WorldWideScience

Sample records for operator product expansion

  1. A non-perturbative operator product expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Cundy, N.; Goeckeler, M.

    2009-10-01

    Nucleon structure functions can be observed in Deep Inelastic Scattering experiments, but it is an outstanding challenge to confront them with fully non-perturbative QCD results. For this purpose we investigate the product of electromagnetic currents (with large photonmomenta) between quark states (of low momenta). By means of an Operator Product Expansion the structure function can be decomposed into matrix elements of local operators, and Wilson coefficients. For consistency both have to be computed non-perturbatively. Here we present precision results for a set of Wilson coefficients. They are evaluated from propagators for numerous quark momenta on the lattice, where the use of chiral fermions suppresses undesired operator mixing. This overdetermines the Wilson coefficients, but reliable results can be extracted by means of a Singular Value Decomposition. (orig.)

  2. Operator product expansion and its thermal average

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, S [Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

    1998-05-01

    QCD sum rules at finite temperature, like the ones at zero temperature, require the coefficients of local operators, which arise in the short distance expansion of the thermal average of two-point functions of currents. We extend the configuration space method, applied earlier at zero temperature, to the case at finite temperature. We find that, upto dimension four, two new operators arise, in addition to the two appearing already in the vacuum correlation functions. It is argued that the new operators would contribute substantially to the sum rules, when the temperature is not too low. (orig.) 7 refs.

  3. Renormalization and operator product expansion in theories with massless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, S.A.; Smirnov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Renormalization procedure in theories including massless particles is presented. With the help of counterterm formalism the operator product expansion for arbitrary composite fields is derived. The coefficient functions are explicitly expressed in terms of certain Green's functions. (author)

  4. Operator product expansion in QCD at short distance. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, S

    1984-03-19

    We describe a simple momentum-space method of evaluating Wilson coefficients of gluon operators in an operator product expansion (OPE). This extends an earlier configuration-space method suitable for calculating the coefficients for light quarks. The method is illustrated by calculating the coefficients of the Lorentz scalar gluon operator of dimension four appearing in different two-point functions.

  5. Conformal four point functions and the operator product expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, F.A.; Osborn, H.

    2001-01-01

    Various aspects of the four point function for scalar fields in conformally invariant theories are analysed. This depends on an arbitrary function of two conformal invariants u,v. A recurrence relation for the function corresponding to the contribution of an arbitrary spin field in the operator product expansion to the four point function is derived. This is solved explicitly in two and four dimensions in terms of ordinary hypergeometric functions of variables z,x which are simply related to u,v. The operator product expansion analysis is applied to the explicit expressions for the four point function found for free scalar, fermion and vector field theories in four dimensions. The results for four point functions obtained by using the AdS/CFT correspondence are also analysed in terms of functions related to those appearing in the operator product discussion

  6. Conformal operator product expansion in the Yukawa model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prati, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    Conformal techniques are applied to the Yukawa model, as an example of a theory with spinor fields. It is written the partial-wave analysis of the 4-point function of two scalars and two spinors in the channel phi psi → phi psi in terms of spinor tensor representations of the conformal group. Using this conformal expansion, it is diagonalized the Bethe-Salpeter equation, which is reduced to algebraic relations among the partial waves. It is shown that in the γ 5 -invariant model, but not in the general case, it is possible to derive dynamically from the expansions of the 4-point function the vacuum operator product phi psi>

  7. Nucleon structure functions from lattice operator product expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A.J.; Somfleth, K.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, Dept. of Physics; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Deep-inelastic scattering, in the laboratory and on the lattice, is most instructive for understanding how the nucleon is built from quarks and gluons. The long-term goal is to compute the associated structure functions from first principles. So far this has been limited to model calculations. In this Letter we propose a new method to compute the structure functions directly from the virtual, all-encompassing Compton amplitude, utilizing the operator product expansion. This overcomes issues of renormalization and operator mixing, which so far have hindered lattice calculations of power corrections and higher moments.

  8. Nucleon structure functions from lattice operator product expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.J.; Somfleth, K.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M.; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A.

    2017-03-01

    Deep-inelastic scattering, in the laboratory and on the lattice, is most instructive for understanding how the nucleon is built from quarks and gluons. The long-term goal is to compute the associated structure functions from first principles. So far this has been limited to model calculations. In this Letter we propose a new method to compute the structure functions directly from the virtual, all-encompassing Compton amplitude, utilizing the operator product expansion. This overcomes issues of renormalization and operator mixing, which so far have hindered lattice calculations of power corrections and higher moments.

  9. Nucleon Structure Functions from Operator Product Expansion on the Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, A J; Horsley, R; Nakamura, Y; Perlt, H; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Somfleth, K; Young, R D; Zanotti, J M

    2017-06-16

    Deep-inelastic scattering, in the laboratory and on the lattice, is most instructive for understanding how the nucleon is built from quarks and gluons. The long-term goal is to compute the associated structure functions from first principles. So far this has been limited to model calculations. In this Letter we propose a new method to compute the structure functions directly from the virtual, all-encompassing Compton amplitude, utilizing the operator product expansion. This overcomes issues of renormalization and operator mixing, which so far have hindered lattice calculations of power corrections and higher moments.

  10. The Operator Product Expansion Beyond Perturbation Theory in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Operator Product Expansion (OPE) of current correlators at short distances beyond perturbation theory in QCD, together with Cauchy's theorem in the complex energy plane, are the pillars of the method of QCD sum rules. This technique provides an analytic tool to relate QCD with hadronic physics at low and intermediate energies. It has been in use for over thirty years to determine hadronic parameters, form factors, and QCD parameters such as the quark masses, and the running strong coupling at the scale of the τ-lepton. QCD sum rules provide a powerful complement to numerical simulations of QCD on the lattice. In this talk a short review of the method is presented for non experts, followed by three examples of recent applications.

  11. Operator product expansion on the lattice: analytic Wilson coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlt, Holger

    2006-12-01

    We present first results for Wilson coefficients of operators up to first order in the covariant deriva- tives for the case of Wilson fermions. They are derived from the off-shell Compton scattering amplitude Wµν (a, p, q) of massless quarks with momentum p. The Wilson coefficients are clas- sified according to the transformation of the corresponding operators under the hypercubic group H(4). We give selected examples for a special choice of the momentum transfer q. All Wil- son coefficients are given in closed analytic form and in an expansion in powers of a up to first corrections.

  12. Quark structure from the lattice operator product expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Cundy, N.; Goeckeler, M.

    2009-11-01

    We have reported elsewhere in this conference on our continuing project to determine nonperturbative Wilson coefficients on the lattice, as a step towards a completely non-perturbative determination of the nucleon structure. In this talk we discuss how these Wilson coefficients can be used to extract Nachtmann moments of structure functions, using the case of off-shell Landau-gauge quarks as a first simple example. This work is done using overlap fermions, because their improved chiral properties reduce the difficulties due to operator mixing. (orig.)

  13. Operator product expansions on the vacuum in conformal quantum field theory in two spacetime dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, M.

    1975-11-01

    Let phi 1 (x) and phi 2 (y) be two local fields in a conformal quantum field theory (CQFT) in two-dimensional spacetime. It is then shown that the vector-valued distribution phi 1 (x) phi 2 (y) /0 > is a boundary value of a vector-valued holomorphic function which is defined on a large conformally invariant domain. By group theoretical arguments alone it is proved that phi 1 (x) phi 2 (y) /0 > can be expanded into conformal partial waves. These have all the properties of a global version of Wilson's operator product expansions when applied to the vacuum state /0 >. Finally, the corresponding calculations are carried out more explicitly in the Thirring model. Here, a complete set of local conformally covariant fields is found, which is closed under vacuum expansion of any two of its elements (a vacuum expansion is an operator product expansion applied to the vacuum). (orig.) [de

  14. Hadronic wave functions at short distances and the operator product expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    The operator product expansion, of appropriate products of quark fields, is used to find the anamalous dimensions which control the short distance behavior of hadronic wave functions. This vehavior in turn controls the high-Q 2 limit of hadronic form factors. In particular, we relate each anamalous dimension of the nonsinglet structure functions to a corresponding logarithmic correction factor to the nominal αsub(s)(Q 2 )/Q 2 fall off of meson form factors. Unlike the case of deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering, the operator product necessary here involves extra terms which do not contribute to forward matrix elements. (orig.)

  15. Field theoretic consistency of QCD operator product expansion contributions from chiral non-invariant condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, V.; Steele, T.G.

    1987-01-01

    Several field theoretic aspects of the operator product expansion (OPE) augmentation of QCD have been examined. Gauge independence of quark self-energies at the mass shell corresponding to the mass m (characterizing the OPE expansion parameter m/p) has been verified to all orders of the OPE for dimension 3 and 5 chiral symmetry breaking condensates. Similarly, the necessary transversality of the quark condensate contribution to the gluon self-energy has been verified, provided that propagator masses appearing in the self-energy are equilibrated with the OPE mass parameter m

  16. Conformal Haag-Kastler nets, pointlike localized fields and the existence of operator product expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredenhagen, K.; Joerss, M.

    1994-10-01

    Starting from a chiral conformal Haag-Kastler net on 2 dimensional Minkowski space we construct associated pointlike localized fields. This amounts to a proof of the existence of operator product expansions. We derive the result in two ways. One is based on the geometrical identification of the modular structure, the other depends on a ''conformal cluster theorem'' of the conformal two-point-functions in algebraic quantum field theory. The existence of the fields then implies important structural properties of the theory, as PCT-invariance, the Bisognano-Wichmann identification of modular operators, Haag duality and additivity. (orig.)

  17. Closure of the operator product expansion in the non-unitary bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterlis, Ilya [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Fitzpatrick, A. Liam [Department of Physics, Boston University,Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA, 02215 (United States); Ramirez, David M. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-11-07

    We use the numerical conformal bootstrap in two dimensions to search for finite, closed sub-algebras of the operator product expansion (OPE), without assuming unitarity. We find the minimal models as special cases, as well as additional lines of solutions that can be understood in the Coulomb gas formalism. All the solutions we find that contain the vacuum in the operator algebra are cases where the external operators of the bootstrap equation are degenerate operators, and we argue that this follows analytically from the expressions in http://arxiv.org/abs/1202.4698 for the crossing matrices of Virasoro conformal blocks. Our numerical analysis is a special case of the “Gliozzi” bootstrap method, and provides a simpler setting in which to study technical challenges with the method. In the supplementary material, we provide a Mathematica notebook that automates the calculation of the crossing matrices and OPE coefficients for degenerate operators using the formulae of Dotsenko and Fateev.

  18. Renormalization group, operator product expansion and anomalous scaling in models of turbulent advection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, N V

    2006-01-01

    Recent progress on the anomalous scaling in models of turbulent heat and mass transport is reviewed with the emphasis on the approach based on the field-theoretic renormalization group (RG) and operator product expansion (OPE). In that approach, the anomalous scaling is established as a consequence of the existence in the corresponding field-theoretic models of an infinite number of 'dangerous' composite fields (operators) with negative critical dimensions, which are identified with the anomalous exponents. This allows one to calculate the exponents in a systematic perturbation expansion, similar to the ε expansion in the theory of critical phenomena. The RG and OPE approach is presented in a self-contained way for the example of a passive scalar field (temperature, concentration of an impurity, etc) advected by a self-similar Gaussian velocity ensemble with vanishing correlation time, the so-called Kraichnan's rapid-change model, where the anomalous exponents are known up to order O(ε 3 ). Effects of anisotropy, compressibility and the correlation time of the velocity field are discussed. Passive advection by non-Gaussian velocity field governed by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation and passively advected vector (e.g. magnetic) fields are considered

  19. Current correlators in QCD: Operator product expansion versus large distance dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.I.; Simonov, Yu.A.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the structure of current-current correlators in coordinate space in the large N c limit when the corresponding spectral density takes the form of an infinite sum over hadron poles. The latter are computed in the QCD string model with quarks at the ends, including the lowest states, for all channels. The corresponding correlators demonstrate reasonable qualitative agreement with the lattice data without any additional fits. Different issues concerning the structure of the short-distance operator product expansion are discussed

  20. Energy momentum tensor and operator product expansion in local causal perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange, D.

    2000-09-01

    We derive new examples for algebraic relations of interacting fields in local perturbative quantum field theory. The fundamental building blocks in this approach are time ordered products of free (composed) fields. We give explicit formulas for the construction of Poincare covariant ones, which were already known to exist through cohomological arguments. For a large class of theories the canonical energy momentum tensor is shown to be conserved. Classical theories without dimensionful couplings admit an improved tensor that is additionally traceless. On the example of φ 4 -theory we discuss the improved tensor in the quantum theory. Its trace receives an anomalous contribution due to its conservation. Moreover, we define an interacting bilocal normal product for scalar theories. This leads to an operator product expansion of two time ordered fields. (orig.) [de

  1. The space-time operator product expansion in string theory duals of field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharony, Ofer; Komargodski, Zohar

    2008-01-01

    We study the operator product expansion (OPE) limit of correlation functions in field theories which possess string theory duals, from the point of view of the string worldsheet. We show how the interesting ('single-trace') terms in the OPE of the field theory arise in this limit from the OPE of the worldsheet theory of the string dual, using a dominant saddle point which appears in computations of worldsheet correlation functions in the space-time OPE limit. The worldsheet OPE generically contains only non-physical operators, but all the non-physical contributions are resummed by the saddle point to a contribution similar to that of a physical operator, which exactly matches the field theory expectations. We verify that the OPE limit of the worldsheet theory does not have any other contributions to the OPE limit of space-time correlation functions. Our discussion is completely general and applies to any local field theory (conformal at high energies) that has a weakly coupled string theory dual (with arbitrary curvature). As a first application, we compare our results to a proposal of R. Gopakumar for the string theory dual of free gauge theories

  2. Operator expansion at short distance in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubschmid, W [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Mallik, S [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Kernphysik

    1982-11-01

    We present a method of calculating coefficients of gluon operators in the operator product expansion of two-point functions at short distance. It is based on a short-distance expansion of the singular part of the quark propagator in the gluon field, the latter being treated as external. We verify in full generality that the spin zero, gluon operator of dimension six does not contribute to the two-point functions of quark bilinears.

  3. Operator product expansion of the lowest weight CPOs in N=4 SYM4 at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Frolov, Sergey; Petkou, Anastasios C.

    2000-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the 4-point functions of the lowest weight chiral primary operators O I ∼tr(phi (i phi j) ) in N=4 SYM 4 at strong coupling and show that their structure is compatible with the predictions of AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular, all power-singular terms in the 4-point functions exactly coincide with the contributions coming from the conformal blocks of the CPOs, the R -symmetry current and the stress tensor. Operators dual to string modes decouple at strong coupling. We compute the anomalous dimensions and the leading 1/N 2 corrections to the normalization constants of the 2- and 3-point functions of scalar and vector double-trace operators with approximate dimensions 4 and 5, respectively. We also find that the conformal dimensions of certain towers of double-trace operators in the 105 , 84 and 175 irreps are non-renormalized. We show that, despite the absence of a non-renormalization theorem for the double-trace operator in the 20 irrep, its anomalous dimension vanishes. As by-products of our investigation, we derive explicit expressions for the conformal block of the stress tensor, and for the conformal partial wave amplitudes of a conserved current and of a stress tensor in d dimensions

  4. Production expansion continues to accelerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) is continuing its accelerated Crude Oil Expansion Program initiated in 1989 that aims at achieving a 10 million bpd productive capacity by 1995. In addition to major engineering, construction and renovation work related to production expansion, Saudi Aramco drilling and workover operations have been markedly expanded. Since January 1991, rig activity has doubled. As an indication of aging of Saudi production, projects include modernizing current injection water treatment facilities, installing a new seawater injection plant on the Persian Gulf, installing dewatering facilities in a number of locations and installing a pilot gas lift project. In addition, equipment orders indicate the new discoveries south of Riyadh may also need the assistance of water injection from inception of production

  5. Axiomatic Quantum Field Theory in Terms of Operator Product Expansions: General Framework, and Perturbation Theory via Hochschild Cohomology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hollands

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new framework for quantum field theory in terms of consistency conditions. The consistency conditions that we consider are ''associativity'' or ''factorization'' conditions on the operator product expansion (OPE of the theory, and are proposed to be the defining property of any quantum field theory. Our framework is presented in the Euclidean setting, and is applicable in principle to any quantum field theory, including non-conformal ones. In our framework, we obtain a characterization of perturbations of a given quantum field theory in terms of a certain cohomology ring of Hochschild-type. We illustrate our framework by the free field, but our constructions are general and apply also to interacting quantum field theories. For such theories, we propose a new scheme to construct the OPE which is based on the use of non-linear quantized field equations.

  6. Operator product expansion in Liouville field theory and Seiberg-type transitions in log-correlated random energy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiangyu; Le Doussal, Pierre; Rosso, Alberto; Santachiara, Raoul

    2018-04-01

    We study transitions in log-correlated random energy models (logREMs) that are related to the violation of a Seiberg bound in Liouville field theory (LFT): the binding transition and the termination point transition (a.k.a., pre-freezing). By means of LFT-logREM mapping, replica symmetry breaking and traveling-wave equation techniques, we unify both transitions in a two-parameter diagram, which describes the free-energy large deviations of logREMs with a deterministic background log potential, or equivalently, the joint moments of the free energy and Gibbs measure in logREMs without background potential. Under the LFT-logREM mapping, the transitions correspond to the competition of discrete and continuous terms in a four-point correlation function. Our results provide a statistical interpretation of a peculiar nonlocality of the operator product expansion in LFT. The results are rederived by a traveling-wave equation calculation, which shows that the features of LFT responsible for the transitions are reproduced in a simple model of diffusion with absorption. We examine also the problem by a replica symmetry breaking analysis. It complements the previous methods and reveals a rich large deviation structure of the free energy of logREMs with a deterministic background log potential. Many results are verified in the integrable circular logREM, by a replica-Coulomb gas integral approach. The related problem of common length (overlap) distribution is also considered. We provide a traveling-wave equation derivation of the LFT predictions announced in a precedent work.

  7. Wilson's operator expansion: can it fail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.A.; Shifman, M.A.; Vainshtein, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The status of poperator product expansion (OPE) in the presence of nonperturbative effects is duscussed within the framework of some simople models 4d Higgs model, 2d sigma-model and Schwinger model are considered. The general formulation of OPE is presented and it is demonstrated that there exists a consistent procedure allowing one to define unabiguously both coefficient functions and matrix elements of compositie operators. One of the key elements of the procedure is introduction of an auxiliary paramparameter, the normalization point μ. The two extremss considered are lambda phi 4 theory with no spontaneous breaking of the symmetry and O(N) sigma model in the limit N→infinity. In the former case there is only perturbative contribution to (phi 2 ) while in the latter case the perturbative pieces are suppressed by 1/N factors. Numerically QCD is much closer to the O(N) sigma model in the large N limit. Comments on specific features of QCD are presented

  8. Renormalizations and operator expansion in sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentyev, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    The operator expansion (OPE) is studied for the Green function at x 2 → 0 (n(x) is the dynamical field ofσ-model) in the framework of the two-dimensional σ-model with the O(N) symmetry group at large N. As a preliminary step we formulate the renormalization scheme which permits introduction of an arbitrary intermediate scale μ 2 in the framework of 1/N expansion and discuss factorization (separation) of small (p μ) momentum region. It is shown that definition of composite local operators and coefficient functions figuring in OPE is unambiguous only in the leading order in 1/N expansion when dominant are the solutions with extremum of action. Corrections of order f(μ 2 )/N (here f(μ 2 ) is the effective interaction constant at the point μ 2 ) in composite operators and coefficient functions essentially depend on factorization method of high and low momentum regions. It is shown also that contributions to the power corrections of order m 2 x 2 f(μ 2 )/N in the Green function (here m is the dynamical mass-scale factor in σ-model) arise simultaneously from two sources: from the mean vacuum value of the composite operator n ∂ 2 n and from the hard particle contributions in the coefficient function of unite operator. Due to the analogy between σ-model and QCD the obtained result indicates theoretical limitations to the sum rule method in QCD. (author)

  9. Operator expansion in σ-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    The operator expansion is studied in two dimensional σ-model with O(N) symmetry group at large values of N for the Green function at x 2 → 0 (Here n(x) is the dynamical field of σ-model). As a preliminary step the renormalization scheme is formulated in framework of I/N expansion where the intermediate scale μ 2 is introdused and regions of large (p > μ) and small (p 2 )/N in composite operators (here f(μ 2 ) is the effective coupling constant at the point μ 2 ) and the corrections of order of m 2 x 2 f(μ 2 )/N in the coefficient functions (here m is the dynamical mass-scale factor of σ-model) decisively depend on the recipe of factorization of small and large momenta regions. Due to the analogy between σ-model and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) the obtained result indicates the theoretical limitations to the accuracy of sum rule method in QCD

  10. QCD and resonance physics Nonperturbative effects in operator expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifman, M.A.; Vainshtein, A.L.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that QCD provides well-defined predictions for a single resonance. The crucial point is the inclusion of power corrections to asymptotic freedom which are due to nonperturbative effects of QCD. Apart from presenting a general outline in intuitive terms the operator expansion for the product of external currents is discussed. It is argued that the effect of nonperturbative terms is twofold: a) they induce vacuum expectation values such as (0.1Gsub(μv)sup(a)Gsub(μv)sup(a)10), Gsub(μv)sup(a) being the gluon field strength tensor and b) they break the operator expansion itself starting from some critical dimension. The latter effect is suppressed as a high power of Q -2 where Q is the momentum carried by a current. Both a) and b) are examplified in the instanton physics but the whole approach is of more general value

  11. Global operator expansions in conformally invariant relativistic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoer, B.; Swieca, J.A.; Voelkel, A.H.

    1974-01-01

    A global conformal operator expansions in the Minkowski region in several models and their formulation in the general theory is presented. Whereas the vacuum expansions are termwise manisfestly conformal invariant, the expansions away from the vacuum do not share this property

  12. Local product structure for expansive homeomorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Artigue, Alfonso; Brum, Joaquin; Potrie, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Let $f\\colon M\\to M$ be an expansive homeomorphism with dense topologically hyperbolic periodic points, $M$ a compact manifold. Then there is a local product structure in an open and dense subset of $M$. Moreover, if some topologically hyperbolic periodic point has codimension one, then this local product structure is uniform. In particular, we conclude that the homeomorphism is conjugated to a linear Anosov diffeomorphism of a torus.

  13. Operator expansion in quantum chromodynamics beyond perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.A.; Shifman, M.A.; Vainshtejn, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    The status of operator expansion at short distances is descussed within the frameworks of nonperturbatue QCD. The question of instanton effects is investigated in various aspects. Two-point functions induced by the gluonic currents are considered. It is shown that certain gluonic correlations vanish in the field of definite duality. It is proved that there does exist a very special relation between the expansion coefficients required by consistancy between instanton calculations and the general operator expansion. At last a certain modification of the naive version of operator expansion is proposed, which allows one to go beyond the critical power and construct, if necessary, an infinite series

  14. The replication of expansive production knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Yang, Cheng; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – With the aim to support offshore production line replication, this paper specifically aims to explore the use of templates and principles to transfer expansive productive knowledge embedded in a production line and understand the contingencies that influence the mix of these approaches......; and (2) rather than being viewed as alternative approaches, templates and principles should be seen as complementary once the transfer motive moves beyond pure replication. Research limitations – The concepts introduced in this paper were derived from two Danish cases. While acceptable for theory...

  15. Development and Expansion of the Langer Heinrich Operation in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, D., E-mail: dave.marsh@paladinenergy.com.au [Paladin Energy Ltd, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    The Langer Heinrich Uranium Mine (LHU) is located in the west of central Namibia, Southern Africa. It lies 80 km east of the major deepwater port at Walvis Bay and the coastal town of Swakopmund. Designed to produce 2.6Mlb/a U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, LHU was the first conventional mining and processing operation to be brought into production in over a decade. The construction and staged commissioning of the project was successfully achieved on 28 December 2006 and the mine was officially opened by the President of Namibia on the 14{sup th} March 2007. The ramp up to nameplate production was hampered early on by some mechanical and process issues all of which required technical solutions to be developed. With these in place, production now exceeds nameplate and lessons learnt have been incorporated into an expansion to 3.7 Mlb/a currently nearing completion. Further expansion options are also being evaluated and a number of innovative flowsheet developments are under consideration, driven by a recent, large increase in the proven reserves. This paper tracks the development of the LHU operation focusing largely on the metallurgical processes employed, some lessons learnt and some considerations for the future. (author)

  16. An operator expansion technique for path integral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, I.V.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of path integral analysis in the framework of a power series technique is presented. The method is based on the operator expansion of an exponential. A regular procedure to calculate the correction terms is found. (orig.)

  17. Environmental Impacts of Airport Operations: Maintenance, and Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luther, Linda

    2007-01-01

    ... impacts associated with airport operations and expansion are likely to be debated. This issue is important to various stakeholders, particularly those whose health, property values, and quality of life may be affected by such impacts...

  18. Node-Expansion Operators for the UCT Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi; Matsui, Toshiki; Hashimoto, Junichi; Spoerer, Kristian

    Recent works on the MCTS and UCT framework in the domain of Go focused on introducing knowledge to the playout and on pruning variations from the tree, but so far node expansion has not been investigated. In this paper we show that delaying expansion according to the number of the siblings delivers a gain of more than 92% when compared to normal expansion. We propose three improvements; one that uses domain knowledge and two that are domain-independent methods. Experimental results show that all advanced operators significantly improve the UCT performance when compared to the basic delaying expansion. From the results we may conclude that the new expansion operators are an appropriate means to improve the UCT algorithm.

  19. The renormalization of several composite operator insertions, Wilson expansions of composite operators, and the applications to short-distance behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collecott, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    The renormalization of composite operator insertions is examined within a normal product framework, and various identities between composite operator insertions are proved. In particular a proof of the Wilson expansion of composite operators in the presence of other composite operators is given. The analysis necessitates a re-examination of several physical processes, and it is shown in particular why the results for deep inelastic scattering still hold. (Auth.)

  20. Bose Operator Expansions of Tensor Operators in the Theory of Magnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalska, A.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A new Bose operator expansion is discussed for tensor operators in the spin systems with isotropic exchange interaction plus anisotropy. Spin wave theory for a system with planar anisotropy shows that the Goldstone theorem is fulfilled. The new expansion replaces the off diagonal single ion...

  1. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  2. Time-ordered product expansions for computational stochastic system biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjolsness, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The time-ordered product framework of quantum field theory can also be used to understand salient phenomena in stochastic biochemical networks. It is used here to derive Gillespie’s stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) for chemical reaction networks; consequently, the SSA can be interpreted in terms of Feynman diagrams. It is also used here to derive other, more general simulation and parameter-learning algorithms including simulation algorithms for networks of stochastic reaction-like processes operating on parameterized objects, and also hybrid stochastic reaction/differential equation models in which systems of ordinary differential equations evolve the parameters of objects that can also undergo stochastic reactions. Thus, the time-ordered product expansion can be used systematically to derive simulation and parameter-fitting algorithms for stochastic systems. (paper)

  3. Linear expansion of products out of thermal splitting graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishina, E.A.; Kurnevich, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    Linear expansion of thermally split graphite in the form of foil and pressed items of different density was studied. It is ascertained that the extreme character of temperature dependence of linear expansion factor of pressed samples of thermally split graphite is determined by the formation of closed pores containing air in the course of their production. 3 refs., 2 figs

  4. The Convergence Problems of Eigenfunction Expansions of Elliptic Differential Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Anvarjon

    2018-03-01

    In the present research we investigate the problems concerning the almost everywhere convergence of multiple Fourier series summed over the elliptic levels in the classes of Liouville. The sufficient conditions for the almost everywhere convergence problems, which are most difficult problems in Harmonic analysis, are obtained. The methods of approximation by multiple Fourier series summed over elliptic curves are applied to obtain suitable estimations for the maximal operator of the spectral decompositions. Obtaining of such estimations involves very complicated calculations which depends on the functional structure of the classes of functions. The main idea on the proving the almost everywhere convergence of the eigenfunction expansions in the interpolation spaces is estimation of the maximal operator of the partial sums in the boundary classes and application of the interpolation Theorem of the family of linear operators. In the present work the maximal operator of the elliptic partial sums are estimated in the interpolation classes of Liouville and the almost everywhere convergence of the multiple Fourier series by elliptic summation methods are established. The considering multiple Fourier series as an eigenfunction expansions of the differential operators helps to translate the functional properties (for example smoothness) of the Liouville classes into Fourier coefficients of the functions which being expanded into such expansions. The sufficient conditions for convergence of the multiple Fourier series of functions from Liouville classes are obtained in terms of the smoothness and dimensions. Such results are highly effective in solving the boundary problems with periodic boundary conditions occurring in the spectral theory of differential operators. The investigations of multiple Fourier series in modern methods of harmonic analysis incorporates the wide use of methods from functional analysis, mathematical physics, modern operator theory and spectral

  5. Stability measures for rolling schedules with applications to capacity expansion planning, master production scheduling, and lot sizing

    OpenAIRE

    Kimms, Alf

    1996-01-01

    This contribution discusses the measurement of (in-)stability of finite horizon production planning when done on a rolling horizon basis. As examples we review strategic capacity expansion planning, tactical master production schedulng, and operational capacitated lot sizing.

  6. Bose Operator Expansions of Tensor Operators in the Theory of Magnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Kowalska, A.

    1976-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.7, p.1523 (1974). The matching of matrix element method is used to find a new self-consistent Bose operator expansion for tensor operators in spin systems with isotropic exchange interaction plus anisotropy. Tables are given for all tensor operators relevant for cubic...... and hexagonal symmetry. A discussion of renormalized spin-wave theory for a system with planar anisotropy shows that the Goldstone theorem is rigorously fulfilled to the considered order of perturbation. It is finally shown that the new expansion introduces wavevector-dependent terms from the single...

  7. Annual cropped area expansion and agricultural production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... considerable annual increase of varying extent over time and space for both annual output and area ... The study suggests improving productivity through sustainable agricultural ...

  8. Bose-Operator Expansions of Tensor Operators in the Theory of Magnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Danielsen, O.

    1974-01-01

    Using a method of matching corresponding matrix elements, a hermitian Bose-operator expansion of tensor operators of arbitrary rank which transforms all kinematic effects into dynamical interactions between Bose particles is derived. It is shown that the method is a generalization of the Holstein...

  9. Schroedinger operators with point interactions and short range expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.; Oslo Univ.

    1984-01-01

    We give a survey of recent results concerning Schroedinger operators with point interactions in R 3 . In the case where the point interactions are located at a discrete set of points we discuss results about the resolvent, the spectrum, the resonances and the scattering quantities. We also discuss the approximation of point interactions by short range local potentials (short range or low energy expansions) and the one electron model of a 3-dimensional crystal. Moreover we discuss Schroedinger operators with Coulomb plus point interactions, with applications to the determination of scattering lengths and of level shifts in mesic atoms. Further applications to the multiple well problem, to multiparticle systems, to crystals with random impurities, to polymers and quantum fields are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  10. The nonlocal operator expansion for structure functions of e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balitsky, I.I.; Braun, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Wilson operator expansion is generalized to inclusive particle production in e + e - annihilation. This turns out to be possible at the price of doubling the number of quantum quark and gluon fields in a similar fashion that gives rise to the Keldysh technique for nonequilibrium processes. Well-known results on the leading logarithmic contributions to inclusive production are reproduced as the one-loop evolution of the string operator of the leading twist. The general structure of the power corrections 1/Q 2 is outlined. (orig.)

  11. Perturbative renormalization of composite operators via flow equations. Pt. 2. Short distance expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut); Kopper, C. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)

    1993-04-01

    We give a rigorous and very detailed derivation of the short distance expansion for a product of two arbitrary composite operators in the framework of the perturbative Euclidean massive [Phi][sub 4][sup 4]. The technically almost trivial proof rests on an extension of the differential flow equation method to Green functions with bilocal insertions, for which we also establish a set of generalized Zimmermann identities and Lowenstein rules. (orig.).

  12. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  13. Gulf operators resuming production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Gulf of Mexico operators last week were gradually restoring production at installations struck by Hurricane Andrew. The Minerals Management Service continued receiving reports of more damage. By the end of the day Sept. 8, MMS had received reports of damage to 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. Damage reports listed 112 installations with structural damage, 13 platforms toppled and five leaning, and 30 satellite platforms toppled and 33 leaning. But despite the extent of damage the storm inflicted on oil and gas installations in the gulf, it pales in comparison to the misery and suffering the storm caused in Florida and Louisiana, an oil company official said

  14. Products of composite operators in the exact renormalization group formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, C.; Sonoda, H.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss a general method of constructing the products of composite operators using the exact renormalization group formalism. Considering mainly the Wilson action at a generic fixed point of the renormalization group, we give an argument for the validity of short-distance expansions of operator products. We show how to compute the expansion coefficients by solving differential equations, and test our method with some simple examples.

  15. Operator mixing in the ɛ -expansion: Scheme and evanescent-operator independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Lorenzo; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    We consider theories with fermionic degrees of freedom that have a fixed point of Wilson-Fisher type in noninteger dimension d =4 -2 ɛ . Due to the presence of evanescent operators, i.e., operators that vanish in integer dimensions, these theories contain families of infinitely many operators that can mix with each other under renormalization. We clarify the dependence of the corresponding anomalous-dimension matrix on the choice of renormalization scheme beyond leading order in ɛ -expansion. In standard choices of scheme, we find that eigenvalues at the fixed point cannot be extracted from a finite-dimensional block. We illustrate in examples a truncation approach to compute the eigenvalues. These are observable scaling dimensions, and, indeed, we find that the dependence on the choice of scheme cancels. As an application, we obtain the IR scaling dimension of four-fermion operators in QED in d =4 -2 ɛ at order O (ɛ2).

  16. Bosonization of fermion operators as linked-cluster expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, T.; Tamura, T.

    1983-01-01

    In order for a boson-expansion theory to be useful for practical purposes, it must satisfy at least two requirements: It must be in the form of a linked-cluster expansion, and the pure (ideal) boson states must be usable as basis states. Previously, we constructed such a boson theory and used it successfully for many realistic calculations. This construction, however, lacked mathematical rigor. In the present paper, we develop an entirely new approach, which results in the same boson expansions obtained earlier, but now in a mathematically rigorous fashion. The achievement of the new formalism goes beyond this. Its framework is much more general and flexible than was that of the earlier formalism, and it allows us to extend the calculations beyond what had been done in the past

  17. User cognition in product operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Daily a large number of everyday consumer products are being used. Unfortunately part of this usage is not successful. One of the causes of failure lies in the cognitive aspects of product use, users do not know how to operate the product or try to use it in a way which is not successful. Ideally,

  18. Product Operations Status Summary Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Atsuya; Toole, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The Product Operations Status Summary Metrics (POSSUM) computer program provides a readable view into the state of the Phoenix Operations Product Generation Subsystem (OPGS) data pipeline. POSSUM provides a user interface that can search the data store, collect product metadata, and display the results in an easily-readable layout. It was designed with flexibility in mind for support in future missions. Flexibility over various data store hierarchies is provided through the disk-searching facilities of Marsviewer. This is a proven program that has been in operational use since the first day of the Phoenix mission.

  19. The expansion of electric power systems considering the operation reliability; Expansion de sistemas electricos considerando la securidad de servicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Marcelo A. [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Electrica; Moya A, Oscar [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Civil

    1997-12-31

    This publication describes a procedure based in an linear programming for the planning of the expansion of mediating term in power systems. The implicit alternatives for network expansion, whether power plants or transmission lines, are classified according to indexes of reinforcement. The indexes are gotten resulting shadow pricing upon resolving a problem of minimum cost of operation and outage. The network is subjected to the most probable contingencies and from these outputs the expected reinforcement results are obtained. The problem of the reactive power accounts for restrictions in line capacity and prior evaluation of A C power flux. Results obtained are used for methodology validation. (author) 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.; e-mail: mcortes at apolo.cc.uantof.cl.; osmoya at tamarugo.cec.uchile.cl

  20. A year of expansion;IAEA extends its operational activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-15

    The activities of the Agency are directed towards the generation of nuclear power and the applications of nuclear radiation as well as to ensure that the atomic energy throughout the world to which the Agency lends its assistance, does not constitute a hazard to health and safety or a threat to security and peace. Therefore the Agency's annual report points out that the production and use of radioisotopes and the eventual generation of economic nuclear power, under safe and secure conditions, continue to be the main objectives of most of the Agency's work. The primary role of the Agency is that of assistance, guidance and coordination. Such assistance can take various forms, one of the most important being the provision of experts and equipment to help particular projects. Again, valuable assistance can be given by an exchange of information, so that all countries, with varying degrees of development, may enjoy the benefits of the latest advances in research and technology. In some cases, the international body itself can give an impetus to research and technical development and fill the gaps in existing knowledge. Furthermore, it can help in laying the foundations of development by arranging the training of technical personnel. And above all, it can render substantial assistance by arranging and co-ordinating the supply of nuclear materials and equipment in a manner that would best meet the needs of all Member States and reduce the chances of retarded or unbalanced development in particular areas. The scope of the Agency has continued to expand including not only the establishment of health and safety standards and the evolution of international conventions and safeguards procedures but also and exchange of scientific and technical information among all nations. The Agency has sent out several teams of experts to different areas to make preliminary surveys of conditions and needs. By June 1959, 62 requests for technical assistance had been received by the Agency

  1. International Retailing Operations: Downstream Entry and Expansion via Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the shift into international franchising from other forms of operation, rather than the typical home market franchising base is explored. The focus is international retail franchising, based on a study of the Danish clothing and footwear industry. In this study it was found that Danish companies were moving into international franchising as an outcome of a more general shift from upstream wholesaling and subcontracting activities to downstream involvement in retailing activit...

  2. Institutional obstacles to expansion of world food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, P R

    1975-05-09

    water management institutions may be even more limiting, for reasons noted in the previous section. The role of existing land tenure institutions is not clear. The tentative conclusion, however, is that over the near-to-medium term the maintenance will not be a major obstacle to further spread of the Green Revolution. Over the longer term, it could become more seriously limiting. The reason is that continued expansion of food production will eventually require the invention and adoption of new technologies and a higher level of technical and managerial skill than most farmers in the LDC's now possess. To do this will require substantial investments in domestic research and extension institutions and in rural education. In countries where a small class of large landowners wield substantial political power, these investments may not occur on the necessary scale because the large farmers have their own means of acquiring the technology and little perceived interest in supporting the upgrading of the skills of small farmers. This review of institutional obstacles to expansion of food production in the LDC's must end on a tentative note. The review does suggest some observations about the process of institutional change, however. There is impressive evidence of strong latent potential in the private sector of the LDC's for mobilizing the resources and effort needed for agricultural progress when the private economic rewards for doing so are high. Under these circumstances, needed changes in the institutions required to mobilize the resources and direct the effort seem relatively easy to achieve. Institutional resistance is stronger in situations where influential interests perceive change as a threat or where there is no direct personal economic reward to change, as in the typical public institution. The latter point is particularly important because the performance of public institutions is critical. Development of new technology, the fundamental condition for continued

  3. Impact of Operating Rules on Planning Capacity Expansion of Urban Water Supply Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Neufville, R.; Galelli, S.; Tian, X.

    2017-12-01

    This study addresses the impact of operating rules on capacity planning of urban water supply systems. The continuous growth of metropolitan areas represents a major challenge for water utilities, which often rely on industrial water supply (e.g., desalination, reclaimed water) to complement natural resources (e.g., reservoirs). These additional sources increase the reliability of supply, equipping operators with additional means to hedge against droughts. How do their rules for using industrial water supply impact the performance of water supply system? How might it affect long-term plans for capacity expansion? Possibly significantly, as demonstrated by the analysis of the operations and planning of a water supply system inspired by Singapore. Our analysis explores the system dynamics under multiple inflow and management scenarios to understand the extent to which alternative operating rules for the use of industrial water supply affect system performance. Results first show that these operating rules can have significant impact on the variability in system performance (e.g., reliability, energy use) comparable to that of hydro-climatological conditions. Further analyses of several capacity expansion exercises—based on our original hydrological and management scenarios—show that operating rules significantly affect the timing and magnitude of critical decisions, such as the construction of new desalination plants. These results have two implications: Capacity expansion analysis should consider the effect of a priori uncertainty about operating rules; and operators should consider how their flexibility in operating rules can affect their perceived need for capacity.

  4. A Nonparametric Operational Risk Modeling Approach Based on Cornish-Fisher Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the choice of severity distribution in loss distribution approach has a significant effect on the operational risk capital estimation. However, the usually used parametric approaches with predefined distribution assumption might be not able to fit the severity distribution accurately. The objective of this paper is to propose a nonparametric operational risk modeling approach based on Cornish-Fisher expansion. In this approach, the samples of severity are generated by Cornish-Fisher expansion and then used in the Monte Carlo simulation to sketch the annual operational loss distribution. In the experiment, the proposed approach is employed to calculate the operational risk capital charge for the overall Chinese banking. The experiment dataset is the most comprehensive operational risk dataset in China as far as we know. The results show that the proposed approach is able to use the information of high order moments and might be more effective and stable than the usually used parametric approach.

  5. Resolvent expansion for the Schrödinger operator on a graph with infinite rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Kenichi; Jensen, Arne

    2018-01-01

    We consider the Schrödinger operator on a combinatorial graph consisting of a finite graph and a finite number of discrete half-lines, all jointed together, and compute an asymptotic expansion of its resolvent around the threshold 0. Precise expressions are obtained for the first few coefficients...

  6. Modulated Hermite series expansions and the time-bandwidth product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinker, den A.C.; Sarroukh, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    The harmonically modulated Hermite series constitute an orthonormal basis in the Hilbert space of square-integrable functions. This basis comprises three free parameters, namely a translation, a modulation, and a scale factor. In practical situations, we are interested in series expansions that are

  7. Management systems in production operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, K.B.; Henderson, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Cullen Enquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster in the U.K. North Sea recommended that an operator should formally present it's company Management System and demonstrate how safety is achieved throughout the life cycle of a platform, from design through operation to abandonment. Brunei Shell Petroleum has prepared a corporate level Safety Management System. As part of Safety Case work, the corporate system is being extended to include the development of specific Management Systems with particular emphasis on offshore production operations involving integrated oil and gas facilities. This paper will describe the development of Management Systems, which includes an intensive Business Process Analysis and will comment upon it's applicability and relationship to ISO 9000. The paper will further describe the applicability and benefits of Management Systems and offer guidance on required effort. The paper will conclude that development of structured Management Systems for safety critical business processes is worthwhile but prioritization of effort will be necessary. As such the full adoption of Management Systems will be directional in nature

  8. On power series expansions of the S-resolvent operator and the Taylor formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Fabrizio; Gantner, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    The S-functional calculus is based on the theory of slice hyperholomorphic functions and it defines functions of n-tuples of not necessarily commuting operators or of quaternionic operators. This calculus relays on the notion of S-spectrum and of S-resolvent operator. Since most of the properties that hold for the Riesz-Dunford functional calculus extend to the S-functional calculus, it can be considered its non commutative version. In this paper we show that the Taylor formula of the Riesz-Dunford functional calculus can be generalized to the S-functional calculus. The proof is not a trivial extension of the classical case because there are several obstructions due to the non commutativity of the setting in which we work that have to be overcome. To prove the Taylor formula we need to introduce a new series expansion of the S-resolvent operators associated to the sum of two n-tuples of operators. This result is a crucial step in the proof of our main results, but it is also of independent interest because it gives a new series expansion for the S-resolvent operators. This paper is addressed to researchers working in operator theory and in hypercomplex analysis.

  9. Assessment of the environmental impact statement for the proposed expansion of the Olympic Dam operations at Roxby Downs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment Report assesses the social, environmental and economic impact of the proposal by Western Mining Corporation (Olympic Dam Corporation) Pty Ltd. (WMC) to increase their production at Olympic Dam mine from 150,000t/a of copper and associated products to 350,000t/a by a phased expansion. The first phase would take production to approximately 200,000t/a. The report reviews the 1997 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), public comments on the EIS, and the proponent's responses to these comments in the Supplement to the EIS. It also relies on information, comments and advice provided by appropriate South Australian and Commonwealth government agencies (through the joint assessment process) and previous studies undertaken in the region.The focus of the contents of this assessment report are: water usage; tailing management; radiation management; economic and employment estimates; EIS process, regulation and monitoring as well as flora, fauna and town management issues. This report also recognises that the Olympic Dam mine has been subject to previous environmental assessments which resulted in the environmental regime currently in place for the existing operations.It is concluded that the risks to the biophysical, historical, cultural and social environments from the proposed Olympic dam expansion are acceptable provided the mine continues to operate under stringent environmental control

  10. Assessment of the environmental impact statement for the proposed expansion of the Olympic Dam operations at Roxby Downs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This Environmental Assessment Report assesses the social, environmental and economic impact of the proposal by Western Mining Corporation (Olympic Dam Corporation) Pty Ltd. (WMC) to increase their production at Olympic Dam mine from 150,000t/a of copper and associated products to 350,000t/a by a phased expansion. The first phase would take production to approximately 200,000t/a. The report reviews the 1997 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), public comments on the EIS, and the proponent's responses to these comments in the Supplement to the EIS. It also relies on information, comments and advice provided by appropriate South Australian and Commonwealth government agencies (through the joint assessment process) and previous studies undertaken in the region.The focus of the contents of this assessment report are: water usage; tailing management; radiation management; economic and employment estimates; EIS process, regulation and monitoring as well as flora, fauna and town management issues. This report also recognises that the Olympic Dam mine has been subject to previous environmental assessments which resulted in the environmental regime currently in place for the existing operations.It is concluded that the risks to the biophysical, historical, cultural and social environments from the proposed Olympic dam expansion are acceptable provided the mine continues to operate under stringent environmental control.

  11. Wrapping interactions and the genus expansion of the 2-point function of composite operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieg, Christoph; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    We perform a systematic analysis of wrapping interactions for a general class of theories with color degrees of freedom, including N=4 SYM. Wrapping interactions arise in the genus expansion of the 2-point function of composite operators as finite size effects that start to appear at a certain order in the coupling constant at which the range of the interaction is equal to the length of the operators. We analyze in detail the relevant genus expansions, and introduce a strategy to single out the wrapping contributions, based on adding spectator fields. We use a toy model to demonstrate our procedure, performing all computations explicitly. Although completely general, our treatment should be particularly useful for applications to the recent problem of wrapping contributions in some checks of the AdS/CFT correspondence

  12. Expansion of Asparagus Production and Exports in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2006-01-01

    Peru is the one of the most important exporters of asparagus in the world. Its export volume of fresh asparagus is ranked number one, and its export volume of preserved asparagus number two, globally. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the recent trends in asparagus production and exports around the world and to analyze factors in the development of the Peruvian asparagus industry. The production of asparagus has spread geographically. The center of its production used t...

