WorldWideScience

Sample records for operations highway capacity

  1. Highway Capacity Loss Induced by Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Mohammed Alhassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rainfall on capacity reduction on highways has been investigated. Traffic data was generated for both wet and dry conditions. The data analysis showed that the highway section studied was operating in free flow region. A 2.7% capacity loss was obtained for the road. It is argued that no traffic instability could arise from this situation if the state of traffic remains in the free flow regime. However, in the event of the coincidence of fixed bottlenecks and rainfall, instabilities arising from that could lead to further capacity loss.

  2. The highway capacity manual a conceptual and research history

    CERN Document Server

    Roess, Roger P

    2014-01-01

    Since 1950, the Highway Capacity Manual has been a standard used in the planning, design, analysis, and operation of virtually any highway traffic facility in the United States. It has also been widely used abroad, and has spurred the development of similar manuals in other countries. The twin concepts of capacity and level of service have been developed in the manual, and methodologies have been presented that allow highway traffic facilities to be designed on a common basis, and allow for the analysis of operational quality under various traffic demand scenarios. The manual also addresses related pedestrian, bicycle, and transit issues.   This book details the fundamental development of the concepts of capacity and level of service, and of the specific methodologies developed to describe them over a wide range of facility types. The book is comprised of two volumes. Volume 1 (this book) focuses on the development of basic principles, and their application to uninterrupted flow facilities: freeways, multila...

  3. Temporary Losses of Highway Capacity and Impacts on Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, S.M.

    2002-07-31

    Traffic congestion and its impacts significantly affect the nation's economic performance and the public's quality of life. In most urban areas, travel demand routinely exceeds highway capacity during peak periods. In addition, events such as crashes, vehicle breakdowns, work zones, adverse weather, and suboptimal signal timing cause temporary capacity losses, often worsening the conditions on already congested highway networks. The impacts of these temporary capacity losses include delay, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability of the highway system. They can also cause drivers to re-route or reschedule trips. Prior to this study, no nationwide estimates of temporary losses of highway capacity had been made by type of capacity-reducing event. Such information is vital to formulating sound public policies for the highway infrastructure and its operation. This study is an initial attempt to provide nationwide estimates of the capacity losses and delay caused by temporary capacity-reducing events. The objective of this study was to develop and implement methods for producing national-level estimates of the loss of capacity on the nation's highway facilities due to temporary phenomena as well as estimates of the impacts of such losses. The estimates produced by this study roughly indicate the magnitude of problems that are likely be addressed by the Congress during the next re-authorization of the Surface Transportation Programs. The scope of the study includes all urban and rural freeways and principal arterials in the nation's highway system for 1999. Specifically, this study attempts to quantify the extent of temporary capacity losses due to crashes, breakdowns, work zones, weather, and sub-optimal signal timing. These events can cause impacts such as capacity reduction, delays, trip rescheduling, rerouting, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability. This study focuses on the reduction of capacity and resulting delays caused by the temporary

  4. SAFETY-BASED CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR CHINESE HIGHWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping YI, Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Many years of research have led to the development of theories and methodologies in roadway capacity analysis in the developed countries. However, those resources coexist with roadway design and traffic control practices in the local country, and cannot be simply transferred to China for applications. For example, the Highway Capacity Manual in the United State describes roadway capacity under ideal conditions and estimates practical capacities under prevailing conditions in the field. This capacity and the conditions for change are expected to be different on Chinese roadways as the local roadway design (lane width, curves and grades, vehicle size, and traffic mix are different. This research looks into an approach to the capacity issue different from the Highway Capacity Manual. According to the car-following principle, this paper first describes the safety criteria that affect traffic operations. Several speed schemes are subsequently discussed as they are affected by the maximum speed achievable under the local conditions. The study has shown that the effect of geometric and traffic conditions can be effectually reflected in the maximum speed adopted by the drivers. For most Chinese highways without a posted speed limit, the choice of speed by the drivers from the safety prospective is believed to have incorporated considerations of the practical driving conditions. Based on this, a condition for capacity calculation is obtained by comparing the desired vs. safety-based distance headways. The formulations of the model are mathematically sound and physically meaningful, and preliminary testing of the model is encouraging. Future research includes field data acquisition for calibration and adjustment, and model testing on Chinese highways.

