WorldWideScience

Sample records for operator actions human

  1. The dependence level analysis between the human actions in NPP Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.; Apostol, M.; Florescu, G.; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2009-01-01

    The Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is an important method in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies and offers desirability for concrete improvement of the man - machine - organization interfaces, reliability and safety. An important step in HRA is the dependence level analysis between the human actions performed by the same person or between the actions performed by different persons, step in quantitative analysis of the human errors probabilities. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model to analyze the dependence level between human actions for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation. The model estimates the conditional human error probabilities (CHEP) and joint human error probabilities (JHEP). The achieved sensitivity analyses determine human performance sensibility to systematic variations for dependence level between human actions. The human error probabilities estimated in this paper are adequate values for integration both in HRA and in PSA realized for NPP. This type of analysis helps in finding and analyzing the ways of reducing the likelihood of human errors, so that the impact of human factor to systems availability, reliability and safety can be realistically estimated. In order to demonstrate the usability of this model an analysis is performed upon the dependences between the necessary human actions in mitigating the consequences of LOCA events, particularly for the case of Cernavoda NPP. (authors)

  2. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R E; Fragola, J; Wreathall, J

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations.

  3. Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Fragola, J.; Wreathall, J.

    1982-11-01

    This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations

  4. Human actions treatment in the Juragua NPP pre-operational PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro Fernandez, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human reliability analysis is an important part of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA). Because Juragua NPP PSA has been accomplished during construction stage of the plant, no specific operational procedures nor experience for human reliability analysis task taking into account the worlds current methodologies in this field and the actual situation of the plant. This papers describes the approach we followed

  5. Human actions in the pre-operational probabilistic safety analysis of Juragua Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, R.

    1995-01-01

    Human error is one of the main contributors to the biggest industrial disasters that the world has suffered in the last years. Safety probabilistic analysis techniques allow to consider, in the some study, the contribution of a facility's mechanical and human components safety, this guaranteeing a move integral assessment of these two factors although the PSA study of Juragua Nuclear Power Plant is carried out at a preoperational stage which causes important information limitations fos assessment of human reliability some considerations and suppositions in order to conduct treatment of human actions this stage were adopted. The present work describes the projected targets, approach applied and results obtained from the lakes of human reliability of this study

  6. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors

  7. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Olmstead, R.; Oudiz, A.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation. (author) [fr

  8. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Olmstead, R.; Oudiz, A.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation

  9. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    , a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving...

  10. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis

  11. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  12. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  13. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  14. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  15. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  16. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  17. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  18. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  19. Criteria for safety-related operator actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.H.; Haas, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    The Safety-Related Operator Actions (SROA) Program was designed to provide information and data for use by NRC in assessing the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) control room operators in responding to abnormal/emergency events. The primary effort involved collection and assessment of data from simulator training exercises and from historical records of abnormal/emergency events that have occurred in operating plants (field data). These data can be used to develop criteria for acceptability of the use of manual operator action for safety-related functions. Development of criteria for safety-related operator actions are considered

  20. Operant Variability and Voluntary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…

  1. A study of actions in operative notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report 'procedure description' section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes.

  2. Operator Actions Within a Safety Instrumented Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttinger, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the factors that should be considered when crediting operator action for performing a safety function or being a part of the process of enabling a safety function. Criteria for evaluating operator action, such as required time response and operator training among others, are discussed. The paper will address these and other factors that should be considered when determining the reliability of the operator to respond and perform his/her part of the safety function. The entire safety function includes the operator and the reliability of the instrumented system that provides the alarm or indication, the final control element, and support systems. The integration of the operator performance with the hardware safety availability, including the effects of the supporting systems is discussed. The analysis of these factors will provide the justification for the amount of risk reduction or safety integrity level that can be credited for the Safety Instrumented Function (SIF), including operator action

  3. Treatment of operator actions in the HTGR risk assessment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.; Silady, F.A.; Hannaman, G.W.

    1979-12-01

    Methods are presented for the treatment of operator actions, developed in the AIPA risk assessment study. Some examples are given of how these methods were applied to the analysis of potential HTGR accidents. Realistic predictions of accident risks required a balanced treatment of both beneficial and detrimental actions and responses of human operators and maintenance crews. Th essential elements of the human factors methodology used in the AIPA study include event tree and fault tree analysis, time-dependent operator response and repair models, a method for quantifying common cause failure probabilities, and synthesis of relevant experience data for use in these models

  4. Periodic testing in operative action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larm, T.

    2005-01-01

    Periodic testing forms a remarkable part of the regular work tasks of the shift crew. Testing is generally carried out beside the daily monitoring and control work. Even remarkable plant related differences may occur in the procedures and routines used in periodic testing. The goal is still always the same, to regularly ensure that the systems and equipment are in working order according to their design. This presentation studies with examples the execution and scope of periodic testing as well as the routines and procedures used in the testing in Loviisa power plant. The presentation is based on the testing procedures of Loviisa power plant and the aim is not to compare them to the procedures of other plants. The scope of periodic testing has increased and the routines and procedures have been developed as the operation experience has increased. The assessment of the need of periodic testing and the consideration of the practical execution possibilities should be a part of the plant's planning phase as a part of the planning process. (orig.)

  5. Time Based Workload Analysis Method for Safety-Related Operator Actions in Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Oh, Eung Se [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    During the design basis event, the safety system performs safety functions to mitigate the event. The most of safety system is actuated by automatic system however, there are operator manual actions that are needed for the plant safety. These operator actions are classified as important human actions in human factors engineering design. The human factors engineering analysis and evaluation is needed for these important human actions to assure that operator successfully perform their tasks for plant safety and operational goals. The work load analysis is one of the required analysis for the important human actions.

  6. Time Based Workload Analysis Method for Safety-Related Operator Actions in Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Oh, Eung Se

    2016-01-01

    During the design basis event, the safety system performs safety functions to mitigate the event. The most of safety system is actuated by automatic system however, there are operator manual actions that are needed for the plant safety. These operator actions are classified as important human actions in human factors engineering design. The human factors engineering analysis and evaluation is needed for these important human actions to assure that operator successfully perform their tasks for plant safety and operational goals. The work load analysis is one of the required analysis for the important human actions.

  7. The Kinetics Human Action Video Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Will; Carreira, Joao; Simonyan, Karen; Zhang, Brian; Hillier, Chloe; Vijayanarasimhan, Sudheendra; Viola, Fabio; Green, Tim; Back, Trevor; Natsev, Paul; Suleyman, Mustafa; Zisserman, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    We describe the DeepMind Kinetics human action video dataset. The dataset contains 400 human action classes, with at least 400 video clips for each action. Each clip lasts around 10s and is taken from a different YouTube video. The actions are human focussed and cover a broad range of classes including human-object interactions such as playing instruments, as well as human-human interactions such as shaking hands. We describe the statistics of the dataset, how it was collected, and give some ...

  8. Operation of the Selected Local Action Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Nevěděl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to compare the current operation of elected local action group with the concept of learning regions. This comparison is built on detailed knowledge and understanding of the operation of local action group Podbrnensko citizens’ association (Podbrnensko CA and learning regions in general. The following is assumed: the understanding of community-based processes from the perspective of residents, the important stakeholders who influence the operation of communities or locations. The operation of local action groups is in line with the current concept led by local community development (community led local development, CLLD, which uses elements of the LEADER method. In this method the solution of development problems comes primarily from the inside, not from the outside of the studied territory. The methods used for the collection of empirical data were mostly observation and interviews with all partners involved in LAG (31 people, all mayors in LAG (29 people and 176 people from region, i.e. methods, which result in so called deep data. Between the primary techniques applied in the research are: participant observation, unstructured or semi-structured interviews and public debates.

  9. Introduction of operator actions in the event trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, G.; Lanore, J.M.; Villeroux, C.

    1984-11-01

    In the PRA in progress in France for a 900 MW PWR plant, an effort is done for introducing operator actions during accident sequences. A first approach of this complex problem relies on an extensive use of existing methods an knowledge in diverse fields. Identification of actions is based on the operating procedures, and in particular on the existence of special emergency procedures which define the optimal actions during severe accidents. This approach implies the introduction in the event trees of the notion of procedure failure. Quantification of the corresponding probabilities leads to several problems including physics of the sequences, systems availability and human behaviour for decision making and actions. This treatment is illustrated by the example of the small break event tree

  10. Everyday robotic action: Lessons from human action control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eDe Kleijn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally-extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations.

  11. Human action analysis with randomized trees

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng

    2014-01-01

    This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A RISK SCREENING METHOD FOR CREDITED OPERATOR ACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIGGINS, J.C.; O'HARA, J.M.; LEWIS, P.M.; PERSENSKY, J.; BONGARRA, J.

    2002-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF A RISK SCREENING METHOD FOR CREDITED OPERATOR ACTIONS. THE U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (NRC) REVIEWS THE HUMAN FACTORS ASPECTS OF PROPOSED LICENSE AMENDMENTS THAT IMPACT HUMAN ACTIONS THAT ARE CREDITED IN A PLANTS SAFETY ANALYSIS. THE STAFF IS COMMITTED TO A GRADED APPROACH TO THESE REVIEWS THAT FOCUS RESOURCES ON THE MOST RISK IMPORTANT CHANGES. THEREFORE, A RISK INFORMED SCREENING METHOD WAS DEVELOPED BASED ON AN ADAPTATION OF EXISTING GUIDANCE FOR RISK INFORMED REGULATION AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE METHOD USES BOTH QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE INFORMATION TO DIVIDE THE AMENDMENT REQUESTS INTO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF REVIEW. THE METHOD WAS EVALUATED USING A VARIETY OF TESTS. THIS PAPER WILL SUMMARIZE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY AND THE EVALUATIONS THAT WERE PERFORMED TO VERIFY ITS USEFULNESS

  13. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Vol.4, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors

  14. Human Error Assessmentin Minefield Cleaning Operation Using Human Event Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajiakbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Human error is one of the main causes of accidents. Due to the unreliability of the human element and the high-risk nature of demining operations, this study aimed to assess and manage human errors likely to occur in such operations. Methods: This study was performed at a demining site in war zones located in the West of Iran. After acquiring an initial familiarity with the operations, methods, and tools of clearing minefields, job task related to clearing landmines were specified. Next, these tasks were studied using HTA and related possible errors were assessed using ATHEANA. Results: de-mining task was composed of four main operations, including primary detection, technical identification, investigation, and neutralization. There were found four main reasons for accidents occurring in such operations; walking on the mines, leaving mines with no action, error in neutralizing operation and environmental explosion. The possibility of human error in mine clearance operations was calculated as 0.010. Conclusion: The main causes of human error in de-mining operations can be attributed to various factors such as poor weather and operating conditions like outdoor work, inappropriate personal protective equipment, personality characteristics, insufficient accuracy in the work, and insufficient time available. To reduce the probability of human error in de-mining operations, the aforementioned factors should be managed properly.

  15. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  16. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry K.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)

  17. Models of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human behavior and cognition (HB and C) are necessary for understanding the total response of complex systems. Many such models have come available over the past thirty years for various applications. Unfortunately, many potential model users remain skeptical about their practicality, acceptability, and usefulness. Such hesitancy stems in part to disbelief in the ability to model complex cognitive processes, and a belief that relevant human behavior can be adequately accounted for through the use of commonsense heuristics. This paper will highlight several models of HB and C and identify existing and potential applications in attempt to dispel such notions. (author)

  18. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Vol. 3, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regularory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program

  19. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Volume 5, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Program

  20. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Volume 5, No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management

  1. Human errors in NPP operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jufang

    1993-01-01

    Based on the operational experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the importance of studying human performance problems is described. Statistical analysis on the significance or frequency of various root-causes and error-modes from a large number of human-error-related events demonstrate that the defects in operation/maintenance procedures, working place factors, communication and training practices are primary root-causes, while omission, transposition, quantitative mistake are the most frequent among the error-modes. Recommendations about domestic research on human performance problem in NPPs are suggested

  2. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation; Equilibre entre automatisation et action humaine dans la conduite des centrale nucleaires, resultats de la cooperation internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. d' Analyse de Surete; Bastl, W [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit m.b.H. (GRS), Garching (Germany); Olmstead, R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, Mississauga (Canada); Oudiz, A [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Jenkinson, J [Nuclear Electric PLC, Gloucester (United Kingdom); Kossilov, A [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1990-07-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation. (author) [French] L'automatisation a longtemps ete une caracteristique bien etablie des centrales nucleaires. Dans certaines applications, l'utilisation de l'automatisation a ete le facteur decisif qui a permis a la technologie des centrales de progresser jusqu'a son etat actuel. Les exigences de l'opinion publique en matiere de securite renforcee ont conduit a l'utilisation d'une plus grande redondance et a une plus grande diversification et ceci, en retour, a encore accru le niveau d'automatisation. Toutefois, il est possible que le facteur preponderant de cet accroissement de l'automatisation soit constitue par les progres effectues dans la technologie de l'information. Plus recemment, l'attention s

  3. Course of Action Analysis for Coalition Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagenhals, Lee W; Reid, Tom; Smillie, Robert J; Levis, Alexander H

    2001-01-01

    ...) of the Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Command. The goal of DSCCO is to apply and integrate organizational design concepts and decision support technologies in planning and executing multi-national coalition operations...

  4. Human action recognition with depth cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jiang; Wu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Action recognition technology has many real-world applications in human-computer interaction, surveillance, video retrieval, retirement home monitoring, and robotics. The commoditization of depth sensors has also opened up further applications that were not feasible before. This text focuses on feature representation and machine learning algorithms for action recognition from depth sensors. After presenting a comprehensive overview of the state of the art, the authors then provide in-depth descriptions of their recently developed feature representations and machine learning techniques, includi

  5. Operations of human resources engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Δημητρέλη, Αλεξάνδρα

    2017-01-01

    This current study, attempts to shed light on the relationship between HR Operations and employee engagement by testing the relationship empirically. More specifically, it looks at how employee engagement could be embedded into day-to-day human resources operations. Employee engagement is a topic that is repeatedly being discussed in most of the HR forums, articles and journals in the recent past. Employers recognize that truly engage and motivate employee’s produce impressive levels of in...

  6. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Volume 5, No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management. This summary report is published for internal NRC use in managing the Operating Reactors Licensing Actions Program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  7. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Vol. 3, No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  8. Dynamic operator actions analysis for inherently safe fast reactors and light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, V.; Apostolakis, G.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative dynamic human actions analysis of inherently safe fast reactors (ISFRs) and light water reactors (LWRs) in terms of systems response and estimated human error rates is presented. Brief overviews of the ISFR and LWR systems are given to illustrate the design differences. Key operator actions required by the ISFR reactor shutdown and decay heat removal systems are identified and are compared with those of the LWR. It is observed that, because of the passive nature of the ISFR safety-related systems, a large time window is available for operator actions during transient events. Furthermore, these actions are fewer in number, are less complex, and have lower error rates and less severe consequences than those of the LWRs. We expect the ISFR operator errors' contribution to risk is smaller (at least in the context of the existing human reliability models) than that of the LWRs. (author)

  9. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Volume 5, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This document is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program

  10. A statistical model of future human actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, G.

    1992-02-01

    A critical review has been carried out of models of future human actions during the long term post-closure period of a radioactive waste repository. Various Markov models have been considered as alternatives to the standard Poisson model, and the problems of parameterisation have been addressed. Where the simplistic Poisson model unduly exaggerates the intrusion risk, some form of Markov model may have to be introduced. This situation may well arise for shallow repositories, but it is less likely for deep repositories. Recommendations are made for a practical implementation of a computer based model and its associated database. (Author)

  11. A stochastic assessment of cavity flooding strategy involving operator action for Yonggwang 3 and 4 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Yu, D.; Ha, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author presents a new approach to the evaluation of an accident management strategy when an operator action is involved. This approach classifies the failure in implementing a given strategy into 4 possible states, and provides their corresponding quantification methods: 1) the failure of a diagnosis and decision-making by operators, 2) the failure of taking an action following a correct diagnosis, 3) the failure of a system operation following an adequate action, and 4) the failure due to a delayed action. The proposed methods were applied to assess a cavity flooding strategy that uses containment spray system (CSS), and the result shows that the methods are more appropriate in evaluating accident management strategies when human actions are involved

  12. Thyrotropic action of human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, M; Hershman, J M

    1995-10-01

    with the finding that the beta-CTP truncated hCG with higher thyrotropic potency is substantially deglycosylated and desialylated in the beta-subunit relative to intact hCG because all four O-linked glycosylation sites occur within the missing C-terminal extension. The desialylated hCG variant also interacts directly with recombinant hTSH receptors transfected into human thyroid cancer cells. There is thyroid-stimulating activity in sera of normal pregnant women, and this correlates with serum hCG levels. The thyroid gland of normal pregnant women may be stimulated by hCG to secrete slightly excessive quantities of T4 and induce a slight suppression of TSH, perhaps being about 1 mU/L less than nongravid levels, but not high enough to induce overt hyperthyroidism. Maternal thyroid glands may secrete more thyroid hormone during early pregnancy in response to the thyrotropic activity of hCG that overrides the normal operation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid feedback system. Biochemical hyperthyroidism associated with hyperemesis gravidarum has been attributed to hCG. In patients with hyperemesis gravidarum, thyrotropic in serum correlated with hCG immunoreactivity, and the severity of vomiting as indicated by clinical and biochemical parameters correlated with the degree of thyroid stimulation. To understand the thyrotropic action of hCG, it is necessary to know whether hCG activates the same domain of the TSH receptor as does TSH. The identification of the molecular structure of the hCG isoform with the highest thyrotropic potency will resolve the enigma of gestational thyrotoxicosis and the hyperthyroidism associated with trophoblastic disease and hCG-producing tumors.

  13. Understanding human action: integrating meanings, mechanisms, causes, and contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keestra, M.; Repko, A.F.; Newell, W.H.; Szostak, R.

    2012-01-01

    Humans are capable of understanding an incredible variety of actions performed by other humans. Even though these range from primary biological actions like eating and fleeing, to acts in parliament or in poetry, humans generally can make sense of each other’s actions. Understanding other people’s

  14. Exemplar-based human action pose correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Deng, Ke; Bai, Xiang; Leyvand, Tommer; Guo, Baining; Tu, Zhuowen

    2014-07-01

    The launch of Xbox Kinect has built a very successful computer vision product and made a big impact on the gaming industry. This sheds lights onto a wide variety of potential applications related to action recognition. The accurate estimation of human poses from the depth image is universally a critical step. However, existing pose estimation systems exhibit failures when facing severe occlusion. In this paper, we propose an exemplar-based method to learn to correct the initially estimated poses. We learn an inhomogeneous systematic bias by leveraging the exemplar information within a specific human action domain. Furthermore, as an extension, we learn a conditional model by incorporation of pose tags to further increase the accuracy of pose correction. In the experiments, significant improvements on both joint-based skeleton correction and tag prediction are observed over the contemporary approaches, including what is delivered by the current Kinect system. Our experiments for the facial landmark correction also illustrate that our algorithm can improve the accuracy of other detection/estimation systems.

  15. Critical operator actions: human reliability modeling and data issues. Principal Working Group No. 5 - Task 94-1. Final Task Report prepared by a Group of Experts of the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmart, P.; Grant, A.; Raina, V.M.; Patrik, M.; Cacciabue, P.C.; Cojazzi, G.; Reiman, L.; Virolainen, R.; Lanore, J.M.; Poidevin, S.; Herttrich, P.M.; Mertens, J.; Reer, B.; Straeter, O.; Bareith, A.; Hollo, E.; Traini, E.; Fukuda, M.; Hirano, M.; Kani, Y.; Muramatsu, K.; Versteeg, M.F.; Kim, T.W.; Calvo, J.; Gil, B.; Dang, V.N.; Hirschberg, S.; Meyer, P.; Schmocker, U.; Andrews, R.; Coxson, B.; Shepherd, C.H.; Murphy, J.A.; Parry, G.W.; Ramey-Smith, A.; Siu, N.O.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of human interactions is considered one of the major limitations in the context of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).While the results of many PSAs show a very significant contribution of human errors, large uncertainties are normally associated with the quantitative estimates of these contributors. This problem becomes even more significant when analysing human interactions under special conditions, for example in accident scenarios for external events or for the shutdown and low power conditions. Any improvement in the current state of knowledge with respect to the data for human interactions would have a positive impact on the confidence in PSA results, including correct ranking of the dominant accident scenarios. At the same time many PSAs have been successful at identifying critical operator actions; in most cases the benefits of these qualitative insights are not jeopardised by lack of numerical precision in the estimates. The present HRA approaches as generally applied in PSAs are also limited in scope; for instance, they either ignore errors of commissions or treat these superficially. New, dynamic methods, primarily aiming at the resolution of the issues of cognitive errors including errors of commission are emerging but their full-scope applications within the PSA framework belong to the future. In the context of data, some progress has been observed partially due to use of simulators to support the human reliability analysis (HRA). These applications have been rather concentrated (but not limited) to France and USA. Recently, a very promising program has been established in Hungary. The experiences from such applications are not widely known and dissemination of the relevant insights to the PSA community has some definite merits. With respect to the identification of critical operator actions there is in some cases clear evidence and in others a good potential that the existing PSA studies may provide useful, partially generic

  16. Spatio-Temporal Layout of Human Actions for Improved Bag-of-Words Action Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Schutte, K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how human action recognition can be improved by considering spatio-temporal layout of actions. From literature, we adopt a pipeline consisting of STIP features, a random forest to quantize the features into histograms, and an SVM classifier. Our goal is to detect 48 human actions,

  17. Safety-related operator actions: methodology for developing criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozinsky, E.J.; Gray, L.H.; Beare, A.N.; Barks, D.B.; Gomer, F.E.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a methodology for developing criteria for design evaluation of safety-related actions by nuclear power plant reactor operators, and identifies a supporting data base. It is the eleventh and final NUREG/CR Report on the Safety-Related Operator Actions Program, conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The operator performance data were developed from training simulator experiments involving operator responses to simulated scenarios of plant disturbances; from field data on events with similar scenarios; and from task analytic data. A conceptual model to integrate the data was developed and a computer simulation of the model was run, using the SAINT modeling language. Proposed is a quantitative predictive model of operator performance, the Operator Personnel Performance Simulation (OPPS) Model, driven by task requirements, information presentation, and system dynamics. The model output, a probability distribution of predicted time to correctly complete safety-related operator actions, provides data for objective evaluation of quantitative design criteria

  18. Defensive Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment Christopher L. Vowels W. Anthony Scroggins U.S. Army Research Institute Captain Kyle T...Daniels Master Sergeant Paul M. Volino Joint Readiness Training Center July 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...for distribution: MICHELLE SAMS Director Technical review by Dr. William R. Bickley, U.S. Army Research

  19. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Volume 5, No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This document is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management

  20. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Volume 5, No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management

  1. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Volume 4, No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This document is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the division of licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management

  2. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Vol. 4, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    This summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Resource Management

  3. Operating experience and corrective action program at Ontario Hydro Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, Barry; Turner, David

    1998-01-01

    This is a slide-based talk given at the COG/IAEA: 5. Technical Committee Meeting on 'Exchange of operating experience of pressurized heavy water reactors'. In the introduction there are presented the operating experience (OPEX) program of OHN, and the OPEX Program Mission, ensuring that the right information gets to the right staff at the right time. The OPEX Processes are analysed. These are: - Internal Corrective Action; - Inter-site Lesson Transfer; - External Lesson Transfer; - External Posting of OHN Events; - Internalizing Operating Experience. Steps in solving the Corrective Action Program are described: - Identify the Problem; - Notify Immediate Supervision/Manager; - Evaluate the Problem; - Correct the Problem; Monitor/Report Status. The Internal Corrective Action is then presented as a flowchart. The internalizing operating experience is presented under three aspects: - Communication; - Interface; - Training. The following items are discussed, respectively: peer meetings, department/section meetings, safety meetings, e-mail folders, newsletters and bulletin boards; work planning, pre-job briefings, supervisors' briefing cards; classroom initial and refresher (case studies), simulator, management courses. A diagram is presented showing the flow and treatment of information within OHN, centered on the weekly screening meetings. Finally, the corrective action processes are depicted in a flowchart and analysed in details

  4. Effective corrective actions to enhance operational safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants around the world and the prevention of incidents in these installations remain key concerns for the nuclear community. In this connection the feedback of operating experience plays a major role: every nuclear plant operator needs to have a system in place to identify and feed back the lessons learned from operating experience and to implement effective corrective actions to prevent safety events from reoccurring. An effective operating experience programme also includes a proactive approach that is aimed at preventing the first-time occurrence of safety events. In April 2003, the IAEA issued the PROSPER guidelines for nuclear installations to strengthen and enhance their own operating experience process and for self-assessment on the effectiveness of the feedback process. Subsequently, in the course of the Operational Safety Review Teams missions conducted by the IAEA that focused on the operational safety practices of nuclear power plants, the IAEA enhanced the review of the operating experience in nuclear power plants by implementing a new module that is derived from these guidelines. In order to highlight the effective implementation of the operating experience programme and to provide practical assistance in this area, the IAEA organized workshops and conferences to discuss recent trends in operating experience. The IAEA also performed assistance and review missions at plants and corporate organizations. The IAEA is further developing advice and assistance on operating experience feedback programmes and is reporting on good practices. The present publication is the outcome of two years of coordinated effort involving the participation of experts of nuclear organizations in several Member States. It provides information and good practices for successfully establishing an effective corrective actions programme. This publication forms part of a series that develops the principles set forth in these guidelines

  5. ACTION AS A CRITERION OF THE CAR OPERATING EFFECTIVENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently used criteria for determining car operating efficiency in road traffic are, among others, emission of harmful substances, consumption of engine driving fuels, technical service and reliability of operation, safety of use. The operational characteristics of the car in terms of engine driving fuel consumption data is usually recognised as so-called road specific fuel consumption. An important deficiency of this approach is the failure to take into account the influence of the time on the journey’s effectiveness and the final result of the entire project. To obtain a new solution in this range in the analysis, a quantity called "action", which at last will be treated as the criterion of the car operating effectiveness, was used. The quantity of action is the product of the performed work and its realisation time. Many phenomena and processes in nature take place according to the principle of "minimum of action"  this criterion can be applied in the analysis of the car’s operating efficiency taking place in road traffic. An approach of this issue is presented in this article, wherein the basic data for analysis were obtained in the framework of the car tests performed at the real traffic conditions.

  6. Operational controlling - a tool of translating strategy into action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available . Enterprises have a lot of problems with realization their strategic aims in the fast changing and competitive business arena from many years. Effective execution of strategic plan needs its translating into action, task results and indicators of everyday activities. The success on the market is attainable by communicating strategic and operating goals on the each level of organizational structure and their connecting with budget of units or employee motivation. The scorecards balancing in finance, customer, process and development perspectives is very useful for pointing - what do we control with? or - what do we have to achieve? But doesn't answer to question about ways of enterprise managing. Main aim of the article is proving that operational controlling system is a essential tool for translating strategy into action. The Balanced Scorecard methodology should to take into consideration system and process connection of enterprise with procurement, co-operation or distribution supply chain also.

  7. Fault Management Techniques in Human Spaceflight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Brian; Crocker, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses human spaceflight fault management operations. Fault detection and response capabilities available in current US human spaceflight programs Space Shuttle and International Space Station are described while emphasizing system design impacts on operational techniques and constraints. Preflight and inflight processes along with products used to anticipate, mitigate and respond to failures are introduced. Examples of operational products used to support failure responses are presented. Possible improvements in the state of the art, as well as prioritization and success criteria for their implementation are proposed. This paper describes how the architecture of a command and control system impacts operations in areas such as the required fault response times, automated vs. manual fault responses, use of workarounds, etc. The architecture includes the use of redundancy at the system and software function level, software capabilities, use of intelligent or autonomous systems, number and severity of software defects, etc. This in turn drives which Caution and Warning (C&W) events should be annunciated, C&W event classification, operator display designs, crew training, flight control team training, and procedure development. Other factors impacting operations are the complexity of a system, skills needed to understand and operate a system, and the use of commonality vs. optimized solutions for software and responses. Fault detection, annunciation, safing responses, and recovery capabilities are explored using real examples to uncover underlying philosophies and constraints. These factors directly impact operations in that the crew and flight control team need to understand what happened, why it happened, what the system is doing, and what, if any, corrective actions they need to perform. If a fault results in multiple C&W events, or if several faults occur simultaneously, the root cause(s) of the fault(s), as well as their vehicle-wide impacts, must be

  8. Study on Operator Actions during the Occurrences of Undesirable Events in PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom, P.P.; Nurul Husna Zainal Abidin; Lanyau, T.A.; Zaredah Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Due to the recent Fukushima accident, the potential risks at one and only nuclear research reactor in the country, which is the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP), has increasingly gain concerns and an attempt on the development of Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for this reactor has been commenced. The preliminary scope of the PSA is to analyse the risk of core degradation during normal daily operation due to the random component failure and human error. SPAR-H and THERP method is used for quantifying human error probability (HEP). However, the scopes of this study only cover the qualitative parts that use interview/questionnaire method. The objectives of the questionnaire are to identify the main action for RTP operators when any undesired incident occurs during full power operation that might be caused by random component failures. From the questionnaires that have been conducted, the respondents consisted of 4 licensed operators and 9 trainee operators. All licensed operators have experience of operating reactor for more than 15 years while the trainee operator have been operate the reactor with experience of less than 10 years. Generally, in the event of an abnormal condition involving the reactor, an operator whether a licensed operator or the trainee does not have to ask permission in advance from the top individuals to carry out scram. This is to prevent the situation becoming increasingly severe if the reactor is still operating. With complete training and knowledge derived from the management, an operator can act efficiently in any emergency case. (author)

  9. Skeleton-based human action recognition using multiple sequence alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenwen; Liu, Kai; Cheng, Fei; Zhang, Jin; Li, YunSong

    2015-05-01

    Human action recognition and analysis is an active research topic in computer vision for many years. This paper presents a method to represent human actions based on trajectories consisting of 3D joint positions. This method first decompose action into a sequence of meaningful atomic actions (actionlets), and then label actionlets with English alphabets according to the Davies-Bouldin index value. Therefore, an action can be represented using a sequence of actionlet symbols, which will preserve the temporal order of occurrence of each of the actionlets. Finally, we employ sequence comparison to classify multiple actions through using string matching algorithms (Needleman-Wunsch). The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated on datasets captured by commodity depth cameras. Experiments of the proposed method on three challenging 3D action datasets show promising results.

  10. A new approach to incorporate operator actions in the simulation of accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Exposito; Juan Antonio Quiroga; Javier Hortal; John-Einar Hulsund

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nowadays, simulation-based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods seem to provide a new direction for the development of advanced methodologies to study operator actions effect during accident sequences. Due to this, the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) started a working group which has, among other objectives, to develop such simulation-based HRA methodology. As a result of its activities, a new methodology, named Integrated Safety Assessment (ISA), has been developed and is currently being incorporated into licensing activities at CSN. One of the key aspects of this approach is the incorporation of the capability to simulate operator actions, expanding the ISA methodology scopes to make HRA studies. For this reason, CSN is involved in several activities oriented to develop a new tool, which must be able to incorporate operator actions in conventional thermohydraulic (TH) simulations. One of them is the collaboration project between CSN, Halden Reactor Project (HRP) and the Department of Energy Systems (DSE) of the Polytechnic University of Madrid that started in 2003. The basic aim of the project is to develop a software tool that consists of a closed-loop plant/operator simulator, a thermal hydraulic (TH) code for simulating the plant transient and the procedures processor to give the information related with operator actions to the TH code, both coupled by a data communication system which allows the information exchange. For the plant simulation we have a plant transient simulator code (TRETA/TIZONA for PWR/BWR NPPs respectively), developed by the CSN, with PWR/BWR full scope models. The functionality of these thermalhydraulic codes has been expanded, allowing control the overall information flow between coupled codes, simulating the TH transient and determining when the operator actions must be considered. In the other hand, we have the COPMA-III code, a computerized procedure system able to manage XML operational

  11. Episodic Reasoning for Vision-Based Human Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Santofimia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart Spaces, Ambient Intelligence, and Ambient Assisted Living are environmental paradigms that strongly depend on their capability to recognize human actions. While most solutions rest on sensor value interpretations and video analysis applications, few have realized the importance of incorporating common-sense capabilities to support the recognition process. Unfortunately, human action recognition cannot be successfully accomplished by only analyzing body postures. On the contrary, this task should be supported by profound knowledge of human agency nature and its tight connection to the reasons and motivations that explain it. The combination of this knowledge and the knowledge about how the world works is essential for recognizing and understanding human actions without committing common-senseless mistakes. This work demonstrates the impact that episodic reasoning has in improving the accuracy of a computer vision system for human action recognition. This work also presents formalization, implementation, and evaluation details of the knowledge model that supports the episodic reasoning.

  12. Observed Human Actions, and Not Mechanical Actions, Induce Searching Errors in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Moriguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent neurophysiological studies have shown that several human brain regions involved in executing actions are activated by merely observing such actions via a human, and not by a mechanical hand. At a behavioral level, observing a human’s movements, but not those of a robot, significantly interferes with ongoing executed movements. However, it is unclear whether the biological tuning in the observation/execution matching system are functional during infancy. The present study examines whether a human’s actions, and not a mechanical action, influence infants’ execution of the same actions due to the observation/execution matching system. Twelve-month-old infants were given a searching task. In the tasks, infants observed an object hidden at location A, after which either a human hand (human condition or a mechanical one (mechanical condition searched the object correctly. Next, the object was hidden at location B and infants were allowed to search the object. We examined whether infants searched the object at location B correctly. The results revealed that infants in the human condition were more likely to search location A than those in the mechanical condition. Moreover, the results suggested that infants’ searching behaviors were affected by their observations of the same actions by a human, but not a mechanical hand. Thus, it may be concluded that the observation/execution matching system may be biologically tuned during infancy.

  13. A survey on vision-based human action recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter

    Vision-based human action recognition is the process of labeling image sequences with action labels. Robust solutions to this problem have applications in domains such as visual surveillance, video retrieval and human–computer interaction. The task is challenging due to variations in motion

  14. Benchmark of systematic human action reliability procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgin, A.J.; Hannaman, G.W.; Moieni, P.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology has emerged as one of the most promising tools for assessing the impact of human interactions on plant safety and understanding the importance of the man/machine interface. Human interactions were considered to be one of the key elements in the quantification of accident sequences in a PRA. The approach to quantification of human interactions in past PRAs has not been very systematic. The Electric Power Research Institute sponsored the development of SHARP to aid analysts in developing a systematic approach for the evaluation and quantification of human interactions in a PRA. The SHARP process has been extensively peer reviewed and has been adopted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers as the basis of a draft guide for the industry. By carrying out a benchmark process, in which SHARP is an essential ingredient, however, it appears possible to assess the strengths and weaknesses of SHARP to aid human reliability analysts in carrying out human reliability analysis as part of a PRA

  15. Study on the identification of main drivers affecting the performance of human operators during low power and shutdown operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Ji Tae; Kim, Jaewhan; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of human operator during LPSD operation is significantly important. • Human performance is affected by drivers such as procedure, training, and etc. • Main drivers during LPSD operation at domestic NPPs were suggested. • It is expected that it will be used for estimating human reliability during LPSD operation. - Abstract: In the past, many researchers believed that a reactor during low power and shutdown operation was sufficiently safe. This belief has been changed by the number of accidents during such types of operation, which is significantly high. Also, it was pointed out that one of the main differences between low power and shutdown operation and full power operation is the significance of human action because there are huge amounts of human actions due to extensive maintenance and testing while automatic control and safety functions may be disabled and procedures are insufficient or incomplete. This paper suggests the main drivers in performing human reliability analysis. For this study, we reviewed eight reports relating to human performance during low power and shutdown operation and applied a root cause analysis method for 53 human or human-related events at domestic nuclear power plants to derive the main drivers that affect the occurrence of those events. As a result, several main drivers were derived, such as procedures, training, experience of personnel, and workload/stress. It is expected that these main drivers will be used to perform human reliability analysis for low power and shutdown operation.

  16. Environmental Control Plan for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action Project. The purpose of this plan is to identify environmental requirements for the 300-FF-1 operable unit Remedial Action/Waste Disposal Project

  17. The Human-Robot Interaction Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Kunz, Clayton; Hiatt, Laura M.; Bugajska, Magda

    2006-01-01

    In order for humans and robots to work effectively together, they need to be able to converse about abilities, goals and achievements. Thus, we are developing an interaction infrastructure called the "Human-Robot Interaction Operating System" (HRI/OS). The HRI/OS provides a structured software framework for building human-robot teams, supports a variety of user interfaces, enables humans and robots to engage in task-oriented dialogue, and facilitates integration of robots through an extensible API.

  18. Adaboost-based algorithm for human action recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil

    2017-11-28

    This paper presents a computer vision-based methodology for human action recognition. First, the shape based pose features are constructed based on area ratios to identify the human silhouette in images. The proposed features are invariance to translation and scaling. Once the human body features are extracted from videos, different human actions are learned individually on the training frames of each class. Then, we apply the Adaboost algorithm for the classification process. We assessed the proposed approach using the UR Fall Detection dataset. In this study six classes of activities are considered namely: walking, standing, bending, lying, squatting, and sitting. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology.

  19. Adaboost-based algorithm for human action recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Houacine, Amrane

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a computer vision-based methodology for human action recognition. First, the shape based pose features are constructed based on area ratios to identify the human silhouette in images. The proposed features are invariance to translation and scaling. Once the human body features are extracted from videos, different human actions are learned individually on the training frames of each class. Then, we apply the Adaboost algorithm for the classification process. We assessed the proposed approach using the UR Fall Detection dataset. In this study six classes of activities are considered namely: walking, standing, bending, lying, squatting, and sitting. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology.

  20. Operability of glioblastomas: "sins of action" versus "sins of non-action".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroli, Paolo; Schiariti, Marco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Salmaggi, Andrea; Castiglione, Melina; Acerbi, Francesco; Tringali, Giovanni; Farinotti, Mariangela; Broggi, Morgan; Roberto, Cordella; Maccagnano, Elio; Broggi, Giovanni

    2013-12-01

    Despite prognosis of glioblastomas is still poor, mounting evidence suggests that more extensive surgical resections are associated with longer life expectancy. However, the surgical indications, at present, are far from uniform and the concept of operability is extremely surgeon-dependant. The results of glioblastoma resection in 104 patients operated on between March 2005 and April 2011 were reviewed with the aim to shed some light on the limits between 'sins of action' (operating upon complex tumors causing a permanent severe deficit) and 'sins of non-action' (considering inoperable tumors that can be resected with good results). Fifty-five patients (54.4 %) (Group 1) presented with a 'disputable' surgical indication because of one or more of the following clinico-radiological aspects: involvement of motor and language areas (39.4 %), deep location (7.7 %), corpus callosum infiltration (13.4 %), or major vessels encasement (8.6 %). Forty-six (42.5 %) patients (Group 2) presented with an 'indisputable' surgical indication (readily accessible tumors in non-eloquent areas). Overall mortality was 2.9 %. The mean overall survival was 19.8 months and not significantly different in the two Groups (20.4 Group 2 and 19.5 months for Group 1; p = 0.7). Patients with GTR and <72 years had a longer survival (p = 0.004 and 0.03, respectively). Seventy patients (69.3 %) showed an uneventful post-operative course, without statistical significance difference between Group 1 and 2. The gross total removal of glioblastoma with many complexities (Group 1) was found to be feasible with acceptable mortality, morbidity and long-term survival rates.

  1. Operational human performance reliability assessment (OHPRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Swanson, P.J.; Connelly, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Operational Human Performance Reliability Assessment (OHPRA) is an approach for assessing human performance that is being developed in response to demands from modern process industries for practical and effective tools to assess and improve human performance, and therefore overall system performance and safety. The single most distinguishing feature of the approach is that is defines human performance in open-quotes operationalclose quotes terms. OHPRA is focused not on generation of human error probabilities, but on practical analysis of human performance to aid management in (1) identifying open-quotes fixableclose quotes problems and (2) providing input on the importance and nature of potential improvements. Development of the model in progress uses a unique approach for eliciting expert strategies for assessing performance. A PC-based model incorporating this expertise is planned. A preliminary version of the approach has already been used successfully to identify practical human performance problems in reactor and chemical process plant operations

  2. Human action recognition using trajectory-based representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiam A. Abdul-Azim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing human actions in video sequences has been a challenging problem in the last few years due to its real-world applications. A lot of action representation approaches have been proposed to improve the action recognition performance. Despite the popularity of local features-based approaches together with “Bag-of-Words” model for action representation, it fails to capture adequate spatial or temporal relationships. In an attempt to overcome this problem, a trajectory-based local representation approaches have been proposed to capture the temporal information. This paper introduces an improvement of trajectory-based human action recognition approaches to capture discriminative temporal relationships. In our approach, we extract trajectories by tracking the detected spatio-temporal interest points named “cuboid features” with matching its SIFT descriptors over the consecutive frames. We, also, propose a linking and exploring method to obtain efficient trajectories for motion representation in realistic conditions. Then the volumes around the trajectories’ points are described to represent human actions based on the Bag-of-Words (BOW model. Finally, a support vector machine is used to classify human actions. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was evaluated on three popular datasets (KTH, Weizmann and UCF sports. Experimental results showed that the proposed approach yields considerable performance improvement over the state-of-the-art approaches.

  3. Design and Analysis for an Operator's Action Sharing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yeonsub; Seong, Nokyu

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, contrary to HRP approach, no more FPD is introduced because there is no room to install. The same workstation and the same LDP should be utilized for ream transparency. A action sharing system will be introduced at ShinKori 3,4 MCR, and further applied to other APR1400 plant if necessary. The project started and applied by the end of 2014. Despite benefit of action sharing system, there are lots of challenges to overcome such as traffic load, and interfaces. The challenges have been analyzed thoroughly. Traffic load can be reduced through vector graphics, video driver, and capture and compressing techniques. Furthermore interfaces for action sharing system are developed and evaluated to reduce secondary workload. Advanced digital control rooms have lots of advantages compared to analog control room. They can integrate all process variables into more comprehensible forms. Advanced alarm processor can suppress trivial alarms, and P and ID based mimic isplays can be integrated with context sensitive menu for referencing. Moreover computer based procedures have been introduced at more advanced MCR. Because all these display appears at flat panel display (FPD), they can be easily modified if necessary. These days newly introduced MCRs are advanced types, and analog control rooms are no more built. In spite of this trend, advanced control rooms have shortage in view of team transparency. For example, shift supervisor cannot tell which devices reactor operator is manipulating. APR1400 MCR has large display panel to share the same situation awareness among crew member. Because LDP has fixed display comparing switchable display in FPD, situation awareness can be enhanced. However, even LDP cannot show the active device that crew member are manipulating due to either limited number of devices in LDP or no demarcation for the active device. During construction of ShinKori 3/4, the demarcation box for the active device has been introduced and called an Active

  4. Human Resources Operational Data Store Core Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database contains only a very small subset of the Human Resources Operational Data Store data. It supports the SSA Employee and Office Data Retrieval (SEODR)...

  5. Human action perspectives based on individual plant examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forester, J.; Thompson, C.; Drouin, M.; Lois, E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides perspectives on human actions gained from reviewing 76 individual plant examination (IPE) submittals. Human actions found to be important in boiling water reactors (BWRs) and in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are presented and the events most frequently found important are discussed. Since there are numerous factors that can influence the quantification of human error probabilities (HEPs) and introduce significant variability in the resulting HEPs (which in turn can influence which events are found to be important), the variability in HEPs for similar events across IPEs is examined to assess the extent to which variability in results is due to real versus artifactual differences. Finally, similarities and differences in human action observations across BWRs and PWRs are examined

  6. Quantification of operator actions during ATWS following MSIV closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckas, W.J. Jr.; O'Brien, J.N.; Perline, R.K.; Spettell, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) assisted the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) by performing a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of the operations crew tasks during the Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) accident sequence with Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) closure at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 2. A detailed task analysis was performed based on consideration of staffing, team interaction, and control room layout at Peach Bottom. ATWS scenarios developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were reviewed. Discussions were held with thermal-hydrodynamic/core neutronics engineers at BNL to determine the success criterion for tasks. Five major operator tasks were identified. After reviewing a computerized data base of human error probabilities (HEPs) from 19 probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) for tasks similar to those above to establish the historic range of HEPs for such errors, consensus opinion and structured expert judgment was used to quantify each of these tasks at each branch point in the event tree within that range

  7. Brain-to-brain hyperclassification reveals action-specific motor mapping of observed actions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Dmitry; Lachat, Fanny; Peltola, Tomi; Lahnakoski, Juha M; Koistinen, Olli-Pekka; Glerean, Enrico; Vehtari, Aki; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Seeing an action may activate the corresponding action motor code in the observer. It remains unresolved whether seeing and performing an action activates similar action-specific motor codes in the observer and the actor. We used novel hyperclassification approach to reveal shared brain activation signatures of action execution and observation in interacting human subjects. In the first experiment, two "actors" performed four types of hand actions while their haemodynamic brain activations were measured with 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The actions were videotaped and shown to 15 "observers" during a second fMRI experiment. Eleven observers saw the videos of one actor, and the remaining four observers saw the videos of the other actor. In a control fMRI experiment, one of the actors performed actions with closed eyes, and five new observers viewed these actions. Bayesian canonical correlation analysis was applied to functionally realign observers' and actors' fMRI data. Hyperclassification of the seen actions was performed with Bayesian logistic regression trained on actors' data and tested with observers' data. Without the functional realignment, between-subjects accuracy was at chance level. With the realignment, the accuracy increased on average by 15 percentage points, exceeding both the chance level and the accuracy without functional realignment. The highest accuracies were observed in occipital, parietal and premotor cortices. Hyperclassification exceeded chance level also when the actor did not see her own actions. We conclude that the functional brain activation signatures underlying action execution and observation are partly shared, yet these activation signatures may be anatomically misaligned across individuals.

  8. Elaborated Action of the Human Primosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey G. Baranovskiy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The human primosome is a 340-kilodalton complex of primase (DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and DNA polymerase α, which initiates genome replication by synthesizing chimeric RNA-DNA primers for DNA polymerases δ and ϵ. Accumulated biochemical and structural data reveal the complex mechanism of concerted primer synthesis by two catalytic centers. First, primase generates an RNA primer through three steps: initiation, consisting of dinucleotide synthesis from two nucleotide triphosphates; elongation, resulting in dinucleotide extension; and termination, owing to primase inhibition by a mature 9-mer primer. Then Polα, which works equally well on DNA:RNA and DNA:DNA double helices, intramolecularly catches the template primed by a 9mer RNA and extends the primer with dNTPs. All primosome transactions are highly coordinated by autoregulation through the alternating activation/inhibition of the catalytic centers. This coordination is mediated by the small C-terminal domain of the primase accessory subunit, which forms a tight complex with the template:primer, shuttles between the primase and DNA polymerase active sites, and determines their access to the substrate.