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of direct expansion configurations for electricity production by LNG cold energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Casarosa, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, after a brief review of the perspectives of the various schemes proposed for electricity generation from the regasification of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), a detailed analysis of two particular direct expansion solutions is proposed. The purpose is to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered with the aim of electricity production, using configurations with direct expansion. The analysis developed resorting to a simplified thermodynamic model, shows that using a direct expansion configurations with multistage turbine, values of power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ for each kg of natural gas that flows through the plant) can be obtained. The development of a direct expansion plant with multistage turbine and internal heat recovery systems could permit to approach the production of more than 160 kJ for each kg of flowing liquefied natural gas. Considering values of the mass flow rate typical of LNG gas stations (e.g. 70 kg/s); this corresponds to an output power ranging between 8.3 MW and 11.4 MW. - Highlights: • Recovery of the cold energy contained in Liquefied Natural Gas. • Thermodynamic analysis of systems for electricity generation in regasification. • Direct expansion solutions with multistage expansion. • Comparison of direct expansion solutions with conventional ORC systems. • Power output in conditions typical of existing LNG regasification terminals

  14. Preliminary Findings of the South Africa Power System Capacity Expansion and Operational Modelling Study: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Timothy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chartan, Erol Kevin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Wind and solar power contract prices have recently become cheaper than many conventional new-build alternatives in South Africa and trends suggest a continued increase in the share of variable renewable energy (vRE) on South Africa's power system with coal technology seeing the greatest reduction in capacity, see 'Figure 6: Percentage share by Installed Capacity (MW)' in [1]. Hence it is essential to perform a state-of-the-art grid integration study examining the effects of these high penetrations of vRE on South Africa's power system. Under the 21st Century Power Partnership (21CPP), funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has significantly augmented existing models of the South African power system to investigate future vRE scenarios. NREL, in collaboration with Eskom's Planning Department, further developed, tested and ran a combined capacity expansion and operational model of the South African power system including spatially disaggregated detail and geographical representation of system resources. New software to visualize and interpret modelling outputs has been developed, and scenario analysis of stepwise vRE build targets reveals new insight into associated planning and operational impacts and costs. The model, built using PLEXOS, is split into two components, firstly a capacity expansion model and secondly a unit commitment and economic dispatch model. The capacity expansion model optimizes new generation decisions to achieve the lowest cost, with a full understanding of capital cost and an approximated understanding of operational costs. The operational model has a greater set of detailed operational constraints and is run at daily resolutions. Both are run from 2017 through 2050. This investigation suggests that running both models in tandem may be the most effective means to plan the least cost South African power system as build plans seen to be more expensive than optimal by the

  15. Fast evaluation of nonlinear functionals of tensor product wavelet expansions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, C.; Stevenson, R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract For a nonlinear functional f, and a function u from the span of a set of tensor product interpolets, it is shown how to compute the interpolant of f (u) from the span of this set of tensor product interpolets in linear complexity, assuming that the index set has a certain multiple tree

  16. The effect of UO2 density on fission product gas release and sheath expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notley, M.J.F.; MacEwan, J.R.

    1965-03-01

    The effect of UO 2 density on fission product gas release and sheath expansion has been determined in an irradiation experiment in which the performance of fuel elements with densities between 10.42 and 10.74 g/cm 3 was compared at ∫λdθ values of 39 and 42 W/cm. The elements were irradiated as clusters of four in a pressurized water loop, hence their irradiation histories were identical. Fission product gas release and the extend of grain growth were greater for the lower density elements. Both effects can be attributed solely to the variation of the thermal conductivity of the fuel with the fractional porosity p, if λ p λ [1 - (2.6 ± 0.8) p] where λ is the thermal conductivity of fully dense UO 2 and λ p is that of the porous UO 2 . This expression is in agreement with laboratory findings. A correlation between the extent of grain growth in the UO 2 and the fractional gas release was found to exist in this test and was shown to apply in a large number of other fuel irradiations. Diametral sheath strain was lower for the low density fuel elements than for those of high density, although the former were deduced to have operated with higher central temperatures. It is supposed that the thermal expansion of the fuel can be partially accommodated by elimination of some of the original porosity. The data are consistent with the assumption that approximately half the porosity in the region of the fuel undergoing grain growth is eliminated. (author)

  17. Alternative concepts for spent fuel storage basin expansion at Morris Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.A. Jr.; King, C.E.; Miller, G.P.; Shadel, F.H.; Sloat, R.J.

    1980-08-01

    Alternative concepts for increasing basin capabilities for storage of spent fuel at the Morris Operation have been defined in a series of simplified flow diagrams and equipment schematics. Preliminary concepts have been outlined for (1) construction alternatives for an add-on basin, (2) high-density baskets for storage of fuel bundles or possible consolidated fuel rods in the existing or add-on basins, (3) modifications to the existing facility for increasing cask handling and fuel receiving capabilities and (4) accumulation, treatment and disposal of radwastes from storage operations. Preliminary capital and operating costs have been prepared and resource and schedule requirements for implementing the concepts have been estimated. The basin expansion alternatives would readily complement potential dry storage projects at the site in an integrated multi-stage program that could provide a total storage capacity of up to 7000 tonnes of spent fuel

  18. Operator expansions in the minimal subtraction scheme. II. Explicit formulas for coefficient functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetyrkin, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown in an arbitrary model that the coefficient functions of the operator expansion (renormalized in the minimal subtraction scheme) are finite. Explicit formulas convenient for calculating them in practice are obtained. The gluing method and the formalism of the R* operation are used to transform the formulas in such a way that the coefficient functions can be expressed in terms of ordinary diagrams containing neither nonstandard propagators nor an additional loop integration. An important feature of the representation for the coefficient functions is that the R* operation, which subtracts simultaneously the ultraviolet and infrared divergences, guarantees the existence of the coefficient functions in the limit when the dimensional regularization is lifted without any restrictions

  19. PPARγ ligand production is tightly linked to clonal expansion during initiation of adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenborg, Philip; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Feddersen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    of differentiation. Concomitant with agonist production, murine fibroblasts undergo two rounds of mitosis referred to as mitotic clonal expansion. Here we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in either of two cell cycle inhibitors, the transcription factor p53 or its target gene encoding the cyclin...... cycle inhibitory compounds decreased PPAR ligand production in differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, these inhibitors abolished the release of arachidonic acid induced by the hormonal cocktail initiating adipogenesis. Collectively, our results suggest that murine fibroblasts require clonal...... expansion for PPAR ligand production at the onset of adipocyte differentiation....

  20. Approximation by max-product type operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bede, Barnabás; Gal, Sorin G

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a broad treatment of developments in an area of constructive approximation involving the so-called "max-product" type operators. The exposition highlights the max-product operators as those which allow one to obtain, in many cases, more valuable estimates than those obtained by classical approaches. The text considers a wide variety of operators which are studied for a number of interesting problems such as quantitative estimates, convergence, saturation results, localization, to name several. Additionally, the book discusses the perfect analogies between the probabilistic approaches of the classical Bernstein type operators and of the classical convolution operators (non-periodic and periodic cases), and the possibilistic approaches of the max-product variants of these operators. These approaches allow for two natural interpretations of the max-product Bernstein type operators and convolution type operators: firstly, as possibilistic expectations of some fuzzy variables, and secondly,...

  1. Culture, Product Advertising, and Advertising Agency Operations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture, Product Advertising, and Advertising Agency Operations. ... As a means of telling the market about a new product, advertising persuades and reminds the audience of their continuous support of the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Tables of Products of Tensor Operators and Stevens Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    Numerical tables of products of tensor (Racah) operators, Rl,m(J), and Stevens operators Olm(J), working within a J-multiplet are given as a function of X=J(J+1). Examples of the use of the tables, such as the calculation of commutation relations and thermal averages are given.......Numerical tables of products of tensor (Racah) operators, Rl,m(J), and Stevens operators Olm(J), working within a J-multiplet are given as a function of X=J(J+1). Examples of the use of the tables, such as the calculation of commutation relations and thermal averages are given....

  3. Soft Expansion of Double-Real-Virtual Corrections to Higgs Production at N$^3$LO

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, Charalampos; Dulat, Falko; Furlan, Elisabetta; Herzog, Franz; Mistlberger, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    We present methods to compute higher orders in the threshold expansion for the one-loop production of a Higgs boson in association with two partons at hadron colliders. This process contributes to the N$^3$LO Higgs production cross section beyond the soft-virtual approximation. We use reverse unitarity to expand the phase-space integrals in the small kinematic parameters and to reduce the coefficients of the expansion to a small set of master integrals. We describe two methods for the calculation of the master integrals. The first was introduced for the calculation of the soft triple-real radiation relevant to N$^3$LO Higgs production. The second uses a particular factorization of the three body phase-space measure and the knowledge of the scaling properties of the integral itself. Our result is presented as a Laurent expansion in the dimensional regulator, although some of the master integrals are computed to all orders in this parameter.

  4. Elementary operations on histograms - translation - contraction - expansion; Operations elementaires sur histogrammes translation, contraction, dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A simple model is proposed for describing the working of analyzer systems which carry out successively the transformations from a physical system to its analogue expression, and then finally to a numerical scale. The model leads to a process for determining the physical zero in which, intentionally, only instrumental adjustments of immediate access are made to intervene. When it is possible to consider that the indispensable knowledge of the correspondence between the physical origin and the numerical scale has been acquired, one can correct by numerical treatment the possible deformations, which affect the recorded distributions in spite of the use of electronic stabilizing systems. With this in view, a programme of very general structure has been written which makes it possible to carry out simple operations of the translation type and homothetic transformations with constant area; the major part of is this report is devoted to a description of this programme and to its expression in MAGE II and FORTRAN IV. (author) [French] Pour la description du fonctionnement des systemes analyseurs realisant successivement les transformations faisant passer d'un systeme physique a son expression analogique, puis enfin, a une echelle numerique, on propose un modele simple. Ce dernier conduit a un procede de determination de zero physique, dans lequel, c'est a dessein, que l'on ne fait intervenir que des reglages instrumentaux d'acces immediat. Lorsque l'indispensable connaissance de la correspondance entre l'origine physique et l'echelle numerique peut etre consideree comme acquise, les eventuelles deformations qui, malgre l'utilisation de systemes stabilisateurs electroniques, affectent les distributions enregistrees peuvent etre corrigees par des traitements numeriques. Dans ce dernier but, il a ete ecrit un programme de structure tres generale, capable d'effectuer des operations simples du type translation et homotheties avec conservation d'aires; sa description et son

  5. Constraints of using thermostatic expansion valves to operate air-cooled chillers at lower condensing temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, F.W.; Chan, K.T.; Chu, H.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Thermostatic expansion valves (TXVs) have long been used in air-cooled chillers to implement head pressure control under which the condensing temperature is kept high at around 50 o C by staging condenser fans as few as possible. This paper considers how TXVs prevent the chillers from operating with an increased COP at lower condensing temperatures when the chiller load or outdoor temperature drops. An analysis on an existing air-cooled reciprocating chiller showed that the range of differential pressures across TXVs restricts the maximum heat rejection airflow required to increase the chiller COP, though the set point of condensing temperature is reduced to 22 o C from a high level of 45 o C. It is possible to use electronic expansion valves to meet the differential pressure requirements for maximum chiller COP. There is a maximum of 28.7% increase in the chiller COP when the heat rejection airflow is able to be maximized in various operating conditions. The results of this paper emphasize criteria for lowering the condensing temperature to enhance the performance of air-cooled chillers

  6. Graduate Student Project: Operations Management Product Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    An operations management product project is an effective instructional technique that fills a void in current operations management literature in product planning. More than 94.1% of 286 graduates favored the project as a learning tool, and results demonstrate the significant impact the project had in predicting student performance. The author…

  7. Optimal mode of operation for biomass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, Ben H.L.; Roffel, Brian; Mulder, P.

    2002-01-01

    The rate of biomass production is optimised for a predefined feed exhaustion using the residue ratio as a degree of freedom. Three modes of operation are considered: continuous, repeated batch, and repeated fed-batch operation. By means of the Production Curve, the transition points of the optimal

  8. Static QCD potential at rQCD-1: Perturbative expansion and operator-product expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumino, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the static QCD potential V QCD (r) in the distance region 0.1 fm QCD (r) analytically. Higher-order terms are estimated by large-β 0 approximation or by renormalization group, and the renormalization scale is varied around the minimal-sensitivity scale. A 'Coulomb'+linear potential can be identified with the scale-independent and renormalon-free part of the prediction and can be separated from the renormalon-dominating part. (II) In the frame of OPE, we define two types of renormalization schemes for the leading Wilson coefficient. One scheme belongs to the class of conventional factorization schemes. The other scheme belongs to a new class, which is independent of the factorization scale, derived from a generalization of the Coulomb+linear potential of (I). The Wilson coefficient is free from IR renormalons and IR divergences in both schemes. We study properties of the Wilson coefficient and of the corresponding nonperturbative contribution δE US (r) in each scheme. (III) We compare numerically perturbative predictions of the Wilson coefficient and lattice computations of V QCD (r) when n l =0. We confirm either correctness or consistency (within uncertainties) of the theoretical predictions made in (II). Then we perform fits to simultaneously determine δE US (r) and r 0 Λ MS 3-loop (relation between lattice scale and Λ MS ). As for the former quantity, we improve bounds as compared to the previous determination; as for the latter quantity, our analysis provides a new method for its determination. We find that (a) δE US (r)=0 is disfavored, and (b) r 0 Λ MS 3-loop =0.574±0.042. We elucidate the mechanism for the sensitivities and examine sources of errors in detail

  9. Use of a free-jet expansion, molecular beam mass spectrometer to understand processes involving volatile corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    Many high-temperature corrosion processes generate volatile products in addition to condensed phase products. Examples of these volatile products are chlorides, oxychlorides, and certain oxides and hydroxyl species. One of the best techniques to identify high temperature vapor molecules is mass spectrometry. Most mass spectrometers operate in high vacuum and are generally used to examine processes ocurring at greatly reduced pressures. However, a free-jet expansion, molecular beam mass spectrometer system allows direct sampling of volatile corrosion products. This instrument is described. Several examples from our studies on chlorination/oxidation of metals and ceramics are discussed. In addition, reactions of Cr 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , and Al 2 O 3 with water vapor, which produce volatile hydroxyl species are discussed. (orig.)

  10. OPEC production: Capital limitations, environmental movements may interfere with expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Obtaining capital is a critical element in the production expansion plans of OPEC member countries. Another issue that may impact the plans is the environmental taxes that may reduce the call on OPEC oil by 5 million b/d in 2000 and about 16 million b/d in the year 2010. This concluding part of a two-part series discusses the expansion possibilities of non-Middle East OPEC members, OPEC's capital requirements, and environmental concerns. Non-Middle East OPEC includes Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Libya, Nigeria, and Venezuela

  11. Market Expansion and Productivity Growth: Do New Domestic Markets Matter As Much As New International Markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, John R.; Yan, Beiling

    2012-01-01

    This paper asks how market expansion contributes to productivity growth. It investigates whether entry to both new international markets and new domestic markets is associated with greater productivity growth. It also examines whether exit from export markets is necessarily associated with deteriorating performance or whether it too can lead to success when associated with movements to new markets. Finally, the paper examines the strategy of firms that move to new markets after they withdraw ...

  12. Agricultural Productivity, Co-Operatives and Organisational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania ... can enhance productivity and increase farmers' income by bringing financial services closer. ... of Kimuli Agricultural Marketing Co-operative Society (AMCOS) and Muungano Savings and ...

  13. One year of operation of Mammoth Pacific`s MP1-100 turbine with metastable, supersaturated expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mines, G.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory`s Heat Cycle Research project is developing a technology base that will increase the use of moderate-temperature hydrothermal resources to generate electrical power. One of the concepts under investigation is the use of a metastable, supersaturated turbine expansion. This expansion process supports a supersaturated vapor. If brought to equilibrium conditions, liquid condensate would be present in the expanding vapor. Analytical studies show that a plant designed to operate with this expansion will have an improvement in the brine effectiveness of up to 8% provided there is no adverse impact on turbine performance. Determining the impact of this expansion on turbine performance is focus of the project investigations being reported.

  14. Preliminary thermodynamic study of regenerative Otto based cycles with zero NOx emissions operating with adiabatic and polytropic expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; Carril, Jose Carbia; Romero Gomez, Javier; Romero Gomez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Efficient polytropic expansion based Otto cycle. • Thermal efficiency is due to the inherent regeneration. • Low temperature combustion with zero NOx emissions. - Abstract: The aim of the paper is to demonstrate that a regenerative Otto cycle with adiabatic or polytropic expansion can achieve improved performance over traditional Otto engines, even exceeding the Carnot factor. Thus, the work deals with a novel regenerative Otto based internal combustion engine which differs from the conventional Otto thermal cycles in that the process of heat conversion into mechanical work is performed obeying a polytropic path function instead of the conventional adiabatic expansion without regeneration. Design characteristics concern the fact that combustion at constant volume is carried out undergoing large air excess so that the top combustion temperature is significantly lower than in conventional Otto cycles and consequently NOx emissions are neglected. Furthermore, during the polytropic expansion based path function, heat is absorbed by being submitted to a controlled heat flow rate, to achieve the desired polytropic expansion. The analysis of the regenerative Otto based on polytropic expansion is presented and results are compared with a regenerative Otto based on the adiabatic expansion and CF. The results show that a relevant advantage of the proposed regenerative Otto with polytropic expansion over the regenerative Otto cycle with adiabatic expansion involves performance enhancement within a wide range of combustion pressures, temperatures and regeneration capacities. Thus, thermal efficiency and specific work as function of the top combustion pressure ranges are of 71.95–58.43% and 143.5–173.6 kJ/kg respectively, when combustion pressures vary between 105 kPa and 200 kPa and CF is 60.8% (lower than the thermal efficiency). The successful results involving a compact engine structure, technically and economically viable, promises a new generation

  15. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system...... expansion and two allocation procedures for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of molasses ethanol. As seen from our results, system expansion yields the highest estimate among the three. However, no matter which procedure is used, a significant reduction of emissions from the fuel stage...... in the abatement scenario, which assumes implementation of substituting bioenergy for fossil-based energy to reduce GHG emissions, combined with a negligible level of emissions from the use stage, keeps the estimate of ethanol life cycle GHG emissions below that of gasoline. Pointing out that indirect land use...

  16. Nonlocal Electrostatics in Spherical Geometries Using Eigenfunction Expansions of Boundary-Integral Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Knepley, Matthew G; Brune, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an exact, infinite-series solution to Lorentz nonlocal continuum electrostatics for an arbitrary charge distribution in a spherical solute. Our approach relies on two key steps: (1) re-formulating the PDE problem using boundary-integral equations, and (2) diagonalizing the boundary-integral operators using the fact that their eigenfunctions are the surface spherical harmonics. To introduce this uncommon approach for calculations in separable geometries, we first re-derive Kirkwood's classic results for a protein surrounded concentrically by a pure-water ion-exclusion (Stern) layer and then a dilute electrolyte, which is modeled with the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The eigenfunction-expansion approach provides a computationally efficient way to test some implications of nonlocal models, including estimating the reasonable range of the nonlocal length-scale parameter λ. Our results suggest that nonlocal solvent response may help to reduce the need for very high dielectric constants in calculating pH-dependent protein behavior, though more sophisticated nonlocal models are needed to resolve this question in full. An open-source MATLAB implementation of our approach is freely available online.

  17. Nonlocal Electrostatics in Spherical Geometries Using Eigenfunction Expansions of Boundary-Integral Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Knepley, Matthew G.; Brune, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an exact, infinite-series solution to Lorentz nonlocal continuum electrostatics for an arbitrary charge distribution in a spherical solute. Our approach relies on two key steps: (1) re-formulating the PDE problem using boundary-integral equations, and (2) diagonalizing the boundary-integral operators using the fact that their eigenfunctions are the surface spherical harmonics. To introduce this uncommon approach for calculations in separable geometries, we first re-derive Kirkwood’s classic results for a protein surrounded concentrically by a pure-water ion-exclusion (Stern) layer and then a dilute electrolyte, which is modeled with the linearized Poisson–Boltzmann equation. The eigenfunction-expansion approach provides a computationally efficient way to test some implications of nonlocal models, including estimating the reasonable range of the nonlocal length-scale parameter λ. Our results suggest that nonlocal solvent response may help to reduce the need for very high dielectric constants in calculating pH-dependent protein behavior, though more sophisticated nonlocal models are needed to resolve this question in full. An open-source MATLAB implementation of our approach is freely available online. PMID:26273581

  18. On approximation of functions by product operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hare Krishna Nigam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, two quite new reults on the degree of approximation of a function f belonging to the class Lip(α,r, 1≤ r <∞ and the weighted class W(Lr,ξ(t, 1≤ r <∞ by (C,2(E,1 product operators have been obtained. The results obtained in the present paper generalize various known results on single operators.

  19. Topology of evolving, mutagenized viral populations: quasispecies expansion, compression, and operation of negative selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojosnegros, Samuel; Agudo, Rubén; Sierra, Macarena; Briones, Carlos; Sierra, Saleta; González-López, Claudia; Domingo, Esteban; Cristina, Juan

    2008-07-17

    The molecular events and evolutionary forces underlying lethal mutagenesis of virus (or virus extinction through an excess of mutations) are not well understood. Here we apply for the first time phylogenetic methods and Partition Analysis of Quasispecies (PAQ) to monitor genetic distances and intra-population structures of mutant spectra of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) quasispecies subjected to mutagenesis by base and nucleoside analogues. Phylogenetic and PAQ analyses have revealed a highly dynamic variation of intrapopulation diversity of FMDV quasispecies. The population diversity first suffers striking expansions in the presence of mutagens and then compressions either when the presence of the mutagenic analogue was discontinued or when a mutation that decreased sensitivity to a mutagen was selected. The pattern of mutations found in the populations was in agreement with the behavior of the corresponding nucleotide analogues with FMDV in vitro. Mutations accumulated at preferred genomic sites, and dn/ds ratios indicate the operation of negative (or purifying) selection in populations subjected to mutagenesis. No evidence of unusually elevated genetic distances has been obtained for FMDV populations approaching extinction. Phylogenetic and PAQ analysis provide adequate procedures to describe the evolution of viral sequences subjected to lethal mutagenesis. These methods define the changes of intra-population structure more precisely than mutation frequencies and Shannon entropies. PAQ is very sensitive to variations of intrapopulation genetic distances. Strong negative (or purifying) selection operates in FMDV populations subjected to enhanced mutagenesis. The quantifications provide evidence that extinction does not imply unusual increases of intrapopulation complexity, in support of the lethal defection model of virus extinction.

  20. Topology of evolving, mutagenized viral populations: quasispecies expansion, compression, and operation of negative selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra Saleta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular events and evolutionary forces underlying lethal mutagenesis of virus (or virus extinction through an excess of mutations are not well understood. Here we apply for the first time phylogenetic methods and Partition Analysis of Quasispecies (PAQ to monitor genetic distances and intra-population structures of mutant spectra of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV quasispecies subjected to mutagenesis by base and nucleoside analogues. Results Phylogenetic and PAQ analyses have revealed a highly dynamic variation of intrapopulation diversity of FMDV quasispecies. The population diversity first suffers striking expansions in the presence of mutagens and then compressions either when the presence of the mutagenic analogue was discontinued or when a mutation that decreased sensitivity to a mutagen was selected. The pattern of mutations found in the populations was in agreement with the behavior of the corresponding nucleotide analogues with FMDV in vitro. Mutations accumulated at preferred genomic sites, and dn/ds ratios indicate the operation of negative (or purifying selection in populations subjected to mutagenesis. No evidence of unusually elevated genetic distances has been obtained for FMDV populations approaching extinction. Conclusion Phylogenetic and PAQ analysis provide adequate procedures to describe the evolution of viral sequences subjected to lethal mutagenesis. These methods define the changes of intra-population structure more precisely than mutation frequencies and Shannon entropies. PAQ is very sensitive to variations of intrapopulation genetic distances. Strong negative (or purifying selection operates in FMDV populations subjected to enhanced mutagenesis. The quantifications provide evidence that extinction does not imply unusual increases of intrapopulation complexity, in support of the lethal defection model of virus extinction.

  1. Semicrossed products of operator algebras by semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Kenneth R; Kakariadis, Evgenios T A

    2017-01-01

    The authors examine the semicrossed products of a semigroup action by *-endomorphisms on a C*-algebra, or more generally of an action on an arbitrary operator algebra by completely contractive endomorphisms. The choice of allowable representations affects the corresponding universal algebra. The authors seek quite general conditions which will allow them to show that the C*-envelope of the semicrossed product is (a full corner of) a crossed product of an auxiliary C*-algebra by a group action. Their analysis concerns a case-by-case dilation theory on covariant pairs. In the process we determine the C*-envelope for various semicrossed products of (possibly nonselfadjoint) operator algebras by spanning cones and lattice-ordered abelian semigroups.

  2. Schrödinger operators on the half line: Resolvent expansions and the Fermi Golden Rule at threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2005-01-01

    We consider Schr\\"odinger operators $H = -d^2 \\slash dr^2 + V$ on $L^2 ([0,\\infty))$ with the Dirichlet boundary condition. The potential $V$ may be local or non-local, with polynomial decay at infinity. The point zero in the spectrum of $H$ is classified, and asymptotic expansions of the resolvent...

  3. Unsteady rans simulation of the off-design operation of a high expansion ratio ORC radial turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, E.; Pecnik, R.; Colonna di Paliano, P.

    2015-01-01

    The design of Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbines is a challenging task due to the complex thermodynamic behavior of the working fluid, the typical high expansion ratio which leads to a highly supersonic flow, the flow unsteadiness, and the continuous shift of operation between on- and off-design

  4. Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

    2012-12-01

    The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established

  5. Data-driven architectural production and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.; Mostafavi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Data-driven architectural production and operation as explored within Hyperbody rely heavily on system thinking implying that all parts of a system are to be understood in relation to each other. These relations are increasingly established bi-directionally so that data-driven architecture is not

  6. Global biomass production potentials exceed expected future demand without the need for cropland expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauser, Wolfram; Klepper, Gernot; Zabel, Florian; Delzeit, Ruth; Hank, Tobias; Putzenlechner, Birgitta; Calzadilla, Alvaro

    2015-11-12

    Global biomass demand is expected to roughly double between 2005 and 2050. Current studies suggest that agricultural intensification through optimally managed crops on today's cropland alone is insufficient to satisfy future demand. In practice though, improving crop growth management through better technology and knowledge almost inevitably goes along with (1) improving farm management with increased cropping intensity and more annual harvests where feasible and (2) an economically more efficient spatial allocation of crops which maximizes farmers' profit. By explicitly considering these two factors we show that, without expansion of cropland, today's global biomass potentials substantially exceed previous estimates and even 2050s' demands. We attribute 39% increase in estimated global production potentials to increasing cropping intensities and 30% to the spatial reallocation of crops to their profit-maximizing locations. The additional potentials would make cropland expansion redundant. Their geographic distribution points at possible hotspots for future intensification.

  7. Unlimited productivity: your operation can achieve it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovino, V R

    1986-10-01

    Most mines substantially underestimate their real potential. The market for coal is global and people consider the problems are caused by uncontrolled production of foreign coal, however part of the problem is productivity, that is the ability to produce tons of coal in a cost-effective way, rather than production. Any operation can deliver unlimited productivity by developing the resource within their employees. This paper discusses the areas where the industry has gone wrong, including bureaucracy, blind faith in price rises, wages, adversaries; tradition, narrow job characteristics, conformance over performance for employees, management, money, self-limitations and benefit plans. It also describes three basic ways of improving productivity. These are positive management practices, employee participation and shared rewards.

  8. TESS Ground System Operations and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Ana; Guerrero, Natalia; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the ground system operations for processing data from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), highlighting the role of the Science Operations Center (SOC). TESS is a spaced-based (nearly) all-sky mission, designed to find small planets around nearby bright stars using the transit method. We detail the flow of data from pixel measurements on the instrument to final products available at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). The ground system relies on a host of players to process the data, including the Payload Operations Center at MIT, the Science Processing Operation Center at NASA Ames, and the TESS Science Office, led by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and MIT. Together, these groups will deliver TESS Input Catalog, instrument calibration models, calibrated target pixels and full frame images, threshold crossing event reports, two-minute light curves, and the TESS Objects of Interest List.

  9. Operational Monitoring of Data Production at KNMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vegte, John; Kwidama, Anecita; van Moosel, Wim; Oosterhof, Rijk; de Wit de Wit, Ronny; Klein Ikkink, Henk Jan; Som de Cerff, Wim; Verhoef, Hans; Koutek, Michal; Duin, Frank; van der Neut, Ian; verhagen, Robert; Wollerich, Rene

    2016-04-01

    Within KNMI a new fully automated system for monitoring the KNMI operational data production systems is being developed: PRISMA (PRocessflow Infrastructure Surveillance and Monitoring Application). Currently the KNMI operational (24/7) production systems consist of over 60 applications, running on different hardware systems and platforms. They are interlinked for the production of numerous data products, which are delivered to internal and external customers. Traditionally these applications are individually monitored by different applications or not at all; complicating root cause and impact analysis. Also, the underlying hardware and network is monitored via an isolated application. Goal of the PRISMA system is to enable production chain monitoring, which enables root cause analysis (what is the root cause of the disruption) and impact analysis (what downstream products/customers will be effected). The PRISMA system will make it possible to reduce existing monitoring applications and provides one interface for monitoring the data production. For modeling and storing the state of the production chains a graph database is used. The model is automatically updated by the applications and systems which are to be monitored. The graph models enables root cause and impact analysis. In the PRISMA web interface interaction with the graph model is accomplished via a graphical representation. The presentation will focus on aspects of: • Modeling real world computers, applications, products to a conceptual model; • Architecture of the system; • Configuration information and (real world) event handling of the to be monitored objects; • Implementation rules for root cause and impact analysis. • How PRISMA was developed (methodology, facts, results) • Presentation of the PRISMA system as it now looks and works

  10. On the renormalization of operator products: the scalar gluonic case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoller, Max F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the renormalization of the product of two operators O 1 =−(1/4)G μν G μν in QCD. An insertion of two such operators O 1 (x)O 1 (0) into a Greens function produces divergent contact terms for x→0. In the course of the computation of the operator product expansion (OPE) of the correlator of two such operators i∫ d 4 x e iqx T{ O 1 (x)O 1 (0)} to three-loop order http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2012)119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP10(2014)169 we discovered that divergent contact terms remain not only in the leading Wilson coefficient C 0 , which is just the VEV of the correlator, but also in the Wilson coefficient C 1 in front of O 1 . As this correlator plays an important role for example in QCD sum rules a full understanding of its renormalization is desireable. This work explains how the divergences encountered in higher orders of an OPE of this correlator should be absorbed in counterterms and derives an additive renormalization constant for C 1 from first principles and to all orders in perturnbation theory. The method to derive the renormalization of this operator product is an extension of the ideas of V. Spiridonov, Anomalous dimension of g μν 2 and β-function, Preprint IYAI-P-0378 (1984). and can be generalized to other cases.

  11. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  12. Glove box operations for transplutonium element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J.B.; Alexander, C.W.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Glove boxes are used in the Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for (1) completing the final chemical processing steps to isolate and purify the transplutonium elements, (2) packaging transplutonium elements for shipment, (3) preirradiation and postirradiation processing of samples used to produce special transplutonium isotopes in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and (4) conducting special projects, which include providing highly purified transplutonium products in special chemical forms and/or in experimental devices as requested by researchers. During 20 years of operation, the quantities of transplutonium elements produced, and thus the amount of radioactivity handled, have continually increased. At the same time, substantial effort has been expended to reduce personnel radiation exposures. Equipment and techniques have been developed to maintain the desired operational capabilities in the glove boxes while keeping radiation exposures to operating personnel as low as reasonably achievable. Developments have included the design and fabrication of product handling and collection devices, product storage containers, and laminated exterior shields of lead glass, lead acrylic, acrylic sheets, polyethylene, and lead

  13. OPERATING STABILITY OF MINERAL WOOL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfilov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Creating an effective insulation envelope of the building is possible only using high-quality materials, preserving their characteristics both in the early stages of operation, and for the whole billing period. It is an important opportunity to assess the thermal insulation properties and predict its changes over time directly in the conditions of the construction site. The products based on mineral fibers (rock and glass wool, basalt fiber are the most widely used type of insulating materials in the domestic construction. Therefore, the operational stability valuation methods must be primarily created for this group of products. The methodology for assessing the thermal insulation properties includes two main components: testing equipment and methodology for assessing the operational stability. The authors tested the methodology of the accelerated testing and prediction of durability for mineral wool products of laminated, corrugated and volume-oriented structures. The test results give good convergence with the methods recommended by the building regulations. Application of thermal insulation materials are an effective way to form the thermal envelope of the building, reducing energy costs and increasing the durability of building structures. The material properties are determined by their structure, which is formed during the technological impacts.

  14. Expansion of Michigan EOR Operations Using Advanced Amine Technology at a 600 MW Project Wolverine Carbon Capture and Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H Hoffman; Y kishinevsky; S. Wu; R. Pardini; E. Tripp; D. Barnes

    2010-06-16

    Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative Inc, a member owned cooperative utility based in Cadillac Michigan, proposes to demonstrate the capture, beneficial utilization and storage of CO{sub 2} in the expansion of existing Enhanced Oil Recovery operations. This project is being proposed in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000015 Section III D, 'Large Scale Industrial CCS projects from Industrial Sources' Technology Area 1. The project will remove 1,000 metric tons per day of CO{sub 2} from the Wolverine Clean Energy Venture 600 MW CFB power plant owned and operated by WPC. CO{sub 2} from the flue gas will be captured using Hitachi's CO{sub 2} capture system and advanced amine technology. The capture system with the advanced amine-based solvent supplied by Hitachi is expected to significantly reduce the cost and energy requirements of CO{sub 2} capture compared to current technologies. The captured CO{sub 2} will be compressed and transported for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO{sub 2} storage purposes. Enhanced Oil Recovery is a proven concept, widely used to recover otherwise inaccessible petroleum reserves. While post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies have been tested at the pilot scale on coal power plant flue gas, they have not yet been demonstrated at a commercial scale and integrated with EOR and storage operations. Amine-based CO{sub 2} capture is the leading technology expected to be available commercially within this decade to enable CCS for utility and industrial facilities firing coal and waste fuels such as petroleum coke. However, traditional CO{sub 2} capture process utilizing commercial amine solvents is very energy intensive for regeneration and is also susceptible to solvent degradation by oxygen as well as SOx and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas, resulting in large operating costs. The large volume of combustion flue gas with its low CO{sub 2} concentration requires large equipment sizes, which together with the

  15. Functional expansion for evolution operators in a system of many fermions with many conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrios, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    We present a mean field expansion for many body system, using integral functionals. The problem is formulated as a initial conditions one and it is studied the effective dynamics of the body density with given initial conditions. (M.W.O.) [pt

  16. A note on asymptotic expansions for Markov chains using operator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    We consider asymptotic expansions for sums Sn on the form Sn = fhook0(X0) + fhook(X1, X0) + ... + fhook(Xn, Xn-1), where Xi is a Markov chain. Under different ergodicity conditions on the Markov chain and certain conditional moment conditions on fhook(Xi, Xi-1), a simple representation...

  17. Production optimization of remotely operated gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juell, Aleksander

    2012-07-01

    From the introduction: The Remote Operations in Oklahoma Intended for Education (ROOKIE) project is a remote field laboratory constructed as a part of this research project. ROOKIE was initiated to provide data in research on production optimization of low productivity gas wells. In addition to this, ROOKIE is used as a teaching tool. Much of the remote operations technology used in the ROOKIE project has been used by the industry for several decades. The first use of remote data acquisition in Oklahoma was in 1989, as described by Luppens [7]. Even though this, for the most part, is old technology, the ROOKIE project is the first remote operations project set up with research and teaching as the main focus. This chapter will discuss the process of establishing the remote field laboratory and the data storage facilities. Results from the project will also be discussed. All testing, instrumentation installation, and modifications to the wells discussed in this chapter was performed by the author. The communication system between the well and NTNU, and the storage database was installed and configured by the author.(Author)

  18. Expansion of Production Capacity in the Company Moje podjetje d.o.o. and its Impact on the Organizational Climate in the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idriz Selimović

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: In a case study we will discuss the impact of expansion of production at the organizational climate of the company Mojepodjetje d.o.o. Method: When writing of the study was to systematically review the accomplishments of Experts on the surveyed area. We used the employee survey on the topic of expansion of production capacity of the company Mojepodjetjed.o.o. where we reasonably composite questionnaire come up with interesting findings. Results:: As a result of the research presented results of the survey on the planned expansion of production capacities Organization: Organizations must consider the fact that employees are people with feelings, specific desires and aspirations that motivate and inhibit different things. Employees are not just numbers and folders in the Human Resources department, but one of the main drivers of development organizations. With thisstudy we will draw attention to this fact. Originality: In the literature we have not found a similar case example. Our study may encourage critical evaluation of the impact of the human factor in the success of the expansion of operations of the organization. Limitations/Future Research: The study was limited to only one organization in the future it would be good to do a similar study had similar to what the company and to compare the results obtained with our own.

  19. Education for Production and Operations Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kavan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Mechanical Engineering Enterprise Management at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague has its own doctoral programme, and runs postgraduate and master's courses. The Department is engaged in a great deal of research in the field of marketing, financial and mainly operations management. A new Production and Operations Management programme was started in 1997. The programme consists of: Management of Change and the Importance of Innovations, Forecasting and Operations Strategy, Design of Work Systems, Total Quality Management and Inventory Control, Material Requirements Planning and Just-In-Time Systems, Logistics and Practical exercises. The study programme is organised in two stages, winter and summer semesters. The study programme has a strong international orientation. The teaching goal is to prepare students for dealing with real-world settings and implementing the most effective up-to-date practices. The Department aspires to lead in research, and in developing modern concepts and tools. Research is being conducted in the mechanical engineering industry under a grant from the EU LEONARDO programme. We invite you to email with questions or to schedule a visit to the Department at any time.

  20. New elements in production technology and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melberg, O.

    1995-01-01

    The title of this presentation embraces quite a wide scope, however, focus will be on Mobile Production Systems (MPSs) and in particular on Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Units (FPSOs), for which there is presently a remarkable boost in interest particularly in the North Sea area. Over the last 20 years, pioneered by the Argyll TW 58 in 1975, 11 mobile systems have been/are active in the North Sea, i.e. a growth of one for each second year. In 1994 alone a number of eight mobile production systems were contracted of which seven were FPSOs. This boost is following nine years of successful operation of the Petrojarl 1 and is also clearly linked to the success of the Kerr-McGee's Gryphon A project. The title of this presentation reflects new elements in this business; the upturn in interest for FPSOs introduces new ways of thinking and acting. In this paper, the new elements are divided into the general trends; new commercial elements and new technological elements

  1. Electronic annealing Fermi operator expansion for DFT calculations on metallic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Jolyon; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton

    2018-02-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations with computational effort which increases linearly with the number of atoms (linear-scaling DFT) have been successfully developed for insulators, taking advantage of the exponential decay of the one-particle density matrix. For metallic systems, the density matrix is also expected to decay exponentially at finite electronic temperature and linear-scaling DFT methods should be possible by taking advantage of this decay. Here we present a method for DFT calculations at finite electronic temperature for metallic systems which is effectively linear-scaling (O(N)). Our method generates the elements of the one-particle density matrix and also finds the required chemical potential and electronic entropy using polynomial expansions. A fixed expansion length is always employed to generate the density matrix, without any loss in accuracy by the application of a high electronic temperature followed by successive steps of temperature reduction until the desired (low) temperature density matrix is obtained. We have implemented this method in the ONETEP linear-scaling (for insulators) DFT code which employs local orbitals that are optimised in situ. By making use of the sparse matrix machinery of ONETEP, our method exploits the sparsity of Hamiltonian and density matrices to perform calculations on metallic systems with computational cost that increases asymptotically linearly with the number of atoms. We demonstrate the linear-scaling computational cost of our method with calculation times on palladium nanoparticles with up to ˜13 000 atoms.

  2. Operational Space Weather Products at IPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudegg, D.; Steward, G.; Marshall, R.; Terkildsen, M.; Kennewell, J.; Patterson, G.; Panwar, R.

    2008-12-01

    IPS Radio and Space Services operates an extensive network (IPSNET) of monitoring stations and observatories within the Australasian and Antarctic regions to gather information on the space environment. This includes ionosondes, magnetometers, GPS-ISM, oblique HF sounding, riometers, and solar radio and optical telescopes. IPS exchanges this information with similar organisations world-wide. The Regional Warning Centre (RWC) is the Australian Space Forecast Centre (ASFC) and it utilizes this data to provide products and services to support customer operations. A wide range of customers use IPS services including; defence force and emergency services using HF radio communications and surveillance systems, organisations involved in geophysical exploration and pipeline cathodic protection, GPS users in aviation. Subscriptions to the alerts, warnings, forecasts and reports regarding the solar, geophysical and ionospheric conditions are distributed by email and Special Message Service (SMS). IPS also develops and markets widely used PC software prediction tools for HF radio skywave and surface wave (ASAPS/GWPS) and provides consultancy services for system planning.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  4. The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2006-07-01

    Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other hand there is a fair amount of demand response in the form of energy efficiency, peak reduction, emergency load shedding, and (recently) demand providing ancillary services. All of this demand response reduces the need for transmission enhancements. Demand response capability is typically (but not always) factored into transmission planning as a reduction in the load which must be served. In that sense demand response is utilized as an alternative to transmission expansion. Much more demand response is used (involuntarily) as load shedding under extreme conditions to prevent cascading blackouts. The amount of additional transmission and generation that would be required to provide the current level of reliability if load shedding were not available is difficult to imagine and would be impractical to build. In a very real sense demand response solutions are equitably treated in every region - when proposed, demand response projects are evaluated against existing reliability and economic criteria. The regional councils, RTOs, and ISOs identify needs. Others propose transmission, generation, or responsive load based solutions. Few demand response projects get included in transmission enhancement plans because few are proposed. But this is only part of the story. Several factors are responsible for the current very low use of demand response as a transmission enhancement alternative. First, while the generation, transmission, and load business sectors each deal with essentially the same amount of electric power, generation and transmission companies are explicitly in the electric power business but electricity is not the primary business focus of most loads. This changes the institutional focus of each sector. Second

  5. On the convergence of the eigencurrent expansion method applied to Linear Embedding via Green's Operators (LEGO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancellotti, V.; Hon, de B.P.; Tijhuis, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The scattering from a large complex structure comprised of many objects may be efficiently tackled by embedding each object within a bounded domain (brick) which is described through a scattering operator. Upon electromagnetically combining the scattering operators we arrive at an equation which

  6. Clinical grade purification and expansion of NK cell products for an optimized manufacturing protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eKoehl

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic Natural Killer (NK cells are used for adoptive immunotherapy after stem cell transplantation. In order to overcome technical limitations in NK cell purification and activation, the following study investigates the impact of different variables on NK cell recovery, cytotoxicity and T cell depletion during GMP-grade NK cell selection. 40 NK cell products were derived from 54 unstimulated donor leukaphereses using immunomagnetic CD3 T-cell depletion, followed by a CD56 cell enrichment step. For T cell depletion, either the depletion 2.1 program in single or double procedure (D2.1 1depl, n=18; D2.1 2depl, n=13 or the faster depletion 3.1 (D3.1, n=9 was used on the CliniMACS instrument. 17 purified NK cell products were activated in vitro by IL-2 for 12 days. The whole process resulted in a median number of 7.59x10e8 CD56+CD3- cells with both purity and viability of 94%, respectively. The T-cell depletion was significantly better using D2.1 1depl/2depl compared to D3.1 (log 4.6/log 4.9 vs. log 3.7; p<0.01 and double procedure in two stages led always to residual T cells below 0.1%. In contrast D3.1 was superior to D2.1 1depl/2depl with regard to recovery of CD56+CD3- NK cells (68% vs 41%/38%. Concomitant monocytes and especially IL-2 activation led to increased NK cell activity against malignant target cells compared to unstimulated NK cells, which correlated with both up-regulation of natural cytotoxicity receptors and intracellular signaling. Overall, wide variations in the NK cell expansion rate and the distribution of NK cell subpopulations were found. In conclusion, our results indicate that GMP-grade purification of NK cells might be improved by a sequential processing of T cell depletion program D2.1 and D3.1. In addition NK cell expansion protocols need to be further optimized.

  7. Studies on capillary tube expansion device used in J-T refrigerators operating with nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish Kruthiventi, S. S.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2017-10-01

    Capillary tube expansion devices are used extensively in small closed cycle J-T refrigerators operating with refrigerant mixtures due to its low cost and the absence of any moving parts. It is possible for J-T refrigerators operating with mixtures that the velocity of refrigerant mixture at capillary tube outlet reaches a value where it equals the speed of sound at certain conditions. The variation of the speed of sound of nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures used in J-T refrigerators has been studied in two phase (vapour-liquid) and three-phase (Vapour-liquid-liquid) region as a function of temperature and pressure in this work. Also the conditions under which choking occurs in practical J-T refrigerators is investigated.

  8. The costs of seasonality and expansion in Ireland’s milk production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinschink K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ireland’s milk production sector relies on grass-based spring-calving systems, which facilitates cost advantages in milk production but entails a high degree of supply seasonality. Among other implications, this supply seasonality involves extra costs in the processing sector including elevated plant capacities and varying levels of resource utilisation throughout the year. If both the national raw milk production increased substantially (e.g. post-milk quota and a high degree of seasonality persisted, extra processing capacities would be required to cope with peak supplies. Alternatively, existing capacities could be used more efficiently by distributing the milk volume more evenly during the year. In this analysis, an optimisation model was applied to analyse the costs and economies arising to an average Irish milk-processing business due to changes to the monthly distribution of milk deliveries and/or the total annual milk pool. Of the situations examined, changing from a seasonal supply prior to expansion to a smoother pattern combined with an increased milk pool emerged as the most beneficial option to the processor because both the processor’s gross surplus and the marginal producer milk price increased. In practice, it may however be the case that the extra costs arising to the producer from smoothing the milk intake distribution exceed the processor’s benefit. The interlinkages between the stages of the dairy supply chain mean that nationally, the seasonality trade-offs are complex and equivocal. Moreover, the prospective financial implications of such strategies will be dependent on the evolving and uncertain nature of international dairy markets in the post-quota environment.

  9. Culture, Product Advertising, and Advertising Agency Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... market about a new product, advertising persuades and reminds the audience ... The relevance of this topic can also be shown by the true story of the Gerber ... product was the product; people thought they were being.

  10. Influence of the hydrostatic stress component on critical surface expansion in forging compound products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorm, T; Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras

    1974-01-01

    of a superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the critical surface expansion during a forging process. The critical surface expansion appears to decrease with increasing hydrostatic pressure. This may be due to the fact that the close contact between the materials necessary to obtain bonding is created by a micro...

  11. Operating room management and operating room productivity: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Maresi; Berry-Stölzle, Thomas; Schleppers, Alexander

    2008-09-01

    We examine operating room productivity on the example of hospitals in Germany with independent anesthesiology departments. Linked to anesthesiology group literature, we use the ln(Total Surgical Time/Total Anesthesiologists Salary) as a proxy for operating room productivity. We test the association between operating room productivity and different structural, organizational and management characteristics based on survey data from 87 hospitals. Our empirical analysis links improved operating room productivity to greater operating room capacity, appropriate scheduling behavior and management methods to realign interests. From this analysis, the enforcing jurisdiction and avoiding advance over-scheduling appear to be the implementable tools for improving operating room productivity.

