in combined cycle applications with recuperation (Ulrich Stang); (6) Medium size gas turbines - OEM concept for continued reduction of life cycle costs (Vladimir Navrotsky); (7) Fracture mechanical analysis on fatigue failures of gas turbine components: - Root cause analysis - fracture mechanics - stress corrosion cracking - examples of failure analysis (Peter Verstraete); (8) The effectiveness of blade superalloy reheat treatment (Michael Wood); (9) An innovative combustion technology for high efficient gas turbines (Christian Oliver Paschereit); (10) Damping of thermo-acoustic vibrations in gas turbine combustion chambers (Sermed Sadig); (11) Alstom GT13E2 combustor upgrade for Vattenfalls Berlin Mitte combined heat and power plant (Klaus Doebbeling); (12) Optimisation of air inlet filtration for dust, rain and humidity (Heiko Manstein); (13) Life cycle cost reduction through high efficiency membrane based air intake filters (Helmut Krah); (14) Status and impact of national, European and international standardization on GT plants; GT standardizing status quo? (Gerd Weber); (15) Technical and thermodynamic aspects of compresssed air energy storage (Peter Radgen); (16) Requirements on the gas turbine in the course of time - intelligent OEM-concepts to ensure reliable

  1. Implications of shale gas exploitation for UK climate change targets under a production-based accounting system.

    Turk, J.; Reay, D.; Haszeldine, S.

    2017-12-01

    The shale gas boom in the USA has seemingly decreased the greenhouse gas intensity of electricity generation in the USA over the last decade. The United Kingdom is supporting its own shale gas industry to increase its own domestic energy supply. The UK's climate change policy is underpinned by defined national carbon budgets periods. The UK has met Carbon Budget 1 (2008 - 2012) and is likely to meet the second and third carbon budgets (2013 - 2022). There is a projected shortcoming in the fourth carbon budget (2023 - 2027). This shortfall may be increased as the UK pursues a domestic shale gas industry. Under the current production-based GHG accounting system, the UK is incentivized to import natural gas rather than produce it domestically. If the projected gas supply were to be met by UK shale gas, we project additional greenhouse gas emissions which would need to be accommodated during Carbon Budget periods 3 - 6. Additionally, natural gas electricity generation will contribute to sustaining grid electricity emissions during the same time period within the traded European Union emissions cap.

  2. Map of gas facilities and operators in Northeast British Columbia

    Anon.

    2005-06-01

    This map represents 57 gas facilities and operators and references location on the map to the facility and operator. The Northern Rockies Regional district is indicated, as is the Peace River Regional district. Roads, truck trails, railroads, pipeline and airstrips are indicated as well as oil and gas fields. Various protected areas and First Nations settlement areas and regions are also indicated. The following companies placed advertisements on the map, detailing the services they provide: Wellco Energy Services; C.E. Franklin Ltd.; the City of Fort St. John, Region of Chetwynd; Smith Bits; the City of Dawson Creek, Economic Development and Tourism; Fort Nelson and Northern Rockies Regional District; Pipetech Corp.; Kenwood; Hughes Christensen; Spartan Controls; FI Canada Oil Services Ltd.; Northstar Drillstem Testers Inc.; Rainbow Transport Ltd.1 fig.

  3. Methane emissions from U.S. natural gas operations

    Lott, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are cofunding and comanaging a program to evaluate methane emissions from U.S. natural gas operations. The purpose of the program is to provide an emissions inventory accurate enough for global climate modeling and for addressing the policy question of ''whether encouraging the increased use of natural gas is a viable strategy for reducing the U.S. contribution to global warming''. The program is comprised of three phases: Scoping, Methods Development, and Implementation. The purpose of Phase I was to define the problem. Phase II of the program concentrated on developing techniques for measuring steady state or fugitive emissions and for calculating the highly variable unsteady emissions from the variety of sources that comprise the gas industry. Because of the large number of sources within each source type, techniques were also developed for extrapolating emissions data to similar sources within the industry. Phase III of the program was started in early 1992 and should be completed in early 1994. The purpose of the current phase of the program is to collect sufficient data to achieve the accuracy goal of determining emissions to within ± 0.5 percent of production. Based on the limited amount of data collected to date, methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry appear to be in the range of 1 percent of production. (au) (19 refs.)

  4. Worchester Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated MCO Isolation Valves

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-01-01

    These valves are 1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporating a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator that are used in process streams within the CVDF hood. The valves fail closed (on loss of pressure or electrical) to prevent MCO vent drain to either reduce air in-leakage or loss of He. The valves have couplings for transverse actuator mounting

  5. Pilot plant for flue gas treatment - continuous operation tests

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Radzio, B.

    1995-01-01

    Tests of continuous operation have been performed on pilot plant at EPS Kaweczyn in the wide range of SO 2 concentration (500-3000 ppm). The bag filter has been applied for aerosol separation. The high efficiencies of SO 2 and NO x removal, approximately 90% were obtained and influenced by such process parameters as: dose, gas temperature and ammonia stoichiometry. The main apparatus of the pilot plant (e.g. both accelerators) have proved their reliability in hard industrial conditions. (Author)

  6. The characteristics of operation of the Shatlyk gas condensate deposit

    Zatov, G.A.; Friman, Yu.M.; Frumson, Yu.V.; Koshayev, T.K.; Stepanov, N.G.; Tverkovkin, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Results are correlated of the operation of the Shatlyksk deposit for a 10 year period from the start of its development through 1982. The rates of gas withdrawal from the deposits are analyzed, along with the conditions for manifestation of elastic, water thrust modes, the characteristics of the studied wells and other issues. The results of modeling the advancement of stratum waters are cited. The modeling was performed on a computer (EVM) using a system of two dimensional, two phase filtration.

  7. Worcester Solenoid-Actuated Gas Operated MCO Isolation Valves

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-01-01

    These valves are 1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporating a solenoid and limit switches as Integral parts of the actuator that are used in different process streams within the CVDF hood. The valves fail closed (on loss of pressure or electrical) for MCO isolation to either reduce air in leakage or loss of He. All valves have coupling for transverse actuator mounting

  8. Environmental requirements for oil and gas operations in Saskatchewan

    Nystuen, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    The administration and regulation of environmental issues regarding the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. The political and cultural differences in Saskatchewan that make environmental processes distinct from its neighbouring jurisdictions were described. The following Saskatchewan legislation deals with environmental requirements: Environmental Management and Protection Act, Environmental Assessment Act, Oil and Gas Conservation Act, Wildlife Habitat Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Planning and Development Act, Forest Act, Water Corporation Act, Heritage Property Act, and Parks Act. The Saskatchewan Department of Energy and Mines (SEM) is the primary regulator of the upstream oil and gas industry. It regulates the construction, operation, reporting and abandonment requirements for oilfield operations. SEM also manages crude oil prior to refining and manages the wastes contaminated with crude oil. Provisions of the relevant Acts regarding drilling in environmentally sensitive areas, flaring requirements, transporting and disposing of oilfield wastes, road-building, operating restrictions, emergency response plans, spill clean-up responsibilities, well abandonment and site reclamation responsibilities were discussed. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Paradigms of underground gas storage operation; Paradigmas del funcionamiento de un almacenamiento subterraneo de gas

    Bonoris, Patricia; Vizcarra, Rodolfo; Buciak, Jorge [Companias Asociadas Petroleras S.A. (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    The main objective of the study was to determine, for the underground storage of gas, the Current Useful Volume and Maximum Useful Current of operation, as well as have an acceptable interpretation that allows calculating the investment needed to reach this Maximum Usable Volume.

  10. Integrated economic and life cycle assessment of thermochemical production of bioethanol to reduce production cost by exploiting excess of greenhouse gas savings

    Reyes Valle, C.; Villanueva Perales, A.L.; Vidal-Barrero, F.; Ollero, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of economics and sustainability of thermochemical ethanol production. • Exploitation of excess CO 2 saving by either importing fossil energy or CO 2 trading. • Significant increase in alcohol production by replacing biomass with natural gas. • CO 2 emission trading is not cost-competitive versus import of fossil energy. • Lowest ethanol production cost for partial oxidation as reforming technology. - Abstract: In this work, two options are investigated to enhance the economics of the catalytic production of bioethanol from biomass gasification by exploiting the excess of CO 2 emission saving: (i) to import fossil energy, in the form of natural gas and electricity or (ii) to trade CO 2 emissions. To this end, an integrated life cycle and economic assessment is carried out for four process configurations, each using a different light hydrocarbon reforming technology: partial oxidation, steam methane reforming, tar reforming and autothermal reforming. The results show that for all process configurations the production of bioethanol and other alcohols significantly increases when natural gas displaces biomass, maintaining the total energy content of the feedstock. The economic advantage of the partial substitution of biomass by natural gas depends on their prices and this is explored by carrying out a sensitivity analysis, taking historical prices into account. It is also concluded that the trade of CO 2 emissions is not cost-competitive compared to the import of natural gas if the CO 2 emission price remains within historical European prices. The CO 2 emission price would have to double or even quadruple the highest CO 2 historical price for CO 2 emission trading to be a cost-competitive option

  11. Strong increase of profits from oil and natural gas exploitation; Sterke stijging van opbrengsten uit olie- en gaswinning

    Graveland, C.; Veldhuizen, E.; Schenau, S.; Van den Bergen, D. [Centraal Breau voor de Statistiek, Voorburg/Heerlen (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    The amount of oil and natural gas reserves in the Netherlands decreases, although the value of the reserves has increased considerably. The profits are used by the Dutch government in the form of so-called natural gas benefits. [Dutch] De omvang van de Nederlandse olie- en gasreserves daalt gestaag. Desondanks is de waarde van de resterende aardolie- en aardgasreserves flink toegenomen. Dit wordt grotendeels verklaard doordat de winning van olie en gas steeds meer opbrengt. De hogere opbrengsten komen vooral ten goede aan de overheid in de vorm van aardgasbaten, maar ook de winningsbedrijven profiteren er van.

  12. Dynamic gas flow during plasma operation in TMX-U

    Pickles, W.L.; Carter, M.R.; Clower, C.A.; Drake, R.P.; Hunt, A.L.; Simonen, T.C.; Turner, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Control of the neutral density outside of the plasma radius is essential for proper operation of the various plasma configurations in TMX-U. TMX-U excess-beam, stream-gun, gas-box, and beam-reflux gases are pumped internally in regions defined by 73 0 Ti-gettered liners and warm Ti-gettered plasma liners. The array of fast and slow ion gauges - a large TMX-U diagnostic - has been used to measure the dynamic pressure in many of the liner-defined regions on three time scales. The natural divertor action, or plasma pump effect, of mirror plasmas has been measured using the ion gauge diagnostics on a fast time scale during operation of TMX-U with ECRH start-up. Routine operation of TMX-U is enhanced by the ability to verify the effectiveness of gettering and to locate leaks using pressure data collected on the two slow time scales. A computer code, DYNAVAC 6, which treats TMX-U as a set of conductance-coupled regions with pumping and sources in each region, has been used to successfully model the overall gas dynamics during all phases of TMX-U operation

  13. Test results for fuel cell operation on anaerobic digester gas

    Spiegel, R. J.; Preston, J. L.

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI, embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the process of treating sewage anaerobically to reduce solids. ADG is primarily comprised of methane (57-66%), carbon dioxide (33-39%), nitrogen (1-10%), and a small amount of oxygen (sulfur-bearing compounds (principally hydrogen sulfide) and halogen compounds (chlorides). The project has addressed two major issues: development of a cleanup system to remove fuel cell contaminants from the gas and testing/assessing of a modified ONSI PC25 C fuel cell power plant operating on the cleaned, but dilute, ADG. Results to date demonstrate that the ADG fuel cell power plant can, depending on the energy content of the gas, produce electrical output levels close to full power (200 kW) with measured air emissions comparable to those obtained by a natural gas fuel cell. The cleanup system results show that the hydrogen sulfide levels are reduced to below 10 ppbv and halides to approximately 30 ppbv.

  14. Operation of sealed microstrip gas chambers at the ILL

    Clergeau, J F; Feltin, D; Fischer, H E; Guérard, B; Hansen, T; Manzin, G; Oed, A; Palleau, P

    2001-01-01

    Microstrip Gas Counters (MSGCs) were introduced at the ILL as a response to the problem of fabricating the large area neutron detector of the D20 neutron powder diffractometer. This banana-like detector consists of 48 MSGCs, each comprising 32 counting cells. It was in operation during 18 months before being stopped due to the progressive deterioration of the anode strips. In order to increase its lifetime, significant modifications were introduced in the recently assembled new version. Another instrument, D4C, was recently equipped with a modular detector made of nine MSGCs, each of them in an individual gas vessel. Besides the unidimensional individual readout MSGC of D20 and D4C, the ILL has developed bidimensional MSGCs with a charge division readout. All these detectors employ sealed vessels containing a gas mixture at a pressure which can be as high as 15 bar, necessitating very clean conditions. This paper describes the experience acquired at the ILL in the fabrication and operation of these detectors.

  15. Micro controller based system for characterizing gas detector operating parameters

    Thakur, Vaishali M.; Verma, Amit K.; Anilkumar, S.; Babu, D.A.R.; Sharma, D.N.; Harikumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    The estimation and analysis of radioactivity levels in samples from environment and from various stages of nuclear fuel cycle operations has become a matter of concern for the implementation of radiological safety procedures. Gas filled/ flow detectors play crucial role in achieving this objective. Since these detectors need high voltage for their operation, the operating characteristics of each detector for optimum performance has to be determined before incorporating into the systems. The operating voltages of these detectors are ranging from few hundred volts to few kilo volts. Present paper describes the design of microcontroller based system to control two HV modules (Electron tubes make: PS2001/12P) independently and acquire data from different gas filled radiation detectors simultaneously. The system uses Philips 80C552 microcontroller based Single Board Computer (SBC). The inbuilt DAC and ADC of microcontroller were used to control HV from 0-2000 with less than ± 1 %, error 1000V. The starting HV, HV step size, decision making intelligence to terminate HV increment (for preset plateau slope) and data acquisition (for preset time), data acquisition time etc., can be programmed. Nearly 200 detectors data (20 data points per detector) can be stored and transferred to PC on request. Data collected by the system for LND 719 GM detectors with starting voltage from 500 V, HV step size of 24 V and 100 seconds counting time to find out the plateau length. The plateau slope and length obtained with this system for LND 719 GM detectors are 3-5%/100V and ∼ 150V respectively. (author)

  16. Compensation for gas exploitation in the border region of the Wadden Sea. Vision on a role for nature development

    Dijkema, K.S.; Dankers, N.M.J.A.; Wintermans, G.J.M.; Bervaes, J.C.A.M.; Ven der Werff, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In case natural gas is extracted from the Wadden Sea finances for compensation will be made available on the basis of an Environmental Effect Report (MER, abbreviated in Dutch). The compensation measures will be used to create new nature conditions, e.g. more dynamics, enlargement of the salt marsh area, rehabilitation of transfer areas from fresh water to seawater, study on nature development in the Wadden Sea area. 67 refs

  17. The exploitation of the physical exergy of liquid natural gas by closed power thermodynamic cycles. An overview

    Invernizzi, Costante M.; Iora, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The world trade in LNG (liquefied natural gas) has tripled in the last 15 years and the forecasts are for its further rapid expansion. Although the cryogenic exergy of the LNG could be used in many industrial processes, it is recognized also as a source for power cycles. When using the low temperature capacity of LNG for power production, several thermodynamic cycles can be considered. This paper reports the state-of-the art of the most relevant solutions based on conventional and non-conventional thermodynamic closed cycles. Moreover, a novel metrics framework, suitable for a fairer comparison among the energy recovery performances of the different technologies is proposed. According to the defined indicators the compounds plants with gas turbine and closed Brayton cycles perform really better, with an almost full use of LNG available cold temperature and a fuel consumption with an efficiency better than that of the current combined cycles. The Rankine cycles with organic working fluids (pure fluids or non-azeotropic mixtures) using seawater or heat available at low temperature (for instance at 150 °C) also perform in a very satisfactory way. Real gas Brayton cycles and carbon dioxide condensation cycles work with very good thermal efficiency also at relatively low maximum temperatures (300 ÷ 600 °C) and could have peculiar applications. - Highlights: • A review of systems for the combined re-gasification of LNG and generation of power. • The considered systems are: closed Brayton cycles, condensation cycles, gas turbines. • Definition of new parameters for an energy assessment of the systems? performances. • A comparison among the various systems from the energy point of view.

  18. Basic principles of knowledge management and its application to the industrial company in tactical operations of maintenance and operational exploitation: A qualitative study

    Francisco Javier Cárcel Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although knowledge and its management is, and has been, studied in depth, particularly since the 90’s decade of the past century, especially for the strategic management, innovation, trade, or business administration, there are still many questions on how it articulates or transfers and the barriers to its management, especially when we talk about internal tactical activities that affect staff that we could call "offices", such as maintenance and industrial assembly or exploitation and conduction of the facilities. Because of the peculiarities normally seen in this kind of activity in the industrial companies, the knowledge of these people is strongly based on their experience (strong tacit component, difficult to measure and articulate, and on many occasions, however, this rupture of information-knowledge, can represent a high cost for the company (often assumed to be something inevitable due to the increase in production and service downtime, loss of efficiency, or tuning time of new staff to these areas.Design/methodology/approach: After a description of the State of the art and the basic principles of knowledge management, a qualitative study in an industrial company has been carried out, within the areas of operation and maintenance, in order to know the barriers and facilitators that such involved personnel finds in order to achieve an adequate transmission and use of that knowledge.Findings and Originality/value: Learn about barriers, facilitators and impact that offers the knowledge management in the areas of industrial maintenance, especially among professionals in offices which operate with a high degree of tacit knowledge and with a heavy dependence on the company on these professionals.Research limitations/implications: Those characteristics of a qualitative study in a particular area and within a geographical area, although it can be extrapolated to other types of companies and regional areas.Practical implications: Learn

  19. Welfare effects of governmental interventions with a liberalized natural gas market. The Dutch natural gas exploitation policy. Report of an introduction and a reaction

    Verschoor, M.

    2006-01-01

    A report is given of a meeting of the Netherlands Association for Energy Legislation (NEVER), which was held in Amsterdam, Netherlands, April 2006. After the meeting a presentation was made about the report 'Government involvement in liberalised gas markets. A welfare-economic analysis of the Dutch gas-depletion policy' of the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB). This report analyses the welfare effects of two major components of the Dutch gas-depletion policy: the offtake guarantee for small-fields gas and the cap on production from the Groningen field. After the presentation a reaction was given to the report. Both presentations give an overview of the governmental policy and insight in the effects [nl

  20. Towards sustainability in offshore oil and gas operations

    Khan, M. Ibrahim

    acceptable, economically profitable and socially responsible. This dissertation discusses the framework of true 'sustainability' for practically all aspects oil and gas operations and nature-based resource operations. Sustainability of existing offshore oil and gas operations techniques are analyzed and new nature-based technologies are proposed. Also evaluated are the fate and effect, environmental impact, risk factors, and the green supply chain in the case of seismic, drilling, production and decommissioning of oil operations. It is demonstrated with detailed examples that using the new approach will be economically more beneficial than the conventional approach, even in the short-term. The dissertation also examines the present status of petroleum operations with respect to waste generation, improper resource management, and the usage of toxic compounds in the overall lifecycle. To achieve true sustainability, some innovative models and technologies are presented. They include achievement of zero emissions, zero waste of resources, zero waste in activities, zero use of toxics, and zero waste in product life-cycle. This dissertation also discusses the environmental and technological problems of the petroleum sector and provides guidelines to achieve overall sustainability in oil company activities. Finally, this dissertation shows that inherent sustainability can be achieved by the involvement of community participation. The new screening tool proposed in this dissertation provides proper guidelines to achieve true sustainability in the technology development and other resource development operations.

  1. Exploiting VM/XA

    Boeheim, C.

    1990-03-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has recently completed a conversion to IBM's VM/XA SP Release 2 operating system. The primary physics application had been constrained by the previous 16 megabyte memory limit. Work is underway to enable this application to exploit the new features of VM/XA. This paper presents a brief tutorial on how to convert an application to exploit VM/XA and discusses some of the SLAC experiences in doing so. 13 figs

  2. Oil and gas operational and policy issues in the UK

    Howard, D.

    1992-01-01

    The method of arriving at monthly values under Schedule 3 OTA 1975 applies to all oil which can include LPG and condensate as well as crude oil and gas. The majority of crude oil is now sold spot and in 1987 the method of arriving at monthly values was amended better to reflect this aspect of the crude oil market. The UK gas market was such that the proceeds of sale of large amounts of natural gas were exempt from PRT under Section 10 OTA 1975 and very little gas was disposed of other than at arms length to British Gas. British Gas no longer buys virtually all gas produced from the UK Continental Shelf and neither does it sell all the gas used by UK customers. The use of natural gas to generate electricity has opened up a new market for UK landed gas. How do these changes affect gas valuation.?. (Author)

  3. Operational modeling of a sustainable gas supply chain

    Bekkering, Jan; Broekhuis, A. A.; van Gemert, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Biogas production from codigestion of cattle manure and biomass can have a significant contribution to a sustainable gas supply when this gas is upgraded to specifications prescribed for injection into the national gas grid and injected into this grid. In this study, we analyzed such a gas supply

  4. Exploitation of humid air latent heat by means of solar assisted heat pumps operating below the dew point

    Scarpa, Federico; Tagliafico, Luca A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The opportunity of humid air latent heat exploitation by DX-SAHP is investigated. • A set of experimental tests confirms this opportunity and quantifies it as relevant. • A parametric analysis is performed, via simulation, to deepen the subject. • The energy gain is relevant during both night and daytime. - Abstract: Nowadays, the exploitation of environmental exergy resources for heating purposes (solar energy, convection heat transfer from ambient air, moist air humidity condensation) by means of properly designed heat pump systems is a possible opportunity. In particular, the use of direct expansion solar assisted heat pumps (DX-SAHP) is investigated in this study, when a bare external plate (the solar collector) is kept at temperatures lower than the dew point temperature of ambient air, so that condensation takes place on it. The potential of this technology is settled and an instrumented prototype of a small DX-SAHP system is used to verify the actual performance of the system, in terms of specific thermal energy delivered to the user, efficiency and regulation capabilities. Results clearly show that the contribution of the condensation is significant (20%–30% of the total harvested energy) overnight or in cloudy days with very low or no solar irradiation, and must be taken into account in a system model devoted to describe the DX-SAHP behavior. During daytime, the percentage gain decreases but is still consistent. By investigating along these lines, the heat due to condensation harvested by the collector is found to be a function of the dew-point temperature alone.

  5. Redefining Exploitation

    Agarwala, Rina

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how self-employed workers are organizing in the garments and waste collection industries in India. Although the question of who is profiting from self-employed workers’ labor is complex, the cases outlined in this paper highlight telling instances of how some self......-employed workers are organizing as workers. They are fighting labor exploitation by redefining the concept to include additional exploitation axes (from the state and middle class) and forms (including sexual). In doing so, they are redefining potential solutions, including identities and material benefits, to fit...... their unique needs. By expanding the category of “workers” beyond those defined by a narrow focus on a standard employer-employee relationship, these movements are also fighting exclusion from earlier labor protections by increasing the number of entitled beneficiaries. These struggles provide an important...

  6. The dilemma of contact: voluntary isolation and the impacts of gas exploitation on health and rights in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve, Peruvian Amazon

    Napolitano, Dora A; Ryan, Aliya S S

    2007-01-01

    Many small groups of indigenous peoples in the Amazon basin avoid and resist direct encounters with outsiders. As far as we know, they do so because of appalling experiences in earlier encounters with national society. When contacted today, they are extremely vulnerable to introduced diseases and exploitation. In this paper we draw on our experience in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve for isolated peoples in SE Peru to discuss some of the current debates about whether isolated peoples should be contacted and how best to respect their right to life, health, autonomy and territory. The remote headwater regions where isolated peoples sought refuge during the last century are increasingly sought after for resource extraction. In particular, the extraction of oil and gas is increasing throughout the Peruvian Amazon. In the second part of the paper we give some examples of how oil/gas companies and the energy sector in Peru have affected the well-being of the peoples in this reserve in the 21st century. If this trend is not reversed the impacts for isolated peoples will be irreparable

  7. The dilemma of contact: voluntary isolation and the impacts of gas exploitation on health and rights in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve, Peruvian Amazon

    Napolitano, Dora A.; Ryan, Aliya S. S.

    2007-10-01

    Many small groups of indigenous peoples in the Amazon basin avoid and resist direct encounters with outsiders. As far as we know, they do so because of appalling experiences in earlier encounters with national society. When contacted today, they are extremely vulnerable to introduced diseases and exploitation. In this paper we draw on our experience in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve for isolated peoples in SE Peru to discuss some of the current debates about whether isolated peoples should be contacted and how best to respect their right to life, health, autonomy and territory. The remote headwater regions where isolated peoples sought refuge during the last century are increasingly sought after for resource extraction. In particular, the extraction of oil and gas is increasing throughout the Peruvian Amazon. In the second part of the paper we give some examples of how oil/gas companies and the energy sector in Peru have affected the well-being of the peoples in this reserve in the 21st century. If this trend is not reversed the impacts for isolated peoples will be irreparable.

  8. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management.

    Ning An

    Full Text Available Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices-BMPs helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield. Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double

  9. CO and PAH emissions from engines operating on producer gas

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. The standing regulations concerning CO emissions from gas engine based power plants in most EU countries are so ...

  10. British Gas marks progress in drive for global operations

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that British Gas plc, London, is driving to boost the share of its business that comes form outside the U.K. Non-U.K. activities accounted for about 10% of the company's business last year. By the turn of the century earnings form British Gas's non-U.K. exploration and production activities are expected to be about in line with those form the U.K. core business. In addition, the company's global gas business unit-acquisitions, sales, of British Gas technology worldwide, and power generation form gas-will contribute significantly to overseas earnings

  11. The specifics of operating minor deposits (as given by the examples of gas condensate deposits of the Northern Caucasus

    Р. А. Гасумов

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important directions in upgrading well productivity in the process of mining hydrocarbons consists in fighting with salt formation and salt deposition. Solving that problem becomes especially actual when operating deposits that are in their final stage of exploitation in complex mining and geological conditions accompanied by deposition of salts in the well foot area of oil bed and their sedimentation on the sub-surface and surface equipment. It provokes a drop in well productivity and results in off-schedule repair works. Specifics are considered of exploiting minor gas condensate deposits of the Northern Caucasus that are operated under complicated mining and geological conditions of anomalously high bed pressures, high temperatures, strong depressions on the beds and inflow of mineralized water from water saturated seams.Processes are studied of salt deposition from heavy hydrocarbons in the well foot and the bed area surrounding it. Water sample analyses data from different wells have demonstrated that the main salts carrier is the associated water, and the principal sedimenting agents are corrosion products, as confirmed by the results of microscopic studies. The dynamics is presented of salt deposition in the “well foot – wellhead – separator” system retrieved from the results of studies of reaction products in the well foot zone of oil bed.It is demonstrated that the efficiency of struggling with salt deposition in the course of mining hydrocarbons depends on comprehensive approach to the problem, the principal thrust lying with prevention of such deposition.Possible ways are considered to prevent precipitation of ferric compounds in the course of operating gas condensate wells, a way is suggested to intensify gas inflow.

  12. Transport Properties of operational gas mixtures used at LHC

    Assran, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes some useful data on the transport characteristics of gas mixtures which are required for detection of charged particles in gas detectors. We try to replace Freon used for RPC detector in the CMS experiment with another gas while maintaining the good properties of the Freon gas mixture unchanged. We try to switch to freonless gas mixture because Freon is not a green gas, it is very expensive and its availability is decreasing. Noble gases like Ar, He, Ne and Xe (with some quenchers like carbon dioxide, methane, ethane and isobutene) are investigated. Transport parameters like drift velocity, diffusion, Townsend coefficient, attachment coefficient and Lorentz angle are computed using Garfield software for different gas mixtures and compared with experimental data.

  13. Fission gas release in LWR fuel measured during nuclear operation

    Appelhans, A.D.; Skattum, E.; Osetek, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    A series of fuel behavior experiments are being conducted in the Heavy Boiling Water Reactor in Halden, Norway, to measure the release of Xe, Kr, and I fission products from typical light water reactor design fuel pellets. Helium gas is used to sweep the Xe and Kr fission gases out of two of the Instrumented Fuel Assembly 430 fuel rods and to a gamma spectrometer. The measurements of Xe and Kr are made during nuclear operation at steady state power, and for 135 I following reactor scram. The first experiments were conducted at a burnup of 3000 MWd/t UO 2 , at bulk average fuel temperatures of approx. 850 K and approx. 23 kW/m rod power. The measured release-to-birth ratios (R/B) of Xe and Kr are of the same magnitude as those observed in small UO 2 specimen experiments, when normalized to the estimated fuel surface-to-volume ratio. Preliminary analysis indicates that the release-to-birth ratios can be calculated, using diffusion coefficients determined from small specimen data, to within a factor of approx. 2 for the IFA-430 fuel. The release rate of 135 I is shown to be approximately equal to that of 135 Xe

  14. The JET gas baking plant for DT operation and analysis of tritium permeation and baking gas activation in DTE1

    Pearce, R.J.H.; Andrew, P.; Bryan, S.; Hemmrich, J.L. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    The JET gas baking plant allows the vacuum vessel to be heated for conditioning and plasma operations. The vessel was maintained at 320 deg. C for the JET DT experiments (DTE 1). The design of the plant is outlined with particular reference to the features to provide compatibility with tritium operations. The experience of baking gas activation and tritium permeation into the plant are given, Developmentsto reduce the tritium permeation out of the vessel are considered. (authors)

  15. The technology for lifting of liquid during the development and exploitation of gas wells in tubing string of big diameters; La technologie pour l'elevation du liquide pendant la mise en valeur et l'exploitation des gisements a gaz par tubing de grand diametre

    Chouliatikov, I.V.; Sidorov, S.N.; Sidorova, S.A.; Chouliatikov, V.I. [OAO ' ' Gazprom' ' , VNIIGAZ (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    A new direction of effective removing liquid from the gas wells and improving of traditional gas-lift technologies for oil wells considered in this report. This direction merges the advantages of traditional methods such as gas-lift, plunger lift and swabbing, and it wide the range of application. Such a technology importantly decreases capital costs to installing wellhead and submerged equipment (it does not require the stopping of a well, trip and special conversion of tubing). It is ecology safe and does require minimal exploitation costs. A new technology derived a name - 'Combigaslift'. Combigaslift is the process of lilting of liquid from wells, in which it occurs by gas is been moving non-hermetic plunger-valve divider by wire and hoist. During a heaving a gas upflow does not allow to drain liquid under the divider. Tests of Combigaslift were made in gas and oil wells of different diameters. (author)

  16. Structure and operation of the natural gas market in France

    2007-01-01

    The French natural gas market is organized around six main activities: production, transport, methane terminals, storage, distribution and commercialization. This paper describes the facilities related to each activity: gas fields, pipelines network and distribution systems, terminals capacity and underground storage facilities. The selling activity is opened to competition but the French gas market follows a progressive and controlled opening which will be complete in July 2007. (J.S.)

  17. Advances in operations research in the oil and gas industry

    Breton, M.; Zaccour, G.

    1991-01-01

    Various theories and examples of modelling, forecasting and optimization designing in the different parts of the petroleum and gas industries are presented, stochastic programming for long term planning in the refining industry, stochastic model for gasoline blending, feedstock optimization, location and sizing for offshore platforms, hydrocarbon exploration simulation rapid method, valuation of oil field development leases, economic models for petroleum allocation, models for oil supply market, trade embargo game theory, stochastic programming of gas contract portfolio management, scheduling transportation of oil and gas, strategic planning in an oil pipeline company, simulation of offshore oil terminal systems, hierarchical selection of oil and gas distribution systems

  18. Shale gas, a hazardous exploitation

    Maincent, G.

    2011-01-01

    In march 2010 three authorizations to search for shale gases were delivered in France in the regions of Montelimar, Nant and Villeneuve-de-Berg. A general public outcry has led the government to freeze the projects till a complete assessment of the impact on the environment is made. The fears of the public are based on the feedback experience in the Usa where some underground waters were polluted. The source of pollution is twofold: first the additives used in the injected fluids (methanol as an anti-microbic agent, hydrochloric acid to dissolve natural cements or glycol ethylene as a deposit inhibitor) and secondly metal particles of copper, zinc or lead trapped in the clay layers and released by the injection of the fluids. It appears also that the injection of high pressure fluids near a crack can induce earth tremors by reactivating the crack. (A.C.)

  19. Surface damage mitigation of TC4 alloy via micro arc oxidation for oil and gas exploitation application: Characterizations of microstructure and evaluations on surface performance

    Xie, Ruizhen; Lin, Naiming; Zhou, Peng; Zou, Jiaojuan; Han, Pengju; Wang, Zhihua; Tang, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Because of its excellent corrosion resistance, high specific strength and high tensile strength, TC4 titanium alloys used as petroleum tubes have received wide interest from material engineers after many technical investigations and estimations. However, because of its low surface hardness values, high coefficient of friction and poor wear resistance, the TC4 alloy is seldom adopted in tribological-related engineering components. In this work, micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coatings were fabricated on TC4 alloys in NaAlO2 and (NaPO3)6 electrolytes with and without ultrasonic assistance. The microstructural characterizations of the produced MAO coatings were investigated. Comparative estimations of electrochemical corrosion in CO2-saturated simulated oilfield brine and tribological behaviours on MAO coatings and TC4 alloys were conducted. The results showed that the introduction of ultrasound increased the thickness of the MAO coatings. The thickness increased by 34% and 15% in the NaAlO2 and (NaPO3)6 electrolytes, respectively. There was no significant discrepancy in phase constitutions when the MAO processes were conducted with and without ultrasonic assistance. Both MAO coatings obtained with and without ultrasonic assistance were found to improve the corrosion and wear resistance of the TC4 alloy. MAO treatments made it possible to ensure the working surface of a TC4 alloy with an enhanced surface performance for oil and gas exploitation applications.

  20. Gas-liquid reactor / separator: dynamics and operability characteristics

    Ranade, V.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, Geert

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive mathematical model is developed to simulate gas¿liquid reactor in which both, reactants as well as products enter or leave the reactor in gas phase while the reactions take place in liquid phase. A case of first-order reaction (isothermal) was investigated in detail using the dynamic

  1. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Hagen, Christopher L.; Babbitt, Guy; Turner, Christopher; Echter, Nick; Weyer-Geigel, Kristina

    2016-04-19

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a system for compressing a gas comprises a reciprocating internal combustion engine including at least one piston-cylinder assembly comprising a piston configured to travel in a cylinder and to compress gas in the cylinder in multiple compression stages. The system can further comprise a first pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the first pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure, and a second pressure tank in fluid communication with the piston-cylinder assembly and the first pressure tank. The second pressure tank can be configured to receive compressed gas from the piston-cylinder assembly until the second pressure tank reaches a predetermined pressure. When the first and second pressure tanks have reached the predetermined pressures, the first pressure tank can be configured to supply gas to the piston-cylinder assembly, and the piston can be configured to compress the gas supplied by the first pressure tank such that the compressed gas flows into the second pressure tank.

  2. Petroleum refining. 5, refinery operation and management; Le raffinage du petrole. 5. Exploitation et gestion de la raffinerie

    Favennec, J.P. (ed.)

    2001-07-01

    In this volume, the reader will find: an analysis of the refining industry's current environment and economics, including the importance of crude oil, the demand for petroleum products, markets and price setting mechanisms for crude oil and oil products, refining costs and margins, the evolution of the refining capacity and of constraints on the industry; a review of the tools available for optimising and controlling operations; an explanation of material balance management and a description of refinery management and organisation. Contents: I. Background to refining. 1. Oil and Energy. 2. Petroleum products applications, characteristics, markets. 3. International oil markets. 4. Refining: a technical summary investments, margins, costs probable future developments. II. Refining tools. 5. Introduction to linear programming as used in the refining industry. 6. Application of linear programming to refining. 7. Automation, process control and information technology. 8. Applications and their implementation. III. Management and organisation. 9. Management and optimisation of refinery operations. 10. Logistics: transport and dispatch. 11. Functional and organisational analysis. 12. Managerial aspects. Glossary. Index. (author)

  3. Problems in operation of gas-oil condensate fields

    Zheltov, Yu V; Martos, V N

    1966-12-01

    This is a review of various methods used to deplete gas-oil condensate reservoirs. Four depletion techniques are discussed: (1) natural depletion without injection of fluids into the reservoir; (2) depletion accompanied by gas cycling; (3) depletion in which the gas cap is separated from the oil by water injected into the reservoir, a method in which each part of the reservoir is produced essentially independently of the other; and (4) depletion in which reservoir temperature is raised above the cricondentherm point by in-situ combustion, so that gas and oil form a single phase. This method is prospective, and has not been tried in the field. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. It is concluded that a gas condensate reservoir can be depleted most economically only if some secondary energy is added. (13 refs.)

  4. Combustible gas concentration control facility and operation method therefor

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Yamanari, Shozo; Moriya, Kimiaki; Karasawa, Hidetoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a hydrogen gas-control facility by using a fuel battery-type combustible gas concentration reducing device as a countermeasure for controlling a hydrogen gas in a reactor container. Namely, a hydrogen electrode adsorb hydrogen by using an ion exchange membrane comprising hydrogen ions as a charge carrier. An air electrode adsorb oxygen in the air. A fuel battery converts recombining energy of hydrogen and oxygen to electric energy. Hydrogen in this case is supplied from an atmosphere in the container. Oxygen in this case is supplied from the air outside of the container. If hydrogen gas should be generated in the reactor, power generation of is performed by the fuel battery by using hydrogen gas, as a fuel, on the side of the hydrogen electrode of the fuel battery and using oxygen, as a fuel, in the air outside of the container on the side of the air electrode. Then, the hydrogen gas is consumed thereby controlling the hydrogen gas concentration in the container. Electric current generated in the fuel battery is used as an emergency power source for the countermeasure for a severe accident. (I.S.)

  5. Combustible gas concentration control facility and operation method therefor

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Yamanari, Shozo; Moriya, Kimiaki; Karasawa, Hidetoshi

    1998-09-25

    The present invention provides a hydrogen gas-control facility by using a fuel battery-type combustible gas concentration reducing device as a countermeasure for controlling a hydrogen gas in a reactor container. Namely, a hydrogen electrode adsorb hydrogen by using an ion exchange membrane comprising hydrogen ions as a charge carrier. An air electrode adsorb oxygen in the air. A fuel battery converts recombining energy of hydrogen and oxygen to electric energy. Hydrogen in this case is supplied from an atmosphere in the container. Oxygen in this case is supplied from the air outside of the container. If hydrogen gas should be generated in the reactor, power generation of is performed by the fuel battery by using hydrogen gas, as a fuel, on the side of the hydrogen electrode of the fuel battery and using oxygen, as a fuel, in the air outside of the container on the side of the air electrode. Then, the hydrogen gas is consumed thereby controlling the hydrogen gas concentration in the container. Electric current generated in the fuel battery is used as an emergency power source for the countermeasure for a severe accident. (I.S.)

  6. Development and operation of Northern Natural's aquifer gas storage reservoirs

    Martinson, E V

    1969-01-01

    There are no depleted (or nondepleted) oil and gas fields in Northern Natural Gas Co.'s market area. Consequently, when the search was started for a possible underground field, the company had to resort to the possibility of locating a water-filled, porous-rock formation (aquifer) in a geological structure which would form a suitable trap for gas storage. Geological research and exploratory drilling was carried on in S. Minnesota, E. Nebraska, and W.-central Iowa. An area located about 40 miles northwest of Des Moines, Iowa, near Redfield, appeared to have the most desirable characteristics for development of a gas-storage field. Drilling of deep developmental wells was started in late 1953 on a double- plunging anticline. The geological structure is similar to that of many oil and gas fields, but the porous formations contained only fresh water. To date, 2 major reservoirs and a minor reservoir have been developed in this structure. As much as 120 billion cu ft has been stored in the 3 reservoirs which supplied 43 billion cu ft gas withdrawals this past season from a total of 85 wells. A second aquifer gas-storage field is under development in N.-central Iowa about 15 miles northeast of Ft. Dodge.

  7. Coordinated Operation of the Electricity and Natural Gas Systems with Bi-directional Energy Conversion

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated operation of the natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables. This work focuses on the unified optimal operation of the integrated natural gas and electricity system considering the network...

  8. Powering oil and gas offshore operations from mainland eletrical grid

    Maeland, Asmund; Chokhawala, Rahul S.

    2010-09-15

    This paper describes principal power from shore (PFS) technologies available today, highlights their key attributes, and discusses cost-benefit aspects of these emerging solutions in comparison to decades of gas turbines generation offshore.

  9. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Hagen, Christopher; Babbitt, Guy

    2016-12-27

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a method is featured which includes placing a first cylinder of an internal combustion engine in a compressor mode, and compressing a gas within the first cylinder, using the cylinder as a reciprocating compressor. In some embodiments a compression check valve system is used to regulate pressure and flow within cylinders of the engine during a compression process.

  10. Experimental investigations on a common centrifugal pump operating under gas entrainment conditions

    Schäfer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.schaefer@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (Germany); Neumann, Martin [Technische Universität Dresden, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering (Germany); Bieberle, André [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (Germany); Hampel, Uwe [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions. • The gas entraining flow regime has a large impact on the pump performance. • High-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) has been applied. • Gas holdup inside the operating impeller has been visualized and quantified. • Gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of additional gas entrainment in centrifugal pumps designed for conveying liquid phases only. The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions, and for various operational settings of the pump, such as its alignment and the rotational speed of the impeller. As a main performance indicator the impact of entrained gas on the hydraulic power of the pump has been analyzed using experimental data. Additionally, high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) operated in time-averaged rotation-synchronized scanning mode has been applied to quantify local phase fraction distributions inside the rapidly rotating pump impeller. Based on these quantitative tomographic measurements, gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated and gas accumulation areas inside the impeller chambers have been visualized. Thus, various internally accumulated gas holdup patterns have been identified and, eventually, associated with characteristic pump performance behaviors. Moreover, the tomographic measuring method allowed an enhanced gas holdup analysis in specified pump compartments. As a result, the related specific gas and liquid phase holdup profiles have been evaluated.

  11. Experimental investigations on a common centrifugal pump operating under gas entrainment conditions

    Schäfer, Thomas; Neumann, Martin; Bieberle, André; Hampel, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions. • The gas entraining flow regime has a large impact on the pump performance. • High-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) has been applied. • Gas holdup inside the operating impeller has been visualized and quantified. • Gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of additional gas entrainment in centrifugal pumps designed for conveying liquid phases only. The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions, and for various operational settings of the pump, such as its alignment and the rotational speed of the impeller. As a main performance indicator the impact of entrained gas on the hydraulic power of the pump has been analyzed using experimental data. Additionally, high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) operated in time-averaged rotation-synchronized scanning mode has been applied to quantify local phase fraction distributions inside the rapidly rotating pump impeller. Based on these quantitative tomographic measurements, gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated and gas accumulation areas inside the impeller chambers have been visualized. Thus, various internally accumulated gas holdup patterns have been identified and, eventually, associated with characteristic pump performance behaviors. Moreover, the tomographic measuring method allowed an enhanced gas holdup analysis in specified pump compartments. As a result, the related specific gas and liquid phase holdup profiles have been evaluated.