  9. Buffering action of human dentin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, J; Pashley, D H

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the mineral and organic phases of dentin to its total buffering capacity and to compare the buffering abilities of normal and caries-affected dentin for acids used in adhesive dentistry. Disks of normal and caries-affected human coronal dentin 0.6 mm thick were prepared. Fifty microL of various acids were applied to the surface of mineralized or completely demineralized dentin for varying lengths of time. They were collected from the surface and combined with water rinses to permit titration of the total amount of acid applied, the amount recovered, the total amount that was taken up by the dentin, and the amount that diffused across dentin into 1 mL of water. Equal volumes of acids were applied to mineralized or demineralized dentin powder or hydroxyapatite powder. About 88% to 90% of applied acid was recovered from the surface; only 10% to 12% of the acid was taken up by dentin. Of the H+ that was taken up, only 1% to 2% actually diffused across 0.6 mm of dentin. Increasing the application time of 37% phosphoric acid did not increase the amount of H+ that diffused across dentin. Increasing the concentration of phosphoric acid from 10% to 65% produced only slight increases in H+ diffusion across dentin. There was no difference in the buffering capacity of normal vs caries-affected dentin disks. Almost all of the buffering capacity of dentin is due to its mineral phase. The high buffering capacity of dentin and the high reactivity of H+ insure that little H+ diffuses through dentin more than 0.6 mm thick.

  10. ROBOT LEARNING OF OBJECT MANIPULATION TASK ACTIONS FROM HUMAN DEMONSTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kyrarini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Robot learning from demonstration is a method which enables robots to learn in a similar way as humans. In this paper, a framework that enables robots to learn from multiple human demonstrations via kinesthetic teaching is presented. The subject of learning is a high-level sequence of actions, as well as the low-level trajectories necessary to be followed by the robot to perform the object manipulation task. The multiple human demonstrations are recorded and only the most similar demonstrations are selected for robot learning. The high-level learning module identifies the sequence of actions of the demonstrated task. Using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM, the model of demonstrated trajectories is learned. The learned trajectory is generated by Gaussian mixture regression (GMR from the learned Gaussian mixture model.  In online working phase, the sequence of actions is identified and experimental results show that the robot performs the learned task successfully.

  11. Human action recognition based on estimated weak poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenjuan; Gonzàlez, Jordi; Roca, Francesc Xavier

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel method for human action recognition (HAR) based on estimated poses from image sequences. We use 3D human pose data as additional information and propose a compact human pose representation, called a weak pose, in a low-dimensional space while still keeping the most discriminative information for a given pose. With predicted poses from image features, we map the problem from image feature space to pose space, where a Bag of Poses (BOP) model is learned for the final goal of HAR. The BOP model is a modified version of the classical bag of words pipeline by building the vocabulary based on the most representative weak poses for a given action. Compared with the standard k-means clustering, our vocabulary selection criteria is proven to be more efficient and robust against the inherent challenges of action recognition. Moreover, since for action recognition the ordering of the poses is discriminative, the BOP model incorporates temporal information: in essence, groups of consecutive poses are considered together when computing the vocabulary and assignment. We tested our method on two well-known datasets: HumanEva and IXMAS, to demonstrate that weak poses aid to improve action recognition accuracies. The proposed method is scene-independent and is comparable with the state-of-art method.

  12. Robotic situational awareness of actions in human teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, Dave

    2015-06-01

    When robots can sense and interpret the activities of the people they are working with, they become more of a team member and less of just a piece of equipment. This has motivated work on recognizing human actions using existing robotic sensors like short-range ladar imagers. These produce three-dimensional point cloud movies which can be analyzed for structure and motion information. We skeletonize the human point cloud and apply a physics-based velocity correlation scheme to the resulting joint motions. The twenty actions are then recognized using a nearest-neighbors classifier that achieves good accuracy.

  13. Some human performance paradoxes of nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Misenta, R.

    1980-01-01

    Roughly once a year, an abnormal situation with emergency potential may suddenly break the calm monotony of nuclear-power plant operation. The operating crew, perhaps under-stimulated by monitoring largely automatic processes, may then be expected to make correct inferences and decisions about complex phenomena. However, under stress, the operators may resort to using their 'best-learned responses', inappropriate to the real situation. Recent events at Three Mile Island prompted a variety of suggestions intended to improve operator performance, eg higher qualifications, more pay, or enhanced status. The authors stress the paradoxes of nuclear operation, conclude that some 'intuitively obvious' suggestions might have the opposite effect to that intended, and explore the possibility of introducing frequent, realistic emergency drills. Even this approach raises paradoxes - perhaps the role of the operator should be eliminated, or redefined to allow less human intervention in emergencies. (author)

  14. CSR concept implementation vs. political hedonism driven by human action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Hoppe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of CSR is a big challenge for organisations striving for business excellence. Nevertheless, a question should be asked whether achieving excellence is possible? I s it possible to become an excellent organisation in contemporary economic, social and political circumstances? Or the efforts to build an excellent organisation are only a PR trick. Unfortunately, nowadays many facts seem to confirm that, while operating in a very unfavourable environment, the majority of organisations which implement – to the full extent – the CSR concept in their strategies and adopt the model of socially responsible business risk business failure. Such a conclusion derives from two key facts. First of all, the legal environment is not ready for the development of socially responsible companies which results from political hedonism being an innate feature of democratic systems. Secondly, the level of customer social responsibility is not satisfactory and hardly any changes are expected in the short-term perspective, which is the consequence of hedonistic nature of human actions.

  15. Operational forecasting of human-biometeorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaros, T. M.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Matzarakis, A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the development of an operational forecasting service focusing on human-biometeorological conditions. The service is based on the coupling of numerical weather prediction models with an advanced human-biometeorological model. Human thermal perception and stress forecasts are issued on a daily basis for Greece, in both point and gridded format. A user-friendly presentation approach is adopted for communicating the forecasts to the public via the worldwide web. The development of the presented service highlights the feasibility of replacing standard meteorological parameters and/or indices used in operational weather forecasting activities for assessing the thermal environment. This is of particular significance for providing effective, human-biometeorology-oriented, warnings for both heat waves and cold outbreaks.

  16. Children Perseverate to a Human's Actions but Not to a Robot's Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Kanda, Takayuki; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young children commit perseverative errors from their observation of another person's actions. The present study examined how social observation would lead children to perseverative tendencies, using a robot. In Experiment 1, preschoolers watched either a human model or a robot sorting cards according to one…

  17. Social interaction enhances motor resonance for observed human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2012-04-25

    Understanding the neural basis of social behavior has become an important goal for cognitive neuroscience and a key aim is to link neural processes observed in the laboratory to more naturalistic social behaviors in real-world contexts. Although it is accepted that mirror mechanisms contribute to the occurrence of motor resonance (MR) and are common to action execution, observation, and imitation, questions remain about mirror (and MR) involvement in real social behavior and in processing nonhuman actions. To determine whether social interaction primes the MR system, groups of participants engaged or did not engage in a social interaction before observing human or robotic actions. During observation, MR was assessed via motor-evoked potentials elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Compared with participants who did not engage in a prior social interaction, participants who engaged in the social interaction showed a significant increase in MR for human actions. In contrast, social interaction did not increase MR for robot actions. Thus, naturalistic social interaction and laboratory action observation tasks appear to involve common MR mechanisms, and recent experience tunes the system to particular agent types.

  18. Human Action Recognition Using Ordinal Measure of Accumulated Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wonjun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for recognizing human actions from a single query action video. We propose an action recognition scheme based on the ordinal measure of accumulated motion, which is robust to variations of appearances. To this end, we first define the accumulated motion image (AMI using image differences. Then the AMI of the query action video is resized to a subimage by intensity averaging and a rank matrix is generated by ordering the sample values in the sub-image. By computing the distances from the rank matrix of the query action video to the rank matrices of all local windows in the target video, local windows close to the query action are detected as candidates. To find the best match among the candidates, their energy histograms, which are obtained by projecting AMI values in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, are compared with those of the query action video. The proposed method does not require any preprocessing task such as learning and segmentation. To justify the efficiency and robustness of our approach, the experiments are conducted on various datasets.

  19. Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on huma...

  20. Simulation of operator's actions during severe accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, A.

    2015-01-01

    Implementing accident management counter measures or actions to mitigate consequences of a severe accident is essential to reduce radiological risks to the public and environment. Station-specific severe accident management guidelines (SAMGs) have been developed and implemented at all Canadian nuclear power plants. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident certain enhancements were introduced to the SAMG, namely consideration of multi-units accidents, events involving spent fuel pools, incorporation of capability offered by the portable emergency mitigating equipment, and so on. To evaluate the adequacy and usability of the SAMGs, CNSC staff initiated a number of activities including a desktop review of SAMG documentation, evaluation of SAMG implementation through exercises and interviews with station staff, and independent verification of SAMG action effectiveness. This paper focuses on the verification of SAMG actions through analytical simulations. The objectives of the work are two-folds: (a) to understand the effectiveness of SAMG-specified mitigation actions in addressing the safety challenges and (b) to check for potential negative effects of the action. Some sensitivity calculations were performed to help understanding of the impact from actions that rely on the partially effective equipment or limited material resources. The severe accident computer code MAAP4-CANDU is used as a tool in this verification. This paper will describe the methodology used in the verification of SAMG actions and some results obtained from simulations. (author)

  1. Modeling Operations Costs for Human Exploration Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Operations and support (O&S) costs for human spaceflight have not received the same attention in the cost estimating community as have development costs. This is unfortunate as O&S costs typically comprise a majority of life-cycle costs (LCC) in such programs as the International Space Station (ISS) and the now-cancelled Constellation Program. Recognizing this, the Constellation Program and NASA HQs supported the development of an O&S cost model specifically for human spaceflight. This model, known as the Exploration Architectures Operations Cost Model (ExAOCM), provided the operations cost estimates for a variety of alternative human missions to the moon, Mars, and Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) in architectural studies. ExAOCM is philosophically based on the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) concepts of operational nodes, systems, operational functions, and milestones. This paper presents some of the historical background surrounding the development of the model, and discusses the underlying structure, its unusual user interface, and lastly, previous examples of its use in the aforementioned architectural studies.

  2. Human factors in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    An extensive effort is being devoted to developing a comprehensive human factor program that encompasses establishment of a data base for human error prediction using past operation experience in commercial nuclear power plants. Some of the main results of such an effort are reported including data retrieval and classification systems which have been developed to assist in estimation of operator error rates. Also, statistical methods are developed to relate operator error data to reactor type, age, and specific technical design features. Results reported in this paper are based on an analysis of LER's covering a six-year period for LWR's. Developments presently include a computer data management program, statistical model, and detailed error taxonomy

  3. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sridharan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design: A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. Results: GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Conclusions: Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations.

  4. Vision-based Human Action Classification Using Adaptive Boosting Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Houacine, Amrane

    2018-01-01

    Precise recognition of human action is a key enabler for the development of many applications including autonomous robots for medical diagnosis and surveillance of elderly people in home environment. This paper addresses the human action recognition based on variation in body shape. Specifically, we divide the human body into five partitions that correspond to five partial occupancy areas. For each frame, we calculated area ratios and used them as input data for recognition stage. Here, we consider six classes of activities namely: walking, standing, bending, lying, squatting, and sitting. In this paper, we proposed an efficient human action recognition scheme, which takes advantages of superior discrimination capacity of AdaBoost algorithm. We validated the effectiveness of this approach by using experimental data from two publicly available databases fall detection databases from the University of Rzeszow’s and the Universidad de Málaga fall detection datasets. We provided comparisons of the proposed approach with state-of-the-art classifiers based on the neural network, K-nearest neighbor, support vector machine and naïve Bayes and showed that we achieve better results in discriminating human gestures.

  5. Vision-based Human Action Classification Using Adaptive Boosting Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil

    2018-05-07

    Precise recognition of human action is a key enabler for the development of many applications including autonomous robots for medical diagnosis and surveillance of elderly people in home environment. This paper addresses the human action recognition based on variation in body shape. Specifically, we divide the human body into five partitions that correspond to five partial occupancy areas. For each frame, we calculated area ratios and used them as input data for recognition stage. Here, we consider six classes of activities namely: walking, standing, bending, lying, squatting, and sitting. In this paper, we proposed an efficient human action recognition scheme, which takes advantages of superior discrimination capacity of AdaBoost algorithm. We validated the effectiveness of this approach by using experimental data from two publicly available databases fall detection databases from the University of Rzeszow’s and the Universidad de Málaga fall detection datasets. We provided comparisons of the proposed approach with state-of-the-art classifiers based on the neural network, K-nearest neighbor, support vector machine and naïve Bayes and showed that we achieve better results in discriminating human gestures.

  6. Self-Organizing Neural Integration of Pose-Motion Features for Human Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Ignacio Parisi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The visual recognition of complex, articulated human movements is fundamental for a wide range of artificial systems oriented towards human-robot communication, action classification, and action-driven perception. These challenging tasks may generally involve the processing of a huge amount of visual information and learning-based mechanisms for generalizing a set of training actions and classifying new samples. To operate in natural environments, a crucial property is the efficient and robust recognition of actions, also under noisy conditions caused by, for instance, systematic sensor errors and temporarily occluded persons. Studies of the mammalian visual system and its outperforming ability to process biological motion information suggest separate neural pathways for the distinct processing of pose and motion features at multiple levels and the subsequent integration of these visual cues for action perception. We present a neurobiologically-motivated approach to achieve noise-tolerant action recognition in real time. Our model consists of self-organizing Growing When Required (GWR networks that obtain progressively generalized representations of sensory inputs and learn inherent spatiotemporal dependencies. During the training, the GWR networks dynamically change their topological structure to better match the input space. We first extract pose and motion features from video sequences and then cluster actions in terms of prototypical pose-motion trajectories. Multi-cue trajectories from matching action frames are subsequently combined to provide action dynamics in the joint feature space. Reported experiments show that our approach outperforms previous results on a dataset of full-body actions captured with a depth sensor, and ranks among the best 21 results for a public benchmark of domestic daily actions.

  7. Interim Action Proposed Plan for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) is to describe the preferred interim remedial action for addressing the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  8. Insulin action in the human brain: evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, S; Heni, M; Fritsche, A; Preissl, H

    2015-06-01

    Thus far, little is known about the action of insulin in the human brain. Nonetheless, recent advances in modern neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made it possible to investigate the action of insulin in the brain in humans, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of brain insulin resistance and obesity. Using MEG, the clinical relevance of the action of insulin in the brain was first identified, linking cerebral insulin resistance with peripheral insulin resistance, genetic predisposition and weight loss success in obese adults. Although MEG is a suitable tool for measuring brain activity mainly in cortical areas, fMRI provides high spatial resolution for cortical as well as subcortical regions. Thus, the action of insulin can be detected within all eating behaviour relevant regions, which include regions deeply located within the brain, such as the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem, as well as regions within the striatum. In this review, we outline recent advances in the field of neuroimaging aiming to investigate the action of insulin in the human brain using different routes of insulin administration. fMRI studies have shown a significant insulin-induced attenuation predominantly in the occipital and prefrontal cortical regions and the hypothalamus, successfully localising insulin-sensitive brain regions in healthy, mostly normal-weight individuals. However, further studies are needed to localise brain areas affected by insulin resistance in obese individuals, which is an important prerequisite for selectively targeting brain insulin resistance in obesity. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  9. Leaky valves : New operation improves the heart's pumping action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistecky, P.; Havlik, P.; Van Kasteren, J.

    2003-01-01

    The action of any pump will start to decline when the valves no longer close properly. The same goes for the heart, the pump that maintains the circulation in our vascular system. Consequently, a major field of focus of open heart surgery is the repair or replacement of heart valves. Petr Havl a

  10. 47 CFR 1.62 - Operation pending action on renewal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation pending action on renewal application... General Rules of Practice and Procedure General Application Procedures § 1.62 Operation pending action on renewal application. (a)(1) Where there is pending before the Commission at the time of expiration of...

  11. Modeling of a dependence between human operators in advanced main control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Jaewhan; Jang, Seung-Cheol; Shin, Yeong Cheol

    2009-01-01

    For the human reliability analysis of main control room (MCR) operations, not only parameters such as the given situation and capability of the operators but also the dependence between the actions of the operators should be considered because MCR operations are team operations. The dependence between operators might be more prevalent in an advanced MCR in which operators share the same information using a computerized monitoring system or a computerized procedure system. Therefore, this work focused on the computerized operation environment of advanced MCRs and proposed a model to consider the dependence representing the recovery possibility of an operator error by another operator. The proposed model estimates human error probability values by considering adjustment values for a situation and dependence values for operators during the same operation using independent event trees. This work can be used to quantitatively calculate a more reliable operation failure probability for an advanced MCR. (author)

  12. Action and language integration: from humans to cognitive robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2014-07-01

    The topic is characterized by a highly interdisciplinary approach to the issue of action and language integration. Such an approach, combining computational models and cognitive robotics experiments with neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and linguistic approaches, can be a powerful means that can help researchers disentangle ambiguous issues, provide better and clearer definitions, and formulate clearer predictions on the links between action and language. In the introduction we briefly describe the papers and discuss the challenges they pose to future research. We identify four important phenomena the papers address and discuss in light of empirical and computational evidence: (a) the role played not only by sensorimotor and emotional information but also of natural language in conceptual representation; (b) the contextual dependency and high flexibility of the interaction between action, concepts, and language; (c) the involvement of the mirror neuron system in action and language processing; (d) the way in which the integration between action and language can be addressed by developmental robotics and Human-Robot Interaction. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Decoding natural reach-and-grasp actions from human EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Andreas; Ofner, Patrick; Pereira, Joana; Ioana Sburlea, Andreea; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Despite the high number of degrees of freedom of the human hand, most actions of daily life can be executed incorporating only palmar, pincer and lateral grasp. In this study we attempt to discriminate these three different executed reach-and-grasp actions utilizing their EEG neural correlates. Approach. In a cue-guided experiment, 15 healthy individuals were asked to perform these actions using daily life objects. We recorded 72 trials for each reach-and-grasp condition and from a no-movement condition. Main results. Using low-frequency time domain features from 0.3 to 3 Hz, we achieved binary classification accuracies of 72.4%, STD  ±  5.8% between grasp types, for grasps versus no-movement condition peak performances of 93.5%, STD  ±  4.6% could be reached. In an offline multiclass classification scenario which incorporated not only all reach-and-grasp actions but also the no-movement condition, the highest performance could be reached using a window of 1000 ms for feature extraction. Classification performance peaked at 65.9%, STD  ±  8.1%. Underlying neural correlates of the reach-and-grasp actions, investigated over the primary motor cortex, showed significant differences starting from approximately 800 ms to 1200 ms after the movement onset which is also the same time frame where classification performance reached its maximum. Significance. We could show that it is possible to discriminate three executed reach-and-grasp actions prominent in people’s everyday use from non-invasive EEG. Underlying neural correlates showed significant differences between all tested conditions. These findings will eventually contribute to our attempt of controlling a neuroprosthesis in a natural and intuitive way, which could ultimately benefit motor impaired end users in their daily life actions.

  14. How to support action prediction: Evidence from human coordination tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    When two or more people perform actions together such as shaking hands, playing ensemble music or carrying an object together, they often naturally adjust the spatial and temporal parameters of their movements to facilitate smooth task performance. This paper reviews recent findings from experime......”) might be a useful approach also for robotic systems to assist human users, thereby reducing cognitive load and flexibly supporting the acquisition of new skills....

  15. Criteria for safety related nuclear plant operator actions: a preliminary assessment of available data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Bott, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    The need for a quantitative data base on the reliability of nuclear power plant operators has long been recognised by human factors and reliability analysts, and the great need for further assessment of operator performance under accident conditions has been dramatically emphasised by the incident at Three Mile Island-2. In the US, an effort has been under way for a number of years to develop a design standard to define when required manual operator action can be accepted as part of a nuclear plant design basis. To provide the necessary data base to support such standards and the necessary quantitative assessment of operator reliability, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop the data base. A preliminary assessment, completed in April 1979, concluded that sufficient data from US operating experience did not exist to provide an adequate data base. A programme of research using full-scope nuclear plant simulators and results that are correlated to field data was suggested. That programme was recently initiated. This paper reviews the approach, results and conclusions of the preliminary assessment and summarises the planned research programme of simulator studies. (author)

  16. Analysis of operational events by ATHEANA framework for human factor modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedreaga, Luminita; Constntinescu, Cristina; Doca, Cezar; Guzun, Basarab

    2007-01-01

    In the area of human reliability assessment, the experts recognise the fact that the current methods have not represented correctly the role of human in prevention, initiating and mitigating the accidents in nuclear power plants. The nature of this deficiency appears because the current methods used in modelling of human factor have not taken into account the human performance and reliability such as it has been observed in the operational events. ATHEANA - A Technique for Human Error ANAlysis - is a new methodology for human analysis that has included the specific data of operational events and also psychological models for human behaviour. This method has included new elements such as the unsafe action and error mechanisms. In this paper we present the application of ATHEANA framework in the analysis of operational events that appeared in different nuclear power plants during 1979-2002. The analysis of operational events has consisted of: - identification of the unsafe actions; - including the unsafe actions into a category, omission ar commission; - establishing the type of error corresponding to the unsafe action: slip, lapse, mistake and circumvention; - establishing the influence of performance by shaping the factors and some corrective actions. (authors)

  17. Mobile Phone Network Operators' Actions on RF Safety (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causebrook, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    The current and possible future global penetration of mobile phone usage is given. Health and safety aspects relate to both the statutory requirements for the operation of their networks and the public perception of risks in using services provided by the operators. The coordination of this work nationally through trade associations is mentioned. GSM is the predominant standard used for the provision of global mobile phone services. The GSM MoU Association is introduced as the operators' coordination body worldwide for dealing with radio frequency (RF) health and safety issues through its sub-group, EBRC. The scope of the EBRC group is presented with the considerations used to determine if external research should be supported by the GSM MoU Association. A personal view is provided on the present quality of worldwide research on RF health and safety and some consideration is given as to what constitutes 'good' research. The mobile phone network operators' involvement in the science and application of epidemiological research is considered. Consideration is given to introducing risk/benefit analysis into the debate on the health and safety of mobile phone usage. The media presentation of the results of scientific work on this topic often leads to a falsely negative public perception of the perceived risks. This is made worse when such perceptions are used for the purposes of objecting to the deployment of network infrastructure. The operators' approach to RF health and safety procedures is outlined, with a clarification of the distinctions between near-field and far-field methodologies for the calculation of physical exclusion zones. It is concluded that the mobile phone operators are part of an industry which is safe and who work to ensure that their operations are seen to be safe in the context of the best available worldwide scientific knowledge and safety guidelines. (author)

  18. 78 FR 43091 - Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 193 [Docket No.: FAA-2013-0375] Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and... Disclosure. SUMMARY: The FAA is proposing that safety information provided to it under the T-SAP, established... to the FAA under the T-SAP and ATSAP, so the FAA can learn about and address aviation safety hazards...

  19. A Human Proximity Operations System test case validation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Justin; Straub, Jeremy

    A Human Proximity Operations System (HPOS) poses numerous risks in a real world environment. These risks range from mundane tasks such as avoiding walls and fixed obstacles to the critical need to keep people and processes safe in the context of the HPOS's situation-specific decision making. Validating the performance of an HPOS, which must operate in a real-world environment, is an ill posed problem due to the complexity that is introduced by erratic (non-computer) actors. In order to prove the HPOS's usefulness, test cases must be generated to simulate possible actions of these actors, so the HPOS can be shown to be able perform safely in environments where it will be operated. The HPOS must demonstrate its ability to be as safe as a human, across a wide range of foreseeable circumstances. This paper evaluates the use of test cases to validate HPOS performance and utility. It considers an HPOS's safe performance in the context of a common human activity, moving through a crowded corridor, and extrapolates (based on this) to the suitability of using test cases for AI validation in other areas of prospective application.

  20. 2006 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2007-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report covers the time period from January 1 through December 31, 2006, and describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action (DOE/ID-10660) as described in the Group 1 Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOE/ID-10772)

  1. Bringing humanity into view: action research with Qatar's ambulance service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Gill; Wiggins, Liz

    2017-08-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to argue for the widening of attention in healthcare improvement efforts, to include an awareness of the humanity of people who work in the sector and an appreciation of the part human connection plays in engagement around good quality work. Theoretical frameworks and research approaches which draw on action-based, interpretive and systemic thinking are proposed, as a complement to current practices. Design/methodology/approach The paper describes the early stages of an action research (AR) project, which used the appreciative inquiry "4D" framework to conduct participative inquiry in Hamad Medical Corporation's ambulance service in Qatar, in which staff became co-researchers. Findings The co-researchers were highly motivated to work with improvement goals as a result of their participation in the AR. They, and their managers, saw each other and the work in new ways and discovered that they had much to offer. Research limitations/implications This was a small-scale pilot project, from which findings must be considered tentative. The challenges of establishing good collaboration across language, culture and organisational divides are considerable. Practical implications Appreciative and action-oriented inquiry methods can serve not only to find things out, but also to highlight and give value to aspects of humanity in the workplace that are routinely left invisible in formal processes. This, in turn, can help with quality improvement. Originality/value This paper is a challenge to the orthodox way of viewing healthcare organisations, and improvement processes within them, as reliant on control rather than empowerment. An alternative is to actively include the agency, sense-making capacity and humanity of those involved.

  2. Quantification of the reliability of personnel actions from the evaluation of actual German operational experience. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preischl, W.; Fassmann, W.

    2013-07-01

    The results and their uncertainty bounds of PSA studies are considerably impacted by the assessment of human reliability. But the amount of available, generic data is not sufficient to evaluate all human actions considered in a modern PSA study adequately. Further the data are not sufficiently validated and rely as well as the proposed uncertainty bounds on expert judgement. This research project as well as the preceding project /GRS 10/ validated data recommended by the German PSA Guidelines and enlarged the amount of available data. The findings may contribute to an update of the German PSA Guidelines. In a first step of the project information about reportable events in German nuclear power plants with observed human errors (event reports, expert statements, technical documents, interviews and plant walk downs with subject matter experts from the plants) were analysed. The investigation resulted in 67 samples describing personal activities, performance conditions, the number of observed errors and the number of action performance. In a second step a new methodology was developed and applied in a pilot plant. The objective was to identify undoubtedly error free safety relevant actions, their performance conditions, and frequency as well as to prove and demonstrate that probabilistic data can be derived from that operational experience (OE). The application in the pilot plant resulted in 18 ''error free'' samples characterizing human reliability. All available samples were evaluated by use of the method of Bayes. That commonly accepted methodology was applied in order to derive probabilistic data based on samples taken from operational experience. A thorough analysis of the obtained results shows that both data sources (OE reportable events, OE with undoubtedly error free action performance) provide data with comparable quality and validity. At the end of the research project the following products are available. - Methods to select samples

  3. Action Search: Learning to Search for Human Activities in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Alwassel, Humam; Heilbron, Fabian Caba; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Traditional approaches for action detection use trimmed data to learn sophisticated action detector models. Although these methods have achieved great success at detecting human actions, we argue that huge information is discarded when ignoring

  4. Regulatory Monitoring of Human Performance in PWR Operation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LESOT, Jean Pascal; BALLOFFET, Yves

    1998-01-01

    The authors present the main components of an action initiated by the French Safety Authority to assess and possibly correct the way in which EDF takes the human factor into account in its power plants. After a description of the operation of the French Safety Authority, they recall the interest of the authority in human factors, the first steps taken on this issue in the 1990's, briefly describe the response made by EDF on three main themes: man/machine interface, training, changes in work methods and involvement and behaviour of players. They evoke the tools used by EDF to implement the third theme on site, the structures set up by EDF to develop this policy, outline the prerequisites required by the Safety Authority, and indicate the means used by ths authority. They give examples of incidents and associated reactive inspection

  5. How to support action prediction: Evidence from human coordination tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    When two or more people perform actions together such as shaking hands, playing ensemble music or carrying an object together, they often naturally adjust the spatial and temporal parameters of their movements to facilitate smooth task performance. This paper reviews recent findings from experime......When two or more people perform actions together such as shaking hands, playing ensemble music or carrying an object together, they often naturally adjust the spatial and temporal parameters of their movements to facilitate smooth task performance. This paper reviews recent findings from......”) might be a useful approach also for robotic systems to assist human users, thereby reducing cognitive load and flexibly supporting the acquisition of new skills....

  6. Effect of exercise on insulin action in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Mikines, K J; Galbo, Henrik

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 1 h of dynamic one-legged exercise on insulin action in human muscle was studied in 6 healthy young men. Four hours after one-legged knee extensions, a three-step sequential euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with arterial and bilateral femoral vein catheterization...... was performed. Increased insulin action on glucose uptake was found in the exercised compared with the rested thigh at mean plasma insulin concentrations of 23, 40, and 410 microU/ml. Furthermore, prior contractions directed glucose uptake toward glycogen synthesis and increased insulin effects on thigh O2...... consumption and at some insulin concentrations on potassium exchange. In contrast, no change in insulin effects on limb exchange of free fatty acids, glycerol, alanine or tyrosine were found after exercise. Glycogen concentration in rested vastus lateralis muscle did not increase measurably during the clamp...

  7. The significance of human actions for plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, N.J.

    1988-01-01

    The occurrence of the Chernobyl accident and before it the accidents at Three Mile Island, Flixborough and Bhopal, together with lesser process plant accidents, has emphasised the potential danger of human errors in major hazard plant operations. The perception of human error, held by the majority of the public and containing a fair amount of truth for a simple perception, is of an unpredictable and uncontrollable force let loose within the safest of system designs, and able, by virtue of these properties, to override the best laid plans. In this paper, we review the nature of the human errors which most concern us in process plant operation, and consider some of the conceptual approaches which might bring these errors under the same type of control as has been achieved for random hardware failures. (author)

  8. Science-based HRA: experimental comparison of operator performance to IDAC (Information-Decision-Action Crew) simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, Rachel [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Smidts, Carol [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Li, Yuandan [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Mosleh, Ali [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Information-Decision-Action Crew (IDAC) operator model simulations of a Steam Generator Tube Rupture are compared to student operator performance in studies conducted in the Ohio State University’s Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Facility. This study is presented as a prototype for conducting simulator studies to validate key aspects of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods. Seven student operator crews are compared to simulation results for crews designed to demonstrate three different decision-making strategies. The IDAC model used in the simulations is modified slightly to capture novice behavior rather that expert operators. Operator actions and scenario pacing are compared. A preliminary review of available performance shaping factors (PSFs) is presented. After the scenario in the NPP Simulator Facility, student operators review a video of the scenario and evaluate six PSFs at pre-determined points in the scenario. This provides a dynamic record of the PSFs experienced by the OSU student operators. In this preliminary analysis, Time Constraint Load (TCL) calculated in the IDAC simulations is compared to TCL reported by student operators. We identify potential modifications to the IDAC model to develop an “IDAC Student Operator Model.” This analysis provides insights into how similar experiments could be conducted using expert operators to improve the fidelity of IDAC simulations.

  9. Assessing Sustainment Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    constantly changing information requirements. Having established procedures in place to handle these challenges would seem requisite for units...maintain the continuous and rapid execution of command post operations. According to FM 3-90.2, the SOPs established and rehearsed for each CP...a rehearsed plan for a possible attack on the CP, and a rehearsed plan to move the CP. The Follow Up section emphasized the necessity of debriefing

  10. Measuring Command Post Operations in a Decisive Action Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    constantly changing information requirements. Having established procedures in place to handle these challenges would seem requisite for units...maintain the continuous and rapid execution of command post operations. According to FM 3-90.2, the SOPs established and rehearsed for each CP...a rehearsed plan for a possible attack on the CP, and a rehearsed plan to move the CP. The Follow Up section emphasized the necessity of debriefing

  11. Observations of Distribution Company Decisive Action Operations at the NTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    company consists of a headquarters section and three platoons that have unique skill sets that enable it to execute tactical dis- tribution operations...November–December 2015 Army Sustainment54 TR AI NI NG & ED UC AT IO N Serving as a distribution company observer-coach/trainer (OC/T) for brigade...support battalions (BSBs) at the National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, Cali- fornia, gave me a clear perspective of company -level

  12. Human Factors for Situation Assessment in Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttromson, Ross T.; Schur, Anne; Greitzer, Frank L.; Paget, Mia L.

    2007-08-08

    literature review, we advocate a new perspective on SA in terms of sensemaking, also called situated or ecological decision making, where the focus of the investigation is to understand why the decision maker(s) experienced the situation the way they did, or why what they saw made sense to them at the time. This perspective is distinct from the traditional branch of human factors research in the field which focuses more on ergonomics and the transactional relationship between the human operator and the systems. Consistent with our findings from the literature review, we recognized an over-arching need to focus SA research on issues surrounding the concept of shared knowledge; e.g., awareness of what is happening in adjacent areas as well as one’s own area of responsibility. Major findings were: a) Inadequate communication/information sharing is pervasive, b) Information is available, but not used. Many tools and mechanisms exist for operators to build awareness of the physical grid system, yet the transcripts reveal that they still need to call and exchange information with operators of neighboring areas to improve or validate their SA. The specific types of information that they request are quite predictable and, in most cases, cover information that could be available to both operators and reliability coordinators through readily available displays or other data sources, c) Shared Knowledge is Required on Operations/Actions as Well as Physical Status. In an ideal, technologically and organizationally perfect world, every control room and every reliability coordinator may have access to complete data across all regional control areas and yet, there would still be reason for the operators to call each other to gain and improve their SA of power grid operations, and d) Situation Awareness as sensemaking and shared knowledge.

  13. Human action contribution to ET-RR-II reactor systems unstems unavailability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabek, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives a study on the human action contribution to the systems unavailability of ET-RR-II reactor as a result of the test and maintenance procedures. The human contribution is expressed in terms of Fussel-Vesely importance which is defined by the probability that event is contributing to system failure (unavailability). The human error basic events contribution was analyzed for all initiating events and systems fault trees. The calculations result shows a high contribution value (61%) for the human error to systems unavailability. This means that the operator and the maintenance people should be highly qualified trained. Moreover, there should be programs for continuous training. Also, the procedures of tests and maintenance should be in a simple way and clear in order to minimize the contribution of the human errors. The calculations were done using the IRRAS cods

  14. Acquisition of Human Operation Characteristics for Kite-based Tethered Flying Robot using Human Operation Data

    OpenAIRE

    Todoroki, Chiaki; Takahashi, Yasutake; Nakamura, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows human skill acquisition systems to control the kite-based tethered flying robot. The kite-based tethered flying robot has been proposed as a flying observation system with long-term activity capability[1]. It is a relatively new system and aimed to complement other information gathering systems using a balloon or an air vehicle. This paper shows some approaches of human operation characteristics acquisition based on fuzzy learning controller, knearest neighbor algorithm, and ...

  15. When Humanoid Robots Become Human-Like Interaction Partners: Corepresentation of Robotic Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Anna; Chinellato, Eris; Bou, Maria A. Tirado; del Pobil, Angel P.; Lappe, Markus; Liepelt, Roman

    2012-01-01

    In human-human interactions, corepresenting a partner's actions is crucial to successfully adjust and coordinate actions with others. Current research suggests that action corepresentation is restricted to interactions between human agents facilitating social interaction with conspecifics. In this study, we investigated whether action…

  16. Identifying Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinott, Elizabeth S.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Maintenance operations incidents submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) between 1986-1992 were systematically analyzed in order to identify issues relevant to human factors and crew coordination. This exploratory analysis involved 95 ASRS reports which represented a wide range of maintenance incidents. The reports were coded and analyzed according to the type of error (e.g, wrong part, procedural error, non-procedural error), contributing factors (e.g., individual, within-team, cross-team, procedure, tools), result of the error (e.g., aircraft damage or not) as well as the operational impact (e.g., aircraft flown to destination, air return, delay at gate). The main findings indicate that procedural errors were most common (48.4%) and that individual and team actions contributed to the errors in more than 50% of the cases. As for operational results, most errors were either corrected after landing at the destination (51.6%) or required the flight crew to stop enroute (29.5%). Interactions among these variables are also discussed. This analysis is a first step toward developing a taxonomy of crew coordination problems in maintenance. By understanding what variables are important and how they are interrelated, we may develop intervention strategies that are better tailored to the human factor issues involved.

  17. Human reliability analysis in support of a level 1 PRA for Surry during midloop operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Bley, D.C.; Chu, T.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) are to evaluate the important accident sequences initiated during midloop operations and to compare the qualitative and quantitative results with those for accidents initiated during power operations. The primary types of human actions analyzed in this study involve the dynamic operator actions and recovery actions that take place during the accident sequence following an initiating event. Two parts of the human actions were analyzed: failure to diagnose and failure to perform the action. The scope of the Level 1 PRA for Surry during midloop operations includes internal, fire, and flood initiating events. The major categories of dynamic operator actions taken during the accident sequence following an initiating event are: providing makeup to the reactor coolant system (RCS), restoring residual heat removal (RHR) cooling, establishing steam generator reflux cooling, establishing primary feed and spill, establishing gravity feed from refueling water storage tank (RWST), establishing high pressure recirculation, establishing recirculation spray, and cross-connecting RWSTs. All categories are not applicable to all initiating events and all plant operating states (POS). (author)

  18. Recognition and Prediction of Human Actions for Safe Human-Robot Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard; Bøgh, Simon; Ceballos, Iker

    Collaborative industrial robots are creating new opportunities for collaboration between humans and robots in shared workspaces. In order for such collaboration to be efficient, robots - as well as humans - need to have an understanding of the other's intentions and current ongoing action....... In this work, we propose a method for learning, classifying, and predicting actions taken by a human. Our proposed method is based on the human skeleton model from a Kinect. For demonstration of our approach we chose a typical pick-and-place scenario. Therefore, only arms and upper body are considered......; in total 15 joints. Based on trajectories on these joints, different classes of motion are separated using partitioning around medoids (PAM). Subsequently, SVM is used to train the classes to form a library of human motions. The approach allows run-time detection of when a new motion has been initiated...

  19. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003

  20. Establishing operational stability--developing human infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Max A; Byers, Ernest J; Stingley, Preston; Sheridan, Robert M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2010-12-01

    Over the past year, Toyota has come under harsh scrutiny as a result of several recalls. These well publicized mishaps have not only done damage to Toyota's otherwise sterling reputation for quality but have also called into question the assertions from a phalanx of followers that Toyota's production system (generically referred to as TPS or Lean) is the best method by which to structure one's systems of operation. In this article, we discuss how Toyota, faced with the pressure to grow its business, did not appropriately cadence this growth with the continued development and maintenance of the process capabilities (vis a vis the development of human infrastructure) needed to adequately support that growth. We draw parallels between the pressure Toyota faced to grow its business and the pressure neurointerventional practices face to grow theirs, and offer a methodology to support that growth without sacrificing quality.

  1. Inferring Action Structure and Causal Relationships in Continuous Sequences of Human Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and MySQL . However, all participants participated from in-lab computers. Results Figure 6 shows the distribution of participants’ raw key presses... Java program to present video of action sequences and collect ratings. The program presented all 12 actions, non-actions, and part-actions

  2. [Development of human resources and the Plan of Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, C

    1984-01-01

    This article (whose first part was published in the previous issue of Educación Médica y Salud) concludes an exhaustive review of manpower development in the Americas. This part considers the specific measures in this field enunciated in the Plan of Action; these measures pertain to four main areas: planning and programming of human resources, training in priority areas, utilization of human resources, and educational technology. The author discusses the present and future possibilities and obstacles of each of these activities and the steps to be taken to bring needs into line with real situations. It is of paramount importance that the national health authorities clearly spell out their policies for the development of human resources in the health field within the framework of general development policies. Another point to be insisted upon is the multiprofessional and multidisciplinary training of the health team and the importance of the education-service-supervision function, which usually results in permanent and continuing education, which in turn optimizes the utilization of personnel. However, none of this will be possible without an appropriate education technology with which to innovate, analyze and refine the entire education process and so meet the needs of both society and the health services.

  3. Proceedings from Specialists Meeting on human performance in operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This conference on human performance in operational events is composed of 34 papers, grouped in 11 sessions. After an invited contribution on the human factor in the nuclear industry, the sessions are: session 1 (Operational events: Human performance in operational events - how to improve it?, Human performance research strategies for human performance, The development of a model of control room operator cognition), session 2 (Operational response: A study of the recovery from 120 events, Empirical study of the influence of organizational and procedural characteristics on team performance in the emergency situation using plant simulators, Cognitive skills and nuclear power plant operational decision making), session 3 (PSA for Probabilistic Safety Analysis: A sensitivity study of human errors in optimizing surveillance test interval (STI) and allowed outage time (AOT) of standby safety system, Analysis of Parks nuclear power plant personnel activity during safety related event sequences, An EDF project to update the Probabilistic Human Reliability Assessment PHRA methodology), session 4 (modelling with ATHEANA: Atheana, a technique for human error analysis, an overview of its methodological basis, Common elements on operational events across technologies, Results of nuclear power plant application of new technique for human error analysis), session 5 (Regulatory practice: US.NRC Research and analysis activities concerning human reliability assessment and human performance evaluation, Introduction of simulator-based examinations and its effects on the nuclear industry, Regulatory monitoring of human performance in PWR operation in France), session 6 (Simulation: Human performance in Bavarian nuclear power plant as a preventive element, Human performance event database, Crew situation awareness, diagnoses and performance in simulated nuclear power plant process disturbances), session 7 (Operator aids: Development of a plant navigation system, Operation system

  4. 20 CFR 726.104 - Action by the Office upon application of operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by the Office upon application of operator. 726.104 Section 726.104 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization...

  5. Learning Human Actions by Combining Global Dynamics and Local Appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guan; Yang, Shuang; Tian, Guodong; Yuan, Chunfeng; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of human action recognition through combining global temporal dynamics and local visual spatio-temporal appearance features. For this purpose, in the global temporal dimension, we propose to model the motion dynamics with robust linear dynamical systems (LDSs) and use the model parameters as motion descriptors. Since LDSs live in a non-Euclidean space and the descriptors are in non-vector form, we propose a shift invariant subspace angles based distance to measure the similarity between LDSs. In the local visual dimension, we construct curved spatio-temporal cuboids along the trajectories of densely sampled feature points and describe them using histograms of oriented gradients (HOG). The distance between motion sequences is computed with the Chi-Squared histogram distance in the bag-of-words framework. Finally we perform classification using the maximum margin distance learning method by combining the global dynamic distances and the local visual distances. We evaluate our approach for action recognition on five short clips data sets, namely Weizmann, KTH, UCF sports, Hollywood2 and UCF50, as well as three long continuous data sets, namely VIRAT, ADL and CRIM13. We show competitive results as compared with current state-of-the-art methods.

  6. PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT. AN ANALYSIS OF CHALLENGES, CHANGES IN COMMAND ACTION AND TRAINING NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal SIĞRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to uncover emerging challenges of peacekeeping operations, determine the changes in command actions and its effects on the professional preparation of commanders by analyzing experiences of military officers. To that end the research data were collected by means of structured face-to- face interviews with voluntary participation of fourteen officers, who took charge in various peacekeeping operations. The collected data were analyzed based on the content analysis method. Findings indicate that peacekeeping operations pose specific challenges for peacekeepers, necessitate changes in command action in terms of flexibility and new precautions in terms of preparation of commanders.

  7. Applications of human error analysis to aviation and space operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    For the past several years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) we have been working to apply methods of human error analysis to the design of complex systems. We have focused on adapting human reliability analysis (HRA) methods that were developed for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for application to system design. We are developing methods so that human errors can be systematically identified during system design, the potential consequences of each error can be assessed, and potential corrective actions (e.g. changes to system design or procedures) can be identified. These applications lead to different requirements when compared with HR.As performed as part of a PSA. For example, because the analysis will begin early during the design stage, the methods must be usable when only partial design information is available. In addition, the ability to perform numerous ''what if'' analyses to identify and compare multiple design alternatives is essential. Finally, since the goals of such human error analyses focus on proactive design changes rather than the estimate of failure probabilities for PRA, there is more emphasis on qualitative evaluations of error relationships and causal factors than on quantitative estimates of error frequency. The primary vehicle we have used to develop and apply these methods has been a series of prqjects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to apply human error analysis to aviation operations. The first NASA-sponsored project had the goal to evaluate human errors caused by advanced cockpit automation. Our next aviation project focused on the development of methods and tools to apply human error analysis to the design of commercial aircraft. This project was performed by a consortium comprised of INEEL, NASA, and Boeing Commercial Airplane Group. The focus of the project was aircraft design and procedures that could lead to human errors during airplane maintenance

  8. Human error mode identification for NPP main control room operations using soft controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Jaewhan; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    The operation environment of main control rooms (MCRs) in modern nuclear power plants (NPPs) has considerably changed over the years. Advanced MCRs, which have been designed by adapting digital and computer technologies, have simpler interfaces using large display panels, computerized displays, soft controls, computerized procedure systems, and so on. The actions for the NPP operations are performed using soft controls in advanced MCRs. Soft controls have different features from conventional controls. Operators need to navigate the screens to find indicators and controls and manipulate controls using a mouse, touch screens, and so on. Due to these different interfaces, different human errors should be considered in the human reliability analysis (HRA) for advanced MCRs. In this work, human errors that could occur during operation executions using soft controls were analyzed. This work classified the human errors in soft controls into six types, and the reasons that affect the occurrence of the human errors were also analyzed. (author)

  9. Analyses of systems availability and operator actions to support the development of severe accident procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J. Jr.; Scobel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on traditional analyses of severe accidents, such as those presented in Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies of nuclear power stations, that have generally been performed on the assumption that all means of cooling the reactor core are lost and that no operator actions to mitigate the consequences or progression of the severe accident are performed. The assumption to neglect the availability of safety systems and operator actions which do not prevent core melting can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the plant severer accident profile. Recent work in severe accident management has identified the need to perform analyses which consider all systems availabilities and operator actions, irrespective of their contribution to the prevention of core melting. These new analyses indicate that the traditional analyses result in overfly pessimistic predictions of the time of core melting and the subsequent potential for recovery of core cooling prior to core melting. Additionally, since the traditional analyses do not model all of the operator actions which are prescribed, the impact of additional severe accident operator actions on the progression and consequences of the accident cannot be reliably identified. Further, the more detailed analysis can change the focus of the importance of various system to the prevention of core damage and the mitigation of severe accident consequences. Finally, the simplicity of the traditional analyses can have a considerable impact on severe accident decision making, particularly in the evaluation of alternate plant design features and the priorities for research studies

  10. Modeling operator actions during a small break loss-of-coolant accident in a Babcock and Wilcox nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghan, L.S.; Ortiz, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    A small break loss-of-accident (SBLOCA) in a typical Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) nuclear power plant was modeled using RELAP5/MOD3. This work was performed as part of the United States Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) Code, Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) study. The break was initiated by severing one high pressure injection (HPI) line at the cold leg. Thus, the small break was further aggravated by reduced HPI flow. Comparisons between scoping runs with minimal operator action, and full operator action, clearly showed that the operator plays a key role in recovering the plant. Operator actions were modeled based on the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and the Technical Bases Document for the EOPs. The sequence of operator actions modeled here is only one of several possibilities. Different sequences of operator actions are possible for a given accident because of the subjective decisions the operator must make when determining the status of the plant, hence, which branch of the EOP to follow. To assess the credibility of the modeled operator actions, these actions and results of the simulated accident scenario were presented to operator examiners who are familiar with B ampersand W nuclear power plants. They agreed that, in general, the modeled operator actions conform to the requirements set forth in the EOPs and are therefore plausible. This paper presents the method for modeling the operator actions and discusses the simulated accident scenario from the viewpoint of operator actions

  11. Verification of human actions in SBO sequences with LOCA stamps in Westinghouse PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queral, C.; Mena Rosell, L.; Jimenez Varas, G.