  12. Power system generation expansion planning using the maximum principle and analytical production cost model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.Y.; Park, Y.M.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, the electric utility demand in most countries has increased rapidly, with a doubling of approximately 10 years in the case of developing countries. In order to meet this growth in demand, the planners of expansion policies were concerned with obtaining expansion pans which dictate what new generation facilities to add and when to add them. This paper reports that, however, the practical planning problem is extremely difficult and complex, and required many hours of the planner's time even though the alternatives examined were extremely limited. In this connection, increased motivation for more sophisticated techniques of valuating utility expansion policies has been developed during the past decade. Among them, the long-range generation expansion planning is to select the most economical and reliable generation expansion plans in order to meet future power demand over a long period of time subject to a multitude of technical, economical, and social constraints

  13. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2016-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92-17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46-13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33-33.53 and 5.30-11.53 fold increase in the phenolics and antioxidant activity in the enriched snack products. The effects of feed moisture content, screw speed, and barrel temperature on expansion and nutritional properties of the extruded products were investigated by using response surface methodology. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the product responses were obtained. The snacks extruded with feed moisture 13-15 % (wb) and extrusion temperature at 160-180 °C indicated the products with high preference in terms of expansion ratio between insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber balance. The results showed that the by-products could be successfully used for nutritional supplemented expanded snacks.

  14. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  15. Dairy operation management practices and herd milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinger, W C; Heinrichs, A J

    1996-03-01

    A national US survey collected data on herd milk production and management of Holstein herds. Step-wise selection identified management practices that were related to herd milk production using only operations that calculated herd milk production as well as using data from all operations. Results were similar. Milk production was highest in the West. Operations with 25% registered cattle had higher production than operations with no registered cattle. Dairy operations that reported a mean BW > 545 kg at first calving had higher mean milk production than operations with a mean BW or = 27 mo at first calving. In addition, use of the following management practices was associated with higher rolling herd average milk production: calves born in individual areas in buildings, calves hand-fed first colostrum, starter grain fed to preweaned calves, ionophores fed to heifers from birth to first calving, DHIA record-keeping system used, computerized records, and no new cattle introduced in the previous 12 mo.

  16. Palm oil expansion in tropical forest margins or sustainability of production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van M.; Pacheco, Pablo; Slingerland, M.A.; Dewi, S.; Khasanah, N.

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil expansion captures headlines, primarily out of concern that encroachment to tropical forest causes environmental problem and ignites social issues. Cascading ecological and social issues cause loss of trust, (threats of) consumer boycotts and multiple standards and certification responses.

  17. Expansion of ribosomally produced natural products: a nitrile hydratase- and Nif11-related precursor family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Douglas A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new family of natural products has been described in which cysteine, serine and threonine from ribosomally-produced peptides are converted to thiazoles, oxazoles and methyloxazoles, respectively. These metabolites and their biosynthetic gene clusters are now referred to as thiazole/oxazole-modified microcins (TOMM. As exemplified by microcin B17 and streptolysin S, TOMM precursors contain an N-terminal leader sequence and C-terminal core peptide. The leader sequence contains binding sites for the posttranslational modifying enzymes which subsequently act upon the core peptide. TOMM peptides are small and highly variable, frequently missed by gene-finders and occasionally situated far from the thiazole/oxazole forming genes. Thus, locating a substrate for a particular TOMM pathway can be a challenging endeavor. Results Examination of candidate TOMM precursors has revealed a subclass with an uncharacteristically long leader sequence closely related to the enzyme nitrile hydratase. Members of this nitrile hydratase leader peptide (NHLP family lack the metal-binding residues required for catalysis. Instead, NHLP sequences display the classic Gly-Gly cleavage motif and have C-terminal regions rich in heterocyclizable residues. The NHLP family exhibits a correlated species distribution and local clustering with an ABC transport system. This study also provides evidence that a separate family, annotated as Nif11 nitrogen-fixing proteins, can serve as natural product precursors (N11P, but not always of the TOMM variety. Indeed, a number of cyanobacterial genomes show extensive N11P paralogous expansion, such as Nostoc, Prochlorococcus and Cyanothece, which replace the TOMM cluster with lanthionine biosynthetic machinery. Conclusions This study has united numerous TOMM gene clusters with their cognate substrates. These results suggest that two large protein families, the nitrile hydratases and Nif11, have been retailored for

  18. Multifaceted metabolomics approaches for characterization of lignocellulosic biomass degradation products formed during ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismeh, Ramin

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a rather unused resource for production of biofuels, and it offers an alternative to food sources including corn starch. However, structural and compositional impediments limit the digestibility of sugar polymers in biomass cell walls. Thermochemical pretreatments improve accessibility of cellulose and hemicellulose to hydrolytic enzymes. However, most pretreatment methods generate compounds that either inhibit enzymatic hydrolysis or exhibit toxicity to fermentive microorganisms. Characterization and quantification of these products are essential for understanding chemistry of the pretreatment and optimizing the process efficiency to achieve higher ethanol yields. Identification of oligosaccharides released during pretreatment is also critical for choosing hydrolases necessary for cost-effective hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable monomeric sugars. Two chapters in this dissertation describe new mass spectrometry-based strategies for characterization and quantification of products that are formed during ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment of corn stover. Comparison of Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS) profiles of AFEX-treated corn stover (AFEXTCS) and untreated corn stover (UTCS) extract shows that ammonolysis of lignin carbohydrate ester linkages generates a suite of nitrogenous compounds that are present only in the AFEXTCS extract and represent a loss of ammonia during processing. Several of these products including acetamide, feruloyl, coumaroyl and diferuloyl amides were characterized and quantified in the AFEXTCS extracts. The total amount of characterized and uncharacterized phenolic amides measured 17.4 mg/g AFEXTCS. Maillard reaction products including pyrazines and imidazoles were also identified and measured in the AFEXTCS extract totaling almost 1 mg/g AFEXTCS. The total of quantified nitrogenous products that are formed during AFEX was 43.4 mg/g AFEXTCS which was equivalent

  19. Do beaver dams reduce habitat connectivity and salmon productivity in expansive river floodplains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malison, Rachel L; Kuzishchin, Kirill V; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have expanded in their native habitats throughout the northern hemisphere in recent decades following reductions in trapping and reintroduction efforts. Beaver have the potential to strongly influence salmon populations in the side channels of large alluvial rivers by building dams that create pond complexes. Pond habitat may improve salmon productivity or the presence of dams may reduce productivity if dams limit habitat connectivity and inhibit fish passage. Our intent in this paper is to contrast the habitat use and production of juvenile salmon on expansive floodplains of two geomorphically similar salmon rivers: the Kol River in Kamchatka, Russia (no beavers) and the Kwethluk River in Alaska (abundant beavers), and thereby provide a case study on how beavers may influence salmonids in large floodplain rivers. We examined important rearing habitats in each floodplain, including springbrooks, beaver ponds, beaver-influenced springbrooks, and shallow shorelines of the river channel. Juvenile coho salmon dominated fish assemblages in all habitats in both rivers but other species were present. Salmon density was similar in all habitat types in the Kol, but in the Kwethluk coho and Chinook densities were 3-12× lower in mid- and late-successional beaver ponds than in springbrook and main channel habitats. In the Kol, coho condition (length: weight ratios) was similar among habitats, but Chinook condition was highest in orthofluvial springbrooks. In the Kwethluk, Chinook condition was similar among habitats, but coho condition was lowest in main channel versus other habitats (0.89 vs. 0.99-1.10). Densities of juvenile salmon were extremely low in beaver ponds located behind numerous dams in the orthofluvial zone of the Kwethluk River floodplain, whereas juvenile salmon were abundant in habitats throughout the entire floodplain in the Kol River. If beavers were not present on the Kwethluk, floodplain habitats would be fully interconnected and theoretically

  20. A Rapid Cell Expansion Process for Production of Engineered Autologous CAR-T Cell Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tangying Lily; Pugach, Omar; Somerville, Robert; Rosenberg, Steven A; Kochenderfer, James N; Better, Marc; Feldman, Steven A

    2016-12-01

    The treatment of B-cell malignancies by adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CD19 CAR-T) has proven to be a highly successful therapeutic modality in several clinical trials. 1-6 The anti-CD19 CAR-T cell production method used to support initial trials relied on numerous manual, open process steps, human serum, and 10 days of cell culture to achieve a clinical dose. 7 This approach limited the ability to support large multicenter clinical trials, as well as scale up for commercial cell production. Therefore, studies were completed to streamline and optimize the original National Cancer Institute production process by removing human serum from the process in order to minimize the risk of viral contamination, moving process steps from an open system to functionally closed system operations in order to minimize the risk of microbial contamination, and standardizing additional process steps in order to maximize process consistency. This study reports a procedure for generating CD19 CAR-T cells in 6 days, using a functionally closed manufacturing process and defined, serum-free medium. This method is able to produce CD19 CAR-T cells that are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from cells produced for clinical trials by the previously described production process.

  1. Environmental assessment for the expansion and operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed expansion and operation of an existing borrow pit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. A borrow pit is defined as an excavated area where material has been dug for use as fill at another location. The proposed action would entail the areal enlargement, continued operation, and eventual close-out of the established facility known as the Central Shops Borrow Pit. Operations at SRS supporting waste site closure and the construction and maintenance of site facilities and infrastructure require readily available suitable soil for use as fill material. With the recent depletion of the other existing on-site sources for such material, DOE proposes to expand the existing facility. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  2. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, January 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-02-24

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Atomic Laboratories Products Operation, February, 1956. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  3. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for June 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-07-28

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Atomic Products Operation, June, 1955. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  4. Colony Expansion of Socially Motile Myxococcus xanthus Cells Is Driven by Growth, Motility, and Exopolysaccharide Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintu Patra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Myxococcus xanthus, a model organism for studies of multicellular behavior in bacteria, moves exclusively on solid surfaces using two distinct but coordinated motility mechanisms. One of these, social (S motility is powered by the extension and retraction of type IV pili and requires the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by neighboring cells. As a result, S motility requires close cell-to-cell proximity and isolated cells do not translocate. Previous studies measuring S motility by observing the colony expansion of cells deposited on agar have shown that the expansion rate increases with initial cell density, but the biophysical mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. To understand the dynamics of S motility-driven colony expansion, we developed a reaction-diffusion model describing the effects of cell density, EPS deposition and nutrient exposure on the expansion rate. Our results show that at steady state the population expands as a traveling wave with a speed determined by the interplay of cell motility and growth, a well-known characteristic of Fisher's equation. The model explains the density-dependence of the colony expansion by demonstrating the presence of a lag phase-a transient period of very slow expansion with a duration dependent on the initial cell density. We propose that at a low initial density, more time is required for the cells to accumulate enough EPS to activate S-motility resulting in a longer lag period. Furthermore, our model makes the novel prediction that following the lag phase the population expands at a constant rate independent of the cell density. These predictions were confirmed by S motility experiments capturing long-term expansion dynamics.

  5. Colony Expansion of Socially Motile Myxococcus xanthus Cells Is Driven by Growth, Motility, and Exopolysaccharide Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Pintu; Kissoon, Kimberley; Cornejo, Isabel; Kaplan, Heidi B; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2016-06-01

    Myxococcus xanthus, a model organism for studies of multicellular behavior in bacteria, moves exclusively on solid surfaces using two distinct but coordinated motility mechanisms. One of these, social (S) motility is powered by the extension and retraction of type IV pili and requires the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by neighboring cells. As a result, S motility requires close cell-to-cell proximity and isolated cells do not translocate. Previous studies measuring S motility by observing the colony expansion of cells deposited on agar have shown that the expansion rate increases with initial cell density, but the biophysical mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. To understand the dynamics of S motility-driven colony expansion, we developed a reaction-diffusion model describing the effects of cell density, EPS deposition and nutrient exposure on the expansion rate. Our results show that at steady state the population expands as a traveling wave with a speed determined by the interplay of cell motility and growth, a well-known characteristic of Fisher's equation. The model explains the density-dependence of the colony expansion by demonstrating the presence of a lag phase-a transient period of very slow expansion with a duration dependent on the initial cell density. We propose that at a low initial density, more time is required for the cells to accumulate enough EPS to activate S-motility resulting in a longer lag period. Furthermore, our model makes the novel prediction that following the lag phase the population expands at a constant rate independent of the cell density. These predictions were confirmed by S motility experiments capturing long-term expansion dynamics.

  6. Operation and Control of Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias

    This work explores the control of biodiesel production via an enzymatic catalyst. The process involves the transesterification of oils/fats with an alcohol (usually methanol or ethanol), using enzymatic catalysts to generate mono-alkyl esters (the basis of biodiesel) and glycerol as by......-product. Current literature indicates that enzymatic processing of oils and fats to produce biodiesel is technically feasible and developments in immobilization technology indicate that enzyme catalysts can become cost effective compared to chemical processing. However, with very few exceptions, enzyme technology...... is not currently used in commercial-scale biodiesel production. This is mainly due to non-optimized process designs, which do not use the full potential of the catalysts in a cost-efficient way. Furthermore is it unclear what process variables need to be monitored and controlled to ensure optimal economics...

  7. Effect of intraovarian factors on porcine follicular cells: cumulus expansion, granulosa and cumulus cell progesterone production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježová, M.; Scsuková, S.; Nagyová, Eva; Vranová, J.; Procházka, Radek; Kolena, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 65, - (2001), s. 115-126 ISSN 0378-4320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/98/0231; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : pig-ovary * cumulus expansion * luteinization stimulator Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2001

  8. Utilization and cost of log production from animal loging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraj P. Shrestha; Bobby L. Lanford; Robert B. Rummer; Mark Dubois

    2006-01-01

    Forest harvesting with animals is a labor-intensive operation. It is expensive to use machines on smaller woodlots, which require frequent moves if mechanically logged. So, small logging systems using animals may be more cost effective. In this study, work sampling was used for five animal logging operations in Alabama to measure productive and non-productive time...

  9. A capacity expansion model dealing with balancing requirements, short-term operations and long-run dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges of current power systems is presented by the need to adequately integrate increasing shares of variable renewable energies (VRE) such as wind and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. The study of capacity investments under this context raises refreshed interrogations about the optimal power generation mix when considering system adequacy, operability and reliability issues. This paper analyses the influence of such considerations and adopts a resource-adequacy approach to propose a stylized capacity expansion model (CEM) that endogenously optimize investments in both generation capacity and new flexibility options such as electric energy storage (EES) and demand side management (DSM) capabilities. Three formulations are tested in order to seize the relevance of system dynamics representation over the valuation of capacity and flexibility investments. In each formulation the complexity of the representation of operating constraints increases. The resource-adequacy approach is then enlarged with a multi-service representation of the power system introducing non-contingency reserve considerations. Therefore, investments decisions are enhanced by information from system operations requirements given by the hourly economic dispatch and also by a reliability criterion given by reserve needs. The formulations are tested on a case study in order to capture the trade-offs of adding more details on the system representation while exogenously imposing supplementary VRE penetration. The results obtained show the importance of adopting a sufficiently detailed representation of system requirements to accurately capture the value of capacity and flexibility when important VRE penetration levels are to be studied, but also to appropriately estimate resulting system cost and CO_2 emissions. (author)

  10. Simulations of the vortex in the Dellenback abrupt expansion, resembling a hydro turbine draft tube operating at part-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, H

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an OpenFOAM case-study, based on the experimental studies of the swirling flow in the abrupt expansion by Dellenback et al.[1]. The case yields similar flow conditions as those of a helical vortex rope in a hydro turbine draft tube working at part-load. The case-study is set up similar to the ERCOFTAC Conical Diffuser and Centrifugal Pump OpenFOAM case-studies [2,3], making all the files available and the results fully reproducable using OpenSource software. The mesh generation is done using m4 scripting and the OpenFOAM built-in blockMesh mesh generator. The swirling inlet boundary condition is specified as an axi-symmetric profile. The outlet boundary condition uses the zeroGradient condition for all variables except for the pressure, which uses the fixed mean value boundary condition. The wall static pressure is probed at a number of locations during the simulations, and post-processing of the time-averaged solution is done using the OpenFOAM sample utility. Gnuplot scripts are provided for plotting the results. The computational results are compared to one of the operating conditions studied by Dellenback, and measurements for all the experimentally studied operating conditions are available in the case-study. Results from five cases are here presented, based on the kEpsilon model, the kOmegaSST model, and a filtered version of the same kOmegaSST model, named kOmegaSSTF [4,5]. Two different inlet boundary conditions are evaluated. It is shown that kEpsilon and kOmegaSST give steady solutions, while kOmegaSSTF gives a highly unsteady solution. The time-averaged solution of the kOmegaSSTF model is much more accurate than the other models. The kEpsilon and kOmegaSST models are thus unable to accurately model the effect of the large-scale unsteadiness, while kOmegaSSTF resolves those scales and models only the smaller scales. The use of two different boundary conditions shows that the boundary conditions are more important than the choice between

  11. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2015-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92–17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46–13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33–33.53 and 5.30–11.53 fold increase in the ...

  12. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  13. Degenerate operators and the 1/c expansion: Lorentzian resummations, high order computations, and super-Virasoro blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongbin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University,Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fitzpatrick, A. Liam [Department of Physics, Boston University,Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University,Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-03-30

    One can obtain exact information about Virasoro conformal blocks by analytically continuing the correlators of degenerate operators. We argued in recent work that this technique can be used to explicitly resolve information loss problems in AdS{sub 3}/CFT{sub 2}. In this paper we use the technique to perform calculations in the small 1/c∝G{sub N} expansion: (1) we prove the all-orders resummation of logarithmic factors ∝(1/c)log z in the Lorentzian regime, demonstrating that 1/c corrections directly shift Lyapunov exponents associated with chaos, as claimed in prior work, (2) we perform another all-orders resummation in the limit of large c with fixed cz, interpolating between the early onset of chaos and late time behavior, (3) we explicitly compute the Virasoro vacuum block to order 1/c{sup 2} and 1/c{sup 3} with external dimensions fixed, corresponding to 2 and 3 loop calculations in AdS{sub 3}, and (4) we derive the heavy-light vacuum blocks in theories with N=1,2 superconformal symmetry.

  14. Operational Aspects of Continuous Pharmaceutical Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitic, Aleksandar

    Introduction of the Process Analytical Technolo gy (PAT) Initiative, the Quality by Design (QbD) approach and the Continuous Improvement (CI) methodology/philosophy is considered as a huge milestone in the modern pharmaceutical indust ry. The above concepts, when applied to a pharmaceutical...... satisfaction of the demands defined by the PA T Initiative. This approach could be considered as establishing a Lean Production System (LPS) whic h is usually supported with tools associated with Process Intensifaction (PI) a nd Process Optimization (PO). Development of continuous processes is often c onnected...... tools, such as microwave assisted organic synthesis (MAOS), ultrasounds, meso-scale flow chemistry and microprocess technology. Furthermore, developmen t of chemical catalysts and enzymes enabled further acceleration of some chemical reactions that were known as very slow or impossible to be performed...

  15. IL-10 Production Is Critical for Sustaining the Expansion of CD5+ B and NKT Cells and Restraining Autoantibody Production in Congenic Lupus-Prone Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Baglaenko

    Full Text Available The development and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus is mediated by the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. To decipher the genetics that contribute to pathogenesis and the production of pathogenic autoantibodies, our lab has focused on the generation of congenic lupus-prone mice derived from the New Zealand Black (NZB strain. Previous work has shown that an NZB-derived chromosome 4 interval spanning 32 to 151 Mb led to expansion of CD5+ B and Natural Killer T (NKT cells, and could suppress autoimmunity when crossed with a lupus-prone mouse strain. Subsequently, it was shown that CD5+ B cells but not NKT cells derived from these mice could suppress the development of pro-inflammatory T cells. In this paper, we aimed to further resolve the genetics that leads to expansion of these two innate-like populations through the creation of additional sub-congenic mice and to characterize the role of IL-10 in the suppression of autoimmunity through the generation of IL-10 knockout mice. We show that expansion of CD5+ B cells and NKT cells localizes to a chromosome 4 interval spanning 91 to 123 Mb, which is distinct from the region that mediates the majority of the suppressive phenotype. We also demonstrate that IL-10 is critical to restraining autoantibody production and surprisingly plays a vital role in supporting the expansion of innate-like populations.

  16. IL-10 Production Is Critical for Sustaining the Expansion of CD5+ B and NKT Cells and Restraining Autoantibody Production in Congenic Lupus-Prone Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglaenko, Yuriy; Manion, Kieran P; Chang, Nan-Hua; Gracey, Eric; Loh, Christina; Wither, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    The development and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus is mediated by the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. To decipher the genetics that contribute to pathogenesis and the production of pathogenic autoantibodies, our lab has focused on the generation of congenic lupus-prone mice derived from the New Zealand Black (NZB) strain. Previous work has shown that an NZB-derived chromosome 4 interval spanning 32 to 151 Mb led to expansion of CD5+ B and Natural Killer T (NKT) cells, and could suppress autoimmunity when crossed with a lupus-prone mouse strain. Subsequently, it was shown that CD5+ B cells but not NKT cells derived from these mice could suppress the development of pro-inflammatory T cells. In this paper, we aimed to further resolve the genetics that leads to expansion of these two innate-like populations through the creation of additional sub-congenic mice and to characterize the role of IL-10 in the suppression of autoimmunity through the generation of IL-10 knockout mice. We show that expansion of CD5+ B cells and NKT cells localizes to a chromosome 4 interval spanning 91 to 123 Mb, which is distinct from the region that mediates the majority of the suppressive phenotype. We also demonstrate that IL-10 is critical to restraining autoantibody production and surprisingly plays a vital role in supporting the expansion of innate-like populations.

  17. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems: GHG consequences of using molasses for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → A challenging issue in LCA is how to account for co-products' environmental burdens. → The two most commonly used procedures are system expansion and allocation. → System expansion appears to be more appropriate than allocation. → Indirect land use change is a consequence of diverting molasses from feed to fuel. → The inclusion of land use change worsens the GHG balance of molasses ethanol. -- Abstract: This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system expansion and two allocation procedures for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of molasses ethanol. As seen from our results, system expansion yields the highest estimate among the three. However, no matter which procedure is used, a significant reduction of emissions from the fuel stage in the abatement scenario, which assumes implementation of substituting bioenergy for fossil-based energy to reduce GHG emissions, combined with a negligible level of emissions from the use stage, keeps the estimate of ethanol life cycle GHG emissions below that of gasoline. Pointing out that indirect land use change (ILUC) is a consequence of diverting molasses from feed to fuel, system expansion is the most adequate method when the purpose of the LCA is to support decision makers in weighing the options and consequences. As shown in the sensitivity analysis, an addition of carbon emissions from ILUC worsens the GHG balance of ethanol, with deforestation being a worst-case scenario where the fuel is no longer a net carbon saver but carbon emitter.

  18. Coral Bleaching Products - Office of Satellite and Product Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    satellite remotely sensed global sea surface temperature (SST) measurements and derived indices of coral HotSpots, Degree Heating Weeks, Time Series, SST Contour Charts, Ocean Surface Winds, and On-site Buoys as the product, are derived from Coral Bleaching HotSpots and Degree Heating Weeks (DHW) values measured

  19. The operation and production in Penaeid farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ludi parwadani aji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid prawn demand in the world market has brought about a dramatic raise in the price of prawns, so, the aquaculture prawn industry also increase. Prawn farming can be divided by intensive, semi intensive or extensive culture system. Extensive culture system has low stocking densities, whereas, intensive culture (very high stocking densities has highest level of environmental control such as recirculation system and stable ecological system. Predation and disease is the major obstacles in culture system. To deal with predation, farmers use net for covering the ponds and fencing the ponds. Disease organism such as parasites, bacteria, fungal and viruses may be eliminated through sterilization of the water. The commercial diets made from squid and white fish meal may replace fresh diet in semi-intensive culture as fish diet has a problem with preservation. Moreover, maintaining water quality such as dissolve oxygen, pH, nitrogen (ammonia and ammonium and temperature is very important to support productivity and profitability in prawn farming. The most prominent aims at harvest are to pack the prawn in a way that avoids physical damage, minimize the quantity of prawn left on the bottom of pond, and directly chill prawn. Therefore, good management of water quality, feeding, disease, predation, and harvesting is important in prawn culture.

  20. A consideration of the operation of automatic production machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    At worksites, various automatic production machines are in use to release workers from muscular labor or labor in the detrimental environment. On the other hand, a large number of industrial accidents have been caused by automatic production machines. In view of this, this paper considers the operation of automatic production machines from the viewpoint of accident prevention, and points out two types of machine operation - operation for which quick performance is required (operation that is not permitted to be delayed) - and operation for which composed performance is required (operation that is not permitted to be performed in haste). These operations are distinguished by operation buttons of suitable colors and shapes. This paper shows that these characteristics are evaluated as "asymmetric on the time-axis". Here, in order for workers to accept the risk of automatic production machines, it is preconditioned in general that harm should be sufficiently small or avoidance of harm is easy. In this connection, this paper shows the possibility of facilitating the acceptance of the risk of automatic production machines by enhancing the asymmetric on the time-axis.

  1. Asymmetries of cattle and crop productivity and efficiency during Brazil’s agricultural expansion from 1975 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Sparovek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has global importance for food production and conservation of natural resources. The country has plans to increase yields and commitments to decrease deforestation that require higher productivity. Plans and policies for the growth of Brazilian agriculture, however, have been made without an integrated analysis of the harvest and not supported by a universal metric regarding its efficiency. Applying methods to model flows of energy and matter along food supply chains for agricultural production from 1975 to 2006, we found that crop and cattle harvests and their productivity have increased during the last four decades in consolidated and deforestation frontier regions. Yet in 2006, crop protein production was 20 times larger than cattle protein, using an area 2.6 times smaller than pastures. Crop protein productivity was 0.25 ton.ha–1 with emissions of 2 ton GHG per ton of protein, while cattle productivity was 0.01 ton.ha–1 with emissions of 283 ton GHG per ton of protein. From 1975 to 2006, the portion of crop protein and energy going to feed increased while the portion going to direct human consumption decreased. Our findings suggest that more efficient food systems would be achieved by a combination of intensification of cattle systems, optimization of feed-meat systems and an increase in the share of the consumption of crops as a source of protein. We suggest an initial road map to the expansion of the cultivated area and intensification of agriculture for zero deforestation, efficient and sustainable land use and food systems where cattle pasture intensification is a transition that will last until the expansion of crops replace all pasture present on suitable arable land. During this transition, pasture area will decrease until it is limited only to marginal non-arable lands. Such change could be achieved by a robust strategy that combines penalties and incentives and prevents the risks of a rebound effect for the

  2. Multicriteria analysis of product operational effectiveness at design stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzaev, G. Kh

    2018-03-01

    The multicriteria rapid assessment method of techno-economic parameters of new products is developed. It avoids expensive engineering changes during the operational stages through the analysis of external and internal factors at an early stage in the design that affect the maintainability and manufacturability of the product. The expert selection of the initial multitude of indicators from the five enlarged criteria groups and their subsequent pairwise comparison allow one to distinguish the complex compliance criteria of product design with the average and optimum values of the operational effectiveness. The values comparison provides an opportunity to decide on the continuation of the process for designing and preparation of the product manufacture.

  3. Fermionic effective operators and Higgs production at a linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kile, Jennifer; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    We study the possible contributions of dimension six operators containing fermion fields to Higgs production at a 500 GeV or 1 TeV e + e - linear collider. We show that--depending on the production mechanism--the effects of such operators can be kinematically enhanced relative to standard model (SM) contributions. We determine constraints on the operator coefficients implied by existing precision electroweak measurements and the scale of neutrino mass. We find that even in the presence of such constraints, substantial deviations from SM Higgs production cross sections are possible. We compare the effects of fermionic operators with those associated with purely bosonic operators that have been previously discussed in the literature

  4. The Dante pulse sequence description by product operators formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velloso, Marcia Helena Rodrigues; Villar, Daniel Figueroa

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work is to supply a didactic example of the application of the product operators formalism for the description of the DANTE (delays alternating with mutation for tailored excitation) pulse sequence

  5. Incorporating a multi-criteria decision procedure into the combined dynamic programming/production simulation algorithm for generation expansion planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.T.; Chen, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    A multi-objective optimization approach to generation expansion planning is presented. The approach is designed by adding a new multi-criteria decision (MCD) procedure to the conventional algorithm which combines dynamic programming with production simulation method. The MCD procedure can help decision makers weight the relative importance of multiple attributes associated with the decision alternatives, and find the near-best compromise solution efficiently at each optimization step of the conventional algorithm. Practical application of proposed approach to feasibility evaluation of the fourth nuclear power plant of Tawian is also presented, demonstrating the effectiveness and limitations of the approach

  6. Product quality, service reliability and management of operations at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High product quality, service reliability, and management of operations are key factors in business growth and sustainability. Analyzing “The Starbucks Experience” is a pedagogical approach to reinforcing the concepts of control and management of quality, service reliability, and efficient operations in action. The objective ...

  7. Cost of Maple Sap Production for Various Size Tubing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niel K. Huyler

    2000-01-01

    Reports sap production costs for small (500 to 1,000 taps), medium (1,000 to 5,000), and large (5,000 to 15,000) maple syrup operations that use plastic tubing with vacuum pumping. The average annual operating cost per tap ranged from $4.64 for a 500-tap sugarbush operation to $1.84 for a sugarbush with 10,000 taps. The weighted average was $2.87 per tap or $11.48 per...

  8. Hydrodynamical expansion with frame independence symmetry in high energy multiparticle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Wang, K.

    1974-01-01

    The space--time development of the hadronic system formed immediately after the high energy hadron collision is described with the following picture. Initially the system is highly compressed along the longitudinal direction. The sudden relaxation of this compression leads to a violent acceleration along this direction and perhaps a weak acceleration along the transverse direction. When these accelerations cease, it is proposed that the system acquires a frame independence symmetry with its further expansion governed by the hydrodynamic equation of motion. Within the scheme, this symmetry provides a natural mechanism which eventually leads to a flat inclusive longitudinal rapidity distribution and it also admits a sharp cutoff in the inclusive transverse momentum distribution. The latter is to be contrasted with the prediction of Landau's model, where the average transverse momentum increases with c.m. energy W, [p/sub T/] -W/sup 1 / 6 ./. Finally effects of clustering can also be easily incorporated within the framework. (U.S.)

  9. Hydrodynamical expansion with frame-independence symmetry in high-energy multiparticle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Sudarshan, E.; Wang, K.

    1975-01-01

    We describe the space-time development of the hardronic system formed immediately after the high-energy hadron collision with the following picture. Initially the system is highly compressed along the longitudinal direction. The sudden relaxation of this compression leads to a violent acceration along this direction and perhaps a weak acceleration along the transverse direction. When these accelerations cease, we propose that the system acquires certain frame-independence symmetry with its further expansion governed by the hydrodynamic equation of motion. Within our scheme, this symmetry provides a natural mechanism which eventually leads to a flat inclusive longitudinal rapidity distribution and it also admits a sharp cutoff in the inclusive transverse momentum distribution. These features differ from those of Landau's model

  10. Effects of Alternative Uses of Distillery By-Products on the Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Scottish Malt Whisky Production: A System Expansion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Leinonen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural by-products are an important component of livestock feed. In Scotland, distillery by-products are protein rich and traditionally cost competitive feed ingredients in cattle production. However, during recent years, distilleries in the UK (including Scotch whisky producers have started to use the by-products also as a source of renewable energy, in order to reduce the carbon footprint of alcohol production. In this study, a systems-based material and energy flow analysis was performed to calculate the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of whisky production for two scenarios where distillery by-products were used either (1 as beef cattle feed to replace other protein sources (namely soya bean meal and rapeseed meal; or (2 as anaerobic digester (AD feedstock in order to generate renewable energy (heat and electricity. System expansion was used to quantitatively handle the by-products in the analysis. The results show that considerable reductions in GHG emissions could be achieved by either replacing feed crops with by-products or by using the by-products in AD plants to generate bio-energy. The biggest reductions in the GHG emissions were achieved when by-products were used to replace soya meal in animal feed. However, the results are highly sensitive to methodological choices, including the accounting method of the land use change emissions arising from soya production.

  11. How do strategic decisions and operative practices affect operating room productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti

    2011-12-01

    Surgical operating rooms are cost-intensive parts of health service production. Managing operating units efficiently is essential when hospitals and healthcare systems aim to maximize health outcomes with limited resources. Previous research about operating room management has focused on studying the effect of management practices and decisions on efficiency by utilizing mainly modeling approach or before-after analysis in single hospital case. The purpose of this research is to analyze the synergic effect of strategic decisions and operative management practices on operating room productivity and to use a multiple case study method enabling statistical hypothesis testing with empirical data. 11 hypotheses that propose connections between the use of strategic and operative practices and productivity were tested in a multi-hospital study that included 26 units. The results indicate that operative practices, such as personnel management, case scheduling and performance measurement, affect productivity more remarkably than do strategic decisions that relate to, e.g., units' size, scope or academic status. Units with different strategic positions should apply different operative practices: Focused hospital units benefit most from sophisticated case scheduling and parallel processing whereas central and ambulatory units should apply flexible working hours, incentives and multi-skilled personnel. Operating units should be more active in applying management practices which are adequate for their strategic orientation.

  12. Oil Palm Expansion in the Brazilian Amazon (2006-2014): Effects of the 2010 Sustainable Oil Palm Production Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benami, E.; Curran, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Brazil has the world's largest suitable land area for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) establishment, with estimates as high as 238 million ha. To promote oil palm development, Brazil launched the Sustainable Palm Oil Production Program (SPOPP) in 2010 and delineated 30 million ha for its growth that excluded forested areas and indigenous reserves. Here we examine oil palm expansion (2006-2014) as well as the SPOPP's effectiveness in Pará, the major oil palm producing state in Brazil. By combining analyses of satellite imagery, land registration data, and site based interviews, we found that oil palm area expanded 205%. Although >50% of oil palm parcels were located within 0.5 km of intact forests, lands. Direct intact forest conversion pre- and post-SPOPP declined from 4% to <1%; however, <1% of the 30 million ha promoted for oil palm was developed by 2014. To explore the major factors that may have constrained oil palm expansion under the SPOPP, we conducted microeconomic simulations of oil palm production, combined with interviews with actors/individuals from oil palm companies, civil society, researchers at universities and NGOs, and governmental agencies. Brazil's oil palm-deforestation dynamics, policies, and economic conditions will be discussed.

  13. Wilson expansion in the minimal subtraction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The small distance expansion of the product of composite fields is constructed for an arbitrary renormalization procedure of the type of minimal subtraction scheme. Coefficient functions of the expansion are expressed explicitly through the Green functions of composite fields. The expansion has the explicity finite form: the ultraviolet (UV) divergences of the coefficient functions and composite fields are removed by the initial renormalization procedure while the infrared (IR) divergences in massless diagrams with nonvanishing contribution into the coefficient functions are removed by the R-operation which is the IR part of the R-operation. The latter is the generalization of the dimensional renormalization in the case when both UV and IR divergences are present. To derive the expansion, a ''pre-subtracting operator'' is introduced and formulas of the counter-term technique are exploited

  14. Expansion of the range of pasta products through the use of vegetable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Iztaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional value of food products is one of the most important factors that determine a health of the population. Based on the importance of the nation's health for the development and county’s security, the Concept of the State Policy on Healthy Nutrition of the Kazakhstan population is defined, providing for a set of activities aimed at creating conditions that meet the needs of various groups of the population in rational, healthy nutrition, taking into account their traditions, habits and economic situation. In the macaroni products market, the dietary and functional products, enriched pasta and high nutritional products occupy a small segment that does not exceed 1%. In connection with this fact, the development of a range of macaroni products of increased nutritional value, with a purposefully changed chemical composition remains topical. In the macaroni industry, the increase in the food and biological value of products is achieved through the introduction of non-traditional types of raw materials and special food additives into the formulation. The research objects are wheat flour of the highest grade, a polydisperse corn flour, chick-pea flour and amaranth flour and the influence of these polydisperse systems on the properties of gluten, the rheological properties of the dough and the quality of the finished products have been determined. Based on the experimental data obtained, it is established that for the production of pasta from bakery flour of high quality with good physical-chemical and organoleptic characteristics, no more than 10.0% of corn and chick-pea flour and not more than 7.5% of amaranth flour can be added to the recipe; further increasing the dosage of flour from cereals and legumes leads to a deterioration in the quality of finished products. The use of polydisperse flour from cereals and legumes is expedient for the enrichment of macaroni products with valuable food ingredients - proteins, essential amino acids

  15. Product variety, product complexity and manufacturing operational performance: A systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trattner, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    Manufacturing in the twenty-first century has been wrought with the struggle to satisfy the rising demand for greater product variety and more complex products while still maintaining efficient manufacturing operations. However, the literature lacks an overview of which operational performance...... measures are most affected by increased variety and complexity. This study presents a systematic literature review of the recent scholarly literature on variety, complexity and manufacturing operational performance (MOP). Results show that product variety has a consistently negative relationship with MOP...... across different time, cost, quality and flexibility measures while product complexity lacks evidence of strong relationships with MOP measures....

  16. Quantized fields and operators on a partial inner product space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, J.

    1985-11-01

    We investigate the connection between the space OpV of all operators on a partial inner product space V and the weak sequential completion of the * algebra L + (Vsup(no.)) of all operators X such that Vsup(no.) is contained in D(X) intersection D(X*) and both X and its adjoint X* leave Vsup(no.) invariant. This connection gives a mathematical description of quantized fields in terms of elements of OpV. (author)

  17. Study of the productivity evolution in the operation of CLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, H.

    2000-07-01

    SKB shall every year, on behalf of the power companies, send SKI a cost calculation for spent fuel handling and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. SKI has tried to investigate the future impact which the growth of money in the Nuclear Waste Fund might give in relation to the change of consumer price index, CPI. The long term yield of the Fund has been related to the change of CPI, as the bigger part of the fund money has been invested in real interest rate bonds. The cost development has been studied by SKI with an index named 'KBS-3-index', which is a basket of weighted factor price indexes made out of the SKB programme. Since 1986 and up to 1998, the KBS-3-index has increased about 14% more than CPI. If this discrepancy should continue during the whole period when Fund money should be available, the Fund would be insufficient. But the difference between KBS-3-index and CPI might be eliminated due to a future productivity development. At the moment, SKI has no knowledge about future productivity development in the SKB programme. A closer analysis of the facilities operated by SKB is therefore important. Nearest to study is the productivity at the operation of CLAB, Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The work in CLAB is receiving and storing of spent nuclear fuel and core components and reloading from normal to compact cassettes. The consumption of all production factors can be measured in money. Here the total production factors are defined as the sum of the annual operation costs and the sum of annuities for reinvestments during the year. The development for total productivity is slightly increasing. Normal for a new business is that the productivity rises sharply in the beginning. Here the productivity is slightly decreasing in the beginning, and then rising, sinking and at last a sharp rising. Project compact storing was finished in 1992, and relocation to compact cassettes started in 1993. This is said to be the reason for

  18. Assessing changes in biomass, productivity, and C and N stores following Juniperus virginiana forest expansion into tallgrass prairie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, M. D.; Blair, J. M.; Johnson, L. C. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); McKane, R. B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Western Ecology Division, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2001-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in plant productivity and above-ground plant biomass associated with red cedar forest expansion into areas formerly dominated by tallgrass prairie. Regionally appropriate allometric biomass regression equations were developed for the nondestructive estimation of red cedar biomass in eastern Kansas, followed by quantification of the carbon and nitrogen content of selected biomass components. The equations were applied, along with measurements of leaf litter production, to selected local stands of mature closed-canopy red cedars to estimate above-ground biomass, standing stocks of carbon and nitrogen and annual above-ground net primary productivity. Above-ground plant biomass for these red cedar-dominated sites ranged from 114,100 kg/ha for the youngest stand to 210,700 kg/ha for the oldest. Annual above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) ranged from 7,250 to 10,440 kg/ha/yr for the oldest and younger red cedar stands respectively. The ANPP in comparable tallgrass prairie sites in this region averages 3,690 k/ha/yr, indicating a large increase in carbon uptake and above-ground storage as a result of the change from prairie to red cedar forests. Comparing these results with similar published data from other sites led to the conclusion that the widespread change from tallgrass to red cedars across the woodland-prairie ecotone has important consequences for regional carbon storage.37 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. A Production Approach to Performance of Banks with Microfinance Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Emilyn Cabanda; Eleanor C. Domingo

    2014-01-01

    Banking institutions, nowadays, serve as intermediaries of funds to a variety of clients, including the micro enterprisers. This study analyzes and measures the performance of rural and thrift banks with microfinance operations in the Philippines, using combined measures of data envelopment analysis and traditional financial performance indicators. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) method is employed to measure the productive efficiency of these banks under the production approach. The variable...

  20. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  1. Expansion formulae for characteristics of cumulative cost in finite horizon production models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayhan, H.; Schlegel, S.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the expected value and the tail probability of cumulative shortage and holding cost (i.e. the probability that cumulative cost is more than a certain value) in finite horizon production models. An exact expression is provided for the expected value of the cumulative cost for general

  2. 76 FR 36079 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 38A; Application for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority (Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ..., plastic and rubber parts, mirrors, glass, wiring harnesses, fasteners, springs, electronic components... benefits through the use of weekly customs entry procedures. Customs duties also could possibly be deferred or reduced on foreign status production equipment. BMWMC would also be exempt from duty payments on...

  3. On a roll: surges under way in production, reserves, employment and international expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    2001-01-01

    The 2000 survey of the top 126 Canadian oil and gas companies by Oilweek Magazine show a clear improvement in the fundamentals of production and reserves, both at home and abroad. There has been an increase of 8.5 per cent in combined output of oil and gas equivalent to 4.008 million barrels per day, compared to 3.695 million in 1999. Oil production rose 7 per cent to 1.784 million barrels daily, up from 1.665 million a year ago. Gas production climbed by about one billion cubic feet per day, or 7.8 per cent, from 11.87 Bcf to 12.88 Bcf in 2000. Proven oil reserves rose 9.4 per cent to 8.9 billion barrels, while gas inventories climbed by 13.7 per cent to 42.5 trillion cubic feet. Employment figures rose by 9.5 per cent to 35,664 as of December 31, 2000, increasing by 3,100 from a year earlier. Production by employee in 2000 stood at 112.3 barrels of oil equivalent, marginally less (by 1.05 per cent) than in 1999. Foreign production emerged as a major factor in the growth of the Canadian oil and gas industry for the first time in 2000. International output by Canadian firms jumped 24 per cent in 2000 to a combined oil and gas equivalent of 644,514 barrels per day. Domestically, Imperial Oil remained the industry's size benchmark, but by expanding abroad, Alberta Energy Company, Gulf Canada and Nexen also made impressive gains. Statistical data is arranged in tabular form, the top 100 companies being listed alphabetically, ranking them by oil, gas, gas liquids production and reserves, as well as by number of employees and land holdings. Separate listings and rankings are provided for the top 100 natural gas producers, the top 25 natural gas reserves and the top 25 natural gas liquids reserves. A total of 22 companies are ranked on the basis of their international assets (natural gas and liquids production, reserves and land holdings). Employment and land holdings are ranked for 25 companies in each category

  4. Perception of the HACCP system operators on livestock product manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Nam, Ki-Chang; Jo, Cheorun; Lim, Dong-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate crucial factors on HACCP system implementation in domestic livestock product plants, and to offer job satisfaction and the career prospect of HACCP system operators. The survey was carried out by selecting 150 HACCP system operators who implemented HACCP system. The respondents claimed that the most important contents in HACCP system operation were to assemble HACCP team (21.8%), and the second was to monitoring (20.0%). Documentation and recording (16.9%) and verification (11.1%) were followed. The respondents answered the major factor in sanitation management was cleaning/washing/disinfection (18.9%) and inspection (18.4%). The results showed that there were significant differences in the prospect of occupation in HACCP system operator by the gender (p HACCP system operator were satisfied with their job (73%) and also showed optimistic prospect of occupation (82%).

  5. Expansion, thermalization, and entropy production in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Wang, X.

    1996-01-01

    The thermalization process is studied in an expanding parton gas using the Boltzmann equation with two types of collision terms. In the relaxation time approximation we determine the criteria under which a time-dependent relaxation time leads to thermalization of the partons. We calculate the entropy production due to collisions for the general time-dependent relaxation time. In a perturbative QCD approach on the other hand, we can, given the initial conditions, estimate the effective relaxation time due to elastic collisions; this will be an upper limit only since radiative processes will also contribute to thermalization. We find that the parton gas does thermalize eventually but only after having undergone a phase of free streaming and gradual equilibration where considerable entropy is produced (open-quote open-quote after burning close-quote close-quote). The final entropy and thus particle density depends on the collision time as well as the initial conditions (a open-quote open-quote memory effect close-quote close-quote). Results for entropy production are presented based upon various model estimates of early parton production. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. AMS data production facilities at science operations center at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choutko, V.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Shan, B.

    2017-10-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a high energy physics experiment on the board of the International Space Station (ISS). This paper presents the hardware and software facilities of Science Operation Center (SOC) at CERN. Data Production is built around production server - a scalable distributed service which links together a set of different programming modules for science data transformation and reconstruction. The server has the capacity to manage 1000 paralleled job producers, i.e. up to 32K logical processors. Monitoring and management tool with Production GUI is also described.

  7. Matrix product operators, matrix product states, and ab initio density matrix renormalization group algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R.

    2016-07-01

    Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.

  8. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, February 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1954-03-23

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of February 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  9. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, April 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1953-05-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of April 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  10. Data-driven architectural design to production and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.; Mostafavi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Data-driven architectural production and operation explored within Hyperbody rely heavily on system thinking implying that all parts of a system are to be understood in relation to each other. These relations are established bi-directionally so that data-driven architecture is not only produced

  11. Problem-Based Learning for Production and Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanet, John J.; Barut, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our application of "problem-based learning" in the teaching of production/operations management. We describe a study of the effectiveness of this approach and present the results and analysis of this study. We provide a collection of our experiences in using this method and conclude with some general…

  12. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, January 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1954-02-25

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of January 1954. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes the accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  13. Product reliability and the reliability of its emanating operational processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, P.J.M.; Geudens, W.H.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of proper reliability management in business operations today, facing increasing demands on essential business drivers such as time to market, quality and financial profit. In this paper a general method is described of how to achieve product quality in a highly

  14. The productive operating theatre and lean thinking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasivisvanathan, R; Chekairi, A

    2014-11-01

    The concept of 'lean thinking' first originated in the manufacturing industry as a means of improving productivity whilst maintaining quality through eliminating wasteful processes. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the principles of 'lean thinking' are relevant to healthcare and the operating theatre, with reference to our own institutional experience.