  12. The influence of variable operating conditions on the design and exploitation of fly ash pneumatic transport systems in thermal power plants

    M. Stanojević

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an air-slide pneumatic conveying system depends, first of all, on several basic elements chosen or calculated during the design of a plant: air-slide design parameters, air mover characteristics, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the material to be transported. However, during the exploitation of this type of system which is used for handling ash in thermal-power plants, either gradual and/or sudden changes in the operating conditions can arise. This may be due to changes both in the proportion of ash content, and in the flow characteristics of the porous membrane. The consequences of changes in these conditions on the performance of the ash handling system are analyzed, based upon the results of the experimental work carried out on the test rig at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade, and upon the on-site measurements at the thermal-power plant "Nikola Tesla B".

  13. Maximization of Egyptian Gas Oil Production Through the Optimal Use of the Operating Parameters

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Gas oil is the major fossil fuel consumed around the world. Global gas oil consumption is rising at a steadily fast pace because of its higher combustion efficiency (versus gasoline). The annual increase rate of gas oil consumption in Egypt is 7 % whereas, the world increase rates range from 1.5 % to 2 % . The main sources for producing gas oil in Egypt refiners is the direct production from the atmospheric distillation process units or it may be produced as a side product from vacuum distillation units . Gas oil is produced through hydrocracking process of vacuum distillation side streams and heavy cocked gas oil. Gas oil production yield can be increased through the existing operation process units. Modifications of the current atmospheric and vacuum tower operations will increase gas oil yield rates to 20 % more than the existing production rates. The modification of the operating conditions and adoption of the optimum catalyst of the existing hydrocracking and mild hydro cracking process units improve gas oil production yield. Operating delayed cocker at high temperatures, low pressure and low cycle ratio also support achieving the maximization of gas oil yield

  14. Operation of gas electron multiplier (GEM) with propane gas at low pressure and comparison with tissue-equivalent gas mixtures

    De Nardo, L., E-mail: laura.denardo@unipd.it [University of Padova, Physics and Astronomy Department and PD-INFN, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Farahmand, M., E-mail: majid.farahmand@rivm.nl [Centre for Environmental Safety and Security, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2016-05-21

    A Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), based on a single GEM foil of standard geometry, has been tested with pure propane gas at low pressure, in order to simulate a tissue site of about 1 µm equivalent size. In this work, the performance of GEM with propane gas at a pressure of 21 and 28 kPa will be presented. The effective gas gain was measured in various conditions using a {sup 244}Cm alpha source. The dependence of effective gain on the electric field strength along the GEM channel and in the drift and induction region was investigated. A maximum effective gain of about 5×10{sup 3} has been reached. Results obtained in pure propane gas are compared with gas gain measurements in gas mixtures commonly employed in microdosimetry, that is propane and methane based Tissue-Equivalent gas mixtures.

  15. OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS OF CATALYTIC CLEANING OF GAS FROM BIOMASS GASIFICATION

    Martin Lisý

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the theoretical description of the cleaning of syngas from biomass and waste gasification using catalytic methods, and on the verification of the theory through experiments. The main obstruction to using syngas from fluid gasification of organic matter is the presence of various high-boiling point hydrocarbons (i.e., tar in the gas. The elimination of tar from the gas is a key factor in subsequent use of the gas in other technologies for cogeneration of electrical energy and heat. The application of a natural or artificial catalyst for catalytic destruction of tar is one of the methods of secondary elimination of tar from syngas. In our experiments, we used a natural catalyst (dolomite or calcium magnesium carbonate from Horní Lánov with great mechanical and catalytic properties, suitable for our purposes. The advantages of natural catalysts in contrast to artificial catalysts include their availability, low purchase prices and higher resilience to the so-called catalyst poison. Natural calcium catalysts may also capture undesired compounds of sulphure and chlorine. Our paper presents a theoretical description and analysis of catalytic destruction of tar into combustible gas components, and of the impact of dolomite calcination on its efficiency. The efficiency of the technology is verified in laboratories. The facility used for verification was a 150 kW pilot gasification unit with a laboratory catalytic filter. The efficiency of tar elimination reached 99.5%, the tar concentration complied with limits for use of the gas in combustion engines, and the tar content reached approximately 35 mg/mn3. The results of the measurements conducted in laboratories helped us design a pilot technology for catalytic gas cleaning.

  16. OPERATION COBRA. Deliberate Attack, Exploitation

    1984-05-25

    to attack Sens, then continue to Troyes , on the Seine River. CCA was in the north, crossing the Loing River at Souppes against light resistance and...advanced from Troyes and prepared positions close to Sens. Under strong artillery support, a task force from CCA (TF Oden) attacked the enemy frontally...movement towards the Seine River on 24 August with an advance toward Troyes . Facing the combat command were what remained of the 51st SS Brigade, light

  17. Operational monitoring and forecasting of bathing water quality through exploiting satellite Earth observation and models: The AlgaRisk demonstration service

    Shutler, J. D.; Warren, M. A.; Miller, P. I.; Barciela, R.; Mahdon, R.; Land, P. E.; Edwards, K.; Wither, A.; Jonas, P.; Murdoch, N.; Roast, S. D.; Clements, O.; Kurekin, A.

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones and shelf-seas are important for tourism, commercial fishing and aquaculture. As a result the importance of good water quality within these regions to support life is recognised worldwide and a number of international directives for monitoring them now exist. This paper describes the AlgaRisk water quality monitoring demonstration service that was developed and operated for the UK Environment Agency in response to the microbiological monitoring needs within the revised European Union Bathing Waters Directive. The AlgaRisk approach used satellite Earth observation to provide a near-real time monitoring of microbiological water quality and a series of nested operational models (atmospheric and hydrodynamic-ecosystem) provided a forecast capability. For the period of the demonstration service (2008-2013) all monitoring and forecast datasets were processed in near-real time on a daily basis and disseminated through a dedicated web portal, with extracted data automatically emailed to agency staff. Near-real time data processing was achieved using a series of supercomputers and an Open Grid approach. The novel web portal and java-based viewer enabled users to visualise and interrogate current and historical data. The system description, the algorithms employed and example results focussing on a case study of an incidence of the harmful algal bloom Karenia mikimotoi are presented. Recommendations and the potential exploitation of web services for future water quality monitoring services are discussed.

  18. Operation of a TFTR ion source with a ground potential gas feed into the neutralizer

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Dudek, L.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Newman, R.A.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.; Wright, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    TFTR long pulse ion sources have been operated with gas fed only into the neutralizer. Gas for the plasma generator entered through the accelerator rather than directly into the arc chamber. This modification has been proposed for tritium beam operation to locate control electronics at ground potential and to simplify tritium plumbing. Source operation with this configuration and with the nominal gas system that feeds gas into both the ion source and the center of the neutralizer are compared. Comparison is based upon accelerator grid currents, beam composition, and neutral power delivered to the calorimeter. Charge exchange in the accelerator can be a significant loss mechanism in both systems at high throughput. A suitable operating point with the proposed system was found that requires 30% less gas than used presently. The extracted D + , D + 2 , and D + 3 fractions of the beam were found to be a function of the gas throughput; at similar throughputs, the two gas feed systems produced similar extracted ion fractions. Operation at the proposed gas efficient point results in a small reduction (relative to the old high throughput mode) in the extracted D + fraction of the beam from 77% to 71%, with concomitant changes in the D + 2 fraction from 18% to 26%, and 6% to 3% for D + 3 . The injected power is unchanged, ∼2.2 MW at 95 kV

  19. Mineral and surface issues in oil and gas operations

    Vasseur, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Farmers' Advocate Office was created in 1972 to help put Alberta mineral owners on an equal footing with the energy sector. Most mineral owners are at a disadvantage when dealing with the disposition of their minerals because they have little or no knowledge of what they own or what their surface rights are. This paper addresses key features of mineral leasing arrangements in Alberta and explains their potential impact. It also brings to the mineral owner's attention some specific problems and concerns including mineral rights, the lease agreement, signing considerations, length of leases, delayed production payment, drilling rental, royalties, and gas cost allowance. Issues regarding oil and gas production including shut-in wells, off-set clauses , drilling depth, taxes and prepayment for minerals are also discussed from the perspective of a mineral owner

  20. 78 FR 44900 - Communication of Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    2013-07-25

    ... Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System Operators (RTOs/ISOs) also noted that, although... operator from discussions between RTOs/ ISOs and natural gas pipelines regarding the status of a generator... not customers of electric transmission operators. Likewise, in the case of RTOs/ISOs, they are not...

  1. COMBINED CYCLE GAS TURBINE FOR THERMAL POWER STATIONS: EXPERIENCE IN DESIGNING AND OPERATION, PROSPECTS IN APPLICATION

    N. V. Karnitsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has reviewed main world tendencies in power consumption and power system structure. Main schemes of combined cycle gas turbines have been considered in the paper. The paper contains an operational analysis of CCGT blocks that are operating within the Belarusian energy system. The analysis results have been given in tables showing main operational indices of power blocks

  2. The Kaarstoe gas terminal during operation - regional economic effects

    Wiig, W.; Kristiansen, F.

    1995-02-01

    In the period 1981-1989 a comprehensive study was made of the impact on society of the establishment of Statoil's gas terminal at Kaarstoe, Norway. Some of this work is updated in the present report. The organization at Kaarstoe is Statoil's transport division for gas (GASS-T) and is described in Chapter 2. A survey is given in Chapter 3 of how the employees are associated with the local community, their distribution in age, sex and type of job. Chapter 4 treats the importance for the Haugesund region of the company's purchasing in the area, in particular from suppliers within the Tysvaer municipality. The development of the structure of industry in Tysvaer and the employment situation are described in Chapter 5. Population trends and housebuilding in Tysvaer are described in Chapter 6 and the impact of GASS-T on the municipal economy is described in Chapter 7. Finally, Chapter 8 discusses whether what is learned from Kaarstoe can be transferred to other regions where gas terminals have been established. 14 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs

  3. Operator training facilities for CEGB advanced gas cooled reactors

    Green, J.F.; Birnie, S.

    1980-01-01

    The facilities provided at the Nuclear Power Training Centre of the CEGB for the training of operators fo the AGR are described. The simulator control desks are replicas of three AGR designs with, in addition, simulation of the Data Processing System for each station. Three modes of operation are envisaged: a.) Demonstration where the simulator is used by the tutor to illustrate lecture on plant behaviour. b.) Interaction where the student carries out normal procedures and experiences plant failure situations. c.) Investigation where engineering staff use the simulator for validation of modified operational procedures, ergonomic studies etc. (orig./HP)

  4. Measuring the exhaust gas dew point of continuously operated combustion plants

    Fehler, D.

    1985-07-16

    Low waste-gas temperatures represent one means of minimizing the energy consumption of combustion facilities. However, condensation should be prevented to occur in the waste gas since this could result in a destruction of parts. Measuring the waste-gas dew point allows to control combustion parameters in such a way as to be able to operate at low temperatures without danger of condensation. Dew point sensors will provide an important signal for optimizing combustion facilities.

  5. Optimization of basic parameters of cyclic operation of underground gas storages

    Віктор Олександрович Заєць

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimization of process parameters of cyclic operation of underground gas storages in gas mode is determined in the article. The target function is defined, expressing necessary capacity of compressor station for gas injection in the storage. Its minimization will find the necessary technological parameters, such as flow and reservoir pressure change over time. Limitations and target function are reduced to a linear form. Solution of problems is made by the simplex method

  6. Helium turbomachinery operating experience from gas turbine power plants and test facilities

    McDonald, Colin F.

    2012-01-01

    The closed-cycle gas turbine, pioneered and deployed in Europe, is not well known in the USA. Since nuclear power plant studies currently being conducted in several countries involve the coupling of a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a helium closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion system, the experience gained from operated helium turbomachinery is the focus of this paper. A study done as early as 1945 foresaw the use of a helium closed-cycle gas turbine coupled with a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor, and some two decades later this was investigated but not implemented because of lack of technology readiness. However, the first practical use of helium as a gas turbine working fluid was recognized for cryogenic processes, and the first two small fossil-fired helium gas turbines to operate were in the USA for air liquefaction and nitrogen production facilities. In the 1970's a larger helium gas turbine plant and helium test facilities were built and operated in Germany to establish technology bases for a projected future high efficiency large nuclear gas turbine power plant concept. This review paper covers the experience gained, and the lessons learned from the operation of helium gas turbine plants and related test facilities, and puts these into perspective since over three decades have passed since they were deployed. An understanding of the many unexpected events encountered, and how the problems, some of them serious, were resolved is important to avoid them being replicated in future helium turbomachines. The valuable lessons learned in the past, in many cases the hard way, particularly from the operation in Germany of the Oberhausen II 50 MWe helium gas turbine plant, and the technical know-how gained from the formidable HHV helium turbine test facility, are viewed as being germane in the context of current helium turbomachine design work being done for future high efficiency nuclear gas turbine plant concepts. - Highlights:

  7. 78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange...

    2013-12-11

    ... Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waterfront facility handling and storing Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) at its Orange, Texas facility. The... LHG marine traffic in the associated waterway. INVISTA, S.a.r.l. located in Orange, Texas submitted an...

  8. Passivation of gas microstrip detectors and stability of long-term operation

    Salomon, M.; Armitage, J.; Chapman, G.; Dixit, M.; Dubeau, J.; Faszer, W.; Hamel, L.A.; Oakham, G.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the long-term operation of gas microstrip detectors which have been passivated with a layer of nickel oxide. We have used as the active gas CF 4 /isobutane (80 : 20) and three different types of substrates: Tedlar, glass and Upilex. In all three cases we found that the detectors are stable after passivation and can operate for a month without changes in gain at rates of MHz. The total accumulated charge was approximately 100 mC. ((orig.))

  9. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Shaina L Stacy

    Full Text Available Unconventional gas drilling (UGD has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA and prematurity regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63. While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  10. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Stacy, Shaina L; Brink, LuAnn L; Larkin, Jacob C; Sadovsky, Yoel; Goldstein, Bernard D; Pitt, Bruce R; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional gas drilling (UGD) has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW) well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile) had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile) had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight) or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA) and prematurity) regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g) and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63). While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  11. The influence of variable operating conditions on the design and exploitation of fly ash pneumatic transport systems in thermal power plants

    Stanojevic, M.; Radic, D.; Jovovic, A. (and others) [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Processing Engineering

    2008-10-15

    The efficiency of an air-slide pneumatic conveying system depends, first of all, on several basic elements chosen or calculated during the design of a plant: air-slide design parameters, air mover characteristics, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the material to be transported. However, during the exploitation of this type of system which is used for handling ash in thermal-power plants, either gradual and/or sudden changes in the operating conditions can arise. This may be due to changes both in the proportion of ash content and in the flow characteristics of the porous membrane. The consequences of changes in these conditions on the performance of the ash handling system are analyzed, based upon the results of the experimental work carried out on the test rig at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Belgrade, and upon the on-site measurements at the thermal-power plant 'Nikola Tesla B'. 5 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Analysis of ideal sorption compressor cycles operating with gas mixtures

    Tzabar, N.; ter Brake, H.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Sorption-based compressors are thermally driven and because of the absence of moving parts they are vibration free, and have the potential for long life. Sorption-based compressors have been reported to operate Joule–Thomson (JT) cryogenic coolers with pure working fluids. However, using mixed

  13. Implementing process safety management in gas processing operations

    Rodman, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard entitled Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Explosives and Blasting Agents was finalized February 24, 1992. The purpose of the standard is to prevent or minimize consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, flammable, or explosive chemicals. OSHA believes that its rule will accomplish this goal by requiring a comprehensive management program that integrates technologies, procedures, and management practices. Gas Processors Association (GPA) member companies are significantly impacted by this major standard, the requirements of which are extensive and complex. The purpose of this paper is to review the requirements of the standard and to discuss the elements to consider in developing and implementing a viable long term Process Safety Management Program

  14. Optimising gas pipeline operation - factors to consider in selecting flow measurement technology; Gas flow measurement

    Fromm, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Multipath ultrasonic transit-time flow meters (UFM) have been employed in the gas industries for many years. Since their inception in the early seventies, advancements in the technology have been made with regard to available configurations, electronics offered and sensor design. Today, UFMs have proven to be reliable, versatile and capable of meeting the demands of the gas markets. It is clear that various UFM technologies have different advantages with regards to design and application use, which ultimately makes one more appropriate than the other. (Author)

  15. Natural gas distribution operation and maintenance dissemination project Kaunas City, Lithuania. Final report

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The main objective of this project has been to disseminate the results and experiences achieved during the former projects in Kaunas to other Lithuanian gas companies and the gas sector in general. Also new subjects selected in co-operation with Kaunas Gas Company, the Lithuanian Energy Institute and the Lithuanian Gas Training Centre, where improvements were required, have been implemented. The components of the project were the following: (1) A training course in cathodic protection. One course concerning measuring and registration and one course concerning design and implementation. (2) A pilot project to develop methods for measuring cathodic protection on coherent steel pipe network. (3) Analysis of gas losses related to types of gas meters and calibration of meters. (4) A training course and technology transfer concerning relations between gas companies and consumers. (5) Dissemination of the experience of 1998 from the preparation of an operation and maintenance manual for Kaunas Gas Company. Dissemination of the ideas to other Lithuanian gas companies. (EHS)

  16. Probabilistic Steady-State Operation and Interaction Analysis of Integrated Electricity, Gas and Heating Systems

    Lun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The existing studies on probabilistic steady-state analysis of integrated energy systems (IES are limited to integrated electricity and gas networks or integrated electricity and heating networks. This paper proposes a probabilistic steady-state analysis of integrated electricity, gas and heating networks (EGH-IES. Four typical operation modes of an EGH-IES are presented at first. The probabilistic energy flow problem of the EGS-IES considering its operation modes and correlated uncertainties in wind/solar power and electricity/gas/heat loads is then formulated and solved by the Monte Carlo method based on Latin hypercube sampling and Nataf transformation. Numerical simulations are conducted on a sample EGH-IES working in the “electricity/gas following heat” mode to verify the probabilistic analysis proposed in this paper and to study the effects of uncertainties and correlations on the operation of the EGH-IES, especially uncertainty transmissions among the subnetworks.

  17. Relaxation and gas drainage boreholes for high performance longwall operations in low permeability coal seams

    Imgrund, Thomas [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Essen (Germany); Bauer, Frank [Hazemag und EPR GmbH, Duelmen (Germany). Mining

    2013-06-15

    With an increasing depth of cover, gas emission control and gas outbursts prevention has become an increasingly important issue in coal mining. Deep multi-seam mining often requires operation in an environment characterised by a high gas content and gas pressure. Control of gas related risks has to be realised during heading and close to the longwall by proper risk assessment and flexible drilling schemes. These cover exploration and relaxation drilling, in-seam drilling for pre-drainage and cross measure drilling for drainage of roof and the floor gas emissions. DMT provides comprehensive solutions based on a scientific background. These solutions are engineered considering their technical feasibility. Hazemag Mining offers a large number of complete machinery including tools systems for the implementation of those solutions. (orig.)

  18. Natural gas domestic market development for total elimination of routine flares in Nigeria's upstream petroleum operations

    Sonibare, J.A.; Akeredolu, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Several research findings confirmed that gaseous emissions and thermal radiation emanate from flaring activities during separation of oil from gas in the petroleum upstream operations. This, coupled with identified degradation potential of flares, makes flaring of about 71 million m 3 /day of associated gas a great concern. In this paper, several efforts hitherto made by government and organized private sectors at monetizing associated natural gas being flared on daily basis in Nigeria were reviewed. Domestic market development, if adopted, could eliminate routine gas flaring by 2008, meeting a goal set by Nigerian Government. Various scenarios considered showed that relatively minor amounts of natural gas could be consumed domestically for cooking; the balance would be absorbed by thermal electricity generation. It could lead to total consumption of between 92 and 140 million m 3 /day of natural gas in the country, representing a fraction of the domestic energy market

  19. Landfill gas operation and maintenance manual of practice

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This manual has the following objectives: (1) compile and present key portions of the general body of knowledge about operating and maintaining LFG control systems; (2) present information in an easy to understand format useful for hands-on practical use in the field; (3) present accepted practices and procedures for LFG control practices; (4) highlight key points, common mistakes and lessons learned from more than 20 years of industry experience, point out areas of controversy and indicate alternative practices where applicable; (5) compile key reference information; and (6) provide theory and discussion needed to develop a deeper understanding of LFG control and recovery.

  20. Environmental effects of geothermal energy exploitation

    Nakamura, H [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd., Japan

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects of geothermal power generation which cause air and water pollution and destruction of natural areas are reviewed. The production of steam and hot water affect existing hot springs sources and can cause ground subsidence. Harmful gas can be released onto the atmosphere from fumarolic gas and hot springs. Hydrothermal geothermal fields occasionally contain harmful substances such as arsenic in the hot water. Serious environmental effects can result from geothermal exploitation activities such as the felling of trees for road construction, well drilling, and plant construction. Once geothermal power generation has begun, the release of H/sub 2/S into the atmosphere and the reinjection of hot water are conducted continuously and sufficient countermeasures can be taken. One problem is the effects of plant construction and operation on natural parks. It is important to reach a compromise between development and protection of natural senic areas. Two figures, two tables, and 13 references are provided.

  1. Test of freonless operation of resistive plate chambers with glass electrodes--1 mm gas gap vs 2 mm gas gap

    Sakaue, H; Takahashi, T; Teramoto, Y

    2002-01-01

    Non-freon gas mixtures (Ar/iso-C sub 4 H sub 1 sub 0) were tested as the chamber gas for 1 and 2 mm gas gap Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with float glass as the resistive electrodes, operated in the streamer mode. With the narrower (1 mm) gas gap, streamer charge is reduced (approx 1/3), which reduces the dead time (and dead area), associated with each streamer, improving the detection efficiency. The best performance was obtained for two cases: Ar/iso-C sub 4 H sub 1 sub 0 =50/50 and 60/40. For the 50/50 mixture, a detection efficiency of better than 98% was obtained for the 1 mm gap RPC, while the efficiency was 95% for the 2 mm gap RPC, each operated as a double-gap RPC. The measured time resolution (rms) was 1.45+-0.05 (2.52+-0.09) ns for the 1 (2) mm gap RPC for the 50/50 mixture.

  2. In-ground operation of Geothermic Fuel Cells for unconventional oil and gas recovery

    Sullivan, Neal; Anyenya, Gladys; Haun, Buddy; Daubenspeck, Mark; Bonadies, Joseph; Kerr, Rick; Fischer, Bernhard; Wright, Adam; Jones, Gerald; Li, Robert; Wall, Mark; Forbes, Alan; Savage, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents operating and performance characteristics of a nine-stack solid-oxide fuel cell combined-heat-and-power system. Integrated with a natural-gas fuel processor, air compressor, reactant-gas preheater, and diagnostics and control equipment, the system is designed for use in unconventional oil-and-gas processing. Termed a ;Geothermic Fuel Cell; (GFC), the heat liberated by the fuel cell during electricity generation is harnessed to process oil shale into high-quality crude oil and natural gas. The 1.5-kWe SOFC stacks are packaged within three-stack GFC modules. Three GFC modules are mechanically and electrically coupled to a reactant-gas preheater and installed within the earth. During operation, significant heat is conducted from the Geothermic Fuel Cell to the surrounding geology. The complete system was continuously operated on hydrogen and natural-gas fuels for ∼600 h. A quasi-steady operating point was established to favor heat generation (29.1 kWth) over electricity production (4.4 kWe). Thermodynamic analysis reveals a combined-heat-and-power efficiency of 55% at this condition. Heat flux to the geology averaged 3.2 kW m-1 across the 9-m length of the Geothermic Fuel Cell-preheater assembly. System performance is reviewed; some suggestions for improvement are proposed.

  3. Interactions between the Design and Operation of Shale Gas Networks, Including CO2 Sequestration

    Sharifzadeh Mahdi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for energy continues to increase, shale gas, as an unconventional source of methane (CH4, shows great potential for commercialization. However, due to the ultra-low permeability of shale gas reservoirs, special procedures such as horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, periodic well shut-in, and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection may be required in order to boost gas production, maximize economic benefits, and ensure safe and environmentally sound operation. Although intensive research is devoted to this emerging technology, many researchers have studied shale gas design and operational decisions only in isolation. In fact, these decisions are highly interactive and should be considered simultaneously. Therefore, the research question addressed in this study includes interactions between design and operational decisions. In this paper, we first establish a full-physics model for a shale gas reservoir. Next, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of important design and operational decisions such as well length, well arrangement, number of fractures, fracture distance, CO2 injection rate, and shut-in scheduling in order to gain in-depth insights into the complex behavior of shale gas networks. The results suggest that the case with the highest shale gas production may not necessarily be the most profitable design; and that drilling, fracturing, and CO2 injection have great impacts on the economic viability of this technology. In particular, due to the high costs, enhanced gas recovery (EGR using CO2 does not appear to be commercially competitive, unless tax abatements or subsidies are available for CO2 sequestration. It was also found that the interactions between design and operational decisions are significant and that these decisions should be optimized simultaneously.

  4. Capital and operating costs of irradiated natural uranium reprocessing plants; Couts d'investissement et d'exploitation des usines de retraitement de l'uranium naturel irradie

    Thiriet, L; Jouannaud, C; Couture, J; Duboz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Oger, C [Saint Gobain Nucleaire (France)

    1966-07-01

    This paper presents first a method of analysing natural uranium reprocessing plants investment costs (method similar to LANG and BACH well known in the fuel oil industry) and their operating costs (analysed according to their economic type). This method helps establishing standard cost structures for these plants, allowing thus comparisons between existing or planned industrial facilities. It also helps evaluating the foreseeable consequences of technical progress. Some results obtained are given, concerning: the investment costs sensitivity to the various technical parameters defining the fuel and their comparison according to the country or the economic area taken into account. Finally, the influence of the plants size on their investment costs is shown. (author) [French] La communication expose d'abord une methode d'analyse des couts d'investissement des usines de retraitement de l'uranium naturel irradie (inspiree de celles de LANG et de BACH, bien connues dans l'industrie petroliere) et de leurs couts d'exploitation (selon leur nature economique). Cette methode permet d'etablir des structures types de couts de ces usines et de comparer les realisations industrielles et les projets. Elle facilite l'exploration des consequences previsibles du progres technique. On indique un certain nombre de resultats obtenus, concernant la sensibilite des couts d'investissement de ces usines aux differents parametres techniques definissant le combustible et leur confrontation selon les pays ou aires economiques envisages. On montre enfin comment doit pouvoir s'exprimer l'influence de la taille des usines sur leur cout d'investissement. (auteur)

  5. Gas Reactor International Cooperative Program. Interim report. Construction and operating experience of selected European Gas-Cooled Reactors

    1978-09-01

    The construction and operating experience of selected European Gas-Cooled Reactors is summarized along with technical descriptions of the plants. Included in the report are the AVR Experimental Pebble Bed Reactor, the Dragon Reactor, AGR Reactors, and the Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR). The study demonstrates that the European experience has been favorable and forms a good foundation for the development of Advanced High Temperature Reactors

  6. Operation window and part-load performance study of a syngas fired gas turbine

    He, Fen; Li, Zheng; Liu, Pei; Ma, Linwei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-01-01

    Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) provides a great opportunity for clean utilization of coal while maintaining the advantage of high energy efficiency brought by gas turbines. A challenging problem arising from the integration of an existing gas turbine to an IGCC system is the performance change of the gas turbine due to the shift of fuel from natural gas to synthesis gas, or syngas, mainly consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Besides the change of base-load performance, which has been extensively studied, the change of part-load performance is also of great significance for the operation of a gas turbine and an IGCC plant. In this paper, a detailed mathematical model of a syngas fired gas turbine is developed to study its part-load performance. A baseline is firstly established using the part-load performance of a natural gas fired gas turbine, then the part-load performance of the gas turbine running with different compositions of syngas is investigated and compared with the baseline. Particularly, the impacts of the variable inlet guide vane, the degree of fuel dilution, and the degree of air bleed are investigated. Results indicate that insufficient cooling of turbine blades and a reduced compressor surge margin are the major factors that constrain the part-load performance of a syngas fired gas turbine. Results also show that air bleed from the compressor can greatly improve the working condition of a syngas fired gas turbine, especially for those fired with low lower heating value syngas. The regulating strategy of a syngas fired gas turbine should also be adjusted in accordance to the changes of part-load performance, and a reduced scope of constant TAT (turbine exhaust temperature) control mode is required.

  7. Operating Experience in Nuclear Power Plants with Boiling-Water Reactors; Experience acquise dans l'exploitation des reacteurs a eau bouillante; Opyt ehkspluatatsii kipyashchago reaktora; Experiencia adquirida con la explotacion de reactores de agua hirviente

    Ascherl, R. J. [General Electric Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1963-10-15

    radioactivity exposure considerations. Recent full-scale inspection and overhaul of the Dresden turbine provided no maintenance problems, after over 12 000 h of operation on direct-cycle steam and after operation with known failed fuel elements in the reactor. (author) [French] On a maintenant acquis une experience appreciable dans l'exploitation des centrales equipees de reacteurs a eau bouillante. Vers la fin de 1962, on avait produit plus de 2,2.10{sup 9} kWh dans trois centrales nucleaires rattachees a des reseaux de distribution: la centrale de Dresden (Commonwealth Edison Company, Morris, Illinois), la centrale de Vallecitos (Pacific Gas and Electric Company and General Electric Company, Pleasanton, Californie) et la centrale de Kahl (Rheinish-Westfaiisches Elektrizitatswerk et Bayemwerk, a Kahl-sur-le-Main, Republique federale d'Allemagne). Le rendement de ces reacteurs a eau bouillante, exploites dans les conditions normales de production d'electricite, est excellent. On peut donc s'attendre que les centrales a eau bouillante continueront d'etre sures, etant donne le facteur de disponibilite et le facteur de puissance des reacteurs et des installations de ce type. Au cours de 1963, quatre nouvelles centrales equipees de reacteurs a eau bouillante entreront en service: la centrale de Big Rock Point (Consumers Power Company, Charlevoix, Michigan), la centrale de Humboldt Bay (Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Eureka, Californie), la centrale de Garigliano (Societa Elettronucleare Nazionale, Scauri, Italie) et la centrale de demonstration japonaise (Institut de recherches nucleaires du Japon, Tokai Mura, Japon). Les resultats obtenus lors du demarrage et pendant le fonctionnement initial de ces installations confirment les espoirs suscites par les centrales de Dresden, Kahl et Vallecitos. Les journaux de marche des centrales de Dresden, Kahl et Vallecitos mettent en evidence la stabilite et la securite des reacteurs a eau bouillante. De plus, les niveaux de rayonnements

  8. Framework for Combined Diagnostics, Prognostics and Optimal Operation of a Subsea Gas Compression System

    Verheyleweghen, Adriaen; Jaeschke, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The efficient and safe operation of subsea gas and oil production systems sets strict requirements to equipment reliability to avoid unplanned breakdowns and costly maintenance interventions. Because of this, condition monitoring is employed to assess the status of the system in real-time. However, the condition of the system is usually not considered explicitly when finding the optimal operation strategy. Instead, operational constraints on flow rates, pressures etc., based on worst-case sce...

  9. Operating experience with gas-bearing circulators in a high-pressure helium loop

    Sanders, J.P.; Gat, U.; Young, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    A high-pressure engineering test loop has been designed and constructed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for circulating helium through a test chamber at temperatures to 1,000 deg. C. The purpose of this loop is to determine the thermal and structural performance of proposed components for the primary loops of gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Three gas-bearing circulators, mounted in series, provide a maximum volumetric flow of 0.47 m 3 /s and a maximum head of 78 kJ/kg at operating pressures from 0.1 to 10.7 MPa. Control of gaseous impurities in the circulating gas was the significant operating requirement that dictated the choice of a circulator that is lubricated by the circulating gas. The motor for each circulator is contained within the pressure boundary, and it is cooled by circulating the gas in the motor cavity over water-cooled coils. Each motor is rated at 200 kW at a speed of 23,500 rpm. The circulators have been operated in the loop for more than 5,000 h. The flow of the gas in the loop is controlled by varying the speed of the circulators through the use of individual 250-kVA, solid state power supplies that can be continuously varied in frequency from 50 to 400 Hz. To prevent excessive wear on the gas bearings during startup, the circulator motor accelerates the rotor to 3,000 rpm in less than one second. During operation, no problems associated with the gas bearings, per se, were encountered; however, related problems pointed to design considerations that should be included in future applications of circulators of this type. The primary test that has been conducted in this loop required sustained operation for several weeks without interruption. After a number of unscheduled interruptions, the operating goals were attained. During part of this period, the loop was operated with only two circulators installed in the pressure vessels with a guard installed in the third vessel to protect the closure flange from the gas temperatures. Unattended

  10. Coordinated Operation of the Electricity and Natural Gas Systems with Bi-directional Energy Conversion

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated operation of the natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables. This work focuses on the unified optimal operation of the integrated natural gas and electricity system considering the network...... constraints in both systems. An iterative method is proposed to deal with the nonlinearity in the proposed model. The models of the natural gas and power system are linearized in every iterative step. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. Applicability of the proposed method...... is tested in the sample case. Finally, the effect of Power to Gas (P2G) on the daily economic dispatch is also investigated....

  11. Operation experiences of landfill gas engines; Motorer foer deponigas - Tillgaenglighet och drifterfarenheter

    Dejfors, Charlotte; Grimberger, Goeran [AaF-Energikonsult Stockholm AB (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    The gas that is obtained from landfilled waste is produced by bacteria that digest organic material in an anaerobic environment. Landfill gas consists mainly of methane, carbon dioxide and water vapour. It may be used either as auxiliary fuel in boilers close to the landfill or to generate electricity by means of a gas engine. Several plants where landfill gas is used in gas engines have had serious problems, a. o. with burned exhaust valves. These problems may occur already after a short period of operation, which influences the profitability. The purposes of the project reported were to collect operational experience in Sweden with engines using landfill gas as fuel, to identify which problems there are and which actions or improvements have been implemented in order to correct for these problems. Today, there are 9 facilities where landfill gas is used to fuel a total of 13 gas engines. In addition, there is an engine in Goeteborg which has scarcely been in operation after its installation because there is not enough gas. Contact has been taken with all these facilities. Many have pointed out that the gas engines are sensitive in the vicinity of maximum load, where the control system requires an even gas flow and a stable composition of the gas. A counter-measure in the facilities is to avoid running the engine at full load. All engines are equipped with a lean-NO{sub x} system in order to minimise NO{sub x} emissions. Many have remarked that the lean-NO{sub x} system shuts the engine off when emissions exceed the allowed limits. There is a consensus that spark plugs and ignition cables have created operational problems. These have been changed more frequently than originally expected. Another problem, which has caused operational problems and a need for maintenance, is deposits mainly in the combustion chamber, in valves and cylinder heads. Deposits and high exhaust gas temperature have led to burnt exhaust gas valves and cylinder heads on half of the engines

  12. Improving the performances of gas turbines operated on natural gas in combined cycle power plants with application of mathematical models

    Dimkovski, Sasho

    2014-01-01

    The greater energy demand by today society sets a number of new challenges in the energy sector. The climate extremes impose new modes of operation of the power plants, with high flexibility in production. Combined cycle co generative power plants are the latest trend in the energy sector. Their high prevalence is due to the great efficiency and the good environmental characteristics. The main work horse in these cogeneration plants is the gas turbine, which power production and efficiency strongly depends on the external climate conditions. In warmer periods when there is increased demand for electricity, the power production from the gas turbines significantly declines. Because of the high electricity demand from the grid and reduced power production from the gas turbines at the same time, the need for application of appropriate technology for preserving the performances and power of the gas turbines arises. This master thesis explores different methods to improve the power in gas turbines by cooling the air on the compressor inlet, analyzing their applicability and effectiveness in order to choose the optimal method for power augmentation for the climatic conditions in the city Skopje. The master thesis gives detailed analysis of the weather in Skopje and the time frame in which the chosen method is applicable. At the end in the master thesis, the economic feasibility of the given method for power augmentation is clearly calculated, using a model of a power plant and calculating the resulting amount of gained energy, the amount of the initial investment, the cost for maintenance and operation of the equipment. By these calculations the period for initial return of investment is obtained. As an added benefit the positive environmental impacts of the applied technology for inlet air cooling is analyzed. (author)

  13. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma def...

  14. Operation of the multigap resistive plate chamber using a gas mixture free of flammable components

    Akindinov, A; Antonioli, P; Arcelli, S; Basile, M; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; De Caro, A; De Pasquale, S; Di Bartolomeo, A; Fusco-Girard, M; Golovine, V; Guida, M; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kaidalov, A B; Kim, D H; Kim, D W; Kisselev, S M; Laurenti, G; Lee, K; Lee, S C; Lioublev, E; Luvisetto, M L; Margotti, A; Martemyanov, A N; Nania, R; Noferini, F; Otiougova, P; Pesci, A; Pinazza, O; Polozov, P A; Scapparone, E; Scioli, G; Sellitto, S B; Semeria, F; Smirnitsky, A V; Tchoumakov, M M; Usenko, E; Valenti, G; Voloshin, K G; Williams, M C S; Zagreev, B V; Zampolli, C; Zichichi, A

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the operation of the multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) for the ALICE-TOF system with a gas mixture free of flammable components. Two different gas mixtures, with and without iso-C//4H//1//0 have been used to measure the performance of the MRPC. The efficiency, time resolution, total charge, and the fast to total charge ratio have been found to be comparable.

  15. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid-Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-01-01

    1 inch Gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fail closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated

  16. Gas electron multiplier (GEM) operation with tissue-equivalent gases at various pressures

    Farahmand, M.; Bos, A.J.J.; Eijk, C.W.E. van

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the operation of two different Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) structures in both methane and propane based Tissue-Equivalent (TE) gases at different pressures varying from 0.1 to 1 atm. This work was motivated to explore the possibility of using a GEM for a new type of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter. In methane based TE gas, a maximum safe GEM gain of 1.5x10 3 has been reached while in propane based TE gas this is 6x10 3 . These maxima have been reached at different gas pressures depending on GEM structure and TE gas. Furthermore, we observed a decrease of the GEM gain in time before it becomes stable. Charge up/polarisation effects can explain this

  17. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    1994-01-01

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations

  18. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    1994-07-08

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations.

  19. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1994 through 1997

    1998-03-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (compliance costs and lease availability) have a significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas equipment and production operations

  20. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Volentic, J [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1998-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  1. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  2. Electric battery with gas-operated electrolyte flow. Elektrischer Akkumulator mit gasbetaetigter Elektrolytbewegung

    Guetlich, K.F.; Kappus, W.; Zweigardt, H.; Eckardt, R.

    1986-08-28

    The invention relates to an electric accumulator with gas-operated electrolyte flow between electrode plates connected to form a plate block according to the principle of the mammoth pump. At least two supply pipes arranged parallel to each other and with connected gas supply are mounted to a base plate of non-conducting material. The base plate can be pushed in between plate block and housing wall. The base plate consists of two plastic foils of equal height and width the supply pipes and gas leads being formed by protrusions in the plastic foil.

  3. Electric battery with gas-operated electrolyte flow. Elektrischer Akkumulator mit gasbetaetigter Elektrolytbewegung

    Guetlich, K.F.; Kappus, W.; Zweigardt, H.; Eckardt, R.

    1980-10-09

    The invention relates to an electric accumulator with gas-operated electrolyte flow between electrode plates connected to form a plate block according to the principle of the mammoth pump. At least two supply pipes arranged parallel to each other and with connected gas supply are mounted to a base plate of non-conducting material. The base plate can be pushed in between plate block and housing wall. The base plate consists of two plastic foils of equal height and width the supply pipes and gas leads being formed by protrusions in the plastic foil.

  4. Bi-gas pilot plant operation. Technical progress report, 1 July 1980-30 September 1980

    None

    1980-01-01

    The stainless steel process gas line from the gasifier to the gas washer was replaced with chrome molybdenum steel. Test G-13 was the longest to date and was characterized by smooth start-up and operation, long Stage I thermocouple life, and collection of much material balance data. Stress corrosion cracking in several areas of the process gas line delayed start-up of Test G-14 and a large part of the quarter was spent in replacing this piping. The results of test G-13 are described in detail. Conclusions for the test and recommendation are given, especially for burner modifications, prevention of calcium carbonate deposits, etc.

  5. Operating experiences of gas purification system of Heavy Water Plant Talcher (Paper No. 1.11)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Mohanty, P.R.; Pandey, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    The operating experiences with the purification system installed at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher for purification of feed synthesis gas from fertilizer plant is described. The purification system has performed satisfactorily even with levels of impurities as much as 15 to 20 ppm of oxygen and carbon monoxide. The system could not however be tested at designed gas throughput and on a sustained basis. However, increase in gas throughput upto the design value is not expected to pose any problem on the performance of the purification system. (author). 5 figs

  6. Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators. 2010 report

    2011-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 6. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2010. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2010 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2010

  7. Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators. Report 2012

    2013-09-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 8. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2012. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2012 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2012

  8. Analysis of Modifications on a Spark Ignition Engine for Operation with Natural Gas

    Ramasamy D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the key contributors to petroleum usage and emissions to the atmosphere. According to researchers, there are many ways to use transport by using renewable energy sources. Of these solutions, the immediate solution which requires less modification to current engine technology is by using gaseous fuels. Natural gas is the fuel of choice for minor modification to current engines. As it can be derived from anaerobic digestion process, the potential as a renewable energy source is tremendous, especially for an agricultural country such a Malaysia. The aim in the future will be operating an engine with natural gas only with pipelines straight to houses for easy filling. The fuel is light and can be easily carried in vehicles when in compressed form. As such, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG is currently used in bi-fuel engines, but is mostly not optimized in term of their performance. The focus of the paper is to optimize a model of natural gas engine by one dimensional flow modeling for operation with natural gas. The model is analyzed for performance and emission characteristics produced by a gasoline engine and later compared with natural gas. The average performance drop is about 15% from its gasoline counterpart. The 4% benchmark indicates that the modification to ignition timing and compression ratio does improve engine performance using natural gas as fuel.