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima accident has shown the need for tools and methodologies able to analyze human activities and / or capabilities of portable systems that has given the Spanish plants as a result of the stress tests . In this work we have applied the methodology of integrated safety analysis developed by the CSN , to SBO sequences with LOCA stamp. The aim is to show a methodology for testing the performances of the Emergency Operating Procedures and Guides Severe Accident Management. The simulations were performed with the tool SCAIS coupled to MAAP . The results show that there are human activities that may be beneficial in certain sequences but harmful in others. This type of problem is already known and referred to in the GGAS . However, FSR shows a practical way to check human actions cannot be obtained with other methods.

  12. Identification of human operator performance models utilizing time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, F. M.; Shinners, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an effort performed by Sperry Systems Management Division for AMRL in applying time series analysis as a tool for modeling the human operator are presented. This technique is utilized for determining the variation of the human transfer function under various levels of stress. The human operator's model is determined based on actual input and output data from a tracking experiment.

  13. Human factor in the operation of the Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiha, Frantisek; Pleskac, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    The human factor, i.e. the action of man within complex technical systems, has been in the focus of the Dukovany NPP management constantly. The paper gives an overview of the plant strategy regarding human factor issues, such as training, human factor prevention methods and practices to improve the resistance of the system to human error, the use of information systems, and operational feedback from the role of the human factor and influence of the operators on the initiation, development and resulting level of severity of operational events. The method of monitoring and assessment of the quality of human performance at the Dukovany plant on an ongoing basis aimed at a constant improvement is highlighted. (orig.)

  14. Building Combat Strength through Logistics: Translating the New Air Force Logistics Concept of Operations into Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-31

    wholesale logistics systems. Rapid reprogramming , priority distribution and repair of critical logistics resources, regional logistics control networks, and...between the id, the ego, and th- superego. Ideals impact conscious and subconscious thoughts and actions that influence our values and shape our conduct...exploited under peace and wartime conditions. Rapid and effective reprogramming actions in response to changing operational needs are the key to high

  15. Defining Learning Space in a Serious Game in Terms of Operative and Resultant Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael W.; Shen, Yuzhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the distinction between operative and resultant actions in games, and proposes that the learning space created by a serious game is a function of these actions. Further, it suggests a possible relationship between these actions and the forms of cognitive load imposed upon the game player. Association of specific types of cognitive load with respective forms of actions in game mechanics also presents some heuristics for integrating learning content into serious games. Research indicates that different balances of these types of actions are more suitable for novice or experienced learners. By examining these relationships, we can develop a few basic principles of game design which have an increased potential to promote positive learning outcomes.

  16. Remedial design report and remedial action work plan for the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater operable units' interim action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This document is a combination remedial design report and remedial action work plan for the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Operable Units (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington) interim action. The interim actions described in this document represent the first of an ongoing program to address groundwater contamination in each operable unit. This document describes the design basis, provides a description of the interim action, and identifies how they will meet the requirements set forth in the interim action Record of Decision

  17. A safe operating space for humanity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rockström, J.; Steffen, W.; Noone, K.; Scheffer, M.

    2009-01-01

    New approach proposed for defining preconditions for human development Crossing certain biophysical thresholds could have disastrous consequences for humanity Three of nine interlinked planetary boundaries have already been overstepped

  18. A multi-disciplinary assessment of operator action time for mitigating a postulated accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, C.D.; Fields, C.C.; Hightower, N.T. III; Buczek, J.A.; Jenkins, T.B.; Swanson, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses mitigation of the postulated Loss of Heat Sink Accident for the Savannah River Site K Reactor which requires operator action to place the plant in a water conservation configuration. In August 1991, concerns were raised about the allowances in the safety analyses for operator action times in an unpowered scenario, where several valves would be manually closed. WSRC management conservatively decided to include explicit consideration of a seismic initiator for this scenario, which introduced the additional concern that operator actions could be hindered by tritium from flange leakage. The revised analyses concluded that the powered case documented in the Safety Analysis Report is limiting and that all acceptance criteria are met

  19. The human factor in nuclear reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertron, L.

    1982-05-01

    The principal operating characteristics of nuclear power plants are summarized. A description of major hazards relating to operator fallibility in normal and abnormal operating conditions is followed by a specific analysis of control room hazards, shift organization and selection and training of management personnel

  20. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  1. SOCAP: Lessons learned in applying SIPE-2 to the military operations crisis action planning domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, Roberto

    1992-01-01

    This report describes work funded under the DARPA Planning and Scheduling Initiative that led to the development of SOCAP (System for Operations Crisis Action Planning). In particular, it describes lessons learned in applying SIPE-2, the underlying AI planning technology within SOCAP, to the domain of military operations deliberate and crisis action planning. SOCAP was demonstrated at the U.S. Central Command and at the Pentagon in early 1992. A more detailed report about the lessons learned is currently being prepared. This report was presented during one of the panel discussions on 'The Relevance of Scheduling to AI Planning Systems.'

  2. Automated knowledge acquisition - an aid to understanding the actions of a skilled operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The operator of an accelerator experiment often appears to be a highly skilled magician. The diagnostics used, such as oscilloscope traces, may be only indirectly related to the state of the accelerator. The operator adjusts the knobs so that the experiment runs well, but is not always able to describe in words exactly what is happening. The tool described in this paper, acc-plot-tool, was developed as a supplement to note-taking while attempting to develop an expert system that might function as an apprentice operator. During an experiment, a historical record is made of all operator actions and the resulting changes in the state of the equipment, including digitized records of the oscilloscope traces used to make decisions. These records are transformed into a set of graphical objects in the knowledge engineering environment (KEE). A flexible set of KEE functions has been developed, allowing both graphical and numerical manipulation of the data. The acc-plot-tool is not only useful in helping to understand the operator's actions, but also in discovering correlations between operator actions and system-parameter changes, in detecting equipment failures and in the mathematical modeling of the system. Examples will be given from ion-source operation. (orig.)

  3. The human factor in the operation of nuclear powered submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambier, M.

    1982-05-01

    The conditions characterizing the operation of nuclear powered submarines are described and the precautionary measures suitable to reduce the incidence of human errors and their consequences are explained

  4. The human failure factors during emergency operating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bingji

    1994-01-01

    In the case of emergency operating, operating staff usually are in the limit state of mind, so the operating mistake rate will go up sharply, and the disastrous accidents usually will happen at this moment. So to study and resolve the problem is very important and imperative. Basing on raising the reliability of man-machine system, the psychology and pathology of operating staff under the limit state and the behavior characteristic of operating staff in the emergency operation have been expounded here, and the operating staff's psychological gradation partitioned by foreign experts also has been introduced, and the influence factors of psychology and equipment which lead to the limit state of mind also have been analyzed. In addition, taking the emergency operation of the nuclear power plant as a example, The authors has studied the countermeasures to prevent the limit state from occurring, which includes countermeasures to environment effects, measures to improve the technical equipment and the measures that the operating staff should be taken

  5. Analysis of human factor in operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husseiny, A.A.; Sabri, Z.A.

    1980-01-01

    A taxonomy of operator errors is developed here to provide a scheme for compiling data from field experience according to their significance to the operation and their influence on the plant performance. The reversibility of operator actions is taken as the basis of detection of the relevances of errors to the overall operation. In addition, distinction is made between system errors, such as inadequate instrumentation or logistics, and 'operator errors', which indicate that the operator is involved in inducing an operational error rather than being uniquely responsible for an incident. The developed taxonomy can be used for evaluation of the performance of operators during scheduled training programs. Identification of each class of errors would assist in upgrading performance of operators in a given plant and in filing occurrence reports that help in revising safety provisions or operation procedures. The scheme is suitable for sorting and storing failure information in a data library for ease of retrieval by reliability analysis codes. (orig.) [de

  6. Action plan for Nordic energy co-operation 2006-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Action Plan for Nordic Energy Co-operation 2006-2009 is targeted at creating a visible and sustainable contribution to solving the most important and politically most relevant energy policy challenges faced by the Nordic region. The plan concentrates on three main areas: Energy markets; Sustainable energy system; and Nordic impact on the international agenda. The Action Plan is the energy sector's contribution to the implementation of the Nordic strategy 'Sustainable Development - New Bearing for the Nordic Countries' and to a number of the Nordic Council's recommendations for the development of the Nordic energy sector. An important element of the implementation of the action plan is on-going contact and information sharing between the Nordic Energy Policy co-operation and the Nordic Energy Research. The continues dialogue between the Nordic Council of Energy Ministers and The Nordic Council on future energy policy challenges will likewise be an important part of the political process. (BA)

  7. The role of systems availability and operator actions in accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J. Jr.; Scobel, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Traditional analyses of severe accidents, such as those presented in Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies of nuclear power stations, have generally been performed on the assumption that all means of cooling the reactor core are lost and that no operator actions to mitigate the consequences or progression of the severe accident are performed. The assumption to neglect the availability of safety systems and operator actions which do not prevent core melting can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the plant severe accident profile. Recent work in severe accident management has identified the need to perform analyses which consider all systems availabilities and operator actions, irrespective of their contribution to the prevention of core melting. These new analyses have far reaching conclusions. The analysis results indicate an unacceptably high degree of simplicity in the present severe accident analyses for Probabilistic Risk Assessment studies; the simplicity is in the assumption that systems availabilities and operator actions which do not impact core melt frequency can be neglected in the severe accident analyses. This results in overly pessimistic predictions of the time of core melting and the subsequent potential for recovery of core cooling prior to core melting. This simplicity can have a considerable impact on severe accident decision making, particularly in the evaluation of alternate plant design features and the priorities for research studies

  8. Accidents in the operation of nuclear power stations. Action for damages against foreign operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, K.

    1986-01-01

    On the occasion of a lecture evening of the Leo Goodman Library in Munich questions of civil liability of foreign reactor operators in cases of nuclear accidents were discussed by participants of various universities. Special subjects were i.a. problems of civil procedural and insurance law, absolute liability according to sec. 25 Atomic Energy Act as well as questions of applicable law. (WG) [de

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal

  11. Basic Characteristics of Human Erroneous Actions during Test and Maintenance Activities Leading to Unplanned Reactor Trips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun

    2010-01-01

    Test and maintenance (T and M) activities of nuclear power plants are essential for sustaining the safety of a power plant and maintaining the reliability of plant systems and components. However, the potential of human errors during T and M activities has also the potential to induce unplanned reactor trips or power derate or making safety-related systems unavailable. According to the major incident/accident reports of nuclear power plants in Korea, contribution of human errors takes up about 20% of the total events. The previous study presents that most of human-related unplanned reactor trip events during normal power operation are associated with T and M activities (63%), which are comprised of plant maintenance activities such as a 'periodic preventive maintenance (PPM)', a 'planned maintenance (PM)' and a 'corrective maintenance (CM)'. This means that T and M activities should be a major subject for reducing the frequency of human-related unplanned reactor trips. This paper aims to introduce basic characteristics of human erroneous actions involved in the test and maintenance-induced unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred between 1986 and 2006 in Korean nuclear power plants. The basic characteristics are described by dividing human erroneous actions into planning-based errors and execution-based errors. For the events associated with planning failures, they are, firstly, classified according to existence of the work procedure and then described for what aspects of the procedure or work plan have deficiency or problem. On the other hand, for the events associated with execution failures, they are described from the aspect of external error modes

  12. Human neural tuning estimated from compound action potentials in normal hearing human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschooten, Eric; Desloovere, Christian; Joris, Philip X.

    2015-12-01

    The sharpness of cochlear frequency tuning in humans is debated. Evoked otoacoustic emissions and psychophysical measurements suggest sharper tuning in humans than in laboratory animals [15], but this is disputed based on comparisons of behavioral and electrophysiological measurements across species [14]. Here we used evoked mass potentials to electrophysiologically quantify tuning (Q10) in humans. We combined a notched noise forward masking paradigm [9] with the recording of trans tympanic compound action potentials (CAP) from masked probe tones in awake human and anesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta). We compare our results to data obtained with the same paradigm in cat and chinchilla [16], and find that CAP-Q10values in human are ˜1.6x higher than in cat and chinchilla and ˜1.3x higher than in monkey. To estimate frequency tuning of single auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) in humans, we derive conversion functions from ANFs in cat, chinchilla, and monkey and apply these to the human CAP measurements. The data suggest that sharp cochlear tuning is a feature of old-world primates.

  13. Deactivation in the Sensorimotor Area during Observation of a Human Agent Performing Robotic Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Sotaro

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that several motor areas, called the mirror-neuron system (MNS), are activated when an individual observes other's actions. However, whether the MNS responds similarly to robotic actions compared with human actions is still controversial. The present study investigated whether and how the motor area activity is influenced by…

  14. Ergonomics design and operator training as contributors to human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.R.G.; Madden, V.J.; Umbers, I.G.; Williams, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear reactors depends not only on good physical safety engineering but on the human operators as well. The Central Electricity Generating Board's approach to human reliability includes the following aspects: ergonomics design (task analysis and the development of man-machine interfaces), analysis of human reliability, operational feedback, staff training and assessment, maintenance management, research programmes and management. This paper describes how these combine to achieve the highest practicable level of human reliability, not only for the Sizewell-B pressurized water reactor, but also for the Board's gas-cooled reactors. Examples are used to illustrate the topics considered. (UK)

  15. A word in the hand: action, gesture and mental representation in humans and non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmill, Erica A.; Beilock, Sian; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The movements we make with our hands both reflect our mental processes and help to shape them. Our actions and gestures can affect our mental representations of actions and objects. In this paper, we explore the relationship between action, gesture and thought in both humans and non-human primates and discuss its role in the evolution of language. Human gesture (specifically representational gesture) may provide a unique link between action and mental representation. It is kinaesthetically close to action and is, at the same time, symbolic. Non-human primates use gesture frequently to communicate, and do so flexibly. However, their gestures mainly resemble incomplete actions and lack the representational elements that characterize much of human gesture. Differences in the mirror neuron system provide a potential explanation for non-human primates' lack of representational gestures; the monkey mirror system does not respond to representational gestures, while the human system does. In humans, gesture grounds mental representation in action, but there is no evidence for this link in other primates. We argue that gesture played an important role in the transition to symbolic thought and language in human evolution, following a cognitive leap that allowed gesture to incorporate representational elements. PMID:22106432

  16. Radiation safety analysis and action plans for NSRRC top-up operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-P.; Sheu, R.-J.; Liu, Joseph C.; Chen, C.-R.; Chang, F.-D.; Kao, S.-P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the radiation safety analysis and action plans for the upcoming top-up operation at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC). Electron beam loss scenarios and consequence of beam lifetime and injection efficiency have been studied. Dose assessment was conducted based on measurement and Monte Carlo simulation results. Radiation safety action plans such as upgrading the shielding of the injection section, enlarging the exclusion zones of the straight section beamlines, installing new interlock system for top-up operation and most importantly improving the injection efficiency have been scheduled. The goal is to keep present dose limit of 2 mSv/y and make top-up operation feasible at normal user's run of year 2006

  17. Space operations and the human factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1993-10-01

    Although space flight does not put the public at high risk, billions of dollars in hardware are destroyed and the space program halted when an accident occurs. Researchers are therefore applying human-factors techniques similar to those used in the aircraft industry, albeit at a greatly reduced level, to the spacecraft environment. The intent is to reduce the likelihood of catastrophic failure. To increase safety and efficiency, space human factors researchers have simulated spacecraft docking and extravehicular activity rescue. Engineers have also studied EVA suit mobility and aids. Other basic human-factors issues that have been applied to the space environment include antropometry, biomechanics, and ergonomics. Workstation design, workload, and task analysis currently receive much attention, as do habitability and other aspects of confined environments. Much work also focuses on individual payloads, as each presents its own complexities.

  18. Research on erroneous judgement and operation of human at emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Huang Shudong; Li Xianyi; Chen Jianhua

    2001-01-01

    The behavior characteristic of human at emergency is analysed, and the root causes and the influencing factors are discussed, which result in erroneous judgement and operation. With experiment on erroneous judgement and operation of human at emergency, the error characteristic values are obtained, then the mathematical models are established. Comparing to foreign data, it is known that there are no marked differences between Chinese and foreigners in percent of erroneous judgement and operation at emergency

  19. Multi-stream CNN: Learning representations based on human-related regions for action recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Zhigang; Xie, Wei; Qin, Qianqing; Poppe, R.W.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Li, Baoxin; Yuan, Junsong

    2018-01-01

    The most successful video-based human action recognition methods rely on feature representations extracted using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Inspired by the two-stream network (TS-Net), we propose a multi-stream Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architecture to recognize human actions. We

  20. Precursor processes of human self-initiated action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalighinejad, Nima; Schurger, Aaron; Desantis, Andrea; Zmigrod, Leor; Haggard, Patrick

    2018-01-15

    A gradual buildup of electrical potential over motor areas precedes self-initiated movements. Recently, such "readiness potentials" (RPs) were attributed to stochastic fluctuations in neural activity. We developed a new experimental paradigm that operationalized self-initiated actions as endogenous 'skip' responses while waiting for target stimuli in a perceptual decision task. We compared these to a block of trials where participants could not choose when to skip, but were instead instructed to skip. Frequency and timing of motor action were therefore balanced across blocks, so that conditions differed only in how the timing of skip decisions was generated. We reasoned that across-trial variability of EEG could carry as much information about the source of skip decisions as the mean RP. EEG variability decreased more markedly prior to self-initiated compared to externally-triggered skip actions. This convergence suggests a consistent preparatory process prior to self-initiated action. A leaky stochastic accumulator model could reproduce this convergence given the additional assumption of a systematic decrease in input noise prior to self-initiated actions. Our results may provide a novel neurophysiological perspective on the topical debate regarding whether self-initiated actions arise from a deterministic neurocognitive process, or from neural stochasticity. We suggest that the key precursor of self-initiated action may manifest as a reduction in neural noise. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human fMRI Reveals That Delayed Action Re-Recruits Visual Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Anthony; Monaco, Simona; Kaufman, Liam D.; Culham, Jody C.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to rememb...

  2. Operational decisionmaking and action selection under psychological stress in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.; Haney, L.N.; Jenkins, J.P.; Blackman, H.S.

    1985-05-01

    An extensive review of literature on individual and group performance and decisionmaking under psychological stress was conducted and summarized. Specific stress-related variables relevant to reactor operation were pinpointed and incorporated in an experiment to assess the performance of reactor operators under psychological stress. The decisionmaking performance of 24 reactor operators under differing levels of workload, conflicting information, and detail of available written procedures was assessed in terms of selecting immediate, subsequent, and nonapplicable actions in response to 12 emergency scenarios resulting from a severe seismic event at a pressurized water reactor. Specific personality characteristics of the operators suggested by the literature to be related to performance under stress were assessed and correlated to decisionmaking under stress. The experimental results were statistically analyzed, and findings indicated that operator decisionmaking under stress was more accurate under lower levels of workload, with the availability of detailed procedures, and in the presence of high conflicting information

  3. Human-factor operating concept for Borssele Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The safety level in the operation of a reactor is determined basically by human beings. The Borssele Nuclear Power Station has carried out measures for improving the man-machine interface through training and operating instructions for the shift personnel. The retrofitting of control technology relevant to safety engineering should avoid operating instructions which can cause potential failures. A safety study has shown that the remaining risk following all retrofitting measures remains dependent to the extent of 80% on human factors and that human factors as a whole have a positive effect on reactor safety. (orig.) [de

  4. The Human Operator in Advanced Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-15

    a very effective 6.1 program. The neuropsychological area is another area currently showing considerable promise. Research in this area should not...Things are not well in the world today in the most diLect and simple sense of the word. Hunger and death threaten the majority of men. That is why the...people from hunger and disease cannot contradict the source of active good, that which is most humane in man. I believe that mankind will find a rational

  5. Human reliability and human factors in complex organizations: epistemological and critical analysis - practical avenues to action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, A.

    1991-08-01

    This article starts out with comment on the existence of persistent problems inherent to probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). It first surveys existing American documents on the subject which make a certain number of criticisms on human reliability analyses, e.g. limitations due to the scant quantities of data available, lack of a basic theoretical model, non-reproducibility of analyses, etc. The article therefore examines and criticizes the epistemological bases of these analyses. One of the fundamental points stressed is that human reliability analyses do not take account of all the special features of the work situation which result in human error (so as to draw up statistical data from a sufficiently representative number of cases), and consequently lose all notion of the 'relationships' between human errors and the different aspects of the working environment. The other key points of criticism concern the collective nature of work which is not taken into account, and the frequent confusion between what operatives actually do and their formally prescribed job-tasks. The article proposes aspects to be given thought in order to overcome these difficulties, e.g. quantitative assessment of the social environment within a company, non-linear model for assessment of the accident rate, analysis of stress levels in staff on off-shore platforms. The method approaches used in these three studies are of the same type, and could be transposed to human-reliability problems. The article then goes into greater depth on thinking aimed at developing a 'positive' view of the human factor (and not just a 'negative' one, i.e. centred on human errors and organizational malfunctions), applying investigation methods developed in the occupational human sciences (occupational psychodynamics, ergonomics, occupational sociology). The importance of operatives working as actors of a team is stressed

  6. A new method to consider human actions in the framework of a dynamic PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, M.; Peschke, J.

    2006-01-01

    The variety of accident sequences to be considered in the framework of a PSA derives from mutual dependencies between the physical process, the behaviour of the technical system, human actions and stochastic influences along the time axis. Because the conventional PSA approach is not able to adequately account for these interactions, so-called probabilistic dynamics methods have been developed. They generally achieve a more realistic modelling of accident scenarios and a more realistic safety assessment. At GRS, the method MCDET - a combination of Monte Carlo Simulation und the Discrete Dynamic Event Tree method - was developed. The implementation of MCDET was supplemented by a so called Crew-Module which allows - together with a deterministic dynamics code - to simulate human actions as a dynamic process evolving over time in interaction with the system and process dynamics. The Crew-Module accounts for communications between crew members and for performance shaping factors like stress, knowledge or ergonomics. This paper presents the Crew- Module and gives an overview of the results which may be obtained from its combination with MCDET and a deterministic dynamics code. The emergency operating procedure 'Secondary Side Bleed and Feed' in a German PWR is selected as an illustrative application. (authors)

  7. The human dorsal action control system develops in the absence of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehler, Katja; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Röder, Brigitte; Rösler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The primate dorsal pathway has been proposed to compute vision for action. Although recent findings suggest that dorsal pathway structures contribute to somatosensory action control as well, it is yet not clear whether or not the development of dorsal pathway functions depends on early visual experience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the pattern of cortical activation in congenitally blind and matched blindfolded sighted adults while performing kinesthetically guided hand movements. Congenitally blind adults activated similar dorsal pathway structures as sighted controls. Group-specific activations were found in the extrastriate cortex and the auditory cortex for congenitally blind humans and in the precuneus and the presupplementary motor area for sighted humans. Dorsal pathway activity was in addition observed for working memory maintenance of kinesthetic movement information in both groups. Thus, the results suggest that dorsal pathway functions develop in the absence of vision. This favors the idea of a general mechanism of movement control that operates regardless of the sensory input modality. Group differences in cortical activation patterns imply different movement control strategies as a function of visual experience.

  8. The role of human performance in the safety complex plants' operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, Irina Aida; Lazar, Roxana Elena; Croitoru, Cornelia

    1999-01-01

    According to statistics, about 20-30% from the failures occurred in the plants are caused directly or indirectly by human errors. Furthermore, it was established that 10-15% of the global failures are related with the human errors. These are mainly due to the wrong actions, maintenance errors, and misinterpretation of instruments. The human performance is influenced by: professional ability, complexity and danger to the plant experience in the working place, level of skills, events in personal and/or professional life, discipline, social ambience, somatic health. The human performances' assessment in the probabilistic safety assessment offers the possibility of evaluation of human contribution to the events sequences outcome. Not all the human errors have impact on the system. A human error may be recovered before the unwanted consequences had been occurred on system. This paper presents the possibilities to use the probabilistic method (event tree, fault tree) to identify the solutions for human reliability improved in order to minimize the risk in industrial plants' operation. Also, the human error types and their causes are defined and the 'decision tree method' as technique in our analysis for human reliability assessment is presented. The exemplification of human error analysis method was achieved based on operation data for Valcea Heavy Water Pilot Plant. As initiating event for the accident state 'the steam supply interruption' event has been considered. The human errors' contribution was analysed for the accident sequence with the worst consequences. (authors)

  9. Animated pose templates for modeling and detecting human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Benjamin Z; Nie, Bruce X; Liu, Zicheng; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents animated pose templates (APTs) for detecting short-term, long-term, and contextual actions from cluttered scenes in videos. Each pose template consists of two components: 1) a shape template with deformable parts represented in an And-node whose appearances are represented by the Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features, and 2) a motion template specifying the motion of the parts by the Histogram of Optical-Flows (HOF) features. A shape template may have more than one motion template represented by an Or-node. Therefore, each action is defined as a mixture (Or-node) of pose templates in an And-Or tree structure. While this pose template is suitable for detecting short-term action snippets in two to five frames, we extend it in two ways: 1) For long-term actions, we animate the pose templates by adding temporal constraints in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and 2) for contextual actions, we treat contextual objects as additional parts of the pose templates and add constraints that encode spatial correlations between parts. To train the model, we manually annotate part locations on several keyframes of each video and cluster them into pose templates using EM. This leaves the unknown parameters for our learning algorithm in two groups: 1) latent variables for the unannotated frames including pose-IDs and part locations, 2) model parameters shared by all training samples such as weights for HOG and HOF features, canonical part locations of each pose, coefficients penalizing pose-transition and part-deformation. To learn these parameters, we introduce a semi-supervised structural SVM algorithm that iterates between two steps: 1) learning (updating) model parameters using labeled data by solving a structural SVM optimization, and 2) imputing missing variables (i.e., detecting actions on unlabeled frames) with parameters learned from the previous step and progressively accepting high-score frames as newly labeled examples. This algorithm belongs to a

  10. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit

  11. An action selection architecture for autonomous virtual humans in persistent worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Sevin, Etienne de; Thalmann, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, virtual humans such as non-player characters in computer games need to have a strong autonomy in order to live their own life in persistent virtual worlds. When designing autonomous virtual humans, the action selection problem needs to be considered, as it is responsible for decision making at each moment in time. Indeed action selection architectures for autonomous virtual humans need to be reactive, proactive, motivational, and emotional to obtain a high degree of autonomy and ind...

  12. Equipment nonconformance and degradation: Promptly determining operability and establishing corrective action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoxie, C.L.; Cotton, K.R.; Emch, R.L. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Nine principles for dealing with degraded and nonconforming equipment are presented and some examples are discussed. The distinction between equipment operability (i.e., capability to perform the safety function) and equipment qualification (conformance to all aspects of the current licensing basis, including codes and standards, design criteria, and commitments) is discussed. The concept of finding reasonable assurance of safety for continued plant operation for equipment not covered by technical specifications is also presented. Degraded or nonconforming equipment must be evaluated for its safety impact and for operability. In all cases, degraded or nonconforming conditions must ultimately be resolved, either through prompt corrective action or through some process of showing that the changed state of the plant is acceptable for continued operation, based on 10 CFR 50.59

  13. Analysis of the network protection devices action connected with the Krsko NPP operation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omahen, P.; Struc, S.

    1995-01-01

    The example of failure that took place in Zagreb on 30 March, 1995, has been investigated in order to obtain appropriate answers to the unexpected electric power system (ESP) response and consecutive outage of the Krsko nuclear power plant (NPP). The analysis has been made of particular operating and stability conditions, related to the functioning of distance relays line protection. Using a consequent simulation model of the EPS (European interconnection) under specified fault condition, the research of EPS operation (relays action) and stability has been done. The appropriate simulation results have been compared to the available measured data which had been collected by the SOREL on-line data acquisition system. In the end, a practise proposal for measures to be taken with the target of achieving the foreseen and expected operation of the EPS equipment that effects operation of the Krsko NPP is given. (author)

  14. Insulin action in human thighs after one-legged immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Mizuno, M.

    1989-01-01

    Insulin action was assessed in thighs of five healthy young males who had one knee immobilized for 7 days by a splint. The splint was not worn in bed. Subjects also used crutches to prevent weight bearing of the immobilized leg. Immobilization decreased the activity of citrate synthase and 3-OH......-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase in the vastus lateralis muscle by 9 and 14%, respectively, and thigh volume by 5%. After 7 days of immobilization, a two-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp procedure combined with arterial and bilateral femoral venous catheterization was performed. Insulin action on glucose uptake and tyrosine release...... of the thighs at mean plasma insulin concentrations of 67 (clamp step I) and 447 microU/ml (clamp step II) was decreased by immobilization, whereas immobilization did not affect insulin action on thigh exchange of free fatty acids, glycerol, O2, or potassium. Before and during the clamp step I, lactate release...

  15. Final record of decision for remedial actions at Operable Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 4 of the Fernald Site in Fernald, Ohio. This remedial action was selected in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and to the extent practicable 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 300, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). For Operable Unit 4 at the FEMP, DOE has chosen to complete an integrated CERCLA/NEPA process. This decision was based on the longstanding interest on the part of local stakeholders to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the restoration activities at the FEMP and on the recognition that the draft document was issued and public comments received. Therefore, this single document is intended to serve as DOE's Record of Decision (ROD) for Operable Unit 4 under both CERCLA and NEPA; however, it is not the intent of the DOE to make a statement on the legal applicability of NEPA to CERCLA actions

  16. The action characterization matrix: A link between HERA (Human Events Reference for ATHEANA) and ATHEANA (a technique for human error analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA) is a newly developed human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology that aims to facilitate better representation and integration of human performance into probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) modeling and quantification by analyzing risk-significant operating experience in the context of existing behavior science models. The fundamental premise of ATHEANA is that error-forcing contexts (EFCs), which refer to combinations of equipment/material conditions and performance shaping factors (PSFs), set up or create the conditions under which unsafe actions (UAs) can occur. ATHEANA is being developed in the context of nuclear power plant (NPP) PRAs, and much of the language used to describe the method and provide examples of its application are specific to that industry. Because ATHEANA relies heavily on the analysis of operational events that have already occurred as a mechanism for generating creative thinking about possible EFCs, a database, called the Human Events Reference for ATHEANA (HERA), has been developed to support the methodology. Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Human Factors Group has recently joined the ATHEANA project team; LANL is responsible for further developing the database structure and for analyzing additional exemplar operational events for entry into the database. The Action Characterization Matrix (ACM) is conceived as a bridge between the HERA database structure and ATHEANA. Specifically, the ACM allows each unsafe action or human failure event to be characterized according to its representation along each of six different dimensions: system status, initiator status, unsafe action mechanism, information processing stage, equipment/material conditions, and performance shaping factors. This report describes the development of the ACM and provides details on the structure and content of its dimensions

  17. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  18. Control room human engineering influences on operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, F.C.

    1977-01-01

    Three general groups of factors influence operator performance in fulfilling their responsibilities in the control room: (1) control room and control system design, informational data displays (operator inputs) as well as control board design (for operator output); (2) operator characteristics, including those skills, mental, physical, and emotional qualities which are functions of operator selection, training, and motivation; (3) job performance guides, the prescribed operating procedures for normal and emergency operations. This paper presents some of the major results of an evaluation of the effect of human engineering on operator performance in the control room. Primary attention is given to discussion of control room and control system design influence on the operator. Brief observations on the influences of operator characteristics and job performance guides (operating procedures) on performance in the control room are also given. Under the objectives of the study, special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of the control room-operator relationships for severe emergency conditions in the power plant. Consequently, this presentation is restricted largely to material related to emergency conditions in the control room, though it is recognized that human engineering of control systems is of equal (or greater) importance for many other aspects of plant operation

  19. On action- and affectpsychology of human reliability. An access by training simulators for complex man-machine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, M.

    2002-02-01

    Theoretical part and its topics: errors at the interface between man and machine; reliability analysis for man; the psychological explanation of action reliability of man (intention and control); a paradigma for human reliability (frustration and regression). Empirical part: Control room in a nuclear power plant: Influences on repeated blockages on component care in case of start-up operation; ship bridge: Frustration and regression while steering in a bight. Appendix: analysis of a social interaction.(GL)

  20. Assuring human operator alertness at night in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore-Ede, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The human body is not designed for peak alertness and performance at night, nor is it well-equipped to cope with the frequent day-night inversions required by rotating shift work schedules. As a result, the human operator can become the weak link in a complex technological operation such as a nuclear power plant. The high degree of dependence on human operator vigilance, decision-making ability and performance that is required in nuclear power plant operations can conflict with the human sleepiness and error-proneness which naturally occur during the night shift or after extended periods without adequate sleep. An opportunity to address these problems has come from a series of major research advances in basic circadian physiology

  1. 14th Biennial conference on reactor operating experience plant operations: The human element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers presented in the following areas of interest: enhancing operator performance; structured approaches to maintenance standards and reliability-centered maintenance; human issues in plant operations and management; test, research, and training reactor utilization; methods and applications of root-cause analysis; emergency operating procedure enhancement programs; test, research, and training reactor upgrades; valve maintenance and diagnostics; recent operating experiences; and current maintenance issues

  2. Compound sensory action potential in normal and pathological human nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The compound sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is the result of phase summation and cancellation of single fiber potentials (SFAPs) with amplitudes that depend on fiber diameter, and the amplitude and shape of the SNAP is determined by the distribution of fiber diameters. Conduction velocitie...... effort and attention to theory and practical detail that may be time consuming....

  3. Supporting human performance in operations - principles for new nuclear build

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.; Davey, E.

    2006-01-01

    Operational experience worldwide continues to demonstrate that human performance is a key factor in the ongoing safety, production, and protection of investment in operation of nuclear plants for electricity generation. Human performance in support of plant operational objectives can be influenced by a range of factors, for example: organizational culture and expectations; role assignments, training, and individual and team behaviours; and the support offered by the workplace environment, tools, and task design. This paper outlines a perspective on some of the principles that should be considered for application in the design of new nuclear build to facilitate support for human performance in plant operations. The principles identified focus on but are not limited to the tasks of shift staff, and are derived from the observations and experience of the authors who are experienced with control room operations in current plants. (author)

  4. Supporting human performance in operations - principles for new nuclear build

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, L. [Ontario Power Generation, Darlington Nuclear Div., Bowmanville, Ontario (Canada); Davey, E. [Crew Systems Solutions, Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Operational experience worldwide continues to demonstrate that human performance is a key factor in the ongoing safety, production, and protection of investment in operation of nuclear plants for electricity generation. Human performance in support of plant operational objectives can be influenced by a range of factors, for example: organizational culture and expectations; role assignments, training, and individual and team behaviours; and the support offered by the workplace environment, tools, and task design. This paper outlines a perspective on some of the principles that should be considered for application in the design of new nuclear build to facilitate support for human performance in plant operations. The principles identified focus on but are not limited to the tasks of shift staff, and are derived from the observations and experience of the authors who are experienced with control room operations in current plants. (author)

  5. A quantitative impact analysis of sensor failures on human operator's decision making in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    In emergency or accident situations in nuclear power plants, human operators take important roles in generating appropriate control signals to mitigate accident situation. In human reliability analysis (HRA) in the framework of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), the failure probabilities of such appropriate actions are estimated and used for the safety analysis of nuclear power plants. Even though understanding the status of the plant is basically the process of information seeking and processing by human operators, it seems that conventional HRA methods such as THERP, HCR, and ASEP does not pay a lot of attention to the possibilities of providing wrong information to human operators. In this paper, a quantitative impact analysis of providing wrong information to human operators due to instrument faults or sensor failures is performed. The quantitative impact analysis is performed based on a quantitative situation assessment model. By comparing the situation in which there are sensor failures and the situation in which there are not sensor failures, the impact of sensor failures can be evaluated quantitatively. It is concluded that the impact of sensor failures are quite significant at the initial stages, but the impact is gradually reduced as human operators make more and more observations. Even though the impact analysis is highly dependent on the situation assessment model, it is expected that the conclusions made based on other situation assessment models with be consistent with the conclusion made in this paper. (author)

  6. Human Rights Education, Postcolonial Scholarship, and Action for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    In our global age, educational researchers and practitioners need tools that can be applied in a range of contexts and scales: local, national, and international. This article argues that human rights education (HRE) is a site of struggle in which human rights and democracy need to be constantly renewed. It contextualizes HRE within a critical,…

  7. Shortcomings of the Human Brain and Remedial Action by Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, K. Helmut

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus as to whether, and if so, in which regard and to what extent science and religion is needed for human survival. Here a circumscribed domain is taken up: the sovereignty and sufficiency of the human brain in this context. Several of its shortcomings are pointed out. Religion and other aspects of culture are needed for remedial…

  8. "Unwilling" versus "Unable": Capuchin Monkeys' ("Cebus Apella") Understanding of Human Intentional Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Webb; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Mahajan, Neha; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) lends credence to the…

  9. Human factors in the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaton, E.; Neboyan, V.; Lederman, L.

    1987-01-01

    In large and complex interactive systems, human error can contribute substantially to system failures. At nuclear power plants, operational experience demonstrates that human error accounts for a considerable proportion of safety-related incidents. However, experience also shows that human intervention can be very effective if there is a thorough understanding of the situation in the plant. Thus, an efficient interface of man and machine is important not only to prevent human errors but also to assist the operator in coping with unforeseen events. Human reliability can be understood as a qualitative as well as a quantitative term. Qualitatively it can be described as the aim for successful human performance of activities necessary for system reliability and availability. Quantitatively, it refers to data on failure rates or error probabilities that can be used, for example, for probabilistic safety assessments

  10. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 4. Operator information needs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents detailed data concerning operator information needs that identify the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. The study defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related, and it identifies the requisite information as consistent with current industry practice so as to aid control system designers. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  11. Assurance program for remedial action (APRA) microcomputer-operated bibliography management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Washburn, D.K.; Denham, D.H.

    1985-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided technical assistance to the Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in developing their Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA). The APRA Bibliography Management System (BMS), a microcomputer-operated system designed to file, locate and retrieve project-specific bibliographic data, was developed to manage the documentation associated with APRA. The BMS uses APRABASE, a PNL-developed computer program written in dBASE II language, which is designed to operate using the commercially available dBASE II database software. The paper describes the APRABASE computer program, its associated subprograms, and the dBASE II APRA file. Although the BMS was designed to manage APRA-associated documents, it could be easily adapted for use in handling bibliographic data associated with any project

  12. Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) microcomputer-operated bibliography management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Washburn, D.K.; Denham, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided technical assistance to the Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in developing their Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA). The APRA Bibliography Management System (BMS), a microcomputer-operated system designed to file, locate and retrieve project-specific bibliographic data, was developed to manage the documentation associated with APRA. The BMS uses APRABASE, a PNL-developed computer program written in dBASE II/sup (b)/ language, which is designed to operate using the commercially available dBASE II database software. This paper describes the APRABASE computer program, its associated subprograms, and the dBASE II APRA file. Although the BMS was designed to manage APRA-associated documents, it could be easily adapted for use in handling bibliographic data associated with any project

  13. Criteria for safety-related nuclear plant operator actions: a preliminary assessment of available data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Bott, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    In the US, an effort has been underway for a number of years to develop a design standard to define when required manual operator action can be accepted as part of a nuclear plant design basis. Insufficient data are available to provide quantitative guidelines for the standard. To provide the necessary data base to support such standards and the necessary quantitative assessment of operator reliability, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a study at Oak National Laboratory to develop the data base. A preliminary assessment completed in April, 1979 concluded that sufficient data from US operating experience did not exist to provide an adequate data base. A program of research using full-scope nuclear plant simulators and results that are correlated to field data was suggested. That program was recently initiated. The approach, results and conclusions of the preliminary assessment are reviewed and the planned research program of simulator studies is summarised. (author)

  14. Research on the NPP human factors engineering operating experience review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiangchen; Miao Hongxing; Ning Zhonghe

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the human factors engineering (HFE) for the design of nuclear power plant (NPP), especially for the design of human-machine interface in the NPP. It also summarizes the scope and content of the NPP HFE. The function, scope, content and process of the NPP human factors engineering operating experience review (OER) are mainly focused on, and significantly discussed. Finally, it briefly introduces the situation of the studies on the OER in China. (authors)

  15. Action Search: Learning to Search for Human Activities in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Alwassel, Humam

    2017-06-13

    Traditional approaches for action detection use trimmed data to learn sophisticated action detector models. Although these methods have achieved great success at detecting human actions, we argue that huge information is discarded when ignoring the process, through which this trimmed data is obtained. In this paper, we propose Action Search, a novel approach that mimics the way people annotate activities in video sequences. Using a Recurrent Neural Network, Action Search can efficiently explore a video and determine the time boundaries during which an action occurs. Experiments on the THUMOS14 dataset reveal that our model is not only able to explore the video efficiently but also accurately find human activities, outperforming state-of-the-art methods.

  16. SHARP1: A revised systematic human action reliability procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakefield, D.J.; Parry, G.W.; Hannaman, G.W.; Spurgin, A.J.

    1990-12-01

    Individual plant examinations (IPE) are being performed by utilities to evaluate plant-specific vulnerabilities to severe accidents. A major tool in performing an IPE is a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The importance of human interactions in determining the plant response in past PRAs is well documented. The modeling and quantification of the probabilities of human interactions have been the subjects of considerable research by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). A revised framework, SHARP1, for incorporating human interactions into PRA is summarized in this report. SHARP1 emphasizes that the process stages are iterative and directed at specific goals rather than being performed sequentially in a stepwise procedure. This expanded summary provides the reader with a flavor of the full report content. Excerpts from the full report are presented, following the same outline as the full report. In the full report, the interface of the human reliability analysis with the plant logic model development in a PRA is given special attention. In addition to describing a methodology framework, the report also discusses the types of human interactions to be evaluated, and how to formulate a project team to perform the human reliability analysis. A concise description and comparative evaluation of the selected existing methods of quantification of human error are also presented. Four case studies are also provided to illustrate the SHARP1 process

  17. The role of human performance in safe operation of complex plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, Irina Aida; Lazar, Roxana Elena; Croitoru, Cornelia

    1999-01-01

    According to statistics, about 20-30% from the failures occurring in plants are caused directly or indirectly by human errors. Furthermore, it was established that 10-15 percents of the global failures are related to the human errors. These are mainly due to the wrong actions, maintenance errors, and misinterpretation of instruments. The human performance is influenced by: professional ability, complexity and danger of the plant, experience in the same working place, level of skills, events in personal and/or professional life, discipline, social ambience and somatic health. The human performances assessment in the probabilistic safety assessment offers the possibility of evaluation for human contribution to the events sequences outcome. A human error may be recovered before the unwanted consequences had been occurred on system. This paper presents the possibilities to use the probabilistic methods (event tree, fault tree) to identify the solution for human reliability improvement in order to minimise the risk in industrial plant operation. Also, are defined the human error types and their causes and the 'decision tree method' is presented as technique in our analyses for human reliability assessment. The exemplification of human error analysis method was achieved based on operation data for Valcea heavy water pilot plant. (authors)

  18. Human reinforcement learning subdivides structured action spaces by learning effector-specific values

    OpenAIRE

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Pesaran, Bijan; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2009-01-01

    Humans and animals are endowed with a large number of effectors. Although this enables great behavioral flexibility, it presents an equally formidable reinforcement learning problem of discovering which actions are most valuable, due to the high dimensionality of the action space. An unresolved question is how neural systems for reinforcement learning – such as prediction error signals for action valuation associated with dopamine and the striatum – can cope with this “curse of dimensionality...

  19. Integration of emergency action levels with Combustion Engineering Emergency Operating Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faletti, D.W.; Jamison, J.D.

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the development of a method for integrating Emergency Action Levels (EALs) with plant-specific Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) using the Combustion Engineering Owners' Group Emergency Operating Procedure Technical Guidelines (CEOG EOPTFs). EALs are discrete conditions or values of plant operating parameters which, if exceeded, require declaration of an appropriate level of emergency. At most operating plants, the EALs and event classification procedures are totally separate from the Emergency Operating Procedures used by the plant staff to control the plant during abnormal conditions. Control room personnel using the EOPs to deal with abnormal plant conditions must recognize when plant safety is sufficiently degraded that an emergency declaration may be warranted, and then enter a separate classification procedure containing EALs for a number of plant conditions and parameters. The operator then compares the existing plant conditions to the EALs and makes an emergency declaration accordingly. Using the Combustion Engineering Owners' Group Technical Guidelines document, a set of emergency class definitions and criteria were developed based on the status of the three main fission product barriers (fuel cladding, primary coolant system and containment). The EOPTGs were then annotated with suggested guidance to a procedure writer. The proposed method was tested by applying it to the reactor accident sequences that were shown in the reactor safety study to dominate accident risk. The object of the test was to determine if an EAL set linked to the EOP annotations would produce timely and accurate classification of the risk-dominant sequences. 6 refs., 13 figs., 31 tabs

  20. 40 CFR 300.435 - Remedial design/remedial action, operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... features of the selected remedy with respect to scope, performance, or cost. To amend the ROD, the lead...) Include appropriate language in the solicitation requiring potential prime contractors to submit... protection of human health and the environment, the operation of such treatment or other measures for a...