  15. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, March 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1953-04-22

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of March 1953. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  16. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, April 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1954-05-21

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of April 1954. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  17. Tracking of fission products release during refueling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Sharad; Prajapat, M.K.; Vyas, Shyam; Hussain, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    It has been always observed that the release of fission products increase during refueling operations. At RAPP-3 and 4 an attempt has been made to follow-up the change in fission products activity release at each stage of refueling operation and quantification of concentrations of various radionuclides. This exercise was also extended to refueling operation of the channels containing suspected failed fuel. A level of FPNG ( 133 Xe) was observed to increase by a factor of about 10-40 during refueling of failed channel as compared to healthy channel. It can be concluded that by monitoring FPNG levels in exhaust status of the healthiness of spent fuel can be found out. This report discusses in detail the experiment conducted for this purpose. (author)

  18. Intelligent decision-making models for production and retail operations

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of intelligent decision-making techniques and discusses their application in production and retail operations. Manufacturing and retail enterprises have stringent standards for using advanced and reliable techniques to improve decision-making processes, since these processes have significant effects on the performance of relevant operations and the entire supply chain. In recent years, researchers have been increasingly focusing attention on using intelligent techniques to solve various decision-making problems. The opening chapters provide an introduction to several commonly used intelligent techniques, such as genetic algorithm, harmony search, neural network and extreme learning machine. The book then explores the use of these techniques for handling various production and retail decision-making problems, such as production planning and scheduling, assembly line balancing, and sales forecasting.

  19. Description and operating performance of a parallel-rail electric-arc system with helium driver gas for the Langley 6-inch expansion tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A parallel-rail arc-discharge system to heat and pressurize the initial helium driver gas of the Langley 6-inch expansion tube is described. This system was designed for a 2.44-m-long driver vessel rated at 138 MPa, with a distance between rails of 20.3 cm. Electric energy was obtained from a capacitor storage system rated at 12,000 V with a maximum energy of 5 MJ. Tests were performed over a range of energy from 1.74 MJ to the maximum value. The operating experience and system performance are discussed, along with results from a limited number of expansion-tube tests with air and carbon dioxide as test gases.

  20. Operation of plant to produce Mo-99 from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, R.O.; Cristini, P.R.; Marziale, D.P.; Furnari, E.S.; Fernandez, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    As it is well known, the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators has an outstanding place in radioisotope programs of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission. The basic raw material is Mo-99 from fission of U-235. In 1985 the production plant of this radionuclide began to operate, according to an adaptation of the method that was developed in Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The present work describes the target irradiation conditions in the reactor RA-3 (mini plates of U/Al alloy with 90% enriched uranium), the flow diagram and the operative conditions of the production process. The containment, filtration and removal conditions of the generated fission gases and the disposal of liquid and solid wastes are also analyzed. On the basis of the experience achieved in the development of more than twenty production processes, process efficiency is analyzed, taking into account the theoretical evaluation resulting from the application of the computer program 'Origin'(ORML) to the conditions of our case. The purity characteristics of the final product are reported (Zr-95 0,1 ppm; Nb-95 1 ppm; Ru-103 20 ppm; I-131 10 ppm) as well as the chemical characteristics that make it suitable to be used in the production of Mo-99/I c-99m generators. (Author)

  1. Improved productivity justifies world record underbalanced perforating operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A. M.; Bakker, E. R. [NAM B.V. (Netherlands); Hungerford, K.

    1998-12-31

    To achieve vertical connectivity with all the layers, and thus long term sustained productivity in a highly stratified reservoir, a one run underbalanced perforating operation was considered necessary. Due to coiled tube limitations in this deep (5136 m along hole, 3700 m true vertical depth, with a maximum deviation of 89 degrees), high pressure well a hydraulic workover unit (HWU) was selected to deploy and retrieve the guns. The operation is considered a world record since this is the longest section (total gross interval of 1026 m perforated) of guns conveyed, fired underbalanced and deployed out of a live well. It is concluded that the improved productivity more than justified the additional time, effort and expenditure; considering the full life cycle of the well it is readily apparent that the operation was an economic and technical success. Details of the considerations leading to the perforating technique selection, the planning and the execution of the operation, and the validation of the technique in terms of productivity gains, are provided. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Numerical simulation of the detection of crack in reinforced concrete structures of NPP due to expansion of reinforcing corrosive products using Impact-Echo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morávka Š.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy boom is starting nowadays. But also current nuclear power plants (NPP are duty to certify their security for regular renewal of their operating licenses. NPP security can be significantly affected by defects of large amount of ageing reinforced concrete structures. Advanced Impact-Echo method seams to be very hopeful to cooperate at performing in-service inspections such structures. Just these in-service inspections are included in the first priority group of specific technical issues according to the recommendations of OECD-Nuclear Energy Agency, Commission on Safety of Nuclear Installation in the field of ageing management.This paper continues of extensive project dealing with Impact-Echo method application. It will present method description and main results of numerical modeling of detection and localization of crack caused by corrosive product expansion. Steel reinforcing rods are subjected to corrosion due to diffusion of corrosive agents from structure surface. Corrosive products have up to 7-times larger volume than pure steel. Raised strain can cad lead up to concrete failure and crack development. We investigate whether it is possible to detect these growing cracks by Impact-Echo method in time.Experimental verification of our numerical predictions is prepared on Civil Faculty in Brno.

  3. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  4. X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and sagittal craniosynostosis: three patients requiring operative cranial expansion: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczuk, Phillip; Rogers, Gary F; Guzman, Raphael; Proctor, Mark R

    2016-05-01

    A defect in a phosphate-regulating gene leads to the most common form of rickets: X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) or vitamin D-resistant rickets (VDDR). XLH has been associated with craniosynostosis, the sagittal suture being the most commonly involved. We present three patients with rickets and symptomatic sagittal suture craniosynostosis all of whom presented late (>2 years of age). Two had a severe phenotype and papilledema, while the third presented with an osseous bulging near the anterior fontanel and experienced chronic headaches. All underwent successful cranial vault expansion. Rachitic patients with scaphocephaly should be screened for craniosynostosis.

  5. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation on empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) for cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ming J; Lau, Ming W; Gunawan, Christa; Dale, Bruce E

    2010-11-01

    Empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF), a readily available cellulosic biomass from palm processing facilities, is investigated as a potential carbohydrate source for cellulosic ethanol production. This feedstock was pretreated using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and enzymatically hydrolyzed. The best tested AFEX conditions were at 135 °C, 45 min retention time, water to dry biomass loading of 1:1 (weight ratio), and ammonia to dry biomass loading of 1:1 (weight ratio). The particle size of the pretreated biomass was reduced post-AFEX. The optimized enzyme formulation consists of Accellerase (84 μL/g biomass), Multifect Xylanase (31 μL/g biomass), and Multifect Pectinase (24 μL/g biomass). This mixture achieved close to 90% of the total maximum yield within 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation on the water extract of this biomass affirms that nutrients solely from the pretreated EPFBF can support yeast growth for complete glucose fermentation. These results suggest that AFEX-treated EPFBF can be used for cellulosic biofuels production because biomass recalcitrance has been overcome without reducing the fermentability of the pretreated materials.

  6. The effects of the physical states of a simulated fission product on the linear thermal expansion of (U0.924Ce0.076)O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Yong-Soo; Yang, Jae-Ho; Kim, Si-Hyung; Lee, Young-Woo; Kim, Han-Soo

    2006-01-01

    The linear thermal expansions of an (U 0.924 Ce 0.076 )O 2 pellet, doped a simulated fission product (Nd 2 O 3 or Ru), were measured from room temperature to 1673 K in a flowing argon atmosphere using TMA. Nd 2 O 3 and Ru represent the physical states of a fission product, a dissolved oxide and a metallic precipitate, respectively. Using the measured data, the mean coefficients of a linear thermal expansion was obtained as a function of the temperature, and the effects of the physical states of a simulated fission product on the thermal expansion were investigated. In the case of the Nd 2 O 3 forming a dissolved oxide, the thermal expansion of the sample increased and the increment was proportional to the Nd contents, because the melting point of the Nd 2 O 3 was lower than that of UO 2 and although the metallic precipitate hardly affected the crystal structure, the linear thermal expansion also increased with an increasing Ru contents

  7. Demonstration test operation of Feed Materials Production Center Biodenitrification Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benear, A.K.; Patton, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    A fluidized-bed biological denitrification (BDN) system was used to treat high-nitrate wastewater streams from a DOE owned uranium processing plant. A two-column system was used to demonstrate BDN operation on a production scale. In a continuous 200 hour rate determination period, the BDN processed over 1.6 million gallons that contained over 4700 kilograms of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen. The BDN removed an average 97% of the incoming nitrate and nitrite. The BDN effluent was discharged to the FMPC sewage treatment plant where it caused increased levels of TOD, TSS and fecal coliforms in the STP discharge. This indicated the BDN effluent will require treatment prior to discharge to the environment. Preliminary chemical consumption rates and associated costs of operation were determined. Several modifications and additions to the system were identified as necessary for the permanent production facility. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Petroleum drilling and production operations in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Decades of offshore and inland petroleum drilling and production in the Gulf of Mexico and on the Gulf Coast have provided the much needed energy and chemical feedstocks to the nation, and also have made an impact on the environment in the area. Our study showed deposits of contaminated sediment on the ocean floor around offshore platforms, old reserve pits, and dump sites next to many surface facilities and compressor stations. The substances found on the ocean floor and in dump sites are simple or emulsified mixtures of silt, hydrocarbons, and water. The cleaning of the ocean floor and pits is an economic and technical challenge. Hydrocarbons are from crude oil and chemical additions fro various operational necessities, including additions of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, antifreezes, and coagulants. When the new government regulations lower the allowable maximum total organic carbon level to the 50 ppm range, these hydrocarbons can no longer be ignored by drilling and production operators

  9. Development of an inpatient operational pharmacy productivity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseman, Ryan W; Lopez, Ben R; Forrey, Ryan A; Weber, Robert J; Kipp, Kris M

    2015-02-01

    An innovative model for measuring the operational productivity of medication order management in inpatient settings is described. Order verification within a computerized prescriber order-entry system was chosen as the pharmacy workload driver. To account for inherent variability in the tasks involved in processing different types of orders, pharmaceutical products were grouped by class, and each class was assigned a time standard, or "medication complexity weight" reflecting the intensity of pharmacist and technician activities (verification of drug indication, verification of appropriate dosing, adverse-event prevention and monitoring, medication preparation, product checking, product delivery, returns processing, nurse/provider education, and problem-order resolution). The resulting "weighted verifications" (WV) model allows productivity monitoring by job function (pharmacist versus technician) to guide hiring and staffing decisions. A 9-month historical sample of verified medication orders was analyzed using the WV model, and the calculations were compared with values derived from two established models—one based on the Case Mix Index (CMI) and the other based on the proprietary Pharmacy Intensity Score (PIS). Evaluation of Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that values calculated using the WV model were highly correlated with those derived from the CMI-and PIS-based models (r = 0.845 and 0.886, respectively). Relative to the comparator models, the WV model offered the advantage of less period-to-period variability. The WV model yielded productivity data that correlated closely with values calculated using two validated workload management models. The model may be used as an alternative measure of pharmacy operational productivity. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimum operation of a small power production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capehart, B.L.; Mahoney, J.F.; Sivazlian, B.D.

    1983-09-01

    To help reduce the U.S.A.'s dependence on imported oil for electrical power generation, the 1978 National Energy Act established regulations to promote construction and operation of cogeneration and small power production facilities. Many of these facilities are presently under construction, with a great number planned. This paper examines the operation of a small power production facility with on-site generation and storage, on-site use, and connection to an electric utility grid system for the purpose of both selling excess power and buying power. It is assumed that the buying and selling price of electricity varies frequently during the day and that the relevant price and demand data may be accurately projected into the near future. With this system description, a mathematical model is formulated and solved by linear programming to obtain a series of periodic buy and sell decisions so as to maximize the profit from operating the small power production facility. Results are presented to illustrate the methodology for determining potential profits.

  11. Uranium hexafluoride liquid thermal expansion, elusive eutectic with hydrogen fluoride, and very first production using chlorine trifluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, G.P. [Central Environmental, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Three unusual incidents and case histories involving uranium hexafluoride in the enrichment facilities of the USA in the late 1940`s and early 1950`s are presented. The history of the measurements of the thermal expansion of liquids containing fluorine atoms within the molecule is reviewed with special emphasis upon uranium hexafluoride. A comparison is made between fluorinated esters, fluorocarbons, and uranium hexafluoride. The quantitative relationship between the thermal expansion coefficient, a, of liquids and the critical temperature, T{sub c} is presented. Uranium hexafluoride has an a that is very high in a temperature range that is used by laboratory and production workers - much higher than any other liquid measured. This physical property of UF{sub 6} has resulted in accidents involving filling the UF{sub 6} containers too full and then heating with a resulting rupture of the container. Such an incident at a uranium gaseous diffusion plant is presented. Production workers seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} uranium hexafluoride. The movement of UF{sub 6} from one container to another is usually trailed by weight, not sight. Even laboratory scientists seldom {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} solid or liquid UF{sub 6} and this can be a problem at times. This inability to {open_quotes}see{close_quotes} the UF{sub 6}-HF mixtures in the 61.2{degrees}C to 101{degrees}C temperature range caused a delay in the understanding of the phase diagram of UF{sub 6}-HF which has a liquid - liquid immiscible region that made the eutectic composition somewhat elusive. Transparent fluorothene tubes solved the problem both for the UF{sub 6}-HF phase diagram as well as the UF{sub 6}-HF-CIF{sub 3} phase diagram with a miscibility gap starting at 53{degrees}C. The historical background leading to the first use of CIF{sub 3} to produce UF{sub 6} in both the laboratory and plant at K-25 is presented.

  12. Monitoring ground-surface heating during expansion of the Casa Diablo production well field at Mammoth Lakes, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Evans, William C.; Olsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Long Valley hydrothermal system supports geothermal power production from 3 binary plants (Casa Diablo) near the town of Mammoth Lakes, California. Development and growth of thermal ground at sites west of Casa Diablo have created concerns over planned expansion of a new well field and the associated increases in geothermal fluid production. To ensure that all areas of ground heating are identified prior to new geothermal development, we obtained high-resolution aerial thermal infrared imagery across the region. The imagery covers the existing and proposed well fields and part of the town of Mammoth Lakes. Imagery results from a predawn flight on Oct. 9, 2014 readily identified the Shady Rest thermal area (SRST), one of two large areas of ground heating west of Casa Diablo, as well as other known thermal areas smaller in size. Maximum surface temperatures at 3 thermal areas were 26–28 °C. Numerous small areas with ground temperatures >16 °C were also identified and slated for field investigations in summer 2015. Some thermal anomalies in the town of Mammoth Lakes clearly reflect human activity.Previously established projects to monitor impacts from geothermal power production include yearly surveys of soil temperatures and diffuse CO2 emissions at SRST, and less regular surveys to collect samples from fumaroles and gas vents across the region. Soil temperatures at 20 cm depth at SRST are well correlated with diffuse CO2 flux, and both parameters show little variation during the 2011–14 field surveys. Maximum temperatures were between 55–67 °C and associated CO2 discharge was around 12–18 tonnes per day. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 is fairly uniform across the area ranging between –3.7 to –4.4 ‰. The gas composition of the Shady Rest fumarole however has varied with time, and H2S concentrations in the gas have been increasing since 2009.

  13. Application of the Toyota Production System improves core laboratory operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Joe; Xu, Min; Simpson, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increased clinical demands of our hospital expansion, improve quality, and reduce costs, our tertiary care, pediatric core laboratory used the Toyota Production System lean processing to reorganize our 24-hour, 7 d/wk core laboratory. A 4-month, consultant-driven process removed waste, led to a physical reset of the space to match the work flow, and developed a work cell for our random access analyzers. In addition, visual controls, single piece flow, standard work, and "5S" were instituted. The new design met our goals as reflected by achieving and maintaining improved turnaround time (TAT; mean for creatinine reduced from 54 to 23 minutes) with increased testing volume (20%), monetary savings (4 full-time equivalents), decreased variability in TAT, and better space utilization (25% gain). The project had the unanticipated consequence of eliminating STAT testing because our in-laboratory TAT for routine testing was less than our prior STAT turnaround goal. The viability of this approach is demonstrated by sustained gains and further PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) improvements during the 4 years after completion of the project.

  14. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    George C. Hadjinicola; Andreas C. Soteriou

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM) groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as ...

  15. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  16. Production of sugar and alcohol: financial and operational strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celma de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the construction of an optimization model to define the product portfolio of a sugarcane mill, taking into account operational and financial aspects. It is considered that the revenue earned by a producer comes from the sale of sugar and alcohol in the physical market and the results obtained through hedging in the derivatives market of sugar. Employing CVaR (Conditional Value-at-Risk, as the risk measure, the model allows the construction of an efficient frontier and, according to the producer's risk tolerance, defines the optimal strategy of production (production mix and activity in the derivatives market (hedge ratio. Through the model the article also seeks to analyze the advantage of using the options market in the construction of financial hedging strategies in agricultural commodities markets.

  17. Hollywood’s Global Outlook: Economic Expansionism and Production Strategy La perspective mondiale d’Hollywood : expansion économique et stratégique de production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolwenn Mingant

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Depuis le milieu des années soixante, l’importance du marché extérieur pour les  majors américaines a beaucoup varié. Marché mineur à la fin des années soixante-dix et dans les années quatre-vingt, il prend de plus en plus d’importance depuis le début des années quatre-vingt dix. L’arrivée de nouvelles technologies ainsi que l’ouverture de nouveaux territoires sont les deux phénomènes qui expliquent ce regain d’importance. Depuis le début des années quatre-vingt dix, les majors se sont donc lancées dans une nouvelle vague d’expansion économique mondiale. La question centrale de cet article est alors la suivante. Le désir qu’ont les majors hollywoodiennes d’expansion économique mondiale a-t-il une influence sur leurs choix de production, et, en particulier, a-t-il une influence sur le caractère national des films produits? En suivant pas à pas la façon dont Hollywood observe le marché extérieur depuis quarante ans, puis sa tendance croissante à prendre en compte dans les choix de production les goûts du public étranger, nous nous poserons inévitablement la question des conséquences culturelles de ces pratiques économiques, autour des notions d’universalité, d’internationalisation et d’identité nationale, jusqu’à ce que finalement se révèle à nous une nouvelle identité hollywoodienne: Glocalwood.

  18. Timing of Expansions of the Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru, and Implications for Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Rate Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, T. V.; Kelly, M. A.; Applegate, P. J.; Smith, C. A.; Phillips, F. M.; Hudson, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    We calibrate the production rate of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium-10 (10Be) at a low-latitude, high-elevation site, using nuclide concentrations measured in moraine boulders and an independent chronology determined with bracketing radiocarbon dates. The measurement of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) concentrations in earth surface materials has been an important development for understanding a host of earth surface processes. Uncertainty in cosmogenic nuclide production rates has hampered application of this method. Here, we contribute to the estimation of 10Be production rates by reporting both preliminary 10Be concentrations and independent radiocarbon dates from a low latitude, high elevation site. Our study site in the southeastern Peruvian Andes (~13.9°S, 70.9°W, 4850 m asl) is centered on a moraine set, known as the Huancané II moraines, that represents a ~4 km expansion of Quelccaya Ice Cap during late glacial time. At this location, organic material situated both stratigraphically below and above moraines in two adjacent valleys provide material for radiocarbon dating. Based on geomorphic arguments, we correlate results from the two valleys. The timing of ice cap margin advance is bracketed by 13 radiocarbon ages on organic material within the outermost Huancané II moraines that range from 13.6 to 12.5 ka. Two stratigraphic sections upvalley from the moraines yield 6 radiocarbon ages from 11.3 to 12.4 ka, indicating the time of retreat . We computed the probability density function that lies between these two sets of dates, and assign an age of 12.4 ka (+/-???) for the formation of the Huancané II moraines. Calculating beryllium-10 exposure dates from the measured concentrations yield exposure dates that significantly underestimate the independently determined age of the moraine (~8-30%), if existing production rate estimates are used. We suggest that the radiocarbon age for the moraines can be used as a robust independent calibration for 10Be

  19. Operating room nursing directors' influence on anesthesia group operating room productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masursky, Danielle; Dexter, Franklin; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2008-12-01

    Implementation of initiatives to increase anesthesia group productivity depends not just on anesthesia groups, but on operating room (OR) nursing administration. OR nursing directors may encourage organizational change based on the needs of their hospitals and nurses. These changes may differ from those that would increase the anesthesia group's productivity. We assessed reward structures using (A) letters of nomination for the "OR Manager of the Year" award offered annually by the publication OR Manager, and (B) data from a salary/career survey of OR directors by the same publication. (A) There were 164 nomination letters submitted from 2004 through 2007 for 45 nominees. The letters contained n = 2659 full sentences and n = 50,821 words. We systematically created a list of 36 terms related to finance, profit, and productivity. We also analyzed the frequency of use of these terms relative to the use of the 15 most common relationship-oriented terms (e.g., compassion, encourage, mentor, and respect). (B) The salary/career survey's questions relevant to anesthesia group productivity had responses from 303 US OR directors, 97% of whom were nurses. We tested the strength of the relationship between the budget responsibility of the OR nursing director and his or her annual salary. (A) 2.6% of sentences in the nomination letters included at least one term related to profit and productivity (95% confidence interval 2.0%-3.2%). Relationship-oriented terms were 9.0 times more prevalent (95% confidence interval 7.1-11.4). (B) There was statistically significant positive proportionality between the OR nursing director's operational budget (including personnel) and his or her salary (Pearson r = 0.64, P time and OR nursing labor costs. Resulting decisions can differ from those that would increase the productivity (profit) of the anesthesia group. Anesthesia groups need to champion initiatives to increase anesthesia productivity, while being sensitive to institutional

  20. 12-hour-shift plant schedule improves operator productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.

    1989-01-01

    Twelve-hour scheduling has been a mainstay of the petrochemical industry, is common in the papermill industry, and is relatively new to the nuclear utility industry. A review of industry experiences, research, and a federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) study of the 12-hour shift (NUREG/CR-4248) demonstrate that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The primary advantages are greater job satisfaction, fewer errors, and the better communications inherent in two shift turnovers versus three. Several companies that implemented the 12-hour shift found an increase in employee morale, no adverse effect on worker health, and no decline in safety. They experienced greater productivity, fewer operator errors, and better communication

  1. Thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)

  2. Tactical decision making for selective expansion of operating room resources incorporating financial criteria and uncertainty in subspecialties' future workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Ledolter, Johannes; Wachtel, Ruth E

    2005-05-01

    We considered the allocation of operating room (OR) time at facilities where the strategic decision had been made to increase the number of ORs. Allocation occurs in two stages: a long-term tactical stage followed by short-term operational stage. Tactical decisions, approximately 1 yr in advance, determine what specialized equipment and expertise will be needed. Tactical decisions are based on estimates of future OR workload for each subspecialty or surgeon. We show that groups of surgeons can be excluded from consideration at this tactical stage (e.g., surgeons who need intensive care beds or those with below average contribution margins per OR hour). Lower and upper limits are estimated for the future demand of OR time by the remaining surgeons. Thus, initial OR allocations can be accomplished with only partial information on future OR workload. Once the new ORs open, operational decision-making based on OR efficiency is used to fill the OR time and adjust staffing. Surgeons who were not allocated additional time at the tactical stage are provided increased OR time through operational adjustments based on their actual workload. In a case study from a tertiary hospital, future demand estimates were needed for only 15% of surgeons, illustrating the practicality of these methods for use in tactical OR allocation decisions.

  3. A discussion about the agricultural expansion and production of biofuels; Uma discussao sobre a expansao da fronteira agricola e a producao de biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firmino, Rafaelle Gomes; Fonseca, Marcia Batista da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work is a survey about the environmental impacts caused by the increasing expansion of productive activity and in particular agriculture, before any alarm world in search of renewable energy. The purpose of this study is to discuss the sources of resources that are considered clean energy, the constant demand for biofuels in international trade and the effect on the environment created by the increasing expansion of agriculture. The research is descriptive and qualitative data are analyzed. Clearly that is to expand cultivation of sugar cane, maize, castor bean, sunflower, soybean, peanut and others for the use of renewable fuels are often forgotten their devastating effects on soil wear and the down of forests that attack the entire ecosystem, and even the replacement of biofuel production by the agricultural production of food. (author)

  4. International academic production in operations management: a bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Antonio Vitorino Filho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the academic production about Operations Management in articles published in international journals indexed in ISI Web of Knowledge. The research evaluates publications from 2002 to 2012 and uses bibliometric techniques to investigate questions like: what are the authors who have most publications on the subject, what are the years, countries and journals in which the articles were published and, also, the presentation of the most co-cited authors in the references. In total the study verified 110 articles and 4545 references to the term Operations Management, 6644 articles and 274 references to the term Production Management and 49 articles and 1250 references to the term Manufacturing Management. The research results show that (a there isn't a concentration of authors who have published several articles about the subjects; (b the years with the largest number of publications are 2007 and 2010, totaling 24,48 % of the total analyzed; (c the United States is the country which has the greatest number of publications, with 26,33% of all analyzed articles; (d Williamson (1975, Dyer and Singh (1998, Granovetter (1985 and Uzzi (1997 were identified as the most co-cited authors in the references.

  5. Operating the LCG and EGEE Production Grids for HEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In September 2003 the first LCG-1 service was put into production at most of the large Tier 1 sites and was quickly expanded up to 30 Tier 1 and Tier 2 sites by the end of the year. Several software upgrades were made and the LCG-2 service was put into production in time for the experiment data challenges that began in February 2004 and continued for several months. In particular LCG-2 introduced transparent access to mass storage and managed disk-only storage elements, and a first release of the Grid File Access library. Much valuable experience was gained during the data challenges in all aspects from the functionality and use of the middleware, to the deployment, maintenance, and operation of the services at many sites. Based on this experience a program of work to address the functional and operational issues is being implemented. The goal is to focus on essential areas such as data management and to build by the end of 2004 a basic grid system capable of handling the basic needs of LHC c...

  6. Matrix product density operators: Renormalization fixed points and boundary theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirac, J.I. [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pérez-García, D., E-mail: dperezga@ucm.es [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); ICMAT, Nicolas Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Schuch, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Verstraete, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University (Belgium); Vienna Center for Quantum Technology, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2017-03-15

    We consider the tensors generating matrix product states and density operators in a spin chain. For pure states, we revise the renormalization procedure introduced in (Verstraete et al., 2005) and characterize the tensors corresponding to the fixed points. We relate them to the states possessing zero correlation length, saturation of the area law, as well as to those which generate ground states of local and commuting Hamiltonians. For mixed states, we introduce the concept of renormalization fixed points and characterize the corresponding tensors. We also relate them to concepts like finite correlation length, saturation of the area law, as well as to those which generate Gibbs states of local and commuting Hamiltonians. One of the main result of this work is that the resulting fixed points can be associated to the boundary theories of two-dimensional topological states, through the bulk-boundary correspondence introduced in (Cirac et al., 2011).

  7. Thermal evolution of the Schwinger model with matrix product operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I.; Cichy, K.; Jansen, K.; Saito, H.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate the suitability of tensor network techniques for describing the thermal evolution of lattice gauge theories. As a benchmark case, we have studied the temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model, using matrix product operators to approximate the thermal equilibrium states for finite system sizes with non-zero lattice spacings. We show how these techniques allow for reliable extrapolations in bond dimension, step width, system size and lattice spacing, and for a systematic estimation and control of all error sources involved in the calculation. The reached values of the lattice spacing are small enough to capture the most challenging region of high temperatures and the final results are consistent with the analytical prediction by Sachs and Wipf over a broad temperature range.

  8. Operating a production pilot factory serving several scientific domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfiligoi, I.; Würthwein, F.; Andrews, W.; Dost, J. M.; MacNeill, I.; McCrea, A.; Sheripon, E.; Murphy, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    Pilot infrastructures are becoming prominent players in the Grid environment. One of the major advantages is represented by the reduced effort required by the user communities (also known as Virtual Organizations or VOs) due to the outsourcing of the Grid interfacing services, i.e. the pilot factory, to Grid experts. One such pilot factory, based on the glideinWMS pilot infrastructure, is being operated by the Open Science Grid at University of California San Diego (UCSD). This pilot factory is serving multiple VOs from several scientific domains. Currently the three major clients are the analysis operations of the HEP experiment CMS, the community VO HCC, which serves mostly math, biology and computer science users, and the structural biology VO NEBioGrid. The UCSD glidein factory allows the served VOs to use Grid resources distributed over 150 sites in North and South America, in Europe, and in Asia. This paper presents the steps taken to create a production quality pilot factory, together with the challenges encountered along the road.

  9. Operating a production pilot factory serving several scientific domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfiligoi, I; Würthwein, F; Andrews, W; Dost, J M; MacNeill, I; McCrea, A; Sheripon, E; Murphy, C W

    2011-01-01

    Pilot infrastructures are becoming prominent players in the Grid environment. One of the major advantages is represented by the reduced effort required by the user communities (also known as Virtual Organizations or VOs) due to the outsourcing of the Grid interfacing services, i.e. the pilot factory, to Grid experts. One such pilot factory, based on the glideinWMS pilot infrastructure, is being operated by the Open Science Grid at University of California San Diego (UCSD). This pilot factory is serving multiple VOs from several scientific domains. Currently the three major clients are the analysis operations of the HEP experiment CMS, the community VO HCC, which serves mostly math, biology and computer science users, and the structural biology VO NEBioGrid. The UCSD glidein factory allows the served VOs to use Grid resources distributed over 150 sites in North and South America, in Europe, and in Asia. This paper presents the steps taken to create a production quality pilot factory, together with the challenges encountered along the road.

  10. Global quantum discord and matrix product density operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Lin; Cheng, Hong-Guang; Guo, Xiao; Zhang, Duo; Wu, Yuyin; Xu, Jian; Sun, Zhao-Yu

    2018-06-01

    In a previous study, we have proposed a procedure to study global quantum discord in 1D chains whose ground states are described by matrix product states [Z.-Y. Sun et al., Ann. Phys. 359, 115 (2015)]. In this paper, we show that with a very simple generalization, the procedure can be used to investigate quantum mixed states described by matrix product density operators, such as quantum chains at finite temperatures and 1D subchains in high-dimensional lattices. As an example, we study the global discord in the ground state of a 2D transverse-field Ising lattice, and pay our attention to the scaling behavior of global discord in 1D sub-chains of the lattice. We find that, for any strength of the magnetic field, global discord always shows a linear scaling behavior as the increase of the length of the sub-chains. In addition, global discord and the so-called "discord density" can be used to indicate the quantum phase transition in the model. Furthermore, based upon our numerical results, we make some reliable predictions about the scaling of global discord defined on the n × n sub-squares in the lattice.

  11. Optimal operating conditions for maximum biogas production in anaerobic bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmant, W.; Oliveira, B.H.; Mitchell, D.A.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the existence of optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate for maximum methane production through numerical simulations performed with a general transient mathematical model of an anaerobic biodigester introduced in this study. It is herein suggested a simplified model with only the most important reaction steps which are carried out by a single type of microorganisms following Monod kinetics. The mathematical model was developed for a well mixed reactor (CSTR – Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor), considering three main reaction steps: acidogenesis, with a μ max of 8.64 day −1 and a K S of 250 mg/L, acetogenesis, with a μ max of 2.64 day −1 and a K S of 32 mg/L, and methanogenesis, with a μ max of 1.392 day −1 and a K S of 100 mg/L. The yield coefficients were 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-pollymeric compound for acidogenesis, 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-propionic acid and 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-butyric acid for acetogenesis and 0.1 g-dry-cells/g-acetic acid for methanogenesis. The model describes both the transient and the steady-state regime for several different biodigester design and operating conditions. After model experimental validation, a parametric analysis was performed. It was found that biogas production is strongly dependent on the input polymeric substrate and fermentable monomer concentrations, but fairly independent of the input propionic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. An optimisation study was then conducted and optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate were found for maximum methane production. The optima found were very sharp, showing a sudden drop of methane mass flow rate variation from the observed maximum to zero, within a 20% range around the optimal operating parameters, which stresses the importance of their identification, no matter how complex the actual bioreactor design may be. The model is therefore expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design, control and

  12. Decomposing climate-induced temperature and water effects on the expansion and operation of the US electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Eurek, K.; Macknick, J.; Steinberg, D. C.; Averyt, K.; Badger, A.; Livneh, B.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has the potential to affect the supply and demands of the U.S. power sector. Rising air temperatures can affect the seasonal and total demand for electricity, alter the thermal efficiency of power plants, and lower the maximum capacity of electric transmission lines. Changes in hydrology can affect seasonal and total availability of water used for power plant operations. Prior studies have examined some climate impacts on the electricity sector, but there has been no systematic study quantifying and comparing the importance of these climate-induced effects in isolation and in combination. Here, we perform a systematic assessment using the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) electricity sector model in combination with downscaled climate results from four models in the CMIP5 archive that provide contrasting temperature and precipitation trends for key regions in the U.S. The ReEDS model captures dynamic climate and hydrological resource data .when choosing the cost optimal mix of generation resources necessary to balance supply and demand for electricity. We examine how different climate-induced changes in air temperature and water availability, considered in isolation and in combination, may affect energy and economic outcomes at a regional and national level from the present through 2050. Results indicate that temperature-induced impacts on electricity consumption show consistent trends nationwide across all climate scenarios. Hydrological impacts and variability differ by model and tend to have a minor effect on national electricity trends, but can be important determinants regionally. Taken together, this suggests that isolated climate change impacts on the electricity system depend on the geographic scale of interest - the effect of rising temperatures on demand, which is qualitatively robust to the choice of climate model, largely determines impacts on generation, capacity and cost at the national level, whereas other impact pathways may

  13. Low pressure steam expansion pretreatment as a competitive approach to improve diosgenin yield and the production of fermentable sugar from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mi; Tong, Yao; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Lihua; Yu, Longjiang

    2016-04-01

    Development of efficient pretreatment methods which can disrupt the peripheral lignocellulose and even the parenchyma cells is of great importance for production of diosgenin from turmeric rhizomes. It was found that low pressure steam expansion pretreatment (LSEP) could improve the diosgenin yield by more than 40% compared with the case without pretreatment, while simultaneously increasing the production of fermentable sugar by 27.37%. Furthermore, little inhibitory compounds were produced in LSEP process which was extremely favorable for the subsequent biotransformation of fermentable sugar to other valuable products such as ethanol. Preliminary study showed that the ethanol yield when using the fermentable sugar as carbon source was comparable to that using glucose. The liquid residue of LSEP treated turmeric tuber after diosgenin production can be utilized as a quality fermentable carbon source. Therefore, LSEP has great potential in industrial application in diosgenin clean production and comprehensive utilization of turmeric tuber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 30 CFR 250.1628 - Design, installation, and operation of production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Operations § 250.1628 Design, installation, and operation of production systems. (a) General. All production... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design, installation, and operation of production systems. 250.1628 Section 250.1628 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. Managing Variety in Configure-to-Order Products - An Operational Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Hvam, Lars

    2014-01-01

    is to develop an operational method to analyze profitability of Configure-To-Order (CTO) products. The operational method consists of a four-step: analysis of product assortment, profitability analysis on configured products, market and competitor analysis and, product assortment scenarios analysis....... The proposed operational method is firstly developed based on both available literature and practitioners experience and subsequently tested on a company that produces CTO products. The results from this application are further discussed and opportunities for further research identified....

  16. Exploring the response of net primary productivity variations to urban expansion and climate change: a scenario analysis for Guangdong Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fengsong; Li, Xia; Liu, Xiaoping; Lao, Chunhua; Xia, Gengrui

    2015-03-01

    Urban land development alters landscapes and carbon cycle, especially net primary productivity (NPP). Despite projections that NPP is often reduced by urbanization, little is known about NPP changes under future urban expansion and climate change conditions. In this paper, terrestrial NPP was calculated by using Biome-BGC model. However, this model does not explicitly address urban lands. Hence, we proposed a method of NPP-fraction to detect future urban NPP, assuming that the ratio of real NPP to potential NPP for urban cells remains constant for decades. Furthermore, NPP dynamics were explored by integrating the Biome-BGC and the cellular automata (CA), a widely used method for modeling urban growth. Consequently, urban expansion, climate change and their associated effects on the NPP were analyzed for the period of 2010-2039 using Guangdong Province in China as a case study. In addition, four scenarios were designed to reflect future conditions, namely baseline, climate change, urban expansion and comprehensive scenarios. Our analyses indicate that vegetation NPP in urban cells may increase (17.63 gC m(-2) year(-1)-23.35 gC m(-2) year(-1)) in the climate change scenario. However, future urban expansion may cause some NPP losses of 241.61 gC m(-2) year(-1), decupling the NPP increase of the climate change factor. Taking into account both climate change and urban expansion, vegetation NPP in urban area may decrease, minimally at a rate of 228.54 gC m(-2) year(-1) to 231.74 gC m(-2) year(-1). Nevertheless, they may account for an overall NPP increase of 0.78 TgC year(-1) to 1.28 TgC year(-1) in the whole province. All these show that the provincial NPP increase from climate change may offset the NPP decrease from urban expansion. Despite these results, it is of great significance to regulate reasonable expansion of urban lands to maintain carbon balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as an elite set. The results show that three factors increase both the research productivity and the quality of the articles published by professors of a POM group. These factors are (a the presence of a POM research center, (b funding received from external sources for research purposes, and (c better library facilities. Doctoral students do assist in improving research quality and productivity, but they are not the driving force. These results have important implications for establishing policy guidelines for business schools. For example, real-world problems are funded by external sources and have a higher probability of publication. Furthermore, schools could place more emphasis on external funding, as most engineering schools do, since groups receiving external funding are more productive in terms of research.

  18. Global economic-biophysical assessment of midterm scenarios for agricultural markets—biofuel policies, dietary patterns, cropland expansion, and productivity growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Ruth; Klepper, Gernot; Zabel, Florian; Mauser, Wolfram

    2018-02-01

    Land-use decisions are made at the local level. They are influenced both by local factors and by global drivers and trends. These will most likely change over time e.g. due to political shocks, market developments or climate change. Hence, their influence should be taken into account when analysing and projecting local land-use decisions. We provide a set of mid-term scenarios of global drivers (until 2030) for use in regional and local studies on agriculture and land-use. In a participatory process, four important drivers are identified by experts from globally distributed regional studies: biofuel policies, increase in preferences for meat and dairy products in Asia, cropland expansion into uncultivated areas, and changes in agricultural productivity growth. Their impact on possible future developments of global and regional agricultural markets are analysed with a modelling framework consisting of a global computable general equilibrium model and a crop growth model. The business as usual (BAU) scenario causes production and prices of crops to rise over time. It also leads to a conversion of pasture land to cropland. Under different scenarios, global price changes range between -42 and +4% in 2030 compared to the BAU. An abolishment of biofuel targets does not significantly improve food security while an increased agricultural productivity and cropland expansion have a stronger impact on changes in food production and prices.

  19. Expansion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.

    1985-10-01

    A quantum dynamical model is suggested which describes the expansion and disassembly phase of highly excited compounds formed in energetic heavy-ion collisions. First applications in two space and one time dimensional model world are discussed and qualitatively compared to standard freeze-out concepts. (orig.)

  20. expansion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a system under investigation is to model the system in terms of some ... The organization of the paper is as follows: In §2, a brief account of the (G /G)- expansion ...... It is interesting to note that from the general results, one can easily recover.

  1. Environmental considerations for the expansion of Olympic Dam, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.

    2002-01-01

    A recent $2 billion expansion at Olympic Dam saw production capacity increased to 200 000 tonnes of copper cathode, 4500 tonnes of UOC, 80,000 ozs of gold and 850 000 ozs of silver from the mining and milling of about 9 million tonnes of ore. The Expansion required the prior preparation and approval of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Design Criteria and Codes of Practice applied during design and construction of the Expansion ensured that no environmental incidents occurred during construction, and implementation of an Environmental Management System has ensured that operation of the expanded facilities continues to have low impacts. (author)

  2. Environmental considerations for the expansion of Olympic Dam, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.

    2000-01-01

    A recent $A2 billion expansion at Olympic Dam saw production capacity increased to 200,000 tonnes of copper cathode, 4,500 tonnes of UOC, 80,000 ozs of gold and 850,000 ozs of silver from the mining and milling of about 9 million tonnes of ore. The Expansion required the prior preparation and approval of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Design Criteria and Codes of Practice applied during design and construction of the Expansion ensured that no environmental incidents occurred during construction and implementation of an Environmental Management System has ensured that operation of the expanded facilities continues to have low impacts. (author)

  3. Managing risk and expected financial return from selective expansion of operating room capacity: mean-variance analysis of a hospital's portfolio of surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Ledolter, Johannes

    2003-07-01

    Surgeons using the same amount of operating room (OR) time differ in their achieved hospital contribution margins (revenue minus variable costs) by >1000%. Thus, to improve the financial return from perioperative facilities, OR strategic decisions should selectively focus additional OR capacity and capital purchasing on a few surgeons or subspecialties. These decisions use estimates of each surgeon's and/or subspecialty's contribution margin per OR hour. The estimates are subject to uncertainty (e.g., from outliers). We account for the uncertainties by using mean-variance portfolio analysis (i.e., quadratic programming). This method characterizes the problem of selectively expanding OR capacity based on the expected financial return and risk of different portfolios of surgeons. The assessment reveals whether the choices, of which surgeons have their OR capacity expanded, are sensitive to the uncertainties in the surgeons' contribution margins per OR hour. Thus, mean-variance analysis reduces the chance of making strategic decisions based on spurious information. We also assess the financial benefit of using mean-variance portfolio analysis when the planned expansion of OR capacity is well diversified over at least several surgeons or subspecialties. Our results show that, in such circumstances, there may be little benefit from further changing the portfolio to reduce its financial risk. Surgeon and subspecialty specific hospital financial data are uncertain, a fact that should be taken into account when making decisions about expanding operating room capacity. We show that mean-variance portfolio analysis can incorporate this uncertainty, thereby guiding operating room management decision-making and reducing the chance of a strategic decision being made based on spurious information.

  4. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meibom, P. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, System Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Weber, C. [Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Chai og Energy Management (Germany); Barth, R.; Brand, H. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Adding wind power generation in a power system changes the operational patterns of the existing units due to the variability and unpredictability of wind power production. For large amounts of wind power production the expectation is that the operational costs of the other power plants will increase due to more operation time in part-load and more start-ups. The change in operational costs induced by the wind power production can only be calculated by comparing the operational costs in two power system configurations: with wind power production and with alternative production having properties like conventional production, i.e. being predictable and less variable. The choice of the characteristics of the alternative production is not straight forward and will therefore influence the operational costs induced by wind power production. This paper presents a method for calculating the change in operational costs due to wind power production using a stochastic optimization model covering the power systems in Germany and the Nordic countries. Two cases of alternative production are used to calculate the change in operational costs namely perfectly predictable wind power production enabling calculation of the costs connected to unpredictability, and constant wind power production enabling calculation of the operational costs connected to variability of wind power production. A 2010 case with three different wind power production penetration levels is analysed in the paper. (au)

  5. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for March 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-04-20

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, March, 1956. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology; financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, pile technology, safety and radiological sciences are discussed.

  6. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for February 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-02-21

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, February, 1956. Metallurgy, reactors fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations are discussed.

  7. Operability and flexibility of a milk production line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The operability and flexibility of an existing milk treatment process are investigated through flowsheet modelling and simulation. From the flowsheet simulation, a process operating region was determined using incoming milk flow viscosity and heat exchanger pressure drop as characteristic...

  8. Operational impact of product variety in the process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseley, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research article is to examine the impact of product variety on production performance in the process industry. As the number of product variants sold by a process company typically impacts the run length, production data from a mineral wool insulation manufacturer is analyzed...

  9. Short interval expansion of Rényi entropy on torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Wu, Jun-Bao [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jia-ju [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-08-23

    We investigate the short interval expansion of the Rényi entropy for two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) on a torus. We require the length of the interval ℓ to be small with respect to the spatial and temporal sizes of the torus. The operator product expansion of the twist operators allows us to compute the short interval expansion of the Rényi entropy at any temperature. In particular, we pay special attention to the large c CFTs dual to the AdS{sub 3} gravity and its cousins. At both low and high temperature limits, we read the Rényi entropies to order ℓ{sup 6}, and find good agreements with holographic results. Moreover, the expansion allows us to read 1/c contribution, which is hard to get by expanding the thermal density matrix. We generalize the study to the case with the chemical potential as well.

  10. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Weber, C.; Barth, R.

    2009-01-01

    Adding wind power generation in a power system changes the operational patterns of the existing units due to the variability and partial predictability of wind power production. For large amounts of wind power production, the expectation is that the specific operational costs (fuel costs, start......-up costs, variable operation and maintenance costs, costs of consuming CO2 emission permits) of the other power plants will increase due to more operation time in part-load and more start-ups. The change in operational costs induced by the wind power production can only be calculated by comparing...... the operational costs in two power system configurations: with wind power production and with alternative wind production having properties such as conventional production, that is, being predictable and less variable. The choice of the characteristics of the alternative production is not straightforward...

  11. Technical papers presented at the 4. symposium of specialists in electric operational and expansion planning. v. 1; Artigos tecnicos apresentados no 4. simposio de especialistas em planejamento da operacao e expansao eletrica. v. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This document collects papers presented in the 4. Symposium of specialists in electric operation and expansion planning. The main problems affecting this sector in the world are discussed. Several cases studies are presented as well as state of the art and new developing technologies

  12. Technical papers presented at the 4. symposium of specialists in electric operational and expansion planning. v. 2; Artigos tecnicos apresentados no 4. simposio de especialistas em planejamento da operacao e expansao eletrica. v. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This symposium about electric operational and expansion planning presents several articles that approaches issues such as, monitoring the power system stability, electrical load modelling, reliability in power systems, optimization in power systems, integrated resources planning in power systems, reactive control through static compensators, power flow analysis, system modelling, etc

  13. Potential areas for the expansion of the sugar cane production; Areas potenciais para a expansao da producao de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    The evaluation of the potential areas for the expansion of the sugar cane cultivation was based on the estimation of the agricultural productivity aptitude as function of the soil and climate characteristics using maps with geo referred in scales of 1/5,000,000. Areas had been discarded which integrate of three large biomass of the country: Amazonia, Pantanal and Mata Atlantica, and all the areas with some type of restriction, such as environmental reservations, national parks, indigenous, military and urban areas. Were not considered areas with crop mechanization essential for the environmental and social sustainability with declivity more than 12%.

  14. Market survey on products from the Tema Oil Refinery carried out as part of the feasibility study on the Tema Oil Refinery expansion project. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-10-01

    The Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), which was commissioned in 1963, is a simple hydroskimming plant which processes crude oil into LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gasoil, and fuel oil. It is the only petroleum refinery in Ghana. Over the years some of the equipment in the refinery has deteriorated or become obsolete necessitating major rehabilitation. A feasibility study is investigating the modernization and expansion of the refinery to meet projected market demands until the year 2005. The report presents the results of a market survey done on products from TOR

  15. Two-loop massive operator matrix elements for unpolarized heavy flavor production to O({epsilon})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierenbaum, I.; Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation

    2008-02-15

    We calculate the O({alpha}{sup 2}{sub s}) massive operator matrix elements for the twist-2 operators, which contribute to the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in unpolarized deeply inelastic scattering in the region Q{sup 2}>>m{sup 2}, up to the O({epsilon}) contributions. These terms contribute through the renormalization of the O({alpha}{sup 3}{sub s}) heavy flavor Wilson coefficients of the structure function F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}). The calculation has been performed using light-cone expansion techniques without using the integration-by-parts method. We represent the individual Feynman diagrams by generalized hypergeometric structures, the {epsilon}-expansion of which leads to infinite sums depending on the Mellin variable N. These sums are finally expressed in terms of nested harmonic sums using the general summation techniques implemented in the Sigma package. (orig.)