  9. First operational tests of an oxycoal hot gas cleaning facility; Erste Betriebstests einer Oxycoal-Heissgasreinigung

    Kellermann, A.; Habermehl, M.; Foerster, M.; Kneer, R. [RWTH Aachen University (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Waerme- und Stoffuebertragung

    2009-07-01

    An oxyfuel power plant process using a ceramic high temperature membrane for oxygen supply is investigated within the scope of the OXYCOAL-AC project at RWTH Aachen Uni-versity. Implementing the membrane requires a clean gas at a temperature of 850 C. There-fore a hot gas cleaning facility based on porous ceramic candle filters is used, which is state-of-the-art for the gas cleaning of synthesis gas or for flue gas cleaning in pressurised fluid-ised bed furnaces. However, these applications operate at lower temperatures and in a sig-nificantly different atmosphere. Thus, experiences for dust removal at high temperatures in oxyfuel atmoshere are not available. Experiments with a hot gas cleaning facility were con-ducted at the experimental combustion plant of the Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer, us-ing different candle filter materials. The flue gas was provided by a coal fired 100 kW{sub th} oxy-fuel furnace. The operational behaviour of the filtration facility, the adhesion and dedusting properties of the filter cake were investigated. (orig.)

  10. Exploitation Contradictions Concerning Multi-Energy Resources among Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium: A Case Study in the Ordos Basin (Western North China Craton and Southern Side of Yinshan Mountains

    Xiaowei Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The particular “rich coal, meager oil, and deficient gas” energy structure of China determines its high degree of dependence on coal resources. After over 100 years of high-intensity mining activities in Northeast China, East Region, and the Southern Region, coal mining in these areas is facing a series of serious problems, which force China’s energy exploitation map to be rewritten. New energy bases will move to the western and northern regions in the next few years. However, overlapping phenomena of multiple resources are frequently encountered. Previous exploitation mainly focused on coal mining, which destroys many mutualistic and accompanying resources, such as uranium, gas, and oil. Aiming at solving this unscientific development mode, this research presents a case study in the Ordos Basin, where uranium, coal, and gas/oil show a three-dimensional overlapping phenomenon along the vertical downward direction. The upper uranium and lower coal situation in this basin is remarkable; specifically, coal mining disturbs the overlaying aquifer, thus requiring the uranium to be leached first. The technical approach must be sufficiently reliable to avoid the leakage of radioactive elements in subsequent coal mining procedures. Hence, the unbalanced injection and extraction of uranium mining is used to completely eradicate the discharged emissions to the environment. The gas and oil are typically not extracted because of their deep occurrence strata and their overlapping phenomenon with coal seams. Use of the integrated coal and gas production method is recommended, and relevant fracturing methods to increase the gas migrating degree in the strata are also introduced. The results and recommendations in this study are applicable in some other areas with similarities.

  11. Secure and economic operational of a gas transportation system; Operacion economica y segura de un sistema de transporte de gas

    Sardi, Oscar Jose; Trichilo, Claudia; Valpreda, Carlos [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    Since 1992, Transportadora de Gas del Sur (TGS) has been operating the longest gas pipeline system in South America. Prior to that date, the system was managed by GE, a state-owned company. Early on in the administration of the company, some improvement opportunities were identified in the technical, commercial, management and personnel fields. An integrated transformation process was developed which involved major investments, acquisition of new technology, re-design of the work force, and new work methodologies. The course of action followed by the company was based on an attempt to achieve permanent improvement on business results. This paper is the result of the improvements applied to our gas transportation system. Due to the time and cost assessment required by scheduled turbine compressor maintenance works (83 - 538.220 hp), a Contingency Plan for turbine compressor breakdowns was established as well as an Economic Dispatch, which can determine low-cost operations in specific periods of time (during the year). This work details the actions taken. (author)

  12. Application of Arma Technique For Operation Stability of RSG-Gas

    Djudjuratisbela, Udju

    2000-01-01

    Application Of Arma Technique For Operation Stability Of RSG-Gas. Application of Fast Fourier Transport (FFT) method in the noise experiments data had been conducted to reactor kinetic parameter determination of RSG-Gas. Reactor stability that has closed relation to operation safety has not been measured yet. Noise analysis method and ARMA (Auto Regressive Moving Average) technique that has capability to identify mathematical model of the noise experimental data can be used for determination of kinetic/dynamic characteristic equation and its roots. From the roots of reactor characteristic equation, magnitude of natural frequency (fn), damping ratio (xi), damping frequency (fd), decay ratio (delta) and then reactor stability can be calculated

  13. Nonequilibrium statistical Zubarev's operator and Green's functions for an inhomogeneous electron gas

    P.Kostrobii

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonequilibrium properties of an inhomogeneous electron gas are studied using the method of the nonequilibrium statistical operator by D.N. Zubarev. Generalized transport equations for the mean values of inhomogeneous operators of the electron number density, momentum density, and total energy density for weakly and strongly nonequilibrium states are obtained. We derive a chain of equations for the Green's functions, which connects commutative time-dependent Green's functions "density-density", "momentum-momentum", "enthalpy-enthalpy" with reduced Green's functions of the generalized transport coefficients and with Green's functions for higher order memory kernels in the case of a weakly nonequilibrium spatially inhomogeneous electron gas.

  14. Modeling Studies to Constrain Fluid and Gas Migration Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    Rajaram, H.; Birdsell, D.; Lackey, G.; Karra, S.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Dempsey, D.

    2015-12-01

    The dramatic increase in the extraction of unconventional oil and gas resources using horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing (fracking) technologies has raised concerns about potential environmental impacts. Large volumes of hydraulic fracturing fluids are injected during fracking. Incidents of stray gas occurrence in shallow aquifers overlying shale gas reservoirs have been reported; whether these are in any way related to fracking continues to be debated. Computational models serve as useful tools for evaluating potential environmental impacts. We present modeling studies of hydraulic fracturing fluid and gas migration during the various stages of well operation, production, and subsequent plugging. The fluid migration models account for overpressure in the gas reservoir, density contrast between injected fluids and brine, imbibition into partially saturated shale, and well operations. Our results highlight the importance of representing the different stages of well operation consistently. Most importantly, well suction and imbibition both play a significant role in limiting upward migration of injected fluids, even in the presence of permeable connecting pathways. In an overall assessment, our fluid migration simulations suggest very low risk to groundwater aquifers when the vertical separation from a shale gas reservoir is of the order of 1000' or more. Multi-phase models of gas migration were developed to couple flow and transport in compromised wellbores and subsurface formations. These models are useful for evaluating both short-term and long-term scenarios of stray methane release. We present simulation results to evaluate mechanisms controlling stray gas migration, and explore relationships between bradenhead pressures and the likelihood of methane release and transport.

  15. Un simulateur de production de puits exploité en gas-lift. Deuxième partie : domaines de fonctionnement A Production Simulator for Gas-Lift Wells. Part Two: Working Conditions

    Caralp L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après une description des conditions d'accès aux domaines de fonctionnement étudiés, les différents types de fonctionnement du système non-linéaire sont présentés pour les trois couples de paramètres retenus. Des oscillations amorties sont mises en évidence au voisinage de la limite du fonctionnement stationnaire stable. L'influence non négligeable de la désorption gazeuse est observée. Les formes envisageables de la notion de rendement sont évoquées et pour un couple de paramètres, un espace de fonctionnement optimal est indiqué. The production simulator of a gas-lift well has already been described [1]. It should be noted that the physical modeling of the process requires 43 variables, 3 partial differential equations, 17 algebraic equations, 19 constants and 4 correlations. This entire set is used to describe the parts of the model, i. e. the annular space, the reservoir, the tubing (separated into two portions by the injection orifice all making up the complete model formed by the gathering of the elements in the light of the boundary exchange conditions. The numerical solving of this system of equations requires first-order spatio-temporal discretizing, which leads to a set of recurring equations in space (well depth and in time (time of simulation. The identification of possible types of operating, searching for their domains of existance, and the effect of different possible approximations are part of the understanding of this complex nonlinear system, which has a variety of industrial uses. Among the set of parameters making up the model, the present study is concerned with three that are directly involved in the gas-lift phenomenon, i. e. the gas flow rate upon entering the annular space QATg, the pressure at the tubing head Ptt, and the diameter of the injection orifice Do. The first two are inputs for the gas-lift black box in the sense of automation, and the third is the major physical parameter governing the

  16. A Novel Boil-Off Gas Re-Liquefaction Using a Spray Recondenser for Liquefied Natural-Gas Bunkering Operations

    Jiheon Ryu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design of a novel boil-off gas (BOG re-liquefaction technology using a BOG recondenser system. The BOG recondenser system targets the liquefied natural gas (LNG bunkering operation, in which the BOG phase transition occurs in a pressure vessel instead of a heat exchanger. The BOG that is generated during LNG bunkering operation is characterized as an intermittent flow with various peak loads. The system was designed to temporarily store the transient BOG inflow, condense it with subcooled LNG and store the condensed liquid. The superiority of the system was verified by comparing it with the most extensively employed conventional re-liquefaction system in terms of consumption energy and via an exergy analysis. Static simulations were conducted for three compositions; the results indicated that the proposed system provided 0 to 6.9% higher efficiencies. The exergy analysis indicates that the useful work of the conventional system is 24.9%, and the useful work of the proposed system is 26.0%. Process dynamic simulations of six cases were also performed to verify the behaviour of the BOG recondenser system. The results show that the pressure of the holdup in the recondenser vessel increased during the BOG inflow mode and decreased during the initialization mode. The maximum pressure of one of the bunkering cases was 3.45 bar. The system encountered a challenge during repetitive operations due to overpressurizing of the BOG recondenser vessel.

  17. TFTR neutral beam D-T gas injection system operational experiences of the first two years

    Oldaker, M.E.; Lawson, J.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; Kamperschroer, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    The TFTR Neutral Beam Tritium Gas Injection System (TGIS) has successfully performed tritium operations since December 1993. TGIS operation has been reliable, with no leaks to the secondary containment to date. Notable operational problems include throughput leaks on fill, exit and piezoelectric valves. Repair of a TGIS requires replacement of the assembly, involving TFTR downtime and extensive purging, since the TGIS assembly is highly contaminated with residual tritium, and is located within secondary containment. Modifications to improve reliability and operating range include adjustable reverse bias voltage to the piezoelectric valves, timing and error calculation changes to tune the PLC and hardwired timing control, and exercising piezoelectric valves without actually pulsing gas prior to use after extended inactivity. A pressure sensor failure required the development of an open loop piezoelectric valve drive control scheme, using a simple voltage ramp to partially compensate for declining plenum pressure. Replacement of TGIS's have been performed, maintaining twelve system tritium capability as part of scheduled project maintenance activity

  18. Final report on evaluation of cyclocraft support of oil and gas operations in wetland areas

    Eggington, W.J.; Stevens, P.M.; John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Lindstedt, D.M.

    1994-10-01

    The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft, capable of VTOL, lifting heavy and bulky loads, highly controllable, having high safety characteristics and low operating costs. Mission Research Corporation (MRC), under Department of Energy sponsorship, is evaluating the potential use of cyclocraft in the transport of drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment, in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner, to support oil and gas drilling, production, and transportation operations in wetland areas. Based upon the results of an earlier parametric study, a cyclocraft design, having a payload capacity of 45 tons and designated H.1 Cyclocraft, was selected for further study, including the preparation of a preliminary design and a development plan, and the determination of operating costs. This report contains all of the results derived from the program to evaluate the use of cyclocraft in the support of oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas.

  19. Proceedings of the Canadian Gas Association's western operations workshop : readiness : reduce the risk

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The natural gas industry is now facing a number of challenges related to energy infrastructure security and new regulations regarding pipeline and employee safety. Organized by the Canadian Gas Association (CGA), this workshop provided a forum for gas distribution companies, transmission companies, and service providers to discuss issues related to the delivery of natural gas in Canada. While the workshop also included tours and descriptions of specific natural gas facilities and operational centres, several of the breakout sessions during the workshop were used to discuss natural gas technologies and planning procedures related to safety and security. Planning process improvements using risk analysis for operations were discussed. Safety strategies for the 2010 Olympics relating to critical infrastructure protection were reviewed. Issues concerning emergency response preparedness were examined, as well as threats to energy infrastructure from acts of terrorism. Recent innovations in fire retardant clothing were presented. Technological innovations presented at the workshop included a cold weather technology line heater, and new technologies in underground pipe manufacturing. Human resources issues included new approaches to stress management and employee support and safety. The workshop featured 12 breakout sessions, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in

  1. Dresses problems arising from hot-plant operation and their solution (1961); Les problemes vestimentaires poses par l'exploitation des installations actives et leurs solutions (1961)

    Rodier, J; Bouzigues, H; Boutot, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This article deals with effective methods to struggle radioactive contamination using rationally designed working clothes. The choice of the cloth is important and cotton, because of its absorbent properties constitutes an effective barrier to radioelements failing on its surface. Clothing the personnel of large nuclear industrial concerns is a big problem which can only be solved by carefully studied methods. The decontamination and washing of large amounts of clothes whose flow increases during periods of radio-active incidents have to be treated as are those operations in hospital laundering. Linen washing by the German counter-current method (the Sulzman system) is of great value because of the volume which can be treated and, more important, because of the small amount of liquid waste produced. Dry cleaning is certainly a method of the future and is even more economic than the preceding one. In 'active' laundries, the control of clothing for residual contamination can constitute a serious bottleneck in the production of clean clothing if automatic high-speed machines are not used. The risk to the operating personnel comes solely from contamination of the atmosphere and of the surfaces. Because of this, the plant must be considered as an active zone in which are handled several tens of millicuries of dangerous emitters and several micro- curies of plutonium daily. (authors) [French] Ce memoire traite des moyens efficaces de lutte contre la contamination radioactive que peuvent offrir des vetements de travail de conception rationnelle. Le choix du tissu est un element important et la fibre de coton, par ses proprietes absorbantes, constitue un excellent barrage aux radioelements deposes a sa surface. L'habillement du personnel des grands ensembles industriels de l'energie atomique est un gros probleme qui ne peut etre solutionne qu'avec des moyens soigneusement etudies. La decontamination et le lavage des grandes quantites de vetements renouveles a cadence

  2. Dresses problems arising from hot-plant operation and their solution (1961); Les problemes vestimentaires poses par l'exploitation des installations actives et leurs solutions (1961)

    Rodier, J.; Bouzigues, H.; Boutot, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This article deals with effective methods to struggle radioactive contamination using rationally designed working clothes. The choice of the cloth is important and cotton, because of its absorbent properties constitutes an effective barrier to radioelements failing on its surface. Clothing the personnel of large nuclear industrial concerns is a big problem which can only be solved by carefully studied methods. The decontamination and washing of large amounts of clothes whose flow increases during periods of radio-active incidents have to be treated as are those operations in hospital laundering. Linen washing by the German counter-current method (the Sulzman system) is of great value because of the volume which can be treated and, more important, because of the small amount of liquid waste produced. Dry cleaning is certainly a method of the future and is even more economic than the preceding one. In 'active' laundries, the control of clothing for residual contamination can constitute a serious bottleneck in the production of clean clothing if automatic high-speed machines are not used. The risk to the operating personnel comes solely from contamination of the atmosphere and of the surfaces. Because of this, the plant must be considered as an active zone in which are handled several tens of millicuries of dangerous emitters and several micro- curies of plutonium daily. (authors) [French] Ce memoire traite des moyens efficaces de lutte contre la contamination radioactive que peuvent offrir des vetements de travail de conception rationnelle. Le choix du tissu est un element important et la fibre de coton, par ses proprietes absorbantes, constitue un excellent barrage aux radioelements deposes a sa surface. L'habillement du personnel des grands ensembles industriels de l'energie atomique est un gros probleme qui ne peut etre solutionne qu'avec des moyens soigneusement etudies. La decontamination et le lavage des grandes quantites de vetements

  3. Operating experience of gas bearing helium circulators in HTGR development facility

    Shimomura, H.; Kawaji, S.; Fujisaki, K.; Ihizuka, T.

    1988-01-01

    The large scale helium gas test facility (HENDEL) has been constructed and operated since March 1982 at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to develop HTGR components. The five electric driven gas circulators with dynamic gas bearings are used to circulate the helium gas of 4MPa and 400 deg. C in loops for their compactness, gas tightness, easy maintenance and free from gas contamination. All of these circulators are variable speed types of 3,000 to 12,000 rpm and have the same gas bearings and electric motors. The four machines among them are equipped with centrifugal impeller and one other machine has regenerative type, and the weight of both type rotors are nearly the same. After the troubles and repairing, both type of circulators were tested and the vibration characteristics were measured as preventing maintenance. From the test and measurements of the circulators, it was presumed that the first trouble on regenerative type was caused from excess unbalance force by falling off of a small pin from the rotating part and the second severe trouble on it was caused by the whipping in gas bearing. The static load on tilting pads indicated close relations to occurrence of the whirling through the measurements. It is recognized that fine balancing of the rotors and delicate clearance adjustment of the bearings are very important for the rotor stability and that the mechanism should be designed and machined so precise as to be adjustable. As the gas bearing would be damaged in an instantaneously short time, the monitoring technique for it should be so fast and predictive as to prevent serious damage. Through the tests, the vibration spectrum monitoring method seems to be predictive and useful for early detection of the shaft instability. It will be concluded that the gas bearing machine is an excellent system in its design philosophy, however, it also needs highly precise machining and delicate maintenance technique. 4 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  4. Operator splitting method for simulation of dynamic flows in natural gas pipeline networks

    Dyachenko, Sergey A.; Zlotnik, Anatoly; Korotkevich, Alexander O.; Chertkov, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We develop an operator splitting method to simulate flows of isothermal compressible natural gas over transmission pipelines. The method solves a system of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) of hydrodynamic type for mass flow and pressure on a metric graph, where turbulent losses of momentum are modeled by phenomenological Darcy-Weisbach friction. Mass flow balance is maintained through the boundary conditions at the network nodes, where natural gas is injected or withdrawn from the system. Gas flow through the network is controlled by compressors boosting pressure at the inlet of the adjoint pipe. Our operator splitting numerical scheme is unconditionally stable and it is second order accurate in space and time. The scheme is explicit, and it is formulated to work with general networks with loops. We test the scheme over range of regimes and network configurations, also comparing its performance with performance of two other state of the art implicit schemes.

  5. Design and operational experience with the off-gas cleaning system of the Seibersdorf incinerator plant

    Patek, P.R.M.

    1983-01-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxiliary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10,000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts to 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, an electrostatic filter and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, iodine- and tritium-monitor; the building is surveyed by doserate and aerosolmonitors. Finally the experiences of the first year of operation and the main problems in running the plant are described. (author)

  6. Design and operational experience with the off-gas cleaning system of the Seibersdorf incinerator plant

    Patek, P.

    1982-05-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput ammounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, an electrostatic filter and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, iodine- and tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. Finally the experiences of the first year of operation and the main problems in running the plant are described. (Author) [de

  7. High- and low-pressure operation of the gas electron multiplier

    Bondar, A.; Buzulutskov, A.; Shekhtman, L.; Sauli, F.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the operation of the gas electron multiplier (GEM) in gas mixtures Xe-CO 2 , Ar-CO 2 and CH 4 at different pressures varying from 0.1 to 5 atm. In Ar- and Xe-based mixtures, the maximum GEM gain considerably decreases with pressure, from a few hundreds at 1 atm to below 10 at 5 atm. Combined gain of GEM and the micro-strip gas chamber (MSGC) can exceed values of 10000 at 1 atm and 100 at 5 atm. High GEM gains, of above 1000, were obtained in CH 4 at low pressures. We have observed the effect of the avalanche confinement in GEM micro-holes, resulting in violation of the pressure scaling and in the possibility of GEM operation in pure noble gases. (author)

  8. FIRST OPERATING RESULTS OF A DYNAMIC GAS BEARING TURBINE IN AN INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN LIQUEFIER

    Bischoff, S.; Decker, L.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

  9. The Assessment of RSG-GAS Operation by Using Two Transformers

    Marsahala, Yan Bony

    2007-01-01

    These papers discussed the possibility to use only 2 of 3 units of transformers BHT for reactor operation power supply of RSG-GAS. The basic idea is that the maximum power loaded by electrical system for RSG-GAS is only 1994 KVA and the power supplied by PLN is 3000 KVA. It means, by using two units of transformers, with each capacity of 1500 KVA, are quite sufficient. The problems are the electric power distribution system of RSG-GAS was designed for three distribution lines. Therefore, the modifications of the circuit for power distribution boards BHA, BHB and BHC are required. The assessment results showed that the modification can be carried out by changing the distribution circuit mode on primary side becomes ring system by adding the coupler between two bus bars. So, the possibilities to use 2 of 3 units of transformer for reactor operation are reasonable to be considered. (author)

  10. Control strategies for gas turbine generators for grid connected and islanding operations

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    fine while a DG is connected to a grid, might not work as desired while it is islanded and vise versa. This paper presents a strategy to operate distribution systems with a small gas turbine generator (GTG), which is capable of supplying local loads, in both islanding and grid connected conditions...

  11. Ion counting method and it's operational characteristics in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Fujii, Toshihiro

    1976-01-01

    Ion counting method with continuous channel electron multiplier which affords the direct detection of very small ion currents and it's operational characteristics were studied in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Then this method was applied to the single ion detection technique of GC-MS. A detection limit was measured, using various standard samples of low level concentration. (auth.)

  12. 75 FR 17407 - Energy Efficiency of the Natural Gas Infrastructure and Operations Conference; Notice of Public...

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD09-11-000] Energy Efficiency of the Natural Gas Infrastructure and Operations Conference; Notice of Public Conference March 31... Room on the second floor of the offices of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street...

  13. Modeling and experiments on differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows

    Eck, van H.J.N.; Koppers, W.R.; Rooij, van G.J.; Goedheer, W.J.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Kleyn, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to investigate the efficiency of differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows. Skimmers are used to separate the neutrals from the plasma beam, which is guided from the source to the target by a strong axial

  14. Methodological aspects of the use of materials from remote photographs in oil and gas search operations

    Kostryukov, M I; Tsarenko, P T

    1981-01-01

    Presented are the methodological characteristics of the use of materials from remote probes in oil and gas search operations within the central part of the western Siberian plain. Examined briefly are ways to increase the effectiveness of interpreting deep structures and the necessity for an amplification in the development of automated systems for interpretation is show.

  15. System acceptance and operability test report for the RMCS exhauster C on flammable gas tanks

    Waldo, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    This test report documents the completion of acceptance and operability testing of the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) exhauster C, as modified for use as a major stack (as defined by the Washington State Department of Health) on flammable gas tanks

  16. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid-Actuated Gas-Operated VPS System Ball Valve

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-01-01

    1 inch Gas-operated full-port ball valve incorporates a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. The valve is normally open and fails safe to the closed position. The associated valve position switch is class GS

  17. Operability test report for core sample truck number one flammable gas modifications

    Akers, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report primarily consists of the original test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to Core Sample Truck No. One. Included are exceptions, resolutions, comments, and test results. This report consists of the original, completed, test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to the Push Mode Core Sample Truck No. 1. Prior to the Acceptance/Operability test the truck No. 1 operations procedure (TO-080-503) was revised to be more consistent with the other core sample truck procedures and to include operational steps/instructions for the SR weather cover pressurization system. A draft copy of the operations procedure was used to perform the Operability Test Procedure (OTP). A Document Acceptance Review Form is included with this report (last page) indicating the draft status of the operations procedure during the OTP. During the OTP 11 test exceptions were encountered. Of these exceptions four were determined to affect Acceptance Criteria as listed in the OTP, Section 4.7 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

  18. Operator Bias in the Estimation of Arc Efficiency in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    Fredrik Sikström

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the operator bias in the measurement process of arc efficiency in stationary direct current electrode negative gas tungsten arc welding is discussed. An experimental study involving 15 operators (enough to reach statistical significance has been carried out with the purpose to estimate the arc efficiency from a specific procedure for calorimetric experiments. The measurement procedure consists of three manual operations which introduces operator bias in the measurement process. An additional relevant experiment highlights the consequences of estimating the arc voltage by measuring the potential between the terminals of the welding power source instead of measuring the potential between the electrode contact tube and the workpiece. The result of the study is a statistical evaluation of the operator bias influence on the estimate, showing that operator bias is negligible in the estimate considered here. On the contrary the consequences of neglecting welding leads voltage drop results in a significant under estimation of the arc efficiency.

  19. Operation reliability analysis of independent power plants of gas-transmission system distant production facilities

    Piskunov, Maksim V.; Voytkov, Ivan S.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.; Vysokomorny, Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    The new approach was developed to analyze the failure causes in operation of linear facilities independent power supply sources (mini-CHP-plants) of gas-transmission system in Eastern part of Russia. Triggering conditions of ceiling operation substance temperature at condenser output were determined with mathematical simulation use of unsteady heat and mass transfer processes in condenser of mini-CHP-plants. Under these conditions the failure probability in operation of independent power supply sources is increased. Influence of environmental factors (in particular, ambient temperature) as well as output electric capability values of power plant on mini-CHP-plant operation reliability was analyzed. Values of mean time to failure and power plant failure density during operation in different regions of Eastern Siberia and Far East of Russia were received with use of numerical simulation results of heat and mass transfer processes at operation substance condensation.

  20. Predicting emissions from oil and gas operations in the Uinta Basin, Utah.

    Wilkey, Jonathan; Kelly, Kerry; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina; Spinti, Jennifer; Ring, Terry; Hogue, Michael; Pasqualini, Donatella

    2016-05-01

    In this study, emissions of ozone precursors from oil and gas operations in Utah's Uinta Basin are predicted (with uncertainty estimates) from 2015-2019 using a Monte-Carlo model of (a) drilling and production activity, and (b) emission factors. Cross-validation tests against actual drilling and production data from 2010-2014 show that the model can accurately predict both types of activities, returning median results that are within 5% of actual values for drilling, 0.1% for oil production, and 4% for gas production. A variety of one-time (drilling) and ongoing (oil and gas production) emission factors for greenhouse gases, methane, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are applied to the predicted oil and gas operations. Based on the range of emission factor values reported in the literature, emissions from well completions are the most significant source of emissions, followed by gas transmission and production. We estimate that the annual average VOC emissions rate for the oil and gas industry over the 2010-2015 time period was 44.2E+06 (mean) ± 12.8E+06 (standard deviation) kg VOCs per year (with all applicable emissions reductions). On the same basis, over the 2015-2019 period annual average VOC emissions from oil and gas operations are expected to drop 45% to 24.2E+06 ± 3.43E+06 kg VOCs per year, due to decreases in drilling activity and tighter emission standards. This study improves upon previous methods for estimating emissions of ozone precursors from oil and gas operations in Utah's Uinta Basin by tracking one-time and ongoing emission events on a well-by-well basis. The proposed method has proven highly accurate at predicting drilling and production activity and includes uncertainty estimates to describe the range of potential emissions inventory outcomes. If similar input data are available in other oil and gas producing regions, then the method developed here could be applied to those regions as well.

  1. The Ethics of Exploitation

    Paul McLaughlin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the ‘moral’ or pejorative sense and the ‘non-moral’ or ‘non-prejudicial’ sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to demonstrate the moral complexity of exploitation. We contend, moreover, that moral evaluation of exploitation is only possible once we abandon a strictly Marxian framework and attempt, in the long run, to develop an integral ethic along Godwinian lines.

  2. NATO Operational Record: Collective Analytical Exploitation to Inform Operational Analysis Models and Common Operational Planning Factors (Archives operationnelles de l’OTAN: Exploitation analytique collective visant a alimenter les modeles d’analyse operationnelle et les facteurs de planification operationnelle commune)

    2014-05-01

    futures de l’OTAN est positivement influencée par l’analyse opérationnelle qui s’appuie sur les données quantitatives et qualitatives des dossiers des...operations is positively influenced by operational analysis that relies on quantitative and qualitative data of operational records from past and...and future NATO operations is positively influenced by operational analysis methods, models, and tools that rely on quantitative and qualitative data

  3. Operational improvement to the flue gas cleaning system in radioactive waste incineration facilities

    Zheng Bowen; Li Xiaohai; Wang Peiyi

    2012-01-01

    After years of operation, some problems, such as corrosion and waste water treatment, have been found in the first domestic whole-scale radioactive waste incineration facility. According to the origin of the problems, the flue gas cleaning system has been optimized and improved in terms of technical process, material and structure. It improves the operational stability, extends the equipment life-time, and also reduces the amount of secondary waste. In addition, as major sources of problems, waste management, operational experiences and information exchange deserve more attention. (authors)

  4. Gas Bearing Control for Safe Operation in Critical Speed Regions - Experimental Verification

    Theisen, Lukas R. S.; Niemann, Hans H.; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    supported by gas bearings to extend their operating range. Using H∞-design methods, active lubrication techniques are proposed to enhance the damping, which in turn reduces the vibrations to a desired safe level. The control design is validated experimentally on a laboratory test rig, and shown to allow...... and deceleration patterns and avoidance of operation near the critical speeds, which is a limiting factor during operation, specially during run-downs. An approach for reducing the vibrations is by feedback controlled lubrication. This paper addresses the challenge of reducing vibrations in rotating machines...

  5. Brazilian liquefied natural gas terminals: from the conception to the operation

    Santos, Renata N.R. dos; Lemos, Marcelo C. de; Silva, Marcos Jose M. da; Borges, Jorge Luiz P.; Soares, Fabio L.; Grieco, Eduardo P.; Melchior, Jose Carlos [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    To guarantee more flexibility and safety in supplying natural gas to the Brazilian market, PETROBRAS designed and constructed two liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminals. These terminals are unprecedented in the world since they are the only ones to use vessels that have been adapted to store LNG and re gasify the product onboard and to adopt the model of transferring LNG from a supply ship to a regasification vessel via cryogenic arms. Due to these different characteristics, TRANSPETRO, the PETROBRAS subsidiary in charge of operating these terminals, had to prepare itself not only to deal with a new product but also to operate terminals that have no counterparts in the world. This article gives an overview of the LNG supply chain and of the new Brazilian LNG Terminals from their conception to the preparation process to operate them. (author)

  6. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperature (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  7. Design and operation results of nitrogen gas baking system for KSTAR plasma facing components

    Kim, Sang-Tae [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Jin, E-mail: k43689@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Nam-Yong; Im, Dong-Seok; Kim, Kang-Pyo; Kim, Kyung-Min; Bang, Eun-Nam; Kim, Yaung-Soo [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seong-Yeon [Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Vacuum pressure in a vacuum vessel arrived at 7.24 × 10{sup −8} mbar. • PFC temperature was reached maximum 250 °C by gas temperature at 300 °C. • PFC inlet gas temperature was changed 5 °C per hour during rising and falling. • PFC gas balancing was made temperature difference among them below 8.3 °C. • System has a pre-cooler and a three-way valve to save operation energy. -- Abstract: A baking system for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma facing components (PFCs) is designed and operated to achieve vacuum pressure below 5 × 10{sup −7} mbar in vacuum vessel with removing impurities. The purpose of this research is to prevent the fracture of PFC because of thermal stress during baking the PFC, and to accomplish stable operation of the baking system with the minimum life cycle cost. The uniformity of PFC temperature in each sector was investigated, when the supply gas temperature was varied by 5 °C per hour using a heater and the three-way valve at the outlet of a compressor. The alternative of the pipe expansion owing to hot gas and the cage configuration of the three-way valve were also studied. During the fourth campaign of the KSTAR in 2011, nitrogen gas temperature rose up to 300 °C, PFC temperature reached at 250 °C, the temperature difference among PFCs was maintained at below 8.3 °C, and vacuum pressure of up to 7.24 × 10{sup −8} mbar was achieved inside the vacuum vessel.

  8. Control of waste well casing vent gas from a thermal enhanced oil recovery operation

    Peavy, M.A.; Braun, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a waste gas treatment system designed to control emissions from thermally enhanced oil recovery wells. This case study discusses the need, design, installation and operations of the system. Oryx Energy Company (Oryx) operates approximately 940 wells in the Midway-Sunset (MWSS) field under casing vapor recovery systems. The emissions collected from well casing vent gas cotaining hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide that are collected and processed through casing vapor recovery skids. These skids are composed of condensers, compressors, and pumps that separate fluids from the waste gas stream. The non-condensible gas is then disposed of in incinerators that reduce the hydrocarbon and sulfur emissions into the atmosphere. Approximately 91,000 lbs/day of hydrocarbon and 10,116 lbs/day of sulfur dioxide are removed from the atmosphere from wells contained within these systems operated by Oryx. These hydrocarbons yield approximately 550 barrels of oil per day (BOPD). The system helps manage the pressure differential from the reservoir into each wellbore and contributes to improved ambient air quality in Kern County, California

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING HUMAN RELIABILITY OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTOR OPERATION

    Sigit Santoso

    2016-10-01

    ABSTRAK Peran dan tindakan operator pada reaktor berpendingin gas akan berbeda dengan peran operator pada operasi tipe reaktor lain. Analisis unjuk kerja operator dan faktor yang berpengaruh dapat dilakukan secara komprehensif melalui analisis keandalan manusia(HRA. Melalui HRA dampak dari kesalahan manusia pada sistem maupun cara untuk mengurangi dampak dan frekuensi kesalahan dapat diketahui. Makalah membahas faktor yang berpengaruh pada tindakan operator, yaitu pada kejadian kecelakaan pendingin reaktor gas bersuhu tinggi-HTGR. Analisis untuk kualifikasi faktor pembentuk kinerja(PSF dilakukan berdasarkan kurva keandalan fungsi waktu, dan metode keandalan manusia yang dikembangkan berdasar pada aspek kognitif yaitu Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM. Hasil analisis berdasar kurva keandalan fungsi waktu menunjukkan komponen waktu berkontribusi positif pada peningkatan keandalan operator (PSF<1 pada kondisi semua fitur keselamatan berfungsi sesuai rancangan. Sedangkan pada metoda analisis dengan pendekatan kognitif CREAM diketahui selain faktor ketersediaan waktu, faktor pelatihan dan rancangan HMI juga berkontribusi meningkatkan keandalan operator. Faktor pembentuk kinerja keseluruhan diketahui sebesar 0,25 dengan faktor kontribusi positif dominan atau berpengaruh pada penurunan kesalahan manusia adalah ketersediaan waktu (PSF=0,01, dan faktor kontribusi negatif dominan adalah prosedur dan siklus kerja (PSF=5. Nilai PSF tersebut sebagai faktor pengali dalam perhitungan probabilitas kesalahan manusia. Analisis faktor pembentuk kinerja perlu dikembangkan pada skenario kejadian lain untuk selanjutnya digunakan untuk perhitungan dan analisis keandalan manusia yang komprehensif dan perancangan sistem interaksi manusia mesin di ruang kendali. Kata kunci: PSF, HTGR, operator, ruang kendali, keandalan manusia

  10. Application of noise analysis on the operation of the RSG-GAS reactor

    Surian P, Tukiran S

    1999-01-01

    The RSG-GAS reactor has been operating for radioisotope production and experiments so that it is necessary to perform analysis of the reactor operation. analysis was done based on reactor noise experiment. Neutron noise at low and high power of the RSG-GAS has been analyzed using time and frequency domain with aim to determine the safety of reactor operation. The safety of reactor operation based on two parameters as, prompt neutron decay constant and decay ratio. The parameters are useful for reactor operation, so it is necessary to determine accurately. For determining prompt neutron decay constant, neutron density in the core of reactor which operated at 10 k W, was collected by using Fission Chamber detectors (FC). Based on power spectral density (PSD) was achieved break frequency about 23 Hz, so that the prompt neutron decay constant is about 151 sec -1 . While at at high power 20 MW, neutron density was collected by using Compensated Ionization Chamber (CIC) detector. The result at high power showed that there is reactivity effect in the core because of fluctuation in temperature and density of the coolant, and the decay ratio of 0.20, showed that the reactor is still operation in stable

  11. Obedience to compliance programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators. 2009 report

    2009-12-01

    In France, system operators belong to groups that also conduct business in the energy sector, in fields governed by competition rules. They could therefore be tempted to use their privileged position to their group's benefit, which would disadvantage end consumers. Non-discriminatory access to electricity and gas transmission and distribution networks is at the core of the market opening to competition approach implemented by the European Union since the end of the 1990's. EU and national enactments in force highlight two tools to ensure nondiscrimination: compliance programmes and independence of system operators with regard to their parent companies. Firstly, compliance programs contain measures taken to ensure that discrimination is completely excluded and that their application is subject to appropriate monitoring. Secondly, system operator independence plays a part in preventing discrimination against competitors with other business activities (generation, supply, etc.) within the same group. In application of these enactments, every electricity or natural gas transmission or distribution system operator serving more than 100,000 customers provided CRE, the Energy Regulatory Commission, with their annual reports on the application of their compliance programs. This document is CRE's 2009 report about compliance programmes and independence of electricity and natural gas system operators. Its content can be summarized as follows: 1 - system operator independence serving consumers: Non-discriminatory access to networks is essential for the development of competitive markets, System operator compliance programs and independence act as a guarantee of nondiscrimination, The legal context in which these issues are addressed is set to change in the near future; 2 - A high level of obedience to compliance programs: The continued efforts of system operators prevent discrimination, CR E has assessed distribution system operators by means of a mystery

  12. Operation of Two-Shaft Gas Turbine in the Range of Open Anti-Surge Valve

    Dzida Marek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental tests of full-scale two-shaft gas turbine in the range of open anti-surge valve (ASV. The tests were carried out in a laboratory gas- turbine test stand belonging to Department of Automation and Power Engineering , Faculty of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology , Gdańsk University of Technology. The tests covered the start-up and low load operation of the turbine set in the range of open anti-surge valve.

  13. Operation experience of the Indonesian multipurpose research reactor RSG-GAS

    Hastowo, Hudi; Tarigan, Alim [Multipurpose Reactor Center, National Nuclear Energy Agency of the Republic of Indonesia (PRSG-BATAN), Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Serpong, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    1999-08-01

    RSG-GAS is a multipurpose research reactor with nominal power of 30 MW, operated by BATAN since 1987. The reactor is an open pool type, cooled and moderated with light water, using the LEU-MTR fuel element in the form of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al dispersion. Up to know, the reactor have been operated around 30,000 hours to serve the user. The reactor have been utilized to produce radioisotope, neutron beam experiments, irradiation of fuel element and its structural material, and reactor physics experiments. This report will explain in further detail concerning operational experience of this reactor, i.e. reactor operation data, reactor utilization, research program, technical problems and it solutions, plant modification and improvement, and development plan to enhance better reactor operation performance and its utilization. (author)

  14. Operation experience of the Indonesian multipurpose research reactor RSG-GAS

    Hastowo, Hudi; Tarigan, Alim

    1999-01-01

    RSG-GAS is a multipurpose research reactor with nominal power of 30 MW, operated by BATAN since 1987. The reactor is an open pool type, cooled and moderated with light water, using the LEU-MTR fuel element in the form of U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. Up to know, the reactor have been operated around 30,000 hours to serve the user. The reactor have been utilized to produce radioisotope, neutron beam experiments, irradiation of fuel element and its structural material, and reactor physics experiments. This report will explain in further detail concerning operational experience of this reactor, i.e. reactor operation data, reactor utilization, research program, technical problems and it solutions, plant modification and improvement, and development plan to enhance better reactor operation performance and its utilization. (author)

  15. The life cycle greenhouse gas emissions implications of power and hydrogen production for oil sands operations

    McKellar, J.M.; Bergerson, J.A.; MacLean, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' The Alberta Oil Sands represent a major economic opportunity for Canada, but the industry is also a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of the sources of these emissions is the use of natural gas for the production of electricity, steam and hydrogen. Due to concerns around resource availability and price volatility, there has been considerable discussion regarding the potential replacement of natural gas with an alternative fuel. While some of the options are non-fossil and could potentially reduce GHG emissions (e.g., nuclear, geothermal, biomass), others have the potential to increase emissions. A comparative life cycle assessment was completed to investigate the relative GHG emissions, energy consumption and financial implications of replacing natural gas with coal, coke, asphaltenes or bitumen for the supply of electricity, steam and hydrogen to oil sands operations. The potential use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) was also investigated as a means of reducing GHG emissions. Preliminary results indicate that, without CCS, the natural gas systems currently in use have lower life cycle GHG emissions than gasification systems using any of the alternative fuels analysed. However, when CCS is implemented in both the coke gasification and natural gas systems, the coke systems have lower GHG emissions and financial costs than the natural gas systems (assuming a 30-year project life and a natural gas price of 6.5 USD/gigajoule). The use of CCS does impose a financial penalty though, indicating that it is unlikely to be implemented without some financial incentive. While this study has limitations and uncertainties, the preliminary results indicate that although the GHG emissions of oil sands development pose a challenge to Canada, there are opportunities available for their abatement. (author)

  16. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    2010-04-01

    ... minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23a Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N...

  18. Bridging IMO e-Navigation Policy and Offshore Oil and Gas Operations through Geospatial Standards

    Filipe Modesto Da Rocha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In offshore industry activities, the suitable onboard provision of assets location and geospatial marine information during operations is essential. Currently, most companies use its own data structures, resulting in incompatibility between processes. In order to promote the data exchange, oil and gas industry associations have pursued initiatives to standardize spatial information. In turn, the IMO - International Maritime Organization - started the implementation of e-Navigation policy, which is the standardization of technologies and protocols applied to maritime information and navigation. This paper shows relationship and integration points between maritime activities of oil and gas industry and e-Navigation technologies and processes, highlighting geospatial information. This paper also preludes out an initiative for a suitable product specification for the offshore oil and gas industry, compliant with e-Navigation and IHO S-100 international standards.

  19. Methods and techniques for measuring gas emissions from agricultural and animal feeding operations.

    Hu, Enzhu; Babcock, Esther L; Bialkowski, Stephen E; Jones, Scott B; Tuller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of gases from agricultural and animal feeding operations contribute to climate change, produce odors, degrade sensitive ecosystems, and pose a threat to public health. The complexity of processes and environmental variables affecting these emissions complicate accurate and reliable quantification of gas fluxes and production rates. Although a plethora of measurement technologies exist, each method has its limitations that exacerbate accurate quantification of gas fluxes. Despite a growing interest in gas emission measurements, only a few available technologies include real-time, continuous monitoring capabilities. Commonly applied state-of-the-art measurement frameworks and technologies were critically examined and discussed, and recommendations for future research to address real-time monitoring requirements for forthcoming regulation and management needs are provided.