  1. Predicting human activities in sequences of actions in RGB-D videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, David; Nunes, Luís.; Dias, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    In our daily activities we perform prediction or anticipation when interacting with other humans or with objects. Prediction of human activity made by computers has several potential applications: surveillance systems, human computer interfaces, sports video analysis, human-robot-collaboration, games and health-care. We propose a system capable of recognizing and predicting human actions using supervised classifiers trained with automatically labeled data evaluated in our human activity RGB-D dataset (recorded with a Kinect sensor) and using only the position of the main skeleton joints to extract features. Using conditional random fields (CRFs) to model the sequential nature of actions in a sequence has been used before, but where other approaches try to predict an outcome or anticipate ahead in time (seconds), we try to predict what will be the next action of a subject. Our results show an activity prediction accuracy of 89.9% using an automatically labeled dataset.

  2. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  3. Modelling the basic error tendencies of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper outlines the primary structural features of human cognition: a limited, serial workspace interacting with a parallel distributed knowledge base. It is argued that the essential computational features of human cognition - to be captured by an adequate operator model - reside in the mechanisms by which stored knowledge structures are selected and brought into play. Two such computational 'primitives' are identified: similarity-matching and frequency-gambling. These two retrieval heuristics, it is argued, shape both the overall character of human performance (i.e. its heavy reliance on pattern-matching) and its basic error tendencies ('strong-but-wrong' responses, confirmation, similarity and frequency biases, and cognitive 'lock-up'). The various features of human cognition are integrated with a dynamic operator model capable of being represented in software form. This computer model, when run repeatedly with a variety of problem configurations, should produce a distribution of behaviours which, in total, simulate the general character of operator performance. (author)

  4. Modelling the basic error tendencies of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, James

    1988-01-01

    The paper outlines the primary structural features of human cognition: a limited, serial workspace interacting with a parallel distributed knowledge base. It is argued that the essential computational features of human cognition - to be captured by an adequate operator model - reside in the mechanisms by which stored knowledge structures are selected and brought into play. Two such computational 'primitives' are identified: similarity-matching and frequency-gambling. These two retrieval heuristics, it is argued, shape both the overall character of human performance (i.e. its heavy reliance on pattern-matching) and its basic error tendencies ('strong-but-wrong' responses, confirmation, similarity and frequency biases, and cognitive 'lock-up'). The various features of human cognition are integrated with a dynamic operator model capable of being represented in software form. This computer model, when run repeatedly with a variety of problem configurations, should produce a distribution of behaviours which, in toto, simulate the general character of operator performance. (author)

  5. IMPROVING CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND OPERATIONS BASED ON HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSES OR HOW MUCH HUMAN FACTORS UPGRADE IS ENOUGH ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGGINS,J.C.; OHARA,J.M.; ALMEIDA,P.

    2002-09-19

    THE JOSE CABRERA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS A ONE LOOP WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR. IN THE CONTROL ROOM, THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS USED BY OPERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES ARE DISTRIBUTED ON FRONT AND BACK PANELS. THIS CONFIGURATION CONTRIBUTED TO RISK IN THE PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT WHERE IMPORTANT OPERATOR ACTIONS ARE REQUIRED. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN ON CREW PERFORMANCE AND PLANT SAFETY AND TO DEVELOP DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS.FIVE POTENTIAL EFFECTS WERE IDENTIFIED. THEN NUREG-0711 [1], PROGRAMMATIC, HUMAN FACTORS, ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE THE CR-LA YOUT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS. THESE ANALYSES INCLUDED OPERATING EXPERIENCE REVIEW, PSA REVIEW, TASK ANALYSES, AND WALKTHROUGH SIMULATIONS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THESE ANALYSES, A VARIETY OF CONTROL ROOM MODIFICATIONS WERE IDENTIFIED. FROM THE ALTERNATIVES, A SELECTION WAS MADE THAT PROVIDED A REASONABLEBALANCE BE TWEEN PERFORMANCE, RISK AND ECONOMICS, AND MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE TO THE PLANT.

  6. Language for action: Motor resonance during the processing of human and robotic voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, G; Errante, A; Marchi, M; Cuccio, V

    2017-11-01

    In this fMRI study we evaluated whether the auditory processing of action verbs pronounced by a human or a robotic voice in the imperative mood differently modulates the activation of the mirror neuron system (MNs). The study produced three results. First, the activation pattern found during listening to action verbs was very similar in both the robot and human conditions. Second, the processing of action verbs compared to abstract verbs determined the activation of the fronto-parietal circuit classically involved during the action goal understanding. Third, and most importantly, listening to action verbs compared to abstract verbs produced activation of the anterior part of the supramarginal gyrus (aSMG) regardless of the condition (human and robot) and in the absence of any object name. The supramarginal gyrus is a region considered to underpin hand-object interaction and associated to the processing of affordances. These results suggest that listening to action verbs may trigger the recruitment of motor representations characterizing affordances and action execution, coherently with the predictive nature of motor simulation that not only allows us to re-enact motor knowledge to understand others' actions but also prepares us for the actions we might need to carry out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Educational actions in human communication health: telehealth contributions in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Guedes de Sá Leitão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to characterize educational actions related to human communication health produced at the Tele-Health Center for health professionals in primary care. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted at the Tele-Health Center at the Federal University of Pernambuco Clinical Hospital. Educational actions produced by tele-consultants between 2008 and 2014 linked to the health of human communication were considered. Data collection was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, the data were explored and educational actions were selected based on the title and the relationship with human communication. In the second phase, each action was observed and evaluated for content. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: a few educational actions related to human communication health were concentrated in 2014. Throughout the period analyzed, the actions were restricted to the field of language and concentrated on the education issue as well as the strategic area of child and adolescent health. The most frequent occupational category among the tele-consultants was nursing. Conclusion: a small number of educational actions addressing the health of human communication was produced and the participation of speech therapists remains incipient.

  8. Operator's manual actions in case of fire; Acciones manuales del operador en caso de incendio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez de Tejada Madina, P.; Perez Lobo, E. M.; Velasco Ramirez, R.; Velasco Ramirez, R.; Fernandez Ramos, P.

    2012-07-01

    Vandellos II, following the guidelines GS 01.19 of CSN and RG 1.189 rev. 2, has identified the need to consider a number of local manual actions to be performed by the staff of shift operation and need to be validated according NUREG 1852. The local manual actions include corrective and preventive actions, such as local start and shooting of bombs, checking positions ... According NUREG-1852 these actions must be validated with conditions as similar as possible to those expected, in conjunction with the operating of Vandellos II.

  9. Action spectra for inactivation of normal and xeroderma pigmentosum human skin fibroblasts by ultraviolet radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyse, S.M.; Moss, S.H.; Davies, D.J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Action spectra for UV-induced lethality as measured by colony forming ability were determined both for a normal human skin fibroblast strain (1BR) and for an excision deficient xeroderma pigmentosum strain (XP4LO) assigned to complementation group A using 7 monochromatic wavelengths in the range 254-365 nm. The relative sensitivity of the XP strain compared to the normal skin fibroblasts shows a marked decrease at wavelengths longer than 313 nm, changing from a ratio of about 20 at the shorter wavelengths to just greater than 1.0 at the longer wavelengths. The action spectra thus indicate that the influence on cell inactivation of the DNA repair defect associated with XP cells is decreased and almost reaches zero at longer UV wavelengths. This would occur, for example, if the importance of pyrimidine dimers as the lethal lesion decreased with increasing wavelength. These results are consistent with pyrimidine dimers induced in DNA being the major lethal lesion in both cell strains over the wavelength range 254-313 nm. However, it is indicated that different mechanisms of inactivation operate at wavelengths longer than 313 nm. (author)

  10. Human factors in surgery: from Three Mile Island to the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addessi, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Luca; Volpe, Andrea; Pinto, Francesco; Bassi, PierFrancesco

    2009-01-01

    Human factors is a definition that includes the science of understanding the properties of human capability, the application of this understanding to the design and development of systems and services, the art of ensuring their successful applications to a program. The field of human factors traces its origins to the Second World War, but Three Mile Island has been the best example of how groups of people react and make decisions under stress: this nuclear accident was exacerbated by wrong decisions made because the operators were overwhelmed with irrelevant, misleading or incorrect information. Errors and their nature are the same in all human activities. The predisposition for error is so intrinsic to human nature that scientifically it is best considered as inherently biologic. The causes of error in medical care may not be easily generalized. Surgery differs in important ways: most errors occur in the operating room and are technical in nature. Commonly, surgical error has been thought of as the consequence of lack of skill or ability, and is the result of thoughtless actions. Moreover the 'operating theatre' has a unique set of team dynamics: professionals from multiple disciplines are required to work in a closely coordinated fashion. This complex environment provides multiple opportunities for unclear communication, clashing motivations, errors arising not from technical incompetence but from poor interpersonal skills. Surgeons have to work closely with human factors specialists in future studies. By improving processes already in place in many operating rooms, safety will be enhanced and quality increased.

  11. Action observation with kinesthetic illusion can produce human motor plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Ippei; Koganemaru, Satoko; Kawamata, Toshio; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2015-06-01

    After watching sports, people often feel as if their sports skills might have been improved, even without any actual training. On some occasions, this motor skill learning through observation actually occurs. This phenomenon may be due to the fact that both action and action observation (AO) can activate shared cortical areas. However, the neural basis of performance gain through AO has not yet been fully clarified. In the present study, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate whether primary motor cortex (M1) plasticity is a physiological substrate of AO-induced performance gain and whether AO itself is sufficient to change motor performance. The excitability of M1, especially that of its intracortical excitatory circuit, was enhanced after and during AO with kinesthetic illusion but not in interventions without this illusion. Moreover, behavioral improvement occurred only after AO with kinesthetic illusion, and a significant correlation existed between the performance gain and the degree of illusion. Our findings indicated that kinesthetic illusion is an essential component of the motor learning and M1 plasticity induced by AO, and this insight may be useful for the strategic rehabilitation of stroke patients. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Use of an action-selection framework for human-carnivore conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Adam C D; Greenwood, Christina J; Ahmad, Ishtiaq U; Smith, James L D

    2010-10-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is manifested in the death of humans, livestock, and carnivores. The resulting negative local attitudes and retribution killings imperil the future of many endangered carnivores. We tailored existing management tools to create a framework to facilitate the selection of actions to alleviate human-carnivore conflict and applied the framework to the human-tiger conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. We identified potential actions that consider previous management efforts, local knowledge, cost-effectiveness, fieldwork experience of authors and project staff, previous research on tiger ecology by the authors, and recommendations from human-carnivore conflict studies in other countries. Our framework includes creation of a profile to improve understanding of the nature of the conflict and its underlying causality. Identified actions include deterrents, education, direct tiger management, and response teams. We ranked actions by their potential to reduce conflict and the monetary cost of their implementation. We ranked tiger-response teams and monitoring problem tigers as the two best actions because both had relatively high impact and cost-effectiveness. We believe this framework could be used under a wide range of human-wildlife conflict situations because it provides a structured approach to selection of mitigating actions. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Operable Unit 3: Proposed Plan/Environmental Assessment for interim remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a Proposed Plan and an Environmental Assessment for an interim remedial action to be undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) within Operable Unit 3 (OU3) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This proposed plan provides site background information, describes the remedial alternatives being considered, presents a comparative evaluation of the alternatives and a rationnale for the identification of DOE's preferred alternative, evaluates the potential environmental and public health effects associated with the alternatives, and outlines the public's role in helping DOE and the EPA to make the final decision on a remedy

  14. Actions speak louder than words in socially foraging human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Seirian; King, Andrew J

    2011-11-01

    SOCIAL FORAGING IN HUMANS HAS A DEEP EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY: early hominids searched for dispersed food sources in a patchy, uncertain environment. A fundamental assumption is that social foragers benefit by exchanging information about food sources, in order to make collective decisions based on pooled information. We conducted the first experimental test of this assumption, and showed that, as predicted, communication significantly enhanced group performance. A further, unexpected result was that physical communication through gesturing, rather than verbal communication, appeared to play a crucial role in the early stages of group interaction, facilitating consensus decision making by groups.  The importance of gestures in human interactions may therefore be underestimated, and this has important implications for modern human societies, where communications are becoming increasingly dominated by virtual modes of communication that preclude the use of gestures. 

  15. Operator role definition and human-system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses operator role definition and human-system integration from a perspective of systems engineering and allocation of functions. Current and traditional allocation of tasks/functions can no longer by applied to systems that are significantly more sophisticated and dynamic than current system designs. For such advanced and automated designs, explicit attention must be given to the role of the operator in order to facilitate efficient system performance. Furthermore, such systems will include intelligent automated systems which will support the cognitive activities of the operator. If such systems share responsibility and control with the human operator, these computer-based assistants/associates should be viewed as intelligent team members. As such, factors such as trust, intentions, and expectancies, among team members must be considered by the systems designer. Such design considerations are discussed in this paper. This paper also discusses the area of dynamic allocation of functions, and the need for models of the human operator in support of machine forecast of human performance. The Integrated Reactor Operator/System (INTEROPS) model is discussed as an example of a cognitive model capable of functioning beyond a rule-based behavioral structure

  16. Information Waste, the Environment and Human Action: Concepts and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Fons; Dietz, Pim; Amrit, Chintan; Hercheui, Magda David; Whitehouse, Diane; McIver Jr., William J.; Phahlamohlaka, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Information technology is powered by electricity. Although its impact on Green House Gasses (GHG) is still rather limited, the next decade will show an explosion of its impact because technological innovations on data communication, information retrieval and datacenter operation will not compensate

  17. Human Trafficking: A Call for Counselor Awareness and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Edward L., Jr.; Ramey, Luellen

    2009-01-01

    The counseling profession has given little attention to human trafficking, a form of modern slavery that is one of the most damaging forms of social injustice that exists today. Focusing on victims within the United States, the authors provide advocacy suggestions, treatment recommendations, and directions for research for this population.

  18. Compound sensory action potential in normal and pathological human nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The compound sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is the result of phase summation and cancellation of single fiber potentials (SFAPs) with amplitudes that depend on fiber diameter, and the amplitude and shape of the SNAP is determined by the distribution of fiber diameters. Conduction velocities...... dispersion over increasing conduction distance is greater for the SNAP than CMAP, and demonstration of conduction block is therefore difficult. In addition, the effect of temporal dispersion on amplitude and shape is strongly dependent on the number of conducting fibers and their distribution, and......, with fiber loss or increased conduction velocity variability changes of the SNAP may be smaller than expected from normal nerve. The biophysical characteristics of sensory and motor fibers differ, and this may to some extent determine divergent pathophysiological changes in sensory and motor fibers...

  19. Operation and maintenance manual for the temporary septic holding tank at the 100-D remedial action support facility. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1996-10-01

    This manual was prepared to provide detailed information for the operation and maintenance of the sanitary wastewater holding system at the 100-D Remedial Action Support Facility located in the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site. This document describes operations, including the type and frequency of required maintenance, and system failure response procedures

  20. Operation and maintenance manual for the temporary septic holding tank at the 100-D remedial action support facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1996-09-01

    This manual provides detailed information for the operation and maintenance of the sanitary wastewater holding system at the 100-D Remedial Action Support Facility located in the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site. This document describes operations, including the type and frequency of required maintenance, and system failure response procedures

  1. 'Blocked area' of a citizens' action group in operating plan permit accoding to Mining Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-26

    On the question as to whether a citizen's action group, organized in the form of a registered club, has the right to file suit as defined by paragraph 2 of sect. 42 of the rules of administrative courts, in case they bring forward that their right to the reforestation of an estate, ensured by easement, will be affected by a skeleton operating plan permit issued under the mining law. Since the protection of the recreational function of forests is a task the safeguarding of which is solely assigned to bodies of public administration, anyone who has a real right may not claim neighbourly protection under public law in so far. On the relationship between operating plan approval, procedures are according to mining laws and the licensing procedures concerning construction permits.

  2. Humanities for the Environment—A Manifesto for Research and Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Holm

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human preferences, practices and actions are the main drivers of global environmental change in the 21st century. It is crucial, therefore, to promote pro-environmental behavior. In order to accomplish this, we need to move beyond rational choice and behavioral decision theories, which do not capture the full range of commitments, assumptions, imaginaries, and belief systems that drive those preferences and actions. Humanities disciplines, such as philosophy, history, religious studies, gender studies, language and literary studies, psychology, and pedagogics do offer deep insights into human motivations, values, and choices. We believe that the expertise of such fields for transforming human preferences, practices and actions is ignored at society’s peril. We propose an agenda that focuses global humanities research on stepping up to the challenges of planetary environmental change. We have established Environmental Humanities Observatories through which to observe, explore and enact the crucial ways humanistic disciplines may help us understand and engage with global ecological problems by providing insight into human action, perceptions, and motivation. We present this Manifesto as an invitation for others to join the “Humanities for the Environment” open global consortium of humanities observatories as we continue to develop a shared research agenda.

  3. Human action quality evaluation based on fuzzy logic with application in underground coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionica, Andreea; Leba, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The work system is defined by its components, their roles and the relationships between them. Any work system gravitates around the human resource and the interdependencies between human factor and the other components of it. Researches in this field agreed that the human factor and its actions are difficult to quantify and predict. The objective of this paper is to apply a method of human actions evaluation in order to estimate possible risks and prevent possible system faults, both at human factor level and at equipment level. In order to point out the importance of the human factor influence on all the elements of the working systems we propose a fuzzy logic based methodology for quality evaluation of human actions. This methodology has a multidisciplinary character, as it gathers ideas and methods from: quality management, ergonomics, work safety and artificial intelligence. The results presented refer to a work system with a high degree of specificity, namely, underground coal mining and are valuable for human resources risk evaluation pattern. The fuzzy logic evaluation of the human actions leads to early detection of possible dangerous evolutions of the work system and alarm the persons in charge.

  4. Technical assistance to Department of Energy/Office of Operational Safety Assurance Program for remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Cross, F.T.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Marks, S.; Soldat, J.K.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    This project was initiated in FY 1984 to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in developing and implementing its Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA), i.e., overview of the DOE remedial action programs. During this second year of the project,* the technical assistance included report and procedure reviews, and assistance with conducting the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP) Office (DOE/AL) appraisal. This included participation in preappraisal visits to UMTRAP sites in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Grand Junction, Colorado; and Salt Lake City, Utah. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) also transferred the PNL-developed document review software to the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) staff in Grand Junction, Colorado, in anticipation of future document reviews by the ORAU staff. Other accomplishments have included publication of two formal documents and three project reports, preparation and presentation of five topical reports at national and international meetings, two foreign trip reports, and comments on proposed draft standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 193). The project manager has also participated on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) subcommittees developing decommissioning standards, as well as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) advisory groups developing environmental monitoring guidelines

  5. Multi-task learning with group information for human action recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Li; Wu, Song; Pu, Nan; Xu, Shulin; Xiao, Guoqiang

    2018-04-01

    Human action recognition is an important and challenging task in computer vision research, due to the variations in human motion performance, interpersonal differences and recording settings. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-task learning framework with group information (MTL-GI) for accurate and efficient human action recognition. Specifically, we firstly obtain group information through calculating the mutual information according to the latent relationship between Gaussian components and action categories, and clustering similar action categories into the same group by affinity propagation clustering. Additionally, in order to explore the relationships of related tasks, we incorporate group information into multi-task learning. Experimental results evaluated on two popular benchmarks (UCF50 and HMDB51 datasets) demonstrate the superiority of our proposed MTL-GI framework.

  6. Signed language and human action processing: evidence for functional constraints on the human mirror-neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P; Knapp, Heather Patterson

    2008-12-01

    In the quest to further understand the neural underpinning of human communication, researchers have turned to studies of naturally occurring signed languages used in Deaf communities. The comparison of the commonalities and differences between spoken and signed languages provides an opportunity to determine core neural systems responsible for linguistic communication independent of the modality in which a language is expressed. The present article examines such studies, and in addition asks what we can learn about human languages by contrasting formal visual-gestural linguistic systems (signed languages) with more general human action perception. To understand visual language perception, it is important to distinguish the demands of general human motion processing from the highly task-dependent demands associated with extracting linguistic meaning from arbitrary, conventionalized gestures. This endeavor is particularly important because theorists have suggested close homologies between perception and production of actions and functions of human language and social communication. We review recent behavioral, functional imaging, and neuropsychological studies that explore dissociations between the processing of human actions and signed languages. These data suggest incomplete overlap between the mirror-neuron systems proposed to mediate human action and language.

  7. President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities 2009-2016: A Legacy of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities 2009-2016: A Legacy of Action" highlights the results of the synergy of collaboration the President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities (PCAH) forged with the private sector and each of the cultural agencies--National Endowment for the Arts, National Endowment for the…

  8. Developing Library GIS Services for Humanities and Social Science: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ningning; Fosmire, Michael; Branch, Benjamin Dewayne

    2017-01-01

    In the academic libraries' efforts to support digital humanities and social science, GIS service plays an important role. However, there is no general service model existing about how libraries can develop GIS services to best engage with digital humanities and social science. In this study, we adopted the action research method to develop and…

  9. Is science the driving force in the operation of environmental regimes? : A case study of the Mediterranean Action Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzi, Sofia; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of science in the operation of environmental regimes using the Barcelona Convention/Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) as a case study. The ‘epistemic communities’ theory suggests that emergence of the Mediterranean Action Plan was largely driven by scientific experts. In

  10. 78 FR 42805 - HarperCollins Publishers Distribution Operations Including On-Site Leased Workers From Action...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... Distribution Operations Including On- Site Leased Workers From Action Personnel, CGA Staffing Services, Dynamic... from Action Personnel, CGA Staffing Services, Dynamic Staffing, Kelly Services, and Manpower, Scranton... (Volume 78 FR Pages 28628-28630). At the request of the State Workforce Office, the Department reviewed...

  11. Is science the driving force in the operation of environmental regimes? A case study of the Mediterranean Action Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzi, Sofia; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of science in the operation of environmental regimes using the Barcelona Convention/Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) as a case study. The ‘epistemic communities’ theory suggests that emergence of the Mediterranean Action Plan was largely driven by scientific experts. In

  12. Is science the driving force in the operation of environmental regimes? A case study of the Mediterranean Action Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzi, S.; Lovett, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of science in the operation of environmental regimes using the Barcelona Convention/Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) as a case study. The 'epistemic communities' theory suggests that emergence of the Mediterranean Action Plan was largely driven by scientific experts. In

  13. Human reliability assessment on the basis of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straeter, O.

    1997-01-01

    For development of methodology, available models for qualitative assessment of human errors (e.g. by Swain, Hacker, Rasmussen) and a variety of known systematic approaches for quantitiative assessment of inadequate human action (e.g. THERP, ASEP, HCR, SLIM) were taken as a basis to establish a job specification, which in turn was used for developing a method for acquisition, characterisation and evaluation of errors. This method encompasses the two processes of event analysis and event evaluation: The first step comprises analysis of events by analysis of information describing the conditions and scenarios of relevance to the inadequate human action examined. In addition to the description of process sequences, information is taken into account on possible conditions that may bring about failure. As an assessment of human reliability requires manifold approaches for evaluation, a connectionistic procedure was developed for evaluation of the compilation of events based on a debate about various approaches from the domain of artificial intelligence (AI). This procedure yields both qualitative and quantitative information through a homogenous approach. (orig./GL) [de

  14. The human factor and organization to support nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis reveals three basic factors which affect the safety of nuclear power reactors: (1) Internal physical properties of the reactor which provide self protection under breakdown and accident conditions; (2) The reliability of technical systems which provide monitoring, control, accident prevention, heat release, and localization of hazardous products during accidents; (3) Reliability of the reactor control personnel. The last of these factors is usually called the human factor. From published data, this factor makes a large contribution to the downtime and accident statistics at nuclear power plants: from 30 to 80% in various countries. Today the importance of the human factor in operating a nuclear power units is rather well recognized. Current ideas on how to increase the reliability of a human operator are reflected in IAEA recommendations and domestic official documents. The concept of 'a culture of safety' is introduced. Basic types of actions to increase the reliability of personnel who control a nuclear reactor are discussed, including: (1) The qualifying and psychological selection and the training of candidates on the operator's obligations. (2) The automation of routine operations which do not require the operator's intellect. (3) Perfecting the work place, information input to the operator, and the organization of the controls

  15. Molecular mechanism of action of opioids in human neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, V.C.K.

    1987-01-01

    A series of human neuroblastoma cell lines was screened for the presence of opioid receptor sites. Of these cell lines, SK-N-SH was found to express approximately 50,000 μ and 10,000 δ opioid receptor sites/cell. In vitro characterization revealed that the binding properties of these receptor sites closely resembled those of human and rodent brain. Phosphatidylinositol turnover as a potential second messenger system for the μ receptor was examined in SK-N-SH cells. Neurotransmitter receptor systems were determined in the three sub-clones of SK-N-SH cells. Cells of the SH-SY5Y line, a phenotypically stable subclone of SK-N-SH cells, were induced to differentiate by treatment with various inducing agents, and changes of several neurotransmitter receptor systems were determined. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and retinoic acid (RA) up-regulated, while dBcAMP down-regulated opioid receptor sites. [ 3 H]Dopamine uptake was slightly enhanced only in RA-treated cells. Strikingly, the efficacy of PGE 1 -stimulated accumulation of cAMP was enhanced by 15- to 30-fold upon RA treatment

  16. Robot and Human Surface Operations on Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of robot and human surface operations on solar system bodies. The topics include: 1) Long Range Vision of Surface Scenarios; 2) Human and Robots Complement Each Other; 3) Respective Human and Robot Strengths; 4) Need More In-Depth Quantitative Analysis; 5) Projected Study Objectives; 6) Analysis Process Summary; 7) Mission Scenarios Decompose into Primitive Tasks; 7) Features of the Projected Analysis Approach; and 8) The "Getting There Effect" is a Major Consideration. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  17. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Phase IV Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of areas with the potential for UXO at the Idaho National Laboratory. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. Five areas within the Naval Proving Ground that are known to contain UXO include the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, the Mass Detonation Area, the Experimental Field Station, The Rail Car Explosion Area, and the Land Mine Fuze Burn Area. The Phase IV remedial action will be concentrated in these five areas. For other areas, such as the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range, ordnance has largely consisted of sand-filled practice bombs that do not pose an explosion risk. Ordnance encountered in these areas will be addressed under the Phase I Operations and Maintenance Plan that allows for the recovery and disposal of ordnance that poses an imminent risk to human health or the environment.

  18. Identification of human-induced initiating events in the low power and shutdown operation using the commission error search and assessment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School (KINGS), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Human-induced initiating events, also called Category B actions in human reliability analysis, are operator actions that may lead directly to initiating events. Most conventional probabilistic safety analyses typically assume that the frequency of initiating events also includes the probability of human-induced initiating events. However, some regulatory documents require Category B actions to be specifically analyzed and quantified in probabilistic safety analysis. An explicit modeling of Category B actions could also potentially lead to important insights into human performance in terms of safety. However, there is no standard procedure to identify Category B actions. This paper describes a systematic procedure to identify Category B actions for low power and shutdown conditions. The procedure includes several steps to determine operator actions that may lead to initiating events in the low power and shutdown stages. These steps are the selection of initiating events, the selection of systems or components, the screening of unlikely operating actions, and the quantification of initiating events. The procedure also provides the detailed instruction for each step, such as operator's action, information required, screening rules, and the outputs. Finally, the applicability of the suggested approach is also investigated by application to a plant example.

  19. Expression profiling of insulin action in human myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.; Gaster, Michael; Oakeley, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Myotube cultures from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represent an experimental in vitro model of T2DM that offers a possibility to perform gene expression studies under standardized conditions. During a time-course of insulin stimulation (1 microM) at 5.5 mM glucose for 0 (no insulin......, metabolic enzymes, and finally cell cycle regulating genes. One-hundred-forty-four genes were differentially expressed in myotubes from donors with type 2 diabetes compared with control subjects, including HSP70, apolipoprotein D/E, tropomyosin, myosin, and actin previously reported from in vivo studies...... of diabetic skeletal muscle. We conclude, (i) that insulin induces a time-dependent inflammatory and pro-angiogenic transcriptional response in cultured human myotubes, (ii) that myotubes in vitro retain a gene expression pattern specific for type 2 diabetes and sharing five genes with that of type 2 diabetic...

  20. Planetary boundaries: exploring the safe operating space for humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan Rockström; Will Steffen; Kevin Noone; Asa Persson; F. Stuart Chapin; Eric Lambin; Timothy M. Lenton; Marten Scheffer; Carl Folke; Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Björn Nykvist; Cynthia A. de Wit; Terry Hughes; Sander van der Leeuw; Henning Rodhe; Sverker Sörlin; Peter K. Snyder; Robert Costanza; Uno Svedin; Malin Falkenmark; Louise Karlberg; Robert W. Corell; Victoria J. Fabry; James Hansen; Brian Walker; Diana Liverman; Katherine Richardson; Paul Crutzen; Jonathan Foley

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due...

  1. Human factor as operating safety dominant of ATM navigation support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю.В. Зайцев

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  The method of specifying individual psychophysical characteristics of the human higher nervous activity has been studied to match professional fitness. Information processing rate is being estimated considering peculiarities of the nervous system of the operators working in extreme situations, and providing fluent knowledge of Ukrainian, Russian and English.

  2. Human systems integration in remotely piloted aircraft operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvaryanas, Anthony P

    2006-12-01

    The role of humans in remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs) is qualitatively different from manned aviation, lessening the applicability of aerospace medicine human factors knowledge derived from traditional cockpits. Aerospace medicine practitioners should expect to be challenged in addressing RPA crewmember performance. Human systems integration (HSI) provides a model for explaining human performance as a function of the domains of: human factors engineering; personnel; training; manpower; environment, safety, and occupational health (ESOH); habitability; and survivability. RPA crewmember performance is being particularly impacted by issues involving the domains of human factors engineering, personnel, training, manpower, ESOH, and habitability. Specific HSI challenges include: 1) changes in large RPA operator selection and training; 2) human factors engineering deficiencies in current RPA ground control station design and their impact on human error including considerations pertaining to multi-aircraft control; and 3) the combined impact of manpower shortfalls, shiftwork-related fatigue, and degraded crewmember effectiveness. Limited experience and available research makes it difficult to qualitatively or quantitatively predict the collective impact of these issues on RPA crewmember performance. Attending to HSI will be critical for the success of current and future RPA crewmembers. Aerospace medicine practitioners working with RPA crewmembers should gain first-hand knowledge of their task environment while the larger aerospace medicine community needs to address the limited information available on RPA-related aerospace medicine human factors. In the meantime, aeromedical decisions will need to be made based on what is known about other aerospace occupations, realizing this knowledge may have only partial applicability.

  3. Applying lessons learned to enhance human performance and reduce human error for ISS operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-09-01

    A major component of reliability, safety, and mission success for space missions is ensuring that the humans involved (flight crew, ground crew, mission control, etc.) perform their tasks and functions as required. This includes compliance with training and procedures during normal conditions, and successful compensation when malfunctions or unexpected conditions occur. A very significant issue that affects human performance in space flight is human error. Human errors can invalidate carefully designed equipment and procedures. If certain errors combine with equipment failures or design flaws, mission failure or loss of life can occur. The control of human error during operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be critical to the overall success of the program. As experience from Mir operations has shown, human performance plays a vital role in the success or failure of long duration space missions. The Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is developed a systematic approach to enhance human performance and reduce human errors for ISS operations. This approach is based on the systematic identification and evaluation of lessons learned from past space missions such as Mir to enhance the design and operation of ISS. This paper describes previous INEEL research on human error sponsored by NASA and how it can be applied to enhance human reliability for ISS.

  4. Balance between automation and human actions in NPP operation: Results of international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.; Olmstead, R.A.; Oudiz, A.; Sun, B.

    1991-01-01

    Automation is an essential feature of NPPs. The degree of automation can be seen to be increasing, owing to technical and social factors, but also as a result of advances in information technology. Deciding upon the appropriate level of automation, the allocation of functions to man, or to a machine or a combination of both may be one of the most critical aspects of NPP design. It is important that automation is carried out in a sufficiently systematic way. There appears to be need for additional guidance in this key area. In 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency formed an advisory group to consider this problem. The group has proposed a methodology for allocating functions between man and machine. This methodology, which is described in the paper, takes account of the factors which influence the allocation process, considers viable approaches to automation and gives guidance on decision making. In addition, areas where future research may be justified are discussed. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  5. Human fMRI reveals that delayed action re-recruits visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Singhal

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC, a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, dorsal premotor cortex (PMd, primary motor cortex (M1 and the supplementary motor area (SMA, showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1 ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2 early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.

  6. Human fMRI reveals that delayed action re-recruits visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anthony; Monaco, Simona; Kaufman, Liam D; Culham, Jody C

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC) at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), primary motor cortex (M1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1) ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2) early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.

  7. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2005-04-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted in the first year of the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of ''software machine kinematics'' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A Bobcat{reg_sign} 435 excavator was retrofitted with electro-hydraulic control valve elements. The modular electronic control was tested and the basic valve characteristics were measured for each valve at the Robotics Laboratory at UNR. Position sensors were added to the individual joint control actuators, and the sensors were calibrated. An electronic central control system consisting of a portable computer, converters and electronic driver components was interfaced to the electro-hydraulic valves and position sensors. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's ''Lone Tree'' mine in Nevada.

  8. Human reinforcement learning subdivides structured action spaces by learning effector-specific values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Pesaran, Bijan; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2009-10-28

    Humans and animals are endowed with a large number of effectors. Although this enables great behavioral flexibility, it presents an equally formidable reinforcement learning problem of discovering which actions are most valuable because of the high dimensionality of the action space. An unresolved question is how neural systems for reinforcement learning-such as prediction error signals for action valuation associated with dopamine and the striatum-can cope with this "curse of dimensionality." We propose a reinforcement learning framework that allows for learned action valuations to be decomposed into effector-specific components when appropriate to a task, and test it by studying to what extent human behavior and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity can exploit such a decomposition in a multieffector choice task. Subjects made simultaneous decisions with their left and right hands and received separate reward feedback for each hand movement. We found that choice behavior was better described by a learning model that decomposed the values of bimanual movements into separate values for each effector, rather than a traditional model that treated the bimanual actions as unitary with a single value. A decomposition of value into effector-specific components was also observed in value-related BOLD signaling, in the form of lateralized biases in striatal correlates of prediction error and anticipatory value correlates in the intraparietal sulcus. These results suggest that the human brain can use decomposed value representations to "divide and conquer" reinforcement learning over high-dimensional action spaces.

  9. Design and Analysis for an Operator's Action Sharing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yeonsub; Seong, Nokyu [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In the paper, contrary to HRP approach, no more FPD is introduced because there is no room to install. The same workstation and the same LDP should be utilized for ream transparency. A action sharing system will be introduced at ShinKori 3,4 MCR, and further applied to other APR1400 plant if necessary. The project started and applied by the end of 2014. Despite benefit of action sharing system, there are lots of challenges to overcome such as traffic load, and interfaces. The challenges have been analyzed thoroughly. Traffic load can be reduced through vector graphics, video driver, and capture and compressing techniques. Furthermore interfaces for action sharing system are developed and evaluated to reduce secondary workload. Advanced digital control rooms have lots of advantages compared to analog control room. They can integrate all process variables into more comprehensible forms. Advanced alarm processor can suppress trivial alarms, and P and ID based mimic isplays can be integrated with context sensitive menu for referencing. Moreover computer based procedures have been introduced at more advanced MCR. Because all these display appears at flat panel display (FPD), they can be easily modified if necessary. These days newly introduced MCRs are advanced types, and analog control rooms are no more built. In spite of this trend, advanced control rooms have shortage in view of team transparency. For example, shift supervisor cannot tell which devices reactor operator is manipulating. APR1400 MCR has large display panel to share the same situation awareness among crew member. Because LDP has fixed display comparing switchable display in FPD, situation awareness can be enhanced. However, even LDP cannot show the active device that crew member are manipulating due to either limited number of devices in LDP or no demarcation for the active device. During construction of ShinKori 3/4, the demarcation box for the active device has been introduced and called an Active

  10. Technological Advances, Human Performance, and the Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Jonathan K.

    Many unfortunate and unintended adverse industrial incidents occur across the United States each year, and the nuclear industry is no exception. Depending on their severity, these incidents can be problematic for people, the facilities, and surrounding environments. Human error is a contributing factor in many such incidents. This dissertation first explored the hypothesis that technological changes that affect how operators interact within the systems of the nuclear facilities exacerbate the cost of incidents caused by human error. I conducted a review of nuclear incidents in the United States from 1955 through 2010 that reached Level 3 (serious incident) or higher on the International Nuclear Events Scale (INES). The cost of each incident at facilities that had recently undergone technological changes affecting plant operators' jobs was compared to the cost of events at facilities that had not undergone changes. A t-test determined a statistically significant difference between the two groups, confirming the hypothesis. Next, I conducted a follow-on study to determine the impact of the incorporation of new technologies into nuclear facilities. The data indicated that spending more money on upgrades increased the facility's capacity as well as the number of incidents reported, but the incident severity was minor. Finally, I discuss the impact of human error on plant operations and the impact of evolving technology on the 21st-century operator, proposing a methodology to overcome these challenges by applying the systems engineering process.

  11. A study on the dependency evaluation for multiple human actions in human reliability analysis of probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Yang, J. E.; Jung, W. D.; Sung, T. Y.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J.; Kim, K. Y.; Jin, Y. H.; Kim, S. C.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the study results on the method of the dependency evaluation and the modeling, and the limited value of human error probability (HEP) for multiple human actions in accident sequences of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). THERP and Parry's method, which have been generally used in dependency evaluation of human reliability analysis (HRA), are introduced and their limitations are discussed. New dependency evaluation method in HRA is established to make up for the weak points of THERP and Parry's methods. The limited value of HEP is also established based on the review of several HRA related documents. This report describes the definition, the type, the evaluation method, and the evaluation example of dependency to help the reader's understanding. It is expected that this study results will give a guidance to HRA analysts in dependency evaluation of multiple human actions and enable PSA analysts to understand HRA in detail. (author). 23 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Modelling the basic error tendencies of human operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reason, J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper outlines the primary structural features of human cognition: a limited, serial workspace interacting with a parallel distributed knowledge base. It is argued that the essential computational features of human cognition - to be captured by an adequate operator model - reside in the mechanisms by which stored knowledge structures are selected and brought into play. Two such computational 'primitives' are identified: similarity-matching and frequency-gambling. These two retrieval heuristics, it is argued, shape both the overall character of human performance (i.e. its heavy reliance on pattern-matching) and its basic error tendencies ('strong-but-wrong' responses, confirmation, similarity and frequency biases, and cognitive 'lock-up'). The various features of human cognition are integrated with a dynamic operator model capable of being represented in software form. This computer model, when run repeatedly with a variety of problem configurations, should produce a distribution of behaviours which, in toto, simulate the general character of operator performance.

  13. Fast programming of peg-in-hole actions by human demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yang; Lin, Linglong; Song, Y. T.

    2014-01-01

    Peg-in-Hole actions play an important role in industrial assembly. In this paper, we present a system which performs such actions after learning by human demonstration. Strategies for getting robust human-demonstrated PiH trajectories are investigated, and a number of PiH experiments are conducte...... to verify the performance of the proposed approach. The results show that our approach leads to a high PiH success rate and allows the robot to fine-tune the PiH trajectories to achieve faster performance....

  14. Operator error and emotions. Operator error and emotions - a major cause of human failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, B.K. [Human Factors Practical Incorporated (Canada); Bradley, M. [Univ. of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick (Canada); Artiss, W.G. [Human Factors Practical (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    This paper proposes the idea that a large proportion of the incidents attributed to operator and maintenance error in a nuclear or industrial plant are actually founded in our human emotions. Basic psychological theory of emotions is briefly presented and then the authors present situations and instances that can cause emotions to swell and lead to operator and maintenance error. Since emotional information is not recorded in industrial incident reports, the challenge is extended to industry, to review incident source documents for cases of emotional involvement and to develop means to collect emotion related information in future root cause analysis investigations. Training must then be provided to operators and maintainers to enable them to know one's emotions, manage emotions, motivate one's self, recognize emotions in others and handle relationships. Effective training will reduce the instances of human error based in emotions and enable a cooperative, productive environment in which to work. (author)

  15. Operator error and emotions. Operator error and emotions - a major cause of human failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.K.; Bradley, M.; Artiss, W.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes the idea that a large proportion of the incidents attributed to operator and maintenance error in a nuclear or industrial plant are actually founded in our human emotions. Basic psychological theory of emotions is briefly presented and then the authors present situations and instances that can cause emotions to swell and lead to operator and maintenance error. Since emotional information is not recorded in industrial incident reports, the challenge is extended to industry, to review incident source documents for cases of emotional involvement and to develop means to collect emotion related information in future root cause analysis investigations. Training must then be provided to operators and maintainers to enable them to know one's emotions, manage emotions, motivate one's self, recognize emotions in others and handle relationships. Effective training will reduce the instances of human error based in emotions and enable a cooperative, productive environment in which to work. (author)

  16. Self-assessment of human performance errors in nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambliss, K.V.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most important approaches to improving nuclear safety is to have an effective self-assessment process in place, whose cornerstone is the identification and improvement of human performance errors. Experience has shown that significant events usually have had precursors of human performance errors. If these precursors are left uncorrected or not understood, the symptoms recur and result in unanticipated events of greater safety significance. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) has been championing the cause of promoting excellence in human performance in the nuclear industry. INPO's report, open-quotes Excellence in Human Performance,close quotes emphasizes the importance of several factors that play a role in human performance. They include individual, supervisory, and organizational behaviors; real-time feedback that results in specific behavior to produce safe and reliable performance; and proactive measures that remove obstacles from excellent human performance. Zack Pate, chief executive officer and president of INPO, in his report, open-quotes The Control Room,close quotes provides an excellent discussion of serious events in the nuclear industry since 1994 and compares them with the results from a recent study by the National Transportation Safety Board of airline accidents in the 12-yr period from 1978 to 1990 to draw some common themes that relate to human performance issues in the control room

  17. Human equation in operating a nuclear-power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island has forced the nuclear industry to acknowledge a badly neglected aspect of nuclear-power-plant safety - the human equation. The industry now appears to recognize the importance of operator selection, training, motivation, and licensing, and the need to design a system from the point of view of communication, information retrieval, record keeping, and human factors psychology. As a result, the relatively small initiatives that were begun a few years ago by the EPRI are now being greatly expanded

  18. The human factor in high-tech plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassani, E

    1988-02-01

    The article develops a series of considerations on reliability standards applied to operators of technologically complex industrial installations. From research conducted within the field of cognitive psychology, significant indications are emerging relative to professional training within industry, as well as to the functional and human interface characteristics of automated control systems. Recent tragic incidents (Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, Bopal methyl isocynate storage, Mexico City petroleum tank farm and Chernobylsk-4 reactor) have evidenced the greater weight that should be given to human factors in plant safety and reliability assessments and planning.

  19. Human-Automation Allocations for Current Robotic Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Chang, Mai L.; Beard, Bettina L.; Kim, Yun Kyung; Karasinski, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the Human Research Program, one risk delineates the uncertainty surrounding crew working with automation and robotics in spaceflight. The Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is concerned with the detrimental effects on crew performance due to ineffective user interfaces, system designs and/or functional task allocation, potentially compromising mission success and safety. Risk arises because we have limited experience with complex automation and robotics. One key gap within HARI, is the gap related to functional allocation. The gap states: We need to evaluate, develop, and validate methods and guidelines for identifying human-automation/robot task information needs, function allocation, and team composition for future long duration, long distance space missions. Allocations determine the human-system performance as it identifies the functions and performance levels required by the automation/robotic system, and in turn, what work the crew is expected to perform and the necessary human performance requirements. Allocations must take into account each of the human, automation, and robotic systems capabilities and limitations. Some functions may be intuitively assigned to the human versus the robot, but to optimize efficiency and effectiveness, purposeful role assignments will be required. The role of automation and robotics will significantly change in future exploration missions, particularly as crew becomes more autonomous from ground controllers. Thus, we must understand the suitability of existing function allocation methods within NASA as well as the existing allocations established by the few robotic systems that are operational in spaceflight. In order to evaluate future methods of robotic allocations, we must first benchmark the allocations and allocation methods that have been used. We will present 1) documentation of human-automation-robotic allocations in existing, operational spaceflight systems; and 2) To

  20. The Human Bathtub: Safety and Risk Predictions Including the Dynamic Probability of Operator Errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, Romney B.; Saull, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Reactor safety and risk are dominated by the potential and major contribution for human error in the design, operation, control, management, regulation and maintenance of the plant, and hence to all accidents. Given the possibility of accidents and errors, now we need to determine the outcome (error) probability, or the chance of failure. Conventionally, reliability engineering is associated with the failure rate of components, or systems, or mechanisms, not of human beings in and interacting with a technological system. The probability of failure requires a prior knowledge of the total number of outcomes, which for any predictive purposes we do not know or have. Analysis of failure rates due to human error and the rate of learning allow a new determination of the dynamic human error rate in technological systems, consistent with and derived from the available world data. The basis for the analysis is the 'learning hypothesis' that humans learn from experience, and consequently the accumulated experience defines the failure rate. A new 'best' equation has been derived for the human error, outcome or failure rate, which allows for calculation and prediction of the probability of human error. We also provide comparisons to the empirical Weibull parameter fitting used in and by conventional reliability engineering and probabilistic safety analysis methods. These new analyses show that arbitrary Weibull fitting parameters and typical empirical hazard function techniques cannot be used to predict the dynamics of human errors and outcomes in the presence of learning. Comparisons of these new insights show agreement with human error data from the world's commercial airlines, the two shuttle failures, and from nuclear plant operator actions and transient control behavior observed in transients in both plants and simulators. The results demonstrate that the human error probability (HEP) is dynamic, and that it may be predicted using the learning hypothesis and the minimum

  1. Operant licking for intragastric sugar infusions: differential reinforcing actions of glucose, sucrose and fructose in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Intragastric (IG) flavor conditioning studies in rodents indicate that isocaloric sugar infusions differ in their reinforcing actions, with glucose and sucrose more potent than fructose. Here we determined if the sugars also differ in their ability to maintain operant self-administration by licking an empty spout for IG infusions. Food-restricted C57BL/6J mice were trained 1 h/day to lick a food-baited spout, which triggered IG infusions of 16% sucrose. In testing, the mice licked an empty spout, which triggered IG infusions of different sugars. Mice shifted from sucrose to 16% glucose increased dry licking, whereas mice shifted to 16% fructose rapidly reduced licking to low levels. Other mice shifted from sucrose to IG water reduced licking more slowly but reached the same low levels. Thus IG fructose, like water, is not reinforcing to hungry mice. The more rapid decline in licking induced by fructose may be due to the sugar's satiating effects. Further tests revealed that the Glucose mice increased their dry licking when shifted from 16% to 8% glucose, and reduced their dry licking when shifted to 32% glucose. This may reflect caloric regulation and/or differences in satiation. The Glucose mice did not maintain caloric intake when tested with different sugars. They self-infused less sugar when shifted from 16% glucose to 16% sucrose, and even more so when shifted to 16% fructose. Reduced sucrose self-administration may occur because the fructose component of the disaccharide reduces its reinforcing potency. FVB mice also reduced operant licking when tested with 16% fructose, yet learned to prefer a flavor paired with IG fructose. These data indicate that sugars differ substantially in their ability to support IG self-administration and flavor preference learning. The same post-oral reinforcement process appears to mediate operant licking and flavor learning, although flavor learning provides a more sensitive measure of sugar reinforcement. PMID:26485294

  2. [Characteristics of the Chinese human milk banks' operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-02

    Objective: To assess the operation status of human milk banks in the mainland of China. Method: This retrospective study included a consecutive series of 14 human milk banks in the mainland of China from March 2013 to December 2016. The opened date, condition of donated breast milk, characteristics of donors and clinical application of donated breast milk were analyzed. Result: There were 14 human milk banks successively founded in mainland China from March 2013 to December 2016. The number of human milk banks, the amount of donated breast milk, the number of eligible donors and the times of donation had increased each year. Howere, the operation status among these milk banks varied greatly. Among them, one human milk bank has newly opened without relevant data, 6 banks could accept frozen breast milk, and the remaining 7 banks could only collect breast milk by the nurses in the bank. Among the 3 121 eligible donors, 1 404 (45.0%) donated less than 3 times, 2 553 (81.8%) aged 25 to 35 years, 2 828 (90.6%) had term delivery, 2 409 (77.2%) began donation one month after birth, 1 798 (57.6%) were company employees and housewives and 1 891 (60.6%) had bachelor or higher degree. The use of donor breast milk, the number of recipients and the average received amount of breast milk every person varied greatly among these banks. Conclusion: The human milk banking developed quickly in the mainland of China. Howere, the number of donors and the amount of donated breast milk which could not meet the clinical demands should be improved. And it was urgent to establish the standards or guidelines of the human milk banking as soon as possible in China.