  16. Resonant state expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P.

    1993-02-01

    The completeness properties of the discrete set of bound state, virtual states and resonances characterizing the system of a single nonrelativistic particle moving in a central cutoff potential is investigated. From a completeness relation in terms of these discrete states and complex scattering states one can derive several Resonant State Expansions (RSE). It is interesting to obtain purely discrete expansion which, if valid, would significantly simplify the treatment of the continuum. Such expansions can be derived using Mittag-Leffler (ML) theory for a cutoff potential and it would be nice to see if one can obtain the same expansions starting from an eigenfunction theory that is not restricted to a finite sphere. The RSE of Greens functions is especially important, e.g. in the continuum RPA (CRPA) method of treating giant resonances in nuclear physics. The convergence of RSE is studied in simple cases using square well wavefunctions in order to achieve high numerical accuracy. Several expansions can be derived from each other by using the theory of analytic functions and one can the see how to obtain a natural discretization of the continuum. Since the resonance wavefunctions are oscillating with an exponentially increasing amplitude, and therefore have to be interpreted through some regularization procedure, every statement made about quantities involving such states is checked by numerical calculations.Realistic nuclear wavefunctions, generated by a Wood-Saxon potential, are used to test also the usefulness of RSE in a realistic nuclear calculation. There are some fundamental differences between different symmetries of the integral contour that defines the continuum in RSE. One kind of symmetry is necessary to have an expansion of the unity operator that is idempotent. Another symmetry must be used if we want purely discrete expansions. These are found to be of the same form as given by ML. (29 refs.)

  17. Isolation of a Bis-Iodurated Tetra-THF as a Trace Product from the Oxidation of Squalene with RuO4 and Its Double Ring Expansion to a Novel bis-THF-bis-THP Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Borbone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel bis-iodurated polyether compound, based on an unprecedented tetra-THF backbone, has been isolated as a trace by-product of the oxidation of squalene with the catalytic system RuO2(cat./NaIO4. The double erythro configuration of the central portion of the molecule furnishes the first indirect support of the previously postulated pathway operating in the oxidative pentacyclization of the isoprenoid substrate. A bidirectional double oxidative bis-cyclization is invoked to explain the formation of this compound. The isolated substance was successfully subjected to a double rearrangement-ring expansion to give a novel bis-THF-bis-THP compound.

  18. Annunciation - building product team capabilities to support utility operational improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, R.; Brown, R.; Trask, D.; Leger, R.; Mitchel, G.; Judd, R.; Davey, E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe an AECL initiative to enhance the capabilities to assist utilities with undertaking annunciation improvement. This initiative was undertaken to complement a recent annunciation product upgrade, and in anticipation of developing commercial opportunities to assist Canadian and foreign utilities with control room annunciation improvement. Utilities are relying more and more on external engineering product and service providers to meet their plant support needs as they reduce in-house staffing to lower ongoing support costs. This evolving commercial environment places new demands on product and service providers, and provides new opportunities for increasing the proportion of product and service provider participation in plant improvement projects. This paper outlines recent AECL experience in the annunciation product area. The paper discusses the rationale for product support capability improvement, discusses the approaches undertaken, describes lessons learned, and outlines a proposed utility support model for assisting with future annunciation improvements. (author)

  19. Modelling and operation of reactors for enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony

    to the production of high fructose corn syrup, upgrading of fats and oils and biodiesel production to name a few. Despite these examples of industrial enzymatic applications, it is still not “clear cut” how to implement biocatalyst in industry and how best to optimize the processes. This is because the processing...... aspects of the enzyme with reaction/reactor engineering is performed. This strategy is applied to a case study of biodiesel production catalysed by a liquid enzyme formulation. The use of enzymes for biodiesel production is still in its infancy with non-optimized process designs. Furthermore is it unclear...

  20. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  1. Operational Linescan System (OLS) - Derived Products (including posters and slides)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and infrared imagery from DMSP Operational Linescan System (OLS) instruments are used to monitor the global distribution of clouds and cloud top temperatures...

  2. Tensor product of left n-invertible operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duggal, B.P.; Müller, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 215, č. 2 (2013), s. 113-125 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Banach space * essentially left n- invertible operator * left n-invertible operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.630, year: 2013 http://journals.impan.pl/cgi-bin/doi?sm215-2-2

  3. Product’s Development Strategy and Market Expansion in Development of Traditional Food as a Product of Culinary Excursion in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Wrasiati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the traditional market would be developed as a culinary tourism by the local government of Level II regions (districts / cities, formulation of activities and facilities needed by the strategy of product development and market expansion, implement strategies that had been selected and defined as conduct training, coaching, and mentoring to traders and waiters in traditional markets that have been determined. The results showed that the chosen market that would be developed markets were “senggol” market (night market of Tabanan City, Kreneng-Asoka Denpasar, Gianyar City, Klungkung City, and City Park Singaraja. Food vendors who were in these markets got guidance regarding the development of products such as ordinances presentation, use of additives, sanitation, and coaching appearance. Market expansion strategy carried out by making brochures, websites "baliwisatakuliner.com" and the provision of traditional food outlets at every event such as the Feast of Balinese art, Buleleng Festival, Festival Vilage Sanur, Nusa Penida Festival, and the annual events in the Anniversary Exhibition of the Republic of Indonesia.

  4. Building operative care capacity in a resource limited setting: The Mongolian model of the expansion of sustainable laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Katie M; Lee, Yu-Jin; Erdene, Sandag; Erdene, Sarnai; Sanchin, Urjin; Sergelen, Orgoi; Zhang, Chong; Rodriguez, Brandon P; deVries, Catherine R; Price, Raymond R

    2016-08-01

    The benefits of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, including rapid recovery and fewer infections, have been largely unavailable to the majority of people in developing countries. Compared to other countries, Mongolia has an extremely high incidence of gallbladder disease. In 2005, only 2% of cholecystectomies were performed laparoscopically. This is a retrospective review of the transition from open to laparoscopic cholecystectomy throughout Mongolia. A cross-sectional, retrospective review was conducted of demographic patient data, diagnosis type, and operation performed (laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy) from 2005-2013. Trends were analyzed from 6 of the 21 provinces (aimags) throughout Mongolia, and data were culled from 7 regional diagnostic referral and treatment centers and 2 tertiary academic medical centers. The data were analyzed by individual training center and by year before being compared between rural and urban centers. We analyzed and compared 14,522 cholecystectomies (n = 4,086 [28%] men, n = 10,436 [72%] women). Men and women were similar in age (men 52.2, standard deviation 14.8; women 49.4, standard deviation 15.7) and in the percentage undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (men 39%, women 42%). By 2013, 58% of gallbladders were removed laparoscopically countrywide compared with only 2% in 2005. In 2011, laparoscopic cholecystectomy surpassed open cholecystectomy as the primary method for gallbladder removal countrywide. More than 315 Mongolian health care practitioners received laparoscopic training in 19 of the country's 21 aimags (states). By 2013, 58% of cholecystectomies countrywide were performed laparoscopically, a dramatic increase over 9 years. The expansion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has transformed the care of biliary tract disease in Mongolia despite the country's limited resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Install and operate type radiation processing plant for marine products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, A.K. [BARC-BTIR Complex, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Atomic Energy. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology

    2002-07-01

    Marine products can be carrier of several pathogens. Radiation processing is a very useful technique that is used to eliminate pathogens and also to extend shelf life of fresh fish. For marine products three processes are involved namely: radurization to pasteurize fresh chilled fish for extending shelf life; radicidation to sanitize frozen fishery products by elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and radiation disinfestations to eliminate insects from dehydrated fishery products. The paper brings out conceptual design of a compact radiation processing plant that can cater to all the three processes. The design is different from conveyor type of designs. The design is specially configured to maintain the temperature of frozen products and overdose ratio within limits specified. The throughput depends upon the source strength, type of product, the size of box and its configuration in which these could be arranged. The design has many features, which make it a very safe, convenient and economical method for processing of such items or for that matter all the food products, which are amenable for radiation processing. (author)

  6. Install and operate type radiation processing plant for marine products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Marine products can be carrier of several pathogens. Radiation processing is a very useful technique that is used to eliminate pathogens and also to extend shelf life of fresh fish. For marine products three processes are involved namely: radurization to pasteurize fresh chilled fish for extending shelf life; radicidation to sanitize frozen fishery products by elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and radiation disinfestations to eliminate insects from dehydrated fishery products. The paper brings out conceptual design of a compact radiation processing plant that can cater to all the three processes. The design is different from conveyor type of designs. The design is specially configured to maintain the temperature of frozen products and overdose ratio within limits specified. The throughput depends upon the source strength, type of product, the size of box and its configuration in which these could be arranged. The design has many features, which make it a very safe, convenient and economical method for processing of such items or for that matter all the food products, which are amenable for radiation processing. (author)

  7. Operating a production facility without a CO and O agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M. R.

    2000-01-01

    Issues that arise when an oil or natural gas facility is operated without a specific construction, ownership and operating (CO and O) agreement was explored. The lack of such an agreement may be due to the parties' inability to reach agreement, reliance on the land operating agreement, or the lack of diligent follow-up on the drafting, revision and execution of operating agreements. The paper examines the nature of ownership interests that obtain in the absence of a CO and O, the common situation in respect to CO and O agreements where the document has been circulated but has not been signed by the owners. A number of actual cases were cited to illustrate the effects of such an omission. It was concluded that ideally, a fully executed CO and O for each facility which deals specifically with the owners involved with the particular facility is the best of all worlds. However given the nature of some facilities, the expense, time and effort required to prepare and execute a separate CO and O, it is frequently omitted; in such situations it is convenient to fall back on the 1990 Operating Procedure of CAPL, which while general in nature and cannot adequately deal with every situation, deals with many common problems associated with the operation of facilities. It is recommended that even if a complete CO and O agreement cannot be executed, interim binding agreements should be used to avoid uncertainty until such time as a complete agreement can be finalized. A clause-by-clause comparison of the 1990 CAPL Operating Procedure and a 1996 model CO and O agreement, prepared by the Petroleum Joint Venture Association (PJVA), is appended

  8. AN OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR A COAL MINING PRODUCTION UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Visser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The coal mining industry faces increased pressure for higher quality coal at lower cost and increased volumes. To satisfy these requirements the industry needs technically skilled first line supervisors with operational management skills. Most first line supervisors possess the necessary technical, but not the required operational management skills. Various operational management philosophies, describing world-class operational management practices exist; however, it is not possible to implement these philosophies as-is in a mining environment due to the various differences between manufacturing and mining. The solution is to provide an operational management model, adapted from these philosophies, to first line supervisors in the coal mining industry.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die steenkoolmynbedryf ervaar groeiende druk van die mark vir hoër gehalte steenkool, laer koste en verhoogde volumes. Om hierdie behoefte te bevredig benodig die myn tegniesgeskoolde eerstelyntoesighouers met bedryfsbestuursvaardighede. Ongelukkig beskik die meeste toesighouers wel oor die nodige tegniese kennis, maar nie die nodige bedryfsbestuursvaardighede nie. Daar bestaan verskeie bedryfsbestuursfilosofieë wat wêreldklas bedryfsbestuurspraktyke omskryf. Dit is egter nie moontlik om die filisofieë net so in die mynbedryf te implimenteer nie a.g.v. die verskille tussen vervaardiging en mynbou. Die oplossing is om ‘n bedryfsbestuurmodel wat op hierdie filosofieë geskoei is, aan eerstelyntoesighouers in die steenkoolbedryf te verskaf.

  9. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1980-01-01

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of the development reviewed. Large Na (sodium)-heat transfer systems require a lot of valuable space if the component lay-out does not include compensation devices. So, in order to condense the spatial requirement as much as possible, expansion joints must be integrated into the pipe system. There are two basic types to suit the purpose: axial expansion joints and angular expansion joints. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows. Expansion joints must be designed and mounted in a manner to completely withstand seismic forces. The design must exclude any damage to the bellows during intermittent operations, that is, when sodium is drained the bellows' folds must be completely empty; otherwise residual solidified sodium could destroy the bellows when restarting. The expansion joints must be engineered on the basis of the following design data for the secondary system of the SNR project: working pressure: 16 bar; failure mode pressure: 5 events; failure mode: 5 sec., 28.5 bar, 520 deg. C; working temperature: 520 deg. C; temperature transients: 30 deg. C/sec.; service life: 200,000 h; number of load cycles: 10 4 ; material: 1.4948 or 1.4919; layer thickness of folds: 0.5 mm; angular deflection (DN 800): +3 deg. C or; axial expansion absorption (DN 600): ±80 mm; calculation: ASME class. The bellows' development work is not handled within this scope. The bellows are supplied by leading manufacturers, and warrant highest quality. Multiple bellows were selected on the basis of maximum elasticity - a property

  10. 76 FR 80331 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 41H Application for Expansion; Mercury Marine (Marine Propulsion Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... scope of FTZ manufacturing authority to include additional finished products and foreign-origin... Military Road, Fond du Lac; Site 7 (79 acres)--Plants 3, 10, 12, 15, and 52, W6250 Pioneer Road, Fond du... Marine from customs duty payments on the additional foreign- origin components used in production for...

  11. Operational Impacts of Operating Reserve Demand Curves on Production Cost and Reliability: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik; Gao, Wenzhong

    2015-10-27

    The electric power industry landscape is continually evolving. As emerging technologies such as wind, solar, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems become more cost-effective and present in the system, traditional power system operating strategies will need to be reevaluated. The presence of wind and solar generation (commonly referred to as variable generation) may result in an increase in the variability and uncertainty of the net load profile. One mechanism to mitigate this is to schedule and dispatch additional operating reserves. These operating reserves aim to ensure that there is enough capacity online in the system to account for the increased variability and uncertainty occurring at finer temporal resolutions. A new operating reserve strategy, referred to as flexibility reserve, has been introduced in some regions. A similar implementation is explored in this paper, and its implications on power system operations are analyzed.

  12. Optimisation of Shift Reactor Operating Conditions to Maximise Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Marano, M.; Ruiz, E.

    2011-07-28

    This report compiles the results of the work conducted by CIEMAT for Task 6.5 Shift reaction of the FLEXGAS project Near Zero Emission Advanced Fluidized Bed Gasification, which has been carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCR-CT-2007-00005. The activity of an iron-chromium-based catalyst for the water gas shift reaction is studied. Results about WGS experiments conducted by CIEMAT on laboratory scale under different operating conditions are presented. The influence on the activity of the catalyst of main operating parameters- temperature, pressure, excess steam, and space velocity and gas composition - is evaluated and discussed. (Author) 19 refs.

  13. Survey of Optimal Temperature and Moisture for Worms Growth and Operating Vermicompost Production of Food Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    A Eslami; A Nabaey; R Rostami

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackground and Objectives:Nowadays vermicompost production of food wastes is posed as one of appropriate methods to food wastes. disposal, its production used in agriculture and gardening. Moreover this process has some by products beside useful fertilizer that one of them is the worms. we can use them in variety of products specially in production of poultry and fish food. So determination of optimal condition for operating vermicompost production process of food wastes and worms. growt...

  14. A model to predict productivity of different chipping operations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additional international case studies from North America, South America, and central and northern Europe were used to test the accuracy of the model, in which 15 studies confirmed the model's validity and two failed to pass the test. Keywords: average piece size, chipper, power, sensitivity analysis, type of operation, unit ...

  15. Gas sector expansion: production monopoly versus free prices; Expansao do setor de gas: monopolio na producao versus precos livres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria Paula de Souza [Agencia de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado do Espirito Santo (ASPE), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the necessary conditions to develop Brazil's natural gas sector with production, reserves, main uses, sources, inputs, main players, laws, regulatory aspects, prices, supply, demand, market, monopoly and free competition. (author)

  16. Novel Hydrogen Production Systems Operative at Thermodynamic Extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsalus, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We have employed a suite of molecular, bioinformatics, and biochemical tools to interrogate the thermodynamically limiting steps of H{sub 2} production from fatty acids in syntrophic communities. We also developed a new microbial model system that generates high H{sub 2} concentrations (over 17% of the gas phase) with high H{sub 2} yields of over 3 moles H{sub 2} per mole glucose. Lastly, a systems-based study of biohydrogen production in model anaerobic consortia was performed to begin identifying key regulated steps as a precursor to modeling co-metabolism. The results of these studies significantly expand our ability to predict and model systems for H{sub 2} production in novel anaerobes that are currently very poorly documented or understood.

  17. Improved NGL recovery designs maximize operating flexibility and product recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the historically cyclical nature in the market for ethane and propane has demonstrated the need for flexible natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery plants. NEwly developed and patented processes are now available which can provide ultra-high recovery of ethane (95%+) when demand for ethane is high and provide essentially complete ethane rejection without the normally concomitant reduction in propane recovery. This provides plant operators the flexibility to respond more readily to NGL market conditions, thus maximizing plant operating profits. The new process designs provide this flexibility without increasing utility requirements. In fact, utility consumption is often lower when compared to conventional designs. This same process technology can also be easily retrofit into existing plants with relatively quick payout of the modifications from both recovery and efficiency improvements

  18. Product quality driven design of bakery operations using dynamic optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadiyanto, M.; Esveld, D.C.; Boom, R.M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Quality driven design uses specified product qualities as a starting point for process design. By backward reasoning the required process conditions and processing system were found. In this work dynamic optimization was used as a tool to generate processing solutions for baking processes

  19. HLW immobilization in glass: industrial operation and product quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Leroy, P.; Runge, S.

    1992-01-01

    This extended summary discusses the immobilization of high level wastes from the viewpoint of the quality of the final product, i.e. the HLW glass. The R and D studies comprise 3 steps: glass formulation, glass characterization and long term behaviour studies

  20. Optoheterodyne Doppler measurements of the ballistic expansion of the products of the shock wave-induced surface destruction: Experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriyash, A. V.; Astashkin, M. V.; Baranov, V. K.; Golubinskii, A. G.; Irinichev, D. A.; Kondrat’ev, A. N.; Kuratov, S. E.; Mazanov, V. A.; Rogozkin, D. B.; Stepushkin, S. N.; Khatunkin, V. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The results of optoheterodyne Doppler measurements of the ballistic expansion of the products of surface destruction under shock-wave loading are presented. The possibility of determining the physical characteristics of a rapidly flying dust cloud, including the microparticle velocities, the microparticle sizes, and the areal density of the dust cloud, is shown. A compact stand for performing experiments on shock-wave loading of metallic samples is described. Shock-wave loading is performed by a 100-µm-thick tantalum flyer plate accelerated to a velocity of 2.8 km/s. As the samples, lead plates having various thicknesses and the same surface roughness are used. At a shock-wave pressure of 31.5 GPa, the destruction products are solid microparticles about 50 µm in size. At a pressure of 42 and 88 GPa, a liquid-drop dust cloud with a particle size of 10–15 µm is formed. To interpret the spectral data on the optoheterodyne Doppler measurements of the expansion of the surface destruction products (spalled fragments, dust microparticles), a transport equation for the function of mutual coherence of a multiply scattered field is used. The Doppler spectra of a backscattered signal are calculated with the model developed for the dust cloud that appears when a shock wave reaches the sample surface at the parameters that are typical of an experimental situation. Qualitative changes are found in the spectra, depending on the optical thickness of the dust cloud. The obtained theoretical results are in agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Optoheterodyne Doppler measurements of the ballistic expansion of the products of the shock wave-induced surface destruction: Experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriyash, A. V. [All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Astashkin, M. V.; Baranov, V. K.; Golubinskii, A. G.; Irinichev, D. A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (Russian Federation); Kondrat’ev, A. N., E-mail: an.kondratev@physics.msu.ru; Kuratov, S. E. [All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Mazanov, V. A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (Russian Federation); Rogozkin, D. B. [All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Stepushkin, S. N.; Khatunkin, V. Yu. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, All-Russia Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The results of optoheterodyne Doppler measurements of the ballistic expansion of the products of surface destruction under shock-wave loading are presented. The possibility of determining the physical characteristics of a rapidly flying dust cloud, including the microparticle velocities, the microparticle sizes, and the areal density of the dust cloud, is shown. A compact stand for performing experiments on shock-wave loading of metallic samples is described. Shock-wave loading is performed by a 100-µm-thick tantalum flyer plate accelerated to a velocity of 2.8 km/s. As the samples, lead plates having various thicknesses and the same surface roughness are used. At a shock-wave pressure of 31.5 GPa, the destruction products are solid microparticles about 50 µm in size. At a pressure of 42 and 88 GPa, a liquid-drop dust cloud with a particle size of 10–15 µm is formed. To interpret the spectral data on the optoheterodyne Doppler measurements of the expansion of the surface destruction products (spalled fragments, dust microparticles), a transport equation for the function of mutual coherence of a multiply scattered field is used. The Doppler spectra of a backscattered signal are calculated with the model developed for the dust cloud that appears when a shock wave reaches the sample surface at the parameters that are typical of an experimental situation. Qualitative changes are found in the spectra, depending on the optical thickness of the dust cloud. The obtained theoretical results are in agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Radial multipliers on reduced free products of operator algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Møller, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Let AiAi be a family of unital C¿C¿-algebras, respectively, of von Neumann algebras and ¿:N0¿C¿:N0¿C. We show that if a Hankel matrix related to ¿ is trace-class, then there exists a unique completely bounded map M¿M¿ on the reduced free product of the AiAi, which acts as a radial multiplier...

  3. Relationship Between Lean Production and Operational Performance in the Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasi, Raja Zuraidah R. M.; Syamsyul Rakiman, Umol; Ahmad, Md Fauzi Bin

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, more and more manufacturing firms have started to implement lean production system in their operations. Lean production viewed as one of the mechanism to maintain the organisation's position and to compete globally. However, many fail to apply the lean concepts successfully in their operations. Based on previous studies, implementation of lean production in the manufacturing industry is more focused on the relationship between Lean and Operational Performance of one dimension only. Therefore, this study attempted to examine the relationship between Lean Production (LP) and Operational Performance in 4 dimensions which are quality, delivery, cost and flexibility. This study employed quantitative study using questionnaires. Data was collected from 50 manufacturing industries. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 22.0. This study is hoped to shed new understanding on the concept of Lean Production (LP) in regards of Operational Performance covering the 4 dimensions.

  4. 21 CFR 111.135 - What quality control operations are required for product complaints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.135 What quality control operations are required for...

  5. Building reactor operator sustain expert system with C language integrated production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Qin; Hu Shouyin; Wang Ruipian

    2002-01-01

    The development of the reactor operator sustain expert system is introduced, the capability of building reactor operator sustain expert system is discussed with C Language Integrated Production System (Clips), and a simple antitype of expert system is illustrated. The limitation of building reactor operator sustain expert system with Clips is also discussed

  6. On τ-Compactness of Products of τ-Measurable Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikchentaev, Airat M.

    2017-12-01

    Let M be a von Neumann algebra of operators on a Hilbert space H, τ be a faithful normal semifinite trace on M. We obtain some new inequalities for rearrangements of τ-measurable operators products. We also establish some sufficient τ-compactness conditions for products of selfadjoint τ-measurable operators. Next we obtain a τ-compactness criterion for product of a nonnegative τ-measurable operator with an arbitrary τ-measurable operator. We construct an example that shows importance of nonnegativity for one of the factors. The similar results are obtained also for elementary operators from M. We apply our results to symmetric spaces on (M, τ ). The results are new even for the *-algebra B(H) of all linear bounded operators on H endowed with the canonical trace τ = tr.

  7. Production operation of small petroleum enterprises in Tomsk region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, I.; Filjushin, V.; Shenderova, I.; Kochetkova, O.

    2015-11-01

    Implementing resource-innovative strategy to develop Russian fuel-and-energy sector implies the promotion of small oil production enterprises developing fields with the reserves of less than 5 mln. tons. However, the efficiency of such enterprises, investigated on the example of Tomsk region (considering the indexes of oil extraction, growth of reserves, amount of capital expenditures and geological surveys), signifies the presence of definite tendencies. Consequently, management decisions concerning economic, organizational, financial and fiscal character should be taken in order to eliminate detrimental factors.

  8. Advanced solar concentrator mass production, operation, and maintenance cost assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, W. A.; Bedard, R. J.; Bell, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    The object of this assessment was to estimate the costs of the preliminary design at: production rates of 100 to 1,000,000 concentrators per year; concentrators per aperture diameters of 5, 10, 11, and 15 meters; and various receiver/power conversion package weights. The design of the cellular glass substrate Advanced Solar Concentrator is presented. The concentrator is an 11 meter diameter, two axis tracking, parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflective surface of this design consists of inner and outer groups of mirror glass/cellular glass gores.

  9. Operational forecast products and applications based on WRF/Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Flandorfer, Claudia; Langer, Matthias; Mantovani, Simone; Olefs, Marc; Schellander-Gorgas, Theresa

    2015-04-01

    The responsibilities of the national weather service of Austria (ZAMG) include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. The ZAMG conducts daily Air-Quality forecasts using the on-line coupled model WRF/Chem. The mother domain expands over Europe, North Africa and parts of Russia. The nested domain includes the alpine region and has a horizontal resolution of 4 km. Local emissions (Austria) are used in combination with European inventories (TNO and EMEP) for the simulations. The modeling system is presented and the results from the evaluation of the assimilation of pollutants using the 3D-VAR software GSI is shown. Currently observational data (PM10 and O3) from the Austrian Air-Quality network and from European stations (EEA) are assimilated into the model on an operational basis. In addition PM maps are produced using Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS in combination with model data using machine learning techniques. The modeling system is operationally evaluated with different data sets. The emphasis of the application is on the forecast of pollutants which are compared to the hourly values (PM10, O3 and NO2) of the Austrian Air-Quality network. As the meteorological conditions are important for transport and chemical processes, some parameters like wind and precipitation are automatically evaluated (SAL diagrams, maps, …) with other models (e.g. ECMWF, AROME, …) and ground stations via web interface. The prediction of the AOT is also important for operators of solar power plants. In the past Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models were used to predict the AOT based on cloud forecasts at the ZAMG. These models do not consider the spatial and temporal variation of the aerosol distribution in the atmosphere with a consequent impact on the accuracy of forecasts especially during clear-sky days

  10. Improving machine operation management efficiency via improving the vehicle park structure and using the production operation information database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, V. Yu

    2017-02-01

    The work represents the results of studying basic interconnected criteria of separate equipment units of the transport network machines fleet, depending on production and mining factors to improve the transport systems management. Justifying the selection of a control system necessitates employing new methodologies and models, augmented with stability and transport flow criteria, accounting for mining work development dynamics on mining sites. A necessary condition is the accounting of technical and operating parameters related to vehicle operation. Modern open pit mining dispatching systems must include such kinds of the information database. An algorithm forming a machine fleet is presented based on multi-variation task solution in connection with defining reasonable operating features of a machine working as a part of a complex. Proposals cited in the work may apply to mining machines (drilling equipment, excavators) and construction equipment (bulldozers, cranes, pile-drivers), city transport and other types of production activities using machine fleet.

  11. Efficient generation of sum-of-products representations of high-dimensional potential energy surfaces based on multimode expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Benjamin; Rauhut, Guntram

    2016-03-01

    The transformation of multi-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) from a grid-based multimode representation to an analytical one is a standard procedure in quantum chemical programs. Within the framework of linear least squares fitting, a simple and highly efficient algorithm is presented, which relies on a direct product representation of the PES and a repeated use of Kronecker products. It shows the same scalings in computational cost and memory requirements as the potfit approach. In comparison to customary linear least squares fitting algorithms, this corresponds to a speed-up and memory saving by several orders of magnitude. Different fitting bases are tested, namely, polynomials, B-splines, and distributed Gaussians. Benchmark calculations are provided for the PESs of a set of small molecules.

  12. Fuel element structure - design, production and operational behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, G.; Dietz, W.

    1985-01-01

    The lectures held at the meeting of the fuel element section of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft gives a survey of developments in fuel element structure design for PWR-type, BWR-type and fast breeder reactors. For better utilization of the fuel, concepts have been developed for re-usable, removable and thus repairable fuel elements. Furthermore, the manufacturing methods for fuel element structures were refined to achieve better quality and more efficient manufacturing methods. Statements on the dimensional behaviour and on the mechanical stability of fuel element structures in normal and accident operation could be made on the basis of post-irradiation inspections. Finally, the design, manufacture and irradiation behaviour of graphite reflectors in HTGR-type reactors are described. The 12 lectures have been recorded in the data base separately. (RF) [de

  13. Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth's most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability

  14. Operation status and prospect of radioisotope production facility in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minjin; Jung, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    At the RIPF at HANARO, Radioisotopes for industrial and medical purpose are produced and research and development for various radioisotopes are carried out. Major products include Ir-192 for NDT, I-131 for treatment and diagnosis of thyroid cancer, Mo-99/Tc-99m Generator for imaging diagnosis of cancer. Production of radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical is being increased every year. Due to world-wide unstableness in the supply of Mo-99, a technology to produce (n,γ)Mo-99 generator at HANARO had been developed as a short term countermeasure. It will be available by the end of 2012. As a long term countermeasure, we are trying to build a new fully dedicated isotope reactor that will produce Fission Mo-99. At present, utilization of RIPF at HANARO is being increased. However when the construction of a new dedicated isotope reactor is completed in 2016, the role of the existing facility and new facility should be established accordingly so that none of the facilities are idling. In the near future, when the prospect of a utilization plan is completed, we expect an opportunity to present the result. (author)

  15. Fluoride production in RPCs operated with F-compound gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Simone, A.; Liberti, B.; Palummo, L.; Santonico, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are gaseous detectors widely used in LCH experiments for muon trigger systems and time of flight measurement due to their very good time resolution. Gas mixtures with a prevalence of HFC components are generally adjoint used to achieve a lower charge per count an consequently an higher rate capability. The decomposition of HFC under electrical discharge produces a significant concentration of fluorine ions F - that can be detected in the RPC exhausted gas. Due to the high chemical reactivity, this pollutant represents a possible cause of the inner surface damaging if it not quickly removed by the gas flow. In this paper various aspects of this phenomenology are investigated. We measured the F - production rate as a function of the detector counting rate and the working point (both in streamer and avalanche mode). The effect of the addition of 0.5% of SF 6 to the test mixture is also shown. We also extensively investigated the ratio between the F - production associated to a the time integral of the working current

  16. Increasing Student Interest and Comprehension of Production Planning and Control and Operations Performance Measurement Concepts Using a Production Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James F., III; Walker, Edward D., II

    2005-01-01

    Production planning and control (PPC) systems and operations performance measures are topics that students generally find both boring and difficult to understand. In the article, the authors present a production line game that they have found to be an effective tool to increase student interest in the topics as well as student comprehension. The…

  17. Transcritical CO{sub 2} process with work output expansion - operating experience and experimental results; Transkritischer CO{sub 2}-Prozess mit arbeitsleistender Entspannung - Betriebserfahrungen und Versuchsergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, P.; Quack, H. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kaelte- und Kryotechnik

    2000-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is an ecologically acceptable and safe refrigerant, but there are energetic disadvantages in certain processes of refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumpt technology. The thermodynamic losses of carbon dioxide are caused on the one hand by high end temperatures of the compression stage and on the other hand by relatively high losses of irreversible throttling expansion. The efficiency could be enhanced by work output during expansion, which is utilized for compression in the second stage of a two-stage compressor. In order to keep the machinery simple, both the expansion with work output and the compression take place inside a fully autonomous combined free-piston unit. The practical results achieved so far prove the validity of the theoretical predictions and show that the machine works both independently and also when integrated in a refrigeration system. Further investigations will be required in order to improve and simplify the new expansion-compression machine. [German] Der Einsatz von Kohlendioxid als Kaeltemittel ist oekologisch wuenschenswert und sicherheitstechnisch unproblematisch. Einer breiten Anwendung von Kohlendioxid wirken vor allem energetische Nachteile in bestimmten Prozessen der Kaelte-, Klima- und Waermepumpentechnik entgegen. Im Vergleich zu den heute ueblichen Kaeltemitteln sind die thermodynamischen Verluste des Kohlendioxids zum einen in den hohen Verdichtungsendtemperaturen und zum anderen in den relativ hohen Verlusten der irreversiblen Drosselentspannung begruendet. Eine Moeglichkeit, die Effizienz deutlich zu erhoehen und dadurch mit konkurrierenden Systemen gleichzuziehen, ist der Einsatz einer arbeitsleistenden Entspannung des Kaeltemittels Kohlendioxid einschliesslich der Nutzung fuer die Verdichtung des Kohlendioxids in der zweiten Stufe einer zweistufigen Kompression. Fuer einen moeglichst geringen anlagentechnischen Aufwand wird eine kombinierte Expansions-Kompressions-Maschine verwendet, in der sowohl die

  18. Enhancing productivity: The strategy-to-operations linkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, G. [Kepner-Tregoe, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In its first two decades, commercial nuclear power enjoyed substantial popular acclaim. Why? Because it offered the opportunity to make a cheap product even cheaper when industrial America was dominant. Today, however, the price variable is going in the other direction and with it may go the future of nuclear power. Many approaches are being used to bring down the costs associated with nuclear power, and most are proving to be unsuccessful. What do other industries do when faced with obsolescence? They go back to their strategy and refocus their business consistent with new directions. This paper seeks to promote the results of several decades of of research in a variety of free-market industries regarding the causes of success and failures.

  19. Enhancing productivity: The strategy-to-operations linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, G.

    1995-01-01

    In its first two decades, commercial nuclear power enjoyed substantial popular acclaim. Why? Because it offered the opportunity to make a cheap product even cheaper when industrial America was dominant. Today, however, the price variable is going in the other direction and with it may go the future of nuclear power. Many approaches are being used to bring down the costs associated with nuclear power, and most are proving to be unsuccessful. What do other industries do when faced with obsolescence? They go back to their strategy and refocus their business consistent with new directions. This paper seeks to promote the results of several decades of of research in a variety of free-market industries regarding the causes of success and failures

  20. Fission product poisoning in KS-150 reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the KS-150 reactor was used to study reactivity changes induced by reactor poisoning with fission products Xe 135 and Sm 149 . A comparison of transients caused by the poisoning showed the following differences: (1) the duration of the transient Xe poisoning (2 days) is shorter by one order of magnitude than the duration of Sm poisoning (20 days); however, the level of Xe poisoning is greater approximately by one order than the level of the Sm poisoning; (2) the level of steady-state Xe poisoning depends on the output level of the reactor; steady-state Sm poisoning does not depend on this level; (3) following reactor shutdown Xe poisoning may increase to the maximum value of up to Δrhosub(Xe)=20% and will then gradually decrease; Sm poisoning may reach maximum values of up to Δrhosub(Sm)=2% and does not decrease. (J.B.)

  1. Improved production operating efficiencies through automation: Wascana Energy`s SCADA system implementation in southeast Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, R; Foord, T; Bartle, A

    1996-12-31

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems covering Wascana Energy`s whole southeast Saskatchewan operating area were implemented in 1994-95. The benefits of this automation were described. Operations practices were reviewed and a brief description of the system was provided. Main features of the system described included data storage/retrieval, data display, alarm group organization, alarm call out monitoring, dynagraph display, and the Microsoft SQL server computer. Automation was found to significantly change the operator`s traditional role and altered operation practices in general. SCADA systems were found to improve operating efficiencies and production performance significantly, when properly implemented and utilized. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Effect of important operating parameters on product properties and operation of HDPE slurry reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltanieh, M.; Remezani Saadat Abadi, A.; Dashti, A.; Mokhtari, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a complete model for the mixed flow slurry reactor for polymerization of ethylene to high density polyethylene in the presence of Ziegler-Natta catalyst is presented. In addition to the effects of the multiple active sites, the effect of other important parameters such as the catalyst concentration, co-catalyst, hydrogen, monomer, impurities and pressure on the mass-average and number-average polymer product chain length, the average product distribution index and the required residence time for the reactor were investigated. The simulation results show that as the catalyst, hydrogen and solvent concentrations increase, the mass and number-average polymer chain length decrease, whereas with increasing monomer concentration and pressure, the average molecular weight increases. The effects of these parameters on the polydispersity index and residence time do not follow the same trend and their relationship changes in some of these variables

  3. Health Effects of Operators in the Production of Wood Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, K.; Arvidsson, H.; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, C. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Eriksson, K. [Univ. Hospital of Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Andersson, E. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

    2006-07-15

    The environmental and energy policy in Sweden is aiming to replace fossil energy with renewable sources such as biofuels, e.g., wood Pellets produced from shavings and sawdust of pine and spruce. Reported health effects in the wood processing industries are airway, eye and skin irritation, reduced lung function as well as eczema. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of airway and skin symptoms and measure lung function in a population of pellet operators in the Swedish wood industry. Additional reported acute effects from the airways, eyes, nose and skin were recorded. From May 2004 until April 2005 50 blue-collar workers from four Swedish pellet-producing industries were investigated. The study included a questionnaire about skin and airway symptoms (n=50), acute effect questionnaire (n=67; 44 individuals) as well as a test of the lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift (n=118; 39 individuals). Acute effects questionnaire and spirometry were done one to three times per participants and for the acute effects the worker had to assess their symptoms in the airways, eyes, nose and skin between 6 and 8 times during a day. The results from the symptom questionnaires were compared with reference data from other Swedish studies and the lung function data with a European reference material. Statistical tests used were chi-2-test for the questionnaire, t-test for lung function before shift compared expected values, and for difference in lung function between before and after work shift mixed models with subjects as a random factor. No statistical significant difference was seen for the skin and airway symptoms in the questionnaire. Reported acute effects were seen especially for eye and nose symptoms (table 1). Spirometry showed significantly higher forced vital capacity (FVC; p=0.0003) and no difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; p=0.08) before work shift compared to expected values. FVC was 108,1 % and FEV1 was 104

  4. Recycling production designs: the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Tracey H.

    The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product Two downstream aluminum remelters will incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges persist because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the necessity to establish a long term recycling production plan in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses? A methodology is presented to calculate the optimal recycling center production parameters including 1) the number of recycled products, 2) the volume of recycled products, 3) allocation of recycled materials across recycled products, 4) allocation of recycled products across finished alloys, 4) the level of flexibility for the recycling center to operate. The methods implemented include, 1) an optimization model to describe the long term operations of the recycling center, 2) an uncertainty simulation tool, 3) a simulation optimization method, 4) a dynamic simulation tool with four embedded daily production optimization models of varying degrees of flexibility. This methodology is used to quantify the performance of several recycling center production designs of varying levels of coordination and flexibility. This analysis allowed the identification of the optimal recycling

  5. Operator-Oriented Product and Production Process Design for Manufacturing, Maintenance and Upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, G. van; Bosch, T.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of production in the manufacturing industry is changing, and companies face large challenges. Customers expect fast delivery times, proven sustainability, flexibility, and frequent product upgrades. To stay competitive and manage rapid technological demands, a parallel, iterative and

  6. Measuring hydrodynamical expansion via the production of identified hadrons in Pb$-$Pb collisions with ALICE arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Jacazio, Nicolò

    During the LHC Run-2, ALICE has collected data from Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV. The centrality dependence of identified particle production, including elliptic ($v_{2}$) and higher harmonic flow coefficients ($v_{3},v_{4}$), has been measured. The high-precision measurement of transverse momentum ($p_{\\rm T}$) differential elliptic flow of the $\\phi$-meson (whose mass is close to that of the proton) allows for a unique testing of mass ordering at low $p_{\\rm T}$ as well as baryon and meson grouping at intermediate $p_{\\rm T}$. The $p_{\\rm T}$-differential hadron spectra are presented and, together with flow coefficients, compared with state-of-the-art calculations from models based on relativistic hydrodynamics coupled with UrQMD. The added transport code is to describe rescattering in the hadronic phase, which has been successful in describing the $p_{\\rm T}$-spectra of identified particles up to a few GeV/$c$. Moreover, results from the simultaneous Blast-Wave fit to the $p_{\\rm T...

  7. IL-33 and IgE stimulate mast cell production of IL-2 and regulatory T cell expansion in allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, P; Shefler, I; Moshkovits, I; Munitz, A; Horwitz Klotzman, D; Mekori, Y A; Hershko, A Y

    2017-11-01

    We have previously shown that mast cells (MCs) suppress chronic allergic dermatitis in mice. The underlying mechanism involves MC-derived IL-2, which supports regulatory T cell (Treg) response at the site of inflammation. However, it is not clear what are the factors that drive MCs to produce IL-2. To understand the mechanisms that lead to IL-2 production from MCs in chronic allergic dermatitis. Isolated murine bone marrow-derived MCs (BMMCs) were incubated with various stimulators, and IL-2 production was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. The response of signalling pathways was evaluated by MAPK inhibitors and Western blot analysis. The effect of MC-IL-2 on Tregs was studied by incubation of splenic T cells with conditioned media obtained from activated BMMCs. Dermatitis was elicited by repeated exposures of mouse ears to oxazolone. MCs in mouse and human skin samples were evaluated by immunostaining. BMMCs released IL-2 in response to IL-33, and IL-2 production was further enhanced by concomitant FcεRI activation. The effect of IL-33 was mediated by activation of the MAPK family members. IL-2 in conditioned media from IL-33 and IgE-stimulated BMMCs led to considerable expansion of Tregs in vitro. IL-33 levels were elevated in oxazolone-challenged ears along with increased numbers of IL-2-expressing MCs. Human skin with chronic inflammation also contained IL-2-expressing MCs that colocalized with IL-33 staining in the dermis. IL-33, in collaboration with IgE, is critical for MC-IL-2 production in allergic skin disease, thus leading to Treg stimulation and suppression of allergic dermatitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS VERIFICATION TESTING, HOW IT BENEFITS THE BOILER BAGHOUSE OPERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program for baghouse filtration products developed by the Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center, one of six Centers under the ETV Program, and discusses how it benefits boiler baghouse operators. A...

  9. N=2 superconformal models, Landau-Ginsburg Hamiltonians and the ε expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, P.S.; West, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The anomalous dimensions of a class of operators, operator product expansions and the central change, c, are calculated in a family of N=2 supersymmetric two-dimensional Landau-Ginsburg models. The results allow the identification of these theories with N=2 minimal superconformal models. A key role is placed by the N=2 non-renormalization theorem. (orig.)

  10. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Ship Power Plant Operating with Waste Heat Recovery through Combined Heat and Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Grljušić

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to study a cogeneration plant for combined heat & power (CHP production that utilises the low-temperature waste energy in the power plant of a Suezmax-size oil tanker for all heating and electricity requirements during navigation. After considering various configurations, a standard propulsion engine operating at maximum efficiency and a CHP Plant with R245fa fluid using a supercritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC is selected. All the ship heat requirements can be covered by energy of organic fluid after expansion in the turbine, except feeder-booster heating. Hence, an additional quantity of working fluid may be heated using an after Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG directed to the feeder-booster module. An analysis of the obtained results shows that the steam turbine plant does not yield significant fuel savings. However, a CHP plant with R245fa fluid using supercritical ORC meets all of the demands for electrical energy and heat while burning only a small amount of additional fuel in HRSG at the main engine off-design operation.

  11. The design of system for operative planning of blast furnace production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malindžák Dušan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A system for operative planning of blast furnace production process is described in the paper. The suggested system is based on the use of a new hierarchy of operative plans, consisting of one-month plan, (7+3 days plan, and 24-hour plan. The system allows smoothing of production process at the blast furnace plant, and at the same time satisfies all requirements of the steel plant regarding to the amount of pig iron.

  12. Recent Enhancements in NOAA's JPSS Land Product Suite and Key Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Yu, Y.; Zhan, X.; Vargas, M.; Ek, M. B.; Zheng, W.; Wu, Y.; Smirnova, T. G.; Benjamin, S.; Ahmadov, R.; James, E.; Grell, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    A suite of operational land products has been produced as part of NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) program to support a wide range of operational applications in environmental monitoring, prediction, disaster management and mitigation, and decision support. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) and the operational JPSS satellite series forms the basis of six fundamental and multiple additional added-value environmental data records (EDRs). A major recent improvement in the land-based VIIRS EDRs has been the development of global gridded products, providing a format and science content suitable for ingest into NOAA's operational land surface and coupled numerical weather prediction models. VIIRS near-real-time Green Vegetation Fraction is now in the process of testing for full operational use, while land surface temperature and albedo are under testing and evaluation. The operational 750m VIIRS active fire product, including fire radiative power, is used to support emission modeling and air quality applications. Testing the evaluation for operational NOAA implementation of the improved 375m VIIRS active fire product is also underway. Added-value and emerging VIIRS land products include vegetation health, phenology, near-real-time surface type and surface condition change, and other biogeophysical variables. As part of the JPSS program, a global soil moisture data product has also been generated from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) sensor on the GCOM-W1 (Global Change Observation Mission - Water 1) satellite since July 2012. This product is included in the blended NESDIS Soil Moisture Operational Products System, providing soil moisture data as a critical input for land surface modeling.

  13. A Study of Digging Productivity of an Electric Rope Shovel for Different Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Babaei Khorzoughi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A performance monitoring study of an electric rope shovel operating in an open pit coal mine was conducted. As the mining industry moves toward higher productivity, profitability and predictability, the need for more reliable, productive and efficient mining shovels increases. Consequently, it is critical to study the productivity of these machines and to understand the effect of different operational parameters on that. In this paper a clustering analysis is performed to classify shovel digging effort and behaviour based on digging energy, dig time and payload per pass. Then the influence of the operator on the digging efficiency and productivity of the machine is analyzed with a focus on operator technique during digging. A statistical analysis is conducted on different cycle time components (dig time, swing time, return time for different operators. In addition to time components, swing and return angles as well as loading rate and mucking rate are observed and analyzed. The results of this study help to understand the effect of different operators on the digging productivity of the shovel and then to set the best operator practice.

  14. Arithmetical and geometrical means of generalized logarithmic and exponential functions: Generalized sum and product operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruda, Tiago Jose; Silva Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Sangaletti Tercariol, Cesar Augusto; Souto Martinez, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    One-parameter generalizations of the logarithmic and exponential functions have been obtained as well as algebraic operators to retrieve extensivity. Analytical expressions for the successive applications of the sum or product operators on several values of a variable are obtained here. Applications of the above formalism are considered

  15. Continuous operation of a pilot plant for the production of beryllium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, T C; Amaral, S; Silveira, C M.S.; de Oliveira, A P [Instituto de Tecnologia, Governador Valadares (Brazil)

    1975-12-01

    A method of obtaining beryllium oxide with a purity of 99,2% was developed in a pilot plant with a capacity of 7 tons per month destined to operate continuously. The operation market prospects and control of production with the objective of obtaining internacional technical grade beryllium oxide are discussed.