  5. Temporary Losses of Highway Capacity and Impacts on Performance: Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, S.M.

    2004-11-10

    Traffic congestion and its impacts significantly affect the nation's economic performance and the public's quality of life. In most urban areas, travel demand routinely exceeds highway capacity during peak periods. In addition, events such as crashes, vehicle breakdowns, work zones, adverse weather, railroad crossings, large trucks loading/unloading in urban areas, and other factors such as toll collection facilities and sub-optimal signal timing cause temporary capacity losses, often worsening the conditions on already congested highway networks. The impacts of these temporary capacity losses include delay, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability of the highway system. They can also cause drivers to re-route or reschedule trips. Such information is vital to formulating sound public policies for the highway infrastructure and its operation. In response to this need, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), made an initial attempt to provide nationwide estimates of the capacity losses and delay caused by temporary capacity-reducing events (Chin et al. 2002). This study, called the Temporary Loss of Capacity (TLC) study, estimated capacity loss and delay on freeways and principal arterials resulting from fatal and non-fatal crashes, vehicle breakdowns, and adverse weather, including snow, ice, and fog. In addition, it estimated capacity loss and delay caused by sub-optimal signal timing at intersections on principal arterials. It also included rough estimates of capacity loss and delay on Interstates due to highway construction and maintenance work zones. Capacity loss and delay were estimated for calendar year 1999, except for work zone estimates, which were estimated for May 2001 to May 2002 due to data availability limitations. Prior to the first phase of this study, which was completed in May of 2002, no nationwide estimates of temporary losses of highway capacity by type of capacity-reducing event had

  6. Capacity Analysis on Multi-Lane Roundabouts: An Evaluation With Highway Capacity Manual 2010 Capacity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Ersoy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, capacity estimations with the incorporation of Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 method are evaluated. Parameter based sensitivity analysis on calculations with the new HCM formula and a comparative evaluation of the new methodology with two most common capacity analysis methods, i.e., the method of critical gap acceptance and the method of regression analysis, are performed. Maximum and minimum headway intervals of follow up time and critical gap parameters are alternated within the sensitivity analysis. The Transport Research Laboratory formula for regression and Australian formula for gap acceptance method are considered in comparison. Relative comparisons of predictions on capacity by HCM2010 method, regression analysis and gap acceptance method are presented considering field data obtained by observations at two roundabouts in Izmir, Turkey. The results of the study show that the HCM2010 formula led to lower capacity estimates than regression analysis and higher estimates than the gap acceptance method. Regarding the real capacity observations under high circulating flow-rates the HCM2010 method yielded to more appropriate results than the regression method. In addition to comparisons, studies on the sensitivity analysis show that entry capacity estimates possess sharper changes as smaller follow up headways are accepted.

  7. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35... Ambient conditions; highway operations. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the microphone... § 325.23. (2) The measured ambient level must be 10 dB(A) or more below that level specified in §...

  8. Assigning on-ramp flows to maximize highway capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao-Ming; Jiang, Rui; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we study the capacity of a highway with two on-ramps by using a cellular automata traffic flow model. We investigate how to improve the system capacity by assigning traffic flow to the two ramps. The system phase diagram is presented and different regions are classified. It is shown that in region I, in which both ramps are in free flow and the main road upstream of the ramps is in congestion, assigning a higher proportion of the demand to the upstream on-ramp could improve the overall flow, which is consistent with previous studies. This is explained through studying the spatiotemporal patterns and analytical investigations. In contrast, optimal assignment has not been observed in other regions. We point out that our result is robust and model independent under certain conditions.

  9. REVIEW AND PERSPECTIVE OF HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF SERVICE RESEARCH IN JAPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Takashi; Nakamura, Hideki

    The highway traffic congestion is one of the most important social and technical issues from the early days of motorization in Japan. Accordingly, the highway capacity has long been a major concern of traffic engineers, not only in research but also in practice, in order to alleviate the traffic congestions. Also, the concept of the quality of service of traffic flow and its proper understanding according to diverse conditions are crucial for implementing the performance-oriented highway planning and design schemes. This article therefore overviews the recent research works regarding highway capacity and quality of service particularly in Japan, after reviewing the state of the arts in bottleneck phenomena observed on Japan motorways and highways. And the future perspective of these research fields is discussed.