  3. Interactive analysis of human error factors in NPP operation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Zou Yanhua; Huang Weigang

    2010-01-01

    Interactive of human error factors in NPP operation events were introduced, and 645 WANO operation event reports from 1999 to 2008 were analyzed, among which 432 were found relative to human errors. After classifying these errors with the Root Causes or Causal Factors, and then applying SPSS for correlation analysis,we concluded: (1) Personnel work practices are restricted by many factors. Forming a good personnel work practices is a systematic work which need supports in many aspects. (2)Verbal communications,personnel work practices, man-machine interface and written procedures and documents play great roles. They are four interaction factors which often come in bundle. If some improvements need to be made on one of them,synchronous measures are also necessary for the others.(3) Management direction and decision process, which are related to management,have a significant interaction with personnel factors. (authors)

  4. Human and organization factors: engineering operating safety into offshore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bea, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    History indicates clearly that the safety of offshore structures is determined primarily by the humans and organizations responsible for these structures during their design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. If the safety of offshore structures is to be preserved and improved, then attention of engineers should focus on to how to improve the reliability of the offshore structure 'system,' including the people that come into contact with the structure during its life-cycle. This article reviews and discusss concepts and engineering approaches that can be used in such efforts. Two specific human factor issues are addressed: (1) real-time management of safety during operations, and (2) development of a Safety Management Assessment System to help improve the safety of offshore structures

  5. Novel experimental results in human cardiac electrophysiology: measurement of the Purkinje fibre action potential from the undiseased human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Norbert; Szél, Tamás; Jost, Norbert; Tóth, András; Gy Papp, Julius; Varró, András

    2015-09-01

    Data obtained from canine cardiac electrophysiology studies are often extrapolated to the human heart. However, it has been previously demonstrated that because of the lower density of its K(+) currents, the human ventricular action potential has a less extensive repolarization reserve. Since the relevance of canine data to the human heart has not yet been fully clarified, the aim of the present study was to determine for the first time the action potentials of undiseased human Purkinje fibres (PFs) and to compare them directly with those of dog PFs. All measurements were performed at 37 °C using the conventional microelectrode technique. At a stimulation rate of 1 Hz, the plateau potential of human PFs is more positive (8.0 ± 1.8 vs 8.6 ± 3.4 mV, n = 7), while the amplitude of the spike is less pronounced. The maximal rate of depolarization is significantly lower in human PKs than in canine PFs (406.7 ± 62 vs 643 ± 36 V/s, respectively, n = 7). We assume that the appreciable difference in the protein expression profiles of the 2 species may underlie these important disparities. Therefore, caution is advised when canine PF data are extrapolated to humans, and further experiments are required to investigate the characteristics of human PF repolarization and its possible role in arrhythmogenesis.

  6. Researcher liability for negligence in human subject research: informed consent and researcher malpractice actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Roger L

    2003-02-01

    Two sets of federal regulations, the "Common Rule" and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, govern human subject research that is either federally-funded or involves FDA regulated products. These regulations require, inter alia, that: (1) researchers obtain informed consent from human subjects, and (2) that an Institutional Review Board (IRB) independently review and approve the research protocol. Although the federal regulations do not provide an express cause of action against researchers, research subjects should be able to bring informed consent and malpractice actions against researchers by establishing a duty of care and standard of care. Researchers owe human subjects a duty of care analogous to the special relationship between physicians and patients. The federal regulations should provide the minimum standard of care for informed consent in human subject research, and complying with them should be a partial defense. In contrast, expert testimony should establish the standard of care for researcher malpractice, and IRB approval should be a partial defense.

  7. A novel video recommendation system based on efficient retrieval of human actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mohsen; Yaghmaee, Farzin

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, fast growth of online video sharing eventuated new issues such as helping users to find their requirements in an efficient way. Hence, Recommender Systems (RSs) are used to find the users' most favorite items. Finding these items relies on items or users similarities. Though, many factors like sparsity and cold start user impress the recommendation quality. In some systems, attached tags are used for searching items (e.g. videos) as personalized recommendation. Different views, incomplete and inaccurate tags etc. can weaken the performance of these systems. Considering the advancement of computer vision techniques can help improving RSs. To this end, content based search can be used for finding items (here, videos are considered). In such systems, a video is taken from the user to find and recommend a list of most similar videos to the query one. Due to relating most videos to humans, we present a novel low complex scalable method to recommend videos based on the model of included action. This method has recourse to human action retrieval approaches. For modeling human actions, some interest points are extracted from each action and their motion information are used to compute the action representation. Moreover, a fuzzy dissimilarity measure is presented to compare videos for ranking them. The experimental results on HMDB, UCFYT, UCF sport and KTH datasets illustrated that, in most cases, the proposed method can reach better results than most used methods.

  8. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A.; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others’ actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others’ behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants’ arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action

  9. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-02-01

    propose a new method for the quantitative safety assessment of the integrated system which consists of I and C systems, MMI and human operators. The proposed method is developed in the framework of Bayesian networks, and describes the information flow from a nuclear power plant to I and C systems and human operators, and the flow of control signals back to the nuclear power plant. The proposed method is applied to an example situation, a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with common cause failure (CCF) of pressurizer pressure sensors in a Westinghouse 900MWe 3-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) type plant. Application of the proposed method to the example situation reveals that the quantitative analysis using the proposed method explains the qualitative description of a probable scenario well. It is also shown that the proposed method produces quantitative safety assessment results after examining all possible scenarios and their probabilities. It is also shown that the proposed method can be used to quantitatively evaluate the effects of various context factors and operator support systems on the safety of nuclear power plants, by making quantitative assumptions. As a result, it is expected that the proposed method can be used to improve the quality of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), quantitative evaluate the effects of instrument faults on the situation assessment of human operators, identify the possibilities of unsafe actions (so-called errors-of-commission) in various situations, and quantitatively evaluate the contribution of various context factors and operator support systems to the increase in the safety of NPPs

  10. Improvement of human operator vibroprotection system in the utility machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchagin, P. A.; Teterina, I. A.; Rahuba, L. F.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to an urgent problem of improving efficiency of road-building utility machines in terms of improving human operator vibroprotection system by determining acceptable values of the rigidity coefficients and resistance coefficients of operator’s cab suspension system elements and those of operator’s seat. Negative effects of vibration result in labour productivity decrease and occupational diseases. Besides, structure vibrations have a damaging impact on the machine units and mechanisms, which leads to reducing an overall service life of the machine. Results of experimental and theoretical research of operator vibroprotection system in the road-building utility machine are presented. An algorithm for the program to calculate dynamic impacts on the operator in terms of different structural and performance parameters of the machine and considering combination of external pertrubation influences was proposed.

  11. Factors for assessment of human health risk associated with remedial action at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, D.E.; King, C.M.; Looney, B.B.; Holmes, W.G.; Gordon, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    A risk assessment strategy that is cost effective and minimized human health risks was developed for closure of hazardous waste sites at the Savannah River Plant. The strategy consists of (1) site characterization, (2) contaminant transport modeling, and (3) determination of relative merits of alternative remedial actions according to the degree of health protection they provide

  12. Human action pattern monitor for telecare system utilizing magnetic thin film infrared sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, H.; Chiba, S.; Oka, H.; Seki, K.

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic thin film infrared sensor (MFI) is an infrared sensing device utilizing a temperature-sensitive magnetic thin film with marked temperature dependence in the room temperature range. We propose a human action pattern monitor (HPM) constructed with the MFI, without a monitor camera to save the clients' privacy, as a telecare system

  13. Criteria for safety-related nuclear-power-plant operator actions: 1982 pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) simulator exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, D.S.; Beare, A.N.; Kozinsky, E.J.; Haas, P.M.

    1983-06-01

    The primary objective of the Safety-Related Operator Action (SROA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is to provide a data base to support development of criteria for safety-related actions by nuclear power plant operators. When compared to field data collected on similar events, a base of operator performance data developed from the simulator experiments can then be used to establish safety-related operator action design evaluation criteria, evaluate the effects of performance shaping factors, and support safety/risk assessment analyses. This report presents data obtained from refresher training exercises conducted in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plant control room simulator. The 14 exercises were performed by 24 teams of licensed operators from one utility, and operator performance was recorded by an automatic Performance Measurement System. Data tapes were analyzed to extract operator response times (RTs) and error rate information. Demographic and subjective data were collected by means of brief questionnaires and analyzed in an attempt to evaluate the effects of selected performance shaping factors on operator performance

  14. Managing Human Performance to Improve Nuclear Facility Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-2.1, Managing Human Resources in the Field of Nuclear Energy, was published in 2009. In that publication, four interrelated objectives of the management of human resources were identified and discussed: ensuring that nuclear industry personnel have the necessary competence for their jobs; effectively organizing work activities; anticipating human resource needs; and monitoring and continually improving performance. This publication addresses the fourth objective and, in particular, summarizes good practices in the area of managing human performance

  15. Human dimensions in cyber operations research and development priorities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, James Chris; Silva, Austin Ray; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Bradshaw, Jeffrey [Institute for Human and Machine Cognition

    2012-11-01

    Within cyber security, the human element represents one of the greatest untapped opportunities for increasing the effectiveness of network defenses. However, there has been little research to understand the human dimension in cyber operations. To better understand the needs and priorities for research and development to address these issues, a workshop was conducted August 28-29, 2012 in Washington DC. A synthesis was developed that captured the key issues and associated research questions. Research and development needs were identified that fell into three parallel paths: (1) human factors analysis and scientific studies to establish foundational knowledge concerning factors underlying the performance of cyber defenders; (2) development of models that capture key processes that mediate interactions between defenders, users, adversaries and the public; and (3) development of a multi-purpose test environment for conducting controlled experiments that enables systems and human performance measurement. These research and development investments would transform cyber operations from an art to a science, enabling systems solutions to be engineered to address a range of situations. Organizations would be able to move beyond the current state where key decisions (e.g. personnel assignment) are made on a largely ad hoc basis to a state in which there exist institutionalized processes for assuring the right people are doing the right jobs in the right way. These developments lay the groundwork for emergence of a professional class of cyber defenders with defined roles and career progressions, with higher levels of personnel commitment and retention. Finally, the operational impact would be evident in improved performance, accompanied by a shift to a more proactive response in which defenders have the capacity to exert greater control over the cyber battlespace.

  16. Observation and Imitation of Actions Performed by Humans, Androids and Robots: An EMG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit eHofree

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding others’ actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others’ behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One key question this approach enables is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation? Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of humanlikeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG to measure muscle activity in participants’ arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion, a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion and an Android (biological appearance, mechanical motion. Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action understanding and the underlying

  17. The Relationship between Human Operators' Psycho-physiological Condition and Human Errors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Kang, Hyungook; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is substantially dependent on the performance of the human operators who operate the systems. In this environment, human errors caused by inappropriate performance of operator have been considered to be critical since it may lead serious problems in the safety-critical plants. In order to provide meaningful insights to prevent human errors and enhance the human performance, operators' physiological conditions such as stress and workload have been investigated. Physiological measurements were considered as reliable tools to assess the stress and workload. T. Q. Tran et al. and J. B. Brooking et al pointed out that operators' workload can be assessed using eye tracking, galvanic skin response, electroencephalograms (EEGs), heart rate, respiration and other measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the human operators' tense level and knowledge level to the number of human errors. For this study, the experiments were conducted in the mimic of the main control rooms (MCR) in NPP. It utilized the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) which is modeled based on the three loop Pressurized Water Reactor, 993MWe, Kori unit 3 and 4 in Korea and the subjects were asked to follow the tasks described in the emergency operating procedures (EOP). During the simulation, three kinds of physiological measurement were utilized; Electrocardiogram (ECG), EEG and nose temperature. Also, subjects were divided into three groups based on their knowledge of the plant operation. The result shows that subjects who are tense make fewer errors. In addition, subjects who are in higher knowledge level tend to be tense and make fewer errors. For the ECG data, subjects who make fewer human errors tend to be located in higher tense level area of high SNS activity and low PSNS activity. The results of EEG data are also similar to ECG result. Beta power ratio of subjects who make fewer errors was higher. Since beta power ratio is

  18. Human dynamics scaling characteristics for aerial inbound logistics operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Guo, Jin-Li

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, the study of power-law scaling characteristics of real-life networks has attracted much interest from scholars; it deviates from the Poisson process. In this paper, we take the whole process of aerial inbound operation in a logistics company as the empirical object. The main aim of this work is to study the statistical scaling characteristics of the task-restricted work patterns. We found that the statistical variables have the scaling characteristics of unimodal distribution with a power-law tail in five statistical distributions - that is to say, there obviously exists a peak in each distribution, the shape of the left part closes to a Poisson distribution, and the right part has a heavy-tailed scaling statistics. Furthermore, to our surprise, there is only one distribution where the right parts can be approximated by the power-law form with exponent α=1.50. Others are bigger than 1.50 (three of four are about 2.50, one of four is about 3.00). We then obtain two inferences based on these empirical results: first, the human behaviors probably both close to the Poisson statistics and power-law distributions on certain levels, and the human-computer interaction behaviors may be the most common in the logistics operational areas, even in the whole task-restricted work pattern areas. Second, the hypothesis in Vázquez et al. (2006) [A. Vázquez, J. G. Oliveira, Z. Dezsö, K.-I. Goh, I. Kondor, A.-L. Barabási. Modeling burst and heavy tails in human dynamics, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 036127] is probably not sufficient; it claimed that human dynamics can be classified as two discrete university classes. There may be a new human dynamics mechanism that is different from the classical Barabási models.

  19. Human dorsal striatum encodes prediction errors during observational learning of instrumental actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jeffrey C; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of others. In this study, we investigated the extent to which human dorsal striatum is involved in observational as well as experiential instrumental reward learning. Human participants were scanned with fMRI while they observed a confederate over a live video performing an instrumental conditioning task to obtain liquid juice rewards. Participants also performed a similar instrumental task for their own rewards. Using a computational model-based analysis, we found reward prediction errors in the dorsal striatum not only during the experiential learning condition but also during observational learning. These results suggest a key role for the dorsal striatum in learning instrumental associations, even when those associations are acquired purely by observing others.

  20. Is Insulin Action in the Brain Relevant in Regulating Blood Glucose in Humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Satya; Xiao, Changting; Morgantini, Cecilia; Koulajian, Khajag; Lewis, Gary F

    2015-07-01

    In addition to its direct action on the liver to lower hepatic glucose production, insulin action in the central nervous system (CNS) also lowers hepatic glucose production in rodents after 4 hours. Although CNS insulin action (CNSIA) modulates hepatic glycogen synthesis in dogs, it has no net effect on hepatic glucose output over a 4-hour period. The role of CNSIA in regulating plasma glucose has recently been examined in humans and is the focus of this review. Intransal insulin (INI) administration increases CNS insulin concentration. Hence, INI can address whether CNSIA regulates plasma glucose concentration in humans. We and three other groups have sought to answer this question, with differing conclusions. Here we will review the critical aspects of each study, including its design, which may explain these discordant conclusions. The early glucose-lowering effect of INI is likely due to spillover of insulin into the systemic circulation. In the presence of simultaneous portal and CNS hyperinsulinemia, portal insulin action is dominant. INI administration does lower plasma glucose independent of peripheral insulin concentration (between ∼3 and 6 h after administration), suggesting that CNSIA may play a role in glucose homeostasis in the late postprandial period when its action is likely greatest and portal insulin concentration is at baseline. The potential physiological role and purpose of this pathway are discussed in this review. Because the effects of INI are attenuated in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity, this is unlikely to be of therapeutic utility.

  1. Human Resources Training Requirement on NPP Operation and Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurlaila; Yuliastuti

    2009-01-01

    This paper discussed the human resources requirement on Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation and maintenance (O&M) phase related with the training required for O&M personnel. In addition, this paper also briefly discussed the availability of training facilities domestically include with some suggestion to develop the training facilities intended for the near future time in Indonesia. This paper was developed under the assumptions that Indonesia will build twin unit of NPP with capacity 1000 MWe for each using the turnkey contract method. The total of NPP O&M personnel were predicted about 692 peoples which consists of 42 personnel located in the head quarter and the rest 650 people work at NPP site. Up until now, Indonesia had the experience on operating and maintaining the nonnuclear power plant and several research reactors namely Kartini Reactor Yogyakarta, Triga Mark II Reactor Bandung, and GA Siwabessy Reactor Serpong. Beside that, experience on operating and maintaining the NPP in other countries would act as one of the reference to Indonesia in formulating an appropriate strategy to develop NPP human resources particularly in O&M phases. Education and training development program could be done trough the cooperation with vendor candidates. (author)

  2. Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2007-09-30

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted for the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of 'software machine kinematics' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A working prototype has been developed using a Bobcat 435 excavator. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's 'Lone Tree' mine in Nevada. Analysis of these working trajectories has been completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, may serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system. A Cartesian control example has been developed and tested both in simulation and on the experimental excavator. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the

  3. A Generalized Pyramid Matching Kernel for Human Action Recognition in Realistic Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human action recognition is an increasingly important research topic in the fields of video sensing, analysis and understanding. Caused by unconstrained sensing conditions, there exist large intra-class variations and inter-class ambiguities in realistic videos, which hinder the improvement of recognition performance for recent vision-based action recognition systems. In this paper, we propose a generalized pyramid matching kernel (GPMK for recognizing human actions in realistic videos, based on a multi-channel “bag of words” representation constructed from local spatial-temporal features of video clips. As an extension to the spatial-temporal pyramid matching (STPM kernel, the GPMK leverages heterogeneous visual cues in multiple feature descriptor types and spatial-temporal grid granularity levels, to build a valid similarity metric between two video clips for kernel-based classification. Instead of the predefined and fixed weights used in STPM, we present a simple, yet effective, method to compute adaptive channel weights of GPMK based on the kernel target alignment from training data. It incorporates prior knowledge and the data-driven information of different channels in a principled way. The experimental results on three challenging video datasets (i.e., Hollywood2, Youtube and HMDB51 validate the superiority of our GPMK w.r.t. the traditional STPM kernel for realistic human action recognition and outperform the state-of-the-art results in the literature.

  4. Elements of a regulatory strategy for the consideration of future human actions in safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Wickham, S.M.; Galson, D.A.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss issues that should be considered in the development of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in any forthcoming license application for a deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden and for sites of other repositories. The report comprises an outline of key issues concerning the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, reviews of regulatory developments, recent safety assessments and supporting studies, and international initiatives on the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, and the principal elements of a regulatory strategy. Performance assessments (PAs) are generally accepted as providing illustrations of system performance under given sets of assumptions. The results of PAs are clearer and easier to understand if certain large uncertainties are accounted for by determining performance under several different sets of assumptions or scenarios, each of which defines a possible evolution of the disposal system. A number of assumptions can be made that would restrict the scope of an assessment without reducing the credibility of the corresponding safety case. Reducing speculation about technological development, by assuming that the techniques used in future human activities are similar to those currently in use in the region or at similar sites, will simplify the assessment. A distinction is generally made between inadvertent and intentional intrusion, with intentional activities excluded because society cannot protect future populations from their own actions if they understand the potential consequences. A division of human activities into 'recent and ongoing' and 'future' activities considers not only the timing of the activities but also the degree of control or influence that can be imposed on them. Recent and ongoing human activities are those that affect an area beyond the immediate vicinity of the disposal facility and which neither the proponent nor the regulator

  5. Human factors engineering measures taken by nuclear power plant owners/operators for optimisation of the man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, H.

    1996-01-01

    Both operating results and human factors studies show that man is able to meet the requirements in this working environment. Hence the degree of human reliability required by the design basis of nuclear power plants is ensured. This means: - Nuclear technology for electricity generation is justifiable from the human factors point of view. - The chief opponent is not right in saying that man is not able to cope with the risks and challenges brought about by nuclear technology applications. The human factors concept for optimisation or configuration of the man-machine systems represents an additional endeavor on the part of nuclear power plant operators within the framework of their responsibilities. Human factors analyses meet with good response by the personnel, as analysis results and clarification of causes of accident scenarios contribute to relieve the personnel (exoneration) and find ways for remedial action. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Review of human factors in operator aids development at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sides, W.H. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Three related Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) projects in the area of human factors in diagnostic aids are described. The goal of the first, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI RP2184), is to provide guidance to nuclear-utility engineers in the selection and retrofit of computer-generated display systems in nuclear-plant control rooms. The goal of the second, sponsored by the Office of Research of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is to provide the NRC with a preview of some of the operator aids currently under development by industry for the purpose of assessing the applicability of current requirements. The goal of the third, also sponsored by the NRC, is to develop a methodology to determine the proper allocation of function between an operator and an automated system. The status of each project is given, together with the current and expected findings

  7. Desert RATS 2011: Near-Earth Asteroid Human Exploration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Chappel, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) 2011 field test involved the planning and execution of a series of exploration scenarios under operational conditions similar to those that would be expected during a human exploration mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA). The focus was on understanding the operations tempo during simulated NEA exploration and the implications of communications latency and limited data bandwidth. Anchoring technologies and sampling techniques were not evaluated due to the immaturity of those technologies and the inability to meaningfully test them at D-RATS. Reduced gravity analogs and simulations are being used to fully evaluate Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) and extravehicular (EVA) operations and interactions in near-weightlessness at a NEA as part of NASA s integrated analogs program. Hypotheses were tested by planning and performing a series of 1-day simulated exploration excursions comparing test conditions all of which involved a single Deep Space Habitat (DSH) and either zero, one, or two MMSEVs; three or four crewmembers; one of two different communications bandwidths; and a 100-second roundtrip communications latency between the field site and Houston. Excursions were executed at the Black Point Lava Flow test site with a Mission Control Center and Science Support Room at Johnson Space Center (JSC) being operated with 100-second roundtrip communication latency to the field. Crews were composed of astronauts and professional field geologists and teams of Mission Operations, Science, and Education & Public Outreach (EPO) experts also supported the mission simulations each day. Data were collected separately from the Crew, Mission Operations, Science, and EPO teams to assess the test conditions from multiple perspectives. For the operations tested, data indicates practically significant benefits may be realized by including at least one MMSEV and by including 4 versus 3 crewmembers in the NEA exploration

  8. The human factor in the design and operation of french light water nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomolinski, M.

    1986-10-01

    The accident which occurred at Three Mile Island (TMI 2) on March 28, 1979 is considered rightfully as the outset of the approach taking the human factor explicitly into account in nuclear safety, both in the design of the plants and in their operational use. In this paper, we shall endeavour to explain how this human factor has been taken into account in France. For this purpose, in the first part, we shall define the requirements, i.e. describe the sectors in which improvements were deemed necessary. In the second part, we shall describe the structures set up both at EDF and at the CEA to handle these problems. Lastly, in the third part, we shall describe the principal actions taken or in progress [fr

  9. Risk-Based Decision-Making and the Use of Operational Risk Management in Developing a Course of Action (COA) for the Joint Task Force (JTF)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faherty, Denis

    2003-01-01

    Uncertainty and risk are inherent in the nature of military action. The success of any joint military operation is based upon a willingness to balance risk with opportunity in taking bold, decisive action necessary to triumph in war...

  10. Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Temporary Septic Holding Tank at the 100-C Remedial Action Restroom Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmquist, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide detailed information regarding the operations and maintenance of the septic holding tank system at the 100-C Remedial Action Restroom Facility. Specific information provided in this document includes the type and frequency of required maintenance and failure response procedures

  11. Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Temporary Septic Holding Tank at the 100-C Remedial Action Support Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmquist, C.A.

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide detailed information regarding the operations and maintenance of the septic holding tank system at the 100-C Remedial Action Restroom Facility. Specific information provided in this document includes the type and frequency of required maintenance and failure response procedures

  12. Elements of a regulatory strategy for the consideration of future human actions in safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Wickham, S.M.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss issues that should be considered in the development of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in any forthcoming license application for a deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden and for sites of other repositories. The report comprises an outline of key issues concerning the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, reviews of regulatory developments, recent safety assessments and supporting studies, and international initiatives on the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, and the principal elements of a regulatory strategy. Performance assessments (PAs) are generally accepted as providing illustrations of system performance under given sets of assumptions. The results of PAs are clearer and easier tounderstand if certain large uncertainties are accounted for by determining performance under several different sets of assumptions or scenarios, each of which defines a possible evolution of the disposal system. A number of assumptions can be made that would restrict the scope of an assessment without reducing the credibility of the corresponding safety case. Reducing speculation about technological development, by assuming that the techniques used in future human activities are similar to those currently in use in the region or at similar sites, will simplify the assessment. A distinction is generally made between inadvertent and intentional intrusion, with intentional activities excluded because society cannot protect future populations from their own actions if they understand the potential consequences. A division of human activities into 'recent and ongoing' and 'future' activities considers not only the timing of the activities but also the degree of control or influence that can be imposed on them. Recent and ongoing human activities are those that affect an area beyond the immediate vicinity of the disposal facility and which neither the proponent

  13. Fast Temporal Activity Proposals for Efficient Detection of Human Actions in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba; Niebles, Juan Carlos; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In many large-scale video analysis scenarios, one is interested in localizing and recognizing human activities that occur in short temporal intervals within long untrimmed videos. Current approaches for activity detection still struggle to handle large-scale video collections and the task remains relatively unexplored. This is in part due to the computational complexity of current action recognition approaches and the lack of a method that proposes fewer intervals in the video, where activity processing can be focused. In this paper, we introduce a proposal method that aims to recover temporal segments containing actions in untrimmed videos. Building on techniques for learning sparse dictionaries, we introduce a learning framework to represent and retrieve activity proposals. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method in not only producing high quality proposals but also in its efficiency. Finally, we show the positive impact our method has on recognition performance when it is used for action detection, while running at 10FPS.

  14. Fast Temporal Activity Proposals for Efficient Detection of Human Actions in Untrimmed Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2016-12-13

    In many large-scale video analysis scenarios, one is interested in localizing and recognizing human activities that occur in short temporal intervals within long untrimmed videos. Current approaches for activity detection still struggle to handle large-scale video collections and the task remains relatively unexplored. This is in part due to the computational complexity of current action recognition approaches and the lack of a method that proposes fewer intervals in the video, where activity processing can be focused. In this paper, we introduce a proposal method that aims to recover temporal segments containing actions in untrimmed videos. Building on techniques for learning sparse dictionaries, we introduce a learning framework to represent and retrieve activity proposals. We demonstrate the capabilities of our method in not only producing high quality proposals but also in its efficiency. Finally, we show the positive impact our method has on recognition performance when it is used for action detection, while running at 10FPS.

  15. An empirical study on the basic human error probabilities for NPP advanced main control room operation using soft control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kim, Ar Ryum; Harbi, Mohamed Ali Salem Al; Lee, Seung Jun; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The operation environment of MCRs in NPPs has changed by adopting new HSIs. ► The operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. ► Different basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) should be considered. ► BHEPs in a soft control operation environment are investigated empirically. ► This work will be helpful to verify if soft control has positive or negative effects. -- Abstract: By adopting new human–system interfaces that are based on computer-based technologies, the operation environment of main control rooms (MCRs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) has changed. The MCRs that include these digital and computer technologies, such as large display panels, computerized procedures, soft controls, and so on, are called Advanced MCRs. Among the many features in Advanced MCRs, soft controls are an important feature because the operation action in NPP Advanced MCRs is performed by soft control. Using soft controls such as mouse control, touch screens, and so on, operators can select a specific screen, then choose the controller, and finally manipulate the devices. However, because of the different interfaces between soft control and hardwired conventional type control, different basic human error probabilities (BHEPs) should be considered in the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) for advanced MCRs. Although there are many HRA methods to assess human reliabilities, such as Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP), Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP), Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART), Human Event Repository and Analysis (HERA), Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR), Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM), and so on, these methods have been applied to conventional MCRs, and they do not consider the new features of advance MCRs such as soft controls. As a result, there is an insufficient database for assessing human reliabilities in advanced

  16. Psychological biases affecting human cognitive performance in dynamic operational environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi; Reason, J.

    1999-01-01

    In order to identify cognitive error mechanisms observed in the dynamic operational environment, the following materials were analyzed giving special attention to psychological biases, together with possible cognitive tasks and these location, and internal and external performance shaping factors: (a) 13 human factors analyses of US nuclear power plant accidents, (b) 14 cases of Japanese nuclear power plant incidents, and (c) 23 cases collected in simulator experiments. In the resulting analysis, the most frequently identified cognitive process associated with error productions was situation assessment, and following varieties were KB processes and response planning, all of that were the higher cognitive activities. Over 70% of human error cases, psychological bias was affecting to cognitive errors, especially those to higher cognitive activities. In addition, several error occurrence patterns, including relations between cognitive process, biases, and PSFs were identified by the multivariate analysis. According to the identified error patterns, functions that an operator support system have to equip were discussed and specified for design base considerations. (author)

  17. Improved Collaborative Representation Classifier Based on l2-Regularized for Human Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirui Huo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human action recognition is an important recent challenging task. Projecting depth images onto three depth motion maps (DMMs and extracting deep convolutional neural network (DCNN features are discriminant descriptor features to characterize the spatiotemporal information of a specific action from a sequence of depth images. In this paper, a unified improved collaborative representation framework is proposed in which the probability that a test sample belongs to the collaborative subspace of all classes can be well defined and calculated. The improved collaborative representation classifier (ICRC based on l2-regularized for human action recognition is presented to maximize the likelihood that a test sample belongs to each class, then theoretical investigation into ICRC shows that it obtains a final classification by computing the likelihood for each class. Coupled with the DMMs and DCNN features, experiments on depth image-based action recognition, including MSRAction3D and MSRGesture3D datasets, demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully using a distance-based representation classifier achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art methods, including SRC, CRC, and SVM.

  18. Comparing sequencing assays and human-machine analyses in actionable genomics for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzeszczynski, Kazimierz O; Frank, Mayu O; Koyama, Takahiko; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Robine, Nicolas; Utro, Filippo; Emde, Anne-Katrin; Chen, Bo-Juen; Arora, Kanika; Shah, Minita; Vacic, Vladimir; Norel, Raquel; Bilal, Erhan; Bergmann, Ewa A; Moore Vogel, Julia L; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Lassman, Andrew B; Canoll, Peter; Grommes, Christian; Harvey, Steve; Parida, Laxmi; Michelini, Vanessa V; Zody, Michael C; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Royyuru, Ajay K; Darnell, Robert B

    2017-08-01

    To analyze a glioblastoma tumor specimen with 3 different platforms and compare potentially actionable calls from each. Tumor DNA was analyzed by a commercial targeted panel. In addition, tumor-normal DNA was analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and tumor RNA was analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The WGS and RNA-seq data were analyzed by a team of bioinformaticians and cancer oncologists, and separately by IBM Watson Genomic Analytics (WGA), an automated system for prioritizing somatic variants and identifying drugs. More variants were identified by WGS/RNA analysis than by targeted panels. WGA completed a comparable analysis in a fraction of the time required by the human analysts. The development of an effective human-machine interface in the analysis of deep cancer genomic datasets may provide potentially clinically actionable calls for individual patients in a more timely and efficient manner than currently possible. NCT02725684.

  19. Efficient Human Action and Gait Analysis Using Multiresolution Motion Energy Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chin Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Average Motion Energy (AME image is a good way to describe human motions. However, it has to face the computation efficiency problem with the increasing number of database templates. In this paper, we propose a histogram-based approach to improve the computation efficiency. We convert the human action/gait recognition problem to a histogram matching problem. In order to speed up the recognition process, we adopt a multiresolution structure on the Motion Energy Histogram (MEH. To utilize the multiresolution structure more efficiently, we propose an automated uneven partitioning method which is achieved by utilizing the quadtree decomposition results of MEH. In that case, the computation time is only relevant to the number of partitioned histogram bins, which is much less than the AME method. Two applications, action recognition and gait classification, are conducted in the experiments to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed approach.

  20. Lifelong learning of human actions with deep neural network self-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, German I; Tani, Jun; Weber, Cornelius; Wermter, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Lifelong learning is fundamental in autonomous robotics for the acquisition and fine-tuning of knowledge through experience. However, conventional deep neural models for action recognition from videos do not account for lifelong learning but rather learn a batch of training data with a predefined number of action classes and samples. Thus, there is the need to develop learning systems with the ability to incrementally process available perceptual cues and to adapt their responses over time. We propose a self-organizing neural architecture for incrementally learning to classify human actions from video sequences. The architecture comprises growing self-organizing networks equipped with recurrent neurons for processing time-varying patterns. We use a set of hierarchically arranged recurrent networks for the unsupervised learning of action representations with increasingly large spatiotemporal receptive fields. Lifelong learning is achieved in terms of prediction-driven neural dynamics in which the growth and the adaptation of the recurrent networks are driven by their capability to reconstruct temporally ordered input sequences. Experimental results on a classification task using two action benchmark datasets show that our model is competitive with state-of-the-art methods for batch learning also when a significant number of sample labels are missing or corrupted during training sessions. Additional experiments show the ability of our model to adapt to non-stationary input avoiding catastrophic interference. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytogenetic analysis of the combined action of pesticides and radiation on human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.I.; Fesenko, Eh.V.; Antoshchina, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of the combined action of pesticides and irradiation at the G 0 stage was studied in cultured human lymphocytes. Carbophos (malathion) increased the yield of chromosome and chromatid fragments in irradiated lymphocytes. Herbicide 2,4-D (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) raised lymphocyte radiosensitivity by increasing the yield of chromosome type aberrations, the radiosensitizing effect of the herbicide decreased as its concentration increased. 4 refs

  2. Action spectrum for photobleaching of human lenses by short wavelength visible irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Larsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    transmission with increasing laser irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: For a 75 year old lens an effect corresponding to elimination of 15 years or more of optical ageing was obtained. This study of the spectral characteristics and intensity needed to bleach the human lens with single-photon laser effects found...... an action-spectrum peak at 420 nm tailing gradually off toward longer wavelengths and more steeply toward shorter wavelengths. The results may be used to guide experiments with two-photon bleaching....

  3. Peripheral inflammation acutely impairs human spatial memory via actions on medial temporal lobe glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil A; Doeller, Christian F; Voon, Valerie; Burgess, Neil; Critchley, Hugo D

    2014-10-01

    Inflammation impairs cognitive performance and is implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Rodent studies demonstrated key roles for inflammatory mediators in many processes critical to memory, including long-term potentiation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. They also demonstrated functional impairment of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures by systemic inflammation. However, human data to support this position are limited. Sequential fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography together with experimentally induced inflammation was used to investigate effects of a systemic inflammatory challenge on human MTL function. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning was performed in 20 healthy participants before and after typhoid vaccination and saline control injection. After each scanning session, participants performed a virtual reality spatial memory task analogous to the Morris water maze and a mirror-tracing procedural memory control task. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data demonstrated an acute reduction in human MTL glucose metabolism after inflammation. The inflammatory challenge also selectively compromised human spatial, but not procedural, memory; this effect that was independent of actions on motivation or psychomotor response. Effects of inflammation on parahippocampal and rhinal glucose metabolism directly mediated actions of inflammation on spatial memory. These data demonstrate acute sensitivity of human MTL to mild peripheral inflammation, giving rise to associated functional impairment in the form of reduced spatial memory performance. Our findings suggest a mechanism for the observed epidemiologic link between inflammation and risk of age-related cognitive decline and progression of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Trend analysis of nuclear reactor automatic trip events subjected to operator's human error at United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagawa, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    Trends in nuclear reactor automatic trip events due to human errors during plant operating mode have been analyzed by extracting 20 events which took place in the United States during the period of seven years from 2002 to 2008, cited in the LERs (Licensee Event Reports) submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It was shown that the yearly number of events was relatively large before 2005, and thereafter the number decreased. A period of stable operation, in which the yearly number was kept very small, continued for about three years, and then the yearly number turned to increase again. Before 2005, automatic trip events occurred more frequently during periodic inspections or start-up/shut-down operations. The recent trends, however, indicate that trip events became more frequent due to human errors during daily operations. Human errors were mostly caused by the self-conceit and carelessness of operators through the whole period. The before mentioned trends in the yearly number of events might be explained as follows. The decrease in the automatic trip events is attributed to sharing trouble information, leading as a consequence to improvement of the manual and training for the operations which have a higher potential risk of automatic trip. Then, while the period of stable operation continued, some operators came to pay less attention to preventing human errors and not interest in the training, leading to automatic trip events in reality due to miss-operation. From these analyses on trouble experiences in the US, we learnt the followings to prevent the occurrence similar troubles in Japan: Operators should be thoroughly skilled in basic actions to prevent human errors as persons concerned. And it should be further emphasized that they should elaborate by imaging actual plant operations even though the simulator training gives them successful experiences. (author)

  5. What did domestication do to dogs? A new account of dogs' sensitivity to human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Monique A R; Dorey, Nicole R; Wynne, Clive D L

    2010-05-01

    Over the last two decades increasing evidence for an acute sensitivity to human gestures and attentional states in domestic dogs has led to a burgeoning of research into the social cognition of this highly familiar yet previously under-studied animal. Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) have been shown to be more successful than their closest relative (and wild progenitor) the wolf, and than man's closest relative, the chimpanzee, on tests of sensitivity to human social cues, such as following points to a container holding hidden food. The "Domestication Hypothesis" asserts that during domestication dogs evolved an inherent sensitivity to human gestures that their non-domesticated counterparts do not share. According to this view, sensitivity to human cues is present in dogs at an early age and shows little evidence of acquisition during ontogeny. A closer look at the findings of research on canine domestication, socialization, and conditioning, brings the assumptions of this hypothesis into question. We propose the Two Stage Hypothesis, according to which the sensitivity of an individual animal to human actions depends on acceptance of humans as social companions, and conditioning to follow human limbs. This offers a more parsimonious explanation for the domestic dog's sensitivity to human gestures, without requiring the use of additional mechanisms. We outline how tests of this new hypothesis open directions for future study that offer promise of a deeper understanding of mankind's oldest companion.

  6. Developing an effective corrective action process : lessons learned from operating a confidential close call reporting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    In 2007, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) launched : C3RS, the Confidential Close Call Reporting System, as a : demonstration project to learn how to facilitate the effective : reporting and implementation of corrective actions, and assess t...

  7. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations: Science Operations Development for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.

  8. Study of human factors and its basic aspects, focusing the operators of IEA-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2008-01-01

    Human factors and situational variables, which ca, when modified, interfere in the actions of operators of nuclear installations is studied. This work is focused in the operators of the IEA-R1 research reactor, which is located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil. The accidents in Nuclear Plants have shown that the most serious have occurred due to human failure. This work also considers the item 5.5.3 of CNEN-NN-3.01 standard - 'Actions must be taken to reduce, as much as possible, the human failures that can lead to accidents or even other events which can originate inadvertent or unintentional expositions in any individual'. The model named 'Behavioral Analysis' is adopted. Relevant factors and aspects of the operators' routine are also considered. It is worth to remind that the performance depends on a series of variables, not only on the individual, but also situational, including in these categories; physical variables, work environment, organizational and the social ones. The subjective factors are also considered, such as: attitude, ability, motivation etc., aiming at a global perspective of the situation, which counts on a set of principles for the behaviour analysis and comprehension. After defining the applicability scenario, mechanisms and corrective actions to contribute with the reduction of failures will be proposed. (author)

  9. Study of human factors and its basic aspects, focusing the operators of IEA-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is the study of human factors and situational variables, which, when modified, can interfere in the work actions of the operators of nuclear installations. This work is focused on the operators of the IEA-R1 research reactor, which is located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN - CNEN/SP. The accidents in Nuclear Plants have shown that the most serious have occurred due to human failure. This work also considers the item 5.5.3 of CNEN-NN-3.01 standard - 'Actions must be taken to reduce, as much as possible, the human failures that may lead to accidents or even other events which may originate inadvertent or unintentional expositions in any individual'. The model named - Behavioral Analysis - is adopted. Relevant factors and aspects of the operators' routine are also considered. It is worth to remind that the performance depends on a series of variables, not only on the individual, but also the situational ones, which include physical, work, environment, organizational and social variables. Subjective factors are also considered, such as: attitude, ability, motivation etc., aiming at a global perspective of the situation, which counts on a set of principles for the behavior analysis and comprehension. After defining the applicability scenario, mechanisms and corrective actions to contribute with the reduction of failures will be proposed. (author)

  10. Human Mars Landing Site and Impacts on Mars Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Bussey, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes NASA's initial steps for identifying and evaluating candidate Exploration Zones (EZs) and Regions of Interests (ROIs) for the first human crews that will explore the surface of Mars. NASA's current effort to define the exploration of this planet by human crews, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), provides the context in which these EZs and ROIs are being considered. The EMC spans all aspects of a human Mars mission including launch from Earth, transit to and from Mars, and operations on the surface of Mars. An EZ is a collection of ROIs located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains one or more landing sites and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. With the EMC as a conceptual basis, the EZ model has been refined to a point where specific site selection criteria for scientific exploration and in situ resource utilization can be defined. In 2015 these criteria were distributed to the planetary sciences community and the in situ resource utilization and civil engineering communities as part of a call for EZ proposals. The resulting "First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars" was held in October 2015 during which 47 proposals for EZs and ROIs were presented and discussed. Proposed locations spanned all longitudes and all allowable latitudes (+/- 50 degrees). Proposed justification for selecting one of these EZs also spanned a significant portion of the scientific and resource criteria provided to the community. Several important findings resulted from this Workshop including: (a) a strong consensus that, at a scale of 100 km (radius), multiple places on Mars exist that have both sufficient scientific interest

  11. FINITE MARKOV CHAINS IN THE MODEL REPRESENTATION OF THE HUMAN OPERATOR ACTIVITY IN QUASI-FUNCTIONAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Serzhantova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. We analyze the problems of finite Markov chains apparatus application for simulating a human operator activity in the quasi-static functional environment. It is shown that the functional environment stochastic nature is generated by a factor of interval character of human operator properties. Method. The problem is solved in the class of regular (recurrent finite Markov chains with three states of the human operator: with a favorable, median and unfavorable combination of the values of mathematical model parameters of the human operator in a quasi-static functional environment. The finite Markov chain is designed taking into account the factors of human operator tiredness and interval character of parameters of the model representation of his properties. The device is based on the usage of mathematical approximation of the standard curve of the human operator activity performance during work shift. The standard curve of the human operator activity performance is based on the extensive research experience of functional activity of the human operator with the help of photos of the day, his action timing and ergonomic generalizations. Main Results. The apparatus of regular finite Markov chains gave the possibility to evaluate correctly the human operator activity performance in a quasi-static functional environment with the use of the main information component of these chains as a vector of final probabilities. In addition, we managed to build an algorithmic basis for estimating the stationary time (time study for transit of human operator from arbitrary initial functional state into a state corresponding to a vector of final probabilities for a used chain after it reaches the final state based on the analysis of the eigenvalues spectrum of the matrix of transition probabilities for a regular (recurrent finite Markov chain. Practical Relevance. Obtained theoretical results are confirmed by illustrative examples, which

  12. UNC Nuclear Industries' human-factored approach to the operating or maintenance procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.A.; Clark, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The development of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and UNC Nuclear Industries' (UNC) commitment to minimizing the potential for human error in the performance of operating or maintenance procedures have lead to a procedure upgrade program. Human-factored procedures were developed using information from many sources including, but not limited to, operators, a human factors specialist, engineers and supervisors. This has resulted in the Job Performance Aid (JPA). This paper presents UNC's approach to providing human-factored operating and maintenance procedures

  13. A Study of Time Response for Safety-Related Operator Actions in Non-LOCA Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Seok; Lee, Sang Seob; Park, Min Soo; Lee, Gyu Cheon; Kim, Shin Whan [KEPCO E and C Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The classification of initiating events for safety analysis report (SAR) chapter 15 is categorized into moderate frequency events (MF), infrequent events (IF), and limiting faults (LF) depending on the frequency of its occurrence. For the non-LOCA safety analysis with the purpose to get construction or operation license, however, it is assumed that the operator response action to mitigate the events starts at 30 minutes after the initiation of the transient regardless of the event categorization. Such an assumption of corresponding operator response time may have over conservatism with the MF and IF events and results in a decrease in the safety margin compared to its acceptance criteria. In this paper, the plant conditions (PC) are categorized with the definitions in SAR 15 and ANS 51.1. Then, the consequence of response for safety-related operator action time is determined based on the PC in ANSI 58.8. The operator response time for safety analysis regarding PC are reviewed and suggested. The clarifying alarm response procedure would be required for the guideline to reduce the operator response time when the alarms indicate the occurrence of the transient.