  16. Continuous operation of a pilot plant for the production of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, T.C.; Amaral, S.; Silveira, C.M.S.; Oliveira, A.P. de

    1975-01-01

    A method of obtaining beryllium oxide with a purity of 99,2% was developed in a pilot plant with a capacity of 7 tons per month destined to operate continuously. The operation market prospects and control of production with the objective of obtaining internacional technical grade beryllium oxide are discussed [pt

  17. Simulation of nuclear plant operation into a stochastic energy production model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, R.L.

    1983-04-01

    A simulation model of nuclear plant operation is developed to fit into a stochastic energy production model. In order to improve the stochastic model used, and also reduce its computational time burdened by the aggregation of the model of nuclear plant operation, a study of tail truncation of the unsupplied demand distribution function has been performed. (E.G.) [pt

  18. Operating conditions of T.B.P. line uranium purification plant, for uranium dioxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardich, R.N.; La Gamma, A.M.; Anasco, R.; Soler, S.M.G. de; Isnardi, E.; Gea, V.; Chiaraviglio, R.; Matyjasczyk, E.; Aramayo, R.

    1992-01-01

    In this contribution are presented the operative conditions and the results obtained step of the Uranium dioxide production plant of Argentina. The refining step involve the Uranium concentrate dissolution, the silica ageing, the filtration and liquid - liquid extraction with n-tributyl phosphate solution in kerosene. The established operative conditions allow to obtain Uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear purity in industrial scale. (author)

  19. Operations Strategy Development in Project-based Production – a building contractor implements Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study how operations strategy innovation occurs in project-based production and organisation. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal case study encompassing the processes at the company headquarters and in two projects using Lean. Findings: The operations strategy development com...

  20. ASPECTS REGARDING THE SETTING OF TIME STANDARDS FOR THE PRODUCTION AND SEWING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SECAN Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the technological process of manufacture of a shoe for women in IL system in order to establish the time and the production norm in the processing-sewing procedure. The sequence of operations is presented in a case study that analyzed how can be obtained the upper assembly of a footwear product that later becomes integral part into the finished product. Drawing up the technological process is done considering both the manual operations and the manual-mechanical operations for processing and assembling the parts that make the whole upper assembly by gluing the parts, by seaming and securing the joints. The type of equipment chosen to carry out operations is influencing through its productivity the necessary material calculated and hence the labour force required. The amount of time consists of time needed for preparation-finishing time, operative time, time of working place service and time of regulated interruptions. These periods of times were determined basically by timing assistance of the manufacturing process throughout its development. Production norm is calculated on the basis of the standard time, taking into account that it represents the amount of products manufactured in a work shift In order to improve the process by reducing the time of production and the number of workers engaged we are considering the automation of the manufacturing process by using modern methods using laser cutting or cutting under running water, automatic sewing machines, strip conveyor belts with pace imposed etc.

  1. Stability of the Markov operator and synchronization of Markovian random products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Lorenzo J.; Matias, Edgar

    2018-05-01

    We study Markovian random products on a large class of ‘m-dimensional’ connected compact metric spaces (including products of closed intervals and trees). We introduce a splitting condition, generalizing the classical one by Dubins and Freedman, and prove that this condition implies the asymptotic stability of the corresponding Markov operator and (exponentially fast) synchronization.

  2. An Active Learning Exercise for Product Design from an Operations Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen; Baker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Product design is a topic that is regularly covered in introductory operations management courses. However, a pedagogical challenge exists related to the presentation of introductory-level product design in a way that promotes active learning. The hands-on exercise presented in this article provides instructors with an activity that gives students…

  3. Exposure Control for Operations and Maintenance at the Accelerator Production of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, D.H.

    1998-09-01

    The APT will be designed and operated to support continuous tritium production. Tritium is an essential ingredient in U.S. nuclear weapons. The APT will be designed and staffed to support continuous production of tritium by trained, qualified, and certified personnel

  4. MOPITT Near Real-Time Data for LANCE: Automatic Quality Assurance and Comparison to Operational Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alonso, S.; Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.; Ziskin, D.

    2017-12-01

    Terra-MOPITT (the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument) near real-time (NRT) carbon monoxide (CO) products have been selected for distribution through NASA's LANCE (the Land, Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS). MOPITT version 7 NRT data will be made publicly available within 3 hours from observation. The retrieval process is the same for both MOPITT NRT and operational products, albeit for the former it is constrained to use ancillary data available within the latency time. Among other requirements, LANCE NRT products must be examined for quality assurance (QA) purposes and relative errors between NRT and operational products must be quantified. Here we present an algorithm for automatic MOPITT NRT QA aimed to identify artifacts and separate those from anomalously high but real CO values. The algorithm is based on a comparison to the statistics of MOPITT operational products. We discuss the algorithm's performance when tested by applying it to three MOPITT datasets: a known (and corrected) artifact in version 4 operational data, anomalously high CO values in operational data during the 2015 Indonesia fires, and actual NRT data. Last, we describe results from a quantitative comparison between MOPITT NRT data and their operational counterparts.

  5. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of Investigation To Terminate Certification of Eligibility Pursuant to... Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation...

  6. 29 CFR 784.110 - Performing operations both on nonaquatic products and named aquatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the exemptions is applicable to the making of any commodities from ingredients only part of which... codfish cakes, clam chowder, dog food, crab cakes, or livestock food containing aquatic products is often...

  7. Nuclear graphite development, operational problems, and resolution of these problems at the Hanford production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper chronicles the history of the Hanford Production Reactor, from the initial design considerations for B, D, and F Reactors through the selection of the agreed method for safe disposal of the decommissioned reactors. The operational problems that challenged the operations and support staff of each new generation of production reactors, the engineering actions an operational changes that alleviated or resolved the immediate problems, the changes in reactor design and design-bases for the next generation of production reactors, and the changes in manufacturing variables that resulted in new ''improved'' grades of nuclear graphites for use in the moderators of the Hanford Production Reactors are reviewed in the context of the existing knowledge-base and the mission-driven priorities on the time. 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Operational Excellence through Schedule Optimization and Production Simulation of Application Specific Integrated Circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, John Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Padilla, Denise D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zwerneman, April Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Steven P [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Upcoming weapon programs require an aggressive increase in Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) production at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL has developed unique modeling and optimization tools that have been instrumental in improving ASIC production productivity and efficiency, identifying optimal operational and tactical execution plans under resource constraints, and providing confidence in successful mission execution. With ten products and unprecedented levels of demand, a single set of shared resources, highly variable processes, and the need for external supplier task synchronization, scheduling is an integral part of successful manufacturing. The scheduler uses an iterative multi-objective genetic algorithm and a multi-dimensional performance evaluator. Schedule feasibility is assessed using a discrete event simulation (DES) that incorporates operational uncertainty, variability, and resource availability. The tools provide rapid scenario assessments and responses to variances in the operational environment, and have been used to inform major equipment investments and workforce planning decisions in multiple SNL facilities.

  9. International Production and Global Logistics Operations : Management Issues in Global Logistics with Offshored Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Korrmann, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    This paper is directed at discussing some of the management issues, problems and solutions of logistics in the context of offshored productive activities The introduction includes a discussion of the logistics topics and an introduction of the economic logic of offshoring. The main part analyses the logistics topics with regard to the internationally fragmented production. The topics of logistics include: Information flow and integration, transportation, inventory management, warehousing and ...

  10. Transition of the GOES Evapotranspiration and Drought Product System (GET-D) into Operations at NOAA/NESDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Fang, L.; Zhan, X.; Otkin, J.

    2016-12-01

    North America at a spatial resolution of 8 km. This talk will focus on the evaluation of the operational data products, lessons learned from the transition into operations and the planned global expansion of the GET-D system at NOAA.

  11. The effect of the greek research reactor operating schedule on its fission product inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annousis, J.N., Armyriotis, J.S.

    1987-12-01

    A simple method to convert the fission product inventory of the 'Democritos' uous Greek Research Reactor (GRR) corresponding to its continuous operation over a given time interval, into the inventory corresponting to GRR discontinuous but periodic operation of the same total duration, is presented in this paper. Relevant correction factors for 31 radioecologically significant radionuclides of the inventory are given as a function of the number of hours or operation per day, 5 days per week of the GRR, according to its present of possible future operating schedule

  12. The effect of the Greek Research Reactor operating schedule on its fission product inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANOUSSIS, J.N.; ARMYRIOTIS, J.S.

    1987-12-01

    Full text:A simple method to convert the fission product inventory of ''Demokritos'' Greek Research Reactor(GRR) corresponding to its continuous operation over a given time interval, into the inventory corresponding to GRR discontinuous but periodic operation of the same total duration, is presented in this paper. Relevant correction factors for 31 radioecologically significant radionuclides of the inventory are given as a function of the number of hours of operation per day, 5 days per week of the GRR, according to its present or possible future operating schedule. (author)

  13. Research on the performance evaluation of agricultural products supply chain integrated operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiake; Wang, Xifu; Liu, Yang

    2017-04-01

    The agricultural product supply chain integrated operation can ensure the quality and efficiency of agricultural products, and achieve the optimal goal of low cost and high service. This paper establishes a performance evaluation index system of agricultural products supply chain integration operation based on the development status of agricultural products and SCOR, BSC and KPI model. And then, we constructing rough set theory and BP neural network comprehensive evaluation model with the aid of Rosetta and MATLAB tools and the case study is about the development of agricultural products integrated supply chain in Jing-Jin-Ji region. And finally, we obtain the corresponding performance results, and give some improvement measures and management recommendations to the managers.

  14. Functional perturbative RG and CFT data in the ϵ -expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Safari, M.; Vacca, G. P.

    2018-01-01

    We show how the use of standard perturbative RG in dimensional regularization allows for a renormalization group-based computation of both the spectrum and a family of coefficients of the operator product expansion (OPE) for a given universality class. The task is greatly simplified by a straight......We show how the use of standard perturbative RG in dimensional regularization allows for a renormalization group-based computation of both the spectrum and a family of coefficients of the operator product expansion (OPE) for a given universality class. The task is greatly simplified...... several results for the whole family of renormalizable multi-critical models ϕ2 n. Whenever comparison is possible our RG results explicitly match the ones recently derived in CFT frameworks....

  15. Productivity and Cost Analysis of Forest Harvesting Operation in Matang Mangrove Forest, Perak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Empawi Tindit

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Matang Mangrove Forest is under systematic management since 1902 and still considered as the best managed mangrove forest in the world. This research was conducted to measure the time and productivity of forest harvesting operation and also to analyze the cost and revenue of mangrove forest harvesting operation at Matang mangrove forest. This project had been carried out in cooperation with Seri Sepetang Enterprise, one of the harvesting licenses in Kuala Sepetang, Perak. Data collections were taken in every station starting from standing tree until to the Kiln-Drying jetty. The data then calculated by using the formulas of productivity and cost analysis. As the result, the productivity for felling, bucking and debarking, the manual skidding using wheel-barrow and the water transportation are 1.84 tan/hour, 3.82 tan/hour and 4.64 tan/hour respectively. The cost for each operation of 9 tan log volume for felling, bucking and debarking, the manual skidding using wheel-barrow and the water transportation are RM 56.88, RM 10.80 and RM 36.72 respectively. As the revenue, the company paid RM 260 per 9 tan of log for the in-forest operation (felling, manual skidding and loading to the ship and pay RM 80 per 9 tan for the water transportation, and they gained the net profit of RM 192.32 and RM 43.28 respectively. The average of forest harvesting operation is twice operation in a day (equal with 2 x 9-ton volume of log production a day, so they will gain a double profit. In conclusion, the forest harvesting operation is sustainably managed for supplying the raw material of charcoal industries in Matang mangrove forest. Since, they work manually and spend much energy in this forest harvesting operation, so for further study it recommends to conduct the ergonomics evaluation during forest harvesting operation at Matang Mangrove Forest.

  16. BIM-Integrated Construction Operation Simulation for Just-In-Time Production Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional construction planning, which depends on historical data and heuristic modification, prevents the integration of managerial details such as productivity dynamics. Specifically, the distance between planning and execution brings cost overruns and duration extensions. To minimize variations, this research presents a Building Information Modeling (BIM-integrated simulation framework for predicting productivity dynamics at the construction planning phase. To develop this framework, we examined critical factors affecting productivity at the operational level, and then forecast the productivity dynamics. The resulting plan includes specific commands for retrieving the required information from BIM and executing operation simulations. It consists of the following steps: (1 preparing a BIM model to produce input data; (2 composing a construction simulation at the operational level; and (3 obtaining productivity dynamics from the BIM-integrated simulation. To validate our framework, we applied it to a structural steel model; this was due to the significance of steel erections. By integrating BIM with construction operation simulations, we were able to create reliable construction plans that adapted to project changes. Our results show that the developed framework facilitates the reliable prediction of productivity dynamics, and can contribute to improved schedule reliability, optimized resource allocation, cost savings associated with buffers, and reduced material waste.

  17. Design and operation of a continuous integrated monoclonal antibody production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Fabian; Ulmer, Nicole; Wolf, Moritz; Decker, Lara; Schneider, Veronika; Wälchli, Ruben; Karst, Daniel; Souquet, Jonathan; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    The realization of an end-to-end integrated continuous lab-scale process for monoclonal antibody manufacturing is described. For this, a continuous cultivation with filter-based cell-retention, a continuous two column capture process, a virus inactivation step, a semi-continuous polishing step (twin-column MCSGP), and a batch-wise flow-through polishing step were integrated and operated together. In each unit, the implementation of internal recycle loops allows to improve the performance: (a) in the bioreactor, to simultaneously increase the cell density and volumetric productivity, (b) in the capture process, to achieve improved capacity utilization at high productivity and yield, and (c) in the MCSGP process, to overcome the purity-yield trade-off of classical batch-wise bind-elute polishing steps. Furthermore, the design principles, which allow the direct connection of these steps, some at steady state and some at cyclic steady state, as well as straight-through processing, are discussed. The setup was operated for the continuous production of a commercial monoclonal antibody, resulting in stable operation and uniform product quality over the 17 cycles of the end-to-end integration. The steady-state operation was fully characterized by analyzing at the outlet of each unit at steady state the product titer as well as the process (HCP, DNA, leached Protein A) and product (aggregates, fragments) related impurities. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1303-1313, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Provincial hydro expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froschauer, K J

    1993-01-01

    A study of the development of five provincial hydroelectric utilities in Canada indicates that power companies and the state invited manufacturers to use hydroelectricity and natural resources in order to diversify provincial economies. These hydro expansions also show that utilities and government designed hydro projects to serve continental requirements; serving both objectives became problematic. It is argued that when the Canadian state and firms such as utilities use hydro expansions to serve both continentalism and industrialization, then at best they foster dependent industrialization and staple processing. At worst, they overbuild the infrastructure to generate provincial surplus energy for continental, rather than national, integration. Hydro developments became subject to state intervention in Canada mainly through the failures of private utilities to provide power for the less-lucrative industrial markets within provincial subregions. Although the state and utilities invited foreign firms to manufacture hydro equipment within the provinces and others to use electricity to diversify production beyond resource processing, such a diversification did not occur. Since 1962, ca 80% of industrial energy was used to semi-process wood-derived products, chemicals, and metals. The idea for a national power network became undermined by interprovincial political-economic factors and since 1963, the federal national/continential power policy prevailed. 187 refs., 6 figs., 52 tabs.

  19. Operability Guidelines For Product Tanker In Heavy Weather In The Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudronja Luka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents operability guidelines for seafarers on a product tanker which navigates in the Adriatic Sea during heavy weather. Tanker route starts from the Otranto strait in the south to the island Krk in the north of Adriatic Sea. Heavy weather is caused by south wind called jugo (blowing from E-SE to SS-E, sirocco family. Operability guidelines are given based on an operability criteria platform for presenting ship seakeeping characteristics. Operability criteria considered in this paper are propeller emergence, deck wetness and bow acceleration of a product tanker. Limiting values of mentioned criteria determine sustainable speed. Heavy weather is described by extreme sea state of 7.5 m wave height. Wave spectrum used in this paper is Tabain spectrum which is developed specifically for Adriatic Sea. Seafarer's approach of decisions making in extreme weather is also shown and servers as a guideline for further research of the authors.

  20. Fission product behaviour during operation of the second Peach Bottom core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Nordwall, H.J. de; Dyer, F.F.; Wichner, R.P.; Martin, W.J.; Kolb, J.O.

    1976-01-01

    The Peach Bottom high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor began operation on 1 June 1967 and continued power production until 9 October 1969, accumulating 452 equivalent full power days (EFPD) operation. After reload, power production with Core 2 began 14 July 1970 and terminated 31 October 1974 after 897 EFPD operation. Surveillance of fission product release and behaviour was intensified during Core 2 operation to permit a wider range of measurements to be made. In addition to monitoring the noble gas content of the fuel element purge system and the coolant circuit, the programme was extended to include measurements of radioactive and other condensible species (including dust) entering or exiting the core and steam generator, and of surface concentrations of gamma-emitting nuclides deposited on the primary coolant surfaces. These data, which were obtained over the operating period April 1971 - October 1974, are summarized and discussed. The data demonstrate that caesium behaviour in the coolant circuit during the first two-thirds of Core 2 life was primarily governed by caesium released during Core 1 operation. The data also indicate that whereas the steam generator surfaces attenuate molecular caesium concentrations in the coolant, the dust-borne component is remarkably persistent. Driver fuel elements were removed from the reactor after 385 EFPD, 701 EFPD, and at end-of-life. These fuel elements are at various stages of an intensive post-irradiation examination. Some of the axial and radial concentration profiles of fission products which have been obtained are likewise presented. Although these profiles indicate varied fission product behaviour, the observations can in general be qualitatively described on the basis of the operational histories of the fuel elements. (author)

  1. Chromatic Derivatives, Chromatic Expansions and Associated Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the basic properties of chromatic derivatives and chromatic expansions and provides an appropriate motivation for introducing these notions. Chromatic derivatives are special, numerically robust linear differential operators which correspond to certain families of orthogonal polynomials. Chromatic expansions are series of the corresponding special functions, which possess the best features of both the Taylor and the Shannon expansions. This makes chromatic derivatives and ...

  2. Operative experience in handling enriched uranium compounds in an U3O8 production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedenthal, M.; Cardenas Yucra, H.R.; Cinat, E.; Pino, H.F.; Surin, C.

    1987-01-01

    The design of a nuclear installation associated with chemical processes depends fundamentally on the risks derived from the materials and process used. The operative experience brings useful data mainly related to the ventilation and equipment design that allow to improve the handling of operational incidents and maintenance work. The paper presents the results extracted from a production campaign; ambient and personal monitoring results from monitorings performed routinely and during special interventions are commented. (Author)

  3. A cost prediction model for machine operation in multi-field production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sopegno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Capacity planning in agricultural field operations needs to give consideration to the operational system design which involves the selection and dimensioning of production components, such as machinery and equipment. Capacity planning models currently onstream are generally based on average norm data and not on specific farm data which may vary from year to year. In this paper a model is presented for predicting the cost of in-field and transport operations for multiple-field and multiple-crop production systems. A case study from a real production system is presented in order to demonstrate the model’s functionalities and its sensitivity to parameters known to be somewhat imprecise. It was shown that the proposed model can provide operation cost predictions for complex cropping systems where labor and machinery are shared between the various operations which can be individually formulated for each individual crop. By so doing, the model can be used as a decision support system at the strategic level of management of agricultural production systems and specifically for the mid-term design process of systems in terms of labor/machinery and crop selection conforming to the criterion of profitability.

  4. Teaching Model Innovation of Production Operation Management Engaging in ERP Sandbox Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinggui Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In light of the course of production operation management status, this article proposes the innovation and reform of the teaching model from three aspects of from the curriculum syllabus reform, the simulation of typical teaching organization model, and the enterprise resource process (ERP sandbox application in the course practice. There are an exhaustive implementation procedure and a further discussion on the promotion outcome. The results indicate that the innovation of teaching model and case studying practice in production operation management based on ERP sandbox simulation is feasible.

  5. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Jason; Lombardi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically-. biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26-43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25......, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MET wastes. This suggests that particular caution should be paid when using the results of lab-scale tests for the evaluation of long-term behaviour expected in the field where the boundary conditions...

  6. Maximization of Egyptian Gas Oil Production Through the Optimal Use of the Operating Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Gas oil is the major fossil fuel consumed around the world. Global gas oil consumption is rising at a steadily fast pace because of its higher combustion efficiency (versus gasoline). The annual increase rate of gas oil consumption in Egypt is 7 % whereas, the world increase rates range from 1.5 % to 2 % . The main sources for producing gas oil in Egypt refiners is the direct production from the atmospheric distillation process units or it may be produced as a side product from vacuum distillation units . Gas oil is produced through hydrocracking process of vacuum distillation side streams and heavy cocked gas oil. Gas oil production yield can be increased through the existing operation process units. Modifications of the current atmospheric and vacuum tower operations will increase gas oil yield rates to 20 % more than the existing production rates. The modification of the operating conditions and adoption of the optimum catalyst of the existing hydrocracking and mild hydro cracking process units improve gas oil production yield. Operating delayed cocker at high temperatures, low pressure and low cycle ratio also support achieving the maximization of gas oil yield

  7. The elimination of waste emissions from oil and gas production operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the principal waste streams that have been identified from the production operations of all Shell Exploration and Production (E and P) companies. A phased approach has been identified to meet their target of eliminating over time all emissions, effluents and discharges that have a negative impact on the environment. In the short/medium term changes in operational procedures, together with end of pipe technology will be used to reduce emissions. In the longer term, fundamental changes to the production process will be required to eliminate the problem as far as possible at source, to re-use waste streams within the process and return any remaining unwanted material to the producing reservoir, without additional contamination. Carbon dioxide is currently regarded as a special case and will be reduced by minimizing the amount of energy consumed and/or wasted in the production process

  8. Production of human platelet lysate by use of ultrasound for ex vivo expansion of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Martina; Albiero, Elena; Alghisi, Alberta; Chieregato, Katia; Lievore, Chiara; Madeo, Domenico; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Astori, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    A medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) is of common use for the expansion of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, its use is discouraged by regulatory authorities because of the risk of zoonoses and immune reactions. Human platelet lysate (PL) obtained by freezing/thawing disruption of platelets has been proposed as a possible substitute of FBS. The process is time-consuming and not well standardized. A new method for obtaining PL that is based on the use of ultrasound is proposed. Platelet sonication was performed by submerging platelet-containing plastic bags in an ultrasonic bath. To evaluate platelet lysis we measured platelet-derived growth factor-AB release. PL efficiency was tested by expanding bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, measuring population doubling time, differentiation capacity and immunogenic properties. Safety was evaluated by karyotyping expanded cells. After 30 minutes of sonication, 74% of platelet derived growth factor-AB was released. PL enhanced BM-MSC proliferation rate compared with FBS. The mean cumulative population doubling (cPD) of cells growth in PL at 10%, 7.5% and 5% was better compared with cPD obtained with 10% FBS. PD time (hours) of MSCs with PL obtained by sonication was shorter than for cPD with PL obtained by freezing/thawing (18.9 versus 17.4, P < 0.01). BM mononucleated cells expressed MSC markers and were able to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. When BM-MSCs and T cells were co-cultured in close contact, immunosuppressive activity of BM-MSCs was maintained. Cell karyotype showed no genetic alterations. The proposed method for the production of PL by sonication could be a safe, efficient and fast substitute of FBS, without the potential risks of FBS. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Production Measurement Model of Open Pit Mine Based on Truck Operation Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional production measurement of truck dispatching system in open pit mine has not been effectively expressed by a mathematical model, which brings a negative effect on the subsequent data mining and a compatibility issue to apply the production measurement with fixed assignment of truck. In this study, based on the proposed concept that truck is not only the carrier of transport material, but also act as the bridges and linkages between the loading sites and the unloading sites, a new truck operation diagram was established, which was further developed to a basic data matrix and a production measurement model. The new model allowed to calculatethe production measurement of the transport, loading, unloading, material and etc, respectively, as well as with any calculation in combination of more than one factor as needed.It solved the compatibility issue between conventional production measurement and the production measurement of fixed assignment of truck with good practical results.

  10. The role of artificial intelligence and expert systems in increasing STS operations productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, C.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is discussed. A number of the computer technologies pioneered in the AI world can make significant contributions to increasing STS operations productivity. Application of expert systems, natural language, speech recognition, and other key technologies can reduce manpower while raising productivity. Many aspects of STS support lend themselves to this type of automation. The artificial intelligence section of the mission planning and analysis division has developed a number of functioning prototype systems which demonstrate the potential gains of applying AI technology.

  11. Operational surface UV radiation product from GOME-2 and AVHRR/3 data

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kujanpää; N. Kalakoski

    2015-01-01

    The surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product, version 1.20, generated operationally in the framework of the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is described. The product is based on the total ozone column derived from the measurements of the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument aboard EUMETSA...

  12. The Bivalve Production Chain in Santa Catarina, Brazil, and its Management and Operational Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Gallon, Alessandra Vasconcelos; Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC); Nascimento, Cristiano; Universidade Federal do Paraná - UFPR; Pfitscher, Elisete Dahmer; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

    2011-01-01

    Bivalve farming (mussels and oysters), a major component in the socio-economic development of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, combines the activities of public and private agencies in fish farming. Current analysis deals with the management and the operational limitations of the local bivalve production chain. Current exploratory research, undertaken by direct observations and the literature on the subject, employs data quality. Results show that the bivalve production chain, comprising ...

  13. Operator Product Formulas in the Algebraic Approach of the Refined Topological Vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Li-Qiang; Wang Li-Fang; Wu Ke; Yang Jie

    2013-01-01

    The refined topological vertex of Iqbal—Kozçaz—Vafa has been investigated from the viewpoint of the quantum algebra of type W 1+∞ by Awata, Feigin, and Shiraishi. They introduced the trivalent intertwining operator Φ which is normal ordered along with some prefactors. We manage to establish formulas from the infinite operator product of the vertex operators and the generalized ones to restore this prefactor, and obtain an explicit formula for the vertex realization of the topological vertex as well as the refined topological vertex

  14. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Norhasni Mohd Asaad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Market globalization, competitive product and services, high economic crises are the most critical factors that influence the success of the manufacturing companies in global market. Therefore it is critical to the manufacturing companies to be efficient in production and lean tool may used to achieve that.  The most frequently used is the Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, even though there are many studies have been conducted in relation to the TPM but there is limited research in investigating the effects of the TPM on operational performance. However, the result of the studies was not consistent, where TPM practice may have positive and negative impact on operational performance. Among the reason is the culture of the organization that influenced the implementation of TPM and operational performance. Due to that this study attempts to investigate the influence of organizational culture on the TPM implementation and operational performance.  Rasch model is used in this study due to its ability in interpreting and analyzing the ability of respondents in performing the difficult items. The online questionnaires were distributed to 63 randomly selected automotive companies located at Northern Region of Malaysia.  Results of the study revealed that the organizational culture has influenced on the successful implementation of TPM and operational performance. Therefore by the implementation of TPM in outstanding organizational culture can improve operational performance.   Keyword: Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, Lean manufacturing, Operational performance, Organizational culture, Rasch modeldoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.2How to cite this article:Mohd Asaad, M.N and Yusoff, R.Z. (2013. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis . The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 72-81. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X.  doi:10.12695/ajtm

  15. Current expansion of the Elliot Lake mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenning, G.

    1982-06-01

    The Elliot Lake mines are located in northern Ontario, on the north shore of Lake Huron. Mining operations in this area started in the mid-1950's and were curtailed during the 1960's. Starting in 1973 Rio Algom's Quirke mine and Denison, the only producers remaining in the area, started to make plans to expand. Increasing production to 30,000 tpd (milled) requires the reopening of the Panel and Stanleigh Mines of the Rio Algom group and the Stanrock-CanMet area at Denison. The first phase of the expansion was preceded by extensive public hearings. Mine production increases, improvement to the facilities at the reopened mines, and the effects on community facilities are described in this paper

  16. The holonomy expansion: Invariants and approximate supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we give a new expansion, based on cyclicity of the trace, to study regularity properties of twisted expectations =Tr H (γU(θ)X(s)). Here X(s)=X 0 e -s 0 Q 2 X 1 e -s 1 Q 2 ...X k e -s k Q 2 is a product of operators X j , regularized by heat kernels e -s j Q 2 with s j >0. The twist groups γ(set-membership sign)Z 2 and U(θ)(set-membership sign)U(1) are commuting symmetries of Q 2 . The name ''holonomy expansion'' arises from picturing as a circular graph, with vertices in the graph representing the operators X j , in the order that they appear in the product, and the line-segment following X j representing the heat kernel e -s j Q 2 . The trace functional is cyclic, so the graph is circular. We generate our expansion by ''transporting'' a vertex X k around the circle, ending in its original position. We choose an X k that transforms under a one-dimensional representation of Z 2 xU(1). For θ in the complement of the discrete set γ sing (where the group Z 2 xU(1) acts trivially on X k ) we obtain an identity between the original expectation and some new expectations. We study an example from supersymmetric quantum mechanics, with a Dirac operator Q(λ) depending on a parameter λ and with a U(1) group of symmetries U(θ). We apply our expansion to invariants Z(λ;θ)=Z(Q(λ);θ) suggested by non-commutative geometry. These invariants are sums of expectations of the form above. We investigate this example as a first step toward developing an expansion to evaluate related invariants arising in supersymmetric quantum field theory. We establish differentiability of Z(λ; θ) in λ for λ(set-membership sign)(0,1] and show Z(λ; θ) is independent of λ. We wish to evaluate Z(λ; θ) at the endpoint λ=0, but Z(0; θ) is ill-defined. We regularize the endpoint, while preserving the U(θ)-symmetry, by replacing Q(λ) 2 with H(ε,λ)=Q(λ) 2 +ε 2 |z| 2 . The regularized function Z(ε, λ; θ) depends on all three variables ε, λ, θ; for fixed θ, it

  17. Operation results and investigations on decommissioning of the molybdenum-99 production plant Rossendorf - AMOR-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, G.; Friedrich, H.; Boessert, W.; Eckardt, A.

    1993-01-01

    Original fuel elements of a research reactor were reprocessed for fission molybdenum production in the facility AMOR-I. In a 10 years operation 8.5*10 15 Bq Mo-99 were produced in more than 400 runs. The production results and many experiences were described in this report. Further a view is given on the strategy of decommissioning. There are shown results of fission product adsorption on and desorption from material surfaces. Possibilities of decontamination are described. The simultaneous effect of corrosion and radioactive radiation on different materials is discussed. This paper is a basis of the licence procedure for decommissioning of the AMOR-I-plant. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Radial expansion and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Nakagawa, T.; Patry, J.P.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    The light systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti were measured at several bombarding energies between ∼ 35 and 95 MeV/nucleon. It was found that the predominant part of the cross section is due to binary collisions. In this paper the focus is placed on the properties of the quasi-projectile nuclei. In the central collisions the excitation energies of the quasi-projectile reach values exceeding largely 10 MeV/nucleon. The slope of the high energy part of the distribution can give only an upper limit of the apparent temperature (the average temperature along the decay chain). The highly excited quasi-projectile may get rapidly fragmented rather than sequentially. The heavy fragments are excited and can emit light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He, α,...) what perturbs additionally the spectrum of these particles. Concerning the expansion energy, one can determine the average kinetic energies of the product (in the quasi-projectile-framework) and compare with simulation values. To fit the experimental data an additional radial expansion energy is to be considered. The average expansion energy depends slightly on the impact parameter but it increases with E * / A, ranging from 0.4 to 1,2 MeV/nucleon for an excitation energy increasing from 7 to 10.5 MeV/nucleon. This collective radial energy seems to be independent of the fragment mass, what is possibly valid for the case of larger quasi-projectile masses. The origin of the expansion is to be determined. It may be due to a compression in the interaction zone at the initial stage of the collision, which propagates in the quasi-projectile and quasi-target, or else, may be due, simply, to the increase of thermal energy leading to a rapid fragment emission. The sequential de-excitation calculation overestimates light particle emission and consequently heavy residues, particularly, at higher excitation energies. This disagreement indicates that a sequential process can not account for the di-excitation of very hot nuclei

  19. The operable modeling of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ethanol production from cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiacheng; Agblevor, Foster A

    2010-03-01

    An operable batch model of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production from cellulose has been developed. The model includes four ordinary differential equations that describe the changes of cellobiose, glucose, yeast, and ethanol concentrations with respect to time. These equations were used to simulate the experimental data of the four main components in the SSF process of ethanol production from microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH101). The model parameters at 95% confidence intervals were determined by a MATLAB program based on the batch experimental data of the SSF. Both experimental data and model simulations showed that the cell growth was the rate-controlling step at the initial period in a series of reactions of cellulose to ethanol, and later, the conversion of cellulose to cellobiose controlled the process. The batch model was extended to the continuous and fed-batch operating models. For the continuous operation in the SSF, the ethanol productivities increased with increasing dilution rate, until a maximum value was attained, and rapidly decreased as the dilution rate approached the washout point. The model also predicted a relatively high ethanol mass for the fed-batch operation than the batch operation.

  20. Environmental and ventilation benefits for underground mining operations using fuel cell powered production equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, C.; Hardcastle, S.

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of replacing diesel engines with fuel cells in mine production equipment were discussed. The paper was part of a multi-year feasibility study conducted to evaluate the use of hydrogen fuel cell-powered equipment to replace diesel engine powered equipment in underground mining operations. The feasibility study demonstrated that fuel cells are capable of eliminating the unwanted by-products of combustion engines. However, the use of fuel cells also reduced the amount of ventilation that mines needed to supply, thereby further reducing energy consumption. This study examined the benefits of replacing diesel engines with fuel cells, and discussed the mitigating qualifiers that may limit ventilation energy savings. Solutions to retaining and maintaining additional ventilation in the event of hydrogen leaks from fuel cell stacks were also investigated. The analyses were conducted on 6 operating mines. Current operating costs were compared with future operating conditions using fuel cell powered production vehicles. Operating costs of the primary ventilation system were established with a mine ventilation simulator. The analysis considered exhaust shaft velocities, heating system air velocities, and levels of silica exposure. Canadian mine design criteria were reviewed. It was concluded that appropriate safeguards are needed along hydrogen distribution lines to lower the impacts of hydrogen leaks. Large financial commitments may also be required to ensure a spark-free environment. 20 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  1. PV System Performance Evaluation by Clustering Production Data to Normal and Non-Normal Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsafarakis, O.; Sinapis, K.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2018-01-01

    The most common method for assessment of a photovoltaic (PV) system performance is by comparing its energy production to reference data (irradiance or neighboring PV system). Ideally, at normal operation, the compared sets of data tend to show a linear relationship. Deviations from this linearity

  2. Harvest operations for density management: planning requirements, production, costs, stand damage, and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren D. Kellogg; Stephen J. Pilkerton

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, several studies have been undertaken to determine the planning requirements, productivity, costs, and residual stand damage of harvest operations in thinning treatments designed to promote development of complex forest structure in order to enhance ecological functioning and biological diversity. Th ese studies include the Oregon State...

  3. Deep Learning Object-Recognition in a Design-to-Robotic-Production and -Operation Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Cheng, A.; Bier, H.H.; Mostafavi, S.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new instance in a series of discrete proof-of-concept implementations of comprehensively intelligent built-environments based on Design-to-Robotic-Production and -Operation (D2RP&O) principles developed at Delft University of Technology (TUD). With respect to D2RP, the

  4. General concept of a gas engine for a hybrid vehicle, operating on methanol dissociation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Aleinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Schindler, Y.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a general concept of a hybrid propulsion system, based on an SI internal combustion engine fueled by methanol dissociation products (MDP). The proposed hybrid propulsion scheme is a series hybrid, which allows the engine to be operated in an on-off mode at constant optimal regime. The engine is fed by gaseous products of methanol dissociation (mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) emerging from an on-board catalytic reformer. The general scheme and base operation features of the propulsion system are described. The benefits that may be achieved by combining the well-known idea of on-board methanol dissociation with the hybrid vehicle concept are discussed. The proposed scheme is compared with those of systems operating on gasoline, liquid methanol, hydrogen and also with the multi-regime (not hybrid) engine fed by MDP

  5. Efficient operation of a multi-purpose reservoir in Chile: Tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to

  6. Boundedness and compactness of a new product-type operator from a general space to Bloch-type spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Stević

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We characterize the boundedness and compactness of a product-type operator, which, among others, includes all the products of the single composition, multiplication, and differentiation operators, from a general space to Bloch-type spaces. We also give some upper and lower bounds for the norm of the operator.

  7. The key to successful management of STS operations: An integrated production planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. A.; Thomasen, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Space Transportation System operations managers are being confronted with a unique set of challenges as a result of increasing flight rates, the demand for flight manifest/production schedule flexibility and an emphasis on continued cost reduction. These challenges have created the need for an integrated production planning system that provides managers with the capability to plan, schedule, status and account for an orderly flow of products and services across a large, multi-discipline organization. With increased visibility into the end-to-end production flow for individual and parallel missions in process, managers can assess the integrated impact of changes, identify and measure the interrelationships of resource, schedule, and technical performance requirements and prioritize productivity enhancements.

  8. Analysis of the Effects of a Flexible Ramping Ancillary Service Product on Power System Operations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik

    2015-10-19

    The recent increased interest in utilizing variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and solar in power systems has motivated investigations into new operating procedures. Although these resources provide desirable value to a system (e.g., no fuel costs or emissions), interconnecting them provides unique challenges. Their variable, non-controllable nature in particular requires significant attention, because it directly results in increased power system variability and uncertainty. One way to handle this is via new operating reserve schemes. Operating reserves provide upward and downward generation and ramping capacity to counteract uncertainty and variability prior to their realization. For instance, uncertainty and variability in real-time dispatch can be accounted for in the hour-ahead unit commitment. New operating reserve methodologies that specifically account for the increased variability and uncertainty caused by VG are currently being investigated and developed by academia and industry. This paper examines one method inspired by the new operating reserve product being proposed by the California Independent System Operator. The method is based on examining the potential ramping requirements at any given time and enforcing those requirements via a reserve demand curve in the market-clearing optimization as an additional ancillary service product.

  9. Biogas production and distribution. Operators' health and safety. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardeur-Algros, E.; Chesnot, T.; Charissou, A.M.; Paris, T.; Bronner, C.

    2013-06-01

    Production and recovery of biogas from different substrates of agricultural, urban and industrial issues are at the heart of sustainable development for the production of renewable energy, reducing greenhouse gases and waste treatment. In 2011, in France, about 200 biogas plants were operational. Moreover, about 300 ISDND (nonhazardous waste storage or landfill sites) also produce biogas, about 90 that of them valorize it. Because of regulatory contexts and favorable measures to bolster the economy, the number of sites is growing and anaerobic pathways are diversifying in terms of substrate / treated waste, anaerobic digestion processes and ways of valorization. So it seems appropriate to focus on the health and safety of workers potentially exposed to various hazards during operations of monitoring, maintenance or malfunction of facilities. First, through a literature search and a query of experts, data such as substrate, digestate and biogas composition, information feedback on reported incidents / accidents or accidents at work and illnesses of operators have been sought. Then, critical points concerning the health and safety of operators in these sectors were identified by implementing some steps of HACCP (Hazard Analysis - Critical Control Points). Five sectors (agricultural methanization in farms and in centralized plants - methanization of urban sewage sludge - methanization of household garbage - industrial methanization in sectors like food industry, stationery and chemistry - biogas production from landfill sites) have been studied and led to dedicated syntheses. They summarize the collected information and present an operating diagram indicating the different stages of biogas production and recovery. On this diagram, critical points are identified, assessed according to their importance and are associated with phases of maintenance operation, or malfunction. The results are intended to educate the actors to potential risks and attention they need to

  10. Recombination effect on the expansion process of the laser-producted plasma in the absence and presence of an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, S.

    1979-05-01

    The change of the ionization ratio of the laser-produced plasma during expansion is calculated with a simple model. The results for expansion in the absence of a magnetic field are compared with the experimental results obtained by Baumhacker et al. The recombination is not negligible and it takes place mainly in the first stage of expansion. The ionization ratio of the expanding plasma remains distinctly higher in the presence of a magnetic field. However, in order to maintain full ionization in the plasma during the filling process in a magnetic container, the lower initial density is more favorable and the use of a CO 2 laser (at least in the final stage of plasma heating) seems necessary in the range of currently possible parameters. (orig.)

  11. The importance of production standard operating procedure in a family business company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongdiyanto, C.

    2017-12-01

    Plastic industry is a growing sector, therefore UD X which engage in this business has a great potential to grow as well. The problem faced by this family business company is that no standard operating procedure is used and it lead to problem in the quality and quantity produced. This research is aim to create a production standard operating procedure for UD X. Semistructure interview is used to gather information from respondent to help writer create the SOP. There are four SOP’s created, namely: classifying SOP, sorting SOP, milling SOP and packing SOP. Having SOP will improve the effectiveness of production because employees already know how to work in each stages of production process.

  12.  Optimizing relational algebra operations using discrimination-based joins and lazy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    We show how to implement in-memory execution of the core re- lational algebra operations of projection, selection and cross-product eciently, using discrimination-based joins and lazy products. We introduce the notion of (partitioning) discriminator, which par- titions a list of values according...... to a specied equivalence relation on keys the values are associated with. We show how discriminators can be dened generically, purely functionally, and eciently (worst-case linear time) on top of the array-based basic multiset discrimination algorithm of Cai and Paige (1995). Discriminators provide the basis...... the selection operation to recognize on the y whenever it is applied to a cross-product, in which case it can choose an ecient discrimination-based equijoin implementation. The techniques subsume most of the optimization techniques based on relational algebra equalities, without need for a query preprocessing...

  13. Fermi motion versus co-operative effects in subthreshold pion and energetic gamma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.

    1986-06-01

    Various reaction mechanisms proposed to explain the production of pions at 'sub-threshold' energies and of energetic gammas are examined. They range from the nucleon-nucleon single collision mechanism to a co-operative multi-nucleon process. With a shell model prescription for the initial state energies the single collision picture cannot explain the data. The participation of many nucleons in the pion production process appears to be necessary. We present a statistical model which demands the co-operative action of several of the target and projectile nucleons in the pion production process. The formation of composite fragments alongside with the produced pion is seen to be vital to understand the experimental data within this model. (orig.)

  14. Operating parameters of a reactor for early demonstration of electric power generation and the expansion by realization of advanced tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Hiwatari, Ryoji

    2004-01-01

    Beam driven stable equilibria for a conceptual reactor, Demo-CREST, which was designed for early demonstration of electric power generation, has been investigated. Considering current profiles driven by neutral beams, the attainable normalized beta β N with a stabilization wall is about 3.4 with a normal shear (NS). With reversed shear (RS), a higher β N is attainable. The stable equilibria up to 4.0 can be sustained by a couple of On- and Off-axis beams. In the range of 1.9 N N = 1.9 which is the base design point of Demo-CREST. In the case of RS operation with β N 4.0, the density ratio to the Greenwald limit can be maintain at about unity if high temperature operation with T e > 20 kV is allowable. (author)

  15. Management model of productive capacity: integrating theory of constraints and the global operational efficiency index (IROG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Pacheco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of management capacity in productive systems integrating the concepts of the Theory of Constraints and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The main objective of this study is to discuss and propose a model of management capacity, able to answer the following key questions: i capacity indicators which should be considered and how to measure them to measure the productive capacity of manufacturing systems? ii what is the real productive capacity of the system analyzed under a determined relationship between capacity and demand? The discussion of the proposed model is relevant because the definition of productive capacity system enables better management of resources and capabilities, improve production scheduling on the factory floor and meeting the demands imposed by the market. This paper presents the proposition of using the Operating Income Index Global (IROG with a different approach from traditional literature dealing with the theme, presented by Nakajima (1988. The results of this paper enable to develop a model to determine the capacity of the production system and the impact on the productive capacity of the entire system, not to consider the quality conformances that occur after the bottleneck resource of the production flow.

  16. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, Andrei, E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Morozov, Alexei, E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sleptsov, Alexei, E-mail: sleptsov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Topology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); KdVI, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smirnov, Andrey, E-mail: asmirnov@math.columbia.edu [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Columbia University, Department of Mathematics, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  17. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service overview for operational monitoring of current crop conditions and production forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, J.

    2016-12-01

    The presentation will discuss the current status of the International Production Assessment Division of the USDA ForeignAgricultural Service for operational monitoring and forecasting of current crop conditions, and anticipated productionchanges to produce monthly, multi-source consensus reports on global crop conditions including the use of Earthobservations (EO) from satellite and in situ sources.United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) International Production AssessmentDivision (IPAD) deals exclusively with global crop production forecasting and agricultural analysis in support of the USDAWorld Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) lockup process and contributions to the World Agricultural Supply DemandEstimates (WASE) report. Analysts are responsible for discrete regions or countries and conduct in-depth long-termresearch into national agricultural statistics, farming systems, climatic, environmental, and economic factors affectingcrop production. IPAD analysts become highly valued cross-commodity specialists over time, and are routinely soughtout for specialized analyses to support governmental studies. IPAD is responsible for grain, oilseed, and cotton analysison a global basis. IPAD is unique in the tools it uses to analyze crop conditions around the world, including customweather analysis software and databases, satellite imagery and value-added image interpretation products. It alsoincorporates all traditional agricultural intelligence resources into its forecasting program, to make the fullest use ofavailable information in its operational commodity forecasts and analysis. International travel and training play animportant role in learning about foreign agricultural production systems and in developing analyst knowledge andcapabilities.

  18. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs

  19. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, A.F. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1997-06-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book appears in the authoritative series reporting the international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies. This series provides an overview of Schott's activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide in which glasses and glass ceramics are of interest. Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated. This new extended edition describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics. The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions. Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization. Thus g...

  1. Low thermal expansion glass ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This book is one of a series reporting on international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies With the series, Schott aims to provide an overview of its activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide where glasses and glass ceramics are of interest Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated This volume describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization Thus glass ceramics with thermal c...

  2. Results of dose calculations for NET accidental and normal operation releases of tritium and activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Hasemann, I.