  10. Driving simulator research on safe highway design and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Hogema, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing traffic demands and various attempts to get maximum performance out of the road traffic system, the driving task is becoming more and more complex, and the more important it is to consider the human factor in highway design and operation. Successful introduction of new driver support

  11. Determining the Toll and Capacity of a Highway to Be Constructed in Parallel with Subway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of toll and capacity choice of a new highway with a bottleneck added onto an existing transit network under four ownership/tolling regimes: public fine toll, public flat toll, private fine toll, and private flat toll. Whenever fine toll and flat toll are imposed, in a competitive highway/transit network with constant returns to scale in road construction, an optimally designed and priced privately owned highway would produce positive net benefit justly equal to the total markup with respect to all autocommuters, whereas an optimally designed and priced publicly owned highway would lead to a deficit; that is, the toll revenues are insufficient to cover its all costs. The economic conditions to invest a new road are investigated under different ownership/tolling regimes.

  12. Simple cellular automaton model for traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple cellular automaton (CA) model for two-lane roads explaining the physics of traffic breakdown, highway capacity, and synchronized flow. The model consists of the rules "acceleration," "deceleration," "randomization," and "motion" of the Nagel-Schreckenberg CA model as well as "overacceleration through lane changing to the faster lane," "comparison of vehicle gap with the synchronization gap," and "speed adaptation within the synchronization gap" of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. We show that these few rules of the CA model can appropriately simulate fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity found in traffic data measured over years in different countries, like characteristics of synchronized flow, the existence of the spontaneous and induced breakdowns at the same bottleneck, and associated probabilistic features of traffic breakdown and highway capacity. Single-vehicle data derived in model simulations show that synchronized flow first occurs and then self-maintains due to a spatiotemporal competition between speed adaptation to a slower speed of the preceding vehicle and passing of this slower vehicle. We find that the application of simple dependences of randomization probability and synchronization gap on driving situation allows us to explain the physics of moving synchronized flow patterns and the pinch effect in synchronized flow as observed in real traffic data.

  13. Failure of classical traffic flow theories: Stochastic highway capacity and automatic driving

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2016-01-01

    In a mini-review [Physica A {\\bf 392} (2013) 5261--5282] it has been shown that classical traffic flow theories and models failed to explain empirical traffic breakdown -- a phase transition from metastable free flow to synchronized flow at highway bottlenecks. The main objective of this mini-review is to study the consequence of this failure of classical traffic-flow theories for an analysis of empirical stochastic highway capacity as well as for the effect of automatic driving vehicles and cooperative driving on traffic flow. To reach this goal, we show a deep connection between the understanding of empirical stochastic highway capacity and a reliable analysis of automatic driving vehicles in traffic flow. With the use of simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory, a probabilistic analysis of the effect of automatic driving vehicles on a mixture traffic flow consisting of a random distribution of automatic driving and manual driving vehicles has been made. We have found that the parameters o...

  14. Failure of classical traffic flow theories: Stochastic highway capacity and automatic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2016-05-01

    In a mini-review Kerner (2013) it has been shown that classical traffic flow theories and models failed to explain empirical traffic breakdown - a phase transition from metastable free flow to synchronized flow at highway bottlenecks. The main objective of this mini-review is to study the consequence of this failure of classical traffic-flow theories for an analysis of empirical stochastic highway capacity as well as for the effect of automatic driving vehicles and cooperative driving on traffic flow. To reach this goal, we show a deep connection between the understanding of empirical stochastic highway capacity and a reliable analysis of automatic driving vehicles in traffic flow. With the use of simulations in the framework of three-phase traffic theory, a probabilistic analysis of the effect of automatic driving vehicles on a mixture traffic flow consisting of a random distribution of automatic driving and manual driving vehicles has been made. We have found that the parameters of automatic driving vehicles can either decrease or increase the probability of the breakdown. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown, i.e., the deterioration of the performance of the traffic system can occur already at a small percentage (about 5%) of automatic driving vehicles. The increase in the probability of traffic breakdown through automatic driving vehicles can be realized, even if any platoon of automatic driving vehicles satisfies condition for string stability.