  14. Corrective action plan for CAU Number 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations, Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the method for implementing the corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Detailed information of the site history and results of previous characterizations can be found in the Work Plan, the Preliminary Investigation Report, and the Phase 2 Characterization Report. Previous characterization investigations were completed as a condition of the Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 14, 1992. The scope of this report is to prepare a CAP based upon the selected remedial alternative for closure of the Area 12, Building 12-16 Fleet Operations steam cleaning discharge area. The effluent discharge area has been impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil. The maximum hydrocarbon and VOC concentrations detected in the Preliminary and Phase 2 Site Characterization Investigations are summarized

  15. Field Sampling Plan for the Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 Remedial Action, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Field Sampling Plan outlines the collection and analysis of samples in support of Phase IV of the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 remedial action. Phase IV addresses the remedial actions to areas with the potential for unexploded ordnance at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. The remedial action consists of removal and disposal of ordnance by high-order detonation, followed by sampling to determine the extent, if any, of soil that might have been contaminated by the detonation activities associated with the disposal of ordnance during the Phase IV activities and explosives during the Phase II activities.

  16. An ergonomics action research demonstration: integrating human factors into assembly design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, J; Greig, M; Salustri, F; Zolfaghari, S; Neumann, W P

    2014-01-01

    In action research (AR), the researcher participates 'in' the actions in an organisation, while simultaneously reflecting 'on' the actions to promote learning for both the organisation and the researchers. This paper demonstrates a longitudinal AR collaboration with an electronics manufacturing firm where the goal was to improve the organisation's ability to integrate human factors (HF) proactively into their design processes. During the three-year collaboration, all meetings, workshops, interviews and reflections were digitally recorded and qualitatively analysed to inform new 'actions'. By the end of the collaboration, HF tools with targets and sign-off by the HF specialist were integrated into several stages of the design process, and engineers were held accountable for meeting the HF targets. We conclude that the AR approach combined with targeting multiple initiatives at different stages of the design process helped the organisation find ways to integrate HF into their processes in a sustainable way. Researchers acted as a catalyst to help integrate HF into the engineering design process in a sustainable way. This paper demonstrates how an AR approach can help achieve HF integration, the benefits of using a reflective stance and one method for reporting an AR study.

  17. Skeleton-Based Human Action Recognition With Global Context-Aware Attention LSTM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Gang; Duan, Ling-Yu; Abdiyeva, Kamila; Kot, Alex C.

    2018-04-01

    Human action recognition in 3D skeleton sequences has attracted a lot of research attention. Recently, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks have shown promising performance in this task due to their strengths in modeling the dependencies and dynamics in sequential data. As not all skeletal joints are informative for action recognition, and the irrelevant joints often bring noise which can degrade the performance, we need to pay more attention to the informative ones. However, the original LSTM network does not have explicit attention ability. In this paper, we propose a new class of LSTM network, Global Context-Aware Attention LSTM (GCA-LSTM), for skeleton based action recognition. This network is capable of selectively focusing on the informative joints in each frame of each skeleton sequence by using a global context memory cell. To further improve the attention capability of our network, we also introduce a recurrent attention mechanism, with which the attention performance of the network can be enhanced progressively. Moreover, we propose a stepwise training scheme in order to train our network effectively. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on five challenging benchmark datasets for skeleton based action recognition.

  18. Automated grouping of action potentials of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorospe, Giann; Zhu, Renjun; Millrod, Michal A; Zambidis, Elias T; Tung, Leslie; Vidal, Rene

    2014-09-01

    Methods for obtaining cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are improving at a significant rate. However, the characterization of these cardiomyocytes (CMs) is evolving at a relatively slower rate. In particular, there is still uncertainty in classifying the phenotype (ventricular-like, atrial-like, nodal-like, etc.) of an hESC-derived cardiomyocyte (hESC-CM). While previous studies identified the phenotype of a CM based on electrophysiological features of its action potential, the criteria for classification were typically subjective and differed across studies. In this paper, we use techniques from signal processing and machine learning to develop an automated approach to discriminate the electrophysiological differences between hESC-CMs. Specifically, we propose a spectral grouping-based algorithm to separate a population of CMs into distinct groups based on the similarity of their action potential shapes. We applied this method to a dataset of optical maps of cardiac cell clusters dissected from human embryoid bodies. While some of the nine cell clusters in the dataset are presented with just one phenotype, the majority of the cell clusters are presented with multiple phenotypes. The proposed algorithm is generally applicable to other action potential datasets and could prove useful in investigating the purification of specific types of CMs from an electrophysiological perspective.

  19. Human-Nature for Climate Action: Nature-Based Solutions for Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Santiago Fink

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global climate change agenda proceeds at an incremental pace while the Earth is approaching critical tipping points in its development trajectory. Climate action at this pinnacle juncture needs to be greatly accelerated and rooted in the fundamentals of the problem—human beings’ disconnection from nature. This paper underscores the valuable role nature and nature-based solutions can play in addressing climate change at the city scale and its implications for broader sustainability. Urban ecosystems (nature in cities are seen as an integral part of a proposed local climate action rubric wherein policy measures and integrated planning guide lowcarbon/impact development to create more resilient and sustainable urban environments. The use of green infrastructure is highlighted as a cost-effective means to contribute to mitigation and adaptation needs as well as to promote human wellbeing. The paper takes an exploratory view of the influence of ecosystem services, particularly cultural services, and its economics in relation to the individual and society to understand how biophilia can be nurtured to promote environmental stewardship and climate action.

  20. Research on operation and maintenance support system adaptive to human recognition and understanding in human-centered plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Mitomo, N.

    2004-01-01

    As a human-centered plant, advanced nuclear power plant needs appropriate role sharing between human and mobile intelligent agents. Human-machine cooperation for plant operation and maintenance activities is also required with an advanced interface. Plant's maintenance is programmed using mobile robots working under the radiation environments instead of human beings. Operation and maintenance support system adaptive to human recognition and understanding should be developed to establish adequate human and machine interface so as to induce human capabilities to the full and enable human to take responsibility for plan's operation. Plant's operation and maintenance can be cooperative activities between human and intelligent automonous agents having surveillance and control functions. Infrastructure of multi-agent simulation system for the support system has been investigated and developed based on work plans derived from the scheduler. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 3. Operator information needs summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents a summary of operator information needs, identifying the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  2. Orbital Hub: a concept for human spaceflight beyond ISS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Stephan S.; Maiwald, Volker; Philpot, Claudia; Quantius, Dominik; Romberg, Oliver; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Vrakking, Vincent; Zeidler, Conrad

    2018-04-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the greatest endeavour in low-Earth orbit since the beginning of the space age and the culmination of human outposts like Skylab and Mir. While a clear schedule has yet to be drafted, it is expected that ISS will cease operation in the 2020s. What could be the layout for a human outpost in LEO with lessons learnt from ISS? What are the use cases and applications of such an outpost in the future? The System Analysis Space Segment group of the German Aerospace Center investigated these and other questions and developed the Orbital Hub concept. In this paper an overview is presented of how the overall concept has been derived and its properties and layouts are described. Starting with a workshop involving the science community, the scientific requirements have been derived and Strawman payloads have been defined for use in further design activities. These design activities focused on Concurrent Engineering studies, where besides DLR employees participants from the industry and astronauts were involved. The result is an expandable concept that is composed of two main parts, the Base Platform, home for a permanent crew of up to three astronauts, and the Free Flyer, an uncrewed autonomous research platform. This modular approach provides one major advantage: the decoupling of the habitat and payload leading to increased quality of the micro-gravity environment. The former provides an environment for human physiology experiments, while the latter allows science without the perturbations caused by a crew, e.g. material experiments or Earth observation. The Free Flyer is designed to operate for up to 3 months on its own, but can dock with the space station for maintenance and experiment servicing. It also has a hybrid propulsion system, chemical and electrical, for different applications. The hub's design allows launch with just three launches, as the total mass of all the hub parts is about 60,000 kg. The main focus of the design is

  3. Assessing the actions of the farm managers to execute field operations at opportune times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Gareth Thomas Charles; Dybro, Niels; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    Planning agricultural operations requires an understanding of when fields are ready for operations. However determining a field's readiness is a difficult process that can involve large amounts of data and an experienced farm manager. A consequence of this is that operations are often executed when...... fields are unready, or partially unready, which can compromise results incurring environmental impacts, decreased yield and increased operational costs. In order to assess timeliness of operations' execution, a new scheme is introduced to quantify the aptitude of farm managers to plan operations. Two...... parameterise the crop model. The evaluation criteria could be used to identify farm managers who require decisional support when planning operations, or as a means of promoting the use of sustainable farming practices....

  4. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

    2012-01-01

    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the

  5. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This IM/IRAP/EA identifies and evaluates interim remedial actions for removal of residual free-phase VOC contamination from three different subsurface environments at OU2. The term ''residual'' refers to the non-aqueous phase contamination remaining in the soil matrix (by capillary force) subsequent to the passage of non-aqueous or free-phase liquid through the subsurface. In addition to the proposed actions, this IM/IRAP/EA presents an assessment of the No Action Alternative. This document also considers an interim remedial action for the removal of radionuclides from beneath the 903 Pad

  6. Action of the complex Monge-Ampère operator on piecewise-linear functions and exponential tropical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarnovskii, B Ya

    2014-01-01

    We consider exponential tropical varieties, which appear as analogues of algebraic tropical varieties when we pass from algebraic varieties to varieties given by zero sets of systems of exponential sums. We describe a construction of exponential tropical varieties arising from the action of the complex Monge-Ampère operator on piecewise-linear functions and show that every such variety can be obtained in this way. As an application, we deduce a criterion for the vanishing of the value of the mixed Monge-Ampère operator. This is an analogue and generalization of the criterion for the vanishing of the mixed volume of convex bodies

  7. Potential human factors deficiencies in the design of local control stations and operator interfaces in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, C.S.; Levy, I.S.; Fecht, B.A.

    1984-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed a project to identify human factors deficiencies in safety-significant control stations outside the control room of a nuclear power plant and to determine whether NUREG-0700, Guidelines for Control Room Design Reviews, would be sufficient for reviewing those local control stations (LCSs). The project accomplished this task by first, reviewing existing data pertaining to human factors deficiencies in LCSs involved in significant safety actions; second, surveying LCSs environments and design features at several operating nuclear power plants; and third, assessing the results of that survey relative to the contents of NUREG-0700

  8. Wind action and its adverse effects on operations of South African harbours

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goliger, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available /unloading processes and occasionally damage to infrastructure, vessels and cargo or even loss of life or limb. This paper provides an overview of critical aspects of adverse wind actions, the importance of wind data capturing and processing. The relevance of wind...

  9. Cinnamic Acid Is Partially Involved in Propolis Immunomodulatory Action on Human Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José Conti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a beehive product used in traditional medicine due to its biological properties. It shows a complex chemical composition including phenolics, such as cinnamic acid (Ci. The mechanisms of action of propolis have been the subject of research recently; however, the involvement of Ci on propolis activity was not investigated on immune cells. Ci effects were evaluated on human monocytes, assessing the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, HLA-DR, and CD80. Cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-10 and the fungicidal activity of monocytes were evaluated as well. Data showed that Ci downregulated TLR-2, HLA-DR, and CD80 and upregulated TLR-4 expression by human monocytes. High concentrations of Ci inhibited both TNF-α and IL-10 production, whereas the same concentrations induced a higher fungicidal activity against Candida albicans. TNF-α and IL-10 production was decreased by blocking TLR-4, while the fungicidal activity of monocytes was not affected by blocking TLRs. These results suggest that Ci modulated antigen receptors, cytokine production, and the fungicidal activity of human monocytes depending on concentration, and TLR-4 may be involved in its mechanism of action. Ci seemed to be partially involved in propolis activities.

  10. Electrophysiological properties of computational human ventricular cell action potential models under acute ischemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sara; Mincholé, Ana; Quinn, T Alexander; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2017-10-01

    Acute myocardial ischemia is one of the main causes of sudden cardiac death. The mechanisms have been investigated primarily in experimental and computational studies using different animal species, but human studies remain scarce. In this study, we assess the ability of four human ventricular action potential models (ten Tusscher and Panfilov, 2006; Grandi et al., 2010; Carro et al., 2011; O'Hara et al., 2011) to simulate key electrophysiological consequences of acute myocardial ischemia in single cell and tissue simulations. We specifically focus on evaluating the effect of extracellular potassium concentration and activation of the ATP-sensitive inward-rectifying potassium current on action potential duration, post-repolarization refractoriness, and conduction velocity, as the most critical factors in determining reentry vulnerability during ischemia. Our results show that the Grandi and O'Hara models required modifications to reproduce expected ischemic changes, specifically modifying the intracellular potassium concentration in the Grandi model and the sodium current in the O'Hara model. With these modifications, the four human ventricular cell AP models analyzed in this study reproduce the electrophysiological alterations in repolarization, refractoriness, and conduction velocity caused by acute myocardial ischemia. However, quantitative differences are observed between the models and overall, the ten Tusscher and modified O'Hara models show closest agreement to experimental data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on inflammation and insulin action in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hanyu; Hussey, Sophie E; Sanchez-Avila, Alicia; Tantiwong, Puntip; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from animal studies suggest that chronic elevation of circulating intestinal-generated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (i.e., metabolic endotoxemia) could play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, the effect of LPS in human muscle is unclear. Moreover, it is unknown whether blockade/down regulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)4 can prevent the effect of LPS on insulin action and glucose metabolism in human muscle cells. In the present study we compared plasma LPS concentration in insulin resistant [obese non-diabetic and obese type 2 diabetic (T2DM)] subjects versus lean individuals. In addition, we employed a primary human skeletal muscle cell culture system to investigate the effect of LPS on glucose metabolism and whether these effects are mediated via TLR4. Obese non-diabetic and T2DM subjects had significantly elevated plasma LPS and LPS binding protein (LBP) concentrations. Plasma LPS (r = -0.46, P = 0.005) and LBP (r = -0.49, P = 0.005) concentrations negatively correlated with muscle insulin sensitivity (M). In human myotubes, LPS increased JNK phosphorylation and MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression. This inflammatory response led to reduced insulin-stimulated IRS-1, Akt and AS160 phosphorylation and impaired glucose transport. Both pharmacologic blockade of TLR4 with TAK-242, and TLR4 gene silencing, suppressed the inflammatory response and insulin resistance caused by LPS in human muscle cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that elevations in plasma LPS concentration found in obese and T2DM subjects could play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and that antagonists of TLR4 may improve insulin action in these individuals.

  12. Operator programs and operator processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Walters, P.

    2003-01-01

    We define a notion of program which is not a computer program but an operator program: a detailed description of actions performed and decisions taken by a human operator (computer user) performing a task to achieve a goal in a simple setting consisting of that user, one or more computers and a

  13. Handling of future human actions in the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, Lena

    2006-10-01

    This report documents the future human actions (FHA) considered in the long-term safety analysis of a KBS-3 repository. The report is one of the supporting documents to the safety assessment SR-Can. The purpose of this report is to provide an account of: General considerations concerning FHA; The methodology applied in SR-Can to assess FHA; The aspects of FHA that need to be considered in the evaluation of their impact on a deep geological repository; and The selection of representative scenarios for illustrative consequence analysis

  14. Handling of future human actions in the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, Lena

    2006-10-15

    This report documents the future human actions (FHA) considered in the long-term safety analysis of a KBS-3 repository. The report is one of the supporting documents to the safety assessment SR-Can. The purpose of this report is to provide an account of: General considerations concerning FHA; The methodology applied in SR-Can to assess FHA; The aspects of FHA that need to be considered in the evaluation of their impact on a deep geological repository; and The selection of representative scenarios for illustrative consequence analysis.

  15. Knowledge-based support for design and operational use of human-machine interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, G.

    1994-01-01

    The possibilities for knowledge support of different human user classes, namely operators, operational engineers and designers of human-machine interfaces, are discussed. Several human-machine interface functionalities are briefly explained. The paper deals with such questions as which type of knowledge is needed for design and operation, how to represent it, where to get it from, how to process it, and how to consider and use it. The relationships between design and operational use are thereby emphasised. (author)

  16. Enabling robots to make use of the structure of human actions - a user study employing Acoustic Packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohse, M.; Wrede, Britta; Schillingmann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Human learning strongly depends on the ability to structure the actions of teachers in order to identify relevant parts. We propose that this is also true for learning in robots. Therefore, we apply a method for multimodal action segmentation called Acoustic Packaging to a corpus of pairs of users

  17. GestuRe and ACtion Exemplar (GRACE) video database: stimuli for research on manners of human locomotion and iconic gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussems, Suzanne; Kwok, Natasha; Kita, Sotaro

    2018-06-01

    Human locomotion is a fundamental class of events, and manners of locomotion (e.g., how the limbs are used to achieve a change of location) are commonly encoded in language and gesture. To our knowledge, there is no openly accessible database containing normed human locomotion stimuli. Therefore, we introduce the GestuRe and ACtion Exemplar (GRACE) video database, which contains 676 videos of actors performing novel manners of human locomotion (i.e., moving from one location to another in an unusual manner) and videos of a female actor producing iconic gestures that represent these actions. The usefulness of the database was demonstrated across four norming experiments. First, our database contains clear matches and mismatches between iconic gesture videos and action videos. Second, the male actors and female actors whose action videos matched the gestures in the best possible way, perform the same actions in very similar manners and different actions in highly distinct manners. Third, all the actions in the database are distinct from each other. Fourth, adult native English speakers were unable to describe the 26 different actions concisely, indicating that the actions are unusual. This normed stimuli set is useful for experimental psychologists working in the language, gesture, visual perception, categorization, memory, and other related domains.

  18. Application of Bayesian Belief networks to the human reliability analysis of an oil tanker operation focusing on collision accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Maturana, Marcos Coelho

    2013-01-01

    During the last three decades, several techniques have been developed for the quantitative study of human reliability. In the 1980s, techniques were developed to model systems by means of binary trees, which did not allow for the representation of the context in which human actions occur. Thus, these techniques cannot model the representation of individuals, their interrelationships, and the dynamics of a system. These issues make the improvement of methods for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) a pressing need. To eliminate or at least attenuate these limitations, some authors have proposed modeling systems using Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs). The application of these tools is expected to address many of the deficiencies in current approaches to modeling human actions with binary trees. This paper presents a methodology based on BBN for analyzing human reliability and applies this method to the operation of an oil tanker, focusing on the risk of collision accidents. The obtained model was used to determine the most likely sequence of hazardous events and thus isolate critical activities in the operation of the ship to study Internal Factors (IFs), Skills, and Management and Organizational Factors (MOFs) that should receive more attention for risk reduction.

  19. Human Factors and Technical Considerations for a Computerized Operator Support System Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Thomas Anthony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lew, Roger Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Medema, Heather Dawne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Kenneth David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A prototype computerized operator support system (COSS) has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, PI&D system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. At this point, the prototype simulates an interface to a sensor validation module and a fault diagnosis module. These two modules will be fully integrated in the next version of the prototype. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is a full-scope, full-scale glass top simulator capable of simulating existing and future nuclear power plant main control rooms. The COSS is interfaced to the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (gPWR) simulator with industry-typical control board layouts. The glass top panels display realistic images of the control boards that can be operated by touch gestures. A section of the simulated control board was dedicated to the COSS human-system interface (HSI), which resulted in a seamless integration of the COSS into the normal control room environment. A COSS demonstration scenario has been developed for the prototype involving the Chemical & Volume Control System (CVCS) of the PWR simulator. It involves a primary coolant leak outside of containment that would require tripping the reactor if not mitigated in a very short timeframe. The COSS prototype presents a series of operator screens that provide the needed information and soft controls to successfully mitigate the event.

  20. Results of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) Gap Review: Specific Action Team (SAT), Examination of Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for Human Exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Eppler, D.; Farrell, W.; Gruener, J.; Lawrence, S.; Pellis, N.; Spudis, P. D.; Stopar, J.; Zeigler, R.; Neal, C; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) was tasked by the Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to establish a Specific Action Team (SAT) to review lunar Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) within the context of new lunar data and some specific human mission scenarios. Within this review, the SAT was to identify the SKGs that have been fully or partially retired, identify new SKGs resulting from new data and observations, and review quantitative descriptions of measurements that are required to fill knowledge gaps, the fidelity of the measurements needed, and if relevant, provide examples of existing instruments or potential missions capable of filling the SKGs.

  1. Cyanotoxins: producing organisms, occurrence, toxicity, mechanism of action and human health toxicological risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Franca M; Manganelli, Maura; Vichi, Susanna; Stefanelli, Mara; Scardala, Simona; Testai, Emanuela; Funari, Enzo

    2017-03-01

    Cyanobacteria were present on the earth 3.5 billion years ago; since then they have colonized almost all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They produce a high number of bioactive molecules, among which some are cyanotoxins. Cyanobacterial growth at high densities, forming blooms, is increasing in extension and frequency, following anthropogenic activities and climate changes, giving rise to some concern for human health and animal life exposed to cyanotoxins. Numerous cases of lethal poisonings have been associated with cyanotoxins ingestion in wild animal and livestock. In humans few episodes of lethal or severe human poisonings have been recorded after acute or short-term exposure, but the repeated/chronic exposure to low cyanotoxin levels remains a critical issue. The properties of the most frequently detected cyanotoxins (namely, microcystins, nodularins, cylindrospermopsin and neurotoxins) are here critically reviewed, describing for each toxin the available information on producing organisms, biosynthesis/genetic and occurrence, with a focus on the toxicological profile (including kinetics, acute systemic toxicity, mechanism and mode of action, local effects, repeated toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity; human health effects and epidemiological studies; animal poisoning) with the derivation of health-based values and considerations on the risks for human health.

  2. RBMK power unit operational performance investigation while false coming into action of the emergency reactor cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanov, I.Ya.; Aleksakov, A.N.; Vasilevskij, V.P.; Labazov, V.N.; Nikolaev, E.V.; Podlazov, L.N.; Rogov, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Regimes of RBMK reactor operation during false coming into action of the emergency reactor cooling system (ERCS), which might occur in the case of faults in the automation systems or erroneous actions of operator have been investigated. At that, thepe exists a probability of water supply from ERCS to one half of the reactor, which results in a sharp change of boiling regime, and due to void reactivity effect it causes the neutron field disturbance. Change in flow rate and enthalpy of coolant, as well as changes of neutron flux in the left and right halves of the reactor at ERCS response and during operation of the whole system of automatic control of power and system of local automatic control of power - local emergency protection - have been studied. The investigations have been carried out for different values of vapour effect of void reactivity effect and for time ranges from 0 to 40 s. The calculations are made using a model, describing spatial dynamics of reactor in two-dimensional approximation with 54 nodes. The model describes neutron-physics and thermohydraulic processes and it is realized using the BEhSM-6 computer. It is pointed out that one system of automatic control of power or local emergency protection (i.e. without the shut-off system), is insufficient for the compensation of disturbances appearing as a result of false ERCS coming into operation

  3. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-09-19

    The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

  4. Adaptive control of human action: The role of outcome representations and reward signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eMarien

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to advance the understanding of the control of human behavior by integrating two lines of literature that so far have led separate lives. First, one line of literature is concerned with the ideomotor principle of human behavior, according to which actions are represented in terms of their outcomes. The second line of literature mainly considers the role of reward signals in adaptive control. Here, we offer a combined perspective on how outcome representations and reward signals work together to modulate adaptive control processes. We propose that reward signals signify the value of outcome representations and facilitate the recruitment of control resources in situations where behavior needs to be maintained or adapted to attain the represented outcome. We discuss recent research demonstrating how adaptive control of goal-directed behavior may emerge when outcome representations are co-activated with positive reward signals.

  5. Logistic regression models for polymorphic and antagonistic pleiotropic gene action on human aging and longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Bathum, L; Christiansen, L

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we apply logistic regression models to measure genetic association with human survival for highly polymorphic and pleiotropic genes. By modelling genotype frequency as a function of age, we introduce a logistic regression model with polytomous responses to handle the polymorphic...... situation. Genotype and allele-based parameterization can be used to investigate the modes of gene action and to reduce the number of parameters, so that the power is increased while the amount of multiple testing minimized. A binomial logistic regression model with fractional polynomials is used to capture...... the age-dependent or antagonistic pleiotropic effects. The models are applied to HFE genotype data to assess the effects on human longevity by different alleles and to detect if an age-dependent effect exists. Application has shown that these methods can serve as useful tools in searching for important...

  6. Human errors in operation - what to do with them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalek, J.

    2009-01-01

    'It is human to make errors!' This saying of our predecessors is still current and will continue to be valid also in the future, until human is a human. Errors cannot be completely eliminated from human activities. In average human makes two simple errors in one hour. For example, how many typing errors do we make while typing on the computer keyboard? How many times we make mistakes in writing the date in the first days of a new year? These errors have no major consequences, however, in certain situations errors of humans are very unpleasant and may be also very costly, they may even endanger human lives. (author)

  7. Cortical drive of low-frequency oscillations in the human nucleus accumbens during action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Litvak, Vladimir; Rutledge, Robb B; Zaehle, Tino; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Voges, Jürgen; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-07-01

    The nucleus accumbens is thought to contribute to action selection by integrating behaviorally relevant information from multiple regions, including prefrontal cortex. Studies in rodents suggest that information flow to the nucleus accumbens may be regulated via task-dependent oscillatory coupling between regions. During instrumental behavior, local field potentials (LFP) in the rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex are coupled at delta frequencies (Gruber AJ, Hussain RJ, O'Donnell P. PLoS One 4: e5062, 2009), possibly mediating suppression of afferent input from other areas and thereby supporting cortical control (Calhoon GG, O'Donnell P. Neuron 78: 181-190, 2013). In this report, we demonstrate low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling in humans, both at rest and during a decision-making task. We recorded LFP from the nucleus accumbens in six epilepsy patients who underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. All patients showed significant coherence and phase-synchronization between LFP and surface EEG at delta and low theta frequencies. Although the direction of this coupling as indexed by Granger causality varied between subjects in the resting-state data, all patients showed a cortical drive of the nucleus accumbens during action selection in a decision-making task. In three patients this was accompanied by a significant coherence increase over baseline. Our results suggest that low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling represents a highly conserved regulatory mechanism for action selection. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. How can the study of action kinematics inform our understanding of human social interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan-Barman, Sujatha; Forbes, Paul A G; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2017-10-01

    The kinematics of human actions are influenced by the social context in which they are performed. Motion-capture technology has allowed researchers to build up a detailed and complex picture of how action kinematics vary across different social contexts. Here we review three task domains-point-to-point imitation tasks, motor interference tasks and reach-to-grasp tasks-to critically evaluate how these tasks can inform our understanding of social interactions. First, we consider how actions within these task domains are performed in a non-social context, before highlighting how a plethora of social cues can perturb the baseline kinematics. We show that there is considerable overlap in the findings from these different tasks domains but also highlight the inconsistencies in the literature and the possible reasons for this. Specifically, we draw attention to the pitfalls of dealing with rich, kinematic data. As a way to avoid these pitfalls, we call for greater standardisation and clarity in the reporting of kinematic measures and suggest the field would benefit from a move towards more naturalistic tasks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Anxiolytic-Like Actions of Fatty Acids Identified in Human Amniotic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isela García-Ríos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight fatty acids (C12–C18 were previously identified in human amniotic fluid, colostrum, and milk in similar proportions but different amounts. Amniotic fluid is well known to be the natural environment for development in mammals. Interestingly, amniotic fluid and an artificial mixture of fatty acids contained in amniotic fluid produce similar anxiolytic-like actions in Wistar rats. We explored whether the lowest amount of fatty acids contained in amniotic fluid with respect to colostrum and milk produces such anxiolytic-like effects. Although a trend toward a dose-response effect was observed, only an amount of fatty acids that was similar to amniotic fluid fully mimicked the effect of diazepam (2 mg/kg, i.p. in the defensive burying test, an action devoid of effects on locomotor activity and motor coordination. Our results confirm that the amount of fatty acids contained in amniotic fluid is sufficient to produce anxiolytic-like effects, suggesting similar actions during intrauterine development.

  10. Proposed plan for remedial action at the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contamination present in various components of the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) of the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The QROU consists of (1) residual waste at the quarry proper; (2) the Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of the slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of the evaluations for this operable unit. Remedial activities for the QROU will be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required for the QROU under CERCLA, three major evaluation documents have been prepared to support cleanup decisions for this operable unit. decisions for this operable unit

  11. Understanding Behavior: Application of the Reasoned-Action Approach in Legitimacy- Building Influence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    or “ nudged ” toward a particular brand. By contrast, in military influence operations, the target audience is often noncompliant, in the sense that...around this problem—a technique the military has not embraced when it comes to influence operations. There are risks associated with self-reporting, and...and environmental factors associated with the behavior of interest are called control beliefs. These have to do with factors the person sees as

  12. Analytical validation of operator actions in case of primary to secondary leakage for VVER-1000/V320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, M., E-mail: m_andreeva@inrne.bas.bg; Groudev, P., E-mail: pavlinpg@inrne.bas.bg; Pavlova, M., E-mail: pavlova@inrne.bas.bg

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • We validate operator actions in case of primary to secondary leakage. • We perform four scenarios related to SGTR accident for VVER-1000/V320. • The reference power plant for the analyses is Unit 6 at Kozloduy NPP. • The RELAP5/MOD 3.2 computer code is used in performing the analyses. • The analyses confirm the effectiveness of operator actions during PRISE. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of analytical validation of operator actions in case of “Steam Generator Tube Rupture” (SGTR) for VVER-1000/V320 units at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP), done during the development of Symptom Based Emergency Operating Procedures (SB EOPs) for this plant. The purpose of the analyses is to demonstrate the ability to terminate primary to secondary leakage and to indicate an effective strategy for preventing secondary leakage to the environment and in this way to prevent radiological release to the environment. Following depressurization and cooldown of reactor coolant system (RCS) with isolation of the affected steam generator (SG), in these analyses are validated options for post-SGTR cooldown by: • back up filling the ruptured SG; • using letdown system in the affected SG and • by opening Fast Acting Isolation Valve (FAIV) and using Steam Dump Facility to the Condenser (BRU-K). The results of the thermal-hydraulic analyses have been used to assist KNPP specialists in analytical validation of EOPs. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been used for the analyses in a VVER-1000 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) model. A model of VVER-1000 based on Unit 6 of Kozloduy NPP has been developed for the thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5/MOD3.2 at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE-BAS). This paper is possible through the participation of leading specialists from KNPP.

  13. In vitro assessment of antiproliferative action selectivity of dietary isothiocyanates for tumor versus normal human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konić-Ristić Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown beneficial effects of cruciferous vegetables consumption in cancer chemoprevention. Biologically active compounds of different Brassicaceae species with antitumor potential are isothiocyanates, present in the form of their precursors - glucosinolates. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of antiproliferative action of dietary isothiocyanates for malignant versus normal cells. Methods. Antiproliferative activity of three isothiocyanates abundant in human diet: sulforaphane, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC and phenylethyl isothiocyanate, on human cervix carcinoma cell line - HeLa, melanoma cell line - Fem-x, and colon cancer cell line - LS 174, and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, with or without mitogen, were determined by MTT colorimetric assay 72 h after their continuous action. Results. All investigated isothiocyanates inhibited the proliferation of HeLa, Fem-x and LS 174 cells. On all cell lines treated, BITC was the most potent inhibitor of cell proliferation with half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 5.04 mmoL m-3 on HeLa cells, 2.76 mmol m-3 on Fem-x, and 14.30 mmol m-3 on LS 174 cells. Antiproliferative effects on human PBMC were with higher IC50 than on malignant cells. Indexes of selectivity, calculated as a ratio between IC50 values obtained on PBMC and malignant cells, were between 1.12 and 16.57, with the highest values obtained for the action of BITC on melanoma Fem-x cells. Conclusion. Based on its antiproliferative effects on malignant cells, as well as the selectivity of the action to malignant vs normal cells, benzyl isothiocyanate can be considered as a promising candidate in cancer chemoprevention. In general, the safety of investigated compounds, in addition to their antitumor potential, should be considered as an important criterion in cancer chemoprevention. Screening of selectivity is a plausible approach to the evaluation

  14. Planning Ahead: Object-Directed Sequential Actions Decoded from Human Frontoparietal and Occipitotemporal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, Jason P.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Randall Flanagan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Object-manipulation tasks (e.g., drinking from a cup) typically involve sequencing together a series of distinct motor acts (e.g., reaching toward, grasping, lifting, and transporting the cup) in order to accomplish some overarching goal (e.g., quenching thirst). Although several studies in humans have investigated the neural mechanisms supporting the planning of visually guided movements directed toward objects (such as reaching or pointing), only a handful have examined how manipulatory sequences of actions—those that occur after an object has been grasped—are planned and represented in the brain. Here, using event-related functional MRI and pattern decoding methods, we investigated the neural basis of real-object manipulation using a delayed-movement task in which participants first prepared and then executed different object-directed action sequences that varied either in their complexity or final spatial goals. Consistent with previous reports of preparatory brain activity in non-human primates, we found that activity patterns in several frontoparietal areas reliably predicted entire action sequences in advance of movement. Notably, we found that similar sequence-related information could also be decoded from pre-movement signals in object- and body-selective occipitotemporal cortex (OTC). These findings suggest that both frontoparietal and occipitotemporal circuits are engaged in transforming object-related information into complex, goal-directed movements. PMID:25576538

  15. The human-animal relationship: a new field of socio-educational action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-María Senent

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the educational approaches towards the animal-human relationship which have been developed during the last 20 years. The article establishes a chain of states in that relationship and presents the reasons why those states are consecutive or, occasionally, simultaneous. Next, the different European profiles of social educators are reviewed to see which of these are more open towards educational action with animals, something which could be considered a new field for educators if they have adequate professional training. A series of European (and some American websites are analysed in order to determine their approach towards the human-animal relationship. Although most of them are related to animal-assisted therapy, some francophone and Italian websites show approaches that go beyond that. That could imply an extension of the social educators’ field of action. Indeed, French and Southern-European models are closer to that point than the rest of the profiles analysed, in terms of the openness and flexibility they show towards new fields.

  16. Approach and plan for cleanup actions in the 100-FR-2 operable unit of the Hanford Site, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A new administrative approach is being used to reach a cleanup decision for the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit. The unit, located at the 100-F Area, contains solid waste sites and is one of the remaining operable units scheduled for characterization and cleanup in the 100 Area. This Focus Package (1) describes the new approach and activities needed to reach a decision on cleanup actions for the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit and (2) invites public participation into the planning process. The previous approach included the production of a Work Plan, a Limited Field Investigation Report, a Qualitative Risk Assessment, a Focused Feasibility Study, and a Proposed Plan, all culminating in an interim action Record of Decision. Information gathered to date on other operable units allows the analgous site approach to be used on the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, and therefore, a reduction in documentation preparation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Department of Energy (Tri-Party Agreement) believe that the new approach will save time and funding. In the new approach, the Work Plan has been condensed into this 12 page Focus Package. The Focus Package includes a summary of 100-F Area information, a list of waste sites in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, a summary of proposed work, and a schedule. The new approach will also combine the Limited Field Investigation and Qualitative Risk Assessment reports into the Focused Feasibility Study. The Focused Feasibility Study will analyze methods and costs to clean up waste sites. Consolidating the documents should reduce the time to complete the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process by 16 months, compared to the previous approach

  17. Remedial Action Report for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2007-08-15

    This Phase III remedial action report addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility STF-02 Gun Range at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Phase I, consisting of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operble Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory Site-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring, was addressed in a previous report. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance.

  18. Analysis of Task Types and Error Types of the Human Actions Involved in the Human-related Unplanned Reactor Trip Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2008-02-01

    This report provides the task types and error types involved in the unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred during 1986 - 2006. The events that were caused by the secondary system of the nuclear power plants amount to 67 %, and the remaining 33 % was by the primary system. The contribution of the activities of the plant personnel was identified as the following order: corrective maintenance (25.7 %), planned maintenance (22.8 %), planned operation (19.8 %), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9 %), response to a transient (9.9 %), and design/manufacturing/installation (9.9%). According to the analysis of error modes, the error modes such as control failure (22.2 %), wrong object (18.5 %), omission (14.8 %), wrong action (11.1 %), and inadequate (8.3 %) take up about 75 % of all the unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved showed that the planning function makes the highest contribution to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips, and it is followed by the observation function (23.4%), the execution function (17.8 %), and the interpretation function (10.3 %). The results of this report are to be used as important bases for development of the error reduction measures or development of the error mode prediction system for the test and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants

  19. Analysis of Task Types and Error Types of the Human Actions Involved in the Human-related Unplanned Reactor Trip Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2008-02-15

    This report provides the task types and error types involved in the unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred during 1986 - 2006. The events that were caused by the secondary system of the nuclear power plants amount to 67 %, and the remaining 33 % was by the primary system. The contribution of the activities of the plant personnel was identified as the following order: corrective maintenance (25.7 %), planned maintenance (22.8 %), planned operation (19.8 %), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9 %), response to a transient (9.9 %), and design/manufacturing/installation (9.9%). According to the analysis of error modes, the error modes such as control failure (22.2 %), wrong object (18.5 %), omission (14.8 %), wrong action (11.1 %), and inadequate (8.3 %) take up about 75 % of all the unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved showed that the planning function makes the highest contribution to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips, and it is followed by the observation function (23.4%), the execution function (17.8 %), and the interpretation function (10.3 %). The results of this report are to be used as important bases for development of the error reduction measures or development of the error mode prediction system for the test and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants.

  20. A Comprehensive Review on Handcrafted and Learning-Based Action Representation Approaches for Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Bux Sargano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition (HAR is an important research area in the fields of human perception and computer vision due to its wide range of applications. These applications include: intelligent video surveillance, ambient assisted living, human computer interaction, human-robot interaction, entertainment, and intelligent driving. Recently, with the emergence and successful deployment of deep learning techniques for image classification, researchers have migrated from traditional handcrafting to deep learning techniques for HAR. However, handcrafted representation-based approaches are still widely used due to some bottlenecks such as computational complexity of deep learning techniques for activity recognition. However, approaches based on handcrafted representation are not able to handle complex scenarios due to their limitations and incapability; therefore, resorting to deep learning-based techniques is a natural option. This review paper presents a comprehensive survey of both handcrafted and learning-based action representations, offering comparison, analysis, and discussions on these approaches. In addition to this, the well-known public datasets available for experimentations and important applications of HAR are also presented to provide further insight into the field. This is the first review paper of its kind which presents all these aspects of HAR in a single review article with comprehensive coverage of each part. Finally, the paper is concluded with important discussions and research directions in the domain of HAR.

  1. Rhythm Patterns Interaction - Synchronization Behavior for Human-Robot Joint Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtl, Alexander; Lorenz, Tamara; Hirche, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Interactive behavior among humans is governed by the dynamics of movement synchronization in a variety of repetitive tasks. This requires the interaction partners to perform for example rhythmic limb swinging or even goal-directed arm movements. Inspired by that essential feature of human interaction, we present a novel concept and design methodology to synthesize goal-directed synchronization behavior for robotic agents in repetitive joint action tasks. The agents’ tasks are described by closed movement trajectories and interpreted as limit cycles, for which instantaneous phase variables are derived based on oscillator theory. Events segmenting the trajectories into multiple primitives are introduced as anchoring points for enhanced synchronization modes. Utilizing both continuous phases and discrete events in a unifying view, we design a continuous dynamical process synchronizing the derived modes. Inverse to the derivation of phases, we also address the generation of goal-directed movements from the behavioral dynamics. The developed concept is implemented to an anthropomorphic robot. For evaluation of the concept an experiment is designed and conducted in which the robot performs a prototypical pick-and-place task jointly with human partners. The effectiveness of the designed behavior is successfully evidenced by objective measures of phase and event synchronization. Feedback gathered from the participants of our exploratory study suggests a subjectively pleasant sense of interaction created by the interactive behavior. The results highlight potential applications of the synchronization concept both in motor coordination among robotic agents and in enhanced social interaction between humanoid agents and humans. PMID:24752212

  2. Assessing the effects of human action on the safety of geologic disposal: the U.S. regulatory experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheisz, D.

    2010-01-01

    There is general agreement that geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive waste provides the greatest degree of isolation from the biosphere, and hence the greatest protection for humans, over the extended time frames during which the waste presents a hazard. Geologic disposal has an additional advantage in that it does not rely on active institutional controls to maintain and protect the facility, but is instead intended to operate passively even if all knowledge of the facility is lost. Thus, geologic disposal does not rely on the questionable assumption that governmental or other responsible institutions can be maintained in perpetuity; this, however, also raises the possibility that some future human action could be taken that disrupts the repository and compromises its ability to isolate the radioactive material. It is clear, therefore, that some evaluation of this possibility must be included in the overall safety case for the facility. The nature and extent of the analysis, as well as the relative importance it is assigned within the safety case, is less clear. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has applied two very different approaches to the analysis of human intrusion scenarios at geologic disposal facilities. For the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico, which accepts transuranic radioactive waste from government defence activities, realistic drilling and mining scenarios are analyzed as part of the safety assessment addressing the natural (undisturbed) evolution of the repository. (40 CFR 194.32 and 194.33) For the proposed repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, however, a specified stylised drilling scenario is analyzed separately from the safety assessment for the undisturbed evolution of the disposal system. (40 CFR 197.25 ) What is the basis for these different approaches? How can they both be 'right'? The answer lies in the details of the two facilities, specifically

  3. Quantification of the reliability of personnel actions from the evaluation of actual German operational experience. Final report; Quantifizierung der Zuverlaessigkeit von Personalhandlungen durch Auswertung der aktuellen deutschen Betriebserfahrung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preischl, W.; Fassmann, W.

    2013-07-15

    The results and their uncertainty bounds of PSA studies are considerably impacted by the assessment of human reliability. But the amount of available, generic data is not sufficient to evaluate all human actions considered in a modern PSA study adequately. Further the data are not sufficiently validated and rely as well as the proposed uncertainty bounds on expert judgement. This research project as well as the preceding project /GRS 10/ validated data recommended by the German PSA Guidelines and enlarged the amount of available data. The findings may contribute to an update of the German PSA Guidelines. In a first step of the project information about reportable events in German nuclear power plants with observed human errors (event reports, expert statements, technical documents, interviews and plant walk downs with subject matter experts from the plants) were analysed. The investigation resulted in 67 samples describing personal activities, performance conditions, the number of observed errors and the number of action performance. In a second step a new methodology was developed and applied in a pilot plant. The objective was to identify undoubtedly error free safety relevant actions, their performance conditions, and frequency as well as to prove and demonstrate that probabilistic data can be derived from that operational experience (OE). The application in the pilot plant resulted in 18 ''error free'' samples characterizing human reliability. All available samples were evaluated by use of the method of Bayes. That commonly accepted methodology was applied in order to derive probabilistic data based on samples taken from operational experience. A thorough analysis of the obtained results shows that both data sources (OE reportable events, OE with undoubtedly error free action performance) provide data with comparable quality and validity. At the end of the research project the following products are available. - Methods to select samples

  4. THE MAIN DEFICIENCIES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SECTORAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pautu Sorina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The absorption of EU funds for Romania is a necessity in the nowadays context. The slow pace of absorption of these structural funds earmarked for Romania as EU member state is a deficiency with negative effects on the economic and social development of our country. Their low absorption shows deficiencies in their coordination and implementation at central level and also at the level of beneficiaries. Their coordinative authorities, in particular the Managing Authority of Structural Instruments, together with its subordinated institutions presents deficiencies in their coordination and implementation as having negative effects on their absorption. The main weaknesses identified on national level mainly consist in the lack of specialized personnel, in excessive bureaucracy and a mismatch of national legislation with the European one. The lack of transparency and change is specific to these structural funds, representing deficiencies that lead to beneficiaries’ discouragement to implement projects financed from structural funds. In the Sectoral Operational Programme, the Human Resources Development Program is a leader in the rate of absorption but it also has the largest number of problems and deficiencies in implementation. Due to the deficiencies identified by the auditing European Commission of the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development, payments were suspended for a period of four months. Following this situation, it was necessary to implement the necessary corrective measures at the level of POSDRU, leading to its release. Taking action and removing the deficiencies at the POSDRU level, and also at the level of other operational programs, it is a necessity and a priority to increase the absorption of these funds. The main measures that need to be taken mainly consist of training the personnel involved in the management of these funds, reimbursements release funds to the final beneficiaries, creating a more transparent

  5. The chemokine CXCL12 mediates the anti-amyloidogenic action of painless human nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsoni, Simona; Malerba, Francesca; Carucci, Nicola Maria; Rizzi, Caterina; Criscuolo, Chiara; Origlia, Nicola; Calvello, Mariantonietta; Viegi, Alessandro; Meli, Giovanni; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    Nerve growth factor is a therapeutic candidate for Alzheimer's disease. Due to its pain-inducing activity, in current clinical trials nerve growth factor is delivered locally into the brain by neurosurgery, but data on the efficacy of local nerve growth factor delivery in decreasing amyloid-β deposition are not available. To reduce the nerve growth factor pain-inducing side effects, thus avoiding the need for local brain injection, we developed human painless nerve growth factor (hNGFp), inspired by the human genetic disease hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V. hNGFp has identical neurotrophic potency as wild-type human nerve growth factor, but a 10-fold lower pain sensitizing activity. In this study we first mimicked, in the 5xFAD mouse model, the intraparenchymal delivery of hNGFp used in clinical trials and found it to be ineffective in decreasing amyloid-β plaque load. On the contrary, the same dose of hNGFp delivered intranasally, which was widely biodistributed in the brain and did not induce pain, showed a potent anti-amyloidogenic action and rescued synaptic plasticity and memory deficits. We found that hNGFp acts on glial cells, modulating inflammatory proteins such as the soluble TNFα receptor II and the chemokine CXCL12. We further established that the rescuing effect by hNGFp is mediated by CXCL12, as pharmacological inhibition of CXCL12 receptor CXCR4 occludes most of hNGFp effects. These findings have significant therapeutic implications: (i) we established that a widespread exposure of the brain is required for nerve growth factor to fully exert its neuroprotective actions; and (ii) we have identified a new anti-neurodegenerative pathway as a broad target for new therapeutic opportunities for neurodegenerative diseases. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  6. Handling of future human actions in the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This report documents the future human actions, FHA, considered in the long-term safety analysis of a KBS-3 repository. The report is one of the supporting documents to the safety assessment SR-Site (see further the Main report /SKB 2011/). The purpose of this report is to provide an account of general considerations concerning FHA, the methodology applied in SR-Site to assess FHA, the aspects of FHA needed to be considered in the evaluation of their impact on a deep geological repository and to select and analyse representative scenarios for illustrative consequence analysis. The main focus of this report is a time period when institutional control has ceased to be effective, thereby permitting inadvertent intrusion. However, a brief discussion of the earlier period when the repository has been closed, sealed and continuously kept under institutional control is also provided. General The potential exposure to large quantities of radiotoxic material is an inescapable consequence of the deposition of spent nuclear fuel in a final repository, and consequently intrusion into the repository needs to be considered in repository design and safety assessment. In accordance with ICRP recommendations /ICRP 2000/, intrusion in the post-closure phase of institutional control and beyond is primarily prevented through the design of the repository. In addition to that there will presumably continue to be safeguards measures, preservation of information (record keeping) and possibly some sort of markers placed at the site. During the institutional control period, activities at the site have to be restricted or directed if they have the potential to interfere with or hinder surveillance of the site, but this does not necessarily rule out all forms of access to the area. Also the fact that the repository contains fissile materials is an important aspect. Control of safeguards measures will most likely be upheld by national as well as international agencies. Furthermore, the

  7. Handling of future human actions in the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This report documents the future human actions, FHA, considered in the long-term safety analysis of a KBS-3 repository. The report is one of the supporting documents to the safety assessment SR-Site (see further the Main report /SKB 2011/). The purpose of this report is to provide an account of general considerations concerning FHA, the methodology applied in SR-Site to assess FHA, the aspects of FHA needed to be considered in the evaluation of their impact on a deep geological repository and to select and analyse representative scenarios for illustrative consequence analysis. The main focus of this report is a time period when institutional control has ceased to be effective, thereby permitting inadvertent intrusion. However, a brief discussion of the earlier period when the repository has been closed, sealed and continuously kept under institutional control is also provided. General The potential exposure to large quantities of radiotoxic material is an inescapable consequence of the deposition of spent nuclear fuel in a final repository, and consequently intrusion into the repository needs to be considered in repository design and safety assessment. In accordance with ICRP recommendations /ICRP 2000/, intrusion in the post-closure phase of institutional control and beyond is primarily prevented through the design of the repository. In addition to that there will presumably continue to be safeguards measures, preservation of information (record keeping) and possibly some sort of markers placed at the site. During the institutional control period, activities at the site have to be restricted or directed if they have the potential to interfere with or hinder surveillance of the site, but this does not necessarily rule out all forms of access to the area. Also the fact that the repository contains fissile materials is an important aspect. Control of safeguards measures will most likely be upheld by national as well as international agencies. Furthermore, the

  8. Defense Infrastructure: Actions Needed to Enhance Oversight of Construction Projects Supporting Military Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    supporting documentation for reviews that the U.S. Forces-Afghanistan conducted beginning in November 2011 of planned or ongoing contingency ...12 Contingency basing includes the planning , designing, constructing, operating, managing, and transitioning or closing of a non-enduring location...2016). Background Definition of “ Contingency Construction” Project Page 7 GAO-16-406 Defense Infrastructure statutory authority

  9. Some human actions in the destruction and construction of culture and nature – the Merafong region as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elize S. van Eeden

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available For at least the past 180 years the Merafong Municipal region in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, (of which the Wonderfontein Catchment forms a part has strongly relied on the primary sector for its economic existence and development. In the process some human actions, also related to serious water contamination/pollution, have resulted in phases of constructions1 as well as economic and health destructions. Differences over whose environment and whose nature it is spontaneously developed, with sometimes less friendly outcomes. The ‘end result’ up to 2006 is a complicated scenario experience, similar to that of many other regions or local areas, but also very unique and somewhat frightening. The long term focus of this article is to exchange knowledge2 on the region with the objective to contribute towards creating a sustainable nvironment by ensuring closer co-operation between the various economic active cultures operating or functioning in the Merafong municipal region. In this article four aspects are covered.