  20. Shale gas operator violations in the Marcellus and what they tell us about water resource risks

    Rahm, Brian G.; Vedachalam, Sridhar; Bertoia, Lara R.; Mehta, Dhaval; Vanka, Veeravenkata Sandeep; Riha, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Development of shale gas entails environmental risk, particularly with respect to water resources, and stakeholders are keen to assess such risks before making development decisions. We focus on Pennsylvania, USA and the Marcellus Shale, the most productive shale play in the country. We examine compliance data recorded by the state regulatory agency in order to assess environmental risks and their trends and drivers over time. Overall, we track 3267 shale gas violations, noting that environmental violation rates increase from 2007 to 2009, remain high through 2010, and then drop in 2011 and thereafter. Violations related to spills and erosion were most commonly issued. A single change in policy resulted in a 45% decrease in environmental violation rates. Furthermore, for every 1% increase in wells drilled per inspections conducted, there was a 0.56% decrease in environmental violation rates. Similar effects were not found for administrative violations. Operator identity, price of gas, and other major policies were not significantly correlated with violation rates. In comparing conventional and shale gas extraction compliance we found that shale gas development entails more risk related to spills and solid waste management, while conventional development entails more risk associated with cementing and casing issues, and site restoration. -- Highlights: •We examine trends in violations issued to natural gas operators over 6.5 years. •Analyzed 3267 unconventional and 9784 conventional violations. •Decreased unconventional violation rates after 2011. •Decrease best explained by shifting regulatory policy and inspector productivity. •Differences in risks associated with conventional and unconventional development

  1. Quantification of potential macroseismic effects of the induced seismicity that might result from hydraulic fracturing for shale gas exploitation in the UK

    Westaway, Robert; Younger, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    The furore that has arisen in the UK over induced microseismicity from ‘fracking’ for shale gas development, which has resulted in ground vibrations strong enough to be felt, requires the urgent development of an appropriate regulatory framework. We suggest that the existing regulatory limits applicable to quarry blasting (i.e. peak ground velocities (PGV) in the seismic wavefield incident on any residential property of 10 mm s−1 during the working day, 2 mm s−1 at night, and 4.5 mm s−11 at o...

  2. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-07-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey site test performed on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. This test completes planned screening efforts designed to guide selection of one or more units for design analysis and testing with emphasis on identification and reduction of compressor losses. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  3. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-01-24

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report presents results of design analysis performed on the TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  4. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-10-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first summarizes key results from survey site tests performed on an HBA-6 installed at Duke Energy's Bedford compressor station, and on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. The report then presents results of design analysis performed on the Bedford HBA-6 to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  5. High rate operation of micro-strip gas chambers on diamond-coated glass

    Bouclier, Roger; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Temmel, T; Cooke, R A; Donnel, S; Sastri, S A; Sonderer, N

    1996-01-01

    Very high rate operation of micro­strip gas chambers can be achieved using slightly conducting substrates. We describe preliminary measurements realized with detectors manufactured on boro-silicate glass coated, before the photo-lithographic processing, with a diamond layer having a surface resistivity of around 1014 ‡/o. Stable medium-term operation, and a rate capability largely exceeding the one obtained with identical plates manufactured on uncoated glass are demonstrated. If these results are confirmed by long-term measurements the diamond coating technology appears very attractive since it allows, with a moderate cost overhead, to use thin, commercially available glass with the required surface quality for the large-scale production of gas micro-strip detectors.

  6. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations, 1992--1995

    1996-08-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sum (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measured do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables

  7. Radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation

    Fan Guang; Wen Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact of mineral exploitation on the surrounding environment has become a public concern. This paper presents the radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation. Based on the project description and detailed investigations of surrounding environment, systematic radiation environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts are assessed during both construction and operation phase. The environmental protection measures have also been proposed. The related conclusion and measures can play an active role in copper exploitation and environmental protection. (authors)

  8. Special considerations on operating a fuel cell power plant using natural gas with marginal heating value

    Moses, L. Ng; Chien-Liang Lin [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan (China); Ya-Tang Cheng [Power Research Institute, Taiwan (China)

    1996-12-31

    In realizing new power generation technologies in Taiwan, a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant (model PC2513, ONSI Corporation) has been installed in the premises of the Power Research Institute of the Taiwan Power Company in Taipei County of Taiwan. The pipeline gas supplying to the site of this power plant has a high percentage of carbon dioxide and thus a slightly lower heating value than that specified by the manufacturer. Because of the lowering of heating value of input gas, the highest Output power from the power plant is understandably less than the rated power of 200 kW designed. Further, the transient response of the power plant as interrupted from the Grid is also affected. Since this gas is also the pipeline gas supplying to the heavily populated Taipei Municipal area, it is conceivable that the success of the operations of fuel cells using this fuel is of vital importance to the promotion of the use of this power generation technology in Taiwan. Hence, experiments were set up to assess the feasibility of this fuel cell power plant using the existing pipeline gas in this part of Taiwan where fuel cells would most likely find useful.

  9. Metrological and operational performance of measuring systems used in vehicle compressed natural gas filling stations

    Velosa, Jhonn F.; Abril, Henry; Garcia, Luis E. [CDT de GAS (Venezuela). Gas Technological Development Center Corporation

    2008-07-01

    Corporation CDT GAS financially supported by the Colombian government through COLCIENCIAS, carried out a study aimed at designing, developing and implementing in Colombia a calibration and metrological verification 'specialized service' for gas meters installed at dispensers of filling stations using compressed natural gas. The results permitted the identification of improving opportunities (in measuring systems, equipment and devices used to deliver natural gas) which are focused on achieving the highest security and reliability of trading processes of CNG for vehicles. In the development of the first stage of the project, metrological type variables were initially considered, but given the importance of the measuring system and its interaction with the various elements involving gas supply to the filling station, the scope of the work done included aspects related to the operational performance, that is, those influencing the security of the users and the metrological performance of the measuring system. The development of the second stage counted on the collaboration of national companies from the sector of CNG for vehicles, which permitted the carrying out of multiple calibrations to the measuring systems installed in the CNG dispensers, thus achieving, in a concrete way, valid and reliable technological information of the implemented procedures. (author)

  10. A model of fission gas behavior during steady-state operation

    Villalobos, A.

    1981-01-01

    A model of fission gas behavior during the steady-state operation of a nuclear reactor that uses uranium dioxide as fuel is developed. The basic physical phenomena encountered in analyzing the disposition of fission gas have been retained, but in a simplified form for ease of calculation. The analysis code, includes treatment of intragranular, grain face, and grain edge gas and release to the open spaces. The code is utilized to obtain comparisons with experimental data and to perform fuel behavior sensitivity studies. The results obtained in the sensitivity studies indicate the importance of including grain face and grain edge bubbles treatments in modeling fission gas. It is found that representation of release in different sections of the fuel pin is possible in a simple way by assuming evenly spaced bubbles on the edge, and that grain edge bubble interlinkage is a necessary condition for release to the open spaces. It is also indicated by the sensitivity studies that fission gas swelling is mainly due to grain edge bubbles. Grain face bubbles, although large in size, are few in number and contribute little to swelling. Intragranular swelling is intermediate between these two values. The resulting code can be used in predicting fuel element performance, that is necessary in nuclear fuel design, safety analysis, and interpretation of experimental data on fuel element behavior

  11. Methane emissions due to oil and natural gas operations in the Netherlands

    Oonk, J.; Vosbeek, M.E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Netherlands is the 4th largest natural gas producer, with about 4% of the total world natural gas production. Also, significant amounts of oil are extracted. For this reason it can be expected that methane emissions from oil and natural gas operations contribute significantly to total methane emissions. Estimates so far, made by both the Dutch government and the industry vary widely. A renewed estimate is made of methane emissions from oil and natural gas production, based on a detailed engineering study of sources of methane in the system and quantification of source strengths. The estimate is validated by interpretation of atmospheric measurements. 1990 methane emissions from natural gas production were estimated to be 62 to 108 kton. The main cause of methane emissions is the venting of off-gases from processes and passing-valve emissions in the off-shore. Emissions from oil production were estimated to be 14 kton, mainly caused by venting of off-gases from processes. Best feasible options for emission reduction are: identification and replacement of leaking valves, and reuse or re-compression of off-gases from processes. Both options are existing policy in the Netherlands. 23 figs., 38 tabs., 2 appendices, 53 refs

  12. Sustainable application of reciprocating gas engines operating on coal mine methane

    Lee, J.; Teo, T. [Caterpillar China Investment Co., Beijing (China); Tnay, C.H. [Westrac Inc., Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    According to the World Coal Institute, coal provides 25 per cent of worldwide primary energy needs and generates 40 per cent of the world's electricity. China produces the largest amount of hard coal. The anthropogenic release of methane (CH{sub 4}) into the environment is a byproduct of the coal mining process. The global warming potential of this methane continues to draw attention around the world. In particular, China's government has recognized the need for environmental responsibility in the pursuit of greater power production. The Kyoto Protocol requires developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and targets must be met within a five-year time frame between 2008 and 2012. Sequestering coal mine methane (CMM) as an alternative fuel for reciprocating gas engine generator sets is a mature and proven technology for greenhouse gas mitigation. Prior to commissioning CMM-fueled power systems, the methane gas composition must be evaluated. An integrated systems approach can then be used to develop a CMM-fueled power project. This paper discussed the sustainable application of reciprocating gas engines operating on coal mine methane. It discussed the Kyoto Protocol, clean development mechanism, and CMM as compared to other fuel sources. It was concluded that there is considerable opportunity for growth in the Asia-Pacific region for electric power applications using CMM. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems at high level liquid waste conditioning facilities

    1988-01-01

    The immobilization of high level liquid wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels is of great interest and serious efforts are being undertaken to find a satisfactory technical solution. Volatilization of fission product elements during immobilization poses the potential for the release of radioactive substances to the environment and necessitates effective off-gas cleaning systems. This report describes typical off-gas cleaning systems used in the most advanced high level liquid waste immobilization plants and considers most of the equipment and components which can be used for the efficient retention of the aerosols and volatile contaminants. In the case of a nuclear facility consisting of several different facilities, release limits are generally prescribed for the nuclear facility as a whole. Since high level liquid waste conditioning (calcination, vitrification, etc.) facilities are usually located at fuel reprocessing sites (where the majority of the high level liquid wastes originates), the off-gas cleaning system should be designed so that the airborne radioactivity discharge of the whole site, including the emission of the waste conditioning facility, can be kept below the permitted limits. This report deals with the sources and composition of different kinds of high level liquid wastes and describes briefly the main high level liquid waste solidification processes examining the sources and characteristics of the off-gas contaminants to be retained by the off-gas cleaning system. The equipment and components of typical off-gas systems used in the most advanced (large pilot or industrial scale) high level liquid waste solidification plants are described. Safety considerations for the design and safe operation of the off-gas systems are discussed. 60 refs, 31 figs, 17 tabs

  14. Thermodynamic simulations of hydrate formation from gas mixtures in batch operations

    Kobayashi, Takehito; Mori, Yasuhiko H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the hydrate formation from mixed hydrate-forming gases such as natural gas to be converted to hydrates for the purpose of its storage and biogases from which carbon dioxide is to be separated by hydrate formation. When a batch operation is selected for processing such a gas mixture in a closed reactor, we need to predict the evolution of the thermodynamic and compositional states inside the reactor during the operation. We have contrived a simulation scheme that allows us to estimate the simultaneous changes in the composition of the residual gas, the structure of the hydrate formed and the guest composition in the hydrate, in addition to the change in the system pressure, with the progress of hydrate formation during each operation. This scheme assumes the transient hydrate forming process in a reactor during each operation to be a series of numerous equilibrium states, each slightly deviating from the preceding state. That is, a thermodynamic system composed of the contents of the reactor is assumed to be subjected to a quasi-static, irreversible change in state, instantaneously keeping itself in thermodynamic equilibrium. The paper demonstrates a simulation of a process of hydrate formation from a methane + propane mixture and compares its results to relevant experimental results reported by Uchida et al. [Uchida T, Morikawa M, Takeya S, Ikeda IY, Ohmura R, Nagao J, et al. Two-step formation of methane-propane mixed gas hydrates in a batch-type reactor. AIChE J 2004;50(2):518-23

  15. Legal preconditions for the construction and operation of district gas mains

    Joachim, H

    1977-06-01

    The course of procedure in connection with the construction of district gas mains is outlined. This includes acquisition of main rights under private law and expropriation law, special problems such as peculiarities of land or landscape, road crossings, facilities of the Federal railway, agriculture etc., operational problems such as protection zones, building territories within the area of the main layout, drainage effects, high-pressure pipes, etc.

  16. The possibilities of municipal operations to control greenhouse gas emissions of road traffic

    Saeily, S.

    2004-07-01

    Kyoto protocol obligates industrialized countries to decrease their greenhouse gas emissions averagely by 5,2 percent from the 1990 level before 2008-2012. Finland is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions to the level of year 1990 before 2008-2012. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, nitric oxide, sulphur dioxide, particles and carbon dioxide are regarded as hazardous emissions of road traffic. These gases are generated by impure burning which is generally expected. From these gases carbon dioxide is considered to be the actual greenhouse gas. Nitric oxide, vaporizing hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide are considered to be indirect greenhouse gases. 20 percent of Finland's carbon dioxide emissions comes from road traffic. Actions aimed to decrease greenhouse gas emissions can be executed at various levels. The smaller the size of an actor is, the more specific the possible actions are. The actions of public administration are based on controlling economy, traffic systems and maintenance of order. The actions of private companies and communities are based on economical profitability. Decisions of individual persons are still the most significant factor in decreasing green house gases generated by passenger traffic. In this study an operations model was developed for municipalities to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. As a case city of the study was the city of Tampere. Tampere is the third largest city in Finland and has over 15,000 employees. A more specific set of measures was introduced to three different operational units, the University Hospital of Tampere, the primary school of Tammela and the amusement park Saerkaenniemi. For each unit suitable measures were searched by studying the unit's traffic-related significance to help to decrease the unit's greenhouse gas emissions. The traffic generated by municipal operations is mainly related to commuting, work-related, customer and maintenance traffic. Measures which are

  17. Economic dispatch of a single micro-gas turbine under CHP operation

    Rist, Johannes F.; Dias, Miguel F.; Palman, Michael; Zelazo, Daniel; Cukurel, Beni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Economic dispatch of a micro gas turbine is considered for smart grid integration. •A detailed thermodynamic cycle analysis is conducted for variable load CHP operation. •Benefits are shown for case studies with real demand profiles and energy tariffs. •Optimal unit schedule can be electricity, heat, revenue or maintenance-cost driven. -- Abstract: This work considers the economic dispatch of a single micro-gas turbine under combined heat and power (CHP) operation. A detailed thermodynamic cycle analysis is conducted on a representative micro-gas turbine unit with non-constant component efficiencies and recuperator bypass. Based on partial and full load configurations, an accurate optimization model is developed for solving the economic dispatch problem of integrating the turbine into the grid. The financial benefit and viability of this approach is then examined on four detailed scenarios using real data on energy demand profiles and electricity tariffs. The analysis considers the optimal operation in a large hotel, a full-service restaurant, a small hotel, and a residential neighborhood during various seasons. The optimal schedule follows four fundamental economic drivers which are electricity, heat, revenue, and maintenance-cost driven.

  18. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction operating with jojoba methyl ester

    Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, 9 k Eltaaweniat, Nasr Road, P.O. Box 11718, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Jojoba methyl ester (JME) has been used as a renewable fuel in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in diesel engines. These studies showed that this fuel is good gas oil substitute but an increase in the nitrogenous oxides emissions was observed at all operating conditions. The aim of this study mainly was to quantify the efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when using JME fuel in a fully instrumented, two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The tests were carried out in three sections. Firstly, the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine operating with diesel fuel and JME at various speeds under full load are determined and compared. Secondly, tests were performed at constant speed with two loads to investigate the EGR effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions including nitrogenous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and exhaust gas temperatures. Thirdly, the effect of cooled EGR with high ratio at full load on engine performance and emissions was examined. The results showed that EGR is an effective technique for reducing NO{sub x} emissions with JME fuel especially in light-duty diesel engines. With the application of the EGR method, the CO and HC concentration in the engine-out emissions increased. For all operating conditions, a better trade-off between HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions can be attained within a limited EGR rate of 5-15% with very little economy penalty. (author)

  19. Critical analysis of mechanisms of incentive regulation operators of electricity and natural gas networks and infrastructures. Final report. Public version, 23 November 2015

    2015-01-01

    As the first mechanisms of incentive regulation of electricity and gas network operators have been introduced by the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE) since 2008 (the report recalls the main objectives of these mechanisms and their consequences), this report proposes a critical analysis of such mechanisms related to investments and to exploitation expenses of operators and which have been implemented in Germany, Spain, Ireland and in the United Kingdom. For each country, the report proposes a detailed description of these mechanisms for the electric power sector and the gas sector (general overview of the regulation framework, objectives, determination of the authorised income, shift processing, specific incentive mechanisms, modalities of management by the regulator), and a feedback of the different concerned actors (operators and regulators). The last part proposes a description of the status of the French regulation, and an analysis of transposition of the four foreign regulations, and states some propositions for evolutions (objectives, overview of recommended evolutions, focus on three types of regulation evolution: processing of arbitral charges, processing of other incited capital charges, processing of arbitral charges)

  20. Exploit Kit traffic analysis

    Καπίρης, Σταμάτης; Kapiris, Stamatis

    2017-01-01

    Exploit kits have become one of the most widespread and destructive threat that Internet users face on a daily basis. Since the first actor, which has been categorized as exploit kit, namely MPack, appeared in 2006, we have seen a new era on exploit kit variants compromising popular websites, infecting hosts and delivering destructive malware, following an exponentially evolvement to date. With the growing threat landscape, large enterprises to domestic networks, have starte...

  1. Exploitability Assessment with TEASER

    2017-05-01

    for architectural neutral taint analysis on top of LLVM and QEMU. POC Proof of Concept : Demonstration of an exploit on a program . vii RCE Remote Code...bug with a Proof of Concept (POC), or input to a program demonstrating the ability to use a bug to exploit the application, to demonstrate the...often leads to either computationally difficult constraint solving problems or taint explosion. Given the computational difficulty of exploit

  2. Anthropology of sexual exploitation

    Lalić Velibor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors observe sexual exploitation from an anthropological perspective. They analyze the rational, ethical, emotional and mythological dimensions of human sexuality. Consequently, after setting the phenomenon in a social and historical context, sexual exploitation is closely observed in the contemporary age. Based on thoughts of relevant thinkers, they make the conclusion that the elimination of sexual exploitation is not an utterly legal issue, but political and economical issues as well. Namely, legal norms are not sufficient to overcome sexual exploitation, but, political and economical relationships in contemporary societies, which will be based on sincere equal opportunities must be established.

  3. Exploitation rates of two benthic resources across management regimes in central Chile: Evidence of illegal fishing in artisanal fisheries operating in open access areas

    Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Subida, Maria Dulce; Fernandez, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to quantify the impacts of artisanal fisheries and define management practices that allow for the recovery and conservation of exploited stocks. The extent of illegal catch is particularly critical as a driver of overexploitation in artisanal fisheries. However, the lack of data at proper spatial scales limits the evaluation of illegal fishing and effectiveness of management practices. We used a catch curve analysis to estimate total instantaneous mortality as a proxy of fishing pressure in the artisanal benthic fishery in central Chile. We compared the patterns of total mortality in fishing grounds under the well-studied territorial use rights for fisheries system (TURF) immersed in a landscape of open access areas (OAA; no access restriction), and from these patterns determined the extent of illegal fishing in open access areas focusing on the two most frequently extracted resources: locos (Concholepas concholepas) and keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.). The beauty of this seascape is the presence of the no-take (NT) area of Las Cruces as control (no fishing), allowing us to estimate natural mortality. Loco exploitation is banned in OAAs. However, loco mortality in OAAs was 92% higher than in the NT, and 42% higher than in TURFs. Keyhole limpet mortality was similar between TURFs and the NT, but doubled in OAAs. We also found strong differences in mortality among fishing grounds with the same level of protection (i.e. TURFs), and over time. Our results highlight (a) the high level of illegal fishing that may occur in artisanal fisheries under traditional management regimes, and (b) that TURFs can be effective to reduce fishing mortality. However, large variability among TURFs suggests the need for a deeper understanding of the drivers of success of TURFs. PMID:28666013

  4. Exploitation rates of two benthic resources across management regimes in central Chile: Evidence of illegal fishing in artisanal fisheries operating in open access areas.

    Andreu-Cazenave, Miguel; Subida, Maria Dulce; Fernandez, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to quantify the impacts of artisanal fisheries and define management practices that allow for the recovery and conservation of exploited stocks. The extent of illegal catch is particularly critical as a driver of overexploitation in artisanal fisheries. However, the lack of data at proper spatial scales limits the evaluation of illegal fishing and effectiveness of management practices. We used a catch curve analysis to estimate total instantaneous mortality as a proxy of fishing pressure in the artisanal benthic fishery in central Chile. We compared the patterns of total mortality in fishing grounds under the well-studied territorial use rights for fisheries system (TURF) immersed in a landscape of open access areas (OAA; no access restriction), and from these patterns determined the extent of illegal fishing in open access areas focusing on the two most frequently extracted resources: locos (Concholepas concholepas) and keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.). The beauty of this seascape is the presence of the no-take (NT) area of Las Cruces as control (no fishing), allowing us to estimate natural mortality. Loco exploitation is banned in OAAs. However, loco mortality in OAAs was 92% higher than in the NT, and 42% higher than in TURFs. Keyhole limpet mortality was similar between TURFs and the NT, but doubled in OAAs. We also found strong differences in mortality among fishing grounds with the same level of protection (i.e. TURFs), and over time. Our results highlight (a) the high level of illegal fishing that may occur in artisanal fisheries under traditional management regimes, and (b) that TURFs can be effective to reduce fishing mortality. However, large variability among TURFs suggests the need for a deeper understanding of the drivers of success of TURFs.

  5. Exploitation rates of two benthic resources across management regimes in central Chile: Evidence of illegal fishing in artisanal fisheries operating in open access areas.

    Miguel Andreu-Cazenave

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to quantify the impacts of artisanal fisheries and define management practices that allow for the recovery and conservation of exploited stocks. The extent of illegal catch is particularly critical as a driver of overexploitation in artisanal fisheries. However, the lack of data at proper spatial scales limits the evaluation of illegal fishing and effectiveness of management practices. We used a catch curve analysis to estimate total instantaneous mortality as a proxy of fishing pressure in the artisanal benthic fishery in central Chile. We compared the patterns of total mortality in fishing grounds under the well-studied territorial use rights for fisheries system (TURF immersed in a landscape of open access areas (OAA; no access restriction, and from these patterns determined the extent of illegal fishing in open access areas focusing on the two most frequently extracted resources: locos (Concholepas concholepas and keyhole limpets (Fissurella spp.. The beauty of this seascape is the presence of the no-take (NT area of Las Cruces as control (no fishing, allowing us to estimate natural mortality. Loco exploitation is banned in OAAs. However, loco mortality in OAAs was 92% higher than in the NT, and 42% higher than in TURFs. Keyhole limpet mortality was similar between TURFs and the NT, but doubled in OAAs. We also found strong differences in mortality among fishing grounds with the same level of protection (i.e. TURFs, and over time. Our results highlight (a the high level of illegal fishing that may occur in artisanal fisheries under traditional management regimes, and (b that TURFs can be effective to reduce fishing mortality. However, large variability among TURFs suggests the need for a deeper understanding of the drivers of success of TURFs.

  6. Operational analysis of a small-capacity cogeneration system with a gas hydrate battery

    Obara, Shin'ya; Kikuchi, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Kyosuke; Kawai, Masahito; Kashiwaya, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    In a cold region during winter, energy demand for residential heating is high and energy saving, the discharge of greenhouse gases, and air pollution are all of significant concern. We investigated the fundamental characteristics of an energy storage system with a GHB (gas hydrate battery) in which heat cycle by a unique change in state of gas hydrate operates using the low-temperature ambient air of a cold region. The proposed system with the GHB can respond to a high heat to power ratio caused by a small-scale CGS (cogeneration system) that is powered by a gas engine, a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, or a solid oxide fuel cell. In this paper, we explain how the relation between fossil fuel consumption and heat to power ratio of the different types of systems differ. We investigated the proposed system by laboratory experiments and analysis of the characteristics of power load and heat load of such a system in operation in Kitami, a cold district in Japan. If a hydrate formation space of 2 m 3 is introduced into the proposed system, 48%–52% (namely, power rate by green energy) of total electric power consumption is supplied by the GHB. - Highlights: • Heat cycle by unique change in state of gas hydrate was developed. • Characteristics of energy storage equipment using CO 2 hydrate were investigated. • Hybrid system of small-scale cogeneration and gas hydrate heat cycle was examined. • Proposed system can reduce fuel consumption during winter in a cold region

  7. Evaluation of the condensation potential of hydrocarbon fluids in the national gas pipeline system; establishing of adequate operational schemes

    Pineda Gomez, Cesar Augusto; Arenas Mantilla, Oscar Armando; Santos Santos, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    For transporting industry of natural gas by pipeline systems, it's vital to guarantee the integrity of their lines, in order to decrease operational costs and prevent accidents that may damaging against people's safety, the environment or the infrastructure itself. in this paper it's presented the principal compounds from o technical study about principal net and its distribution branches to municipalities of the National System Transport of Natural Gas pointed by the Colombian Natural Gas Company - ECOGAS, (specifically the Cusiana - Porvenir - La Belleza, La Belleza - Cogua, La Belleza - Vasconia, Vasconia - Neiva and Vasconia - Cali gas lines, (see Figure 1). The principal objective is evaluate the possible condensation of hydrocarbons fluids inside gas lines, due to compositional characteristics of the gas, the different topographical conditions along the gas line route and the actual and future operational conditions to be implemented in the system. The evaluation performed over this gas streams, generates transcendental information in the creation of safe operational limits that minimizing the existence of obstacle problems and damages over pipeline systems and process equipment, due to the presence of liquid hydrocarbons inside these flow lines. This article has been prepared in four sections in order to guarantee easy access to each one of the steps involved in the study. Section one presents the compositional and thermodynamic analysis of feeding gas streams; in section two, its presented the required information for modeling gas lines with definition of the gas pipeline numerical simulation model in stable state; section three presents the sensitivity analysis for gas variation upon loading gas composition at the inlet point of the system, variation of the operational conditions (flow, pressure and gas temperature) and environment temperatures for the different inlet points (branches) with verification of compliance of the Unique Transport Regulation

  8. The Assessment of Instruments for Detecting Surface Water Spills Associated with Oil and Gas Operations

    Harris, Aubrey E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hopkinson, Leslie [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Soeder, Daniel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Surface water and groundwater risks associated with unconventional oil and gas development result from potential spills of the large volumes of chemicals stored on-site during drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations, and the return to the surface of significant quantities of saline water produced during oil or gas well production. To better identify and mitigate risks, watershed models and tools are needed to evaluate the dispersion of pollutants in possible spill scenarios. This information may be used to determine the placement of in-stream water-quality monitoring instruments and to develop early-warning systems and emergency plans. A chemical dispersion model has been used to estimate the contaminant signal for in-stream measurements. Spills associated with oil and gas operations were identified within the Susquehanna River Basin Commission’s Remote Water Quality Monitoring Network. The volume of some contaminants was found to be sufficient to affect the water quality of certain drainage areas. The most commonly spilled compounds and expected peak concentrations at monitoring stations were used in laboratory experiments to determine if a signal could be detected and positively identified using standard water-quality monitoring equipment. The results were compared to historical data and baseline observations of water quality parameters, and showed that the chemicals tested do commonly affect water quality parameters. This work is an effort to demonstrate that hydrologic and water quality models may be applied to improve the placement of in-stream water quality monitoring devices. This information may increase the capability of early-warning systems to alert community health and environmental agencies of surface water spills associated with unconventional oil and gas operations.

  9. Low Power Operation of Temperature-Modulated Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Javier Burgués

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications based on gas sensing present new opportunities for low-cost air quality monitoring, safety, and healthcare. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOX gas sensors represent the most prominent technology for integration into portable devices, such as smartphones and wearables. Traditionally, MOX sensors have been continuously powered to increase the stability of the sensing layer. However, continuous power is not feasible in many battery-operated applications due to power consumption limitations or the intended intermittent device operation. This work benchmarks two low-power, duty-cycling, and on-demand modes against the continuous power one. The duty-cycling mode periodically turns the sensors on and off and represents a trade-off between power consumption and stability. On-demand operation achieves the lowest power consumption by powering the sensors only while taking a measurement. Twelve thermally modulated SB-500-12 (FIS Inc. Jacksonville, FL, USA sensors were exposed to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (0–9 ppm with environmental conditions, such as ambient humidity (15–75% relative humidity and temperature (21–27 °C, varying within the indicated ranges. Partial Least Squares (PLS models were built using calibration data, and the prediction error in external validation samples was evaluated during the two weeks following calibration. We found that on-demand operation produced a deformation of the sensor conductance patterns, which led to an increase in the prediction error by almost a factor of 5 as compared to continuous operation (2.2 versus 0.45 ppm. Applying a 10% duty-cycling operation of 10-min periods reduced this prediction error to a factor of 2 (0.9 versus 0.45 ppm. The proposed duty-cycling powering scheme saved up to 90% energy as compared to the continuous operating mode. This low-power mode may be advantageous for applications that do not require continuous and periodic measurements, and which can tolerate

  10. Low Power Operation of Temperature-Modulated Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors.

    Burgués, Javier; Marco, Santiago

    2018-01-25

    Mobile applications based on gas sensing present new opportunities for low-cost air quality monitoring, safety, and healthcare. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOX) gas sensors represent the most prominent technology for integration into portable devices, such as smartphones and wearables. Traditionally, MOX sensors have been continuously powered to increase the stability of the sensing layer. However, continuous power is not feasible in many battery-operated applications due to power consumption limitations or the intended intermittent device operation. This work benchmarks two low-power, duty-cycling, and on-demand modes against the continuous power one. The duty-cycling mode periodically turns the sensors on and off and represents a trade-off between power consumption and stability. On-demand operation achieves the lowest power consumption by powering the sensors only while taking a measurement. Twelve thermally modulated SB-500-12 (FIS Inc. Jacksonville, FL, USA) sensors were exposed to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (0-9 ppm) with environmental conditions, such as ambient humidity (15-75% relative humidity) and temperature (21-27 °C), varying within the indicated ranges. Partial Least Squares (PLS) models were built using calibration data, and the prediction error in external validation samples was evaluated during the two weeks following calibration. We found that on-demand operation produced a deformation of the sensor conductance patterns, which led to an increase in the prediction error by almost a factor of 5 as compared to continuous operation (2.2 versus 0.45 ppm). Applying a 10% duty-cycling operation of 10-min periods reduced this prediction error to a factor of 2 (0.9 versus 0.45 ppm). The proposed duty-cycling powering scheme saved up to 90% energy as compared to the continuous operating mode. This low-power mode may be advantageous for applications that do not require continuous and periodic measurements, and which can tolerate slightly higher

  11. Trends in the design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems in nuclear facilities

    First, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    Trends in the design and operation of off-gas cleaning systems in nuclear facilities reflect the normal development by manufacturers of new and improved equipment and the demand for more safety, greater reliability, and higher collection efficiency as an aftermath of the well publicized accident at Three Mile Island. The latter event has to be viewed as a watershed in the history of off-gas treatment requirements for nuclear facilities. It is too soon to predict what these will be with any degree of assurance but it seems reasonable to expect greatly increased interest in containment venting systems for light water and LMFBR nuclear power reactors and more stringent regulatory requirements for auxiliary off-gas cleaning systems. Although chemical and waste handling plants share few characteristics with reactors other than the presence of radioactive materials, often in large amounts, tighter requirements for handling reactor off-gases will surely be transferred to other kinds of nuclear facilities without delay. Currently employed nuclear off-gas cleaning technology was largely developed and applied during the decade of the 1950s. It is regrettable that the most efficient and most economical off-gas treatment systems do not always yield the best waste forms for storage or disposal. It is even more regrettable that waste management has ceased to be solely a technical matter but has been transformed instead into a highly charged political posture of major importance in many western nations. Little reinforcement has been provided by detailed studies of off-gas treatment equipment failures that show that approximately 13% of over 9000 licensee event reports to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission pertained to failures in ventilating and cleaning systems and their monitoring instruments

  12. Source signature of volatile organic compounds from oil and natural gas operations in northeastern Colorado.

    Gilman, J B; Lerner, B M; Kuster, W C; de Gouw, J A

    2013-02-05

    An extensive set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was measured at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in winter 2011 in order to investigate the composition and influence of VOC emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations in northeastern Colorado. BAO is 30 km north of Denver and is in the southwestern section of Wattenberg Field, one of Colorado's most productive O&NG fields. We compare VOC concentrations at BAO to those of other U.S. cities and summertime measurements at two additional sites in northeastern Colorado, as well as the composition of raw natural gas from Wattenberg Field. These comparisons show that (i) the VOC source signature associated with O&NG operations can be clearly differentiated from urban sources dominated by vehicular exhaust, and (ii) VOCs emitted from O&NG operations are evident at all three measurement sites in northeastern Colorado. At BAO, the reactivity of VOCs with the hydroxyl radical (OH) was dominated by C(2)-C(6) alkanes due to their remarkably large abundances (e.g., mean propane = 27.2 ppbv). Through statistical regression analysis, we estimate that on average 55 ± 18% of the VOC-OH reactivity was attributable to emissions from O&NG operations indicating that these emissions are a significant source of ozone precursors.

  13. Strategy for monitoring and ensuring safe operation of Russian gas transportation systems

    Dudin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors examined the legislative framework of the Russian Federation operating in the field of industrial safety, and described how to obtain a license to operate hazardous production facilities. The paper demonstrates that the importance should be given to the quality and completeness of the background information, as well as the choice of inspection strategy in evaluating the technical condition of the line section of main gas pipelines. As a part of a package of measures to ensure industrial safety and technical reliability of existing gas pipelines it is proposed to carry out conditioning of their line sections. The paper describes general requirements for pipeline inspection, which include: detection efficiency of dangerous damages and major leaks, maximum accuracy of detection of the defect location, continuity of monitoring throughout the entire range of operation modes of the pipeline, cost recovery at the stages of development and operation of control systems, forecasting the state of the pipeline and the effects of accidents. In practice, these parameters have the prevailing significance.

  14. Simulation of the operation of an industrial wet flue gas desulfurization system

    Kallinikos, L.E.; Farsari, E.I.; Spartinos, D.N.; Papayannakos, N.G.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the simulation of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) unit with spray tower of a power plant is presented, aiming at an efficient follow-up and the optimization of the FGD system operation. The dynamic model developed to simulate the performance of the system has been validated with operation data collected over a long period of time. All the partaking physical and chemical processes like the limestone dissolution, the crystallization of calcium sulfite and gypsum and the oxidation of sulfite ions have been taken into account for the development of the simulation model while the gas absorption by the liquid droplets was based on the two-film theory. The effect of the mean diameter of the slurry droplets on the performance of the system was examined, as it was used as an index factor of the normal operation of the system. The operation limits of the system were investigated on the basis of the model developed. It is concluded that the model is capable of simulating the system for significantly different SO 2 loads and that the absorption rate of SO 2 is strongly affected by the liquid dispersion in the tower. (author)

  15. Gas-fired power plants: Investment timing, operating flexibility and CO2 capture

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Naesaekkaelae, Erkka

    2010-01-01

    We analyze investments in gas-fired power plants based on stochastic electricity and natural gas prices. A simple but realistic two-factor model is used for price processes, enabling analysis of the value of operating flexibility, the opportunity to abandon the capital equipment, as well as finding thresholds for energy prices for which it is optimal to enter into the investment. We develop a method to compute upper and lower bounds on plant values and investment threshold levels. Our case study uses representative power plant investment and operations data, and historical forward prices from well-functioning energy markets. We find that when the decision to build is considered, the abandonment option does not have significant value, whereas the operating flexibility and time-to-build option have significant effect on the building threshold. Furthermore, the joint value of the operating flexibility and the abandonment option is much smaller than the sum of their separate values, because both are options to shut down. The effects of emission costs on the value of installing CO 2 capture technology are also analyzed.

  16. Systemic model for the aid for operating of the reactor Siloe; Modelisation systeme pour l`aide a l`exploitation du reacteur de recherche Siloe

    Royer, J.C.; Moulin, V.; Monge, F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Baradel, C. [ITMI APTOR, 38 - Meylan (France)

    1995-12-31

    The Service of the Reactor Siloe (CEA/DRN/DRE/SRS), fully aware of the abilities and knowledge of his teams in the field of research reactor operating, has undertaken a project of knowledge engineering in this domain. The following aims have been defined: knowledge capitalization for the installation in order to insure its perenniality and valorization, elaboration of a project for the aid of the reactor operators. This article deals with the different actions by the SRS to reach the aims: realization of a technical model for the operation of the Siloe reactor, development of a knowledge-based system for the aid for operating. These actions based on a knowledge engineering methodology, SAGACE, and using industrial tools will lead to an amelioration of the security and the operating of the Siloe reactor. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Exploitation and disadvantage

    Ferguson, B.

    2016-01-01

    According to some accounts of exploitation, most notably Ruth Sample's (2003) degradation-based account and Robert Goodin's (1987) vulnerability-based account, exploitation occurs when an advantaged party fails to constrain their advantage in light of another's disadvantage, regardless of the cause

  18. EXPLOITATION OF GRANITE BOULDER

    Ivan Cotman

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Preliminary report of a gas conditioner to improve operational reliability of cryotherapy in developing countries

    Broekhuizen Fredrik

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryotherapy is a safe, affordable, and effective method of treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In some low-resource settings, environmental conditions or qualities of the refrigerant gas can lead to blockage of cryotherapy equipment, terminating treatment. A prototype of a gas conditioner to prevent operational failure was designed, built, and field tested. Methods The prototype conditioner device consists of an expansion chamber that filters and dries the refrigerant gas. Users in Peru and Kenya reported on their experience with the prototype conditioner. In Ghana, simulated cryotherapy procedures were used to test the effects of the prototype conditioner, as well as the commonly used "cough technique." Results Anecdotal reports from field use of the device were favorable. During simulated cryotherapy, the prevalence of blockage during freezing were 0% (0/25 with the device alone, 23.3% (7/30 with the cough technique alone, 5.9% (1/17 with both, and 55.2% (16/29 with neither (Pearson's Chi square = 26.6, df = 3, p Conclusion This prototype design of a cryotherapy gas conditioner is a potential solution for low-resource settings that are experiencing cryotherapy device malfunction.

  20. Environmental issues in oil and gas operations in Yukon and in the N.W.T

    MacWilliam, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Companies planning an expansion into the two territories ought to examine the way each territory deals with potential environmental issues such as spills, releases, contaminated sites and the reclamation of land. Recent legislation has provided each territory with a certain amount of autonomy, which includes the ability to oversee environmental protection. The Yukon, in particular, has considerable freedom in addressing environmental issues relating to oil and gas activities. Both territories are subject to the input and approval of the federal government and First Nations citizens where their respective interests or lands are involved. An overview is included of the regulation of environmental matters north of the 60th parallel. Although the expansion of oil and gas companies into the two territories 'north of 60' offers new opportunities, operators must consider the potential for environmental issues such as spills, releases, site contamination and reclamation of land. In the Yukon where the government has assumed jurisdiction to regulate oil and gas resources, it is implementing a comprehensive regime to deal with environmental issues, at first, in draft form. In contrast, in the N.W.T. the federal government retains considerable control over gas and oil rights and the consequent environmental issues, and, accordingly, it is essential to be aware of federal environmental regulations for the time being

  1. Increasing operations profitability using an end-to-end, wireless internet, gas monitoring system

    McDougall, M. [Northrock Resources Ltd., AB (Canada); Benterud, K. [zed.i solutions, inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    Implementation by Northrock Resources Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Unocal Corporation, of a fully integrated end-to-end gas measurement and production analysis system, is discussed. The system, dubbed Smart-Alek(TM), utilizes public wireless communications and a web browser only delivery system to provide seamless well visibility to a desk-top computer. Smart-Alek(TM) is an example of a new type of end-to-end electronic gas flow measurement system, known as FINE(TM), which is an acronym for Field Intelligence Network and End-User Interface. The system delivers easy-to-use, complete, reliable and cost effective production information, far more effective than is possible to obtain with conventional SCADA technology. By installing the system, Northrock was able to increase gas volumes with more accurate electronic flow measurement in place of mechanical charts, with very low technical maintenance, and at a reduced operating cost. It is emphasized that deploying the technology alone will produce only partial benefits; to realize full benefits it is also essential to change grass roots operating practices, aiming at timely decision-making at the field level. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Optimal operation of a micro-combined cooling, heating and power system driven by a gas engine

    Kong, X.Q.; Wang, R.Z.; Li, Y.; Huang, X.H.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the problem of energy management and optimal operation of cogeneration system for micro-combined cooling, heating and power production (CCHP). The energy system mainly consists of a gas engine, an adsorption chiller, a gas boiler, a heat exchanger and an electric chiller. On the basis of an earlier experimental research of the micro-CCHP system, a non-linear-programming cost-minimization optimization model is presented to determine the optimum operational strategies for the system. It is shown that energy management and optimal operation of the micro-CCHP system is dependent upon load conditions to be satisfied and energy cost. In view of energy cost, it would not be optimal to operate the gas engine when the electric-to-gas cost ratio (EGCR) is very low. With higher EGCR, the optimum operational strategy of the micro-CCHP system is independent of energy cost

  3. Toho Gas accepts the challenge of operational reform creation of an integrated OA environment

    Kato, Hisaatsu; Ito, Mari; Goto, Akihito

    1997-01-01

    Toho Gas Co., Ltd. is Japan's third largest city gas supplier. In response to changes in the industrial environment, the company began the Integrated OA Project in 1994 promoting use of information technology while reforming its systems and culture. We made a proposal to distribute one personal computer connected to a company-wide network to each office worker. In addition, we attached importance to the creation of a database, which can integrate all information systems with a flexible structure and also play a central role in end user computing. A data model for the entire company has been already made and implemented into some operational systems and data-warehouses. Furthermore, to reform our business we are offering incremental goals, including the first step such as achieving a paper less working environment with a little effort. This methodology has achieved a great success. In the near future, we will expand the infrastructure with mobile computers and implementation of a database. (au)

  4. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode.

    Poehlmann, Flavio R; Cappelli, Mark A; Rieker, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  5. Sensitive resonant gas sensor operating in air with metal organic frameworks coating

    Jaber, Nizar; Ilyas, Saad; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    We report a practical resonant gas sensor that is uniformly coated with metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and excited near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of the squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic force electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOFs functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  6. Sensitive resonant gas sensor operating in air with metal organic frameworks coating

    Jaber, Nizar

    2017-08-09

    We report a practical resonant gas sensor that is uniformly coated with metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and excited near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of the squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic force electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOFs functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  7. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches with emphasis on efficiency of operation

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The efficient operation of a spark gap closing switch requires a gaseous medium with large breakdown strength, low conduction voltage, and a short formative time lag. Gas properties necessary to achieve these requirements are identified and discussed. Based on available knowledge of such properties, a number of binary (e.g., c-C 4 F 8 , or l-C 3 F 6 , or n-C 4 F 10 , or C 3 F 8 , or C 6 F 6 in Ar or He or H 2 ) and ternary gas mixtures (e.g., c-C 4 F 8 , or n-C 4 F 10 , or C 3 F 8 in Ar or He + C 2 H 2 or another low ionization onset additive) have been identified which may be suitable for use in spark gap closing switches

  8. Lexicon on automatic network operation. 1, computing and electronics. Lexique de l'exploitation automatisee du reseau. Fascicule 1: informatique et electronique

    1986-01-01

    This bilingual dictionary covers terminology relating to the operation of electric power networks. This particular volume includes those terms applicable to data processing, computing, electricity and electronics, telecommunications, and related equipment and processes. It is intended for use by specialists working in the field of technical specifications and in computerized network operation systems as well as for use by those working with such systems. It is in two parts: French to English and English to French.