  15. Analysis of Traffic Capacity on Mountainous Two Lane Highway Adding Climbing Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yunwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the construction of mountainous double lane highway, climbing lane plays a certain role for enhancing the traffic capacity. In order to explore traffic capacity improvement effect for different conditions of climbing lane, 20 representative models are chosen, which contain various combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The changes of traffic capacity, average speed, delays, and saturation in models are obtained before and after the use of a climbing lane by means of numerical simulation. The results show that the use of a climbing lane could improve traffic capacity, average speed, while reducing delays and saturation. The improvement effect is different according to different combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The research could provide a reference for mountainous climbing lane construction intend.

  16. A summary of state laws regulating youth operating farm tractors on highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, B C; Marlenga, B

    2006-02-01

    Driving farm tractors on highways is hazardous for youth due to the large speed differential between motor vehicles and agricultural vehicles, as well as recent increases in traffic volume on many rural roads. In 1994, the state of Wisconsin enacted legislation requiring youth who operate farm tractors on highways to complete a tractor and machinery certification course. We were interested in finding out whether other states have similar requirements. The purpose of this project was to collect and summarize state laws regulating youth who operate farm tractors on highways in the U.S. A systematic method was used that included an initial Lexis-Nexis database search followed by internet searches in combination with follow-up email and telephone communications when missing or unclear results were obtained. The findings show that 14 states have legislation addressing youth who operate farm tractors on highways. The content of these statutes varies, but includes driver's license or educational requirements, as well as regulations concerning the ages, locations, and/or times of day when youth may drive farm machinery on highways. This compilation of state laws will be useful information for agricultural safety professionals in designing effective outreach programs. A synthesis of the findings may also lead to the development of model legislation or inform future research efforts aimed at preventing youth farm tractor crashes on highways.

  17. Multi-scale traffic safety and operational performance study of large trucks on mountainous interstate highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suren; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    In addition to multi-vehicle accidents, large trucks are also prone to single-vehicle accidents on the mountainous interstate highways due to the complex terrain and fast-changing weather. By integrating both historical data analysis and simulations, a multi-scale approach is developed to evaluate the traffic safety and operational performance of large trucks on mountainous interstate highways in both scales of individual vehicle as well as traffic on the whole highway. A typical mountainous highway in Colorado is studied for demonstration purposes. Firstly, the ten-year historical accident records are analyzed to identify the accident-vulnerable-locations (AVLs) and site-specific critical adverse driving conditions. Secondly, simulation-based single-vehicle assessment is performed for different driving conditions at those AVLs along the whole corridor. Finally, the cellular-automaton (CA)-based simulation is carried out to evaluate the multi-vehicle traffic safety as well as the operational performance of the traffic by considering the actual speed limits, including the differential speed limits (DSL) at some locations. It is found that the multi-scale approach can provide insightful and comprehensive observations of the highway performance, which is especially important for mountainous highways.

  18. 多车道公路的交通通行能力%Traffic Capacity of Multi- lane Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静宇

    2012-01-01

    According to traffic capacity theory of multi - lane highway, and annual traffic volume forecast result of project vision in Highway Capacity Manual, peak rate and number of lane required by design project are calculat- ed, and number of lane required by construction project is finally determined through calculation of maximum traffic capacity and service level analysis.%根据《道路通行能力手册》中多车道公路通行能力理论及项目远景年交通量预测成果,计算高峰流率、设计工程项目所需车道数;通过最大通行能力计算及服务水平分析,最终确定工程项目的所需车道数。

  19. Impact of Lane Width of Road on Passenger Car Unit Capacity under Mix Traffic Condition in Cities on Congested Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Khanorkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Passenger car units are used to represent the effects of varying mixed vehicle types on traffic stream. The traffic volume information about roads which is important for, design and planning analysis for that roadway system. Traffic on congested highways is of the mixed nature to assess the different types of vehicles on highways. This study is concerned with determine the PCU values of vehicles in under mixed nature traffic flow at on congested highways. PCU is the different types of vehicles offer different degree of interference to the other traffic it necessary to bring all types to a common unit. The common unit adopted is expressing the volume as Passenger Car Unit (PCU per hour. In this paper the required data is collected at five main highways around and in Nagpur City using a digital video recorder. During recent years traffic on road has been grow up at rapid rate which causes congestion on the roads. Speeds of vehicle reduced due to congestion and vehicle operating cost is high on such highways. Accident rate is also usually high. Our aim is to work out the passenger car unit PCU for different types of vehicles under mixed nature traffic conditions.