  10. Machinery safety of lathe machine using SHARP-systemic human action reliability procedure: a pilot case study in academic laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryoputro, M. R.; Sari, A. D.; Sugarindra, M.; Arifin, R.

    2017-12-01

    This research aimed to understand the human reliability analysis, to find the SHARP method with its functionality on case study and also emphasize the practice in Lathe machine, continued with identifying improvement that could be made to the existing safety system. SHARP comprises of 7 stages including definition, screening, breakdown, representation, impact assessment, quantification and documentation. These steps were combined and analysed using HIRA, FTA and FMEA. HIRA analysed the lathe at academic laboratory showed the level of the highest risk with a score of 9 for the activities of power transmission parts and a score of 6 for activities which shall mean the moving parts required to take action to reduce the level of risk. Hence, the highest RPN values obtained in the power transmission activities with a value of 18 in the power transmission and then the activities of moving parts is 12 and the activities of the operating point of 8. Thus, this activity has the highest risk of workplace accidents in the operation. On the academic laboratory the improvement made on the engineering control initially with a machine guarding and completed with necessary administrative controls (SOP, work permit, training and routine cleaning) and dedicated PPEs.

  11. An effort to improve the operators' habits of actions in normal operations and in disturbance situations at TVO NPP in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy owns and operates two ABB BWR's, each of 850 MW net outputs. A full-scope training simulator was commissioned in March 1990 at the TVO Olkiluoto plant site. This paper discusses the development of a method to evaluate and improve the operators' habits of actions in a task performance at the Teollisuuden Voima Oy full-scope training simulator. The development of the method started as a study in autumn 1992 and the first goal of the study was to analyse the dynamics of operators' decision making in the on-line control of a disturbance situation. The analysis was ready in 1994. The second goal was to develop out of the analysis method a tool that could serve as the instructor's in evaluating the individuals and the crew's simulator performances. It was assumed that such a tool would enhance the efficiency of the simulator training, because with it the instructors could provide more explicit performance feedback for the operators. The next stage was to apply the method to the entire simulator training and create a course, which consists of a theoretical part and practical training on the simulator. That was done in the retraining period in 1998. The future goals are to improve the method so that it will be used in all the simulator training at the Teollisuuden Voima Oy full-scope training simulator (OLKS). (author)

  12. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This volume contains five appendices

  13. Implementing and operating the Hanford Environmental Information System and applying it to the carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.J.; Last, G.V.; Schwab, M.R.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-02-01

    To manage waste and perform environmental monitoring and restoration at the 1450-square kilometer (560-square mile) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, vast amounts of scientific and technical data are being generated from sampling. This paper provides an overview of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), a computerized system designed and implemented to manage the Site's environmental sampling data, lessons learned from putting HEIS into operation, and how HEIS is being applied to the carbon tetrachloride expedited response action being performed at the Site

  14. Human Rights Literacy: Moving towards Rights-Based Education and Transformative Action through Understandings of Dignity, Equality and Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne; de Wet, Annamagriet; van Vollenhoven, Willie

    2015-01-01

    The twentieth century has been characterised by the proliferation of human rights in the discursive practices of the United Nations (Baxi, 1997). In this article, we explore the continual process of rights-based education towards transformative action, and an open and democratic society, as dependent upon the facilitation of human rights literacy…

  15. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  16. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  17. Investigation of the mechanism of action of alemtuzumab in a human CD52 transgenic mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanping; Turner, Michael J; Shields, Jacqueline; Gale, Matthew S; Hutto, Elizabeth; Roberts, Bruce L; Siders, William M; Kaplan, Johanne M

    2009-01-01

    Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against CD52, an antigen found on the surface of normal and malignant lymphocytes. It is approved for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and is undergoing Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The exact mechanism by which alemtuzumab mediates its biological effects in vivo is not clearly defined and mechanism of action studies have been hampered by the lack of cross-reactivity between human and mouse CD52. To address this issue, a transgenic mouse expressing human CD52 (hCD52) was created. Transgenic mice did not display any phenotypic abnormalities and were able to mount normal immune responses. The tissue distribution of hCD52 and the level of expression by various immune cell populations were comparable to those seen in humans. Treatment with alemtuzumab replicated the transient increase in serum cytokines and depletion of peripheral blood lymphocytes observed in humans. Lymphocyte depletion was not as profound in lymphoid organs, providing a possible explanation for the relatively low incidence of infection in alemtuzumab-treated patients. Interestingly, both lymphocyte depletion and cytokine induction by alemtuzumab were largely independent of complement and appeared to be mediated by neutrophils and natural killer cells because removal of these populations with antibodies to Gr-1 or asialo-GM-1, respectively, strongly inhibited the activity of alemtuzumab whereas removal of complement by treatment with cobra venom factor had no impact. The hCD52 transgenic mouse appears to be a useful model and has provided evidence for the previously uncharacterized involvement of neutrophils in the activity of alemtuzumab. PMID:19740383

  18. An approach to incorporate the operator actions in the simulation of accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposito, A.; Quiroga, J.A.; Ibarra, A.; Hortal, J.; Hulsund, J.E.; Bisio, R.; Nilsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a procedure validation system that is able to simulate the effect of operator actuations. This tool consists of the combination of a plant transient simulation code TRETA, a computerized procedure system COPMA-III, adapted for simulation and a software interface that provides the communication between COPMA-III and TRETA. During the first stage of the project three principal tasks have been carried out: the plant model for TRETA, the interpretation and computerization of the Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP), which was done concerning the steam line break as a pilot application, and the COPMA/TRETA connection and the definition of the communication protocol developed using the Software BUS data communication system. (author)

  19. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea; E. Tolosana-Esteban; E. Roman-Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents.Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scie...

  20. Anti-addiction Drug Ibogaine Prolongs the Action Potential in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubi, Lena; Eckert, Daniel; Boehm, Stefan; Hilber, Karlheinz; Koenig, Xaver

    2017-04-01

    Ibogaine is a plant alkaloid used as anti-addiction drug in dozens of alternative medicine clinics worldwide. Recently, alarming reports of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and cases of sudden death associated with the ingestion of ibogaine have accumulated. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings, we assessed the effects of ibogaine and its main metabolite noribogaine on action potentials in human ventricular-like cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine and its long-lived active metabolite noribogaine significantly retarded action potential repolarization in human cardiomyocytes. These findings represent the first experimental proof that ibogaine application entails a cardiac arrhythmia risk for humans. In addition, they explain the clinically observed delayed incidence of cardiac adverse events several days after ibogaine intake. We conclude that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine retard action potential repolarization in the human heart. This may give rise to a prolongation of the QT interval in the electrocardiogram and cardiac arrhythmias.

  1. HuRECA: Human Reliability Evaluator for Computer-based Control Room Actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Lee, Seung Jun; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2011-01-01

    As computer-based design features such as computer-based procedures (CBP), soft controls (SCs), and integrated information systems are being adopted in main control rooms (MCR) of nuclear power plants, a human reliability analysis (HRA) method capable of dealing with the effects of these design features on human reliability is needed. From the observations of human factors engineering verification and validation experiments, we have drawn some major important characteristics on operator behaviors and design-related influencing factors (DIFs) from the perspective of human reliability. Firstly, there are new DIFs that should be considered in developing an HRA method for computer-based control rooms including especially CBP and SCs. In the case of the computer-based procedure rather than the paper-based procedure, the structural and managerial elements should be considered as important PSFs in addition to the procedural contents. In the case of the soft controllers, the so-called interface management tasks (or secondary tasks) should be reflected in the assessment of human error probability. Secondly, computer-based control rooms can provide more effective error recovery features than conventional control rooms. Major error recovery features for computer-based control rooms include the automatic logic checking function of the computer-based procedure and the information sharing feature of the general computer-based designs

  2. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

    2007-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  3. Two Equals One: Two Human Actions During Social Interaction Are Grouped as One Unit in Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaowei; Gao, Zaifeng; Shen, Mowei

    2017-09-01

    Every day, people perceive other people performing interactive actions. Retaining these actions of human agents in working memory (WM) plays a pivotal role in a normal social life. However, whether the semantic knowledge embedded in the interactive actions has a pervasive impact on the storage of the actions in WM remains unknown. In the current study, we investigated two opposing hypotheses: (a) that WM stores the interactions individually (the individual-storage hypothesis) and (b) that WM stores the interactions as chunks (the chunk-storage hypothesis). We required participants to memorize a set of individual actions while ignoring the underlying social interactions. We found that although the social-interaction aspect was task irrelevant, the interactive actions were stored in WM as chunks that were not affected by memory load (Experiments 1 and 2); however, inverting the human actions vertically abolished this chunking effect (Experiment 3). These results suggest that WM automatically and efficiently used semantic knowledge about interactive actions to store them and support the chunk-storage hypothesis.

  4. New classification of operators' human errors at overseas nuclear power plants and preparation of easy-to-use case sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagawa, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    At nuclear power plants, plant operators examine other human error cases, including those that occurred at other plants, so that they can learn from such experiences and avoid making similar errors again. Although there is little data available on errors made at domestic plants, nuclear operators in foreign countries are reporting even minor irregularities and signs of faults, and a large amount of data on human errors at overseas plants could be collected and examined. However, these overseas data have not been used effectively because most of them are poorly organized or not properly classified and are often hard to understand. Accordingly, we carried out a study on the cases of human errors at overseas power plants in order to help plant personnel clearly understand overseas experiences and avoid repeating similar errors, The study produced the following results, which were put to use at nuclear power plants and other facilities. (1) ''One-Point-Advice'' refers to a practice where a leader gives pieces of advice to his team of operators in order to prevent human errors before starting work. Based on this practice and those used in the aviation industry, we have developed a new method of classifying human errors that consists of four basic actions and three applied actions. (2) We used this new classification method to classify human errors made by operators at overseas nuclear power plants. The results show that the most frequent errors caused not by operators themselves but due to insufficient team monitoring, for which superiors and/or their colleagues were responsible. We therefore analyzed and classified possible factors contributing to insufficient team monitoring, and demonstrated that the frequent errors have also occurred at domestic power plants. (3) Using the new classification formula, we prepared a human error case sheets that is easy for plant personnel to understand. The sheets are designed to make data more understandable and easier to remember

  5. Coordinated action of histone modification and microRNA regulations in human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Zheng, Guantao; Dong, Dong

    2015-10-10

    Both histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal role in gene expression regulation. Although numerous studies have been devoted to explore the gene regulation by miRNA and epigenetic regulations, their coordinated actions have not been comprehensively examined. In this work, we systematically investigated the combinatorial relationship between miRNA and epigenetic regulation by taking advantage of recently published whole genome-wide histone modification data and high quality miRNA targeting data. The results showed that miRNA targets have distinct histone modification patterns compared with non-targets in their promoter regions. Based on this finding, we proposed a machine learning approach to fit predictive models on the task to discern whether a gene is targeted by a specific miRNA. We found a considerable advantage in both sensitivity and specificity in diverse human cell lines. Finally, we found that our predicted miRNA targets are consistently annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Our work is the first genome-wide investigation of the coordinated action of miRNA and histone modification regulations, which provide a guide to deeply understand the complexity of transcriptional regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The action of sennosides and related compounds on human colon and rectum 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, J. D.; Wilkins, J. L.

    1970-01-01

    The direct action of intraluminal senna and related compounds on the human colon and rectum has been investigated. Motility was recorded by balloon kymography with recording units inserted into well established transverse colostomies or into the rectum. The motility of the colon was not changed by intraluminal senna glycosides but the introduction of senna previously incubated with faeces or Esch. coli stimulated the colon to peristalt. The peristalsis was similar to that stimulated by rheinanthrone, an oxanthrone produced by chemical hydrolysis and reduction of senna. Both activated senna and rheinanthrone appeared to act in the colon by contact stimulation. No peristaltic response was stimulated in the rectum, either with activated senna or with rheinanthrone. PMID:4929273

  7. Molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhalaya, M Ya; Maksimov, G V; Rubin, A B; Lademann, J; Darvin, M E

    2014-07-01

    The generation of ROS underlies all solar infrared-affected therapeutic and pathological cutaneous effects. The signaling pathway NF-kB is responsible for the induced therapeutic effects, while the AP-1 for the pathological effects. The different signaling pathways of infrared-induced ROS and infrared-induced heat shock ROS were shown to act independently multiplying the influence on each other by increasing the doses of irradiation and/or increasing the temperature. The molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin are summarized and discussed in detail in the present paper. The critical doses are determined. Protection strategies against infrared-induced skin damage are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantum double actions on operator algebras and orbifold quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueger, M.

    1996-06-01

    Starting from a local quantum field theory with an unbroken compact symmetry group G in 1+1 dimensional spacetime we construct disorder fields implementing gauge transformations on the fields (order variables) localized in a wedge region. Enlarging the local algebras by these disorder fields we obtain a nonlocal field theory, the fixpoint algebras of which under the appropriately extended action of the group G are shown to satisfy Haag duality in every simple sector. The specifically 1+1 dimensional phenomenon of violation of Haag duality of fixpoint nets is thereby clarified. In the case of a finite group G the extended theory is acted upon in a completely canonical way by the quantum double D(G) and satisfies R-matrix commutation relations as well as a Verlinde algebra. Furthermore, our methods are suitable for a concise and transparent approach to bosonization. The main technical ingredient is a strengthened version of the split property which should hold in all reasonable massive theories. In the appendices (part of) the results are extended to arbitary locally compact groups and our methods are adapted to chiral theories on the circle. (orig.)

  9. Inter-subject variability in human atrial action potential in sinus rhythm versus chronic atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sánchez

    Full Text Available Human atrial electrophysiology exhibits high inter-subject variability in both sinus rhythm (SR and chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF patients. Variability is however rarely investigated in experimental and theoretical electrophysiological studies, thus hampering the understanding of its underlying causes but also its implications in explaining differences in the response to disease and treatment. In our study, we aim at investigating the ability of populations of human atrial cell models to capture the inter-subject variability in action potential (AP recorded in 363 patients both under SR and cAF conditions.Human AP recordings in atrial trabeculae (n = 469 from SR and cAF patients were used to calibrate populations of computational SR and cAF atrial AP models. Three populations of over 2000 sampled models were generated, based on three different human atrial AP models. Experimental calibration selected populations of AP models yielding AP with morphology and duration in range with experimental recordings. Populations using the three original models can mimic variability in experimental AP in both SR and cAF, with median conductance values in SR for most ionic currents deviating less than 30% from their original peak values. All cAF populations show similar variations in G(K1, G(Kur and G(to, consistent with AF-related remodeling as reported in experiments. In all SR and cAF model populations, inter-subject variability in I(K1 and I(NaK underlies variability in APD90, variability in I(Kur, I(CaL and I(NaK modulates variability in APD50 and combined variability in Ito and I(Kur determines variability in APD20. The large variability in human atrial AP triangulation is mostly determined by I(K1 and either I(NaK or I(NaCa depending on the model.Experimentally-calibrated human atrial AP models populations mimic AP variability in SR and cAF patient recordings, and identify potential ionic determinants of inter-subject variability in human atrial AP

  10. Supervising UAVs : improving operator performance by optimizing the human factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van; Jansen, C.; Veltman, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tele-operated unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have no operators on board and therefore enable extension of the present sensing and communication capabilities in civil and military missions, without unnecessarily endangering personnel or deploying expensive material. One should also realize that

  11. Human factors in operational maintenance on future naval vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Schreurs, J.C.; Rakhorst-Oudendijk, M.L.W.; Badon Ghijben, N.A.; Diggelen, J. van

    2014-01-01

    The increasing complexity of operational maintenance on naval platforms and the need to sustain this also in battle conditions are in conflict with the requirement for crew reduction. This asks for a new approach. The Netherlands MoD knows how to develop technical solutions for operational

  12. Safety and health in forest harvesting operations. Diagnosis and preventive actions. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albizu-Urionabarrenetxea, P. M.; Tolosana-Esteban, E.; Roman-Jordan, E.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: to review the present state of the art in relation to the main labour risks and the most relevant results of recent studies evaluating the safety and health conditions of the forest harvesting work and better ways to reduce accidents. Area of study: It focuses mainly on developed Countries, where the general concern about work risks prevention, together with the complex idiosyncrasy of forest work in forest harvesting operations, has led to a growing interest from the forest scientific and technical community. Material and Methods: The main bibliographic and Internet references have been identified using common reference analysis tools. Their conclusions and recommendations have been comprehensively summarized. Main results: Collection of the principal references and their most important conclusions relating to the main accident risk factors, their causes and consequences, the means used towards their prevention, both instrumental as well as in the aspects of training and business management, besides the influence of the growing mechanization of logging operations on those risks. Research highlights: Accident risk is higher in forest harvesting than in most other work sectors, and the main risk factors such as experience, age, seasonality, training, protective equipment, mechanization degree, etc. have been identified and studied. The paper summarizes some relevant results, one of the principal being that the proper entrepreneurial risk management is a key factor leading to the success in minimizing labour risks. (Author)

  13. HiRITER - An evaluation tool to reduce the adverse effect of inappropriate human actions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Jung, W.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Heo, G.

    2012-01-01

    From end-users to regulatory bodies, it is widely recognized that human-induced events including inappropriate human actions are one of the most crucial sources degrading the overall safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs). This means that a systematic framework through which inappropriate human actions can be effectively identified is necessary to enhance the safety of NPPs. For this reason, HiRITER (High Risk Inducible Task Evaluator) has been developed, which is able to evaluate the effect of inappropriate human actions on risk as well as performance. To this end, HiRITER integrates three modules that have distinctive roles: human error prediction module that is able to determine the types of failure modes resulting from inappropriate human actions with the associated daily task, performance evaluation module that computes the loss of electric power due to the change of component configurations caused by human error and risk evaluation module that clarifies whether or not the propagation of human error can trigger an unexpected shutdown of NPPs. In addition, a couple of real events that had occurred in domestic NPPs are simulated in order to validate the feasibility of HiRITER. As a result, it is observed that the results of HiRITER are largely congruent with those of real events. Therefore, although a huge amount of additional effort is indispensable to enhance the overall accuracy of estimated results, it is expected that HiRITER could be a good starting point to reduce the adverse effect of inappropriate human actions in NPPs

  14. Action Stations! 100 years of trauma care on maritime and amphibious operations in the Royal Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, M; Smith, J E

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century trauma care within the Royal Navy (RN) has evolved; wartime experiences and military medical research have combined to allow significant improvement in the care of casualties. This article describes the key maritime and amphibious operations that have seen the Royal Navy Medical Service (RNMS) deliver high levels of support to wherever the Naval Service has deployed in the last 100 years. Key advancements in which progress has led to improved outcomes for injured personnel are highlighted--the control and treatment of blood loss, wound care, and the prevention and management of organ failure with optimal resuscitation. Historians often point out how slowly military medicine progressed for the first few thousand years of its recorded history, and how quickly it has progressed in the last century. This reflective article will show how the RNMS has been an integral part of that story, and how the lessons learnt by our predecessors have shaped our modern day doctrine surrounding trauma care.

  15. Troubling practices of control: re-visiting Hannah Arendt's ideas of human action as praxis of the unpredictable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlen, Helen

    2015-07-01

    In this article, Hannah Arendt's concept of action will be used to problematize current transformations of the health care sector and examine some responses by ethicists in light of those transformations. The sphere of human interaction that should typify health care work is identified as an action of unpredictable praxis in contrast to controllable procedures and techniques which increasingly take place in the health care sector. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Distinct prediction errors in mesostriatal circuits of the human brain mediate learning about the values of both states and actions: evidence from high-resolution fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Jaron T; Pauli, Wolfgang M; Larsen, Tobias; Tyszka, J Michael; O'Doherty, John P

    2017-10-01

    Prediction-error signals consistent with formal models of "reinforcement learning" (RL) have repeatedly been found within dopaminergic nuclei of the midbrain and dopaminoceptive areas of the striatum. However, the precise form of the RL algorithms implemented in the human brain is not yet well determined. Here, we created a novel paradigm optimized to dissociate the subtypes of reward-prediction errors that function as the key computational signatures of two distinct classes of RL models-namely, "actor/critic" models and action-value-learning models (e.g., the Q-learning model). The state-value-prediction error (SVPE), which is independent of actions, is a hallmark of the actor/critic architecture, whereas the action-value-prediction error (AVPE) is the distinguishing feature of action-value-learning algorithms. To test for the presence of these prediction-error signals in the brain, we scanned human participants with a high-resolution functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol optimized to enable measurement of neural activity in the dopaminergic midbrain as well as the striatal areas to which it projects. In keeping with the actor/critic model, the SVPE signal was detected in the substantia nigra. The SVPE was also clearly present in both the ventral striatum and the dorsal striatum. However, alongside these purely state-value-based computations we also found evidence for AVPE signals throughout the striatum. These high-resolution fMRI findings suggest that model-free aspects of reward learning in humans can be explained algorithmically with RL in terms of an actor/critic mechanism operating in parallel with a system for more direct action-value learning.

  17. Integrating women's human rights into global health research: an action framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Donna; Kapungu, Chisina; Khare, Manorama H; Lewis, Yvonne; Barlow-Mosha, Linda

    2010-11-01

    This article uses Scale of Change theory as a framework to guide global health researchers to synergistically target women's health outcomes in the context of improving their right to freedom, equity, and equality of opportunities. We hypothesize that health researchers can do so through six action strategies. These strategies include (1) becoming fully informed of women's human rights directives to integrate them into research, (2) mainstreaming gender in the research, (3) using the expertise of grass roots women's organizations in the setting, (4) showcasing women's equity and equality in the organizational infrastructure, (5) disseminating research findings to policymakers in the study locale to influence health priorities, and (6) publicizing the social conditions that are linked to women's diseases. We explore conceptual and logistical dilemmas in transforming a study using these principles and also provide a case study of obstetric fistula reduction in Nigeria to illustrate how these strategies can be operationalized. Our intent is to offer a feasible approach to health researchers who, conceptually, may link women's health to social and cultural conditions but are looking for practical implementation strategies to examine a women's health issue through the lens of their human rights.

  18. "The Human Condition" as social ontology: Hannah Arendt on society, action and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Hannah Arendt is widely regarded as a political theorist who sought to rescue politics from "society," and political theory from the social sciences. This conventional view has had the effect of distracting attention from many of Arendt's most important insights concerning the constitution of "society" and the significance of the social sciences. In this article, I argue that Hannah Arendt's distinctions between labor, work, and action, as these are discussed in "The Human Condition" and elsewhere, are best understood as a set of claims about the fundamental structures of human societies. Understanding Arendt in this way introduces interesting parallels between Arendt's work and both classical and contemporary sociology. From this I draw a number of conclusions concerning Arendt's conception of "society," and extend these insights into two contemporary debates within contemporary theoretical sociology: the need for a differentiated ontology of the social world, and the changing role that novel forms of knowledge play in contemporary society as major sources of social change and order.

  19. Lethal action of ultraviolet and visible (blue violet) radiations at defined wavelengths on human lymphoblastoid cells; action spectra and interaction sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, R.M.; Werfelli, P.; Moraes, E.C. (Institut Suisse de Recherches Experimentales sur le Cancer, Lausanne)

    1984-02-01

    The repair proficient human lymphoblastoid line (TK6) has been employed to construct an action spectrum for the lethal action of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the range 254 to 434 nm and to examine possible interactions between longer (334, 365 and 405 nm) and shorter wavelength (254 and 313 nm) radiations. The action spectrum follows a DNA absorption spectrum fairly closely out to 360 nm. As in previously determined lethal action spectra for procaryotic and eucaryotic cell populations, there is a broad shoulder in the 334 to 405 nm region which could reflect the existence of either (a) a non-DNA chromophore or (b) a unique photochemical reaction in the DNA over this region. Pre-treatment with radiation at 334 or 365 nm causes either a slight sensitivity to (low fluences) or protection from (higher fluences) subsequent exposure to radiation at a shorter wavelength (254 or 313 nm). Pre-irradiation at a visible wavelength (405 nm) at all fluence levels employed sensitizes the populations to treatment with 254 or 313 nm radiations. These interactions will influence the lethal outcome of cellular exposure to broad-band radiation sources.

  20. Lethal action of ultraviolet and visible (blue violet) radiations at defined wavelengths on human lymphoblastoid cells; action spectra and interaction sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrrell, R.M.; Werfelli, P.; Moraes, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The repair proficient human lymphoblastoid line (TK6) has been employed to construct an action spectrum for the lethal action of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the range 254 to 434 nm and to examine possible interactions between longer (334, 365 and 405 nm) and shorter wavelength (254 and 313 nm) radiations. The action spectrum follows a DNA absorption spectrum fairly closely out to 360 nm. As in previously determined lethal action spectra for procaryotic and eucaryotic cell populations, there is a broad shoulder in the 334 to 405 nm region which could reflect the existence of either (a) a non-DNA chromophore or (b) a unique photochemical reaction in the DNA over this region. Pre-treatment with radiation at 334 or 365 nm causes either a slight sensitivity to (low fluences) or protection from (higher fluences) subsequent exposure to radiation at a shorter wavelength (254 or 313 nm). Pre-irradiation at a visible wavelength (405 nm) at all fluence levels employed sensitizes the populations to treatment with 254 or 313 nm radiations. These interactions will influence the lethal outcome of cellular exposure to broad-band radiation sources. (author)

  1. Conduction velocity of action potentials measured from unidimensional latency-topography in human and frog skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, S; Nakajima, Y; Hayashi, K; Toma, S

    1986-01-01

    Conduction of an action potential along skeletal muscle fibers was graphically displayed by unidimensional latency-topography, UDLT. Since the slopes of the equipotential line were linear and the width of the line was constant, it was possible to calculate conduction velocity from the slope. To determine conduction direction of the muscle action potential elicited by electric stimulation applied directly to the muscle, surface recording electrodes were placed on a two-dimensional plane over a human muscle. Thus a bi-dimensional topography was obtained. Then, twelve or sixteen surface electrodes were placed linearly along the longitudinal direction of the action potential conduction which was disclosed by the bi-dimensional topography. Thus conduction velocity of muscle action potential in man, calculated from the slope, was for m. brachioradialis, 3.9 +/- 0.4 m/s; for m. biceps brachii, 3.6 +/- 0.2 m/s; for m. sternocleidomastoideus, 3.6 +/- 0.4 m/s. By using a tungsten microelectrode to stimulate the motor axons, a convex-like equipotential line of an action potential in UDLT was obtained from human muscle fibers. Since a similar pattern of UDLT was obtained from experiments on isolated frog muscles, in which the muscle action potential was elicited by stimulating the motor axon, it was assumed that the maximum of the curve corresponds to the end-plate region, and that the slopes on both sides indicate bi-directional conduction of the action potential.

  2. Human Factors Analysis of Pipeline Monitoring and Control Operations: Final Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    The purpose of the Human Factors Analysis of Pipeline Monitoring and Control Operations project was to develop procedures that could be used by liquid pipeline operators to assess and manage the human factors risks in their control rooms that may adv...

  3. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Tadhg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. Study Design Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. Results Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. Conclusion Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  4. Stimulated human mast cells secrete mitochondrial components that have autocrine and paracrine inflammatory actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodi Zhang

    Full Text Available Mast cells are hematopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that participate in acquired and innate immunity, as well as in inflammation through release of many chemokines and cytokines, especially in response to the pro-inflammatory peptide substance P (SP. Inflammation is critical in the pathogenesis of many diseases, but the trigger(s is often unknown. We investigated if mast cell stimulation leads to secretion of mitochondrial components and whether these could elicit autocrine and/or paracrine inflammatory effects. Here we show that human LAD2 mast cells stimulated by IgE/anti-IgE or by the SP led to secretion of mitochondrial particles, mitochondrial (mt mtDNA and ATP without cell death. Mitochondria purified from LAD2 cells and, when mitochondria added to mast cells trigger degranulation and release of histamine, PGD(2, IL-8, TNF, and IL-1β. This stimulatory effect is partially inhibited by an ATP receptor antagonist and by DNAse. These results suggest that the mitochondrial protein fraction may also contribute. Purified mitochondria also stimulate IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF release from cultured human keratinocytes, and VEGF release from primary human microvascular endothelial cells. In order to investigate if mitochondrial components could be secreted in vivo, we injected rats intraperiotoneally (ip with compound 48/80, which mimicks the action of SP. Peritoneal mast cells degranulated and mitochondrial particles were documented by transimission electron microscopy outside the cells. We also wished to investigate if mitochondrial components secreted locally could reach the systemic circulation. Administration ip of mtDNA isolated from LAD2 cells in rats was detected in their serum within 4 hr, indicating that extravascular mtDNA could enter the systemic circulation. Secretion of mitochondrial components from stimulated live mast cells may act as "autopathogens" contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory

  5. Effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in human chorionic arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, Chrisen H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sildenafil citrate, a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, is increasingly used for pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy. Sildenafil is also emerging as a potential candidate for the treatment of intra-uterine growth retardation and for premature labor. Its effects in the feto-placental circulation are not known. Our objectives were to determine whether phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the human feto-placental circulation, and to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of sildenafil citrate in this circulation. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo human chorionic plate arterial rings were used in all experiments. The presence of phosphodiesterase-5 in the feto-placental circulation was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. In a subsequent series of pharmacologic studies, the effects of sildenafil citrate in pre-constricted chorionic plate arterial rings were determined. Additional studies examined the role of cGMP and nitric oxide in mediating the effects of sildenafil. RESULTS: Phosphodiesterase-5 mRNA and protein was demonstrated in human chorionic plate arteries. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated phosphodiesterase-5 within the arterial muscle layer. Sildenafil citrate produced dose dependent vasodilatation at concentrations at and greater than 10 nM. Both the direct cGMP inhibitor methylene blue and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS significantly attenuated the vasodilation produced by sildenafil citrate. Inhibition of NO production with L-NAME did not attenuate the vasodilator effects of sildenafil. In contrast, sildenafil citrate significantly enhanced the vasodilation produced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. CONCLUSION: Phosphodiesterase-5 is present in the feto-placental circulation. Sildenafil citrate vasodilates the feto-placental circulation via a cGMP dependent mechanism involving increased responsiveness to NO.

  6. Derivation of main drivers affecting the possibility of human errors during low power and shutdown operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan

    2016-01-01

    In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers which are commonly called as performance shaping factors (PSFs) are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers which

  7. Derivation of main drivers affecting the possibility of human errors during low power and shutdown operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers which are commonly called as performance shaping factors (PSFs) are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers

  8. PERFORMANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN AN INTERNATIONALLY OPERATING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mura

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In our days, society is greatly influenced and altered by the process of internationalization andglobalization. Globalization refers to a whole set of changes, not to one single dimensional change.The process of internationalization puts a special and high importance on the work of humanresources managers. In order to remain successful and competitive in the international businessenvironment, companies have to pay close attention to cultural factors. These may considerablydiffer among workers in multinational companies. We are taking a careful look at human resourcemanagement in this new age, and especially at the impact of globalization and internationalization.Our case study is built on the company MOL, specifically on some of the activities it develops in thefield of human resource management: training programmes, personnel motivation, careerdevelopment. We highlight some of the critical aspects of human resources management at MOL,and see what lessons are being learned and what conclusions we can draw.

  9. Space for human connection in antenatal education: Uncovering women's hopes using Participatory Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Vivienne; Lalor, Joan

    2017-12-01

    the aim of this research was to initiate active consultation with women and antenatal educators in the development and delivery of antenatal education that was mutually relevant. a Participatory Action Research approach influenced by feminist concerns was used to guide the research. Data were analysed by the researcher and participants using a Voice Centred Relational Method of Analysis. an Antenatal Education service in a consultant-led tertiary referral unit in Ireland. research findings revealed women's desires to build relationships through ANE to cope with anticipated loneliness and isolation after birth; however, environmental, structural, and organisational factors prohibited opportunity to build space for human connection. Participating women valued external and authoritative knowledge as truth, but concomitantly sought opportunity and space through classes to learn from the real life experiences of other mothers. Women lacked confidence in embodied knowing and their power to birth and demonstrated unquestioning acceptance of the predetermined nature of hospital birth and biomedical model of maternity care. in this research, we envisioned that hospital-based ANE, relevant and grounded in the needs and life experiences of women, could be developed, with a view to supporting women's decision-making processes, and understanding of pregnancy, birth and early motherhood. Participatory Action Research using a Voice Centred Relational Method of Analysis offered an opportunity to foster ethical and dialogic activity between learner and facilitator, underpinned by acknowledgement of the value of women's experiences; however, space for expression of new and useful knowledge in preparation for motherhood was limited by institutional context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mutagenesis and cytotoxicity in human epithelial cells by far- and near-ultraviolet radiations: action spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.A.; Huberman, E.; Cunningham, M.L.; Peak, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Action spectra were determined for cell killing and mutation by monochromatic ultraviolet and visible radiations (254-434 nm) in cultured human epithelial P3 cells. Cell killing was more efficient following radiation at the shorter wavelengths (254-434 nm) than at longer wavelengths (365-434 nm). At 254 nm, for example, a fluence of 11 Jm-2 gave 37% cell survival, while at 365 nm, 17 X 10(5) Jm-2 gave equivalent survival. At 434 nm little killing was observed with fluences up to 3 X 10(6) Jm-2. Mutant induction, determined at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase locus, was caused by radiation at 254, 313, and 365 nm. There was no mutant induction at 334 nm although this wavelength was highly cytotoxic. Mutagenesis was not induced by 434 nm radiation, either. There was a weak response at 405 nm; the mutant frequencies were only slightly increased above background levels. For the mutagenic wavelengths, log-log plots of the mutation frequency against fluence showed linear regressions with positive slopes of 2.5, consistent with data from a previous study using Escherichia coli. The data points of the action spectra for lethality and mutagenesis were similar to the spectrum for DNA damage at wavelengths shorter than 313 nm, whereas at longer wavelengths the lethality spectrum had a shoulder, and the mutagenesis spectrum had a secondary peak at 365 nm. No correlation was observed for the P3 cells between the spectra for cell killing and mutagenesis caused by wavelengths longer than 313 nm and the induction of DNA breakage or the formation of DNA-to-protein covalent bonds in these cells

  11. Site-specific PEGylation of human thyroid stimulating hormone to prolong duration of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huawei; Boudanova, Ekaterina; Park, Anna; Bird, Julie J; Honey, Denise M; Zarazinski, Christine; Greene, Ben; Kingsbury, Jonathan S; Boucher, Susan; Pollock, Julie; McPherson, John M; Pan, Clark Q

    2013-03-20

    Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rhTSH or Thyrogen) has been approved for thyroid cancer diagnostics and treatment under a multidose regimen due to its short circulating half-life. To reduce dosing frequency, PEGylation strategies were explored to increase the duration of action of rhTSH. Lysine and N-terminal PEGylation resulted in heterogeneous product profiles with 40% or lower reaction yields of monoPEGylated products. Eleven cysteine mutants were designed based on a structure model of the TSH-TSH receptor (TSHR) complex to create unique conjugation sites on both α and β subunits for site-specific conjugation. Sequential screening of mutant expression level, oligomerization tendency, and conjugation efficiency resulted in the identification of the αG22C rhTSH mutant for stable expression and scale-up PEGylation. The introduced cysteine in the αG22C rhTSH mutant was partially blocked when isolated from conditioned media and could only be effectively PEGylated after mild reduction with cysteine. This produced a higher reaction yield, ~85%, for the monoPEGylated product. Although the mutation had no effect on receptor binding, PEGylation of αG22C rhTSH led to a PEG size-dependent decrease in receptor binding. Nevertheless, the 40 kDa PEG αG22C rhTSH showed a prolonged duration of action compared to rhTSH in a rat pharmacodynamics model. Reverse-phase HPLC and N-terminal sequencing experiments confirmed site-specific modification at the engineered Cys 22 position on the α-subunit. This work is another demonstration of successful PEGylation of a cysteine-knot protein by an engineered cysteine mutation.

  12. Radiation protection for human interplanetary spaceflight and planetary surface operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, B.C. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)]|[DLR Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne (Germany)]|[NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiation protection issues are reviewed for five categories of radiation exposure during human missions to the moon and Mars: trapped radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, solar flare particle events, planetary surface emissions, and on-board radiation sources. Relative hazards are dependent upon spacecraft and vehicle configurations, flight trajectories, human susceptibility, shielding effectiveness, monitoring and warning systems, and other factors. Crew cabins, interplanetary mission modules, surface habitats, planetary rovers, and extravehicular mobility units (spacesuits) provide various degrees of protection. Countermeasures that may be taken are reviewed relative to added complexity and risks that they could entail, with suggestions for future research and analysis.

  13. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Rockström, Johan; Steffen, Will

    2009-01-01

    boundaries are rough, first estimates only, surrounded by large uncertainties and knowledge gaps. Filling these gaps will require major advancements in Earth System and resilience science. The proposed concept of "planetary boundaries" lays the groundwork for shifting our approach to governance...... and management, away from the essentially sectoral analyses of limits to growth aimed at minimizing negative externalities, toward the estimation of the safe space for human development. Planetary boundaries define, as it were, the boundaries of the "planetary playing field" for humanity if we want to be sure...

  14. Valenced action/inhibition learning in humans is modulated by a genetic variant linked to dopamine D2 receptor expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni eRichter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Motivational salience plays an important role in shaping human behavior, but recent studies demonstrate that human performance is not uniformly improved by motivation. Instead, action has been shown to dominate valence in motivated tasks, and it is particularly difficult for humans to learn the inhibition of an action to obtain a reward, but the neural mechanism behind this behavioral specificity is yet unclear. In all mammals, including humans, the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine is particularly important in the neural manifestation of appetitively motivated behavior, and the human dopamine system is subject to considerable genetic variability. The well-studied TaqIA restriction fragment length polymorphism (rs1800497 has previously been shown to affect striatal dopamine metabolism. In this study we investigated a potential effect of this genetic variation on motivated action/inhibition learning. Two independent cohorts consisting of 87 and 95 healthy participants, respectively, were tested using the previously described valenced go/no-go learning paradigm in which participants learned the reward-associated no-go condition significantly worse than all other conditions. This effect was modulated by the TaqIA polymorphism, with carriers of the A1 allele showing a diminished learning-related performance enhancement in the rewarded no-go condition compared to the A2 homozygotes. This result highlights a modulatory role for genetic variability of the dopaminergic system in individual learning differences of action-valence interaction.

  15. Human rights literacy: Moving towards rights-based education and transformative action through understandings of dignity, equality and freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Becker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The twentieth century has been characterised by the proliferation of human rights in the discursive practices of the United Nations (Baxi, 1997. In this article, we explore the continual process of rights-based education towards transformative action, and an open and democratic society, as dependent upon the facilitation of human rights literacy in teacher training. Our theoretical framework examines the continual process of moving towards an open and democratic society through the facilitation of human rights literacy, rights-based education and transformative action. We focus specifically on understandings of dignity, equality and freedom, as both rights (legal claims and values (moral action across horizontal and vertical applications, considering the internalisation and implementation of dignity, equality and freedom towards transformative action. Our analysis of data stemming from a project funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF entitled 'Human Rights Literacy: A quest for meaning', brought student-teachers' understandings into conversation with the proposed theoretical framework. In terms of understandings related to dignity, equality and freedom, participants seemingly understand human rights either as legal interests, or alternatively, as they pertain to values such as caring, ubuntu, respect, human dignity and equality. Legal understandings primarily focus on the vertical application of the Bill of Rights (RSA, 1996a and the role of government in this regard, whereas understandings related to the realisation of values tended to focus on the horizontal applications of particularly dignity and equality as the product of the relation between self and other. We conclude the article by linking the analysis and the theoretical framework to education as a humanising practice within human rights as a common language of humanity. In so doing, we argue that human rights literacy and rights-based education transcend knowledge about human

  16. By the sound of it. An ERP investigation of human action sound processing in 7-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geangu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that human adults perceive human action sounds as a distinct category from human vocalizations, environmental, and mechanical sounds, activating different neural networks (Engel et al., 2009; Lewis et al., 2011. Yet, little is known about the development of such specialization. Using event-related potentials (ERP, this study investigated neural correlates of 7-month-olds’ processing of human action (HA sounds in comparison to human vocalizations (HV, environmental (ENV, and mechanical (MEC sounds. Relative to the other categories, HA sounds led to increased positive amplitudes between 470 and 570 ms post-stimulus onset at left anterior temporal locations, while HV led to increased negative amplitudes at the more posterior temporal locations in both hemispheres. Collectively, human produced sounds (HA + HV led to significantly different response profiles compared to non-living sound sources (ENV + MEC at parietal and frontal locations in both hemispheres. Overall, by 7 months of age human action sounds are being differentially processed in the brain, consistent with a dichotomy for processing living versus non-living things. This provides novel evidence regarding the typical categorical processing of socially relevant sounds.

  17. 40 CFR 26.1603 - Operation of the Human Studies Review Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate for the scientific and ethical review of human research, including research ethics, biostatistics... scientific and ethical aspects of research proposals and reports of completed research with human subjects... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation of the Human Studies Review...

  18. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  19. Comparison of implementation of selected TMI action plan requirements on operating plants designed by Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, J.O.

    1984-05-01

    This report provides the results of a study conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff to compare the degree to which eight Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) designed licensed nuclear power plants have complied with the requirements in NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements. The eight licensed operating plants examined are as follows: Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 (ANO-1), Crystal River Unit 3, Davis Besse, Oconee Units 1, 2, and 3, Rancho Seco, and Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1). The purpose of this audit was to establish the progress of the TMI-1 licensee, General Public Utilities (GPU) Nuclear Corporation, in completing the long-term requirements in NUREG-0737 relative to the other B and W licensees examined

  20. Effective action for composite operators and chiral symmetry breakdown in asymptotically free and non-asymptotically free gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusynin, V.P.; Miranskij, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    An essential distinction in the relaization of the PCAC dynamics in asymptotically free and non-asymptotically free (with a non-trivial ultraviolet-stable fixed point) gauge theories is revealed. For the latter theories an analytical expressions for the condensate is obtained in the two-loop approximation and arguments of support of a soft behaviour at small distances of composite operators are given. The problem of factorizing the low-energy region for the Wess-Zumino-Witten action is discussed. Besides, the mass relations for pseudoscalar mesons in arbitrary Θ-sector are obtained in the first order in fermion bare masses and the impossibility for spontaneous P and CP-symmetries breaking in vector-like gauge theories at Θ=0 is shown

  1. Operations and maintenance manual for the temporary septic holding tank at the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Support Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkeson, D.E.; Jackson, G.J.