    1992-08-01

    This report documents conditions, data and results of dose calculations for accidental and normal operation releases of tritium and activation products, performed within the NET subtask SEP2.2 ('NET-Benchmark') of the European Fusion Technology Programme. For accidental releases, the computer codes UFOTRI and COSYMA for assessing the radiological consequences, have been applied for both deterministic and probabilistic calculations. The influence on dose estimates of different release times (2 minutes / 1 hour), two release heights (10 m / 150 m), two chemical forms of tritium (HT/HTO), and two different model approaches for the deposition velocity of HTO on soil was investigated. The dose calculations for normal operation effluents were performed using the tritium model of the German regulatory guidelines, parts of the advanced dose assessment model NORMTRI still under development, and the statistical atmospheric dispersion model ISOLA. Accidental and normal operation source terms were defined as follows: 10g (3.7 10 15 Bq) for accidental tritium releases, 10 Ci/day (3.7 10 11 Bq/day) for tritium releases during normal operation and unit releases of 10 9 Bq for accidental releases of activation products and fission products. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Influences of environmental and operational factors on dark fermentative hydrogen production: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Parviz; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Ghafari, Shahin; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen (H 2 ) is one of renewable energy sources known for its non-polluting and environmentally friendly nature, as its end combustion product is water (H 2 O). The biological production of H 2 is a less energy intensive alternative where processes can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Dark fermentation by bacterial biomass is one of multitude of approaches to produce hydrogen which is known as the cleanest renewable energy and is thus receiving increasing attention worldwide. The present study briefly reviews the biohydrogen production process with special attention on the effects of several environmental and operational factors towards the process. Factors such as organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, temperature, and pH studied in published reports were compared and their influences are discussed in this work. This review highlights the variations in examined operating ranges for the factors as well as their reported optimum values. Divergent values observed for the environmental/operational factors merit further exploration in this field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Influences of environmental and operational factors on dark fermentative hydrogen production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Parviz [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ibrahim, Shaliza; Ghafari, Shahin [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Water and Wastewater Research Center (WWRC), Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is one of renewable energy sources known for its non-polluting and environmentally friendly nature, as its end combustion product is water (H{sub 2}O). The biological production of H{sub 2} is a less energy intensive alternative where processes can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Dark fermentation by bacterial biomass is one of multitude of approaches to produce hydrogen which is known as the cleanest renewable energy and is thus receiving increasing attention worldwide. The present study briefly reviews the biohydrogen production process with special attention on the effects of several environmental and operational factors towards the process. Factors such as organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, temperature, and pH studied in published reports were compared and their influences are discussed in this work. This review highlights the variations in examined operating ranges for the factors as well as their reported optimum values. Divergent values observed for the environmental/operational factors merit further exploration in this field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Evaluation of the environmental conditioning factors in the perspective of expansion of ethanol production in Brazil; Avaliacao dos condicionantes ambientais na perspectiva de expansao da producao de etanol no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Conceicao Elaine Cardoso

    2010-03-15

    Various countries have studied the possibility of adding ethanol to gasoline or using pure fuel ethanol as an alternative to petroleum derivatives. Brazil occupies a leading position in this scenario because with its National Alcohol Program (Programa Nacional do Alcool - PROALCOOL), created in 1975, it became the pioneer in setting up a biofuels program. Since then it has accumulated experience and gained mastery of the technology to produce ethanol from sugarcane. Hence there is a strong expectation that the country can become the world's main ethanol exporter. This thesis examines the main environmental impacts associated with the ethanol productive chain, which are relevant conditioning factors for the expansion of this industry in Brazil. The study describes the evolution of PROALCOOL and the overview of current structure of the brazilian sugar-alcohol sector, identifies technologies and environmental management policies, and presents the perspective of expansion of ethanol production. Thus, the study undertakes an extensive review of the literature and examines to what extent the creation and implementation of public and private environmental management policies (legal restrictions and market instruments, respectively) interfere with the expansion of these productive activities. (author)

  6. Calculation of the Fission Product Release for the HTR-10 based on its Operation History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xhonneux, A.; Druska, C.; Struth, S.; Allelein, H.-J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the first criticality of the HTR-10 test reactor in 2000, a rather complex operation history was performed. As the HTR-10 is the only pebble bed reactor in operation today delivering experimental data for HTR simulation codes, an attempt was made to simulate the whole reactor operation up to the presence. Special emphasis was put on the fission product release behaviour as it is an important safety aspect of such a reactor. The operation history has to be simulated with respect to the neutronics, fluid mechanics and depletion to get a detailed knowledge about the time-dependent nuclide inventory. In this paper we report about such a simulation with VSOP 99/11 and our new fission product release code STACY. While STACY (Source Term Analysis Code System) so far was able to calculate the fission product release rates in case of an equilibrium core and during transients, it now can also be applied to running-in-phases. This coupling demonstrates a first step towards an HCP Prototype. Based on the published power histogram of the HTR-10 and additional information about the fuel loading and shuffling, a coupled neutronics, fluid dynamics and depletion calculation was performed. Special emphasis was put on the complex fuel-shuffling scheme within both VSOP and STACY. The simulations have shown that the HTR-10 up to now generated about 2580 MWd while reshuffling the core about 2.3 times. Within this paper, STACY results for the equilibrium core will be compared with FRESCO-II results being published by INET. Compared to these release rates, which are based on a few user defined life histories, in this new approach the fission product release rates of Ag-110m, Cs-137, Sr-90 and I-131 have been simulated for about 4000 tracer pebbles with STACY. For the calculation of the HTR-10 operation history time-dependent release rates are being presented as well. (author)

  7. Evaluation on Core Competitiveness of Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products Based on CWAA Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to relevant data,we select five indices,namely management ability,organization and management capability,enterprise culture,development ability and technical equipment ability,to establish the index system of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.Based on combination weight arithmetic average(CWAA) operator,we advance an evaluation model of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products which involves participation of many people.By inviting five exerts,we conduct evaluation in terms of management ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,organization and management capability of leadership,enterprise culture of wholesale market of agricultural products,future development ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,and exiting technical equipment ability of wholesale market of agricultural products.We adopt hundred-mark system to grade and evaluate core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.The results show that the experts’ evaluation score of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products is high.The evaluation result is reasonable and authentic and this model is feasible.

  8. Fast recovery of platelet production in NOD/SCID mice after transplantation with ex vivo expansion of megakaryocyte from cord blood CD34+ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailian Wang

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Platelets can recover rapidly in vivo by means of expanded CD34+ cells with various cytokines. In our system, a group of TPO, SCF, FL, and IL-6 represents the best cytokine combination for expansion of Mk progenitor cells from CB CD34+ cells.

  9. Efficient pricing of Asian options under Lévy processes based on Fourier cosine expansions Part I : European-style products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an efficient pricing method for arithmetic, and geometric, Asian options under Levy processes, based on Fourier cosine expansions and Clenshaw–Curtis quadrature. The pricing method is developed for both European–style and American–style Asian options, and for discretely and continuously

  10. A production throughput forecasting system in an automated hard disk drive test operation using GRNN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samattapapong, N.; Afzulpurkar, N.

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop a pragmatic system of a production throughput forecasting system for an automated test operation in a hard drive manufacturing plant. The accurate forecasting result is necessary for the management team to response to any changes in the production processes and the resources allocations. In this study, we design a production throughput forecasting system in an automated test operation in hard drive manufacturing plant. In the proposed system, consists of three main stages. In the first stage, a mutual information method was adopted for selecting the relevant inputs into the forecasting model. In the second stage, a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) was implemented in the forecasting model development phase. Finally, forecasting accuracy was improved by searching the optimal smoothing parameter which selected from comparisons result among three optimization algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO), unrestricted search optimization (USO) and interval halving optimization (IHO). The experimental result shows that (1) the developed production throughput forecasting system using GRNN is able to provide forecasted results close to actual values, and to projected the future trends of production throughput in an automated hard disk drive test operation; (2) An IHO algorithm performed as superiority appropriate optimization method than the other two algorithms. (3) Compared with current forecasting system in manufacturing, the results show that the proposed system’s performance is superior to the current system in prediction accuracy and suitable for real-world application. The production throughput volume is a key performance index of hard disk drive manufacturing systems that need to be forecast. Because of the production throughput forecasting result is useful information for management team to respond to any changing in production processes and resources allocation. However, a practically forecasting system for

  11. Development of in situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf H; Rehn, Gustav; Grey, Carl; Nordblad, Mathias; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Woodley, John M

    2017-03-01

    An experimental platform based on scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner enables easy and highly flexible testing of advanced biocatalytic process options such as in situ product removal (ISPR) process strategies. In such a platform, it is possible to compartmentalize different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit operations are highlighted through a case study investigating the asymmetric synthesis of 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine (MPPA) using ω-transaminase, an enzyme in the sub-family of amino transferases (ATAs). An on-line HPLC system was applied to avoid manual sample handling and to semi-automatically characterize ω-transaminases in a scaled-down packed-bed reactor (PBR) module, showing MPPA as a strong inhibitor. To overcome the inhibition, a two-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) ISPR concept was tested using scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner. Through the tested ISPR concept, it was possible to continuously feed the main substrate benzylacetone (BA) and extract the main product MPPA throughout the reaction, thereby overcoming the challenges of low substrate solubility and product inhibition. The tested ISPR concept achieved a product concentration of 26.5 g MPPA  · L -1 , a purity up to 70% g MPPA  · g tot -1 and a recovery in the range of 80% mol · mol -1 of MPPA in 20 h, with the possibility to increase the concentration, purity, and recovery further. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 600-609. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. NASA Symposium on Productivity and Quality: Strategies for Improving Operations in Government and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the Symposium is to increase the awareness of productivity and quality issues in the United States, and to foster national initiatives through government and industry executive leadership. The Symposium will provide a forum for discussion of white-collar productivity issues by experienced executives from successful organizations and an opportunity to share information learned through Productivity initiatives in govemment, industry and academic organizations. It will focus on white-collar organizational issues that are common to large companies and technology oriented organizations. The Symposium program will include strategies for improving operations in government and industry and will be responsive to the management issues viewed necessary to increase our nation's productivity growth rate.

  13. Conformally covariant composite operators in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.; Dobrev, V.K.; Todorov, I.T.

    1983-03-01

    Conformal covariance is shown to determine renormalization properties of composite operators in QCD and in the C 6 3 -model at the one-loop level. Its relevance to higher order (renormalization group improved) perturbative calculations in the short distance limit is also discussed. Light cone operator product expansions and spectral representations for wave functions in QCD are derived. (author)

  14. Development of in-situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit...... operations are highlighted through a case study investigating the asymmetric synthesis of 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine (MPPA) using ω-transaminase, an enzyme in the sub-family of amino transferases (ATAs). An on-line HPLC system was applied to avoid manual sample handling and to semi...

  15. Enhancing Ethanol Production by Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cereviseae under Vacuum Condition in Batch Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is one of renewable energy, which considered being an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to replaced gasoline. In fact, the application of ethanol as fuel still blended with gasoline. The advantages of using ethanol as fuel are that the raw material mostly from renewable resources and the product has low emission which means environmental friendly. Ethanol can be produced by fermentation of sugars (glucose/fructose. The constraint in the ethanol fermentation batch or continuous process is the ethanol product inhibition. Inhibition in ethanol productivity and cell growth can be overcome by taking the product continuously from the fermentor. The process can be done by using a vacuum fermentation. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of pressure and glucose concentration in ethanol fermentation. The research was conducted in laboratory scale and batch process. Equipment consists of fermentor with vacuum system. The observed responses were dried cells of yeast, concentration of glucose, and concentration of ethanol. Observations were made every 4 hours during a day of experiment. The results show that the formation of ethanol has a growth-associated product characteristic under vacuum operation. Vacuum condition can increase the cell formation productivity and the ethanol formation, as it is compared with fermentation under atmospheric condition. The maximum cells productivity and ethanol formation in batch operation under vacuum condition was reached at 166.6 mmHg of pressure. The maximum numbers of cells and ethanol formation was reached at 141.2 mm Hg of pressure. High initial glucose concentration significantly can affect the productivity and the yield of ethanol.

  16. Production practices affecting worker task demands in concrete operations: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Babak; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Construction work involves significant physical, mental, and temporal task demands. Excessive task demands can have negative consequences for safety, errors and production. This exploratory study investigates the magnitude and sources of task demands on a concrete operation, and examines the effect of the production practices on the workers' task demands. The NASA Task Load Index was used to measure the perceived task demands of two work crews. The operation involved the construction of a cast-in-place concrete building under high schedule pressures. Interviews with each crew member were used to identify the main sources of the perceived demands. Extensive field observations and interviews with the supervisors and crews identified the production practices. The workers perceived different level of task demands depending on their role. The production practices influenced the task demands in two ways: (1) practices related to work organization, task design, resource management, and crew management mitigated the task demands; and (2) other practices related to work planning and crew management increased the crew's ability to cope with and adapt to high task demands. The findings identify production practices that regulate the workers' task demands. The effect of task demands on performance is mitigated by the ability to cope with high demands.

  17. Enhancing Ethanol Production by Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cereviseae under Vacuum Condition in Batch Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is one of renewable energy, which considered being an excellent alternativeclean-burning fuel to replaced gasoline. In fact, the application of ethanol as fuel still blended withgasoline. The advantages of using ethanol as fuel are that the raw material mostly from renewableresources and the product has low emission which means environmental friendly. Ethanol can beproduced by fermentation of sugars (glucose/fructose. The constraint in the ethanol fermentationbatch or continuous process is the ethanol product inhibition. Inhibition in ethanol productivityand cell growth can be overcome by taking the product continuously from the fermentor. Theprocess can be done by using a vacuum fermentation. The objective of this research is toinvestigate the effect of pressure and glucose concentration in ethanol fermentation. The researchwas conducted in laboratory scale and batch process. Equipment consists of fermentor withvacuum system. The observed responses were dried cells of yeast, concentration of glucose, andconcentration of ethanol. Observations were made every 4 hours during a day of experiment. Theresults show that the formation of ethanol has a growth-associated product characteristic undervacuum operation. Vacuum condition can increase the cell formation productivity and the ethanolformation, as it is compared with fermentation under atmospheric condition. The maximum cellsproductivity and ethanol formation in batch operation under vacuum condition was reached at166.6 mmHg of pressure. The maximum numbers of cells and ethanol formation was reached at141.2 mm Hg of pressure. High initial glucose concentration significantly can affect the productivityand the yield of ethanol.

  18. Measurement of delayed neutron-emitting fission products in nuclear reactor coolant water during reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The method covers the detection and measurement of delayed neutron-emitting fission products contained in nuclear reactor coolant water while the reactor is operating. The method is limited to the measurement of the delayed neutron-emitting bromine isotope of mass 87 and the delayed neutron-emitting iodine isotope of mass 137. The other delayed neutron-emitting fission products cannot be accurately distinguished from nitrogen 17, which is formed under some reactor conditions by neutron irradiation of the coolant water molecules. The method includes a description of significance, measurement variables, interferences, apparatus, sampling, calibration, standardization, sample measurement procedures, system efficiency determination, calculations, and precision

  19. Social impact assessment of sugar production operations in South Africa : a social life cycle assessment perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Tech. (Quality and Operations Management) This paper focuses on the social impact of the sugar industry in South Africa. A social impact assessment is a method that aims to assess social features of the product and their positive and negative aspects in terms of its processing of raw material to the final stages of its disposal. The objectives of the study were guided by the guidelines on social life cycle assessment of products of the South African Sugar Industry developed by the United...

  20. The simulation of stationary and non-stationary regime operation of heavy water production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, M.; Beca, T.; Constantinescu, D.M.; Dumitrescu, M.; Dimulescu, A.; Isbasescu, G.; Stefanescu, I.; Mihai, M.; Dogaru, C.; Marinescu, M.; Olariu, S.; Constantin, T.; Necula, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper refers to testing procedures of the production capacity of heavy water production pilot, industrial scale plants and of heavy water reconcentration facilities. Simulation codes taking into account the mass and heat transfers inside the exchange columns were developed. These codes provided valuable insight about the isotope build-up of the installation which allowed estimating the time of reaching the stationary regime. Also transient regimes following perturbations in the operating parameters (i.e. temperature, pressure, fluid rates) of the installation were simulated and an optimal rate of routine inspections and adjustments was thus established

  1. Factors affecting water balance and percolate production for a landfill in operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Møoldrup, Per

    2005-02-01

    Percolate production and precipitation data for a full-scale landfill in operation measured over a 13-year period were used to evaluate the impact and importance of the hydrological conditions of landfill sections on the percolate production rates. Both active (open) and closed landfill sections were included in the evaluation. A simple top cover model requiring a minimum of input data was used to simulate the percolate production as a function of precipitation and landfill section hydrology. The results showed that changes over time in the hydrology of individual landfill sections (such as section closure or plantation of trees on top of closed sections) can change total landfill percolate production by more than 100%; thus, percolate production at an active landfill can be very different from percolate production at the same landfill after closure. Furthermore, plantation of willow on top of closed sections can increase the evapotranspiration rate thereby reducing percolate production rates by up to 47% compared to a grass cover. This process, however, depends upon the availability of water in the top layer, and so the evaporation rate will be less than optimal during the summer where soil-water contents in the top cover are low.

  2. Implications of environmental regulations on refinery product specification, operation and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1980s, refiners mainly in OECD countries were occupied with improving their refinery configurations for producing high-value light products which would not only satisfy the product demand slate but also meet the increasingly restrictive environmental regulations. In the 1990s refiners will continue to be challenged to improve the world's air quality not only by producing products that minimize emissions of toxic and hazardous hydrocarbons, but also through the refinery operation itself by investment in upgrading the industry and products to cope with the constant flow of new regulations. These investments will not only be limited to consuming centres but will also be extended to cover exporting refineries as well due to competition of acquiring market shares for product exports. The additional cost will be directly related to product quality and site regulations and will vary from one country to the other. This paper deals mainly with the air pollution and the impact of related environmental issues on the refining industry. Environmental regulations for refinery products in the USA and Europe are examined and international regulations for the tanker industry are noted. (author)

  3. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations, 1992--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sum (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measured do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables

  4. Real time evolution at finite temperatures with operator space matrix product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pižorn, Iztok; Troyer, Matthias; Eisler, Viktor; Andergassen, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to simulate the real time evolution of one-dimensional quantum many-body systems at finite temperature by expressing both the density matrices and the observables as matrix product states. This allows the calculation of expectation values and correlation functions as scalar products in operator space. The simulations of density matrices in inverse temperature and the local operators in the Heisenberg picture are independent and result in a grid of expectation values for all intermediate temperatures and times. Simulations can be performed using real arithmetics with only polynomial growth of computational resources in inverse temperature and time for integrable systems. The method is illustrated for the XXZ model and the single impurity Anderson model. (paper)

  5. Real time evolution at finite temperatures with operator space matrix product states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pižorn, Iztok; Eisler, Viktor; Andergassen, Sabine; Troyer, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    We propose a method to simulate the real time evolution of one-dimensional quantum many-body systems at finite temperature by expressing both the density matrices and the observables as matrix product states. This allows the calculation of expectation values and correlation functions as scalar products in operator space. The simulations of density matrices in inverse temperature and the local operators in the Heisenberg picture are independent and result in a grid of expectation values for all intermediate temperatures and times. Simulations can be performed using real arithmetics with only polynomial growth of computational resources in inverse temperature and time for integrable systems. The method is illustrated for the XXZ model and the single impurity Anderson model.

  6. On Clebsch-Gordan expansion for 0(2h+1,1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, V.; Petkova, V.; Petrova, S.; Mack, G.; Todorov, I.

    1974-01-01

    The direct-product expansion of two unitary representations of the supplementary series of 0(2h+1.1) is studied in detail. Invariant bi-linear forms are written down for arbitrary symmetric tensor representations and necessary and sufficient conditions are found for their positivity. Normalized Clebsh-Gordon kernels are evaluated explicitly and the Plancherel formula is verified. The results are applied elsewhere for the diagonalization of conformal covariant dynamical equations for the Euclidean Green functions. They are related to the derivation of covariant operator product expansions

  7. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations

  8. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-08

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations.

  9. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1994 through 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (compliance costs and lease availability) have a significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas equipment and production operations

  10. Smart network expansion - (no) an issue for urban network operators. With hot spot analysis to smart grid; Smarter Netzausbau - (k)ein Thema fuer staedtische Netzbetreiber. Mit Hotspotanalyse zum Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safirov, Janko; Guarente, Andreas; Haas, Hans-Juergen [Stadtwerke Solingen Netz GmbH, Solingen (Germany); Ladermann, Alexander; Seeger, Nick; Fritz, Wolfgang [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-04-29

    The ongoing construction of production facilities based on renewable energy sources in distribution networks has led to measures to reinforce power distribution systems with many network operators, or this occurs in the near future. Many areal network operators with extended network structures and often lower load in comparison to the installed generation capacity are in the focus of these developments. In contrast, it is frequently assumed for urban distribution networks that these are affected at most sporadic by measures to reinforce power distribution systems. However, basically also for urban network operators the question concerning the development of the supply task rises.

  11. Production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies is to justify the feasibility of recycling different types of industrial waste instead of conventional expensive raw materials in production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties. The impact of wastes from various industries on the environmental condition of affected areas, as well as the results of their environmental assessment were analyzed to determine whether these wastes could be used in production of high-performance building materials. The assessment of industrial wastes in aerated concrete production suggests that industrial wastes of hazard class IV can be recycled to produce aerated concrete. An environmentally friendly method for large-scale waste recycling, including a two-step environmentally sustainable mechanism, was developed. The basic quality indicators of the modified aerated concrete proved that the environmental safety could be enhanced by strengthening the structure, increasing its uniformity and improving thermal insulation properties. The modified non-autoclaved aerated concrete products with improved physical and operational properties were developed. They have the following properties: density – D700; class of concrete – B3.5; thermal transmittance coefficient – 0.143 W/(m·°C; frost resistance – F75.

  12. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1979-10-15

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of development reviewed. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows.

  13. Enhancing wastewater degradation and biogas production by intermittent operation of UASB reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadais, Helena; Barbosa, Marta; Capela, Isabel; Arroja, Luis; Ramos, Christian G.; Grilo, Andre; Sousa, Silvia A.; Leitao, Jorge H.

    2011-01-01

    The present work establishes intermittent operation of UASB reactors as a novel form of enhancing the anaerobic degradation of complex wastewaters and its conversion to usable biogas. Results show that the average methane production rate is 25% higher with the intermittent operation than with the continuous mode, meaning that it could produce 25% more electricity or heat. The methanization efficiency obtained in intermittent UASB reactors is around 20% higher than in the continuous systems, confirming a higher biological degradation of the substrates. It has been suggested that intermittent operation causes a forced adaptation of the biomass towards the degradation of complex substrates and results from morphological analyses of the biomass developed in intermittent and continuous UASB reactors showed marked differences between them. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on how microbial populations are affected by these operational parameters, a strategy involving the amplification, cloning, and analysis of the nucleotide sequences of genes encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA was undertaken and is described in this work. This strategy allowed the identification of a total of 49 different sequences. Results from the molecular characterization of the microbial populations are consistent with the higher methanization efficiency of the intermittent mode of operation.

  14. Job satisfaction or production? How staff and leadership understand operating room efficiency: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelian, E; Gunningberg, L; Larsson, J

    2008-11-01

    How to increase efficiency in operating departments has been widely studied. However, there is no overall definition of efficiency. Supervisors urging staff to work efficiently may meet strong reactions due to staff believing that demands for efficiency means just stress at work. Differences in how efficiency is understood may constitute an obstacle to supervisors' efforts to promote it. This study aimed to explore how staff and leadership understand operating room efficiency. Twenty-one members of staff and supervisors in an operating department in a Swedish county hospital were interviewed. The analysis was performed with a phenomenographic approach that aims to discover the variations in how a phenomenon is understood by a group of people. Six categories were found in the understanding of operation room efficiency: (A) having the right qualifications; (B) enjoying work; (C) planning and having good control and overview; (D) each professional performing the correct tasks; (E) completing a work assignment; and (F) producing as much as possible per time unit. The most significant finding was that most of the nurses and assistant nurses understood efficiency as individual knowledge and experience emphasizing the importance of the work process, whereas the supervisors and physicians understood efficiency in terms of production per time unit or completing an assignment. The concept 'operating room efficiency' is understood in different ways by leadership and staff members. Supervisors who are aware of this variation will have better prerequisites for defining the concept and for creating a common platform towards becoming efficient.

  15. 29 CFR 570.63 - Occupations involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupations involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper box compactors (Order 12). 570.63 Section 570.63 Labor Regulations... involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper box compactors (Order...

  16. Operational data products to support phenological research and applications at local to continental scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Phenological data from a variety of platforms - across a range of spatial and temporal scales - are required to support research, natural resource management, and policy- and decision-making in a changing world. Observational and modeled phenological data, especially when integrated with associated biophysical data (e.g., climate, land-use/land-cover, hydrology) has great potential to provide multi-faceted information critical to decision support systems, vulnerability and risk assessments, change detection applications, and early-warning and forecasting systems for natural and modified ecosystems. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) is a national-scale science and monitoring initiative focused on understanding the drivers and feedback effects of phenological variation in changing environments. The Network maintains a centralized database of over 10M ground-based observations of plants and animals for 1954-present, and leverages these data to produce operational data products for use by a variety of audiences, including researchers and resource managers. This presentation highlights our operational data products, including the tools, maps, and services that facilitate discovery, accessibility and usability of integrated phenological information. We describe (1) the data download tool, a customizable GUI that provides geospatially referenced raw, bounded or summarized organismal and climatological data and associated metadata (including calendars, time-series curves, and XY graphs), (2) the visualization tool, which provides opportunities to explore, visualize and export or download both organismal and modeled (gridded) products at daily time-steps and relatively fine spatial resolutions ( 2.5 km to 4 km) for the period 1980 to 6 days into the future, and (3) web services that enable custom query and download of map, feature and cover services in a variety of standard formats. These operational products facilitate scaling of integrated

  17. Eigenfunction expansions and scattering theory in rigged Hilbert spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cubillo, F [Dpt. de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid. Facultad de Ciencias, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: fgcubill@am.uva.es

    2008-08-15

    The work reviews some mathematical aspects of spectral properties, eigenfunction expansions and scattering theory in rigged Hilbert spaces, laying emphasis on Lippmann-Schwinger equations and Schroedinger operators.

  18. Behaviour of short-lived fission products within operating UO2 fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, I.J.; Hunt, C.E.L.; Lipsett, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have carried out experiments using a ''sweep gas'' technique to determine the behaviour of short-lived fission products within operating, intact UO 2 fuel elements. The Zircaloy-4-clad elements were 500 mm long and contained fuel of density 10.65-10.71 Mg/m 3 . A He-2% H 2 carrier gas swept gaseous or volatile fission products out of the operating fuel element past a gamma spectrometer for measurement. In tests at linear powers of 45 and 60 kW/m to maximum burnups of 70 MW.h/kg U, the species measured directly at the spectrometer were generally the short-lived xenons and kryptons. We did not observe iodine or bromine during normal operation. However, we have deduced the behaviour of I-133 and I-135 from the decay of Xe-133 and Xe-135 during reactor shutdowns. Plots of R/B (released/born) against lambda (decay constant) or effective lambda for all isotopes observed at 45 and 60 kW/m show that a line of slope -0.5, corresponding with diffusion kinetics, is a good fit to the measured xenon and krypton data. Our inferred release of iodine fits the same line. From this we can extrapolate to an R/B for I-131 of about 5x10 -3 . The ANS 5.4 release correlation gives calculated results in good agreement with our measurements. (author)

  19. A Hierarchical structure of key performance indicators for operation management and continuous improvement in production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ningxuan; Zhao, Cong; Li, Jingshan; Horst, John A

    2016-01-01

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) are critical for manufacturing operation management and continuous improvement (CI). In modern manufacturing systems, KPIs are defined as a set of metrics to reflect operation performance, such as efficiency, throughput, availability, from productivity, quality and maintenance perspectives. Through continuous monitoring and measurement of KPIs, meaningful quantification and identification of different aspects of operation activities can be obtained, which enable and direct CI efforts. A set of 34 KPIs has been introduced in ISO 22400. However, the KPIs in a manufacturing system are not independent, and they may have intrinsic mutual relationships. The goal of this paper is to introduce a multi-level structure for identification and analysis of KPIs and their intrinsic relationships in production systems. Specifically, through such a hierarchical structure, we define and layer KPIs into levels of basic KPIs, comprehensive KPIs and their supporting metrics, and use it to investigate the relationships and dependencies between KPIs. Such a study can provide a useful tool for manufacturing engineers and managers to measure and utilize KPIs for CI.

  20. Operational production of Geodetic Excitation Functions from EOP estimated values at ASI-CGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, C.; Luceri, V.; Bianco, G.

    2009-04-01

    ASI-CGS is routinely providing geodetic excitation functions from its own estimated EOP values (at present SLR and VLBI; the current use of GPS EOP's is also planned as soon as this product will be fully operational) on the ASI geodetic web site (http://geodaf.mt.asi.it). This product has been generated and monitored (for ASI internal use only) in a long pre-operational phase (more than two years), including validation and testing. The daily geodetic excitation functions are now weekly updated along with the operational ASI SLR and VLBI EOP solutions and compared, whenever possible, with the atmospheric excitation functions available at the IERS SBAAM, under the IB and not-IB assumption, including the "wind" term. The work will present the available estimated geodetic function time series and its comparison with the relevant atmospheric excitation functions, deriving quantitative indicators on the quality of the estimates. The similarities as well as the discrepancies among the atmospheric and geodetic series will be analysed and commented, evaluating in particular the degree of correlation among the two estimated time series and the likelihood of a linear dependence hypothesis.

  1. Demand and supply-based operating modes--a framework for analyzing health care service production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillrank, Paul; Groop, P Johan; Malmström, Tomi J

    2010-12-01

    The structure of organizations that provide services should reflect the possibilities of and constraints on production that arise from the market segments they serve. Organizational segmentation in health care is based on urgency and severity as well as disease type, bodily function, principal method, or population subgroup. The result is conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. A managerial perspective is needed to identify activities with similar requirements for integration, coordination, and control. The arguments in this article apply new reasoning to the previous literature. The method used in this article to classify health care provision distinguishes different types of health problems that share generic constraints of production. The analysis leads to seven different demand-supply combinations, each with its own operational logic. These are labeled demand and supply-based operating modes (DSO modes), and constitute the managerial building blocks of health care organizations. The modes are Prevention, Emergency, One visit, Project, Elective, Cure, and Care. As analytical categories the DSO modes can be used to understand current problems. Several operating modes in one unit create managerial problems of conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. The DSO modes are constructed as managerially homogeneous categories or care platforms responding to general types of demand, and supply constraints. The DSO modes bring methods of industrial management to bear on efforts to improve health care. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  2. Hemorrhage and the use of blood products after adult cardiac operations: myths and realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélisle, S; Hardy, J F

    1996-12-01

    Several patient-, procedure-, and prescriber-related factors are thought to influence the decision to administer allogeneic blood products. We reexamine a number of assertions applied commonly to the practice of transfusion in cardiac operations. More than 50 original articles including a total of more than 10,000 patients from 70 centers were reviewed. Data from 5,426 patients operated on between 1990 and 1994 at the Montreal Heart Institute are presented. From our review of the literature, we conclude that postoperative mediastinal fluid drainage averages 917 mL and that aspirin therapy increases drainage by less than 300 mL in most studies, which should not increase use of blood products, insofar as a strict transfusional protocol is adhered to. Across centers, transfusions can vary eightfold for the same postoperative drainage. Data from our institution show that postoperative mediastinal drainage per se is not influenced by reoperation or by the type of operation. However, total blood losses and transfusion requirements remain increased in reoperative and complex procedures. Excessive mediastinal drainage resulting in increased transfusions occurs in 29% of patients. Exposure to allogeneic transfusions remains institution dependent. Constant reevaluation of local practice is essential to implement efficient blood conservation strategies.

  3. Desind an operation of pilot plant production of biodisel fron frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Morales Pedraza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is present the pilot plant used in the research titled: Production of biodiesel from used edible oils to industrial level for the production of methyl or ethyl esters from vegetable oils used in the food industry that be used as a fuel in diesel engines type, in order to generate alternative use for these oils are reused, and additionally, generate new options in biofuels that can replace methyl ester, since these need of methanol, a product that usually is a derived petrochemical and highly toxic. In this small-scale plant for the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel can be evaluated spent oils of different kinds and diverse origin, or study oils from food industries, which are usually a blend of palm oil and soybean oil, and other times palm oils hydrogenated or mixtures of oil spent with palm oil refning RBD (refned, bleached and deodorized. The results are the basis for the design and construction of a pilot plant to produce biodiesel by lot of 6 liter by hour approximately, which is evaluated under simulated conditions of loading and operation. It was designed and implemented a batch reactor with heating and stirring mechanics, drivers with temperature, condensation and total alcohol refux, maintaining a molar relationship of 6:1 (alcohol/oil, which is considered the best relation for a esterification with basic catalysis several scientifc publications. The temperature of the reaction is set at 60 °C and atmospheric pressure. The productivity of the reaction

  4. Phytoplankton abundance and productivity in the vicinity of an operating power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poornima, E.H.; Rajadurai, M.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Rao, V.N.R.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of power plant operation on the abundance and productivity of phytoplankton was monitored over a period of fifteen months. Field studies showed that in spite of the consistent reduction in phytoplankton biomass and productivity at the Outfall where the heated effluent is discharged, stations close to the mixing point did not show any significant change in phytoplankton biomass or productivity. This suggested that at the Mixing point, mixing of the heated effluents with the ambient seawater was rapid and very extensive, ensuring recovery of phytoplankton biomass and their productivity potential. Field studies during low-dose, shock-dose and no-chlorination suggested that chlorination caused greater damage to phytoplankton chlorophyll than temperature. Laboratory experiments revealed that diatom growth was not much influenced by passage through the condenser cooling system and they were able to grow between 28 deg C and 40 deg C. Short term experiments indicated that chemical stress due to chlorination might be more important than temperature in reducing phytoplankton biomass and productivity. Combined treatment of temperature and chlorine showed little synergistic effect. The data suggest that formulation of condenser discharge criteria of power plants must consider the relative effects of both the stress factors viz., temperature and chlorine. (author)

  5. Evaluation of hexachlorocyclohexane contamination from the last lindane production plant operating in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Simran; Dadhwal, Mandeep; Kumari, Hansi; Jindal, Swati; Kaur, Jasvinder; Lata, Pushp; Niharika, Neha; Lal, Devi; Garg, Nidhi; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Sharma, Pooja; Bala, Kiran; Singh, Ajaib; Vijgen, John; Weber, Roland; Lal, Rup

    2011-05-01

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, and lindane (γ-HCH) were listed as persistent organic pollutants by the Stockholm Convention in 2009 and hence must be phased out and their wastes/stockpiles eliminated. At the last operating lindane manufacturing unit, we conducted a preliminary evaluation of HCH contamination levels in soil and water samples collected around the production area and the vicinity of a major dumpsite to inform the design of processes for an appropriate implementation of the Convention. Soil and water samples on and around the production site and a major waste dumpsite were measured for HCH levels. All soil samples taken at the lindane production facility and dumpsite and in their vicinity were contaminated with an isomer pattern characteristic of HCH production waste. At the dumpsite surface samples contained up to 450 g kg(-1) Σ HCH suggesting that the waste HCH isomers were simply dumped at this location. Ground water in the vicinity and river water was found to be contaminated with 0.2 to 0.4 mg l(-1) of HCH waste isomers. The total quantity of deposited HCH wastes from the lindane production unit was estimated at between 36,000 and 54,000 t. The contamination levels in ground and river water suggest significant run-off from the dumped HCH wastes and contamination of drinking water resources. The extent of dumping urgently needs to be assessed regarding the risks to human and ecosystem health. A plan for securing the waste isomers needs to be developed and implemented together with a plan for their final elimination. As part of the assessment, any polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) generated during HCH recycling operations need to be monitored.

  6. How to Get Data from NOAA Environmental Satellites: An Overview of Operations, Products, Access and Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, N.; Graumann, A.; McNamara, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we will highlight access and availability of NOAA satellite data for near real time (NRT) and retrospective product users. The presentation includes an overview of the current fleet of NOAA satellites and methods of data distribution and access to hundreds of imagery and products offered by the Environmental Satellite Processing Center (ESPC) and the Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). In particular, emphasis on the various levels of services for current and past observations will be presented. The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) is dedicated to providing timely access to global environmental data from satellites and other sources. In special cases, users are authorized direct access to NESDIS data distribution systems for environmental satellite data and products. Other means of access include publicly available distribution services such as the Global Telecommunication System (GTS), NOAA satellite direct broadcast services and various NOAA websites and ftp servers, including CLASS. CLASS is NOAA's information technology system designed to support long-term, secure preservation and standards-based access to environmental data collections and information. The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) is responsible for the ingest, quality control, stewardship, archival and access to data and science information. This work will also show the latest technology improvements, enterprise approach and future plans for distribution of exponentially increasing data volumes from future NOAA missions. A primer on access to NOAA operational satellite products and services is available at http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Organization/About/access.html. Access to post-operational satellite data and assorted products is available at http://www.class.noaa.gov

  7. Crude oil pipeline expansion summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has been working with producers to address issues associated with the development of new pipeline capacity from western Canada. This document presents an assessment of the need for additional oil pipeline capacity given the changing mix of crude oil types and forecasted supply growth. It is of particular interest to crude oil producers and contributes to current available information for market participants. While detailed, the underlying analysis does not account for all the factors that may come into play when individual market participants make choices about which expansions they may support. The key focus is on the importance of timely expansion. It was emphasized that if pipeline expansions lags the crude supply growth, then the consequences would be both significant and unacceptable. Obstacles to timely expansion are also discussed. The report reviews the production and supply forecasts, the existing crude oil pipeline infrastructure, opportunities for new market development, requirements for new pipeline capacity and tolling options for pipeline development. tabs., figs., 1 appendix

  8. NLO QCD corrections to Higgs pair production including dimension-6 operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeber, Ramona [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Muehlleitner, Margarete; Streicher, Juraj [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Spira, Michael [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    The role of the Higgs boson has developed from the long-sought particle into a tool for exploring beyond Standard Model (BSM) physics. While the Higgs boson signal strengths are close to the values predicted in the Standard Model (SM), the trilinear Higgs-selfcoupling can still deviate significantly from the SM expectations in some BSM scenarios. The Effective Field Theory (EFT) framework provides a way to describe these deviations in a rather model independent way, by including higher-dimensional operators which modify the Higgs boson couplings and induce novel couplings not present in the SM. The trilinear Higgs-selfcoupling is accessible in Higgs pair production, for which the gluon fusion is the dominant production channel. The next-to-leading (NLO) QCD corrections to this process are important for a proper prediction of the cross section and are known in the limit of heavy top quark masses. In our work, we provide the NLO QCD corrections in the large top quark mass limit to Higgs pair production including dimension-6 operators. The various higher-dimensional contributions are affected differently by the QCD corrections, leading to deviations in the relative NLO QCD corrections of several per-cent, while modifying the cross section by up to an order of magnitude.

  9. Production of biogas from organic waste in microreactors operated at two temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo Roos, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The process and the product of anaerobic digestion are evaluated for different proportions of organic substrates, in microreactors operated at thermophilic and mesophilic temperatures with interest to find alternatives that will generate energy from biomass. Small-scale tests are conducted to ensure the proper functioning of biodigesters and optimize operating conditions. The anaerobic digestion process is characterized in three manure mixing ratios: mix of leftovers (100:0,90:10 and 80:20) and two temperatures of work (35 degrees Celsius and 50 degrees Celsius), using a factorial arrangement with 2 replicates per treatment. The mixture is composed of manure, cow dung and scraps of fresh food (fruits and vegetables) and prepared food. The proportions were diluted to 5% total solids. Bottles are the experimental unit used consisting culture medium bottles of 1 liter with 500 mL of mixture. The test has run for 5 hydraulic retention times (HRT) of twenty days each. At this time the pH was evaluated, the daily production of biogas, biogas composition, total solids, volatile and fixed and the content of volatile fatty acids. The values obtained biogas productivity and CH 4 content have been similar to those reported in the literature and indicate that the systems have been successful [es

  10. Accelerated production of antigen-specific T-cells for pre-clinical and clinical applications using Gas-permeable Rapid Expansion cultureware (G-Rex)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Juan F.; Brenner, Lara J.; Gerdemann, Ulrike; Ngo, Minhtran C.; Sili, Uluhan; Liu, Hao; Wilson, John; Dotti, Gianpietro; Heslop, Helen E.; Leen, Ann M.; Rooney, Cliona M.

    2009-01-01

    The clinical manufacture of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) for adoptive immunotherapy is limited by the complexity and time required to produce large numbers with the desired function and specificity. The culture conditions required are rigorous, and in some cases only achieved in 2cm2 wells in which cell growth is limited by gas exchange, nutrients and waste accumulation. Bioreactors developed to overcome these issues tend to be complex, expensive and not always conducive to CTL growth. We observed that antigen-specific CTL undergo seven to ten divisions post-stimulation. However the expected CTL numbers were achieved only in the first week of culture. By recreating the culture conditions present during this first week - low frequency of antigen-specific T-cells and high frequency of feeder cells - we were able to increase CTL expansion to expected levels which could be sustained for several weeks without affecting phenotype or function. However, the number of 24-well plates needed was excessive and cultures required frequent media changes, increasing complexity and manufacturing costs. Therefore, we evaluated novel gas-permeable culture devices (G-Rex) with a silicone membrane at the base allowing gas exchange to occur uninhibited by depth of medium above. This system effectively supports the expansion of CTL and actually increases output by up to 20-fold while decreasing required technician time. Importantly, this amplified cell expansion is not due to more cell divisions but to reduced cell death. This bioprocess optimization increased T-cell output while decreasing the complexity and cost of CTL manufacture, making cell therapy more accessible. PMID:20445351

  11. Comparison of operating strategies for increased biogas production from thin stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moestedt, Jan; Nordell, Erik; Schnürer, Anna

    2014-04-10

    The effect of increasing organic loading rate (OLR) and simultaneously decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) during anaerobic digestion of sulphur- and nitrogen-rich thin stillage was investigated during operation of continuously stirred tank laboratory reactors at two different temperatures. The operating strategies and substrate were set in order to mimic an existing full-scale commercial biogas plant in Sweden. The reactors were operated for 554-570 days with a substrate mixture of thin stillage and milled grain, resulting in high ammonium concentrations (>4.5gL(-1)). Initially, one reactor was operated at 38°C, as in the full-scale plant, while in the experimental reactor the temperature was raised to 44°C. Both reactors were then subjected to increasing OLR (from 3.2 to 6.0gVSL(-1)d(-1)) and simultaneously decreasing HRT (from 45 to 24 days) to evaluate the effects of these operational strategies on process stability, hydrogen sulphide levels and microbial composition. The results showed that operation at 44°C was the most successful strategy, resulting in up to 22% higher methane yield compared with the mesophilic reactor, despite higher free ammonia concentration. Furthermore, kinetic studies revealed higher biogas production rate at 44°C compared with 38°C, while the level of hydrogen sulphide was not affected. Quantitative PCR analysis of the microbiological population showed that methanogenic archaea and syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria had responded to the new process temperature while sulphate-reducing bacteria were only marginally affected by the temperature-change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Convergence of mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The tree graph bound of Battle and Federbush is extended and used to provide a simple criterion for the convergence of (iterated) Mayer expansions. As an application estimates on the radius of convergence of the Mayer expansion for the two-dimensional Yukawa gas (nonstable interaction) are obtained

  13. AREVA NP products and services for NPP operation and maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechelette, Anne; Rat, Guy Le

    2009-01-01

    AREVA supplies customized services throughout the reactor improvement process according to clients' requirements: safety, performance, availability, obsolescence, operating and maintenance conditions, environment and technical assistance. Form design studies to on site modification and implementation including requalification tests, AREVA, as OEM*, has various products and services in the field of Engineering and Upgrading to satisfy client demands. In keeping with Inpo's AP913 approach, AREVA is particularly skilled in this methodology to help utilities improve availability factor and maintenance programs. AREVA has customized its services to many utilities in cooperating with local partners, suppliers, and engineering service providers through partnerships, consortiums, joint ventures, etc. AREVA's knowledge of the fleet's operation and maintenance experience helps NPP clients to identify the most cost effective improvements and approaches. Different examples of modifications of modifications and improvements performed in France and abroad illustrate AREVA's involvement in the NPP continuous upgrade process

  14. Historical extension of operational NDVI products for livestock insurance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; Meroni, Michele; Shee, Apurba; Mude, Andrew G.; Woodard, Joshua; de Bie, C. A. J. M. (Kees); Rembold, Felix

    2014-05-01

    Droughts induce livestock losses that severely affect Kenyan pastoralists. Recent index insurance schemes have the potential of being a viable tool for insuring pastoralists against drought-related risk. Such schemes require as input a forage scarcity (or drought) index that can be reliably updated in near real-time, and that strongly relates to livestock mortality. Generally, a long record (>25 years) of the index is needed to correctly estimate mortality risk and calculate the related insurance premium. Data from current operational satellites used for large-scale vegetation monitoring span over a maximum of 15 years, a time period that is considered insufficient for accurate premium computation. This study examines how operational NDVI datasets compare to, and could be combined with the non-operational recently constructed 30-year GIMMS AVHRR record (1981-2011) to provide a near-real time drought index with a long term archive for the arid lands of Kenya. We compared six freely available, near-real time NDVI products: five from MODIS and one from SPOT-VEGETATION. Prior to comparison, all datasets were averaged in time for the two vegetative seasons in Kenya, and aggregated spatially at the administrative division level at which the insurance is offered. The feasibility of extending the resulting aggregated drought indices back in time was assessed using jackknifed R2 statistics (leave-one-year-out) for the overlapping period 2002-2011. We found that division-specific models were more effective than a global model for linking the division-level temporal variability of the index between NDVI products. Based on our results, good scope exists for historically extending the aggregated drought index, thus providing a longer operational record for insurance purposes. We showed that this extension may have large effects on the calculated insurance premium. Finally, we discuss several possible improvements to the drought index.

  15. Development and Application of Hyperspectral Infrared Ozone Retrieval Products for Operational Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Cyclogenesis is a key forecast challenge at operational forecasting centers such as WPC and OPC, so these centers have a particular interest in unique products that can identify key storm features. In some cases, explosively developing extratropical cyclones can produce hurricane force, non-convective winds along the East Coast and north Atlantic as well as the Pacific Ocean, with the potential to cause significant damage to life and property. Therefore, anticipating cyclogenesis for these types of storms is crucial for furthering the NOAA goal of a "Weather Ready Nation". Over the last few years, multispectral imagery (i.e. RGB) products have gained popularity among forecasters. The GOES-R satellite champion at WPC/OPC has regularly evaluated the Air Mass RGB products from GOES Sounder, MODIS, and SEVIRI to aid in forecasting cyclogenesis as part of ongoing collaborations with SPoRT within the framework of the GOES-R Proving Ground. WPC/OPC has used these products to identify regions of stratospheric air associated with tropopause folds that can lead to cyclogenesis and hurricane force winds. RGB products combine multiple channels or channel differences into multi-color imagery in which different colors represent a particular cloud or air mass type. Initial interaction and feedback from forecasters evaluating the legacy Air Mass RGBs revealed some uncertainty regarding what physical processes the qualitative RGB products represent and color interpretation. To enhance forecaster confidence and interpretation of the Air Mass RGB, NASA SPoRT has transitioned a total column ozone product from AIRS retrievals to the WPC/OPC. The use of legacy AIRS demonstrates future JPSS capabilities possible with CrIS or OMPS. Since stratospheric air can be identified by anomalous potential vorticity and warm, dry, ozone-rich air, hyperspectral infrared sounder ozone products can be used in conjunction with the Air Mass RGB for identifying the role of stratospheric air in explosive

  16. Demonstration of AIRS Total Ozone Products to Operations to Enhance User Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cyclogenesis is a key forecast challenge at operational forecasting centers such as WPC and OPC, so these centers have a particular interest in unique products that can identify key storm features. In some cases, explosively developing extratropical cyclones can produce hurricane force, non-convective winds along the East Coast and north Atlantic as well as the Pacific Ocean, with the potential to cause significant damage to life and property. Therefore, anticipating cyclogenesis for these types of storms is crucial for furthering the NOAA goal of a "Weather Ready Nation". Over the last few years, multispectral imagery (i.e. RGB) products have gained popularity among forecasters. The GOES-R satellite champion at WPC/OPC has regularly evaluated the Air Mass RGB products from GOES Sounder, MODIS, and SEVIRI to aid in forecasting cyclogenesis as part of ongoing collaborations with SPoRT within the framework of the GOES-R Proving Ground. WPC/OPC has used these products to identify regions of stratospheric air associated with tropopause folds that can lead to cyclogenesis and hurricane force winds. RGB products combine multiple channels or channel differences into multi-color imagery in which different colors represent a particular cloud or air mass type. Initial interaction and feedback from forecasters evaluating the legacy Air Mass RGBs revealed some uncertainty regarding what physical processes the qualitative RGB products represent and color interpretation. To enhance forecaster confidence and interpretation of the Air Mass RGB, NASA SPoRT has transitioned a total column ozone product from AIRS retrievals to the WPC/OPC. The use of legacy AIRS demonstrates future JPSS capabilities possible with CrIS or OMPS. Since stratospheric air can be identified by anomalous potential vorticity and warm, dry, ozone-rich air, hyperspectral infrared sounder ozone products can be used in conjunction with the Air Mass RGB for identifying the role of stratospheric air in explosive

  17. Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

  18. Technological indicators of operation of the rotating-hearth furnace in conditions of discontinued production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić, L.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality heating of the steel charge to be rolled into seamless tubes in the rotating-hearth furnace requires continuous operation of the pilger mill. Interruption of the charging schedule leads to impaired charge heating process. Prolonged heating time causes a rise in the charge temperature above the limit values, and that in turn brings to a larger quantity of scale formed on the charge surface. Final result is loss of metal and overheating of the charge accompanied by increased fuel consumption and lower furnace productivity.