  20. Assessment of Blasting Operations Effects During Highway Tunnel Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blasting operations are one of the fundamental parts of daily civil engineering. Drilling and blasting still remain the only possible ways of tunnelling in very adverse geological conditions. However, this method is a source of various disadvantages, the main one being tremors propagating through the geological environment which not only affect buildings, but also disturb the comfort of living in the vicinity of the source. Designing this procedure is mostly done using standardized empirical relations. This article shows the possibility of using a FEM technique in predicting blast effects. This approach is demonstrated in a simple case study on the impact of blasting operations on steel pipes.

  1. Raising a highway and a railroad track during intensive mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, W.

    1986-02-01

    In a mine subsidence area, a highway and a railroad track had to be raised by 7,50 m. In order to not exceed a maximum slope in both tracks, the raising operations were carried out in several steps, in accordance with the onset of ground subsidence. At the same time, the operations were not to interfere with the traffic on the four-track autobahn and the two-track railroad line. Simultaneously with the raising operations, the autobahn was enlarged from 4 tracks to 6 + 2 tracks. A local road was destroyed and replaced by a pedestrian and cyclist lane.

  2. Safety status of farm tractors that operate on public highways in four rural Kentucky counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, H P; Piercy, L R; Heinz, K L; Westneat, S C; Arrowsmith, H E; Raymond, K M

    2009-07-01

    Kentucky FFA students inspected 153 farm tractors for safety features that prevent operator injuries during tractor overturns, highway collisions, runovers, and power take-off (PTO) entanglements. Tractor mean age was 23.6 years (SD = 20.9). Rollover protective structures (ROPS) were present on 50.66% of tractors, but only 33.33% of these had functional seatbelts. Loose and damaged seats were found on 30.46% of tractors. In 38.99% of cases, tractor rear-wheel fenders exposed operators to moving tractor tires, and 48.67% of tractors had dangerously worn or damaged tires. Tractors with a narrow front-end stance comprised 16.11% of the total. Only 53.06% of the tractors had starters with secure hard cover by-pass starting shields that fully covered the starter terminals, and 37.37% had fully exposed terminals with no cover. PTO master shields with all parts present and undamaged were present on only 29.27% of the tractors, and in 39.02% of cases the entire shield was missing. Only 44.67% of the tractors had properly mounted and fully functional mounting and dismounting access steps and handholds. SMV emblems were missing on 53.64% of tractors and in the proper place and condition in only 25.83% of cases. Tractors with properly mounted and fully functional head and tail lights comprised 40.94% of the sample, and tractors with no functional lights comprised 24.16%. Properly mounted, clean, and functional rearview mirrors were present on only 19.87% of the tractors, and 69.54% had no rearview mirrors. The project increased farming and non-farming students' awareness of tractor safety issues, provided empirical data about the safety status of a sample of tractors that frequently travel public highways in four rural Kentucky farming counties, and promoted dialog about these issues with adult farmers and other community members with whom the students interacted.

  3. Research on Highway Traffic Capacity Conversion Method Under Disaster Conditions%灾害条件下公路通行能力折算方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛世峰; 姜桂艳

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of lacking highway traffic capacity conversion method under disaster conditions, the disaster is sorted according to the impact characteristics of disasters. The highway traffic capacity conversion sections divided method is designed, and the highway traffic capacity conversion method under two kinds of disaster conditions is designed based on those researches. The test data are obtained from investigation, the experimental results indicate that the performance of proposed method is good.%针对目前灾害条件下公路通行能力折算方法研究成果较为缺乏的问题,根据灾害对公路通行能力影响的特点,对灾害的种类进行分类,并设计了公路通行能力折算路段划分方法,在已有研究的基础上,设计了两类灾害条件下公路通行能力折算系数确定方法和通行能力计算方法,利用实际数据进行例证分析表明,所设计方法可以实现灾害条件下公路通行能力折算分析,为灾害条件下应急交通管理提供技术支持.