    1997-02-01

    This document provides detailed information regarding the operations and maintenance of the septic holding tank system at the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Support Facility, located in the 300 Area. This document includes the type and frequency of requirement maintenance, failure response procedures, and reporting requirements. Sanitary wastewater and raw sewage will enter the holding tank via a sloped 102 mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) line from the office trailers. The septic holding tank will be emptied, as required, by system demands. During normal usage, it is estimated that the tank will require pumping every 3 working days. Approximately 834 gallons of sanitary wastewater and raw sewage will be disposed of into the septic system during this time

  2. Modeling human-machine interactions for operations room layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Keith C.; Edwards, Jack L.; Beevis, David

    2000-11-01

    The LOCATE layout analysis tool was used to analyze three preliminary configurations for the Integrated Command Environment (ICE) of a future USN platform. LOCATE develops a cost function reflecting the quality of all human-human and human-machine communications within a workspace. This proof- of-concept study showed little difference between the efficacy of the preliminary designs selected for comparison. This was thought to be due to the limitations of the study, which included the assumption of similar size for each layout and a lack of accurate measurement data for various objects in the designs, due largely to their notional nature. Based on these results, the USN offered an opportunity to conduct a LOCATE analysis using more appropriate assumptions. A standard crew was assumed, and subject matter experts agreed on the communications patterns for the analysis. Eight layouts were evaluated with the concepts of coordination and command factored into the analysis. Clear differences between the layouts emerged. The most promising design was refined further by the USN, and a working mock-up built for human-in-the-loop evaluation. LOCATE was applied to this configuration for comparison with the earlier analyses.

  3. Operational safety related human engineering research in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    Human errors contribute considerably to the total risk of the nuclear power plants as was clearly demonstrated at the TMI-accident in 1979. This fact was recognized early in Finland and a comprehensive research program was established in the second half of the 1970s. This paper gives a short description of some research projects in this program. (author)

  4. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area

  5. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

  6. Planning-in-Action: An Innovative Approach to Human Development. The Hunger Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community Development Journal, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The Hunger Project in India used a strategic planning-in-action approach that involved (1) reaching a common understanding; (2) creating a strategic intent; (3) choosing social indicators; (4) identifying strategic objectives; (5) empowering leadership; (6) identifying immediate action steps; and (7) sustaining the action. (SK)

  7. Compliant Task Execution and Learning for Safe Mixed-Initiative Human-Robot Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuonan; Conrad, Patrick R.; Shah, Julie A.; Williams, Brian C.; Mittman, David S.; Ingham, Michel D.; Verma, Vandana

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel task execution capability that enhances the ability of in-situ crew members to function independently from Earth by enabling safe and efficient interaction with automated systems. This task execution capability provides the ability to (1) map goal-directed commands from humans into safe, compliant, automated actions, (2) quickly and safely respond to human commands and actions during task execution, and (3) specify complex motions through teaching by demonstration. Our results are applicable to future surface robotic systems, and we have demonstrated these capabilities on JPL's All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) robot.

  8. Human Performance in Continuous Operations. Volume 3. Technical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    completed for the U. S. Commander, V Corps. Artillery, by Manning (1978). Manning collected information which bears on the following three questions: 0 Can...performance data were not collected in these pre- liminary studies. Field Studies of Continuous Tank OperationsLI __ _ _ __ _ _ _ To simulate a combat...on routine, monotonous tasks tends A show rapid and severe decrement after peri- odk of more than 24 hours without sleep. I Increasing task complexity

  9. Action of nitric oxide on healthy and inflamed human dental pulp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Leopoldo Penteado Nucci; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida

    2008-10-01

    Irreversible pulpitis has been associated with pain and an increase in the number of pulp inflammatory cells. Based on the action of nitric oxide (NO) elsewhere, NO may possibly participate in the sensory and autonomic innervation of the dental pulp, and may influence local inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to analyze normal and inflamed human dental pulp for the presence of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), as an index of NO system activity. Six non-carious second premolar pulp tissue samples were obtained from young patients who required extractions for orthodontic reasons and six inflamed samples were obtained from symptomatic carious second premolars clinically diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Pulp tissue was carefully removed, fixed by immersion in a cold 4% PFA buffered solution for 120 min, rinsed in cold phosphate buffer, and quickly-frozen for cryostat sectioning. Pulp tissue was sectioned perpendicularly to the vertical axis of the tooth at 20 microm and processed for histochemistry. Sections of each specimen were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and other sections were subjected to histochemical NADPH-d detection. Results indicated the presence of NADPH reactivity within the pulps of both normal and carious teeth. In the normal teeth NADPH-d activity was detected in a small number of vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The inflammatory response of the pulp from carious premolars was detected in connective tissue by the presence of an increased number of fibroblasts, angioblasts and collagen fibers. It was possible to determine the extent of odontoblast reactivity since the odontoblast layer was usually absent in these split-peel preparations. There were no obvious signs of stained pulpal nerve fibers. Overall NADPH-d staining was significantly more intense within inflamed pulp tissues compared to normal healthy samples (Mann-Whitney test, pfunctions of NO in human dental pulp in pathophysiological situations.

  10. Computerized aids and human factors in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1988-01-01

    When guiding a complex process and associated intermeshed systems in a nuclear power plant, a primary issue consists of the call for excellent information. Technically speaking, today's centralized control rooms are at the end of a development phase which has been governed by the introduction of remote information and remote control systems. But by centralization, an information overload problem arose, and it has been solved by dividing panels according to systems, operational phases and specific tasks. In addition, the overview and relationship of systems have been visualized by mimic diagrams. It is attempted to make transparent the technical back-ground of the processes and systems to be controlled, thus to provide the necessary basis for understanding the problems of operators. Practical examples are used for the purpose. The information dilemma, the systems for high level information, automation and information, plant safety and information, and the problem of where to go from here are described. Computerized operator aids must be discussed along assistance in information and assistance in automatic control. (Kako, I.)

  11. Recognizing human actions by learning and matching shape-motion prototype trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhuolin; Lin, Zhe; Davis, Larry S

    2012-03-01

    A shape-motion prototype-based approach is introduced for action recognition. The approach represents an action as a sequence of prototypes for efficient and flexible action matching in long video sequences. During training, an action prototype tree is learned in a joint shape and motion space via hierarchical K-means clustering and each training sequence is represented as a labeled prototype sequence; then a look-up table of prototype-to-prototype distances is generated. During testing, based on a joint probability model of the actor location and action prototype, the actor is tracked while a frame-to-prototype correspondence is established by maximizing the joint probability, which is efficiently performed by searching the learned prototype tree; then actions are recognized using dynamic prototype sequence matching. Distance measures used for sequence matching are rapidly obtained by look-up table indexing, which is an order of magnitude faster than brute-force computation of frame-to-frame distances. Our approach enables robust action matching in challenging situations (such as moving cameras, dynamic backgrounds) and allows automatic alignment of action sequences. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves recognition rates of 92.86 percent on a large gesture data set (with dynamic backgrounds), 100 percent on the Weizmann action data set, 95.77 percent on the KTH action data set, 88 percent on the UCF sports data set, and 87.27 percent on the CMU action data set.

  12. Induction of DNA-protein crosslinks in human cells by ultraviolet and visible radiations: action spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, J.G.; Peak, M.J.; Sikorski, R.S.; Jones, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    DNA-protein crosslinking was induced in cultured human P3 teratocarcinoma cells by irradiation with monochromatic radiation with wavelengths in the range 254-434 nm (far-UV, near-UV, and blue light). Wavelength 545 nm green light did not induce these crosslinks, using the method of alkaline elution of the DNA from membrane filters. The action spectrum for the formation of DNA-protein crosslinks revealed two maxima, one in the far-UV spectrum that closely coincided with the relative spectrum of DNA at 254 and 290 nm, and one in the visible light spectrum at 405 nm, which has no counterpart in the DNA spectrum. The primary events for the formation of DNA-protein crosslinks by such long-wavelength radiation probably involve photosensitizers. This dual mechanism for DNA-protein crosslink formation is in strong contrast to the single mechanism for pyrimidine dimer formation in DNA, which apparently has no component in the visible light spectrum

  13. Phosphoproteomic fingerprinting of epidermal growth factor signaling and anticancer drug action in human tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yoon-Pin; Diong, Lang-Shi; Qi, Robert; Druker, Brian J; Epstein, Richard J

    2003-12-01

    Many proteins regulating cancer cell growth are tyrosine phosphorylated. Using antiphosphotyrosine affinity chromatography, thiourea protein solubilization, two-dimensional PAGE, and mass spectrometry, we report here the characterization of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced phosphoproteome in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Using this approach, more than 50 distinct tyrosine phosphoproteins are identifiable within five main clusters-cytoskeletal proteins, signaling enzymes, SH2-containing adaptors, chaperones, and focal adhesion proteins. Comparison of the phosphoproteomes induced in vitro by transforming growth factor-alpha and platelet-derived growth factor demonstrates the pathway- and cell-specific nature of the phosphoproteomes induced. Elimination of both basal and ligand-dependent phosphoproteins by cell exposure to the EGF receptor catalytic inhibitor gefitinib (Iressa, ZD1839) suggests either an autocrine growth loop or the presence of a second inhibited kinase in A431 cells. By identifying distinct patterns of phosphorylation involving novel signaling substrates, and by clarifying the mechanism of action of anticancer drugs, these findings illustrate the potential of immunoaffinity-based phosphoproteomics for guiding the discovery of new drug targets and the rational utilization of pathway-specific chemotherapies.

  14. Phthalates impact human health: Epidemiological evidences and plausible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sailas; Masai, Eiji; Kamimura, Naofumi; Takahashi, Kenji; Anderson, Robin C; Faisal, Panichikkal Abdul

    2017-10-15

    Disregarding the rising alarm on the hazardous nature of various phthalates and their metabolites, ruthless usage of phthalates as plasticizer in plastics and as additives in innumerable consumer products continues due low their cost, attractive properties, and lack of suitable alternatives. Globally, in silico computational, in vitro mechanistic, in vivo preclinical and limited clinical or epidemiological human studies showed that over a dozen phthalates and their metabolites ingested passively by man from the general environment, foods, drinks, breathing air, and routine household products cause various dysfunctions. Thus, this review addresses the health hazards posed by phthalates on children and adolescents, epigenetic modulation, reproductive toxicity in women and men; insulin resistance and type II diabetes; overweight and obesity, skeletal anomalies, allergy and asthma, cancer, etc., coupled with the description of major phthalates and their general uses, phthalate exposure routes, biomonitoring and risk assessment, special account on endocrine disruption; and finally, a plausible molecular cross-talk with a unique mechanism of action. This clinically focused comprehensive review on the hazards of phthalates would benefit the general population, academia, scientists, clinicians, environmentalists, and law or policy makers to decide upon whether usage of phthalates to be continued swiftly without sufficient deceleration or regulated by law or to be phased out from earth forever. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Parametric Analysis of the Exergoeconomic Operation Costs, Environmental and Human Toxicity Indexes of the MF501F3 Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Vicente Torres-González

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an energetic, exergoeconomic, environmental, and toxicity analysis of the simple gas turbine M501F3 based on a parametric analysis of energetic (thermal efficiency, fuel and air flow rates, and specific work output, exergoeconomic (exergetic efficiency and exergoeconomic operation costs, environmental (global warming, smog formation, acid rain indexes, and human toxicity indexes, by taking the compressor pressure ratio and the turbine inlet temperature as the operating parameters. The aim of this paper is to provide an integral, systematic, and powerful diagnostic tool to establish possible operation and maintenance actions to improve the gas turbine’s exergoeconomic, environmental, and human toxicity indexes. Despite the continuous changes in the price of natural gas, the compressor, combustion chamber, and turbine always contribute 18.96%, 53.02%, and 28%, respectively, to the gas turbine’s exergoeconomic operation costs. The application of this methodology can be extended to other simple gas turbines using the pressure drops and isentropic efficiencies, among others, as the degradation parameters, as well as to other energetic systems, without loss of generality.

  16. The minimalist grammar of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  17. Seismic-load-induced human errors and countermeasures using computer graphics in plant-operator communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    This paper remarks the importance of seismic load-induced human errors in plant operation by delineating the characteristics of the task performance of human beings under seismic loads. It focuses on man-machine communication via multidimensional data like that conventionally displayed on large panels in a plant control room. It demonstrates a countermeasure to human errors using a computer graphics technique that conveys the global state of the plant operation to operators through cartoon-like, colored graphs in the form of faces that, with different facial expressions, show the plant safety status. (orig.)

  18. The human factors and job task analysis in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Petre; Mihailescu, Nicolae; Dragusin, Octavian

    1999-01-01

    After a long period of time, during the development of the NPP technology, where the plant hardware has been considered to be the main factor for a safe, reliable and economic operation, the industry is now changing to an adequate responsibility of plant hardware and operation. Since the human factors has been not discussed methodically so far, there is still a lack of improved classification systems for human errors as well as a lack of methods for the systematic approach in designing the operator's working system, as for instance by using the job task analysis (J.T.A.). The J.T.A. appears to be an adequate method to study the human factor in the nuclear power plant operation, enabling an easy conversion to operational improvements. While the results of the analysis of human errors tell 'what' is to be improved, the J.T.A. shows 'how' to improve, for increasing the quality of the work and the safety of the operator's working system. The paper analyses the issue of setting the task and displays four criteria used to select aspects in NPP operation which require special consideration as personal training, design of control room, content and layout of the procedure manual, or organizing the operating personnel. The results are given as three tables giving: 1- Evaluation of deficiencies in the Working System; 2- Evaluation of the Deficiencies of Operator's Disposition; 3- Evaluation of the Mental Structure of Operation

  19. Operational characteristics optimization of human-computer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulquernain Mallick

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer operational parameters are having vital influence on the operators efficiency from readability viewpoint. Four parameters namely font, text/background color, viewing angle and viewing distance are analyzed. The text reading task, in the form of English text, was presented on the computer screen to the participating subjects and their performance, measured in terms of number of words read per minute (NWRPM, was recorded. For the purpose of optimization, the Taguchi method is used to find the optimal parameters to maximize operators’ efficiency for performing readability task. Two levels of each parameter have been considered in this study. An orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S/N ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA were employed to investigate the operators’ performance/efficiency. Results showed that Times Roman font, black text on white background, 40 degree viewing angle and 60 cm viewing distance, the subjects were quite comfortable, efficient and read maximum number of words per minute. Text/background color was dominant parameter with a percentage contribution of 76.18% towards the laid down objective followed by font type at 18.17%, viewing distance 7.04% and viewing angle 0.58%. Experimental results are provided to confirm the effectiveness of this approach.

  20. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of the 2nd year of a research project on the implementation of a novel human-robot control system for hydraulic machinery. Sensor and valve re-calibration experiments were conducted to improve open loop machine control. A Cartesian control example was tested both in simulation and on the machine; the results are discussed in detail. The machine tests included open-loop as well as closed-loop motion control. Both methods worked reasonably well, due to the high-quality electro-hydraulic valves used on the experimental machine. Experiments on 3-D analysis of the bucket trajectory using marker tracking software are also presented with the results obtained. Open-loop control is robustly stable and free of short-term dynamic problems, but it allows for drifting away from the desired motion kinematics of the machine. A novel, closed-loop control adjustment provides a remedy, while retaining much of the advantages of the open-loop control based on kinematics transformation. Additional analysis of previously recorded, three-dimensional working trajectories of the bucket of large mine shovels was completed. The motion patterns, when transformed into a family of curves, serve as the basis for software-controlled machine kinematics transformation in the new human-robot control system.

  1. Study of human factors, and its basic aspects focusing the IEA-R1 research reactor operators, aiming at the prevention of accidents caused by human failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a study of human factors and possible human failure reasons that can cause incidents, accidents and workers exposition, associated to risks intrinsic to the profession. The objective is to contribute with the operators of IEA-R1 reactor located at IPEN CNEN/S P. Accidents in the technological field, including the nuclear, have shown that the causes are much more connected to human failure than to system and equipment failures, what has led the regulatory bodies to consider studies on human failure. The research proposed in this work is quantitative/qualitative and also descriptive. Two questionnaires were used to collect data. The first of them was elaborated from the safety culture attributes which are described by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. The second considered individual and situational factors composing categories that could affect people in the work area. A carefully selected transcription of the theoretical basis according to the study of human factors was used. The methodology demonstrated a good reliability degree. Results lead to mediate factors which need direct actions concerning the needs of the group and of the individual. This research shows that it is necessary to have a really effective unit of planning and organization, not only to the physical and psychological health issues but also to the safety in the work. (author)

  2. The Relationship between Human Operators' Psycho-physiological Condition and Human Errors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Kang, Hyungook; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is substantially dependent on the performance of the human operators who operate the systems. In this environment, human errors caused by inappropriate performance of operator have been considered to be critical since it may lead serious problems in the safety-critical plants. In order to provide meaningful insights to prevent human errors and enhance the human performance, operators' physiological conditions such as stress and workload have been investigated. Physiological measurements were considered as reliable tools to assess the stress and workload. T. Q. Tran et al. and J. B. Brooking et al pointed out that operators' workload can be assessed using eye tracking, galvanic skin response, electroencephalograms (EEGs), heart rate, respiration and other measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the human operators' tense level and knowledge level to the number of human errors. For this study, the experiments were conducted in the mimic of the main control rooms (MCR) in NPP. It utilized the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) which is modeled based on the three loop Pressurized Water Reactor, 993MWe, Kori unit 3 and 4 in Korea and the subjects were asked to follow the tasks described in the emergency operating procedures (EOP). During the simulation, three kinds of physiological measurement were utilized; Electrocardiogram (ECG), EEG and nose temperature. Also, subjects were divided into three groups based on their knowledge of the plant operation. The result shows that subjects who are tense make fewer errors. In addition, subjects who are in higher knowledge level tend to be tense and make fewer errors. For the ECG data, subjects who make fewer human errors tend to be located in higher tense level area of high SNS activity and low PSNS activity. The results of EEG data are also similar to ECG result. Beta power ratio of subjects who make fewer errors was higher. Since beta

  3. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  4. Development of a Pilot Program for Human Factors Management in Operating Nuclear Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Woon; Lee, Yong-Hee; Jang, Tong-Il; Kim, Dae-Ho

    2007-01-01

    The human factors of operating NPPs have been reviewed as a part of Periodic Safety Reviews (PSRs). This human factors PSR covers a wide range of human factors including control room man-machine interfaces (MMIs), procedures, working conditions, qualification, training, information requirements and workload. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has performed human factors PSRs from the first PSR for Kori 1. It was determined in 2005 that for a Continuous Operation of the Korean NPPs an enhanced PSR should be performed and issues raised from the PSRs should be resolved. From the results of the PSR for Kori 1, several safety enhancement issues related to human factors were raised. KAERI is working on a resolution of some of the human factors issues for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP). As a part of the resolution, we are developing a human factors management program (HFMP) for Kori 1. This paper introduces the status of our development of HFMP

  5. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  6. Endogenous glutathione protects human skin fibroblasts against the cytotoxic action of UVB, UVA and near-visible radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrell, R.M.; Pidoux, Mireille

    1986-01-01

    Both the UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-380 nm) regions of sunlight damage human skin cells but, particularly at the longer wavelengths, information is scant concerning the mechanism(s) of damage induction and the roles of cellular defense mechanisms. Following extensive glutathione depletion of cultured human skin fibroblasts, the cells become strongly sensitized to the cytotoxic action of near-visible (405 nm), UVA (334 nm, 365 nm) and UVB (313 nm) but not UVC (254 nm) radiations. In the critical UVB region, the magnitude of the protection afforded by endogenous glutathione approaches that of the protection provided by excision repair. The results suggest that a significant fraction of even UVB damage can be mediated by free radical attack and that a major role of glutathione in human skin cells is to protect them from the cytotoxic action of sunlight. (author)

  7. Human Factors Issues When Operating Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    etiquette (Parasuraman & Miller, 2004). Through natural and intuitive communication, Johnson et al., (2007) hope that this interface will instill greater...and etiquette in high criticality automated systems. Communications of the ACM, 47(4), 51-55. Parasuraman, R., & Riley, V. (1997). Humans and... protocols for underwater wireless communications. IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 97-102. Quazi, A. H., & Konrad, W. L. (1982, March 1982). Underwater

  8. Modeling of human operator dynamics in simple manual control utilizing time series analysis. [tracking (position)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G. C.; Osafo-Charles, F.; Oneill, W. D.; Gottlieb, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    Time series analysis is applied to model human operator dynamics in pursuit and compensatory tracking modes. The normalized residual criterion is used as a one-step analytical tool to encompass the processes of identification, estimation, and diagnostic checking. A parameter constraining technique is introduced to develop more reliable models of human operator dynamics. The human operator is adequately modeled by a second order dynamic system both in pursuit and compensatory tracking modes. In comparing the data sampling rates, 100 msec between samples is adequate and is shown to provide better results than 200 msec sampling. The residual power spectrum and eigenvalue analysis show that the human operator is not a generator of periodic characteristics.

  9. Liquid Pipeline Operator's Control Room Human Factors Risk Assessment and Management Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    The purpose of this guide is to document methodologies, tools, procedures, guidance, and instructions that have been developed to provide liquid pipeline operators with an efficient and effective means of managing the human factors risks in their con...

  10. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Induction of apoptosis by pinostrobin in human cervical cancer cells: Possible mechanism of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Jaudan

    Full Text Available Pinostrobin (PN is a naturally occurring dietary bioflavonoid, found in various medicinal herbs/plants. Though anti-cancer potential of many such similar constituents has been demonstrated, critical biochemical targets and exact mechanism for their apoptosis-inducing actions have not been fully elucidated. The present study was aimed to investigate if PN induced apoptosis in cervical cancer cells (HeLa of human origin. It is demonstrated that PN at increasing dose effectivity reduced the cell viability as well as GSH and NO2- levels. Condensed nuclei with fragmented chromatin and changes in mitochondrial matrix morphology clearly indicated the role of mitochondria in PN induced apoptosis. A marked reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and increased ROS production after PN treatment showed involvement of free radicals, which in turn further augment ROS levels. PN treatment resulted in DNA damage, which could have been triggered by an increase in ROS levels. Decrease in apoptotic cells in the presence of caspase 3 inhibitor in PN-treated cells suggested that PN induced apoptosis via caspase dependent pathways. Additionally, a significant increase in the expression of proteins of extrinsic (TRAIL R1/DR4, TRAIL R2/DR5, TNF RI/TNFRSF1A, FADD, Fas/TNFRSF6 and intrinsic pathway (Bad, Bax, HTRA2/Omi, SMAC/Diablo, cytochrome C, Pro-Caspase-3, Cleaved Caspase-3 was observed in the cells exposed to PN. Taken together, these observations suggest that PN efficiently induces apoptosis through ROS mediated extrinsic and intrinsic dependent signaling pathways, as well as ROS mediated mitochondrial damage in HeLa cells.

  12. Favorable Vascular Actions of Angiotensin-(1-7) in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Francesca; Tesauro, Manfredi; Veneziani, Augusto; Mores, Nadia; Di Daniele, Nicola; Cardillo, Carmine

    2018-01-01

    Obese patients have vascular dysfunction related to impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation and increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstriction. In contrast to the harmful vascular actions of angiotensin (Ang) II, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 product Ang-(1-7) has shown to exert cardiovascular and metabolic benefits in experimental models through stimulation of the Mas receptor. We, therefore, examined the effects of exogenous Ang-(1-7) on vasodilator tone and endothelin-1-dependent vasoconstriction in obese patients. Intra-arterial infusion of Ang-(1-7) (10 nmol/min) resulted in significant increase in unstimulated forearm flow ( P =0.03), an effect that was not affected by the Mas receptor antagonist A779 (10 nmol/min; P >0.05). In the absence of hyperinsulinemia, however, forearm flow responses to graded doses of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not different during Ang-(1-7) administration compared with saline (both P >0.05). During infusion of regular insulin (0.15 mU/kg per minute), by contrast, endothelium-dependent vasodilator response to acetylcholine was significantly enhanced by Ang-(1-7) ( P =0.04 versus saline), whereas endothelium-independent response to sodium nitroprusside was not modified ( P =0.91). Finally, Ang-(1-7) decreased the vasodilator response to endothelin A receptor blockade (BQ-123; 10 nmol/min) compared with saline (6±1% versus 93±17%; P obese patients Ang-(1-7) has favorable effects not only to improve insulin-stimulated endothelium-dependent vasodilation but also to blunt endothelin-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone. These findings provide support for targeting Ang-(1-7) to counteract the hemodynamic abnormalities of human obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Contents of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in the safety evaluation of a repository for spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Wickham, S.M.; Galson, D.A.

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss issues that should be considered in the development of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in any forthcoming license application for a deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden and for sites of other repositories. The report comprises an outline of key issues concerning the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, reviews of regulatory developments, recent safety assessments and supporting studies, and international initiatives on the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, and the principal elements of a regulatory strategy. Performance assessments (PAs) are generally accepted as providing illustrations of system performance under given sets of assumptions. The results of PAs are clearer and easier to understand if certain large uncertainties are accounted for by determining performance under several different sets of assumptions or scenarios, each of which defines a possible evolution of the disposal system. A number of assumptions can be made that would restrict the scope of an assessment without reducing the credibility of the corresponding safety case. Reducing speculation about technological development, by assuming that the techniques used in future human activities are similar to those currently in use in the region or at similar sites, will simplify the assessment. A distinction is generally made between inadvertent and intentional intrusion, with intentional activities excluded because society cannot protect future populations from their own actions if they understand the potential consequences. A division of human activities into 'recent and ongoing' and 'future' activities considers not only the timing of the activities but also the degree of control or influence that can be imposed on them. Recent and ongoing human activities are those that affect an area beyond the immediate vicinity of the disposal facility and which neither the proponent nor the regulator

  14. Clone-specific expression, transcriptional regulation, and action of interleukin-6 in human colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brozek, Wolfgang; Bises, Giovanna; Fabjani, Gerhild; Cross, Heide S; Peterlik, Meinrad

    2008-01-01

    Many cancer cells produce interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine that plays a role in growth stimulation, metastasis, and angiogenesis of secondary tumours in a variety of malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Effectiveness of IL-6 in this respect may depend on the quantity of basal and inducible IL-6 expressed as the tumour progresses through stages of malignancy. We therefore have evaluated the effect of IL-6 modulators, i.e. IL-1β, prostaglandin E 2 , 17β-estradiol, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 , on expression and synthesis of the cytokine at different stages of tumour progression. We utilized cultures of the human colon carcinoma cell clones Caco-2/AQ, COGA-1A and COGA-13, all of which expressed differentiation and proliferation markers typical of distinct stages of tumour progression. IL-6 mRNA and protein levels were assayed by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. DNA sequencing was utilized to detect polymorphisms in the IL-6 gene promoter. IL-6 mRNA and protein concentrations were low in well and moderately differentiated Caco-2/AQ and COGA-1A cells, but were high in poorly differentiated COGA-13 cells. Addition of IL-1β (5 ng/ml) to a COGA-13 culture raised IL-6 production approximately thousandfold via a prostaglandin-independent mechanism. Addition of 17β-estradiol (10 -7 M) reduced basal IL-6 production by one-third, but IL-1β-inducible IL-6 was unaffected. Search for polymorphisms in the IL-6 promoter revealed the presence of a single haplotype, i.e., -597A/-572G/-174C, in COGA-13 cells, which is associated with a high degree of transcriptional activity of the IL-6 gene. IL-6 blocked differentiation only in Caco-2/AQ cells and stimulated mitosis through up-regulation of c-myc proto-oncogene expression. These effects were inhibited by 10 -8 M 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 . In human colon carcinoma cells derived from well and moderately differentiated tumours, IL-6 expression is low and only marginally affected, if at all, by PGE 2 , 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D

  15. Transformational change: creating a safe operating space for humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive A. McAlpine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many ecologists and environmental scientists witnessing the scale of current environmental change are becoming increasingly alarmed about how humanity is pushing the boundaries of the Earth's systems beyond sustainable levels. The world urgently needs global society to redirect itself toward a more sustainable future: one that moves intergenerational equity and environmental sustainability to the top of the political agenda, and to the core of personal and societal belief systems. Scientific and technological innovations are not enough: the global community, individuals, civil society, corporations, and governments, need to adjust their values and beliefs to one in which sustainability becomes the new global paradigm society. We argue that the solution requires transformational change, driven by a realignment of societal values, where individuals act ethically as an integral part of an interconnected society and biosphere. Transition management provides a framework for achieving transformational change, by giving special attention to reflective learning, interaction, integration, and experimentation at the level of society, thereby identifying the system conditions and type of changes necessary for enabling sustainable transformation.

  16. [Variability of the sensitivity of human lymphocytes to the antiproliferative action of alkylating agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veremko, L N; Telegin, L Iu; Pevnitskii, L A

    1983-05-01

    A study was made of variability of the sensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from different donors to an antiproliferative action of cyclophosphamide and thiophosphamide. A similar degree of the sensitivity was revealed to alkylating agents differing in the action mode, with this degree being independent of the "stimulation index" magnitude.

  17. Fish oil curtails the human action potential dome in a heterogeneous manner: Implication for arrhythmogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Coronel, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFAs) from fish oil modulate various ion channels, including the L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)). As a result, fish oil shortens the cardiac action potential and may cause a loss of the dome of the action potential (AP). Under conditions of increased

  18. The mapping and preparation of human resources for NPP’S operation and maintenance in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch-Djoko Birmano; Yohanes Dwi Anggoro

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of the competent human resources (HRs) is one of the basic infrastructure of NPP’s development. IAEA recommends that at the initial activity in preparation of human resources for NPP is doing Business Process Mapping by identifying the knowledge, skills and abilities of required human resources to carry out the operation and maintenance of NPPs. This study aims to mapping and preparing of human resources for NPP’s operation and maintenance in Indonesia. The method used are mapping business processes at operation and maintenance stage of NPP, identifying positions, conducting surveys with questionnaires and calculations, and data analysis. Surveys and questionnaires to determine the level of technical competence of personnel in BATAN at operation and maintenance stage. Analysis using the Method of Gap Analysis with human resources Competency Standards Criteria based on technical competence qualifications. This study uses the assumption that the nuclear power plant will be built 2 units (twin) and start operation in 2027. The results showed that from the aspect of education, BATAN able to meet the needs of human resources at 53.64 to 73.75%. While from the aspect of training and specific work experience, participation level of BATAN’s human resources is still very low of IAEA requirements. This case caused because young human resources in BATAN who have educational qualifications, experience, training and technical certifications in the field of operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants is still limited. Based on this, there should be preparation of NPP’s human resources with establish NPP’s human resources development program based on required qualifications. (author)

  19. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming, using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model’s input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators’ operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  20. Behavioral simulation of a nuclear power plant operator crew for human-machine system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, K.; Shimada, T.; Kondo, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article proposes an architecture of behavioral simulation of an operator crew in a nuclear power plant including group processes and interactions between the operators and their working environment. An operator model was constructed based on the conceptual human information processor and then substantiated as a knowledge-based system with multiple sets of knowledge base and blackboard, each of which represents an individual operator. From a trade-off between reality and practicality, we adopted an architecture of simulation that consists of the operator, plant and environment models in order to consider operator-environment interactions. The simulation system developed on this framework and called OCCS was tested using a scenario of BWR plant operation. The case study showed that operator-environment interactions have significant effects on operator crew performance and that they should be considered properly for simulating behavior of human-machine systems. The proposed architecture contributed to more realistic simulation in comparison with an experimental result, and a good prospect has been obtained that computer simulation of an operator crew is feasible and useful for human-machine system design. (orig.)

  1. The Human Factors System of VGB. The body of measures implemented by the NPP operating companies for HF management and optimisation of the man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, H.; Janssen, G.

    1999-01-01

    One way of ensuring high human reliability is to systematically record, analyse and optimise the identified human factors influencing the safety of operation of NPPs. There are two kinds of human factors to be considered: Those identified and characterised in their actual influence on the man-machine system after an event has happened, and the potential human factors, as far as they are known. The purpose of the paper presented is to: - explain the man-machine interface on the basis of the descriptions delivered by work science, as well as with the information model (acquisition, processing and application of information); - explain their influence on the human performance; - identify the organisational units/competences of a nuclear power plant with respect to responsibility for dealing with those factors influencing human performance; - describe suitable joint action of the responsible organisational units; - present results of HF system reviews and modifications. (orig./CB) [de

  2. Comparing the subjective task difficulty of human operators with task description levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea; Yang, Joon Eon

    2011-01-01

    Without the loss of generality, it is reasonable to say that an operating procedure consists of many steps including detailed descriptions that provide necessary information in conducting the required tasks safely and effectively. In this regard, since it is widely perceived that procedures are effective for reducing the occurrence of human performance related problems, the use of procedures is very popular in large process control systems including nuclear power plants (NPPs), commercial airplanes and railway systems. However, the secure of an operational safety by using an operating procedure can be accomplished only if human operators are able to effectively obtain necessary information from it. In other words, it is hard to expect the reduction of human performance related problems, if task descriptions are so ambiguous or incomplete that human operators feel an undue difficulty in identifying 'what have to be done' and 'how to do it' from procedures. Unfortunately, it seems that a systematic method that can be used to distinguish the proper level of task descriptions is rare. For this reason, Park et al. developed a decision chart that could be helpful for characterizing the level of task descriptions. In this study, in order to ensure the appropriateness of the suggested decision chart, more detailed investigations were conducted with the support of human operators who are working as the operating personnel of NPPs

  3. Best practice guidelines for the operation of a donor human milk bank in an Australian NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B T; Pang, W W; Keil, A D; Hartmann, P E; Simmer, K

    2007-10-01

    Until the establishment of the PREM Bank (Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank) donor human milk banking had not occurred in Australia for the past 20 years. In re-establishing donor human milk banking in Australia, the focus of the PREM Bank has been to develop a formal and consistent approach to safety and quality in processing during the operation of the human milk bank. There is currently no existing legislation in Australia that specifically regulates the operation of donor human milk banks. For this reason the PREM Bank has utilised existing and internationally recognised management practices for managing hazards during food production. These tools (specifically HACCP) have been used to guide the development of Standard Operating Procedures and Good Manufacturing Practice for the screening of donors and processing of donor human milk. Donor screening procedures are consistent with those recommended by other human milk banks operating internationally, and also consistent with the requirements for blood and tissue donation in Australia. Controlled documentation and record keep requirements have also been developed that allow complete traceability from individual donation to individual feed dispensed to recipient and maintain a record of all processing and storage conditions. These operational requirements have been developed to reduce any risk associated with feeding pasteurised donor human milk to hospitalised preterm or ill infants to acceptable levels.

  4. Stimulant effects of adenosine antagonists on operant behavior: differential actions of selective A2A and A1 antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Patrick A.; Nunes, Eric J.; Janniere, Simone L.; Stopper, Colin M.; Farrar, Andrew M.; Sager, Thomas N.; Baqi, Younis; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse many of the behavioral effects of dopamine antagonists, including actions on instrumental behavior. However, little is known about the effects of selective adenosine antagonists on operant behavior when these drugs are administered alone. Objective The present studies were undertaken to investigate the potential for rate-dependent stimulant effects of both selective and nonselective adenosine antagonists. Methods Six drugs were tested: two nonselective adenosine antagonists (caffeine and theophylline), two adenosine A1 antagonists (DPCPX and CPT), and two adenosine A2A antagonists (istradefylline (KW6002) and MSX-3). Two schedules of reinforcement were employed; a fixed interval 240-s (FI-240 sec) schedule was used to generate low baseline rates of responding and a fixed ratio 20 (FR20) schedule generated high rates. Results Caffeine and theophylline produced rate-dependent effects on lever pressing, increasing responding on the FI-240 sec schedule but decreasing responding on the FR20 schedule. The A2A antagonists MSX-3 and istradefylline increased FI-240 sec lever pressing but did not suppress FR20 lever pressing in the dose range tested. In fact, there was a tendency for istradefylline to increase FR20 responding at a moderate dose. A1 antagonists failed to increase lever pressing rate, but DPCPX decreased FR20 responding at higher doses. Conclusions These results suggest that adenosine A2A antagonists enhance operant response rates, but A1 antagonists do not. The involvement of adenosine A2A receptors in regulating aspects of instrumental response output and behavioral activation may have implications for the treatment of effort-related psychiatric dysfunctions, such as psychomotor slowing and anergia in depression. PMID:21347642

  5. The human factor in operation and maintenance of complex high-reliability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1989-01-01

    Human factors issues in probabilistic risk assessment (PRAs) of complex high-reliability systems are addressed. These PRAs influence system operation and technical support programs such as maintainability, test, and surveillance. Using the U.S. commercial nuclear power industry as the setting, the paper addresses the manner in which PRAs currently treat human performance, the state of quantification methods and source data for analyzing human performance, and the role of human factors specialist in the analysis. The paper concludes with a presentation of TALENT, an emerging concept for fully integrating broad-based human factors expertise into the PRA process, is presented. 47 refs

  6. 78 FR 20696 - NASA Advisory Council; Human Exploration and Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... topics: --Overview of Research in Space Life and Physical Sciences --Space Station and Future Exploration... Exploration and Operations Committee; Research Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... of the Research Subcommittee of the Human Exploration and Operations Committee (HEOC) of the NASA...

  7. The design and operation of the THORP central control room: a human factors perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Julie.

    1996-01-01

    The new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield Site is now operational. This paper describes the Central Control Room (CCR), focusing on the control system components. Throughout the design, commissioning and operation of THORP, human factors played an important part. (author)

  8. Objective ARX Model Order Selection for Multi-Channel Human Operator Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggenkämper, N; Pool, D.M.; Drop, F.M.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2016-01-01

    In manual control, the human operator primarily responds to visual inputs but may elect to make use of other available feedback paths such as physical motion, adopting a multi-channel control strategy. Hu- man operator identification procedures generally require a priori selection of the model

  9. Human Error and the International Space Station: Challenges and Triumphs in Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Samantha S.; Simpson, Beau C.

    2016-01-01

    Any system with a human component is inherently risky. Studies in human factors and psychology have repeatedly shown that human operators will inevitably make errors, regardless of how well they are trained. Onboard the International Space Station (ISS) where crew time is arguably the most valuable resource, errors by the crew or ground operators can be costly to critical science objectives. Operations experts at the ISS Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC), located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, have learned that from payload concept development through execution, there are countless opportunities to introduce errors that can potentially result in costly losses of crew time and science. To effectively address this challenge, we must approach the design, testing, and operation processes with two specific goals in mind. First, a systematic approach to error and human centered design methodology should be implemented to minimize opportunities for user error. Second, we must assume that human errors will be made and enable rapid identification and recoverability when they occur. While a systematic approach and human centered development process can go a long way toward eliminating error, the complete exclusion of operator error is not a reasonable expectation. The ISS environment in particular poses challenging conditions, especially for flight controllers and astronauts. Operating a scientific laboratory 250 miles above the Earth is a complicated and dangerous task with high stakes and a steep learning curve. While human error is a reality that may never be fully eliminated, smart implementation of carefully chosen tools and techniques can go a long way toward minimizing risk and increasing the efficiency of NASA's space science operations.

  10. Operational Roles, Aircrew Systems and Human Factors in Future High Performance Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    sensory, muscular , and cognitive capacities in responding to all of the mission stresses. To ensure accomplishment of operational missions, the...no more effective than its human operators: in that sense the system is merely an extension of the operator’s sensory, muscular and cognitive...autoriser la. res- -piration on surpres ot A fort Sradient d’une part, assurer un rapport de prossioar. - tant In distension pulnonairo lors d’uno

  11. Human performance in an operational event - how to improve it? An initiative in a French NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslin, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the case of the Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux French nuclear power station, the author comments the elements and principles of human factor policy which have been implemented, the organizational implications of this implementation (building up of an internal human factors network), and briefly evokes studies and initiatives aimed at improving the quality of operation from a general point of view and through projects aiming at analyzing and at a valorisation of human reliability in activities dealing with reactor operation. He also comments the perception and appropriation of quality in the different departments

  12. Blue limits of the Blue Planet : An exploratory analysis of safe operating spaces for human water use under deep uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Timmermans, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    In the Nature article ‘A safe operating space for humanity’, Rockström et al. (2009) introduce the concept of a safe operating space for humanity. A safe operating space is the space for human activities that will not push the planet out of the ‘Holocene state’ that has seen human civilizations

  13. Human Behavior and Performance Support for ISS Operations and Astronaut Selections: NASA Operational Psychology for Six-Crew Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.

  14. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels contribute to action potential repolarization in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Poulet, Claire; Diness, Jonas Goldin

    2014-01-01

    (+) currents by ∼15% and prolonged action potential duration (APD), but no effect was observed in myocytes from AF patients. In trabeculae muscle strips from right atrial appendages of SR patients, both compounds increased APD and effective refractory period, and depolarized the resting membrane potential......, while only NS8593 induced these effects in tissue from AF patients. SK channel inhibition did not alter any electrophysiological parameter in human interventricular septum tissue. CONCLUSIONS: SK channels are present in human atria where they participate in repolarization. SK2 and SK3 were down...

  15. Investigating the causes of human error-induced incidents in the maintenance operations of petrochemical industry by using HFACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Azhdari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Maintenance is an important tool for the petrochemical industries to prevent of accidents and increase operational and process safety success. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible causes of incidents caused by human error in the petrochemical maintenance activities by using Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analysis that was conducted in Zagros Petrochemical Company, Asaluyeh-Iran. A checklist of human error-induced incidents was developed based on four HFACS main levels and nineteen sub-groups. Hierarchical task analysis (HTA technique was used to identify maintenance activities and tasks. The main causes of possible incidents were identified by checklist and recorded. Corrective and preventive actions were defined depending on priority.   Results: The content analysis of worksheets of 444 activities showed 37.6% of the causes at the level of unsafe actions, 27.5% at the level of unsafe supervision, 20.9% at the level of preconditions for unsafe acts and 14% of the causes at the level of organizational effects. The HFACS sub-groups showed errors (24.36% inadequate supervision (14.89% and violations (13.26% with the most frequency. Conclusion: In order to prevent and reduce the occurrence of the identified errors, reducing the rate of the detected errors is crucial. Findings of this study showed that appropriate controlling measures such as periodical training of work procedures and supervision improvement decrease the human error-induced incidents in petrochemical industry maintenance.

  16. Antiandrogenic actions of medroxyprogesterone acetate on epithelial cells within normal human breast tissues cultured ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochnik, Aleksandra M; Moore, Nicole L; Jankovic-Karasoulos, Tanja; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Ryan, Natalie K; Thomas, Mervyn R; Birrell, Stephen N; Butler, Lisa M; Tilley, Wayne D; Hickey, Theresa E

    2014-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a component of combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT), has been associated with increased breast cancer risk in EPT users. MPA can bind to the androgen receptor (AR), and AR signaling inhibits cell growth in breast tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of MPA to disrupt AR signaling in an ex vivo culture model of normal human breast tissue. Histologically normal breast tissues from women undergoing breast surgical operation were cultured in the presence or in the absence of the native AR ligand 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), MPA, or the AR antagonist bicalutamide. Ki67, bromodeoxyuridine, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), AR, estrogen receptor α, and progesterone receptor were detected by immunohistochemistry. DHT inhibited the proliferation of breast epithelial cells in an AR-dependent manner within tissues from postmenopausal women, and MPA significantly antagonized this androgenic effect. These hormonal responses were not commonly observed in cultured tissues from premenopausal women. In tissues from postmenopausal women, DHT either induced or repressed BCL2 expression, and the antiandrogenic effect of MPA on BCL2 was variable. MPA significantly opposed the positive effect of DHT on AR stabilization, but these hormones had no significant effect on estrogen receptor α or progesterone receptor levels. In a subset of postmenopausal women, MPA exerts an antiandrogenic effect on breast epithelial cells that is associated with increased proliferation and destabilization of AR protein. This activity may contribute mechanistically to the increased risk of breast cancer in women taking MPA-containing EPT.

  17. Nucleus accumbens is involved in human action monitoring: evidence from invasive electrophysiological recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Münte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Nucleus accumbens (Nacc has been proposed to act as a limbic-motor interface. Here, using invasive intraoperative recordings in an awake patient suffering from obsessive-compulsive disease (OCD, we demonstrate that its activity is modulated by the quality of performance of the subject in a choice reaction time task designed to tap action monitoring processes. Action monitoring, that is, error detection and correction, is thought to be supported by a system involving the dopaminergic midbrain, the basal ganglia, and the medial prefrontal cortex. In surface electrophysiological recordings, action monitoring is indexed by an error-related negativity (ERN appearing time-locked to the erroneous responses and emanating from the medial frontal cortex. In preoperative scalp recordings the patient's ERN was found to be signifi cantly increased compared to a large (n= 83 normal sample, suggesting enhanced action monitoring processes. Intraoperatively, error-related modulations were obtained from the Nacc but not from a site 5 mm above. Importantly, crosscorrelation analysis showed that error-related activity in the Nacc preceded surface activity by 40 ms. We propose that the Nacc is involved in action monitoring, possibly by using error signals from the dopaminergic midbrain to adjust the relative impact of limbic and prefrontal inputs on frontal control systems in order to optimize goal-directed behavior.

  18. Supporting Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals: Participatory Action Research in Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Page Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Human rights education (HRE) holds the potential for educators to begin an honest dialogue with students and to connect local issues with international struggles for human rights. However, HRE and other teaching approaches that build understanding of systems of power and oppression that lead to human rights violations are not widely embraced in…

  19. Factors That Influence Human Behavior And Negatively Affect Energy Consumption In USMC Ground Units During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    behaviors believed responsible for these actions. The final category of inefficient energy behaviors analyzed is vehicle use. Vehicles consume 70...transitions to a summary of collected data that includes where energy is consumed and inefficient uses resulting from human behavior . The data is...tropical areas of Southeast Asia were gathered that captured the employment of energy producing and consuming devices as well as related user behaviors

  20. Interface technology based on human cognition and understanding for the operation and maintenance of advanced human cooperative plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Niwa, Yasuyuki; Itoh, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Keiko; Fukuto, Junji; Okazaki, Tadatsugi; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Liu, Qiao; Mitomo, Nobuo

    2006-01-01

    'Development of Intelligent Systems Technology for Advanced Human Cooperative Plants' was implemented as 'Nuclear Energy Fundamentals Crossover Research' by 3 institutes (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research; RIKEN, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; AIST and National Maritime Research Institute; NMRI). Aiming at appropriate interaction between human and agents in Digital Maintenance Field which spreads widely in time and space, NMRI developed technologies on contraction of plant information, generalization and intuition of the information through visual presentation. Intuitive presentation gave on-site information for identifying the source of abnormalities to human operators. And a human-machine cooperation infrastructure for plant maintenance was proposed and developed, where an overview display was used to show position and state information of all the agents in the plant and each agent view was used to show the corresponding agent's information in detail. A part of this technology was implemented in a demonstration program. Two agents were developed to support human operators' plant maintenance activities in this program. This demonstration showed the effectiveness of human-agent cooperation for early plant abnormality detection. (author)