  9. High pressure operation of tubular solid oxide fuel cells and their intergration with gas turbines

    Haynes, C.; Wepfer, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fossil fuels continue to be used at a rate greater than that of their natural formation, and the current byproducts from their use are believed to have a detrimental effect on the environment (e.g. global warming). There is thus a significant impetus to have cleaner, more efficient fuel consumption alternatives. Recent progress has led to renewed vigor in the development of fuel cell technology, which has been shown to be capable of producing high efficiencies with relatively benign exhaust products. The tubular solid oxide fuel cell developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation has shown significant promise. Modeling efforts have been and are underway to optimize and better understand this fuel cell technology. Thus far, the bulk of modeling efforts has been for operation at atmospheric pressure. There is now interest in developing high-efficiency integrated gas turbine/solid oxide fuel cell systems. Such operation of fuel cells would obviously occur at higher pressures. The fuel cells have been successfully modeled under high pressure operation and further investigated as integrated components of an open loop gas turbine cycle.

  10. Emissions from oil and gas operations in the United States and their air quality implications.

    Allen, David T

    2016-06-01

    The energy supply infrastructure in the United States has been changing dramatically over the past decade. Increased production of oil and natural gas, particularly from shale resources using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, made the United States the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas in 2014. This review examines air quality impacts, specifically, changes in greenhouse gas, criteria air pollutant, and air toxics emissions from oil and gas production activities that are a result of these changes in energy supplies and use. National emission inventories indicate that volatile organic compound (VOC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from oil and gas supply chains in the United States have been increasing significantly, whereas emission inventories for greenhouse gases have seen slight declines over the past decade. These emission inventories are based on counts of equipment and operational activities (activity factors), multiplied by average emission factors, and therefore are subject to uncertainties in these factors. Although uncertainties associated with activity data and missing emission source types can be significant, multiple recent measurement studies indicate that the greatest uncertainties are associated with emission factors. In many source categories, small groups of devices or sites, referred to as super-emitters, contribute a large fraction of emissions. When super-emitters are accounted for, multiple measurement approaches, at multiple scales, produce similar results for estimated emissions. Challenges moving forward include identifying super-emitters and reducing their emission magnitudes. Work done to date suggests that both equipment malfunction and operational practices can be important. Finally, although most of this review focuses on emissions from energy supply infrastructures, the regional air quality implications of some coupled energy production and use scenarios are examined. These case studies suggest that both

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  12. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    Vaganova, N. A., E-mail: vna@imm.uran.ru [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Filimonov, M. Yu., E-mail: fmy@imm.uran.ru [Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia and Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  13. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    Krusen, III, L C [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States). Research Div.

    1997-06-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author).

  14. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    Krusen, L.C. III

    1997-01-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author)

  15. Development and optimization of operational parameters of a gas-fired baking oven

    Afolabi Tunde MORAKINYO; Babatunde OMIDIJI; Hakeem OWOLABI

    2017-01-01

    This study presented the development and optimization of operational parameters of an indigenous gas-fired bread-baking oven for small-scale entrepreneur. It is an insulated rectangular box-like chamber, made of galvanized-steel sheets and having a total dimension of 920mm×650mm×600mm. This oven consists of two baking compartments and three combustion chambers. The oven characteristics were evaluated in terms of the baking capacity, baking efficiency and weight loss of the baked bread. The ph...

  16. Vehicular fleet operation on natural gas and propane: An overview. Final research report

    Taylor, D.B.; Mahmassani, H.; Euritt, M.A.

    1992-11-01

    The report attempts to contribute to the timely area of alternative vehicular fuels. It addresses the analysis of fleet operation on alternative fuels, specifically compressed natural gas (CNG) and propane, in terms of both fleet economics and societal impacts. Comprehensive information on engine technology, fueling infrastructure design, and societal impacts are presented. An evaluation framework useful for decisions between any vehicular fuels is developed. The comprehensive fleet cost-effectiveness analysis framework used in previous Project 983 reports is discussed in great detail. This framework/model is flexible enough to allow substantial sensitivity and scenario analysis. The model is used to perform sample analyses of both fleet economic and societal impacts

  17. Development of a multi-fuel burner for operation with light oil, natural gas and low calorific value gas; Entwicklung eines Mehrstoffbrenners fuer Heizoel-, Erdgas- und Schwachgasbetrieb

    Giese, Anne; Tali, Eren [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    In the course of the AiF research project 'Development of a multi-fuel burner for operation with natural gas, light oil and low calorific value gas (MSB)' (IGF Grant No. 16202 N), various burner concepts based on the principle of continuously staged air were developed, analysed by means of computational fluid dynamics, built, investigated experimentally and finally tested at a real biomass gasifier (plant). This article describes the results of this research project. (orig.)

  18. The petroleum explorationist's guide to contracts used in oil and gas operations, new revised 2nd edition

    Mosburg, L.G. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This book includes many materials on contracts involving natural gas (including take-or-pay litigation, regulation gas balancing, purchase and sale); drilling contracts, division orders and acquisition contracts; a new taxation section and the 1988 ASPL Model Form Operating Agreement. Also includes: Side-byside comparison of the 1982-1989 model forms; COPAS accounting procedure, support and farmount agreements, Area of Mutual Interest provisions, seismic options, structuring considerations, AAPL model from operating agreement, and much more exclamation point

  19. Poverty-Exploitation-Alienation.

    Bronfenbrenner, Martin

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how knowledge derived from the discipline of economics can be used to help shed light on social problems such as poverty, exploitation, and alienation, and can help decision makers form policy to minimize these and similar problems. (DB)

  20. Prediction of knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine

    Soylu, Seref

    2005-01-01

    Computer models of engine processes are valuable tools for predicting and analyzing engine performance and allow exploration of many engine design alternatives in an inexpensive fashion. In the present work, a zero-dimensional, two zone thermodynamic model was used to determine the knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine. Experimentally based burning rate models were used for flame initiation and propagation calculations. A knock model was incorporated with the zero-dimensional model. Comparison of the measured and calculated cylinder pressure data indicated that the model is able to match the measured cylinder pressure data with less than 8% error in magnitudes if the computations are started at the experimental spark timing. The knock predictions agreed with the measurements also. With the established knock model, it is possible not only to investigate whether knock is observed with changing operating and design parameters, but also to evaluate their effects on the maximum possible knock intensity

  1. Hydrogen and Hydrogen/Natural Gas Station and Vehicle Operations - 2006 Summary Report

    Francfort; Donald Karner; Roberta Brayer

    2006-09-01

    This report is a summary of the operations and testing of internal combustion engine vehicles that were fueled with 100% hydrogen and various blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (HCNG). It summarizes the operations of the Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which produces, compresses, and dispenses hydrogen fuel. Other testing activities, such as the destructive testing of a CNG storage cylinder that was used for HCNG storage, are also discussed. This report highlights some of the latest technology developments in the use of 100% hydrogen fuels in internal combustion engine vehicles. Reports are referenced and WWW locations noted as a guide for the reader that desires more detailed information. These activities are conducted by Arizona Public Service, Electric Transportation Applications, the Idaho National Laboratory, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  2. "Diamond" over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers for high rate operation

    Barr, A J; Bouclier, Roger; Capéans-Garrido, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Manzin, G; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    We describe the recent developments on the diamond-like carbon (DLC) over-coated Microstrip Gas Chambers made on drawn glass substrates. MSGC surface coating with thin DLC layer of stable and controlled resistivity was proposed to overcome the limitation of detector operation due to surface charging-up under avalanches. This brings also advantages for the detector manufacturing technology. The thin layer, deposited on top of a manufactured MSGC (over-coating), demonstrates excellent mechanical properties and very good stability. We report on recent measurements with DLC over-coated MSGCs of various surface resistivities (ranging from 1013W/r to 1016W/r) on D-263 and AF45 glass substrates. Over-coated MSGCs exhibit good rate capability for the resistivity of the surface around 1015W/r. Stable operation up to 50 mC/cm of accumulated charge from avalanches has been demonstrated.

  3. An experimental study of the stable and unstable operation of an LPP gas turbine combustor

    Dhanuka, Sulabh Kumar

    A study was performed to better understand the stable operation of an LPP combustor and formulate a mechanism behind the unstable operation. A unique combustor facility was developed at the University of Michigan that incorporates the latest injector developed by GE Aircraft Engines and enables operation at elevated pressures with preheated air at flow-rates reflective of actual conditions. The large optical access has enabled the use of a multitude of state-of-the-art laser diagnostics such as PIV and PLIF, and has shed invaluable light not only into the GE injector specifically but also into gas turbine combustors in general. Results from Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) have illustrated the role of velocity, instantaneous vortices, and key recirculation zones that are all critical to the combustor's operation. It was found that considerable differences exist between the iso-thermal and reacting flows, and between the instantaneous and mean flow fields. To image the flame, Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) of the formaldehyde radical was successfully utilized for the first time in a Jet-A flame. Parameters regarding the flame's location and structure have been obtained that assist in interpreting the velocity results. These results have also shown that some of the fuel injected from the main fuel injectors actually reacts in the diffusion flame of the pilot. The unstable operation of the combustor was studied in depth to obtain the stability limits of the combustor, behavior of the flame dynamics, and frequencies of the oscillations. Results from simultaneous pressure and high speed chemiluminescence images have shown that the low frequency dynamics can be characterized as flashback oscillations. The results have also shown that the stability of the combustor can be explained by simple and well established premixed flame stability mechanisms. This study has allowed the development of a model that describes the instability mechanism and accurately

  4. Microstructural evolution and deformation features in gas turbine blades operated in-service

    Sun, Fei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Tong, Jinyan [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Gas turbine blades operated in-service have been investigated. • Two primary MC decomposition reactions take place during servicing. • Deformation features during servicing have been analyzed. - Abstract: The nickel based superalloy GH4037 is employed in gas turbine blades because of its high temperature strength and oxidation resistance. Microstructural evolution and deformation features in gas turbine blades after 1600 h service have been investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The microstructure of blade changes according to complex and comprehensive temperature and stress fields applied on it. Microstructural observations show that minor carbide precipitates dispersedly precipitate in the matrix. Two MC decomposition reactions occur: MC + γ → M{sub 23}C{sub 6} + γ′ and MC + γ → M{sub 23}C{sub 6} + η. Blocky, closely spaced M{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles continuously distribute along grain boundaries. The main deformation features, such as slip bands, APB-coupled dislocation pairs, stacking faults bound by partial dislocations and deformation twinning, have also been analyzed in terms of fundamental deformation mechanisms and environmental effects.

  5. Development of Diesel Engine Operated Forklift Truck for Explosive Gas Atmospheres

    Vishwakarma, Rajendra Kumar; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Ahirwal, Bhagirath; Sinha, Amalendu

    2018-02-01

    For the present study, a prototype diesel engine operated Forklift truck of 2 t capacity is developed for explosive gas atmosphere. The parts of the Forklift truck are assessed against risk of ignition of the explosive gases, vapors or mist grouped in Gr. IIA and having ignition temperature more than 200°C. Identification of possible sources of ignition and their control or prevention is the main objective of this work. The design transformation of a standard Forklift truck into a special Forklift truck is made on prototype basis. The safety parameters of the improved Forklift truck are discussed in this paper. The specially designed Forklift truck is useful in industries where explosive atmospheres may present during normal working conditions and risk of explosion is a concern during handling or transportation of materials. This indigenous diesel engine based Forklift truck for explosive gas atmosphere classified as Zone 1 and Zone 2 area and gas group IIA is developed first time in India in association with the Industry.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine systems operating with various biofuels

    Patel, H.C.; Woudstra, T.; Aravind, P.V. [Process and Energy Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, Section Energy Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) systems provide a thermodynamically high efficiency alternative for power generation from biofuels. In this study biofuels namely methane, ethanol, methanol, hydrogen, and ammonia are evaluated exergetically with respect to their performance at system level and in system components like heat exchangers, fuel cell, gas turbine, combustor, compressor, and the stack. Further, the fuel cell losses are investigated in detail with respect to their dependence on operating parameters such as fuel utilization, Nernst voltage, etc. as well as fuel specific parameters like heat effects. It is found that the heat effects play a major role in setting up the flows in the system and hence, power levels attained in individual components. The per pass fuel utilization dictates the efficiency of the fuel cell itself, but the system efficiency is not entirely dependent on fuel cell efficiency alone, but depends on the split between the fuel cell and gas turbine powers which in turn depends highly on the nature of the fuel and its chemistry. Counter intuitively it is found that with recycle, the fuel cell efficiency of methane is less than that of hydrogen but the system efficiency of methane is higher. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Operation modes research of liquefied natural gas storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment

    N. S. Korolev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG in the space-rocket equipment is motivated by some advantages. That is why a lot of tests and works are actively carried out now on rocket engines using liquefied natural gas.To provide the engine tests and subsequent rocket complex operation a creation of LNG storages is demanded as a part of ground processing equipment and support for their safe operation conditions.One of LNG danger factor is its low boiling temperature, and also changing the condition, density and LNG boiling temperature at storage due to evaporation of light component, namely methane. At refill of the storages having fuel remains with a new LNG portion these factors can lead to formation of the stratified macro-layers and cause a mode of the intensive mixing that is called "rollover", with almost instant evaporation of LNG big mass and sharp pressure boost, capable to result in the storage distraction with catastrophic effects.The work objectives are formulated such as a technique development for forecasting of the LNG parameters in operating storages including the rollover mode, a comparison of calculated results of the LNG parameters with the experimental data, and a definition of possible recommendations for safe operation of LNG storages as a part of the ground complexes equipment.The paper reviews 12 publications concerning the issues and proceeding processes at operation of LNG storages, including the rollover mode.To verify the reliability of process simulation results in the LNG, represented in models by the binary methane-ethane mixture the calculated values have been compared with the experimental data for a LNG storage mode in the reservoir of a ground test complex.The reliability of developed models of the heat-mass-exchange processes in stratified on density and temperature in LNG storage with emergence of conditions for the rollover mode has been verified by comparing the settlement characteristics to the published

  8. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  9. Performance and emissions of a modified small engine operated on producer gas

    Homdoung, N.; Tippayawong, N.; Dussadee, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A small agricultural diesel engine was converted into a spark ignited engine. • The modified engine operated solely on producer gas at various loads and speeds. • It run successfully at high compression ratio, without knocking. • Improvement in efficiency and specific energy consumption at higher CR was evident. - Abstract: Existing agricultural biomass may be upgraded converted to a gaseous fuel via a downdraft gasifier for spark ignition engines. In this work, a 0.6 L, naturally aspirated single cylinder compression ignition engine was converted into a spark ignition engine and coupled to a 5 kW dynamometer. The conventional swirl combustion chamber was replaced by a cavity chamber. The effect of variable compression ratios between 9.7 and 17:1, and engine speeds between 1000 and 2000 rpm and loads between 20% and 100% of engine performance were investigated in terms of engine torque, power output, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption and emissions. It was found that the modified engine was able to operate well with producer gas at higher compression ratios than with gasoline. The brake thermal efficiency was lower than the original diesel engine at 11.3%. Maximum brake power was observed to be 3.17 kW, and the best BSFC of 0.74 kg/kWh was achieved. Maximum brake thermal efficiency of 23.9% was obtained. The smoke density of the engine was lower than the diesel engine, however, CO emission was higher with similar HC emission

  10. Smart Resonant Gas Sensor and Switch Operating in Air With Metal-Organic Frameworks Coating

    Jaber, Nizar; Ilyas, Saad; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    We report a resonant gas sensor, uniformly coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), and excited it near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. Also, switching upon exceeding a threshold value is demonstrated by operating the resonator near the bifurcation point and the dynamic pull-in instabilities. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOF functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  11. Smart Resonant Gas Sensor and Switch Operating in Air With Metal-Organic Frameworks Coating

    Jaber, Nizar

    2017-11-03

    We report a resonant gas sensor, uniformly coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), and excited it near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. Also, switching upon exceeding a threshold value is demonstrated by operating the resonator near the bifurcation point and the dynamic pull-in instabilities. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOF functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  12. Analysis of hydrodynamic regimes of operation of a gas pipeline from the Samotlor field to the Nizhnevartovsk gas refinery

    Al' tshular, S A; Bragunov, N I; Ivanov, V N; Izmaylov, I Ye; Koroleva, L N

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented from studying the hydraulic losses of a gas-transport system. Oil gas in the first stage of separation of the Samotlor field according to the plan is transported on two gas pipelines to the Nizhnevartovsk and Belozersk gas refinery. On the route of the first gas pipeline in order to remove the released condensate, 12 gas-separator and condensate-settling tanks are installed. The second gas pipeline in the beginning, middle and end has asemblies for additional separation (separation (separator, drop-separator, condensate-collector). The studied material is presented in the form of the dependence of actual calculatedcoefficients of hydraulic resistance on the rate of gas supply in the range 80,000-230,000 m/sup 3//h (Re-(0.82.0) X 10/sup -6/. It has been established that with Re=1.6 X 10/sup -6/ the calculated and actual coeffic-ients of resistance become the same, while with smaller values of Re, the actual values exceed the calculated by 20-40%. In the opinion of the authors this difference is due to the effect of the liquid phase with low velocities of gas and the formation of stable foam. As a result of transillumination it was also established that the regime of flow on the ascending part is dispersion-ring and dispersion-semiring, and on the descending part stratified. Analysis of the transport of the gas-condensate stream with ring regime of flow permitted the authors to hypothesize transporting of gas without removal of the condensate. A certain increase in the coefficients of resistance for the case where the condensate is not removed from the gas pipeline is noted with experimental realization of the proposed variant. It is explained by the low velocities of gas in the beginning of the gas pipeline. It is stressed that the actual and calculated pressure differentials are distinguished less than the calculated and actual coefficients of resistance and that this indicates the practical preservation of the throughput of the gas pipeline.

  13. Effect of non-condensable gas on steady-state operation of a loop thermosyphon

    He, Jiang; Lin, Guiping; Bai, Lizhan; Miao, Jianyin; Zhang, Hongxing; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Non-condensable gas (NCG) generated inside two-phase heat transfer devices can adversely affect the thermal performance and limit the lifetime of such devices. In this work, extensive experimental investigation of the effect of NCG on the steady-state operation of an ammonia-stainless steel loop thermosyphon was conducted. In the experiments, nitrogen was injected into the loop thermosyphon as NCG, and the thermal performance of the loop thermosyphon was tested at different NCG inventories, heat loads applied to the evaporator and condenser cooling conditions, i.e. natural air cooling or circulating ethanol cooling. Experimental results reveal that NCG elevates the steady-state operating temperature of the evaporator, especially when the loop thermosyphon is operating in the low temperature range; meanwhile, the more NCG exists in the loop thermosyphon, the higher the operating temperature of the evaporator, and the lower the reservoir temperature. In addition, the existence of NCG results in the decrease of the overall thermal conductance of the loop thermosyphon, and the overall thermal conductance under the ethanol cooling condition may be even lower than that under the air cooling condition when the heat load is smaller than a certain value. Finally, the experimental results are theoretically analysed and explained. (authors)

  14. 75 FR 20271 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production...

    2010-04-19

    ... decrease in pressure, an increase in temperature, or both) from storage vessels or other low-pressure... pressures. We explain the length of time that gas may be flared or vented for each situation and clarify... the resource that is lost and the volume of greenhouse gas emissions these practices contribute to the...

  15. Natural gas distribution operation and maintenance dissemination project Kaunas City, Lithuania. Analysis, registration and recommendations on the existing Lithuanian gas measuring practice. Appendix 1

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    It is recommended that the Lithuanian Gas Industry considers: (1) To adopt a base temperature (T{sub b}) of 15 deg. C in order to uniform with the European preferable base temperature [cf. clause. 3.1]. (2) To use TC domestic gas meters at outdoor located gas meters and even when the gas meter is located just inside the exterior wall, in order to avoid too large error on the annual volume measured. Such TC meters should comply with EN 1359 clause B.23 (or alternatively the more strictly Danish type approval requirements) [cf. clause 3.2]. (3) To carry out supplementary high pressure calibration on turbine gas meters intended to be used at operating pressures of 3 or 6 bar in order to check if used makes and types are sensible to Reynolds number. If so, it would result in a measuring error at operating pressures higher than as determined by calibration with air at atmospheric pressure [cf. clause 3.3]. Similar tests should be considered for the existing Vortex gas meters. (4) To adopt the Danish legislation on legal metrology on gas meters in absence of a similar Lithuanian one due to its up to date requirements towards the distribution companies [cf. clause 3.4]. The first step towards such adoption would require a draft translation of the Danish legislation, at least into English. (5) To adopt the Danish in sevice inspection programme on domestic gas meters and on larger gas meters and gas measuring systems as well as on in-situ check of gas-volume electronic conversion devices [cf. clause 3.5.2 - 2.5.4]. The first step towards such adoption would require a draft translation of the 3 existing Danish manuals on calibration and in-situ check programmes, at least into English. Another approach would be a visit at HNG by 2-3 people from the Lithuanian Gas Industry in order to get acquainted with the Danish practice on laboratory calibration and in-situ check of gas-volume electronic conversion devices. However, it should be noticed that in-situ check measuring

  16. Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation

    Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

    1999-01-01

    On November 23, 1998, an 18,000-foot-deep wild-cat natural gas well being drilled near Bakersfield, CA blew out and caught fire. All attempts to kill this well failed, and the well continues to flow under limited control, producing large volumes of natural gas, salt water, and some oil. The oil and some of the water is being separated and trucked off site, and the remaining gas and water is being burned at the well head. A relief well is being drilled approximately one-quarter mile away in an attempt to intercept the first well. If the relief well is successful, it will be used to cement in and kill the first well. Epoch Wellsite Services, Inc., the mud-logging company for the initial well and the relief well, requested Sandia's rolling float meter (RFM) for these critical drilling operations. The RFM is being used to measure the mud outflow rate and detect kicks while drilling the relief well, which will undoubtedly encounter reservoir conditions similar to those responsible for the blow out. Based on its prior experience with the RFM, Epoch believes that it is the only instrument capable of providing the level of accuracy and response to mudflow needed to quickly detect kicks and minimize the risk of a blowout on this second critical well. In response to the urgent request from industry, Sandia and Epoch technicians installed the RFM on the relief well return line, and completed its initial calibration. The data from the RFM is displayed in real-time for the driller, the companyman, and the toolpusher via Epochs RIGWATCH Drilling Instmmentation System. The RFM has already detected several small kicks while drilling toward the annulus of the blown out well. A conventional paddle meter is located downstream of the RFM to provide redundancy and the opportunity to compare the two meters in an actual drilling operation, The relief well is nearing 14,000 feet deep, targeting an intercept of the first well near 17,600 feet. The relief well is expected to be completed in

  17. Impact of closed Brayton cycle test results on gas cooled reactor operation and safety

    Wright, St.A.; Pickard, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the measurements and model predictions for a series of tests supported by the U.S. Department of Energy that were performed using the recently constructed Sandia Brayton Loop (SBL-30). From the test results we have developed steady-state power operating curves, controls methodologies, and transient data for normal and off-normal behavior, such as loss of load events, and for decay heat removal conditions after shutdown. These tests and models show that because the turbomachinery operates off of the temperature difference (between the heat source and the heat sink), that the turbomachinery can continue to operate (off of sensible heat) for long periods of time without auxiliary power. For our test hardware, operations up to one hour have been observed. This effect can provide significant operations and safety benefits for nuclear reactors that are coupled to a Brayton cycles because the operating turbomachinery continues to provide cooling to the reactor. These capabilities mean that the decay-heat removal can be accommodated by properly managing the electrical power produced by the generator/alternator. In some conditions, it may even be possible to produce sufficient power to continue operating auxiliary systems including the waste heat circulatory system. In addition, the Brayton plant impacts the consequences of off-normal and accident events including loss of load and loss of on-site power. We have observed that for a loss of load or a loss of on-site power event, with a reactor scram, the transient consists initially of a turbomachinery speed increase to a new stable operating point. Because the turbomachinery is still spinning, the reactor is still being cooled provided the ultimate heat sink remains available. These highly desirable operational characteristics were observed in the Sandia Brayton loop. This type of behavior is also predicted by our models. Ultimately, these results provide the designers the opportunity to design gas

  18. The new Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database algorithms for AMSR2 and GMI: exploitation of the GPM observational database for operational applications

    Cinzia Marra, Anna; Casella, Daniele; Martins Costa do Amaral, Lia; Sanò, Paolo; Dietrich, Stefano; Panegrossi, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Two new precipitation retrieval algorithms for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and for the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) are presented. The algorithms are based on the Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database (CDRD) Bayesian approach and represent an evolution of the previous version applied to Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) observations, and used operationally within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF). These new products present as main innovation the use of an extended database entirely empirical, derived from coincident radar and radiometer observations from the NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory (GPM-CO) (Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar-DPR and GMI). The other new aspects are: 1) a new rain-no-rain screening approach; 2) the use of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) both in the screening approach, and in the Bayesian algorithm; 2) the use of new meteorological and environmental ancillary variables to categorize the database and mitigate the problem of non-uniqueness of the retrieval solution; 3) the development and implementations of specific modules for computational time minimization. The CDRD algorithms for AMSR2 and GMI are able to handle an extremely large observational database available from GPM-CO and provide the rainfall estimate with minimum latency, making them suitable for near-real time hydrological and operational applications. As far as CDRD for AMSR2, a verification study over Italy using ground-based radar data and over the MSG full disk area using coincident GPM-CO/AMSR2 observations has been carried out. Results show remarkable AMSR2 capabilities for rainfall rate (RR) retrieval over ocean (for RR > 0.25 mm/h), good capabilities over vegetated land (for RR > 1 mm/h), while for coastal areas the results are less certain. Comparisons with NASA GPM products, and with

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Noble Gas Laboratory’s standard operating procedures for the measurement of dissolved gas in water samples

    Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-08-12

    This report addresses the standard operating procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Noble Gas Laboratory in Denver, Colorado, U.S.A., for the measurement of dissolved gases (methane, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide) and noble gas isotopes (helium-3, helium-4, neon-20, neon-21, neon-22, argon-36, argon-38, argon-40, kryton-84, krypton-86, xenon-103, and xenon-132) dissolved in water. A synopsis of the instrumentation used, procedures followed, calibration practices, standards used, and a quality assurance and quality control program is presented. The report outlines the day-to-day operation of the Residual Gas Analyzer Model 200, Mass Analyzer Products Model 215–50, and ultralow vacuum extraction line along with the sample handling procedures, noble gas extraction and purification, instrument measurement procedures, instrumental data acquisition, and calculations for the conversion of raw data from the mass spectrometer into noble gas concentrations per unit mass of water analyzed. Techniques for the preparation of artificial dissolved gas standards are detailed and coupled to a quality assurance and quality control program to present the accuracy of the procedures used in the laboratory.

  20. Report of study group 5.4 remote operation of distribution networks; Rapport du comite de travail 5.4 distribution du gaz: exploitation a distance des reseaux de distribution

    Spohn, D.; Osiadacz, A.

    2000-07-01

    This study by the IGU WOC 5.4 reviews, at a management level, the application of remote monitoring and control systems for distribution networks. Gas distribution companies have to carefully balance the safety, quality, economic and financial aspects of managing geographically distributed assets to meet customer needs. Remote systems are a key tool in meeting these objectives. A questionnaire was developed to identify the key drives for the selection of remote monitoring and control systems, high level company parameters and current technologies in use. The field in questionnaires received by the WOC 5.4 show that monitoring equipment and remote control systems for gas distribution in various configurations are commonly utilized by the firms operating in this field. The reason why the firms themselves did adopt a remote control system mainly depends on safety as well as on a reduction of operating costs due to reduction in the personnel and related overheads associated with the management of the system. (authors)

  1. Reliability-Based Planning of Inspection, Operation and Maintenance for Offshore Oil & Gas Structures and Wind Turbines

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Reliability-based cost-optimal planning of inspection, maintenance and operation has many applications. In this paper applications for planning of inspections for oil & gas jacket structures and of operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines are described and illustrated by examples....

  2. Effect of gas filling pressure and operation energy on ion and neutron emission in a medium energy plasma focus device

    Niranjan, Ram; Rout, R. K.; Srivastava, Rohit; Kaushik, T. C.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of gas filling pressure and operation energy on deuterium ions and neutrons have been studied in a medium energy plasma focus device, MEPF-12. The deuterium gas filling pressure was varied from 1 to 10 mbar at an operation energy of 9.7 kJ. Also, the operation energy was varied from 3.9 to 9.7 kJ at a deuterium gas filling pressure of 4 mbar. Time resolved emission of deuterium ions was measured using a Faraday cup. Simultaneously, time integrated and time resolved emissions of neutrons were measured using a silver activation detector and plastic scintillator detector, respectively. Various characteristics (fluence, peak density, and most probable energy) of deuterium ions were estimated using the Faraday cup signal. The fluence was found to be nearly independent of the gas filling pressure and operation energy, but the peak density and most probable energy of deuterium ions were found to be varying. The neutron yield was observed to be varying with the gas filling pressure and operation energy. The effect of ions on neutrons emission was observed at each operation condition.

  3. Modeling deformation processes of salt caverns for gas storage due to fluctuating operation pressures

    Böttcher, N.; Nagel, T.; Goerke, U.; Khaledi, K.; Lins, Y.; König, D.; Schanz, T.; Köhn, D.; Attia, S.; Rabbel, W.; Bauer, S.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In the course of the Energy Transition in Germany, the focus of the country's energy sources is shifting from fossil to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Since renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, are subjected to annual, seasonal, and diurnal fluctuations, the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. Common methods of energy storage are the utilization of subsurface caverns as a reservoir for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or the storage of compressed air. The construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to the possibility of solution mining. Another advantage of evaporite as a host material is the self-healing capacity of salt rock. Gas caverns are capable of short-term energy storage (hours to days), so the operating pressures inside the caverns are fluctuating periodically with a high number of cycles. This work investigates the influence of fluctuating operation pressures on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of the gas during the loading/ unloading of the cavern. This provides information on the transient pressure and temperature distribution on the cavern boundary to calculate the deformation of its geometry. Non-linear material models are used for the mechanical analysis, which describe the creep and self-healing behavior of the salt rock under fluctuating loading pressures. In order to identify the necessary material parameters, we perform experimental studies on the mechanical behaviour of salt rock under varying pressure and temperature conditions. Based on the numerical results, we further derive concepts for monitoring THM quantities in the

  4. ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Instrument Modelling Approach to Streamline Science Operations

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela; Frew, David; Ashman, Michael; Cardesin Moinelo, Alejandro; Garcia Beteta, Juan Jose; Geiger, Bernhard; Metcalfe, Leo; Nespoli, Federico; Muniz Solaz, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) science operations activities are centralised at ESAC's Science Operations Centre (SOC). The SOC receives the inputs from the principal investigators (PIs) in order to implement and deliver the spacecraft pointing requests and instrument timelines to the Mission Operations Centre (MOC). The high number of orbits per planning cycle has made it necessary to abstract the planning interactions between the SOC and the PI teams at the observation level. This paper describes the modelling approach we have conducted for TGOís instruments to streamline science operations. We have created dynamic observation types that scale to adapt to the conditions specified by the PI teams including observation timing, and pointing block parameters calculated from observation geometry. This approach is considered and improvement with respect to previous missions where the generation of the observation pointing and commanding requests was performed manually by the instrument teams. Automation software assists us to effectively handle the high density of planned orbits with increasing volume of scientific data and to successfully meet opportunistic scientific goals and objectives. Our planning tool combines the instrument observation definition files provided by the PIs together with the flight dynamics products to generate the Pointing Requests and the instrument timeline (ITL). The ITL contains all the validated commands at the TC sequence level and computes the resource envelopes (data rate, power, data volume) within the constraints. At the SOC, our main goal is to maximise the science output while minimising the number of iterations among the teams, ensuring that the timeline does not violate the state transitions allowed in the Mission Operations Rules and Constraints Document.

  5. Radioactivities evaluation code system for high temperature gas cooled reactors during normal operation

    Ogura, Kenji; Morimoto, Toshio; Suzuki, Katsuo.

    1979-01-01

    A radioactivity evaluation code system for high temperature gas-cooled reactors during normal operation was developed to study the behavior of fission products (FP) in the plants. The system consists of a code for the calculation of diffusion of FPs in fuel (FIPERX), a code for the deposition of FPs in primary cooling system (PLATO), a code for the transfer and emission of FPs in nuclear power plants (FIPPI-2), and a code for the exposure dose due to emitted FPs (FEDOSE). The FIPERX code can calculate the changes in the course of time FP of the distribution of FP concentration, the distribution of FP flow, the distribution of FP partial pressure, and the emission rate of FP into coolant. The amount of deposition of FPs and their distribution in primary cooling system can be evaluated by the PLATO code. The FIPPI-2 code can be used for the estimation of the amount of FPs in nuclear power plants and the amount of emitted FPs from the plants. The exposure dose of residents around nuclear power plants in case of the operation of the plants is calculated by the FEDOSE code. This code evaluates the dose due to the external exposure in the normal operation and in the accident, and the internal dose by the inhalation of radioactive plume and foods. Further studies of this code system by the comparison with the experimental data are considered. (Kato, T.)

  6. Analysis of Kinetic Parameter Effect on Reactor Operation Stability of the RSG-GAS Reactor

    Rokhmadi

    2007-01-01

    Kinetic parameter has influence to behaviour on RSG-GAS reactor operation. In this paper done is the calculation of reactivity curve, period-reactivity relation and low power transfer function in silicide fuel. This parameters is necessary and useful for reactivity characteristic analysis and reactor stability. To know the reactivity response, it was done reactivity insertion at power 1 watt using POKDYN code because at this level of power no feedback reactivity so important for reactor operation safety. The result of calculation showed that there is no change of significant a period-reactivity relation and transfer function at low power for 2.96 gU/cc, 3.55 gU/cc and 4.8 gU/cc density of silicide fuels. The result of the transfer function at low power showed that the reactor is critical stability with no feedback. The result of calculation also showed that reactivity response no change among three kinds of fuel densities. It can be concluded that from kinetic parameter point of view period-reactivity relation, transfer function at low power, and reactivity response are no change reactor operation from reactivity effect when fuel exchanged. (author)

  7. Useful effectiveness of plastic pipes for gas pipelines operating at low pressure

    Zayutsev, K I

    1976-06-01

    Because a significant portion of the feeder lines in the Soviet union operate at relatively low pressures up to 75 to 150 psi, it is economically feasible to replace the conventional pipeline material (steel) with plastic. Cost savings result from lower material costs and ease of laying plastic pipe. Because of stiffness and corrosion requirements, the steel pipe used for these low-pressure pipelines is much thicker than needed to withstand the pressure used. Data are tabulated on the comparative costs and manpower requirements for the construction of 1 km of steel, polyvinyl chloride, and polyethylene gas pipelines ranging in diameter from 3 to 14 in. Generally, the plastic pipelines required 15 to 30% less man-days and were 20 to 35% lower in cost to build. The plastic pipelines can operate at 150 to 175 psi pressure and at temperatures up to 100 to 140/sup 0/F. In research conducted at VNIIST (All-Union Research Institute for the Construction of Trunk Pipelines) on plastic pipelines, a 2.5-mile test section has been operating successfully for 2 years, and new techniques and equipment for joining plastic pipe up to 25-in. diameter are being developed.

  8. Three-dimensional multiphase effects in aquifer gas storage

    Witherspoon, P.A.; Fuller, P.; Finsterle, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The underground storage of natural gas in the United States is one of the most widespread methods of storing energy in the United States. There are two main kinds of storage: (a) dry gas fields, and (b) aquifer storage fields. The storage of gas in dry gas fields involves the conversion of petroleum bearing reservoirs, usually after they have been depleted of any economic production, into a storage operation. An appropriate number of injection-withdrawal (I-W) wells are either drilled or converted from existing exploitation wells, and the storage operations begin by injecting gas to build up to some desired volume of gas in storage.

  9. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...... for project Virtual Campus Hub. A preliminary dissemination and exploitation plan was setup early in the project as described in the deliverable D6.1 Dissemination strategy paper - preliminary version. The plan has been revised on a monthly basis during the project’s lifecycle in connection with the virtual...

  10. Standard for baseline water-well testing for coalbed methane/natural gas in coal operations

    2006-04-01

    Interest in developing coalbed methane (CBM) is increasing with the decline of conventional natural gas reserves. In Alberta, where CBM is in the early stages of development, the drilling, production and operational rules for CBM are the same as those that apply to natural gas. The government of Alberta is presently examining the rules and regulations that apply to CBM to determine if they are appropriate for responsible development and balanced with environmental protection. CBM development has the potential to affect water aquifers and water supply. As such, a new standard has been developed by Alberta Environment in collaboration with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board which requires that companies involved in the development of shallow CBM must offer to test rural Albertan's water wells prior to drilling. The companies will submit baseline groundwater data to both Alberta Environment and the landowner. The broader application of groundwater testing will also support Alberta Environment's objective of mapping all groundwater resources in the province. This new standard will help achieve continued protection of provincial groundwater resources and Albertan's groundwater supplies. It will also facilitate responsible CBM development and the government's Water for Life strategy. This document explained the protocols for testing, sampling and analyzing groundwater. The standard provides scientific information to support achievement of the outcomes as well as a regulatory basis for water well testing and baseline data collection prior to CBM development. If a landowner registers a complaint regarding a perceived change in well water quantity and quality after CBM development, then the developers must retest the water well to address the landowner's concerns. The tests evaluate water well capacity, water quality, routine potability and analysis for water quality parameters, including major ionic constituents, bacteriological analysis and presence or absence of gas

  11. Effects of syngas type on the operation and performance of a gas turbine in integrated gasification combined cycle

    Kim, Young Sik; Lee, Jong Jun; Kim, Tong Seop; Sohn, Jeong L.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The effect of firing syngas in a gas turbine designed for natural gas was investigated. → A full off-design analysis was performed for a wide syngas heating value range. → Restrictions on compressor surge margin and turbine metal temperature were considered. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of firing syngas in a gas turbine designed for natural gas. Four different syngases were evaluated as fuels for a gas turbine in the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). A full off-design analysis of the gas turbine was performed. Without any restrictions on gas turbine operation, as the heating value of the syngas decreases, a greater net system power output and efficiency is possible due to the increased turbine mass flow. However, the gas turbine is more vulnerable to compressor surge and the blade metal becomes more overheated. These two problems can be mitigated by reductions in two parameters: the firing temperature and the nitrogen flow to the combustor. With the restrictions on surge margin and metal temperature, the net system performance decreases compared to the cases without restrictions, especially in the surge margin control range. The net power outputs of all syngas cases converge to a similar level as the degree of integration approaches zero. The difference in net power output between unrestricted and restricted operation increases as the fuel heating value decreases. The optimal integration degree, which shows the greatest net system power output and efficiency, increases with decreasing syngas heating value.

  12. Effects of syngas type on the operation and performance of a gas turbine in integrated gasification combined cycle

    Kim, Young Sik; Lee, Jong Jun [Graduate School, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tong Seop, E-mail: kts@inha.ac.k [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Jeong L. [Center for Next Generation Heat Exchangers, Busan 618-230 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The effect of firing syngas in a gas turbine designed for natural gas was investigated. {yields} A full off-design analysis was performed for a wide syngas heating value range. {yields} Restrictions on compressor surge margin and turbine metal temperature were considered. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of firing syngas in a gas turbine designed for natural gas. Four different syngases were evaluated as fuels for a gas turbine in the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). A full off-design analysis of the gas turbine was performed. Without any restrictions on gas turbine operation, as the heating value of the syngas decreases, a greater net system power output and efficiency is possible due to the increased turbine mass flow. However, the gas turbine is more vulnerable to compressor surge and the blade metal becomes more overheated. These two problems can be mitigated by reductions in two parameters: the firing temperature and the nitrogen flow to the combustor. With the restrictions on surge margin and metal temperature, the net system performance decreases compared to the cases without restrictions, especially in the surge margin control range. The net power outputs of all syngas cases converge to a similar level as the degree of integration approaches zero. The difference in net power output between unrestricted and restricted operation increases as the fuel heating value decreases. The optimal integration degree, which shows the greatest net system power output and efficiency, increases with decreasing syngas heating value.

  13. Report on the direct purchase of natural gas by non-profit and co-operative housing agencies

    1989-06-01

    Direct purchase of natural gas is now utilized by many groups of customers in Canada. To date, the process has been effected through short-term contractual arrangements for buying gas from Saskatchewan. Longer-term arrangements (5-15 years) for direct purchase of Saskatchewan or Alberta gas are now being actively considered. There are no longer any real barriers to direct purchase of natural gas for groups of customers in Ontario, but much preparation is required to initiate the process and operate it properly in order to maximize the financial benefits. The various formats for direct purchase (buy/sell, T-service, broker mediated), purchase price considerations, and the benefits and risks of direct purchase are reviewed. Potential savings in gas costs are estimated based on a typical 3-bedroom townhouse family unit and a 1-bedroom senior citizen apartment unit. Generally speaking, it is found possible for the townhouse to save about $50/y on the Consumers Gas and ICG Utilities distribution systems and $34/y for a 1-bedroom apartment suite. An umbrella approach for organizing gas supply contracts is recommended, which allows an agent for the consumer group to enter into a preliminary contract with a gas supplier after completion of a tender process. A number of disciplines are essential for initiation and operation of a direct purchase, requiring the services of four individuals possessing various skills. 5 tabs

  14. A High-Sensitivity Gas Sensor Toward Methanol Using ZnO Microrods: Effect of Operating Temperature

    Sinha, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Mondal, B.; Ghosh, R.

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, zinc oxide (ZnO) microrods with the average diameter of 350 nm have been synthesized on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using a hydrothermal reaction process at a low temperature of 90°C. The methanol gas sensing behaviour of as-synthesized ZnO microrods have been studied at different operating temperatures (100-300°C). The gas sensing results show that the ZnO microrods exhibit excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and stability toward methanol gas at 300°C. The as-grown ZnO microrods sensor also shows the good sensitivity for methanol even at a low operating temperature of 100°C. The ultra-high sensitivity of 4.41 × 104% [gas sensitivity, S g = ( I g - I a)/ I a × 100%] and 5.11 × 102% to 100 ppm methanol gas at a temperature of 300°C and 100°C, respectively, has been observed. A fast response time of 200 ms and 270 ms as well as a recovery time of 120 ms and 1330 ms to methanol gas have also been found at an operating temperature of 300°C and 100°C, respectively. The response and recovery time decreases with increasing operation temperature of the sensor.