  4. Building Partnership Capacity: Operation Harmattan and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Les forces françaises en Côte d’Ivoire,” Ministère de la Défense, 2012, http://www .defense.gouv.fr/operations/ cote -d-ivoire/dossier/les-forces...francaises-en- cote -d-ivoire. 30. “977 Français en provenance du Japon en route vers la France,” Reuters, 19 March 2011, http://www.lepoint.fr/fil-info...Schwartz, and Dalton, letter. 92. “History: The Origin of the Exchange,” Le Trait de Union, accessed 26 July 2012, http://www.faireface.com/. 93

  5. Optimizing Dispersed Air Operations: A Concept To Use Highways As Improved Airfields In A Contested Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    opportunity to use them. However, even if China did not conduct preemptive strikes against the established civilian airfields, in classic kill...11] Figure 4: A Taiwanese F-16 Lands on a Highway during Exercise “Han Kuang” .................. [11] Figure 5: China’s Conventional Strike ...bases in the Pacific are imminent.1 Understanding that the adversary’s war plan includes first strike missile launches against established United

  6. A Functional Architecture For Automated Highway Traffic Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, H. S. Jacob

    1994-01-01

    This report defines an architecture for Automated Highway System (AHS) capacity-optimizing traffic planning functions. It identifies major traffic planning functions useful for optimizing the capacity of one or more major AHS operating scenarios and organizes them in a robust architecture that is modular, hierarchical, complete, expandable and integratable.

  7. Capacity planning in operations producing heavy plate cut shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lenort

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present approach to capacity planning in operations producing heavy metal shapes causes problems in fulfilling the required financial and volume indexes in production, as well as in meeting the work order completion dates. The article represents the methodology for optimal production scheduling in operations producing heavy plate cut shapes, which significantly eliminates the above-mentioned problems. The methodology is based on the application Generalized Assignment Problem (GAP.

  8. Towards the Capacity Region of Multiplicative Linear Operator Broadcast Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Yimin

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates that packet multicasting employing random linear network coding can be regarded as transmitting subspaces as codewords over a linear operator channel (LOC). A LOC is normally viewed as a discrete memoryless unicast subspace channel over a finite field. In this paper we propose the framework of linear operator broadcast channels (LOBCs) and start initial work on determining their capacity region. LOBC correspond to a single-source multiple-recipients network, where every recipient's subchannel is a LOC having its own capacity. Our discussion concerns a class of constant-dimension multiplicative LOBCs (CMLOBCs), whose input subspaces have constant dimension and missing vectors of a subspace constitute the only possible channel interference. We first give a necessary and sufficient condition for a CMLOBC being stochastically degraded. Then we classify weakly and strongly degraded CMLOBCs. By numerically computing capacity regions with an Arimoto-Blahut type algorithm and discussing seve...

  9. Assigning on-ramp flows to maximize capacity of highway with two on-ramps and one off-ramp in between

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Lin, Lan; Jiang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the capacity of a highway with two on-ramps and one off-ramp in between by using a cellular automaton traffic flow model. We investigate how to maximize the system capacity by assigning proper traffic flow to the two on-ramps. The system phase diagram is presented and eight different regions are observed under different conditions. It is shown that in region I, in which both on-ramps are in free flow and the main road upstream of the upstream on-ramp is in congestion, assigning proper proportion of the demand to two on-ramps could maximize the system capacity. Two critical values of the off-ramp flow ratio poff have been observed. When poff p off , c 2, no demand should be assigned to the upstream on-ramp. An analytical investigation has been performed to calculate the critical values. The analytical results are in good agreement with the simulation ones.

  10. Sustainability frameworks: their influence on the operational capacity of sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Calleros Islas, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to overview some of the existing and most relevant sustainability frameworks in order to compare their approach and level of concretion towards sustainability, as well as its relation with other scientific disciplines by reviewing the considered dimensions and evaluation criteria. The aim here is actually an attempt to clarify some of the possible ways to consolidate the operational capacity of sustainability at different levels without losing its holistic approach. El pre...