  19. The importance of interpreting the commercial contract in scheduling the production of a Romanian business operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUREŞAN (POŢINCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Part of scheduling the production is complying with the conditions of the commercial contract, which is the foundation of the relation between the client and the business operator that performs its activity in the area of the industrial production. In case the compliance with the contractual obligations raises issues, it is required to interpret the commercial contract according to the provisions of the Romanian Civil Code. This work aims at presenting and analyzing these rules of interpreting the commercial contract, which are not provided in the special stipulations of the law applied to the business field, so that one shall consider the rules common to the private law, i.e. the juridical norms provided by the legislation of the civil law.

  20. Operational aspects of the radiological control in a radioisotopes plant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corahua, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform about the results obtained in the control operations carried out by the radioprotection area of the radioisotopes plant production during 1994 and then were compared with the limits established by the regulations of radiological radioprotection. In the general inter-texture of the activities that are developed in the radioisotopes plant production, the carried out controls are: area monitoring, air monitoring, personnel monitoring, monitoring in the expedition of radioactive material and monitoring and control in the evacuation of solid and liquid wastes. The result obtained in the present paper states that the doses received by the exposed occupationally staff are below the allowed limits. (author). 3 refs

  1. Improving productivity and profitability of a bioanalytical business through sales and operation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rafiqul

    2013-07-01

    Today's bioanalytical CROs face increasing global competition, highly variable demand, high fixed costs, pricing pressure, and increasing demand for quality and speed. Most bioanalytical laboratories have responded to these challenges by implementing automation and by implementing process improvement methodologies (e.g., Six Sigma). These solutions have not resulted in a significant improvement in productivity and profitability since none of them are able to predict the upturn or downturn in demand. High volatility of demand causes long lead times and high costs during peak demand and poor productivity during trough demand. Most bioanalytical laboratories lack the tools to align supply efficiently to meet changing demand. In this paper, sales and operation planning (S&OP) has been investigated as a tool to balance supply and demand. The S&OP process, when executed effectively, can be the single greatest determinant of profitability for a bioanalytical business.

  2. Intercomparison of different operational oceanographic forecast products in the CMEMS IBI area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Pablo; Sotillo, Marcos G.; Dabrowski, Tomasz; Amo-Baladrón, Arancha; Aznar, Roland; De Pascual, Alvaro; Levier, Bruno; Bowyer, Peter; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Salon, Stefano; Tonani, Marina; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique

    2017-04-01

    The development of skill assessment software packages and dedicated web applications is a relatively novel theme in operational oceanography. Within the CMEMS IBI-MFC, the quality of IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland) forecast products is assessed by means of NARVAL (North Atlantic Regional VALidation) web-based tool. The validation of IBI against independent in situ and remote-sensing measurements is routinely conducted to evaluate model's veracity and prognostic capabilities. Noticeable efforts are in progress to define meaningful skill scores and statistical metrics to quantitatively assess the quality and reliability of the IBI model solution. Likewise, the IBI-MFC compares the IBI forecast products with other model solutions by setting up specific intercomparison exercises on overlapping areas at diverse timescales. In this context, NARVAL web tool already includes a specific module to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of IBI versus other CMEMS operational ocean forecasting systems (OOFSs). In particular, the IBI physical ocean solution is compared against the CMEMS MED and NWS OOFSs. These CMEMS regional services delivered for the Mediterranean and the North West Shelves include data assimilation schemes in their respective operational chains and generate analogous ocean forecast products to the IBI ones. A number of physical parameters (i.e. sea surface temperature, salinity and current velocities) are evaluated through NARVAL on a daily basis in the overlapping areas existing between these three regional systems. NARVAL is currently being updated in order to extend this intercomparison of ocean model parameters to the biogeochemical solutions provided by the aforementioned OOFSs. More specifically, the simulated chlorophyll concentration is evaluated over several subregions of particular concern by using as benchmark the CMEMS satellite-derived observational products. In addition to this IBI comparison against other regional CMEMS products on overlapping areas, a

  3. Radial expansion for spinning conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João; Trevisani, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    This paper develops a method to compute any bosonic conformal block as a series expansion in the optimal radial coordinate introduced by Hogervorst and Rychkov. The method reduces to the known result when the external operators are all the same scalar operator, but it allows to compute conformal blocks for external operators with spin. Moreover, we explain how to write closed form recursion relations for the coefficients of the expansions. We study three examples of four point functions in detail: one vector and three scalars; two vectors and two scalars; two spin 2 tensors and two scalars. Finally, for the case of two external vectors, we also provide a more efficient way to generate the series expansion using the analytic structure of the blocks as a function of the scaling dimension of the exchanged operator.

  4. Proposed Expansion of Acme Landfill Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    hazardous waste ponds that use solar evaporation processes to dispose of liquid hazardous wastes have an indefinite life, the quantity of liquid that may...determined at a later date. The use of solar evaporation ponds, for example, would preclude the use of spreading and compaction equipment used for...pesticides in spray cans, residual chemical solvents in steel drums, herbicide residues on grass clippings, or organic wastes in disposable baby diapers , a

  5. Planning Risk-Based SQC Schedules for Bracketed Operation of Continuous Production Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgard, James O; Bayat, Hassan; Westgard, Sten A

    2018-02-01

    To minimize patient risk, "bracketed" statistical quality control (SQC) is recommended in the new CLSI guidelines for SQC (C24-Ed4). Bracketed SQC requires that a QC event both precedes and follows (brackets) a group of patient samples. In optimizing a QC schedule, the frequency of QC or run size becomes an important planning consideration to maintain quality and also facilitate responsive reporting of results from continuous operation of high production analytic systems. Different plans for optimizing a bracketed SQC schedule were investigated on the basis of Parvin's model for patient risk and CLSI C24-Ed4's recommendations for establishing QC schedules. A Sigma-metric run size nomogram was used to evaluate different QC schedules for processes of different sigma performance. For high Sigma performance, an effective SQC approach is to employ a multistage QC procedure utilizing a "startup" design at the beginning of production and a "monitor" design periodically throughout production. Example QC schedules are illustrated for applications with measurement procedures having 6-σ, 5-σ, and 4-σ performance. Continuous production analyzers that demonstrate high σ performance can be effectively controlled with multistage SQC designs that employ a startup QC event followed by periodic monitoring or bracketing QC events. Such designs can be optimized to minimize the risk of harm to patients. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  6. The optimizied expansion method for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    , for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain operator.In this abstract, we propose an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with its low rank representation. The rank defines the number

  7. Capacity expansion of stochastic power generation under two-stage electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Salvador; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    are first formulated from the standpoint of a social planner to characterize a perfectly competitive market. We investigate the effect of two paradigmatic market designs on generation expansion planning: a day-ahead market that is cleared following a conventional cost merit-order principle, and an ideal...... of stochastic power generating units. This framework includes the explicit representation of a day-ahead and a balancing market-clearing mechanisms to properly capture the impact of forecast errors of power production on the short-term operation of a power system. The proposed generation expansion problems...... market-clearing procedure that determines day-ahead dispatch decisions accounting for their impact on balancing operation costs. Furthermore, we reformulate the proposed models to determine the optimal expansion decisions that maximize the profit of a collusion of stochastic power producers in order...

  8. General decoupling procedure for expectation values of four-operator products in electron–phonon quantum kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeny, Nicolas; Fähnle, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    In the density-matrix formalism of electron–phonon quantum kinetics, the hierarchy of infinitely many coupled equations of motion for the expectation values of products of electron and phonon creation and annihilation operators of arbitrary order is usually terminated on the level of the equations of motion for the expectation values of three-operator products by using decoupling procedures for the four-operator products occurring in these equations. In the literature, decoupling procedures are discussed for special types of electron and phonon states. In the present paper, generalized decoupling procedures are derived for arbitrary electron and phonon states. (paper)

  9. Criteria Considered in Selecting Feed Items for Americium-241 Oxide Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Louis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-30

    The analysis in this document serves the purpose of defining a number of attributes in selection of feed items to be utilized in recovery/recycle of Pu and also production operations of 241AmO2 material intended to meet specification requirements. This document was written in response to a specific request on the part of the 2014 annual program review which took place over the dates of October 28-29, 2014. A number of feed attributes are noted including: (1) Non-interference with existing Pu recovery operations; (2) Content of sufficient 241Am to allow process efficiency in recovery operations; (3) Absence of indications that 243Am might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (4) Absence of indications that Cm might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (5) Absence of indications of other chemical elements that would present difficulty in chemical separation from 241Am; (6) Feed material not expected to present difficulty in dissolution; (7) Dose issues; (8) Process efficiency; (9) Size; (10) Hazard associated with items and package configuration in the vault; (11) Within existing NEPA documentation. The analysis in this document provides a baseline of attributes considered for feed materials, but does not presume to replace the need for technical expertise and judgment on the part of individuals responsible for selecting the material feed to be processed. This document is not comprehensive as regards all attributes that could prove to be important. The value of placing a formal QA hold point on accepting feed items versus more informal management of feed items is discussed in the summation of this analysis. The existing planned QA hold points on 241AmO2 products produced and packaged may be adequate as the entire project is based on QA of the product rather than QA of the process. The probability of introduction of items that would inherently cause the241

  10. Improving the production of applied health research findings: insights from a qualitative study of operational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sonya; Turner, Simon; Utley, Martin; Fulop, Naomi J

    2017-09-08

    Knowledge produced through applied health research is often of a form not readily accessible to or actionable by policymakers and practitioners, which hinders its implementation. Our aim was to identify research activities that can support the production of knowledge tailored to inform policy and practice. To do this, we studied an operational research approach to improving the production of applied health research findings. A 2-year qualitative study was conducted of the operational research contribution to a multidisciplinary applied health research project that was successful in rapidly informing national policy. Semi-structured interviews (n = 20) were conducted with all members of the project's research team and advisory group (patient and health professional representatives and academics). These were augmented by participant (> 150 h) and non-participant (> 15 h) observations focusing on the process and experience of attempting to support knowledge production. Data were analysed thematically using QSR NVivo software. Operational research performed a knowledge mediation role shaped by a problem-focused approach and an intent to perform those tasks necessary to producing readily implementable knowledge but outwith the remit of other disciplinary strands of the project. Three characteristics of the role were found to support this: engaging and incorporating different perspectives to improve services by capturing a range of health professional and patient views alongside quantitative and qualitative research evidence; rendering data meaningful by creating and presenting evidence in forms that are accessible to and engage different audiences, enabling them to make sense of it for practical use; and maintaining perceived objectivity and rigour by establishing credibility, perceived neutrality and confidence in the robustness of the research in order to unite diverse professionals in thinking creatively about system-wide service improvement. Our study

  11. Implementation of Cyber-Physical Production Systems for Quality Prediction and Operation Control in Metal Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JuneHyuck Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of internal defects of metal casting immediately after the casting process saves unnecessary time and money by reducing the amount of inputs into the next stage, such as the machining process, and enables flexible scheduling. Cyber-physical production systems (CPPS perfectly fulfill the aforementioned requirements. This study deals with the implementation of CPPS in a real factory to predict the quality of metal casting and operation control. First, a CPPS architecture framework for quality prediction and operation control in metal-casting production was designed. The framework describes collaboration among internet of things (IoT, artificial intelligence, simulations, manufacturing execution systems, and advanced planning and scheduling systems. Subsequently, the implementation of the CPPS in actual plants is described. Temperature is a major factor that affects casting quality, and thus, temperature sensors and IoT communication devices were attached to casting machines. The well-known NoSQL database, HBase and the high-speed processing/analysis tool, Spark, are used for IoT repository and data pre-processing, respectively. Many machine learning algorithms such as decision tree, random forest, artificial neural network, and support vector machine were used for quality prediction and compared with R software. Finally, the operation of the entire system is demonstrated through a CPPS dashboard. In an era in which most CPPS-related studies are conducted on high-level abstract models, this study describes more specific architectural frameworks, use cases, usable software, and analytical methodologies. In addition, this study verifies the usefulness of CPPS by estimating quantitative effects. This is expected to contribute to the proliferation of CPPS in the industry.

  12. Implementation of Cyber-Physical Production Systems for Quality Prediction and Operation Control in Metal Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuneHyuck; Noh, Sang Do; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kang, Yong-Shin

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of internal defects of metal casting immediately after the casting process saves unnecessary time and money by reducing the amount of inputs into the next stage, such as the machining process, and enables flexible scheduling. Cyber-physical production systems (CPPS) perfectly fulfill the aforementioned requirements. This study deals with the implementation of CPPS in a real factory to predict the quality of metal casting and operation control. First, a CPPS architecture framework for quality prediction and operation control in metal-casting production was designed. The framework describes collaboration among internet of things (IoT), artificial intelligence, simulations, manufacturing execution systems, and advanced planning and scheduling systems. Subsequently, the implementation of the CPPS in actual plants is described. Temperature is a major factor that affects casting quality, and thus, temperature sensors and IoT communication devices were attached to casting machines. The well-known NoSQL database, HBase and the high-speed processing/analysis tool, Spark, are used for IoT repository and data pre-processing, respectively. Many machine learning algorithms such as decision tree, random forest, artificial neural network, and support vector machine were used for quality prediction and compared with R software. Finally, the operation of the entire system is demonstrated through a CPPS dashboard. In an era in which most CPPS-related studies are conducted on high-level abstract models, this study describes more specific architectural frameworks, use cases, usable software, and analytical methodologies. In addition, this study verifies the usefulness of CPPS by estimating quantitative effects. This is expected to contribute to the proliferation of CPPS in the industry. PMID:29734699

  13. Implementation of Cyber-Physical Production Systems for Quality Prediction and Operation Control in Metal Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuneHyuck; Noh, Sang Do; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kang, Yong-Shin

    2018-05-04

    The prediction of internal defects of metal casting immediately after the casting process saves unnecessary time and money by reducing the amount of inputs into the next stage, such as the machining process, and enables flexible scheduling. Cyber-physical production systems (CPPS) perfectly fulfill the aforementioned requirements. This study deals with the implementation of CPPS in a real factory to predict the quality of metal casting and operation control. First, a CPPS architecture framework for quality prediction and operation control in metal-casting production was designed. The framework describes collaboration among internet of things (IoT), artificial intelligence, simulations, manufacturing execution systems, and advanced planning and scheduling systems. Subsequently, the implementation of the CPPS in actual plants is described. Temperature is a major factor that affects casting quality, and thus, temperature sensors and IoT communication devices were attached to casting machines. The well-known NoSQL database, HBase and the high-speed processing/analysis tool, Spark, are used for IoT repository and data pre-processing, respectively. Many machine learning algorithms such as decision tree, random forest, artificial neural network, and support vector machine were used for quality prediction and compared with R software. Finally, the operation of the entire system is demonstrated through a CPPS dashboard. In an era in which most CPPS-related studies are conducted on high-level abstract models, this study describes more specific architectural frameworks, use cases, usable software, and analytical methodologies. In addition, this study verifies the usefulness of CPPS by estimating quantitative effects. This is expected to contribute to the proliferation of CPPS in the industry.

  14. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24–28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of ^{40}Ar^{12+} and ^{129}Xe^{26+} have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL, China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24+18  GHz heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  15. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  16. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  17. The effect of backroom size on retail product availability – operational and technological solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Milićević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Amid the conditions of increasingly fierce competition, retailers are doing their best to meet the demands of their customers as efficiently as possible. Through the ever-growing level of product availability they raise the quality of service, which is positively reflected not only on the growth in sales, but also customer satisfaction. In the opposite case, the out-ofstock problem emerges, affecting not only customers, but also retailers and their suppliers. Bearing in mind, that the causes of the given problem occur most frequently in the last metres of the supply chain, in this paper we investigated the effect of backroom size on product availability, depending on the retail format. For this purpose, we used moderated regression analysis on the sample of 80 fast moving consumer goods in retail stores located on the territory of the Republic of Serbia. The obtained results pointed to opposite movements in the smallest and the largest format. Whereas in superettes the out-of-stock level lowers with the increase in the backroom size, it tends to drop in hypermarkets. Therefore, we pointed to some in-store problems that cause product stock-outs in different store formats. In addition to indicating the potential causes of analyzed relations, this paper also presents certain operational and technological solutions related to their mitigation.

  18. Pressure retarded osmosis for energy production: membrane materials and operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Choi, J-S; Lee, S

    2012-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a novel membrane process to produce energy. PRO has the potential to convert the osmotic pressure difference between fresh water (i.e. river water) and seawater to electricity. Moreover, it can recover energy from highly concentrated brine in seawater desalination. Nevertheless, relatively little research has been undertaken for fundamental understanding of the PRO process. In this study, the characteristics of the PRO process were examined using a proof-of-concept device. Forward osmosis (FO), reverse osmosis (RO), and nanofiltration (NF) membranes were compared in terms of flux rate and concentration polarization ratio. The results indicated that the theoretical energy production by PRO depends on the membrane type as well as operating conditions (i.e. back pressure). The FO membrane had the highest energy efficiency while the NF membrane had the lowest efficiency. However, the energy production rate was low due to high internal concentration polarization (ICP) in the PRO membrane. This finding suggests that the control of the ICP is essential for practical application of PRO for energy production.

  19. Swainsonine, a novel fungal metabolite: optimization of fermentative production and bioreactor operations using evolutionary programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Digar; Kaur, Gurvinder

    2014-08-01

    The optimization of bioreactor operations towards swainsonine production was performed using an artificial neural network coupled evolutionary program (EP)-based optimization algorithm fitted with experimental one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) results. The effects of varying agitation (300-500 rpm) and aeration (0.5-2.0 vvm) rates for different incubation hours (72-108 h) were evaluated in bench top bioreactor. Prominent scale-up parameters, gassed power per unit volume (P g/V L, W/m(3)) and volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K L a, s(-1)) were correlated with optimized conditions. A maximum of 6.59 ± 0.10 μg/mL of swainsonine production was observed at 400 rpm-1.5 vvm at 84 h in OFAT experiments with corresponding P g/VL and K L a values of 91.66 W/m(3) and 341.48 × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The EP optimization algorithm predicted a maximum of 10.08 μg/mL of swainsonine at 325.47 rpm, 1.99 vvm and 80.75 h against the experimental production of 7.93 ± 0.52 μg/mL at constant K L a (349.25 × 10(-4) s(-1)) and significantly reduced P g/V L (33.33 W/m(3)) drawn by the impellers.

  20. Hydrogen production from formic acid in pH-stat fed-batch operation for direct supply to fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jong-Hwan; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Park, Tai Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1 harvested after cultivation was used as a whole cell biocatalyst, for the production of hydrogen. Formic acid was efficiently converted to hydrogen using the harvested cells with an initial hydrogen production rate and total hydrogen production of 491 ml/l/h and 6668 ml/l, respectively, when 1 g/l of whole cell enzyme was used. Moreover, new pH-stat fed-batch operation was conducted, and total hydrogen production was 1.4 times higher than that of batch operation. For practical application, bio-hydrogen produced from formic acid using harvested cells was directly applied to PEMFC for power generation.

  1. Thermal expansion of the nuclear fuel-sodium reaction product Na3(U0.84(2),Na0.16(2))O4 - Structural mechanism and comparison with related sodium-metal ternary oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illy, Marie-Claire; Smith, Anna L.; Wallez, Gilles; Raison, Philippe E.; Caciuffo, Roberto; Konings, Rudy J. M.

    2017-07-01

    Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 is obtained from the reaction of sodium with uranium dioxide under oxygen potential conditions typical of a sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor. In the event of a breach of the steel cladding, it would be the dominant reaction product forming at the rim of the mixed (U,Pu)O2 fuel pellets. High-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements show that a distortion of the uranium environment in Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 results in a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion. A comparison with several related sodium metallates Nan-2Mn+On-1 - including Na3SbO4 and Na3TaO4, whose crystal structures are reported for the first time - has allowed us to assess the role played in the lattice expansion by the Mn+ cation radius and the Na/M ratio. On this basis, the thermomechanical behavior of the title compound is discussed, along with those of several related double oxides of sodium and actinide elements, surrogate elements, or fission products.

  2. Fuel Thermal Expansion (FTHEXP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymann, G.A.

    1978-07-01

    A model is presented which deals with dimensional changes in LWR fuel pellets caused by changes in temperature. It is capable of dealing with any combination of UO 2 and PuO 2 in solid, liquid or mixed phase states, and includes expansion due to the solid-liquid phase change. The function FTHEXP models fuel thermal expansion as a function of temperature, fraction of PuO 2 , and the fraction of fuel which is molten

  3. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  4. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  5. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in

  6. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantini, Sara, E-mail: pantini@ing.uniroma2.it [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Verginelli, Iason; Lombardi, Francesco [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • BMP test displayed high gas potential generation capacity of MBT waste. • Strong inhibition effects were observed due to ammonia and VFA accumulation. • Waste water content was found as the key parameter limiting gas generation. • First order k-values were determined for different operating conditions. - Abstract: In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically–biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26–43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25 °C up to 55 °C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150 Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007 d{sup −1} at room temperature that increased to 0.03–0.05 d{sup −1} at 37 °C and to 0.04–0.11 d{sup −1} at 55 °C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution

  7. Nuclear fuel reprocessing expansion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an effort to apply the techniques of operations research and energy system modeling to the problem of determination of cost-effective strategies for capacity expansion of the domestic nuclear fuel reprocessing industry for the 1975 to 2000 time period. The research also determines cost disadvantages associated with alternative strategies that may be attractive for political, social, or ecological reasons. The sensitivity of results to changes in cost assumptions was investigated at some length. Reactor fuel types covered by the analysis include the Light Water Reactor (LWR), High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR)

  8. Examining effective factors on human forces' productivity in bureau of naval operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Bahadori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at examining effective factors on improvement of human forces' productivity and determining degree of influence and importance of each group among factors including workshop equipment and arrangement in organization, system of control and supervision on employees, degree of employees training, occupational value of employees and at last, administrating meritocracy system on improvement of human forces' productivity. Statistical population is composed of bureau of naval operations' employees in oil terminals' company in Khark, Iran. Statistical population has been 230, among which 135 people were determined as statistical sample size using Cochran formula. Survey instrument in this research has been questionnaire, according to which employees' ideas about effective factors on employees' productivity were evaluated. These questionnaires completed by people among statistical sample contain 16 close questions which were set up according to Likert 5-grade scale and were distributed as 135 numbers that after returning questionnaire, statistical analysis and data processing were accomplished. Analysis was performed in 2 descriptive and inferential statistics levels. Results of data analysis show that: A 5-fold factors under review “workshop equipment and arrangement of organization, system of control and supervision on employees, degree of employees training, occupational value of employees and administrating meritocracy related to human resources by management” have had effects on improvement of employees' productivity as average. B degree of employees training and then occupational value of employees and administrating meritocracy system have had the most influence, and workshop equipment and arrangement of organization and system of control and supervision on employees have had the least influence.

  9. The influence of operational constraints in the production strategy definition; Influencia de restricoes operacionais na definicao da estrategia de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Tasso C.B. de; Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Production strategies definition, applied to petroleum fields, must consider physical, operational and economic constraints. It is common to consider only the reservoir conditions on the optimization processes, simplifying, many times, the process by not taking into account the operational constraints due to production facilities. There are two main reasons: considering the operational constraints makes the process much complex and it is assumed that this simplification can affect the economic indicators but dos not affect significantly the optimization process (number e location of wells, for example). The capacity of a production unit can be limited by many constrains such as: maximum liquid rate, capacity of water and gas treatment, gas compression, water or gas injection, number of wells, etc. In this work, we show that these limitations have a direct influence in the oil production and consequently in the economic indicators and they can cause significant impact at production strategy definition, influencing the number of production and injection wells, their locations and their operational conditions. We presented an example of an offshore field with a limitation on the liquid rate. Production strategies were selected with and without constraints in order to observe the differences in the technical and economic indicators, such as NPV (Net Present Value), production and injection of fluids and the number and location of the production and injection wells. It was possible to observe yet that the amount and location of the wells were significantly affected by the restriction. (author)

  10. Near Real Time Operational Satellite Ocean Color Products From NOAA OSPO CoastWatch Okeanos System:: Status and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banghua Yan, B.

    2016-02-01

    Near real-time (NRT) ocean color (OC) satellite operation products are generated and distributed in NOAA Okeanos Operational Product System, by using the CWAPS including the Multi-Sensor Level (MSL) 12 and the chlorophyll-a frontal algorithms. Current OC operational products include daily chlorophyll concentration (anomaly), water turbidity, remote sensing reflectance and chlorophyll frontal products from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua. The products have been widely applied to USA local and state ecosystem research, ecosystem observations, and fisheries managements for coastal and regional forecasting of ocean water quality, phytoplankton concentrations, and primary production. Users of the products have the National Ocean Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Weather Service, and Oceanic and Atmospheric Research. Recently, the OC products are being extended to S-NPP VIIRS to provide global NRT ocean color products to user community suh as National Weatrher Service for application for Global Data Assimilation System and Real-Time Ocean Forecast System. However, there remain some challenges in application of the products due to certain product quality and coverage issues. Recent efforts were made to provide a comprehensive web-based Quality Assurance (QA) tool for monitoring OC products quality in near real time mode, referring to http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/ocean/color_new/color.htm. The new QA monitoring tool includes but not limited to the following advanced features applicable for MODIS/Aqua and NPP/VIIRS OC products: 1) Monitoring product quality in NRT mode; 2) Monitoring the availability and quality of OC products with time; 3) Detecting anomalous OC products due to low valid pixels and other quality issues. As an example, potential application and challenges of the ocean color products to oceanic oil spill detection are investigated. It is thus expected that the Okeanos ocean color operational system in

  11. 77 FR 73414 - Approval for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 41H; Mercury Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1871] Approval for Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 41H; Mercury Marine (Marine Propulsion Products); Fond du Lac and... manufacturing authority on behalf of Mercury Marine, operator of Subzone 41H at the Mercury Marine facilities in...

  12. Selecting and calculating joint operation of oil and petroleum gas collection systems, and mechanized production methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, L S; D' yachuk, A I; Davydova, L V; Maslov, V P; Salyautdinova, R M; Suslov, V M

    1979-01-01

    The possibility is examined of formalizing the indicated procedure in the process of performing step by step calculations. At the first step, considering limitations imposed by the dominating parameters, preliminary selection is performed of the acceptable combination of the type of collection system and methods of mechanized production for the development conditions examined. The second step provides for physical simulation at a well of an experimental section of time-variable conditions of field development. The values of the technological indices thus defined are then considered to be reliable information for technico-economic calculations. Parallel research is done on the technological features of operation of the collection systems chosen and their individual elements (pipeline system, separation units, etc.), which the experimental section is fitted with beforehand. Material is given which illustrates in detail the basic assumptions of the technique proposed and the calculation procedure.

  13. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  14. Inventory of chemicals used at Hanford Site production plants and support operations (1944-1980)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M. J.

    1990-04-01

    A complete list of chemicals used in the production facilities and support operations of the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is presented to aid development of plans for characterizing the radioactive liquid chemical wastes stored in the 149 single-shell tanks. The complete chemical list is compared to the list provided by the regulatory agencies to identify hazardous chemicals stored in the single-shell tanks. A reduced list has been developed by others and is used to identify the chemical constituents for analysis in the Waste Characterization Plan for the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks. The chemical list is based on chemical process flowsheets, essential material consumption records, letters, reports, and other historical data. 14 refs., 36 tabs.

  15. 25 CFR 215.23a - Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... minerals other than oil and gas. 215.23a Section 215.23a Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23a Suspension of operations and production on leases for minerals other than oil and gas. The provisions of...

  16. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition... Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan— (a) If using the procedure specified in 225.7703-1(a)(1), the purchase restriction at FAR 25.403...

  17. Solar to hydrogen: Compact and cost effective CPV field for rooftop operation and hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-11-25

    Current commercial CPV systems are designed as large units which are targeted to be installed in open desert fields with high DNI availability. It appeared that the CPV is among some of those technologies which gained very little attention of people, with less customers and market. For conventional PV systems, the installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings have a significant share in the total installed capacity of PV systems. That is why for most of the countries, the PV installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings are aimed to be increased to half of total installed PV. On the other hand, there is no commercial CPV system available to be suitable for rooftop operation, giving motivation for the development of CPV field of compact systems. This paper discusses the development of a CPV field for the rooftop operation, comprising of compact CPV system with cost effective but highly accurate solar tracking sensor and wireless master slave control. In addition, the performance of the developed CPV systems is evaluated for production of hydrogen, which can be used as energy carrier or energy storage and a maximum solar to hydrogen efficiency of 18% is obtained. However, due to dynamic nature of the weather data and throughout the day variations in the performance of CPV and electrolyser, the solar to hydrogen performance is proposed to be reported as daily and long term average efficiency. The CPV-Hydrogen system showed daily average conversion efficiency of 15%, with solar to hydrogen production rate of 218 kW h/kg.

  18. Operational Readiness Review Plan for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Materials Production Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. H.; Martin, M. M.; Riggs, C. R.; Beatty, R. L.; Ohriner, E. K.; Escher, R. N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP 24 entitled "Operational Readiness Process" describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management approved "readiness plan" to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks.

  19. Microorganism selection and biosurfactant production in a continuously and periodically operated bioslurry reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, D P; Hudak, A J

    2001-06-29

    A continuous-flow reactor (CSTR) and a soil slurry-sequencing batch reactor (SS-SBR) were maintained in 8l vessels for 180 days to treat a soil contaminated with diesel fuel (DF). Concentrations of Candida tropicalis, Brevibacterium casei, Flavobacterium aquatile, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas fluorescens were determined using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. DF removal (biological and volatile) and biosurfactant concentrations were measured. The SS-SBR encouraged the growth of biosurfactant-producing species relative to the CSTR. Counts of biosurfactant-producing species (C. tropicalis, P. aeruginosa, P. fluorescens) relative to total microbial counts were 88% in the SS-SBR and 23% in the CSTR. Biosurfactants were produced in the SS-SBR to levels of nearly 70 times the critical micelle concentration (CMC) early in the cycle, but were completely degraded by the end of each cycle. No biosurfactant production was observed in the CSTR. DF biodegradation rates were over 40% greater and DF stripping was over five times lower in the SS-SBR than the CSTR. However, considerable foaming occurred in the SS-SBR. Reversing the mode of operation in the reactors on day 80 caused a complete reversal in microbial consortia and reactor performance by day 120. These results show that bioslurry reactor operation can be manipulated to control overall reactor performance.

  20. Large J expansion in ABJM theory revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, H; Mladenov, S; Rashkov, R C

    Recently there has been progress in the computation of the anomalous dimensions of gauge theory operators at strong coupling by making use of the AdS/CFT correspondence. On the string theory side they are given by dispersion relations in the semiclassical regime. We revisit the problem of a large-charge expansion of the dispersion relations for simple semiclassical strings in an [Formula: see text] background. We present the calculation of the corresponding anomalous dimensions of the gauge theory operators to an arbitrary order using three different methods. Although the results of the three methods look different, power series expansions show their consistency.

  1. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  2. Collaborative Monitoring of Production and Costs of Timber Harvest Operations in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Pokorny

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Timber companies and policy makers in the Brazilian Amazon urgently need financial information on forest management. Results from a few experiments, case studies, and surveys have been groundbreaking, but are insufficient. A strategic partnership between timber companies and research organizations is needed to generate additional information. This paper presents a tool for monitoring production and costs of forest operations to facilitate such collaboration. The tool provides useful information for companies and, at the same time, generates reliable data for research. Selected results are presented on production, capacity, and costs to demonstrate the usefulness of the information that can be generated. These results are based on the first 2 years of implementation by a company in the State of Pará, Brazil. This pilot project confirmed that the tool is simple and relevant. Its successful implementation requires significant investment, and will be applicable only to companies interested in changing from conventional logging to reduced-impact logging, especially those seeking Forest Stewardship Council certification. Successful implementation of the tool will also depend on it generating readily understood and highly relevant results for the companies, and receiving extensive support during the first 2 years.

  3. Operational Efficiency and Productivity Improvement Initiatives in a Large Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Grant W; Hantz, Scott; Cunningham, Rebecca; Krishnaswamy, Amar; Ellis, Stephen G; Khot, Umesh; Rak, Joe; Kapadia, Samir R

    2018-02-26

    This study sought to report outcomes from an efficiency improvement project in a large cardiac cath lab. Operational inefficiencies are common in the cath lab, yet solutions are challenging. A detailed report describing and providing solutions for these inefficiencies may be valuable in guiding improvements in productivity. In this observational study, the authors report metrics of efficiency before and after a cath lab quality improvement program in June 2014. Main outcomes included lab room start times, room turnaround times, laboratory use, and employee satisfaction. Time series analysis was used to assess trend over time. Chi-square testing and analysis of variance were used to assess change before and after the initiative. The principal changes included implementation of a pyramidal nursing schedule, increased use of an electronic scheduling system, and increased utilization of a preparation and recovery area. Comparing before with after the program, start times improved an average of 17 min, and on-time starts improved from 61.8% to 81.7% (p = 0.0024). Turnaround times improved from 20.5 min to 16.4 min (trend p productivity. This knowledge may be helpful in assisting other cath labs in similar efficiency improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... make the following certification: All workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular... Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended Certification Pursuant to Section 221 of the Trade Act of 1974...

  5. Accelerating the loop expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingermanson, R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi 4 theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs

  6. Virial Expansion Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  7. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathsman, J.

    2000-02-07

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.

  8. Utsu aftershock productivity law explained from geometric operations on the permanent static stress field of mainshocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2018-03-01

    The aftershock productivity law is an exponential function of the form K ∝ exp(αM), with K being the number of aftershocks triggered by a given mainshock of magnitude M and α ≈ ln(10) being the productivity parameter. This law remains empirical in nature although it has also been retrieved in static stress simulations. Here, we parameterize this law using the solid seismicity postulate (SSP), the basis of a geometrical theory of seismicity where seismicity patterns are described by mathematical expressions obtained from geometric operations on a permanent static stress field. We first test the SSP that relates seismicity density to a static stress step function. We show that it yields a power exponent q = 1.96 ± 0.01 for the power-law spatial linear density distribution of aftershocks, once uniform noise is added to the static stress field, in agreement with observations. We then recover the exponential function of the productivity law with a break in scaling obtained between small and large M, with α = 1.5ln(10) and ln(10), respectively, in agreement with results from previous static stress simulations. Possible biases of aftershock selection, proven to exist in epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) simulations, may explain the lack of break in scaling observed in seismicity catalogues. The existence of the theoretical kink, however, remains to be proven. Finally, we describe how to estimate the solid seismicity parameters (activation density δ+, aftershock solid envelope r∗ and background stress amplitude range Δo∗) for large M values.

  9. Cloud detection algorithm comparison and validation for operational Landsat data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foga, Steven Curtis; Scaramuzza, Pat; Guo, Song; Zhu, Zhe; Dilley, Ronald; Beckmann, Tim; Schmidt, Gail L.; Dwyer, John L.; Hughes, MJ; Laue, Brady

    2017-01-01

    Clouds are a pervasive and unavoidable issue in satellite-borne optical imagery. Accurate, well-documented, and automated cloud detection algorithms are necessary to effectively leverage large collections of remotely sensed data. The Landsat project is uniquely suited for comparative validation of cloud assessment algorithms because the modular architecture of the Landsat ground system allows for quick evaluation of new code, and because Landsat has the most comprehensive manual truth masks of any current satellite data archive. Currently, the Landsat Level-1 Product Generation System (LPGS) uses separate algorithms for determining clouds, cirrus clouds, and snow and/or ice probability on a per-pixel basis. With more bands onboard the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)/Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) satellite, and a greater number of cloud masking algorithms, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is replacing the current cloud masking workflow with a more robust algorithm that is capable of working across multiple Landsat sensors with minimal modification. Because of the inherent error from stray light and intermittent data availability of TIRS, these algorithms need to operate both with and without thermal data. In this study, we created a workflow to evaluate cloud and cloud shadow masking algorithms using cloud validation masks manually derived from both Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data. We created a new validation dataset consisting of 96 Landsat 8 scenes, representing different biomes and proportions of cloud cover. We evaluated algorithm performance by overall accuracy, omission error, and commission error for both cloud and cloud shadow. We found that CFMask, C code based on the Function of Mask (Fmask) algorithm, and its confidence bands have the best overall accuracy among the many algorithms tested using our validation data. The Artificial Thermal-Automated Cloud Cover Algorithm (AT-ACCA) is the most accurate

  10. Thermal expansion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper gives regression data for a modified second order polynomial fitted to the expansion data of, and percentage expansions for dioxides with (a) the fluorite and antifluorite structure: AmO 2 , BkO 2 , CeO 2 , CmO 2 , HfO 2 , Li 2 O, NpO 2 , PrO 2 , PuO 2 , ThO 2 , UO 2 , ZrO 2 , and (b) the rutile structure: CrO 2 , GeO 2 , IrO 2 , MnO 2 , NbO 2 , PbO 2 , SiO 2 , SnO 2 , TeO 2 , TiO 2 and VO 2 . Reduced expansion curves for the dioxides showed only partial grouping into iso-electronic series for the fluorite structures and showed that the 'law of corresponding states' did not apply to the rutile structures. (author)

  11. Academic versus Clinical Productivity of Cardiac Surgeons in the State of New York: Who Publishes More and Who Operates More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Carlo Maria; Gaudino, Mario; Vardas, Panos N; Weber, Daniel J; Blitzer, David; Hameedi, Fawad; Koniaris, Leonidas G; Girardi, Leonard N

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether/how cardiac surgeons can be productive both academically and clinically. Using online resources (New York State Adult Cardiac Surgery database, SCOPUS), we collected individual clinical volumes (operations performed/year), academic metrics (ongoing publications, role as author), practice setting, and seniority for all cardiac surgeons in the State of New York from 1994 to 2011. Over time, individual clinical volumes decreased (median operations/year: 193 in 1995 vs 126 in 2010; P published more worked at hospitals with higher clinical volumes (Spearman's correlation coefficient: 0.16; P publishing at all; ∼45 per cent operating less, but publishing a little; ∼15 per cent clinically very productive (operating as much as the nonpublishers) and publishing a lot; and ∼1 per cent operating the least, but publishing the most.

  12. Expansion of passive safety function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko; Nei, Hiromichi; Kumada, Toshiaki.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of the use of passive safety functions is proposed. Two notions are presented. One is that, in the design of passive safety nuclear reactors where aversion of active components is stressed, some active components are purposely introduced, by which a system is built in such a way that it behaves in an apparently passive manner. The second notion is that, instead of using a passive safety function alone, a passive safety function is combined with some active components, relating the passivity in the safety function with enhanced controllability in normal operation. The nondormant system which the authors propose is one example of the first notion. This is a system in which a standby safety system is a portion of the normal operation system. An interpretation of the nondormant system via synergetics is made. As an example of the second notion, a PIUS density lock aided with active components is proposed and is discussed

  13. Uniform gradient expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  14. A Study on the Profile Change Measurement of Steam Generator Tubes with Tube Expansion Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Song Myung Ho; Choi, Myung Sik

    2011-01-01

    Steam generator tubes for nuclear power plants contain the local shape transitions on their inner or outer surface such as dent, bulge, over-expansion, eccentricity, deflection, and so on by the application of physical force during the tube manufacturing and steam generator assembling and by the sludge (that is, corrosion products) produced during the plant operation. The structural integrity of tubes will be degraded by generating the corrosive crack at that location. The profilometry using the traditional bobbin probes which are currently applied for measuring the profile change of tubes gives us basic information such as axial locations and average magnitudes of deformations. However, the three-dimensional quantitative evaluation on circumferential locations, distributional angle, and size of deformations will have to be conducted to understand the effects of residual stresses increased by local deformations on corrosive cracking of tubes. Steam generator tubes of Korean standard nuclear power plants expanded within their tube-sheets by the explosive expansion method and suffered from corrosive cracks in the early stage of power operation. Thus, local deformations of steam generator tubes at the top of tube-sheet were measured with an advanced rotating probe and a laser profiling system for the two cases where the tubes expanded by the explosive expansion method and hydraulic expansion. Also, the trends of eccentricity, deflection, and over-expansion of tubes were evaluated. The advanced eddy current profilometry was confirmed to provide accurate information of local deformations compared with laser profilometry

  15. Effect of mode of operation on hydrogen production from glycerol at thermal neutral conditions: Thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pairojpiriyakul, Thirasak; Soottitantawat, Apinan; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University (Thailand); Kiatkittipong, Worapon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University (Thailand); Wiyaratn, Wisitsree [Department of Production Technology Education, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi (Thailand); Laosiripojana, Navadol [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi (Thailand); Croiset, Eric [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production from glycerol under thermal neutral conditions is studied in this work. Heat requirement from the process can be achieved from the exothermic reaction of glycerol with oxygen in air fed to the system. Two modes of operation for air feeding are considered including (i) Single-feed mode in which air is fed in combination with water and glycerol to the reformer, and (ii) Split-feed mode in which air and part of glycerol is fed to a combustor in order to generate heat. The thermal neutral conditions are considered for two levels including Reformer and System levels. It was found that the H{sub 2} yield from both modes is not significantly different at the Reformer level. In contrast, the difference becomes more pronounced at the System level. Single-feed and Split-feed modes offer high H{sub 2} yield in low (600-900 K) and high (900-1200 K) temperature ranges, respectively. The maximum H{sub 2} yields are 5.67 (water to glycerol ratio, WGR = 12, oxygen to glycerol ratio, OGR = 0.37, T = 900 K, Split-feed mode), and 3.28 (WGR = 3, OGR = 1.40, T = 900 K, Single-feed mode), for the Reformer and System levels, respectively. The difference between H{sub 2} yields in both levels mainly arises from the huge heat demand for preheating feeds in the System level, and therefore, a higher amount of air is needed to achieve the thermal neutral condition. Split-feed mode is a favorable choice in term of H{sub 2} purity because the gas product is not diluted with N{sub 2} from the air. The use of pure O{sub 2} and afterburner products (ABP) stream were also considered at the System level. The maximum H{sub 2} yield becomes 3.75 (WGR = 5.21, OGR = 1.28, T = 900 K, Split-feed mode) at thermal neutral condition when utilizing heat from the ABP stream. Finally comparisons between the different modes and levels are addressed in terms of yield of by-products, and carbon formation. (author)

  16. Low-temperature thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses the thermal expansion of insulators and metals. Harmonicity and anharmonicity in thermal expansion are examined. The electronic, magnetic, an other contributions to low temperature thermal expansion are analyzed. The thermodynamics of the Debye isotropic continuum, the lattice-dynamical approach, and the thermal expansion of metals are discussed. Relative linear expansion at low temperatures is reviewed and further calculations of the electronic thermal expansion coefficient are given. Thermal expansions are given for Cu, Al and Ti. Phenomenologic thermodynamic relationships are also discussed

  17. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States). ITT Research Institute; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G. [Bonner and Moore Management Science, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  18. Development of an Operational TS Dataset Production System for the Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Dae; Park, Hyuk Min; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Kwang Soon

    2017-04-01

    An operational TS (Temperature and Salinity) dataset production system was developed to provide near real-time data to the data assimilation system periodically. It collects the latest 15 days' TS data of the north western pacific area (20°N - 55°N, 110°E - 150°E), applies QC tests to the archived data and supplies them to numerical prediction models of KIOST (Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology). The latest real-time TS data are collected from Argo GDAC and GTSPP data server every week. Argo data are downloaded from /latest_data directory of Argo GDAC. Because many duplicated data exist when all profile data are extracted from all Argo netCDF files, DB system is used to avoid duplication. All metadata (float ID, location, observation date and time, etc) of all Argo floats is stored into Database system and a Matlab program was developed to manipulate DB data, to check the duplication and to exclude duplicated data. GTSPP data are downloaded from /realtime directory of GTSPP data service. The latest data except ARGO data are extracted from the original data. Another Matlab program was coded to inspect all collected data using 10 QC tests and produce final dataset which can be used by the assimilation system. Three regional range tests to inspect annual, seasonal and monthly variations are included in the QC procedures. The C program was developed to provide regional ranges to data managers. It can calculate upper limit and lower limit of temperature and salinity at depth from 0 to 1550m. The final TS dataset contains the latest 15 days' TS data in netCDF format. It is updated every week and transmitted to numerical modeler of KIOST for operational use.

  19. Correlation expansion: a powerful alternative multiple scattering calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haifeng; Wu Ziyu; Sebilleau, Didier

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a powerful alternative expansion method to perform multiple scattering calculations. In contrast to standard MS series expansion, where the scattering contributions are grouped in terms of scattering order and may diverge in the low energy region, this expansion, called correlation expansion, partitions the scattering process into contributions from different small atom groups and converges at all energies. It converges faster than MS series expansion when the latter is convergent. Furthermore, it takes less memory than the full MS method so it can be used in the near edge region without any divergence problem, even for large clusters. The correlation expansion framework we derive here is very general and can serve to calculate all the elements of the scattering path operator matrix. Photoelectron diffraction calculations in a cluster containing 23 atoms are presented to test the method and compare it to full MS and standard MS series expansion

  20. Lace expansion for dummies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolthausen, Erwin; Van Der Hofstad, Remco; Kozma, Gady

    2018-01-01

    We show Green's function asymptotic upper bound for the two-point function of weakly self-Avoiding walk in d >4, revisiting a classic problem. Our proof relies on Banach algebras to analyse the lace-expansion fixed point equation and is simpler than previous approaches in that it avoids Fourier