  15. Development and optimization of operational parameters of a gas-fired baking oven

    Afolabi Tunde MORAKINYO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presented the development and optimization of operational parameters of an indigenous gas-fired bread-baking oven for small-scale entrepreneur. It is an insulated rectangular box-like chamber, made of galvanized-steel sheets and having a total dimension of 920mm×650mm×600mm. This oven consists of two baking compartments and three combustion chambers. The oven characteristics were evaluated in terms of the baking capacity, baking efficiency and weight loss of the baked bread. The physical properties of the baked breads were measured and analyzed using Duncan multiple range test of one way ANOVA at significant level of p<0.05. These properties were optimized to determine the optimum baking temperature using 3D surface response plot of Statistical Release 7. The baking capacity, baking efficiency, weight loss and optimum baking temperature were: 12.5 kg/hr, 87.8%, 12.5 g, 200-220oC, respectively. The physical properties of baked bread dough were found to correspond with the imported product (control sample. These results showed that, the developed gas-fired baking oven can be adopted for baking of bread at domestic and commercial levels.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from operating reserves used to backup large-scale wind power.

    Fripp, Matthias

    2011-11-01

    Wind farms provide electricity with no direct emissions. However, their output cannot be forecasted perfectly, even a short time ahead. Consequently, power systems with large amounts of wind power may need to keep extra fossil-fired generators turned on and ready to provide power if wind farm output drops unexpectedly. In this work, I introduce a new model for estimating the uncertainty in short-term wind power forecasts, and how this uncertainty varies as wind power is aggregated over larger regions. I then use this model to estimate the reserve requirements in order to compensate for wind forecast errors to a 99.999% level of reliability, and an upper limit on the amount of carbon dioxide that would be emitted if natural gas power plants are used for this purpose. I find that for regions larger than 500 km across, operating reserves will undo 6% or less of the greenhouse gas emission savings that would otherwise be expected from wind power.

  17. On-line sodium and cover as purity monitors gas operating tools at EBR-II

    Smith, C.R.F.; Richardson, W.J.; Holmes, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    Plugging temperature indicators, electrochemical oxygen meters and hydrogen diffusion meters are the on-line sodium purity monitors now in use at EBR-II. On-line gas chromatographs are used to monitor helium, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen impurities in the argon cover gases. Monitors for tritium-in-sodium and for hydrocarbons-in-cover gas have been developed and are scheduled for installation in the near future. An important advantage of on-line monitors over the conventional grab-sampling techniques is the speed of response to changing reactor conditions. This helps us to identify the source of the impurity, whether the cause may be transient or constant, and take corrective action as necessary. The oxygen meter is calibrated monthly against oxygen in sodium determined by the vanadium wire equilibration method. The other instruments either do not require calibration or are self-calibrating. The ranges, sensitivity and response times of all of the on-line purity monitors has proven satisfactory under EBR-II operating conditions

  18. Hydrogen discharges operating at atmospheric pressure in a semiconductor gas discharge system

    Aktas, K; Acar, S; Salamov, B G [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    Analyses of physical processes which initiate electrical breakdown and spatial stabilization of current and control it with a photosensitive cathode in a semiconductor gas discharge system (SGDS) are carried out in a wide pressure range up to atmospheric pressure p, interelectrode distance d and diameter D of the electrode areas of the semiconductor cathode. The study compares the breakdown and stability curves of the gas discharge in the planar SGDS where the discharge gap is filled with hydrogen and air in two cases. The impact of the ionizing component of the discharge plasma on the control of the stable operation of the planar SGDS is also investigated at atmospheric pressure. The loss of stability is primarily due to modification of the semiconductor-cathode properties on the interaction with low-energy hydrogen ions and the formation of a space charge of positive ions in the discharge gap which changes the discharge from Townsend to glow type. The experimental results show that the discharge current in H{sub 2} is more stable than in air. The breakdown voltages are measured for H{sub 2} and air with parallel-plane electrodes, for pressures between 28 and 760 Torr. The effective secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient is then determined from the breakdown voltage results and compared with the experimental results. The influence of the SEE coefficient is stated in terms of the differences between the experimental breakdown law.

  19. CO2 Capture by Cold Membrane Operation with Actual Power Plant Flue Gas

    Chaubey, Trapti [American Air Liquide Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Kulkarni, Sudhir [American Air Liquide Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Hasse, David [American Air Liquide Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Augustine, Alex [American Air Liquide Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-07-28

    The main objective of the project was to develop a post-combustion CO2 capture process based on the hybrid cold temperature membrane operation. The CO2 in the flue gas from coal fired power plant is pre-concentrated to >60% CO2 in the first stage membrane operation followed by further liquefaction of permeate stream to achieve >99% CO2 purity. The aim of the project was based on DOE program goal of 90% CO2 capture with >95% CO2 purity from Pulverized Coal (PC) fired power plants with $40/tonne of carbon capture cost by 2025. The project moves the technology from TRL 4 to TRL 5. The project involved optimization of Air Liquide commercial 12” PI-1 bundle to improve the bundle productivity by >30% compared to the previous baseline (DE-FE0004278) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and bundle testing with synthetic flue gas at 0.1 MWe bench scale skid located at Delaware Research and Technology Center (DRTC). In parallel, the next generation polyimide based novel PI-2 membrane was developed with 10 times CO2 permeance compared to the commercial PI-1 membrane. The novel PI-2 membrane was scaled from mini-permeator to 1” permeator and 1” bundle for testing. Bundle development was conducted with a Development Spin Unit (DSU) installed at MEDAL. Air Liquide’s cold membrane technology was demonstrated with real coal fired flue gas at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) with a 0.3 MWe field-test unit (FTU). The FTU was designed to incorporate testing of two PI-1 commercial membrane bundles (12” or 6” diameter) in parallel or series. A slip stream was sent to the next generation PI-2 membrane for testing with real flue gas. The system exceeded performance targets with stable PI-1 membrane operation for over 500 hours of single bundle, steady state testing. The 12” PI-1 bundle exceeded the productivity target by achieving ~600 Nm3/hr, where the target was set at ~455

  20. Aging measurements on triple-GEM detectors operated with $CF_{4}$-based gas mixtures

    Alfonsi, M; De Simone, P; Murtas, F; Poli Lener, M P; Bonivento, W; Cardini, A; Raspino, D; Saitta, B; Pinci, D; Baccaro, S; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2005.03.054

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a global irradiation test of full size triple-GEM detectors operated with CF/sub 4/-based gas mixtures. This study has been performed in the framework of an R&D activity on detectors for the innermost region of the first muon station of the LHCb experiment. The prototypes have been irradiated at the Calliope facility of the ENEA-Casaccia with a high intensity 1.25 MeV detectors performances have been measured with X-rays and with a 3 Ge V pion beam at CERN. A SEM analysis on several samples of the detectors has been performed to complete the understanding of the physical processes occurring in a GEM detector during a strong irradiation.

  1. Aging measurements on triple-GEM detectors operated with $CF_{4}$- based gas mixtures

    Alfonsi, M; Bencivenni, G; Bonivento, W; Cardini, A; Lener, M P; Murtas, F; Pinci, D; Raspino, D; Saitta, B; De Simone, P

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a global irradiation test of full size triple-GEM detectors operated with CF/sub 4/-based gas mixtures. This study has been performed in the framework of an R&D activity on detectors for the innermost region of the first muon station of the LHCb experiment. The prototypes have been irradiated at the Calliope facility of the ENEA-Casaccia with a high intensity 1.25 MeV gamma from a /sup 60/Co source. After the irradiation test the detectors performances have been measured with X-rays and with a 3 GeV pion beam at CERN. A SEM analysis on several samples of the detectors has been performed to complete the understanding of the physical processes occurring in the GEM detector during the strong irradiation.

  2. Non-abelian geometrical quantum gate operation in an ultracold strontium gas

    Leroux, Frederic

    The work developed in this PhD thesis is about geometric operation on a single qubit. If the external control parameters vary slowly, the quantum system evolves adiabatically in a sub-space composed of two degenerate eigenstates. After a closed loop in the space of the external parameters, the qubit acquires a geometrical rotation, which can be described by a unitary matrix in the Hilbert space of the two-level system. To the geometric rotation corresponds a non-Abelian gauge field. In this work, the qubit and the adiabatic geometrical quantum gates are implemented on a cold gas of atomic Strontium 87, trapped and cooled at the vicinity of the recoil temperature. The internal Hilbert space of the cold atoms has for basis the dressed states issued from the atom-light interaction of three lasers within a tripod configuration.

  3. Cogeneration with natural gas fired internal combustion engines: Italian utility's 10 years operating experience

    Montermini, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the experience that AGAC, an Italian gas and water utility, has acquired in the operation of a 116 Km long district heating network serving about 40,000 inhabitants. The network is powered by a mix of methane fuelled Otto and diesel cycle engines, coal fired fluidized bed boilers, and methane fired boilers producing annually about 153,000 kW of thermal energy, 2,300 kW of cooling energy, and 28.8 million kWh of electric power. This paper reports on the performance of this system in terms of production and sales trends, equipment efficiency and compatibility with new European Communities air pollution standards

  4. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  5. Application of Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation to Natural Gas-Fueled Reciprocating Engines (HALO)

    Chad Smutzer

    2006-01-01

    Two key challenges facing Natural Gas Engines used for cogeneration purposes are spark plug life and high NOx emissions. Using Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation (HALO), these two keys issues are simultaneously addressed. HALO operation, as demonstrated in this project, allows stable engine operation to be achieved at ultra-lean (relative air/fuel ratios of 2) conditions, which virtually eliminates NOx production. NOx values of 10 ppm (0.07 g/bhp-hr NO) for 8% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) supplementation at an exhaust O2 level of 10% were demonstrated, which is a 98% NOx emissions reduction compared to the leanest unsupplemented operating condition. Spark ignition energy reduction (which will increase ignition system life) was carried out at an oxygen level of 9%, leading to a NOx emission level of 28 ppm (0.13 g/bhp-hr NO). The spark ignition energy reduction testing found that spark energy could be reduced 22% (from 151 mJ supplied to the coil) with 13% (LHV H2/LHV CH4) hydrogen supplementation, and even further reduced 27% with 17% hydrogen supplementation, with no reportable effect on NOx emissions for these conditions and with stable engine torque output. Another important result is that the combustion duration was shown to be only a function of hydrogen supplementation, not a function of ignition energy (until the ignitability limit was reached). The next logical step leading from these promising results is to see how much the spark energy reduction translates into increase in spark plug life, which may be accomplished by durability testing.

  6. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  7. Report for 2008 on electricity and natural-gas network operators: obedience to compliance programmes and independence. Report 2008

    2008-12-01

    In France, system operators belong to groups that also conduct business in the energy sector, in fields governed by competition rules. They could therefore be tempted to use their privileged position to their group's benefit, which would disadvantage end consumers. Non-discriminatory access to electricity and gas transmission and distribution networks is at the core of the market opening to competition approach implemented by the European Union since the end of the 1990's. EU and national enactments in force highlight two tools to ensure nondiscrimination: compliance programmes and independence of system operators with regard to their parent companies. Firstly, compliance programs contain measures taken to ensure that discrimination is completely excluded and that their application is subject to appropriate monitoring. Secondly, system operator independence plays a part in preventing discrimination against competitors with other business activities (generation, supply, etc.) within the same group. In application of these enactments, every electricity or natural gas transmission or distribution system operator serving more than 100,000 customers provided CRE, the Energy Regulatory Commission, with their annual reports on the application of their compliance programs. This document is CRE's 2008 report about compliance programmes and independence of electricity and natural gas system operators. Contents: 1 - Obedience to compliance programmes: Assessment compared with 2007, Demands from CRE; 2 - The independence of system operators: Transmission system operators, Distribution system operators, Comments common to both transmission and distribution system operators

  8. Operational benefits obtained by implementing a remote monitoring and control system at CEGAS (Gas Company of Ceara, Brazil)

    Almeida, Rui C.O. [Companhia de Gas do Ceara (CEGAS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Zamponha, Rogerio S. [SOFTBRASIL, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    CEGAS (Gas Company of Ceara) recently implemented an automated remote monitoring and control system at the Natural Gas Stations located within the city of Fortaleza. The main purposes to implement the project were to install a better operational platform, allowing CEGAS to analyze its operational conditions and to measure customer's consumption in real time. The data communication infra-structure chosen was GPRS/GSM, due to it's low deployment cost and coverage availability. The first phase of the project comprised 50 vehicular natural gas stations. The project was successfully installed, and became the 1{sup st} project at this type to run efficiently over a GPRS infra-structure in Brazil for gas monitoring, with reliable control and data communication. This document intends to present the reasons that lead CEGAS to invest in such a system, the technology deployed and the benefits achieved. (author)

  9. Gas

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  10. Operation of microstrip gas chambers manufactured on glass coated with high resistivity diamond-like layers

    Boimska, B; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A

    1997-01-01

    We describe recent observations and measurements realized with micro-strip gas chambers (MSGCs) manufactured on boro-silicate glass coated with a thin layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC) having a surface resistivity around 4.10$^{16}\\Omega/\\Box$. The role of the back-pla electrode configuration and potential in the detector performance has been studied. Even for this very high resistivity of the coatings, MSGCs operate differently from those manufactured on bare boro-silicate glass; the charge gain increases with the radiation flux for counting rates above 103 Hz/mm2, reaching a value 60% higher for 105 Hz/mm2. This behavior does not depend on the presence and potential of the back plane electrode; however, both maximum gain and rate capability are influenced by the drift field. From this study, compared with measurements realized previously with other detectors, we deduce that for stable high rate operation of MSGCs the resistivity of the coating should not exceed ~10$^{15}\\Omega/\\Box$.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of SI Engine Operation Supplemented by Hydrogen Rich Gas from a Compact Plasma Boosted Reformer

    J. B. Green, Jr.; N. Domingo; J. M. E. Storey; R.M. Wagner; J.S. Armfield; L. Bromberg; D. R. Cohn; A. Rabinovich; N. Alexeev

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that hydrogen addition to spark-ignited (SI) engines can reduce exhaust emissions and increase efficiency. Micro plasmatron fuel converters can be used for onboard generation of hydrogen-rich gas by partial oxidation of a wide range of fuels. These plasma-boosted microreformers are compact, rugged, and provide rapid response. With hydrogen supplement to the main fuel, SI engines can run very lean resulting in a large reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions relative to stoichiometric combustion without a catalytic converter. This paper presents experimental results from a microplasmatron fuel converter operating under variable oxygen to carbon ratios. Tests have also been carried out to evaluate the effect of the addition of a microplasmatron fuel converter generated gas in a 1995 2.3-L four-cylinder SI production engine. The tests were performed with and without hydrogen-rich gas produced by the plasma boosted fuel converter with gasoline. A one hundred fold reduction in NO x due to very lean operation was obtained under certain conditions. An advantage of onboard plasma-boosted generation of hydrogen-rich gas is that it is used only when required and can be readily turned on and off. Substantial NO x reduction should also be obtainable by heavy exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) facilitated by use of hydrogen-rich gas with stoichiometric operation

  12. Efficiency and environmental compatibility of premium cogeneration plants operated by fermentation gas; Effizienz und Umweltvertraeglichkeit biogasbetriebener Blockheizkraftwerke

    Aschmann, V.; Kissel, R.; Gronauer, A.

    2007-07-15

    Due to the climatic protection as well as shortage and raising the price of fossil fuels, a supply of a sustainable and future power supply is necessary. Therefore, the importance of the production of electricity and heat by means of premium cogeneration plants operated by fermentation gas increases. In the comparison to the conventional power production from fossil fuels, the utilization of fermentation gas reduces the release of climatic relevant gases. A compromise between high achievement and low emission with the burn of fermentation gas in premium cogeneration plants has to be established. It is the subject of the investigation of the contribution under consideration, to what extent this is feasible in practice.

  13. Modeling the Control Systems of Gas-Turbines to Ensure Their Reliable Parallel Operation in the UPS of Russia

    Vinogradov, A. Yu., E-mail: vinogradov-a@ntcees.ru; Gerasimov, A. S.; Kozlov, A. V.; Smirnov, A. N. [JSC “STC UPS” (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Consideration is given to different approaches to modeling the control systems of gas turbines as a component of CCPP and GTPP to ensure their reliable parallel operation in the UPS of Russia. The disadvantages of the approaches to the modeling of combined-cycle units in studying long-term electromechanical transients accompanied by power imbalance are pointed out. Examples are presented to support the use of more detailed models of gas turbines in electromechanical transient calculations. It is shown that the modern speed control systems of gas turbines in combination with relatively low equivalent inertia have a considerable effect on electromechanical transients, including those caused by disturbances not related to power imbalance.

  14. Annual report on the Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators - 2006

    2007-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 2. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2006. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2006 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2006

  15. 2008 report on the Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators

    2009-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 4. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2008. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2008 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2008

  16. Thermal cracking of recycled hydrocarbon gas-mixtures for re-pyrolysis: Operational analysis of some industrial furnaces

    Gal, T. [MOL PETCHEM Division, Tisza Chemical Works Co. Ltd. (TVK), P.O. Box 20, H-3581 Tiszaujvaros (Hungary); Lakatos, B.G. [Department of Process Engineering, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary)

    2008-02-15

    Thermal decomposition process of recycled hydrocarbon gas-mixtures in industrial furnaces is analyzed by computer simulation. The detailed kinetic and mathematical model developed was validated by using the process control laboratory cracked gas analysis of an industrially operated furnace. The effects of feed compositions and operational conditions are examined to select the favorable operating parameters and to achieve the possibly highest online operation period of the furnace. The effect of deposited coke on the lifetime of radiant coils is examined by a heat-transfer model. The simulation study confirmed that temporal variations of the feedstock composition could be harmonized well with the operating parameters of furnaces with the purpose of achieving maximum effectiveness. (author)

  17. Annual report on the Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators - 2007

    2008-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 3. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2007. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2007 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2007

  18. 78 FR 52239 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    2013-08-22

    ...] Electronic-based emergency shutdown systems (ESDs); [cir] Valve closure timing; [cir] Valve leakage rates... assembly of valves, gauges, and chokes mounted on a well casinghead used to control the production and flow of oil or gas. Dry tree completions are the standard for OCS shallow water platforms, with the tree...

  19. Parametric Analysis of the Exergoeconomic Operation Costs, Environmental and Human Toxicity Indexes of the MF501F3 Gas Turbine

    Edgar Vicente Torres-González

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an energetic, exergoeconomic, environmental, and toxicity analysis of the simple gas turbine M501F3 based on a parametric analysis of energetic (thermal efficiency, fuel and air flow rates, and specific work output, exergoeconomic (exergetic efficiency and exergoeconomic operation costs, environmental (global warming, smog formation, acid rain indexes, and human toxicity indexes, by taking the compressor pressure ratio and the turbine inlet temperature as the operating parameters. The aim of this paper is to provide an integral, systematic, and powerful diagnostic tool to establish possible operation and maintenance actions to improve the gas turbine’s exergoeconomic, environmental, and human toxicity indexes. Despite the continuous changes in the price of natural gas, the compressor, combustion chamber, and turbine always contribute 18.96%, 53.02%, and 28%, respectively, to the gas turbine’s exergoeconomic operation costs. The application of this methodology can be extended to other simple gas turbines using the pressure drops and isentropic efficiencies, among others, as the degradation parameters, as well as to other energetic systems, without loss of generality.

  20. Intelligent system for control and automation of natural gas distribution operation; Sistema inteligente de controle e automacao da operacao de distribuicao de gas natural

    Scucuglia, Jose W.; Souza, Celso C. [Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia Eletrica; Patricio, Cristian M.M.M.; Cruz, Lauro C.; Reis, Antonio M.; Cortez, Marco A.A.; Maldonado, Waldemar; Rosa, Willian A. [Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Regiao do Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia, Automacao e Controle; Teixeira, Marcelo C.M. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica; Carrasco, Benjamim [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The present work has as objective to present the development of a dedicated intelligent system to the operation of natural gas distribution. The system adds tools of project, simulation, supervision and control of the flow of natural gas in networks distribution, and is composed of hardware and intelligent software. The developed software possess friendly graphical interface, so that the operator composing visually the distribution network automatically, composes a mathematical model formed by a set of differential equations, being solved by the Newton-Raphson method. This tool of simulation allows, in function of network topology, to get through simulation the conditions gas flow in each point of the loop flow. The micro controlled hardware for acquisition of the data in real time and control of valves was developed. The hardware possesses flexible communication (Radio Frequency, Ethernet and Optical Fiber), intelligence for decision taking and auto test of its proper functioning, so that guarantee security in the operations. An implanted neural system in software propitiates the control monitoring of the characteristics operation and conditions of leak with loss of load, identifying inclusive the place of this leak along of the duct. A system with national technology was gotten, of low cost and high added technological value. (author)

  1. The Science Operations Concept for the ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter

    Frew, D.

    2014-04-01

    The ExoMars 2016 Science Operations Centre (SOC) based at the European Space Astronomy Centre is responsible for coordinating the science planning activities for the Trace Gas Orbiter. Science planning will involve all members of the ExoMars 2016 science ground segment (SGS), namely the SOC at ESAC, the Russian SOC at IKI, the orbiter instrument teams and the science management of the 2016 mission represented by the science working team (SWT) that is chaired by the project scientist. The science operations concept for the mission builds on the legacy inherited from previous ESA planetary missions, in particular from Mars Express for the core plan validation aspects and from the Smart-1 lunar mission for the opportunity analysis and longterm planning approach. Further concept drivers have been derived from the ExoMars 2016 mission profile in the areas of orbit predictability, instrument design and the usage of TGO as a relay for surface assets including the ExoMars 2018 rover. This paper will give an over view of the entire uplink planning process as it is conducted over 3 distinct planning cycles. The Long Term Plan (LTP) establishes the baseline science plan and demonstrates the operational feasibility of meeting the mission science goals formulated by the science working team (SWT) at science management level. The LTP has a planning horizon of 6 months. Each month of the baseline science plan is refined with the instrument teams within the Medium Term Plan (MTP) to converge on a frozen attitude request and resource envelopes for all of the observations in the plan. During the Short Term Planning cycle the SOC will iterate with the teams to finalise the commanding for all of the observations in the plan for the coming week. The description of the uplink planning process will focus on two key areas that are common to all of the planning cycles mentioned above: • Science Plan Abstraction: Interacting with the science plan at the appropriate level of abstraction to

  2. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico region oil and gas operations

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc. (CSA) was contracted to conduct a three-year study of the environmental and health related impacts of produced water and sand discharges from oil and gas operations. Data on naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), heavy metals, and hydrocarbons in water, sediment, and biota will be collected and evaluated. Health related impacts will be studied through field collections and analyses of commercially- and recreationally-important fish and shellfish tissues. Additionally, information on seafood catch, consumption, and use patterns for the Gulf of Mexico will be gathered and analyzed. The facilities to be studied will include both offshore and coastal facilities in the Gulf of Mexico. Coastal sites will be additionally studied to determine ecological recovery of impacted wetland and open bay areas. The economic impact of existing and proposed effluent federal and state regulations will also be evaluated. The primary objectives of the project are to increase the base of scientific knowledge concerning (1) the fate and environmental effects of organics, trace metals, and NORM in water, sediment, and biota near several offshore oil and gas facilities; (2) the characteristics of produced water and produced sand discharges as they pertain to organics, trace metals, and NORM variably found in association with the discharges; (3) the recovery of four terminated produced water discharge sites located in wetland and high-energy open bay sites of coastal Louisiana and Texas; (4) the economic and energy supply impacts of existing and anticipated federal and state offshore and coastal discharge regulations; and (5) the catch, consumption and human use patterns of seafood species collected from coastal and offshore waters. Accomplishments for this period are described

  3. Modeling of a Cogeneration System with a Micro Gas Turbine Operating at Partial Load Conditions

    José Carlos Dutra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of absorption chillers in micro-cogeneration systems based on micro-gas turbines can be useful as an appropriate strategy to increase the total system energy efficiency. Since it is an area intensive in technology, it is necessary to develop and use models of simulation, which can predict the behavior of the whole system and of each component individually, at different operating conditions. This work is part of a research project in high efficiency cogeneration systems, whose purpose at this stage is to model a micro-cogeneration system, which is composed of a micro gas turbine, Capstone C30, a compact cross flow finned tube heat exchanger and an absorption chiller. The entire model is composed of specifically interconnected models, developed and validated for each component. The simulation of the microturbine used a thermodynamic analytic model, which contains a procedure used to obtain the micro turbine characteristic performance curves, which is closed with the thermodynamic Brayton cycle model. In the cogeneration system discussed in this paper, the compact heat exchanger was used to heat thermal oil, which drives an absorption chiller. It was designed, characterized and installed in a cogeneration system installed at the Centre d'Innovació Tecnològica en Revalorització Energètica i Refrigeració, Universtat Rovira i Virgili. Its design led to the heat exchanger model, which was coupled with the micro turbine model. Presented in this work is a comparison between the data from the model and the experiments, demonstrating good agreement between both results.

  4. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  5. Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators. Summary report 2011

    2012-07-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 7. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2011. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2011 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2011. These elements were supplemented and clarified by many exchanges with the operators, in particular during the committee hearings that took place in spring 2012 with each network operator. This report is structured around four cross-cutting themes, supplemented by individual analyses of each operator's situation. The cross-cutting issues address communication and user's awareness of the network operators, the new compliance officer function, TSO certification and, finally, the results of the 'mystery shopper' telephone survey carried out by the CRE. The individual situations analysed were those of the eight DSOs serving over 100,000 customers (ERDF, ES, URM, SRD and Geredis-Deux-Sevres for electricity, GrDF, Regaz-Bordeaux and Reseau GDS for natural gas) and the three TSOs (RTE for electricity and GRTgaz and TIGF for natural gas)

  6. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  7. The microeconomics of sexual exploitation of girls and young women in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Mujica, Jaris

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the sexual exploitation of girls and young women as an increasing phenomenon within the extractive industries of wood, oil, minerals and gas in Peruvian Amazonia. The analysis focuses on the city of Pucallpa and the northern part of the Ucayali River and aims to identify the social and economic dynamics underpinning the commercial sexual exploitation of female children and teenagers around the main river port. The study describes the local operating mechanisms of bars and restaurants in the port, the demand for and perceptions of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, and the economic logic that it entails. Using a discourse analytic approach, it is argued that this is a business whose profitability is tied to the trade in alcoholic beverages and foods and which responds to a set of family connections and networks.

  8. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.

    2010-07-01

    ... or less. In the case of a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) product specification in the pressurized liquid state, the gas phase sulfur content should be evaluated assuming complete vaporization of the LPG... for fuel gas combustion devices. 60.107a Section 60.107a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  9. Solution gas flaring and venting at Alberta primary crude bitumen operations

    Ruff, C. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board is mandated by the Government of Alberta to ensure fair, responsible development and delivery of energy resources and utilities services in Alberta while maintaining the best public interest. One of the agencies' priorities is the reduction of solution gas flaring and venting. The performance of solution gas flaring and venting in Alberta and best practices respecting solution gas conservation are discussed. Data was presented on solution gas production, solution gas conserved, and solution gas conservation efficiency. The paper described best practices solutions such as increased gas to oil (GOR) test frequency; predetermination of economic gas conservation; collaboration with county gas utilities; and utilization of portable and scalable gas compression. The paper also presents a discussion of the Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA), a non-profit multistakeholder that recommended enhancements to Guide 60. Requirements discussed include the requirement to conserve solution gas at certain sites exceeding established flare and vent volumes, gas conservation prebuild requirements, and enhanced economic evaluation process. 5 figs.

  10. CO and PAH Emissions from Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, Torben Kvist; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. The standing regulations concerning CO emissions from producer gas engine based power plants in most EU countrie...

  11. MILP formulation for the optimal operation of the integrated gas and power system

    Fang, Jiakun; Chen, Zhe; Ai, Xiaomeng

    2017-01-01

    -to-gas technology is also modeled together with gas-fired generators to enable bi directional energy conversion between the gas and power systems. The major advance of the proposed model is that the linepack storage in every pipe can be assessed and optimally utilized. Simulation results show the unit commitment...

  12. Modeling of flowing gas diode pumped alkali lasers: dependence of the operation on the gas velocity and on the nature of the buffer gas.

    Barmashenko, B D; Rosenwaks, S

    2012-09-01

    A simple, semi-analytical model of flowing gas diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) is presented. The model takes into account the rise of temperature in the lasing medium with increasing pump power, resulting in decreasing pump absorption and slope efficiency. The model predicts the dependence of power on the flow velocity in flowing gas DPALs and checks the effect of using a buffer gas with high molar heat capacity and large relaxation rate constant between the 2P3/2 and 2P1/2 fine-structure levels of the alkali atom. It is found that the power strongly increases with flow velocity and that by replacing, e.g., ethane by propane as a buffer gas the power may be further increased by up to 30%. Eight kilowatt is achievable for 20 kW pump at flow velocity of 20  m/s.

  13. Report on the service quality incentive regulations for gas network operators and ERDF. 2009-2010 Report Synthesis

    2010-11-01

    The latest natural gas transmission network tariffs, called 'ATRT4', and the tariffs for natural gas distribution network, 'ATRD3', as well as the 3. tariffs for using the public electricity networks, 'TURPE 3', constitute a regulatory framework offering incentives to gas transmission and distribution operators, as well as the electricity distributor ERDF, to control their costs and improve the quality of service provided for network users. For gas and electricity distribution system operators (DSO), the incentive-based regulation for quality of service implemented through the tariffs is complementary to the supervision powers of the licensing authorities. It operates by means of concession contracts which imply that the concessionaire has to deliver activity reports and that the licensing authorities have to publish monitoring reports of the concessionaire's activity. The licensing authorities act on the local level, whereas the incentive regulation is of national scope. The actions of the licensing authorities and of the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) contribute together to assess and enhance the quality of service of the DSO. As the service quality monitoring exercises are conducted successively, the analysis will become more refined as a greater data history is acquired. The quality of service from the gas network operators (GrDF, GRTgaz and TIGF) and the electricity distributor (ERDF) has been improving gradually over the period of the monitoring, or has stabilised at a satisfactory level for the areas that are most important for the correct functioning of the market. Some objectives set by the tariffs have been met or even exceeded, which earns financial bonuses for the operators in question. This second service quality monitoring report on the gas network operators and ERDF is going to be used by the CRE, in consultation with all the market players, to refine the incentive mechanisms already in place. Contents: 1

  14. Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators - 2013-2014 report

    Monteil, Anne; Casadei, Cecile

    2014-12-01

    This report results from the analysis of 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' transmitted to the CRE (the French Commission for energy regulation) at the beginning of 2014 by those in charge of operators compliance. The report is structured in two thematic files, completed by individual analyses of the situation of each operator. These thematic files respectively address the processing of claims by the different natural gas operators, and the processing by ERDF of requests of connection to the grid of renewable energy production installations in the South-West of France. For each operator, the analysis comprises an assessment of independence, and an assessment of the compliance with the good practice program by the operator. For these individual analyses, the report makes a distinction between distribution network operators (ERDF, GRDF, Electricite de Strasbourg, Geredis, SRD, URM, Regaz-Bordeaux, Reseau GDS) and transport network operators (RTE, GRTgaz, TIGF)

  15. Diluted Operation of a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine - Aiming at Improved Effciency, Emission and Maximum Load

    Kaiadi, Mehrzad

    2011-01-01

    Most heavy-duty engines are diesel operated. Severe emission regulations, high fuel prices, high technology costs (e.g. catalysts, fuel injection systems) and unsustainably in supplying fuel are enough reasons to convenience engine developers to explore alternative technologies or fuels. Using natural gas/biogas can be a very good alternative due to the attractive fuel properties regarding emission reduction and engine operation. Heavy-duty diesel engines can be easily converted for natur...

  16. 78 FR 54417 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    2013-09-04

    ... for routine operations. Sec. 250.818 Additional safety equipment--dry trees. Sec. 250.821 Emergency... length of training, whether the training was hands-on or classroom, the training frequency, and the...

  17. Experience of molecular monitoring techniques in upstream oil and gas operations

    Mitchell, Anthony F.; Anfindsen, Hilde; Liengen, Turid; Molid, Solfrid [Statoil ASA (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    For a numbers of years, molecular monitoring tools have been used in upstream oil and gas operations but the results have given only limited added value. This paper discusses the various techniques available for upstream molecular monitoring which provides scope for identification of microbial influenced problems. The methodology, which consists of analyzing solid samples using traditional as well as molecular techniques, is detailed. Two cases were studied with the objective of determining if microbial contamination was contributing to the problem. The first case was a study of amorphous deposits in production wells and mainly iron sulphide was found. The second study was of amorphous deposits in water injection wells and the analysis showed typical components of drilling and completion fluids with some organic material. Two more cases, corrosion of tubing in a water injection well and flow line corrosion, are discussed and the results are given. From the study, it can be concluded that failure can be due to several factors, chemical and biological.

  18. Application of the Coasting Trade Act to offshore oil and gas operations

    De Jonge, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    The main features of the 1992 Coasting Trade Act are summarized. The main purpose of the Act is to protect Canadian ship owners and to ensure they have an opportunity to recover their investments in having Canadian built and crewed vessels. The Coasting Trade Act replaces provisions of the Canada Shipping Act which prohibited non-British ships from entering into Canadian domestic trade. The intention for the Coasting Trade Act is to reserve the coasting trade of Canada to Canadian-registered ships. However, when a Canadian ship is not available, a suitable foreign ship may be temporarily permitted to engage in the Canadian coasting trade as long as Canadian safety standards are met and duties are paid. The Canada Customs and Revenue Agency deals with licence applications while the Canadian Transportation Agency deals with unfair practices and enforcement. The provisions relating to the Coasting Trade License applications are examined along with how they are administered with particular reference to offshore oil and gas operations. The paper also presents recent decisions regarding application licences for Tycom (US) Inc., the Norwegian Polar Ship Management, and the Cyprus-registered seismic vessel, the Northern Access. It is noted that in evaluating the suitability and availability of a Canadian vessel for an activity proposed to be performed by a foreign vessel, the Canadian Transportation Agency examines the technical, financial and commercial elements brought by the parties

  19. Development of an operational digital photogrammetric system for the North Sea oil and gas industry

    Turner, John

    1993-02-01

    The Offshore Oil and Gas Industry in the North Sea has many requirements for three- dimensional measurements in air and underwater. A market audit found that use of conventional photogrammetry was being rejected for many applications because the information was not available fast enough. A development project was set up to replace the photographic cameras with a choice of video or high resolution digital electronic cameras, and the analysis system with a personal computer based image processing system. This solution is now in operation. The paper details the in-house development of the high resolution digital electronic camera and the personal computer based measurement hardware and software. It includes a discussion of the technological parameters, including the method for pixel for pixel correlation within the digital system, camera calibration techniques, the system algorithms, sub-pixel measurement and dimensional accuracy. It introduces the work that was carried out to make the final product acceptable to structural engineers, who now use it to transfer three- dimensional measurements to their CAD systems. It also looks at the work that is being carried out to transform the system into a closed loop control system for underwater robotic manipulators, which includes binary conversion, convolution filtering and tracking functions.

  20. Operability of an Ejector Enhanced Pulse Combustor in a Gas Turbine Environment

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Dougherty, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    A pressure-gain combustor comprised of a mechanically valved, liquid fueled pulsejet, an ejector, and an enclosing shroud, was coupled to a small automotive turbocharger to form a self-aspirating, thrust producing gas turbine engine. The system was constructed in order to investigate issues associated with the interaction of pulsed combustion devices and turbomachinery. Installed instrumentation allowed for sensing of distributed low frequency pressure and temperature, high frequency pressure in the shroud, fuel flow rate, rotational speed, thrust, and laboratory noise. The engine ran successfully and reliably, achieving a sustained thrust of 5 to 6 lbf, and maintaining a rotor speed of approximately 90,000 rpm, with a combustor pressure gain of approximately 4 percent. Numerical simulations of the system without pressure-gain combustion indicated that the turbocharger would not operate. Thus, the new combustor represented a substantial improvement in system performance. Acoustic measurements in the shroud and laboratory indicated turbine stage sound pressure level attenuation of 20 dB. This is consistent with published results from detonative combustion experiments. As expected, the mechanical reed valves suffered considerable damage under the higher pressure and thermal loading characteristics of this system. This result underscores the need for development of more robust valve systems for this application. The efficiency of the turbomachinery components did not appear to be significantly affected by unsteadiness associated with pulsed combustion, though the steady component efficiencies were already low, and thus not expected to be particularly sensitive.

  1. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    Abbrescia, M.; Muhammad, S.; Saviano, G.; Auwegem, P. Van; Cauwenbergh, S.; Tytgat, M.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Russo, A.; Ferrini, M.

    2016-01-01

    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require Fluorine based (F-based) gases for optimal performance. Recent European regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade, several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector with these new ecological gas mixtures, in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard CMS electronic setup are under test. In this paper preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze, with CO 2 and CF 3 I based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  2. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  3. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    Abbrescia, M.

    2016-01-01

    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require Fluorine based (F-based) gases for optimal performance. Recent European regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade, several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector with these new ecological gas mixtures, in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard CMS electronic setup are under test. In this paper preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze, with CO2 and CF3I based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  4. Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharge: Part I. Experimental

    Gielen, J.W.A.M.; de Groot, S.; Dijk, van J.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Due to cataphoresis, axial segregation of mercury will occur when the gas discharge of a fluorescent lamp is operated by means of a direct current. A consequence of this is a non-uniform axial luminance distribution along the lamp. To determine the degree of axial mercury segregation experimentally,

  5. 78 FR 53190 - Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on...

    2013-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0185] Pipeline Safety: Notice to Operators of Hazardous Liquid and Natural Gas Pipelines of a Recall on Leak Repair Clamps Due to Defective Seal AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  6. 75 FR 81224 - Availability of Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the...

    2010-12-27

    ... Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National... Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce DOC). ACTION... seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Recreational Diving, Oil...

  7. 75 FR 67996 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    2010-11-04

    ... Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer... regarding whether those effects have significant impacts. Environmental Assessments are used to evaluate.... ACTION: Notice of the Availability of Environmental Documents Prepared for OCS Mineral Proposals by the...

  8. 77 FR 34405 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

    2012-06-11

    ... Geophysical Survey, SEA M09- Planning Area of the 013. Gulf of Mexico. Energy Resource Technology GOM, South... Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region AGENCY... documents prepared for OCS mineral proposals by the Gulf of Mexico OCS Region SUMMARY: BOEM, in accordance...

  9. 76 FR 38673 - Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of...

    2011-07-01

    ... the Survey, SEA M10-008. Gulf of Mexico. Coastal Technology Corporation, Located on the Atlantic 2/1.... Planning Areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Energy Resource Technology GOM, Matagorda Island, Block 2/3/2011 Inc... Environmental Documents Prepared for Proposed Oil, Gas, and Mineral Operations by the Gulf of Mexico Outer...

  10. Local wall thickness reductions in operative high-pressure gas pipelines; Lokale Wanddickenminderungen an in Betrieb befindlichen Gashochdruckleitungen

    Hass, Georg [Netzdienste Rhein-Main GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hoffmann, Ulrich [Verbundnetz Gas AG (VNG), Leipzig (Germany); Konarske, Juergen [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems Netzservice GmbH, Recklinghausen (Germany); Soppa, Thorsten [NG Netz Gas+Wasser (Germany); Steiner, Michael [Open Grid Europe GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    TUeV Nord, Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung and DVGW investigated methods to assess local wall thickness reductions in operative high-pressure gas pipelines. Methods described in the relevant literature were reviewed with regard to the limiting criteria defined for maximum permissible wall thickness reductions. (orig./GL)

  11. Water-gas shift (WGS) Operation of Pre-combustion CO2 Capture Pilot Plant at the Buggenum IGCC

    Van Dijk, H.A.J.; Damen, K.; Makkee, M.; Trapp, C.

    2014-01-01

    In the Nuon/Vattenfall CO2 Catch-up project, a pre-combustion CO2 capture pilot plant was built and operated at the Buggenum IGCC power plant, the Netherlands. The pilot consist of sweet water-gas shift, physical CO2 absorption and CO2 compression. The technology performance was verified and

  12. The Nigerian experience in health, safety, and environmental matters during oil and gas exploration and production operations

    Oyekan, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Since crude oil was first discovered in commercial quantities in the Country, in 1956, Nigerian oil and gas exploration and production activities have steadily increased as petroleum assumed strategic importance in the nation's economy. However, just as occurs in many parts of the world, crude oil and gas are found and produced in Nigeria sometimes in very hostile and unfavorable environments. The search for oil and gas takes explorers to the hot regions of the Northern parts of the country, the swamp jungle location of the Niger Delta, as well as offshore locations in the Atlantic Ocean. Each terrain, whether land, swamp or offshore, in deep or shallow waters, present unique health, safety and environmental implications and challenges to the operators, as well as, to the Government regulators. From a background of existing Nigerian Laws and operational experience, this paper details the programmes that have been put in place to guarantee a healthy workforce, ensure the safety of personnel and equipment, and protect the Nigerian environment during oil and gas exploration and production operations, as well as their documented effectiveness. The paper discusses the performance of the Petroleum Industry by analyzing the health, safety and environmental records available from 1956 - 1990. The records of major incidents related to safety and environment over the period are discussed and evaluated. The paper notes that relatively speaking, in spite of the Bomu 2 and Funiwa V oil well blow-outs in 1970 and 1980 respectively which caused extensive environmental damages and the Anieze, Oniku and KC 1 gas well blow-out of 1972, 1975 and 1989 respectively, which resulted in the loss of the rigs drilling the locations concerned, the safety performance records in the Nigerian oil and gas exploration and production activities in the past thirty-five years have been satisfactory compared with the records of similar operations in most other parts of the world

  13. Hacking the art of exploitation

    Erickson, Jon

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the techniques of exploitation and creative problem-solving methods commonly referred to as "hacking," Hacking: The Art of Exploitation is for both technical and non-technical people who are interested in computer security. It shows how hackers exploit programs and write exploits, instead of just how to run other people's exploits. Unlike many so-called hacking books, this book explains the technical aspects of hacking, including stack based overflows, heap based overflows, string exploits, return-into-libc, shellcode, and cryptographic attacks on 802.11b.

  14. Analysis for RSG-GAS operational characteristics of reactor cooling system

    Nurhappy, T.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of operational characteristics of reactor cooling systems (JE01 and PA) is aimed at determining the effects of operation and maintenance patterns to the operational characteristic of the system. Analysis is carried out by virtue of the operating and maintenance data from 1987 to 1997, comprising the operating hours (duration) and data on operating failures of the systems. Results of study show that, either separately or jointly, the operating and maintenance patterns will qualitatively affect the operational characteristic of the systems

  15. Optimization of the operating conditions of gas-turbine power stations considering the effect of equipment deterioration

    Aminov, R. Z.; Kozhevnikov, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years in most power systems all over the world, a trend towards the growing nonuniformity of energy consumption and generation schedules has been observed. The increase in the portion of renewable energy sources is one of the important challenges for many countries. The ill-predictable character of such energy sources necessitates a search for practical solutions. Presently, the most efficient method for compensating for nonuniform generation of the electric power by the renewable energy sources—predominantly by the wind and solar energy—is generation of power at conventional fossil-fuel-fired power stations. In Russia, this problem is caused by the increasing portion in the generating capacity structure of the nuclear power stations, which are most efficient when operating under basic conditions. Introduction of hydropower and pumped storage hydroelectric power plants and other energy-storage technologies does not cover the demand for load-following power capacities. Owing to a simple design, low construction costs, and a sufficiently high economic efficiency, gas turbine plants (GTPs) prove to be the most suitable for covering the nonuniform electric-demand schedules. However, when the gas turbines are operated under varying duty conditions, the lifetime of the primary thermostressed components is considerably reduced and, consequently, the repair costs increase. A method is proposed for determination of the total operating costs considering the deterioration of the gas turbine equipment under varying duty and start-stop conditions. A methodology for optimization of the loading modes for the gas turbine equipment is developed. The consideration of the lifetime component allows varying the optimal operating conditions and, in some cases, rejecting short-time stops of the gas turbine plants. The calculations performed in a wide range of varying fuel prices and capital investments per gas turbine equipment unit show that the economic effectiveness can

  16. Nanostructured Basaltfiberconcrete Exploitational Characteristics

    Saraykina, K. A.; Shamanov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article demonstrates that the mass use of basalt fiber concrete (BFC) is constrained by insufficient study of their durability and serviceability in a variety of environments. This research is aimed at the study of the basalt fiber corrosion processes in the cement stone of BFC, the control of the new products structure formation in order to protect the reinforcing fiber from alkaline destruction and thereby improve the exploitational characteristics of the composite. The research result revealed that the modification of basaltfiber concrete by the dispersion of MWNTs contributes to the directional formation of new products in the cement matrix. The HAM additive in basaltfiberconcrete provides for the binding of portlandite to low-basic calcium hydroaluminosilicates, thus reducing the aggressive effect of the cement environment on the reinforcing fibers properties. The complex modification of BFC with nanostructured additives provides for an increase in its durability and exploitational properties (strength, frost resistance and water resistance) due to basalt fiber protection from alkali corrosion on account of the compacting of the contact zone “basalt fiber - cement stone” and designing of the new products structure and morphology of cement matrix over the fiber surface.

  17. Exergic, economic and environmental impacts of natural gas and diesel in operation of combined cycle power plants

    Mohammadi Khoshkar Vandani, Amin; Joda, Fatemeh; Bozorgmehry Boozarjomehry, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigating the effect of natural gas and diesel on the power plant performance. • Exergy, economic and environmental evaluation of a combined cycle power plant. • Using life cycle assessment (LCA) to perform the environmental evaluation. • Optimizing the power plant in terms of exergy and economic. • Better performance of natural gas with respect to diesel. - Abstract: Combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) play an important role in electricity production throughout the world. Their energy efficiency is relatively high and their production rates of greenhouse gases are considerably low. In a country like Iran with huge oil and gas resources, most CCPP’s use natural gas as primary fuel and diesel as secondary fuel. In this study, effect of using diesel instead of natural gas for a selected power plant will be investigated in terms of exergy, economic and environmental impacts. The environmental evaluation is performed using life cycle assessment (LCA). In the second step, the operation of the plant will be optimized using exergy and economic objective functions. The results show that the exergy efficiency of the plant with natural gas as fuel is equal to 43.11%, while this efficiency with diesel will be 42.03%. Furthermore, the annual cost of plant using diesel is twice as that of plant using natural gas. Finally, diesel utilization leads to more contaminants production. Thus, environmental effects of diesel are much higher than that of natural gas. The optimization results demonstrate that in case of natural gas, exergy efficiency and annual cost of the power plant improve 2.34% and 4.99%, respectively. While these improvements for diesel are 2.36% and 1.97%.

  18. The ESA Geohazard Exploitation Platform

    Bally, Philippe; Laur, Henri; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Pinto, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the world's most significant hazards in terms both of loss of life and damages. In the first decade of the 21st century, earthquakes accounted for 60 percent of fatalities from natural disasters, according to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). To support mitigation activities designed to assess and reduce risks and improve response in emergency situations, satellite EO can be used to provide a broad range of geo-information services. This includes for instance crustal block boundary mapping to better characterize active faults, strain rate mapping to assess how rapidly faults are deforming, soil vulnerability mapping to help estimate how the soil is behaving in reaction to seismic phenomena, geo-information to assess the extent and intensity of the earthquake impact on man-made structures and formulate assumptions on the evolution of the seismic sequence, i.e. where local aftershocks or future main shocks (on nearby faults) are most likely to occur. In May 2012, the European Space Agency and the GEO Secretariat convened the International Forum on Satellite EO for Geohazards now known as the Santorini Conference. The event was the continuation of a series of international workshops such as those organized by the Geohazards Theme of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership. In Santorini the seismic community has set out a vision of the EO contribution to an operational global seismic risk program, which lead to the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative. The initial contribution of ESA to suuport the GSNL was the first Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) system in the framework of Grid Processing On Demand (GPOD), now followed by the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP). In this presentation, we will describe the contribution of the GEP for exploiting satellite EO for geohazard risk assessment. It is supporting the GEO Supersites and has been further

  19. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-05-31

    This project has documented and demonstrated the feasibility of technologies and operational choices for companies who operate the large installed fleet of integral engine compressors in pipeline service. Continued operations of this fleet is required to meet the projected growth of the U.S. gas market. Applying project results will meet the goals of the DOE-NETL Natural Gas Infrastructure program to enhance integrity, extend life, improve efficiency, and increase capacity, while managing NOx emissions. These benefits will translate into lower cost, more reliable gas transmission, and options for increasing deliverability from the existing infrastructure on high demand days. The power cylinders on large bore slow-speed integral engine/compressors do not in general combust equally. Variations in cylinder pressure between power cylinders occur cycle-to-cycle. These variations affect both individual cylinder performance and unit average performance. The magnitude of the variations in power cylinder combustion is dependent on a variety of parameters, including air/fuel ratio. Large variations in cylinder performance and peak firing pressure can lead to detonation and misfires, both of which can be damaging to the unit. Reducing the variation in combustion pressure, and moving the high and low performing cylinders closer to the mean is the goal of engine balancing. The benefit of improving the state of the engine ''balance'' is a small reduction in heat rate and a significant reduction in both crankshaft strain and emissions. A new method invented during the course of this project is combustion pressure ratio (CPR) balancing. This method is more effective than current methods because it naturally accounts for differences in compression pressure, which results from cylinder-to-cylinder differences in the amount of air flowing through the inlet ports and trapped at port closure. It also helps avoid compensation for low compression pressure by the

  20. The operation of wholesale electricity, CO2 and natural gas markets in 2010-2011

    2011-01-01

    The first part analyses the electricity wholesale markets: development of the main wholesale market segments, electricity price, electricity production analysis and transparency of production data, transaction analysis. The second part analyses CO 2 markets: evolution of the institutional framework and perspectives, exchanges volumes on the CO 2 market, the CO 2 price in Europe, fundamentals of the European CO 2 market. The third part addresses the gas market: development of gas trade, gas price, gas infrastructures, supply and outlets for stake holders and new comers

  1. Gas stream analysis using voltage-current time differential operation of electrochemical sensors

    Woo, Leta Yar-Li; Glass, Robert Scott; Fitzpatrick, Joseph Jay; Wang, Gangqiang; Henderson, Brett Tamatea; Lourdhusamy, Anthoniraj; Steppan, James John; Allmendinger, Klaus Karl

    2018-01-02

    A method for analysis of a gas stream. The method includes identifying an affected region of an affected waveform signal corresponding to at least one characteristic of the gas stream. The method also includes calculating a voltage-current time differential between the affected region of the affected waveform signal and a corresponding region of an original waveform signal. The affected region and the corresponding region of the waveform signals have a sensitivity specific to the at least one characteristic of the gas stream. The method also includes generating a value for the at least one characteristic of the gas stream based on the calculated voltage-current time differential.

  2. The development and application of dynamic operational risk assessment in oil/gas and chemical process industry

    Yang Xiaole; Mannan, M. Sam

    2010-01-01

    A methodology of dynamic operational risk assessment (DORA) is proposed for operational risk analysis in oil/gas and chemical industries. The methodology is introduced comprehensively starting from the conceptual framework design to mathematical modeling and to decision making based on cost-benefit analysis. The probabilistic modeling part of DORA integrates stochastic modeling and process dynamics modeling to evaluate operational risk. The stochastic system-state trajectory is modeled according to the abnormal behavior or failure of each component. For each of the possible system-state trajectories, a process dynamics evaluation is carried out to check whether process variables, e.g., level, flow rate, temperature, pressure, or chemical concentration, remain in their desirable regions. Component testing/inspection intervals and repair times are critical parameters to define the system-state configuration, and play an important role for evaluating the probability of operational failure. This methodology not only provides a framework to evaluate the dynamic operational risk in oil/gas and chemical industries, but also guides the process design and further optimization. To illustrate the probabilistic study, we present a case-study of a level control in an oil/gas separator at an offshore plant.

  3. Design study of shaft face seal with self-acting lift augmentation. 5: Performance in simulated gas turbine engine operation

    Ludwig, L. P.; Johnson, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility and the noncontact operation of the self-acting seal was demonstrated over a range of simulated gas turbine engine conditions from 200 to 500 ft/sec sliding speed. Sealed pressure differentials were 50 to 300 psi and sealed temperatures were 150 to 1200 F. Low leakage (about 1/10 that of conventional labyrinth seals) was exhibited in two endurance runs (200 and 338 hr) at 400 ft/sec, 200 psi and 1000 F (gas temperature). For these endurance runs, the self-acting pad wear was less than 3.8 micrometers (0.00015 in.); this low wear was attributed to the noncontact operation of the primary seal. Operating problems identified were fretting wear of the secondary seal and erosion of the primary seal by hard particles.

  4. Main principles of developing exploitation models of semiconductor devices

    Gradoboev, A. V.; Simonova, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper represents primary tasks, solutions of which allow to develop the exploitation modes of semiconductor devices taking into account complex and combined influence of ionizing irradiation and operation factors. The structure of the exploitation model of the semiconductor device is presented, which is based on radiation and reliability models. Furthermore, it was shown that the exploitation model should take into account complex and combine influence of various ionizing irradiation types and operation factors. The algorithm of developing the exploitation model of the semiconductor devices is proposed. The possibility of creating the radiation model of Schottky barrier diode, Schottky field-effect transistor and Gunn diode is shown based on the available experimental data. The basic exploitation model of IR-LEDs based upon double AlGaAs heterostructures is represented. The practical application of the exploitation models will allow to output the electronic products with guaranteed operational properties.

  5. Adapting the experience of the operating authorities to the coke plant and power plant engineering markets. Adapter l'experience d'exploitants aux marches de l'ingenierie des cokeries et centrales

    Robert, B [Charbonnages de France, Paris (France)

    1990-03-01

    Through its own engineering organization, created from the former engineering departments of the Houilleres de Bassins on markets abroad, Charbonnages de France (CdF) is exploiting its specific know-how in the field of extraction and use of coals. This exclusive know-how covers both coal conveying devices and the production of high quality cokes or the construction of power plants using fuels with low calorific values, all fields where CdF's techniques have acquired recognized experience both in design and in operations. This is because, during their careers, most of the engineers in CdF's engineering organization have run installations comparable to those which they are proposing to their clients. Among the recent tasks of CdF's engineering organization, those in the field of cogeneration and of circulating fluidized bed boilders should be given particular mention. In fact, CdF Engineering is the main contractor on the Carling 4 circulating fluidized bed boiler in Lorraine (electric power of 125 MW), and at Gardanne, at the Pechiney Aluminium plant, it constructed the first large industrial boiler of this type installed in France. And finally, it is now building, on the Island of La Reunion, a two-energy power plant, fed by both coal and bagasse (cane residue). 4 figs.

  6. Assessment of off-design performance of a small-scale combined cooling and power system using an alternative operating strategy for gas turbine

    Han, Wei; Chen, Qiang; Lin, Ru-mou; Jin, Hong-guang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop an off-design model for a CCP system driven by gas turbine. • An alternative operating strategy is proposed to improve the system performance. • Off-design performance of the combined cooling and power system (CCP) is enhanced. • Effects of both the different operating strategy are analyzed and compared. • Performance enhancement mechanism of the proposed operating strategy is presented. - Abstract: A small-scale combined cooling and power (CCP) system usually serves district air conditioning apart from power generation purposes. The typical system consists of a gas turbine and an exhaust gas-fired absorption refrigerator. The surplus heat of the gas turbine is recovered to generate cooling energy. In this way, the CCP system has a high overall efficiency at the design point. However, the CCP system usually runs under off-design conditions because the users’ demand varies frequently. The operating strategy of the gas turbine will affect the thermodynamic performance of itself and the entire CCP system. The operating strategies for gas turbines include the reducing turbine inlet temperature (TIT) and the compressor inlet air throttling (IAT). A CCP system, consisting of an OPRA gas turbine and a double effects absorption refrigerator, is investigated to identify the effects of different operating strategies. The CCP system is simulated based on the partial-load model of gas turbine and absorption refrigerator. The off-design performance of the CCP system is compared under different operating strategies. The results show that the IAT strategy is the better one. At 50% rated power output of the gas turbine, the IAT operating strategy can increase overall system efficiency by 10% compared with the TIT strategy. In general, the IAT operating strategy is suited for other gas turbines. However, the benefits of IAT should be investigated in the future, when different gas turbine is adopted. This study may provide a new operating

  7. Economical assessment of the design, construction and operation of open-bed biofilters for waste gas treatment.

    Prado, O J; Gabriel, D; Lafuente, J

    2009-06-01

    A protocol was developed with the purpose of assessing the main costs implied in the set-up, operation and maintenance of a waste gas-treating conventional biofilter. The main operating parameters considered in the protocol were the empty bed residence time and the gas flow rate. A wide variety of investment and operating costs were considered. In order to check its reliability, the protocol was applied to a number of scenarios, with biofilter volumes ranging from 8.3 to 4000 m(3). Results show that total annualized costs were between 20,000 and 220,000 euro/year and directly dependent, among other factors, on the size of the system. Total investment and operating costs for average-size compost biofilters were around 60,000 euro and 20,000 euro/year, respectively, which are concordant with actual costs. Also, a sensitivity analysis was performed in order to assess the relative influence of a series of selected costs. Results prove that operating costs are those that influence the total annual costs to a higher extent. Also, packing material replacement costs contribute significantly to the total yearly costs in biofilters with a volume higher than 800 m(3). Among operating costs, the electricity consumption is the main influencing factor in biofilters with a gas flow rate above 50,000 m(3)/h, while labor costs are critical at lower gas flow rates. In addition, the use of a variety of packing materials commonly employed in biofiltration was assessed. According to the results obtained, special attention should be paid to the packing material selected, as it is the main parameter influencing the medium replacement costs, and one of the main factors affecting investment costs.

  8. Safeguarding subcriticality during loading and shuffling operations in the higher density of the RSG-GAS's silicide core

    Sembiring, T.M.; Kuntoro, I.

    2003-01-01

    The core conversion program of the RSG-GAS reactor is to convert the all-oxide to all-silicide core. The silicide equilibrium core with fuel meat density of 3.55 gU cm -3 is an optimal core for RSG-GAS reactor and it can significantly increase the operation cycle length from 25 to 32 full power days. Nevertheless, the subcriticality of the shutdown core and the shutdown margin are lower than of the oxide core. Therefore, the deviation of subcriticality condition in the higher silicide core caused by the fuel loading and shuffling error should be reanalysed. The objective of this work is to analyse the sufficiency of the subcriticality condition of the shutdown core to face the worst condition caused by an error during loading and shuffling operations. The calculations were carried out using the 2-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code of Batan-FUEL. In the fuel handling error, the calculated results showed that the subcriticality condition of the shutdown higher density silicide equilibrium core of RSG-GAS can be maintained. Therefore, all fuel management steps are fixed in the present reactor operation manual can be applied in the higher silicide equilibrium core of RSG-GAS reactor. (author)

  9. Thermal and Evolved Gas Behavior of Calcite Under Mars Phoenix TEGA Operating Conditions

    Ming, D.W.; Niles, P.B.; Morris, R.V.; Boynton, W.V.; Golden, D.C.; Lauer, H.V.; Sutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Phoenix Scout Mission with its diverse instrument suite successfully examined several soils on the Northern plains of Mars. The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) was employed to detect organic and inorganic materials by coupling a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer (MS). Martian soil was heated up to 1000 C in the DSC ovens and evolved gases from mineral decomposition products were examined with the MS. TEGA s DSC has the capability to detect endothermic and exothermic reactions during heating that are characteristic of minerals present in the Martian soil. Initial TEGA results indicated the presence of endothermic peaks with onset temperatures that ranged from 675 C to 750 C with corresponding CO2 release. This result suggests the presence of calcite (CaCO3. CaO + CO2). Organic combustion to CO2 is not likely since this mostly occurs at temperatures below 550 C. Fe-carbonate and Mg-carbonate are not likely because their decomposition temperatures are less than 600 C. TEGA enthalpy determinations suggest that calcite, may occur in the Martian soil in concentrations of approx.1 to 5 wt. %. The detection of calcite could be questioned based on previous results that suggest Mars soils are mostly acidic. However, the Phoenix landing site soil pH was measured at pH 8.3 0.5, which is typical of terrestrial soils where pH is controlled by calcite solubility. The range of onset temperatures and calcite concentration as calculated by TEGA is poorly con-strained in part because of limited thermal data of cal-cite at reduced pressures. TEGA operates at calcite literature thermal data was obtained at 1000 mbar or higher pressures.

  10. Perspectives on greenhouse gas emission estimates based on Australian wastewater treatment plant operating data.

    de Haas, D W; Pepperell, C; Foley, J

    2014-01-01

    Primary operating data were collected from forty-six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located across three states within Australia. The size range of plants was indicatively from 500 to 900,000 person equivalents. Direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions were calculated using a mass balance approach and default emission factors, based on Australia's National Greenhouse Energy Reporting (NGER) scheme and IPCC guidelines. A Monte Carlo-type combined uncertainty analysis was applied to the some of the key emission factors in order to study sensitivity. The results suggest that Scope 2 (indirect emissions due to electrical power purchased from the grid) dominate the emissions profile for most of the plants (indicatively half to three quarters of the average estimated total emissions). This is only offset for the relatively small number of plants (in this study) that have significant on-site power generation from biogas, or where the water utility purchases grid electricity generated from renewable sources. For plants with anaerobic digestion, inventory data issues around theoretical biogas generation, capture and measurement were sometimes encountered that can skew reportable emissions using the NGER methodology. Typically, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions dominated the Scope 1 (direct) emissions. However, N(2)O still only accounted for approximately 10 to 37% of total emissions. This conservative estimate is based on the 'default' NGER steady-state emission factor, which amounts to 1% of nitrogen removed through biological nitrification-denitrification processing in the plant (or indicatively 0.7 to 0.8% of plant influent total nitrogen). Current research suggests that true N(2)O emissions may be much lower and certainly not steady-state. The results of this study help to place in context research work that is focused on direct emissions from WWTPs (including N(2)O, methane and carbon dioxide of non-biogenic origin). For example, whereas non-biogenic CO(2

  11. Task 23 - background report on subsurface environmental issues relating to natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Topical report, February 1, 1994--February 28, 1996

    Sorensen, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes information pertaining to environmental issues, toxicity, environmental transport, and fate of alkanolamines and glycols associated with natural gas sweetening and dehydration operations. Waste management associated with the operations is also discussed.

  12. Gas phase hydrogen peroxide production in atmospheric pressure glow discharges operating in He - H2O

    Vasko, C.A.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Bruggeman, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The gas phase production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a RF atmospheric pressure glow discharge with helium and water vapour has been investigated as a function of the gas flow. It is shown that the production of H2O2 is through the recombination of two OH radicals in a three body collision and the

  13. New gas mixtures for Resistive Plate Chambers operated in avalanche mode

    Abbrescia, M [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Universita di Bari and sezione INFN, via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cassano, V; Nuzzo, S; Piscitelli, G; Vadruccio, D; Zaza, S [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Universita di Bari and sezione INFN, via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of using gas mixtures containing Helium, to overcome some of the problems encountered with standard gas mixture employed up to now for Resistive Plate Chambers, is studied here. New and interesting experimental results are reported, opening a possible original path of investigation in this field.

  14. Report on the incentive regulation regarding the service quality of natural gas network operators and ERDF. Summary report 2011

    2012-05-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator electricite Reseau Distribution France (ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this report cover the period from 1 July 2010 to 30 June 2011. They were used to inform the work conducted to develop the incentive regulation mechanism for service quality in GrDF's ATRD4 tariff (A Third-party access to natural gas distribution networks, scheduled to enter into effect on 1 July 2012). The conclusions of the report will also be used by the CRE for ERDF as part of the work on TURPE 4 tariff (Tariff for the use of public electricity grids, scheduled to enter into effect during the third quarter of 2013), for natural gas local distribution companies (LDCs) to prepare their ATRD4 tariff (Entry into effect scheduled for 1 July 2013), as well as for GRTgaz and TIGF to define the future ATRT5 tariff (Third-party access to natural gas transmission networks, scheduled to enter into effect on 1 April 2013). Implemented in 2009 with an initial annual follow- up report on gas network operators Gr

  15. Exploitation by Economic Necessity

    Kristian F. Braekkan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study develops and tests a model that proposes economic necessity moderates the relationship between psychological contract violations (PCVs and organizational commitment and trust in the employing organization among non-unionized manufacturing workers (N = 226. Moderated regression analyses revealed that there was a significant interaction between PCV and economic necessity in predicting both outcomes. Specifically, the findings indicated that individuals experiencing high PCV and high economic necessity did not decrease their organizational commitment like their counterparts who endorsed lower economic necessity. They did, however, experience significantly decreased trust in their employer. The findings suggest that individuals who are forced to sell their labor power and obtain what they need through the market are more likely to continue to be exploited by their employer, as they have no other options than to continue the relationship. The importance of the findings is discussed, and recommendations for future research are provided.

  16. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  17. Shale gas: don't burn your bridges

    Dupin, L.; Casalonga, S.

    2011-01-01

    As debates take place in the French Parliament to forbid the extraction of shale in gas in France, the author outlines that, according to some experts, even though some sites might be very interesting, only a fraction of their content could be exploited. He also outlines the actual danger of this exploitation for the environment, notably because hydraulic fracturing has to be used. Although the main operators are American, French big companies possess the required know-how and are gaining experience abroad. Moreover, it seems that shale gas exploitation does not possess a significant job creation potential. The situation of different countries with respect to shale gas exploitation is briefly presented: United States, Canada, China, and Poland. The United States policy on this issue is more precisely described in a last article

  18. Construction, test and operation in a high intensity beam of a small system of micro-strip gas chambers

    Barr, A.; Bachmann, S.; Boimska, B.; Bouclier, R.; Braem, A.; Camps, C.; Capeáns, M.; Commichau, V.; Dominik, W.; Flügge, G.; Gómez, F.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hangarter, K.; Hoch, M.; Labbé, J. C.; Macke, D.; Manzin, G.; Meijers, F.; Million, G.; Muhlemann, K.; Nagaslaev, V.; Peisert, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Runolfsson, O.; Sauli, F.; Schulte, R.; Schulz, M.; Sharma, A.; Shekhtman, L.; Wolff, C.

    1998-02-01

    We describe the construction, test and installation procedures, and the experience gained with the operation of a small but complete system of high-rate Micro-Strip Gas Chambers, made on thin borosilicate glass with a diamond-like coating with chromium or gold strips. A set of detectors, fully equipped with read-out electronics and each with an active area of 100 × 100 mm 2, was exposed during six months to a high-intensity muon beam at CERN with a peak intensity of ˜ 10 4 mm -2s -1. Continuous monitoring of the performance of the chambers during the beam runs allowed the evaluation of detection efficiency and the monitoring of accidental rates, as well as the study of ambient induced variations and aging in realistic beam conditions. No significant difference has been found in the operation of under-and over-coated plates. Efficiencies could reach ˜ 98% in best operating conditions, although local lower values were often observed due to missing channels (open strips, broken bonds and dead electronic channels). The long-term operation of the chambers has been more difficult than expected, with the appearance of break-downs and loss of efficiency in some detectors, possibly induced by the presence of small gas leaks, to water permeation or to residual reactivity of the quencher gas (dimethylether).

  19. Learning Metasploit exploitation and development

    Balapure, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    A practical, hands-on tutorial with step-by-step instructions. The book will follow a smooth and easy-to-follow tutorial approach, covering the essentials and then showing the readers how to write more sophisticated exploits.This book targets exploit developers, vulnerability analysts and researchers, network administrators, and ethical hackers looking to gain advanced knowledge in exploitation development and identifying vulnerabilities. The primary goal is to take readers wishing to get into more advanced exploitation discovery and reaching the next level.Prior experience exploiting basic st

  20. Measurements and modeling to quantify emissions of methane and VOCs from shale gas operations: Final Report

    Presto, Albert A [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to determine the leakage rates of methane and ozone-forming Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and the emission rates of air toxics from Marcellus shale gas activities. Methane emissions in the Marcellus Shale region were differentiated between “newer” sources associated with shale gas development and “older” sources associated with coal or conventional natural gas exploration. This project conducted measurements of methane and VOC emissions from both shale and non-shale natural gas resources. The initial scope of the project was the Marcellus Shale basin, and measurements were conducted in both the western wet gas regions (southwest PA and WV) and eastern dry gas region (northeast PA) of the basin. During this project, we obtained additional funding from other agencies to expand the scope of measurements to include additional basins. The data from both the Marcellus and other basins were combined to construct a national analysis of methane emissions from oil & gas production activities.

  1. On the high gain operation of low-pressure microdot gas avalanche chambers

    Breskin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Microdot avalanche chambers (MDOT) equipped with thin semitransparent Cr photocathodes, were characterized with UV photons at low gas pressure. Gains superior to 10 4 were reached with gas multiplication at the dots. In a mode where preamplification in the gas volume precedes the additional dot multiplication, gains superior to 10 6 were measured at 30-60 torr of propane. The fast amplification mechanism results in narrow high amplitude pulses with 2-3 ns rise time, visible with no further electronic amplification means. We present here our preliminary results and briefly discuss potential applications. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of the RSG-GAS Alpha-Beta Aerosol Contaminant Monitor Performance Under Reactor Operation Condition

    Hartoyo, Unggul; Setiawanto, Anto; Sumarno, Yulius

    2000-01-01

    Analysis to evaluate the RSG-GAS alpha-beta aerosol contaminant monitor performance was done. The high potential radiation working area such as in RSG-GAS is important to monitored for personal safety. Further it is necessary to assure that the system monitor is reliable enough under normal conditions as well as emergency condition. The method uses in this analysis are monitoring and comparing with the standard source. The standard course indicator and panel in main control room indicate that the result is 1 x 110 exp 9 Ci/m exp 3. Based on data monitor observation, the RSG-GAS alpha-beta aerosol contaminant monitor system under reactor operation condition has a good enough performance

  3. Top-down Constraints on Emissions: Example for Oil and Gas Operations

    Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Brewer, A.; Hardesty, R.; Banta, R. M.; Frost, G. J.; Trainer, M.; Miller, B. R.; Conley, S. A.; Kofler, J.; Newberger, T.; Higgs, J. A.; Wolter, S.; Guenther, D.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P. M.; Montzka, S. A.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W. P.; Brown, S. S.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; Wolfe, D. E.; Bruhwiler, L.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    In many countries, human-caused emissions of the two major long lived greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, are primarily linked to the use of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas). Fugitive emissions of natural gas (mainly CH4) from the oil and gas exploration and production sector may also be an important contributor to natural gas life cycle/greenhouse gas footprint. Fuel use statistics have traditionally been used in combination with fuel and process specific emission factors to estimate CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel-based energy systems (power plants, motor vehicles…). Fugitive emissions of CH4, in contrast, are much harder to quantify. Fugitive emission levels may vary substantially from one oil and gas producing basin to another and may not scale with common activity data, such as production numbers. In the USA, recent efforts by the industry, States and the US Environmental Protection Agency have focused on developing new bottom-up inventory methodologies to assess methane and volatile organic compounds emissions from oil and gas producing basins. The underlying assumptions behind these inventories are multiple and result de facto in large uncertainties. Independent atmospheric-based estimates of emissions provide another valuable piece of information that can be used to evaluate inventories. Over the past year, the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory has used its expertise in high quality GHG and wind measurements to evaluate regional emissions of methane from two oil and gas basins in the Rocky Mountain region. Results from these two campaigns will be discussed and compared with available inventories.

  4. Operational performace of horizontal drillings in the deep aquiferous gas storage Kalle; Betriebsverhalten von Horizontalbohrungen im tiefen Aquifergasspeicher Kalle

    Klafki, M.; Kammel, D. [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany); Below, P.J. [VEW Energie AG, Dortmund (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aquiferous structure Kalle, located in the Emsland, has contained compressed natural gas in the middle sandstone formation of the Volpriehausen-sandstone for 20 years. The storage stratum is between 2100 and 2200 m deep, 10-13 m thick and sufficiently porous and permeable. Gas storage operation and operational performance of the horizontal holes are described in this article. Filling and injection performance are also described. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Die im Emsland gelegene Aquiferstruktur Kalle fuehrt im Volpriehausen-Sandstein der geologischen Formation `Mittlerer Buntsandstein` nunmehr seit fast 20 Jahren eingepresstes Erdgas. Die Speicherschicht ist dort 2100 bis 2200 m tief, 10 bis 13 m maechtig und ausreichend poroes und permeabel. Im Folgenden werden der Gasspeicherbetrieb und das Betriebsverhalten der Horizontalbohrungen beschrieben. Das Ausspeisungsverhalten und das Injektionsverhalten werden ebenfalls erlaeutert. (orig./MSK)

  5. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Cauwenbergh, Simon Marc D; Ferrini, Mauro; Muhammad, Saleh; Passamontic, L; Pierluigi, Daniele; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Russo, Alessandro; Savianoc, G; Tytgat, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard cms electronic setup are under test. In this talk preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze and with CO2 based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  6. Nanostructured ZrO2 Thick Film Resistors as H2-Gas Sensors Operable at Room Temperature

    K. M. GARADKAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZrO2 powder was synthesized by microwave assisted sol-gel method. The material was characterized by XRD and SEM techniques. X-Ray diffraction studies confirm that a combination of tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia nanoparticles is obtained by using microwave-assisted method. The nanopowder was calcined at an optimized temperature of 400 °C for 3 h. The prepared powder had crystalline size about 25 nm. Thick films of synthesized ZrO2 powder were prepared by screen printing technique. The gas sensing performances of these films for various gases were tested. Films showed highest response to H2 (50 ppm gas at room temperature with poor responses to others (1000 ppm. The quick response and fast recovery are the main features of this sensor. The effects of microstructure, operating temperature and gas concentration on the gas response, selectivity, response time and recovery time of the sensor in the presence of H2 gas and others were studied and discussed.

  7. Cells for the examination of irradiated plutonium fuel elements - two years operation - may 1961/may 1963 (1963); Cellules pour examen d'elements combustibles au plutonium irradies - deux ans d'exploitation - mai 1961/mai 1963 (1963)

    Valentin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Within the framework of the 'Rapsodie' fast reactor program, prototype plutonium fuel elements are irradiated and then examined in an {alpha} {beta} {gamma} laboratory at Saclay. This laboratory consists of five in line cells and a lead enclosure microscope. Each cell contains an {alpha} sealed removable box 4 ft 3 in. high, 4 ft 11 in. wide and 5 ft 1 in. deep, fitted with one or two magnetic transmission indirect manipulators. The boxes are contained in an {beta} {gamma} shielded enclosure whose front face is constructed of cast iron panels 21-2/3 in. thick. Nitrogen circulating in a closed loop forms the atmosphere of the boxes. This laboratory is essentially intended for metallurgical research. The functions of the various cells are as follows: transferring and packing, cutting, density measurement and cathodic etching, storage and metallography. Work on radioactive materials began in April 1961. Operational incidents have always been of a material nature only. (author) [French] Dans le cadre du projet de reacteur rapide Rapsodie, des elements combustibles prototypes au plutonium sont, apres irradiation, examines a Saclay dans un laboratoire {alpha} {beta} {gamma}. Celui-ci comprend cinq cellules en ligne et une enceinte en plomb contenant un microscope telecommande. Chaque cellule est constituee d'un caisson etanche (1, 3 m x 1, 5 m x 1, 56m) equipee d'un ou deux manipulateurs indirects a transmissions magnetiques. Les caissons sont places, dans une enceinte {beta} {gamma} dont la face avant est formee de blocs en fonte ayant 55 cm d'epaisseur. L'atmosphere des caissons est de l'azote, circulant en circuit ferme. Ce laboratoire est destine essentiellement a des recherches metallurgiques. Les fonctions des differentes cellules sont: conditionnement et transferts, tronconnage, mesure de densite et polissage ionique, stockage, metallographie. Le travail sur materiaux radioactifs a commence en avril 1961. Les incidents d'exploitation ont toujours ete d

  8. Cells for the examination of irradiated plutonium fuel elements - two years operation - may 1961/may 1963 (1963); Cellules pour examen d'elements combustibles au plutonium irradies - deux ans d'exploitation - mai 1961/mai 1963 (1963)

    Valentin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Within the framework of the 'Rapsodie' fast reactor program, prototype plutonium fuel elements are irradiated and then examined in an {alpha} {beta} {gamma} laboratory at Saclay. This laboratory consists of five in line cells and a lead enclosure microscope. Each cell contains an {alpha} sealed removable box 4 ft 3 in. high, 4 ft 11 in. wide and 5 ft 1 in. deep, fitted with one or two magnetic transmission indirect manipulators. The boxes are contained in an {beta} {gamma} shielded enclosure whose front face is constructed of cast iron panels 21-2/3 in. thick. Nitrogen circulating in a closed loop forms the atmosphere of the boxes. This laboratory is essentially intended for metallurgical research. The functions of the various cells are as follows: transferring and packing, cutting, density measurement and cathodic etching, storage and metallography. Work on radioactive materials began in April 1961. Operational incidents have always been of a material nature only. (author) [French] Dans le cadre du projet de reacteur rapide Rapsodie, des elements combustibles prototypes au plutonium sont, apres irradiation, examines a Saclay dans un laboratoire {alpha} {beta} {gamma}. Celui-ci comprend cinq cellules en ligne et une enceinte en plomb contenant un microscope telecommande. Chaque cellule est constituee d'un caisson etanche (1, 3 m x 1, 5 m x 1, 56m) equipee d'un ou deux manipulateurs indirects a transmissions magnetiques. Les caissons sont places, dans une enceinte {beta} {gamma} dont la face avant est formee de blocs en fonte ayant 55 cm d'epaisseur. L'atmosphere des caissons est de l'azote, circulant en circuit ferme. Ce laboratoire est destine essentiellement a des recherches metallurgiques. Les fonctions des differentes cellules sont: conditionnement et transferts, tronconnage, mesure de densite et polissage ionique, stockage, metallographie. Le travail sur materiaux radioactifs a commence en avril 1961. Les incidents d'exploitation

  9. RISK DECREASE PROBLEM WITH MAKING ERRORS IN ACTIVITY OF OPERATORS DEALING WITH AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS OF GAS-DISTRIBUTION STATIONS

    V. V. Egorov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of specific features pertaining to the activity of operators dealing with automatic control systems of gas-distribution stations. The professional operator’s activity is presented in the form of the developed data model. Possible conceptual approaches to the research are analyzed in the paper. The paper describes an author’s approach to studying a risk decrease problem in the activity of operators on the basis of the analytical research results. Technology for obtaining  research results is cited in the paper. 

  10. Operations and maintenance performance in oil and gas production assets. Theoretical architecture and capital value theory in perspective

    Liyanage, Jayantha P.

    2003-07-01

    In response to growing demands from the Norwegian oil and gas industry, a joint industry project on the development and implementation of operations and maintenance performance indicators for the petroleum industry was initiated by the Center for Asset and Maintenance Management of Stavanger University College, Norway, in 1999. The project consortium composed of BP, Shell, Philips, Statoil, NorskHydro, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Andersen Consulting, DNV, Industrial and Financial Systems (IFS), ADB Systems AS, DNV, RC Consultants and Tieto Enator. While the project was managed effectively to serve the expectations of member organizations, its boundaries were predefined by various conditions within organizational environments leaving a substantial space unexplored. Hence, the width and the breadth of operations and maintenance performance captured by the project were largely limited. This called for an independent research study to explore the phenomenon with a more broader or holistic perspective. Notably thus, while the project was devoted to a down-to-earth component of the exercise, i.e. to develop performance indicators, the exploratory research study was launched alongside to bring a theoretical or a philosophical insight. The study was conducted during 2000-2002 with collaboration of 14 organizations within the Norwegian continental shelf. The population included oil and gas producers regulatory and verification bodies and third parties. The study identified the bulk of problems that the entire problem domain constitute of within operations and maintenance performance. They were classified into some theoretical forms, and the study concentrated on, what I term, technical alienation, i.e. lack of descriptive performance models to guide meaningful assessment and management of operations and maintenance performance. The choice to shed some light in this endeavor was based on the relevance to SDV project, emerging managerial interest

  11. Operations and maintenance performance in oil and gas production assets. Theoretical architecture and capital value theory in perspective

    Liyanage, Jayantha P.

    2003-01-01

    In response to growing demands from the Norwegian oil and gas industry, a joint industry project on the development and implementation of operations and maintenance performance indicators for the petroleum industry was initiated by the Center for Asset and Maintenance Management of Stavanger University College, Norway, in 1999. The project consortium composed of BP, Shell, Philips, Statoil, NorskHydro, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Andersen Consulting, DNV, Industrial and Financial Systems (IFS), ADB Systems AS, DNV, RC Consultants and Tieto Enator. While the project was managed effectively to serve the expectations of member organizations, its boundaries were predefined by various conditions within organizational environments leaving a substantial space unexplored. Hence, the width and the breadth of operations and maintenance performance captured by the project were largely limited. This called for an independent research study to explore the phenomenon with a more broader or holistic perspective. Notably thus, while the project was devoted to a down-to-earth component of the exercise, i.e. to develop performance indicators, the exploratory research study was launched alongside to bring a theoretical or a philosophical insight. The study was conducted during 2000-2002 with collaboration of 14 organizations within the Norwegian continental shelf. The population included oil and gas producers regulatory and verification bodies and third parties. The study identified the bulk of problems that the entire problem domain constitute of within operations and maintenance performance. They were classified into some theoretical forms, and the study concentrated on, what I term, technical alienation, i.e. lack of descriptive performance models to guide meaningful assessment and management of operations and maintenance performance. The choice to shed some light in this endeavor was based on the relevance to SDV project, emerging managerial interest

  12. Analysis Of The Heat Exchanger Capability At One Line Cooling System Operation Mode Of The RSG-GAS

    Dibyo, Sukmanto; Kuntoro, Iman

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of minimizing the operation lost of the RSG-GAS reactor, operation using one line cooling system at certain power range is being evaluated. Analysis the performance of cooling system for determining maximum power should be carried out. Analysis was carried out based on heat exchanger calculation using actual operation data. Constraints imposed to the analysis are that inlet cooling system to the reactor core shall be less than 42 o C. The result shows that by using one line of primary and secondary coolant flow of 1780 m exp. 3/hr and 2000 m 3 /hr and secondary coolant temperature from the cooling tower of 38 o C, the primary coolant to the core will be reach 42 o C if reactor operated at power of 16 MW

  13. Effects of Operating Temperature on Droplet Casting of Flexible Polymer/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composite Gas Sensors

    Jin-Chern Chiou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the performance of a flexible polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT composite sensor array as a function of operating temperature. The response magnitudes of a cost-effective flexible gas sensor array equipped with a heater were measured with respect to five different operating temperatures (room temperature, 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C via impedance spectrum measurement and sensing response experiments. The selected polymers that were droplet cast to coat a MWCNT conductive layer to form two-layer polymer/MWCNT composite sensing films included ethyl cellulose (EC, polyethylene oxide (PEO, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. Electrical characterization of impedance, sensing response magnitude, and scanning electron microscope (SEM morphology of each type of polymer/MWCNT composite film was performed at different operating temperatures. With respect to ethanol, the response magnitude of the sensor decreased with increasing operating temperatures. The results indicated that the higher operating temperature could reduce the response and influence the sensitivity of the polymer/MWCNT gas sensor array. The morphology of polymer/MWCNT composite films revealed that there were changes in the porous film after volatile organic compound (VOC testing.

  14. Landfill gas-fired power plant pays cost of operating landfill

    Wallace, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on recovery of energy from refuse that has become increasingly attractive in the past decade. The continuing urbanization of our society has created major challenges in the disposal of our waste products. Because of public concern over the potential presence of toxins, and for other environmental reasons, management and regulation of active and inactive landfills have become much more stringent and costly. Palos Verdes landfill, owned jointly by the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts and Los Angeles County, is located about three miles from the Pacific Ocean in the city of Rolling Hills Estates, Calif. The landfill was closed in 1980. The garbage was covered with six to eight feet of soil, and the area was landscaped. Part of this area has already been developed as the South Coast Botanical Gardens and Ernie Howlett Park. The remainder is scheduled to become a golf course. As refuse decays within a landfill, the natural anaerobic biological reaction generates a low-Btu methane gas along with carbon dioxide, known as landfill gas (LFG). The gas also contains other less desirable trace components generated by the decomposing garbage. Uncontrolled, these gases migrate to the surface and escape into the atmosphere where they generate environmental problems, including objectionable odors. The Sanitation Districts have installed a matrix of gas wells and a gas collection system to enable incineration of the gas in flares. This approach reduced aesthetic, environmental and safety concerns. However, emissions from the flares were still a problem. The Sanitation Districts then looked at alternatives to flaring the gas, one of which was electrical generation. Since the Sanitation Districts have no on-site use for thermal energy, power generation for use in the utility grid was deemed the most feasible alternative

  15. Monitoring of the natural gas exploitation in the Wadden Sea from the locations Moddergat, Lauwersoog and Vierhuizen, Netherlands. Advice of the Audit Committee 2011; Monitoring van de aardgaswinning onder de Waddenzee vanaf de locaties Moddergat, Lauwersoog en Vierhuizen. Advies 2011 van de Auditcommissie

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    The Dutch governmental decree ('Rijksprojectenbesluit') on the project for natural gas exploitation in the Wadden Sea for the locations Moddergat, Lauwersoog and Vierhuizen gives the Dutch Petroleum Company (NAM) the possibility to produce natural gas under specific conditions in the Wadden Sea area from the six fields Moddergat, Nes, Lauwersoog C, Lauwersoog West, Lauwersoog East and Vierhuizen East. The precondition is that the (dynamic) nature in and around the Wadden Sea is not affected by subsidence as a result of the gas exploitation. For this, the NAM must monitor the subsidence and the nature values and report annually to the Dutch government. Also in the Rijksprojectbesluit it is determined that the Commission for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), as the independent auditor, will annually advise the responsible ministers on the EIA-report. This is the 2011 recommendation of the Audit Committee for exploitation of natural gas in the Wadden Sea [Dutch] Het Rijksprojectbesluit Gaswinning onder de Waddenzee vanaf de locaties Moddergat, Lauwersoog en Vierhuizen geeft de Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) de mogelijkheid om onder randvoorwaarden aardgas te produceren in het Waddenzeegebied uit de zes velden Moddergat, Nes, Lauwersoog C, Lauwersoog West, Lauwersoog Oost en Vierhuizen Oost. De randvoorwaarde is dat de (dynamische) natuur in en rondom de Waddenzee niet wordt aangetast door bodemdaling als gevolg van de gaswinning. Daarvoor moet de NAM de bodemdaling en de natuurwaarden monitoren en jaarlijks rapporteren aan de Nederlandse overheid. Ook is in het Rijksprojectbesluit bepaald dat de Commissie voor de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) als onafhankelijke auditor de verantwoordelijke ministers jaarlijks zal adviseren over deze Rapportage. Dit is het 2011 advies van de Auditcommissie gaswinning onder de Waddenzee.

  16. Monitoring of the natural gas exploitation in the Wadden Sea from the locations Moddergat, Lauwersoog and Vierhuizen, Netherlands. Advice of the Audit Committee 2009; Monitoring van de aardgaswinning onder de Waddenzee vanaf de locaties Moddergat, Lauwersoog en Vierhuizen. Advies 2009 van de Auditcommissie

    NONE

    2010-05-07

    The Dutch governmental decree ('Rijksprojectenbesluit') on the project for natural gas exploitation in the Wadden Sea for the locations Moddergat, Lauwersoog Vierhuizen gives the Dutch Petroleum Company (NAM) the possibility to produce natural gas under specific conditions in the Wadden Sea area from the six fields Moddergat, Nes, Lauwersoog C, Lauwersoog West, Lauwersoog East and Vierhuizen East. The precondition is that the (dynamic) nature in and around the Wadden Sea is not affected by subsidence as a result of the gas exploitation. For this, the NAM must monitor the subsidence and the nature values and report annually to the Dutch government. Also in the Rijksprojectbesluit it is determined that the Commission for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), as the independent auditor, will annually advise the responsible ministers on the EIA-report. This is the 2009 recommendation of the Audit Committee for exploitation of natural gas in the Wadden Sea. [Dutch] Het Rijksprojectbesluit Gaswinning onder de Waddenzee vanaf de locaties Moddergat, Lauwersoog en Vierhuizen geeft de Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) de mogelijkheid om onder randvoorwaarden aardgas te produceren in het Waddenzeegebied uit de zes velden Moddergat, Nes, Lauwersoog C, Lauwersoog West, Lauwersoog Oost en Vierhuizen Oost. De randvoorwaarde is dat de (dynamische) natuur in en rondom de Waddenzee niet wordt aangetast door bodemdaling als gevolg van de gaswinning. Daarvoor moet de NAM de bodemdaling en de natuurwaarden monitoren en jaarlijks rapporteren aan de Nederlandse overheid. Ook is in het Rijksprojectbesluit bepaald dat de Commissie voor de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) als onafhankelijke auditor de verantwoordelijke ministers jaarlijks zal adviseren over deze Rapportage. Dit is het 2009 advies van de Auditcommissie gaswinning onder de Waddenzee.

  17. Monitoring of the natural gas exploitation in the Wadden Sea from the locations Moddergat, Lauwersoog and Vierhuizen, Netherlands. Advice of the Audit Committee on method for monitoring and null-measurement; Monitoring van de aardgaswinning onder de Waddenzee vanaf de locaties Moddergat, Lauwersoog en Vierhuizen. Advies van de Auditcommissie over de opzet van de monitoring en de nulmeting

    NONE

    2007-12-21

    The Dutch governmental decree ('Rijksprojectenbesluit') on the project for natural gas exploitation in the Wadden Sea for the locations Moddergat, Lauwersoog Vierhuizen gives the Dutch Petroleum Company (NAM) the possibility to produce natural gas under specific conditions in the Wadden Sea area from the six fields Moddergat, Nes, Lauwersoog C, Lauwersoog West, Lauwersoog East and Vierhuizen East. The precondition is that the (dynamic) nature in and around the Wadden Sea is not affected by subsidence as a result of the gas exploitation. For this, the NAM must monitor the subsidence and the nature values and report annually to the Dutch government. Also in the Rijksprojectbesluit it is determined that the Commission for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), as the independent auditor, will annually advise the responsible ministers on the EIA-report. This is the first recommendation of the Audit Committee for exploitation of natural gas in the Wadden Sea which in particular deals with the method for the monitoring and baseline measurement. [Dutch] Het Rijksprojectbesluit Gaswinning onder de Waddenzee vanaf de locaties Moddergat, Lauwersoog en Vierhuizen geeft de Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) de mogelijkheid om onder randvoorwaarden aardgas te produceren in het Waddenzeegebied uit de zes velden Moddergat, Nes, Lauwersoog C, Lauwersoog West, Lauwersoog Oost en Vierhuizen Oost. De randvoorwaarde is dat de (dynamische) natuur in en rondom de Waddenzee niet wordt aangetast door bodemdaling als gevolg van de gaswinning. Daarvoor moet de NAM de bodemdaling en de natuurwaarden monitoren en jaarlijks rapporteren aan de Nederlandse overheid. Ook is in het Rijksprojectbesluit bepaald dat de Commissie voor de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) als onafhankelijke auditor de verantwoordelijke ministers jaarlijks zal adviseren over deze Rapportage. Dit is het eerste advies van de Auditcommissie gaswinning onder de Waddenzee waarin specifiek wordt ingegaan op de

  18. Monitoring of the natural gas exploitation in the Wadden Sea from the locations Moddergat, Lauwersoog and Vierhuizen, Netherlands. Advice of the Audit Committee 2010; Monitoring van de aardgaswinning onder de Waddenzee vanaf de locaties Moddergat, Lauwersoog en Vierhuizen. Advies 2010 van de Auditcommissie

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    The Dutch governmental decree ('Rijksprojectenbesluit') on the project for natural gas exploitation in the Wadden Sea for the locations Moddergat, Lauwersoog and Vierhuizen gives the Dutch Petroleum Company (NAM) the possibility to produce natural gas under specific conditions in the Wadden Sea area from the six fields Moddergat, Nes, Lauwersoog C, Lauwersoog West, Lauwersoog East and Vierhuizen East. The precondition is that the (dynamic) nature in and around the Wadden Sea is not affected by subsidence as a result of the gas exploitation. For this, the NAM must monitor the subsidence and the nature values and report annually to the Dutch government. Also in the Rijksprojectbesluit it is determined that the Commission for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), as the independent auditor, will annually advise the responsible ministers on the EIA-report. This is the 2010 recommendation of the Audit Committee for exploitation of natural gas in the Wadden Sea. [Dutch] Het Rijksprojectbesluit Gaswinning onder de Waddenzee vanaf de locaties Moddergat, Lauwersoog en Vierhuizen geeft de Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM) de mogelijkheid om onder randvoorwaarden aardgas te produceren in het Waddenzeegebied uit de zes velden Moddergat, Nes, Lauwersoog C, Lauwersoog West, Lauwersoog Oost en Vierhuizen Oost. De randvoorwaarde is dat de (dynamische) natuur in en rondom de Waddenzee niet wordt aangetast door bodemdaling als gevolg van de gaswinning. Daarvoor moet de NAM de bodemdaling en de natuurwaarden monitoren en jaarlijks rapporteren aan de Nederlandse overheid. Ook is in het Rijksprojectbesluit bepaald dat de Commissie voor de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) als onafhankelijke auditor de verantwoordelijke ministers jaarlijks zal adviseren over deze Rapportage. Dit is het 2010 advies van de Auditcommissie gaswinning onder de Waddenzee.

  19. Recent experience with onshore oil and gas operations in the Mackenzie Delta, NWT

    Burns, J.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrocarbon deposits in the Beaufort Sea and Mackenzie Delta indicate mean discovered gas reserves of 5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, 67 million barrels of condensate, and 247 million barrels of oil in fields located onshore. There may be even bigger undiscovered reserves that could be proven by a surge in drilling likely to occur in this region within the next few years. There are a number of characteristics of this area that appeal to the oil and gas industry over and above the discovered and undiscovered reserves. There is a local aboriginal group with a settled land claim, clear and reasonable rules for access, a business-like approach to development and a sophisicated understanding of the oil and gas industry. There is reasonable access by road, commercial air service, rail and barge by Hay river or sea with an excellent harbour at Tuktoyaktuk. Local contractors and labour with applicable skills and good equipment are available. The Inuvialuit Petroleum Corp. and its partners Altagas Services Inc. and Enbridge Inc. completed a project to supply the town of Inuvik with natural gas for electricity generation and local distribution. This project is a small example of the physical, economic and regulatory environments that the oil industry will face with the undertaking of larger projects. Aspects of the region described include: the Inuvialuit, recent experience, logistics, regulatory environment, project approvels, environmental, and specific observations

  20. Report on the behalf of the Commission for Foreign Affairs on: - the bill project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the ratification of the Convention related to the construction and the exploitation of a European free electron laser operating in the X-ray range, and - the bill project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the approval of the convention related to the construction and the exploitation of an infrastructure for the research on anti-protons and ions in Europe - Nr 1165 and Nr 1166 and appendix: text by the Commission for Foreign Affairs

    Baumel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This report first discusses how these two conventions (the one related to the construction and the exploitation of a European free electron laser operating in the X-ray range (in Hamburg, DE), and the one related to the construction and the exploitation of an infrastructure for the research on anti-protons and ions in Europe (in Darmstadt, DE)) will allow the French scientific community to access advanced infrastructures. It presents these infrastructures and outlines the several application perspectives, i.e. for the FAIR project and the European XFEL project. It comments the similar construction and exploitation conditions in terms of statutes (for the FAIR and XFEL companies, and for the personnel), and outlines that the financial burden will be governed and limited as far as the construction as well as the exploitation costs are concerned

  1. Profits and Exploitation: A Reappraisal

    Yoshihara, Naoki; Veneziani, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a mathematical analysis of the Marxian theory of the exploitation of labour in general equilibrium models. The two main definitions of Marxian exploitation in the literature, proposed by Morishima (1974) and Roemer (1982), respectively, are analysed in the context of general convex economies. It is shown that, contrary to the received view, in general these definitions do not preserve the so-called Fundamental Marxian Theorem (FMT), which states that the exploitation of la...

  2. Independent determination of the accuracy of the OSTR stack gas monitor and its operational application

    Pickett, B.D.; Johnson, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the accuracy of the stack gas monitor, using techniques which were independent of the monitoring system itself. Samples of argon-41 to be used as the standards in this study were carefully produced in the thermal column of the OSTR and counted on a Ge(Li) detector which was connected to a multichannel analyzer (MCA). As the argon-41 standard in the gas sample flask decayed, the concentration of the argon-41 was compared to the output of the Ge(Li)/MCA system. This established a calibration curve for the counting system, whereby a sample with an unknown concentration of argon-41 could be counted and the subsequent count rate from the sample converted to a concentration expressed in mCi per milliliter. Gas samples were extracted from various points in the reactor exhaust system and the concentrations of argon-41 were determined by counting on the Ge(Li)/MCA system. Each sample concentration was then compared to the argon-41 concentration indicated by the stack gas monitor. The initial results indicated that, although possibly intermittent, the argon-41 concentrations displayed by the stack gas monitor were often approximately 50% of those predicted by analysis of individual samples from the exhaust system. Several possible sources for the discrepancy were checked, including the method of SGM calibration, uneven mixing of exhaust air and argon-41 in the reactor building exhaust stream, and dilution of the gas concentration in the SGM system by air leakage into the system. After considerable effort, the latter cause was found to be the culprit, due to an aging gasket around the stack monitor's moving particulate-filter-paper housing

  3. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Demonstration plant operation plan (Deliverable No. 38)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The Demo Plant Operating Plan is composed of the following sequence of events starting with the training or personnel, familiarizing of the personnel with the plant and completing the long-term run in the following sequences: inspection during construction, plant completion, shakedown of equipment, process unit startup, shakedown of process units, variable run operation and a turnaround. During the construction period, technical personnel from DRC, MLGW and IGT will be at the plant site becoming familiar with the equipment, its installation and all of the auxiliaries so that on completion of construction they will be well grounded on the plant detail and its configuration. At the same time the supervisory operating personnel will have hands on training the gasifier operation at the IGT pilot plant to develop a field for gasifier operation. As a plant sections are completed, they will be checked out in accordance with the contractor and operator (client) procedure as outlined. Subsequent to this, various vendor designs and furnished equipment will be checked out operating-wise and a performance test run if feasible. The actual startup of the plant will be subsequential with the support areas as utilities, coal handling and waste treatment being placed in operation first. Subsequent to this the process units will be placed in operation starting from the rear of the process train and working forward. Thus the downstream units will be operating before the reactor is run on coal. The reactor will be checked out on coke operation.

  4. Operational experience in mitigating flammable gas releases from Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101

    Lentsch, J.W.; Babad, H.; Kirch, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    Flammable gases consisting of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and methane are periodically released from Hanford Site waste tank 241-SY-101 at concentrations above the flammable limit. A large mixer pump installed in the tank in 1993 has effectively mitigated this problem by continuously releasing small amounts of the flammable gases at the rate they are generated. Tank 241-SY-101 is also equipped with multiple high-sensitivity gas monitoring systems and level detection systems to measure the quantity of gas that is retained in and released from the waste

  5. Future distributed generation: An operational multi-objective optimization model for integrated small scale urban electrical, thermal and gas grids

    Lo Cascio, Ermanno; Borelli, Davide; Devia, Francesco; Schenone, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization model for retrofitted and integrated natural gas pressure regulation stations. • Comparison of different incentive mechanisms for recovered energy based on the characteristics of preheating process. • Control strategies comparison: performances achieved with optimal control vs. ones obtained by thermal load tracking. - Abstract: A multi-objective optimization model for urban integrated electrical, thermal and gas grids is presented. The main system consists of a retrofitted natural gas pressure regulation station where a turbo-expander allows to recover energy from the process. Here, the natural gas must be preheated in order to avoid methane hydrates. The preheating phase could be based on fossil fuels, renewable or on a thermal mix. Depending on the system configuration, the proposed optimization model enables a proper differentiation based on how the natural gas preheating process is expected to be accomplished. This differentiation is addressed by weighting the electricity produced by the turbo-expander and linking it to proper remuneration tariffs. The effectiveness of the model has been tested on an existing plant located in the city of Genoa. Here, the thermal energy is provided by means of two redundant gas-fired boilers and a cogeneration unit. Furthermore, the whole system is thermally integrated with a district heating network. Numerical simulation results, obtained with the commercial proprietary software Honeywell UniSim Design Suite, have been compared with the optimal solutions achieved. The effectiveness of the model, in terms of economic and environmental performances, is finally quantified. For specific conditions, the model allows achieving an operational costs reduction of about 17% with the respect to thermal-load-tracking control logic.

  6. Improved PFB operations: 400-hour turbine test results. [coal combustion products and hot corrosion in gas turbines

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Benford, S. M.; Zellars, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    A pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) coal-burning reactor was used to provide hot effluent gases for operation of a small gas turbine. Preliminary tests determined the optimum operating conditions that would result in minimum bed particle carryover in the combustion gases. Solids were removed from the gases before they could be transported into the test turbine by use of a modified two stage cyclone separator. Design changes and refined operation procedures resulted in a significant decrease in particle carryover, from 2800 to 93 ppm (1.5 to 0.05 grains/std cu ft), with minimal drop in gas temperature and pressure. The achievement of stable burn conditions and low solids loadings made possible a 400 hr test of small superalloy rotor, 15 cm (6 in.) in diameter, operating in the effluent. Blades removed and examined metallographically after 200 hr exhibited accelerated oxidation over most of the blade surface, with subsurface alumina penetration to 20 micron m. After 400 hours, average erosion loss was about 25 micron m (1 mil). Sulfide particles, indicating hot corrosion, were present in depletion zones, and their presence corresponded in general to the areas of adherent solids deposit. Sulfidation appears to be a materials problem equal in importance to erosion.

  7. How wireless remote technology reduces cost, boosts productivity and improves safety in upstream oil and gas operations

    Wommack, K. [Viatran, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    This article demonstrated how wireless communications can help oil and gas producers obtain the most current information on the status of their operations to help optimize operations and protect workers and equipment. Wireless communication can provide benefits at nearly every phase of upstream production. When combined with pressure, temperature, flow, level and other sensing devices, wireless communications provide an effective and economical way to deliver data on well or pipeline operations to site managers; optimize well-production, minimize workovers and prevent blowdowns at the wellhead; track oil and water production; measure differential pressure, line pressure and line temperature; and monitor the motorized choke and control valve position. Wireless technology offers significant savings through improved maintenance efficiency. With wireless systems in remote locations, there are seldom problems in the transmission path. Wireless technology makes it much easier and affordable to manage well operations from a safe distance. By eliminating the need for wires in a fracing operation, wireless can help fracing companies maintain a safe operating distance from their target wells, and move operations from well to well with ease. A wireless communication system for transmitting process data from field sensors to a field processing device consists of radio transmitters, a communications gateway and a user interface. The communications hub receives encrypted messages from the remote devices and transmits them to a flow computer, SCADA system, or Distributed Control System. Data is then transmitted to a central office. 1 fig.

  8. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  9. Risk analysis for construction and operation of gas pipeline projects in pakistan

    Mubin, S.; Mubin, G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to cater for its high energy demand, Pakistan is planning to import natural gas through pipelines from neighboring countries. For fully utilizing the imported gas, providing it to end customers, the infrastructure of gas pipeline needs to be developed. Therefore, huge investment has been done and proposed in this sector in coming future. Considering geological, topographical, geopolitical and climatic conditions of the country, there is added risk of earthquake, landslides and floods. Due to current geopolitical situation there is a persistent threat of unrest and terrorism in the country. Instable Government policies, high rate of inflation, rapid change in material prices are also important risk factors. All these factors make the situation very complex in quantifying the risk especially for a project in which the risk impact factor rises exponentially in case of risk occurrence. In this paper, most appropriate risk classification is made based on technological, organizational, political, natural climatic, security and environmental risk factors. Effort has been made to device a simpler risk management methodology to analyze and manage risks of gas pipeline project. In the proposed risk management model Monte Carlo simulation has been used to identify critical risks. (author)

  10. Optimizing of operational strategies in producting gas fields mitigating induced seismic risk

    Chitu, A.G.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Candela, T.G.G.; Osinga, S.; Kraaijpoel, D.A.; Wassing, B.B.T.

    2017-01-01

    Pore pressure changes caused by the production of gas from reservoir rocks result in reservoir compaction, stress changes on faults, potential fault reactivation and related seismic activity. This seismic activity is expected to be affected by the amount of pressure change, the spatial distribution

  11. Operation of real landfill gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using internal dry reforming

    Langnickel, Hendrik; Hagen, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is one renewable energy source, which is independent from solar radiation and wind effect. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) are able to convert landfill gas derived from landfill directly into electricity and heat with a high efficiency. In the present work a planar 16cm2 SOFC cell...... was necessary to prevent poisoning and thereby to decrease the degradation rate....

  12. Detection of H2S gas at lower operating temperature using sprayed ...

    Nanostructured In2O3; thin films; spray pyrolysis; H2S gas sensor; low temperature. 1. Introduction ... nozzle to and fro frequency (16 cycles/min), nozzle to sub- ... were confirmed by measuring the thermoelectric power of the thin film samples.

  13. Development, Construction, and Operation of a Multisample Volumetric Apparatus for the Study of Gas Adsorption Equilibrium

    Ribeiro, Rui P. P. L.; Silva, Ricardo J. S.; Esteves, Isabel A. A. C.; Mota, Jose´ P. B.

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a simple volumetric adsorption apparatus is highlighted. The setup is inexpensive and provides a clear demonstration of gas phase adsorption concepts. The topic is suitable for undergraduate chemistry and chemical engineering students. Moreover, this unit can also provide quantitative data that can be used by young researchers…

  14. An integrated transient model for simulating the operation of natural gas transport systems

    Pambour, Kwabena Addo; Bolado-Lavin, Ricardo; Dijkema, Gerard P. J.

    This paper presents an integrated transient hydraulic model that describes the dynamic behavior of natural gas transport systems (GTS). The model includes sub models of the most important facilities comprising a GTS, such as pipelines, compressor stations, pressure reduction stations, underground

  15. Gas erosion of impeller housing in the operation of a high-temperature, high-pressure helium circulator

    Sanders, J.P.; Heestand, R.L.; Young, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Three gas-bearing circulators are installed in series in a high-pressure, high-temperature loop to provide helium flow up to 0.47 m 3 /s at a total head of 78 kJ/kg. The design pressure is 10.7 MPa, and temperatures of 1000 deg. C can be obtained in the test section. The inlet temperature to the circulators is limited to 450 deg. C. The 200-kW motor for each circulator is enclosed in the pressure boundary, and the motor is cooled by circulating the gas within the cavity over a water-cooled coil. The full operating speed is 23,500 rpm. A full-flow filter, absolute for particulate above 10 μm, is installed upstream of the circulator to protect the gas bearing surfaces. The minimum clearances between these surfaces during operation are in the range of 15 to 30 μm. During a routine examination of the circulator, deep V-shaped grooves were found in the stationary surface of this cavity. At the same time, a very fine, dark particulate was observed in crevices of the housing. At first it was assumed that the grooves were formed by particulate erosion; however, examination of the grooves and discussions with persons experienced with large circulator operation changed this opinion. Erosion caused by particulate is characteristically rounded on the bottom and has a greater width to depth aspect than the V-shaped grooves, which were observed. Analysis of the particulate indicated that it was essentially the material of the housing that had undergone reactions with impurities in the circulating gas. It was subsequently concluded that the impeller housing had not been heat treated in a sufficiently oxidizing atmosphere after machining to form an adherent oxide coating. This suboxide coating was eroded by the shear forces in the gas. The exposed layer of metal was then further oxidized by the impurities in the gas, and these layers of oxide were successively eroded to produce the grooves. This erosion problem was eliminated by machining a ring of the same material, heat

  16. Gas production analysis of a fixed-dome digester operated under temperate climates in central Ohio

    Castano, J.; Martin, J.F.; Ciotola, R.; Schlea, D.; Eger, C. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ecological Engineering Program

    2010-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is not used in small farms in the United States because of the high costs and large size of existing digesters. More affordable digesters are needed to realize the environmental and energetic benefits on smaller farms in temperate climates. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of seasonal temperature variation on gas production. Once a baseline for gas production and digester function is determined, then methods can be identified to increase gas production in these conditions. A 1 cubic metre modified fixed-dome digester was buried just below the soil surface at the Ohio State University dairy farm. The digester was fed with 1 kg/m{sup 3} per day of diluted cow manure. The kinetics associated with 6 specific anaerobic trophic groups at 5 and 15 degrees C were determined through laboratory experiments. The average ambient temperature from October through December 2009 was 7.2 degrees C, while the average digester temperature was 8.6 degrees C. The average specific gas production during this period was 0.01746 litres/Kg of volatile solids (VS). Preliminary results showed an average reduction of 44 per cent in VS and volatile fatty acids concentration of 8441 mg/litre inside the digester, from which 61 per cent, 26 per cent, 1 per cent, 7 per cent, and 5 per cent were acetic, propionic, isobutyric, isovaleric and valeric acids, respectively. These preliminary results suggest that the decreasing gas production is associated with a kinetic constraint for a specific trophic group.

  17. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  18. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  19. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas

    Papagiannakis, R.G.; Hountalas, D.T.

    2004-01-01

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  20. TOPEX: An expert system for estimating and analyzing the operating costs of oil and gas production facilities

    Greffioz, J.; Olver, A.J.; Schirmer, P.

    1993-01-01

    TOPEX is a new approach to operating costs estimation of oil and gas installations. It does not rely on knowledge of the capital cost of the installation and uses a computerized expert system (or knowledge base). Estimates are generated from specific details of the equipment and systems and general databases of prices and man hours. A novel methodology has been developed for quantifying the operational complexity of an installation which is then correlated with operations manpower. The use of a computerized application allows rapid calculation of estimates so that what-if and sensitivity studies can be readily done. The knowledge base provides a powerful tool to handle the large amounts of data involved and acts as a repository for the expertise used in its development

  1. Consensual exploitation : the moral wrong in exploitation and legal restrictions on consensual exploitative transactions

    van der Neut, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about so-­‐called consensual exploitative transactions: transactions to which all parties agree voluntarily, and which are beneficial for all parties, but which are still widely considered exploitative, and for that reason legally restricted in many countries. The thesis asks two main questions: 1. What is wrong with consensual exploitation? 2.What implications does the answer to this question have for the legal restriction of consensual transactions ...

  2. Intelligence, mapping, and geospatial exploitation system (IMAGES)

    Moellman, Dennis E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper provides further detail to one facet of the battlespace visualization concept described in last year's paper Battlespace Situation Awareness for Force XXI. It focuses on the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) goal to 'provide customers seamless access to tailorable imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information.' This paper describes Intelligence, Mapping, and Geospatial Exploitation System (IMAGES), an exploitation element capable of CONUS baseplant operations or field deployment to provide NIMA geospatial information collaboratively into a reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) environment through the United States Imagery and Geospatial Information System (USIGS). In a baseplant CONUS setting IMAGES could be used to produce foundation data to support mission planning. In the field it could be directly associated with a tactical sensor receiver or ground station (e.g. UAV or UGV) to provide near real-time and mission specific RSTA to support mission execution. This paper provides IMAGES functional level design; describes the technologies, their interactions and interdependencies; and presents a notional operational scenario to illustrate the system flexibility. Using as a system backbone an intelligent software agent technology, called Open Agent ArchitectureTM (OAATM), IMAGES combines multimodal data entry, natural language understanding, and perceptual and evidential reasoning for system management. Configured to be DII COE compliant, it would utilize, to the extent possible, COTS applications software for data management, processing, fusion, exploitation, and reporting. It would also be modular, scaleable, and reconfigurable. This paper describes how the OAATM achieves data synchronization and enables the necessary level of information to be rapidly available to various command echelons for making informed decisions. The reasoning component will provide for the best information to be developed in the timeline

  3. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Coring operations, core sedimentology, and lithostratigraphy

    Rose, K.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.

    2011-01-01

    In February 2007, BP Exploration (Alaska), the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Geological Survey completed the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) in the Milne Point Unit on the Alaska North Slope. The program achieved its primary goals of validating the pre-drill estimates of gas hydrate occurrence and thickness based on 3-D seismic interpretations and wireline log correlations and collecting a comprehensive suite of logging, coring, and pressure testing data. The upper section of the Mount Elbert well was drilled through the base of ice-bearing permafrost to a casing point of 594??m (1950??ft), approximately 15??m (50??ft) above the top of the targeted reservoir interval. The lower portion of the well was continuously cored from 606??m (1987??ft) to 760??m (2494??ft) and drilled to a total depth of 914??m. Ice-bearing permafrost extends to a depth of roughly 536??m and the base of gas hydrate stability is interpreted to extend to a depth of 870??m. Coring through the targeted gas hydrate bearing reservoirs was completed using a wireline-retrievable system. The coring program achieved 85% recovery of 7.6??cm (3??in) diameter core through 154??m (504??ft) of the hole. An onsite team processed the cores, collecting and preserving approximately 250 sub-samples for analyses of pore water geochemistry, microbiology, gas chemistry, petrophysical analysis, and thermal and physical properties. Eleven samples were immediately transferred to either methane-charged pressure vessels or liquid nitrogen for future study of the preserved gas hydrate. Additional offsite sampling, analyses, and detailed description of the cores were also conducted. Based on this work, one lithostratigraphic unit with eight subunits was identified across the cored interval. Subunits II and Va comprise the majority of the reservoir facies and are dominantly very fine to fine, moderately sorted, quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragment-bearing to

  4. 17 CFR 229.1208 - (Item 1208) Oil and gas properties, wells, operations, and acreage.

    2010-04-01

    ... properties, wells, operations, and acreage. 229.1208 Section 229.1208 Commodity and Securities Exchanges..., operations, and acreage. (a) Disclose, as of a reasonably current date or as of the end of the fiscal year... interests owned in gross wells or acres expressed as whole numbers and fractions of whole numbers. (3...

  5. Axial mercury segregation in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharge: Part II. Model

    Gielen, John W A M; Groot, Simon de; Dijk, Jan van; Mullen, Joost J A M van der

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper we had presented experimental results on mercury segregation due to cataphoresis in direct current operated low-pressure argon-mercury gas discharges. In this paper, we present our model to describe cataphoretic segregation in argon (or another noble gas)-mercury discharges. The model is based on the balance equations for mass and momentum and includes electrophoresis effects of electrons on mercury. Good agreement is found between the experimental results and model calculations. The model confirms our experimental observation that the mercury vapour pressure gradient depends on the local mercury vapour pressure. Furthermore, the model predicts the reversal of the direction of the transport of mercury under certain conditions (the phenomenon known as retrograde cataphoresis)

  6. Ignition Features of Plasma-Beam Discharge in Gas-Discharge Electron Gun Operation

    Valery A. Tutyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of experimental researches to determine the mode features of plasma-beam discharge (PBD generation by an electron beam injected by a low-vacuum gasdischarge electron gun (LGEG with the cold cathode and hollow anode on the basis of the high-voltage glow discharge and in the range of helium pressure of P ? 10 ÷ 130 Pa. The PBD boundaries and their dependences on parameters of an electron beam are found. The influence of PBD on parameters of low-vacuum gas-discharge electron gun is revealed. It causes an avalanche increase of electron beam current and burning of plasma-beam discharge in the whole space of the vacuum chamber volume and generation of electromagnetic radiation is revealed. Achieved results will be used for implementation of various vacuum technologies in the medium of reaction gas and generated electromagnetic radiation.

  7. High flux operation of microstrip gas chambers on glass and plastic supports

    Bouclier, R.; Florent, J.J.; Gaudaen, J.; Millon, G.; Pasta, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.; Shekhtman, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    Recent observations on microstrip gas chambers realized on various glass and plastic supports are presented in this paper. Short term measurements indicate a rate capability up to and above 5x10 5 counts/s mm 2 . A long term exposure to radiation shows however gain modifications, dependent on the resistivity of the chamber substrate; a choice of low resistivity supports minimizes this effect. (orig.)

  8. Methods of Enhancing the Operating Characteristics of Gas-Turbine Blades

    Ospennikova, O. G.; Visik, E. M.; Gerasimov, V. V.; Kolyadov, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    This paper considers the main tendencies of development and ways of introduction of new technological solutions and alloys in the production of industrial gas-turbine unit (GTU) blades and presents a review of modern corrosion-resistant alloys, casting units for high-gradient directional solidification, and the techniques providing the preparation of a single-crystal structure in the blades of stationary turbine plants.

  9. Abundance and Utility: For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas

    2014-08-01

    GTL plants in the world (two in both Malaysia and Qatar and one in South Africa). As recent developments are increasing the supply of natural gas...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The article (likely in cleaner form) will eventually be posted online at: http://www.tacticaldefensemedia.com/archive/dod_power.php The...there are approximately 1,400 CNG and 100 LNG (public and private) refueling stations, compared to about 150,000 retail fueling stations. While

  10. Heavy particle detection characteristics of an MWPC operating at low (1 <= p <= 30 mbar) gas pressures

    Moeller, G.; Presser, G.; Staehler, J.

    1981-01-01

    Pulse heights, timing properties and detection efficiencies of an MWPC were measured with 5.5 MeV alpha particles for different counting gases at low pressures. The pulse heights show a striking nonmonotonic dependence on the gas pressure that can be explained by a simple model of the amplification process at high reduced electric fields. The consequences of the observed pressure dependence of pulse heights for the detection of heavy ions with low pressure MWPCs are discussed. (orig.)

  11. A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators

    Bender, Rick

    2002-03-18

    The accompanying report, manual and assimilated data represent the initial preparation for submission of an Application for Primacy under the Class II Underground Injection Control (UIC) program on behalf of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The purpose of this study was to identify deficiencies in Kentucky law and regulation that would prevent the Kentucky Division of Oil and Gas from receiving approval of primacy of the UIC program, currently under control of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Atlanta, Georgia.

  12. Decision 99-13: Crestar Energy Inc. applications to construct and operate sour gas batteries and pipelines, Vulcan Field

    1999-06-01

    On 1 December 1998, the applicant applied pursuant to Part 4 of the Pipeline Act and Section 7.001 of the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations for approval to construct and operate a sour gas pipeline and various surface facilities to tie in three wells. These are located at Legal Subdivision 12 of Section 36, Township 16, Range 24, West of the fourth Meridian (12-36 facility), Lsd 10-35-16-24 WM4 (10-35 facility), and Lsd 7-26-16-24 WM4 (7-26 facility), to an existing pipeline and proposed surface facility at Lsd 16-16-16-24 WM4. The 10-35, 7-26 and 16-16 facilities would each have a separator, a flare knockout drum, and a flare stack. The 12-36 facility would have two separators, one for each of the two producing zones at the 12-36 facility, a flare knockout drum, and flare stack. A compressor would be installed at the 16-16 facility. All fluids would be measured and re-injected into the pipeline for removal at the 16-16 facility. All proposed flare stacks would consists of a continuously burning sweet gas pilot and would be used for emergencies, routine well servicing, and pigging operations only. The pipeline would be designated as a Level 1 facility, and would transport up to 18 moles of hydrogen sulfide per kilomole of natural gas. Although the Board approved Application No. 1037084 after carefully considering the evidence, subject to meeting all the regulatory requirements and conditions set out in Attachment 1, it rejected Application No. 1033453

  13. Popular epidemiology and "fracking": citizens' concerns regarding the economic, environmental, health and social impacts of unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    Powers, Martha; Saberi, Poune; Pepino, Richard; Strupp, Emily; Bugos, Eva; Cannuscio, Carolyn C

    2015-06-01

    Pennsylvania sits atop the Marcellus Shale, a reservoir of natural gas that was untapped until the 2004 introduction of unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) in the state. Colloquially known as fracking, UNGDO is a controversial process that employs large volumes of water to fracture the shale and capture gas; it has become a multi-billion dollar industry in Pennsylvania. We analyzed letters to the editor of the most widely circulated local newspaper in the most heavily drilled county in Pennsylvania (Bradford County) in order to characterize residents' concerns and their involvement in popular epidemiology--the process by which citizens investigate risks associated with a perceived environmental threat. We reviewed 215 letters to the editor that referenced natural gas operations and were published by The Daily Review between January 1, 2008 and June 8, 2013. We used NVivo 10 to code and analyze letters and identify major themes. Nvivo is qualitative data analysis software (http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx) that allows researchers to code and analyze "unstructured" data, including text files of any type (e.g., interview transcripts, news articles, letters, archival materials) as well as photographs and videos. Nvivo can be used to classify, sort, query, comment on, and share data across a research group. Letters demonstrated citizen engagement in beginning and intermediate stages of lay epidemiology, as well as discord and stress regarding four main issues: socio-economic impacts, perceived threats to water, population growth and implications, and changes to the rural landscape. Residents called for stronger scientific evidence and a balance of economic development and health and environmental protections. Citizens' distress regarding UNGDO appeared to be exacerbated by a dearth of information to guide economic growth and health, environmental, and social concerns. This analysis proposes locally informed questions to guide future

  14. Experimental analysis of damages in a motor piston to gasoline operating with addition of hydroxy gas

    Sanabio, Robdon Guimaraes, E-mail: robson.sanabio@alu.ufc.br [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE(Brazil); Nascimento, Rubens Maribondo; Chellapa, Thiago; Dantas, Valter Bezerra; Medeiros, Isaac Pericles Maia [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The addition of hydrogen gas as an alternative fuel source has been widely used, as well reported in scientific literature. Today, several experiments are underway for the use of hydrogen generators (electrolyser) demand for motor vehicles. In all these products their ads manufacturers claim that this provides a reduction of fuel consumption, reduces the emission levels of toxic gas by the discharge and improves engine life. This research analyzes the physical structure of engine components using electrolysis on demand. To this end, a stationary system was fitted with a power generator of electricity, drum roller and adapted two electrolyzers: a dry cell and wet cell other. In steps observation were consumption analyzes in four work load ranges and observing the piston engine, which has been cut and analyzed by Optical Microscopy (OM), Scanning Electron Microscopy and Dispersive Energy (SEM-EDS), X – Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Confocal Microscopy, the stationary system in each step. The results showed a considerable reduction in fuel consumption and a high corrosion in the original factory piston constituted of aluminum-silicon alloy. As corrosion barrier was made a plasma nitriding in the piston head, which proved resistant to attack by hydrogen, although it has presented evidence also, of having been attacked. It is concluded that the automotive electrolysers can be a good choice in terms of consumption and reducing toxic gas emissions, but the material of the combustion chambers of vehicles must be prepared for this purpose. (author)

  15. New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.

    Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

    2014-11-04

    Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, δ11B, and δ7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), δ11B (25-31‰) and δ7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (∼0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF.

  16. Flow-induced and acoustically induced vibration experience in operating gas-cooled reactors

    Halvers, L.J.

    1977-03-01

    An overview has been presented of flow-induced and acoustically induced vibration failures that occurred in the past in gas-cooled graphite-moderated reactors, and the importance of this experience for the Gas-Cooled Fast-Breeder Reactor (GCFR) project has been assessed. Until now only failures in CO 2 -cooled reactors have been found. No problems with helium-cooled reactors have been encountered so far. It is shown that most of the failures occurred because flow-induced and acoustically induced dynamic loads were underestimated, while at the same time not enough was known about the influence of environmental parameters on material behavior. All problems encountered were solved. The comparison of the influence of the gas properties on acoustically induced and flow-induced vibration phenomena shows that the interaction between reactor design and the thermodynamic properties of the primary coolant precludes a general preference for either carbon dioxide or helium. The acoustic characteristics of CO 2 and He systems are different, but the difference in dynamic loadings due to the use of one rather than the other remains difficult to predict. A slight preference for helium seems, however, to be justified

  17. Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0302 TITLE: Exploiting Inhibitory Siglecs to Combat Food Allergies PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael Kulis, Ph.D...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC 27599 REPORT DATES: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR...Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite

  18. Industrial activity, gas emissions and environmental urban management. Operative condition's diagnostic of smelting activities in Tandil, Argentina

    Soledad Sosa, Beatriz; Guerrero, Elsa Marcela; Banda Noriega, Roxana

    2013-01-01

    Amongst urban environmental problems, those associated to industry are of particular interest in environmental management. Tandil, a city in Argentina, owes its economic and urban growth to metalworking activity, especially to smelting. Despite the crisis in the sector, activity continues to be the axis of local economic and urban growth. The present research characterizes, in production, operative and environmental terms, local smelting industries and assesses operative conditions of gas emissions management during 2010. There were analyzed 25 industries over 30. The sample was representative of five productive processes: aluminum (Al), aluminum/iron (Al Fe), aluminum/bronze (Al Cu+Sn), aluminum/iron/bronze (Al Fe Cu+Sn), and iron (Fe). The variables analyzed were: primary fusion mater, oven used and industry size. To obtain production data we applied structured interviews, and for industry sizes we used surveys. It was possible to describe the productive prospect of the sector at a local level: for most industries the destination of their production is automotive sector. Taking into account the relation between the size and the type of industry, the aluminum smelting companies are small. Regarding iron industries, all three company sizes are present in the sample and exists a medium size industry that occupies between 51 and 230 employees. The operative conditions and their compliance with current legislation regarding control of gas emissions require to identify monitoring indicators for the melting stage that allow knowing precisely the resulting contaminants and their environmental effects.

  19. Operational Excellence in Manufacturing, Service and the Oil & Gas: the Sectorial Definitional Constructs and Risk Management Implication

    Muazu Hassan Muazu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current global business climate has not been favorable to most firms irrespective of industry affiliation. That condition necessitated companies to adopt operational excellence as a strategy for optimising output with little resources, reducing lead time with the efficient use of assets and employees and avoiding safety and health issues to people and the environment. As a result of the need for operational excellence, many kinds of literature defined the concept based on the context of industry or sector. Industries such as manufacturing, services, oil and gas, mining and so many industries to mention a few, have their unique construct in the definition and therefore causing dilemma on which dimension to hold on to. It is against this backdrop that this paper synthesizes and integrate all the varying dimensions and fuses out similarities, differences and the antecedence of research directions taken on the few mentioned sectors. The paper thus concludes that the unique construct among all the definitions is continuous improvement, cost reduction, quality, time utilization, operational efficiency, staff involvement and output optimisation. However, they varied on risk management, staff health, safety and the concern for the environment, which is unique to oil and gas industry and that can affect the choice of research variables.

  20. Source Signature of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas operations in Utah and Colorado

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Warneke, C.; Holloway, J. S.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Young, C. J.; Edwards, P.; Brown, S. S.; Wolfe, D. E.; Williams, E. J.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration has reported a sharp increase in domestic oil and natural gas production from "unconventional" reserves (e.g., shale and tight sands) between 2005 and 2012. The recent growth in drilling and fossil fuel production has led to environmental concerns regarding local air quality. Severe wintertime ozone events (greater than 100 ppb ozone) have been observed in Utah's Uintah Basin and Wyoming's Upper Green River Basin, both of which contain large natural gas fields. Raw natural gas is a mixture of approximately 60-95 mole percent methane while the remaining fraction is composed of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other non-hydrocarbon gases. We measured an extensive set of VOCs and other trace gases near two highly active areas of oil and natural gas production in Utah's Uintah Basin and Colorado's Denver-Julesburg Basin in order to characterize primary emissions of VOCs associated with these industrial operations and identify the key VOCs that are precursors for potential ozone formation. UBWOS (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study) was conducted in Uintah County located in northeastern Utah in January-February 2012. Two Colorado studies were conducted at NOAA's Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Weld County in northeastern Colorado in February-March 2011 and July-August 2012 as part of the NACHTT (Nitrogen, Aerosol Composition, and Halogens on a Tall Tower) and SONNE (Summer Ozone Near Natural gas Emissions) field experiments, respectively. The C2-C6 hydrocarbons were greatly enhanced for all of these studies. For example, the average propane mixing ratio observed during the Utah study was 58 ppb (median = 35 ppb, minimum = 0.8, maximum = 520 ppb propane) compared to urban averages which range between 0.3 and 6.0 ppb propane. We compare the ambient air composition from these studies to urban measurements in order to show that the VOC source signature from oil and natural gas operations is distinct and can be clearly