  11. Effective Management Tools in Implementing Operational Programme Administrative Capacity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen – Elena DOBROTĂ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Public administration in Romania and the administrative capacity of the central and local government has undergone a significant progress since 2007. The development of the administrative capacity deals with a set of structural and process changes that allow governments to improve the formulation and implementation of policies in order to achieve enhanced results. Identifying, developing and using management tools for a proper implementation of an operational programme dedicated to consolidate a performing public administration it was a challenging task, taking into account the types of interventions within Operational Programme Administrative Capacity Development 2007 – 2013 and the continuous changes in the economic and social environment in Romania and Europe. The aim of this article is to provide a short description of the approach used by the Managing Authority for OPACD within the performance management of the structural funds in Romania between 2008 and 2014. The paper offers a broad image of the way in which evaluations (ad-hoc, intermediate and performance were used in different stages of OP implementation as a tool of management.

  12. Operator health risk evaluation of off-highway dump truck under shovel loading condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申焱华; 许敏; 金纯; 高玉; 魏福林

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the operator health risk exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) while the electric-shovel loads the ore on the truck body, the semi-truck mathematical model and 3-D virtual prototype were built to simulate the high shockwave of truck cab under the shovel loading. Discrete element method was utilized to accurately estimate the impacting force on the truck body. Based on the ISO 2631-5 criteria, theSed is about 0.56 MPa in both models, which means that the dump operators have a high probability of adverse health effects over long-term exposure to these vibrations. The 4-DOF operator model was built to investigate the biodynamic response of seated-human body exposed to WBV in terms of the transmission of vibrations through the body. The results show that the response peak is in the frequency range of 4−6 Hz corresponding to the primary body resonant frequency.

  13. Traveling the Terror Highway: Infiltration of Terror Operatives across the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    recruits in public mosques and restaurants , elders and peers later led them to secret meetings at private residences in the Minneapolis area. Here...attractive to terror operatives seeking a pathway into the U.S.172 The perception of lax asylum laws combined with a low numbers of border security...for agents working on the border, but also advocated an increase in agents proficient in Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, 91 Korean , Farsi, and

  14. 78 FR 53497 - Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment on..., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Office of Regional Operations and Program...

  15. Accumulation of Pollutants in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This PhD study deals with issues related to water and pollutant transport from highway surfaces caused by rain. It is essential in the study to apply methods and models in which improvements in relation to removal of pollutants can be identified and to be able to predict the yearly discharges...... of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from an arbitrary detention pond to the natural environment. The present thesis is a part of a co-operation between the Danish Road Directorate (Vejdirektoratet) and Aalborg University and is founded in the Danish construction act for new highways...... single rain event. From the hindcast results it is possible to calculate mean water and pollutant loads. This method is commonly used in urban drainage systems for capacity analysis or for prediction of CSO's. The challenge is to develop a simplified and still accurate description of flow and transport...

  16. A Strategy of Minimising Wind Power Curtailment by Considering Operation Capacity Credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Su, Chi; Fang, Jiakun

    2015-01-01

    An optimal wind power curtailment strategy considering operation capacity credit is proposed in this paper to minimize the uncertain wind power curtailment and minimize the system operation cost. The relevant definitions in capacity credit assessment are applied in the power system operation...... situation. Based on operation capacity credit prediction, the optimal operation control strategy is defined and implemented for hourly system operation and control. Multi-agent system based control structure is adopted to coordinate the diverse system components to work together and realize the system wide...... targets of the proposed strategy. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy....

  17. Highway Leasing and Club Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Huneke, William

    2009-01-01

    In recent years financially stressed jurisdictions have attempted to solve their fiscal shortfalls by leasing highways to private companies. The private company pays an upfront fee or promises a regular stream of cash payments in return for operating and collecting tolls from highway users during a fixed term. In a front page article on August 26, The Wall Street Journal described the efforts Pennsylvania was going through to lease the United States’ oldest, major toll road, the Pennsylvania ...

  18. MIMO Channel Capacity for Handsets in Data Mode Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Yanakiev, Boyan; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2010-01-01

    The current paper concerns realistic evaluation of the capacity of the MIMO channel between a BS and handheld device, such as a PDA or smart phone, held in front of the user’s body (data mode). The work is based on measurements of the MIMO channel between two widely separated BSs in a micro...

  19. MIMO Channel Capacity for Handsets in Data Mode Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Yanakiev, Boyan; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2010-01-01

    The current paper concerns realistic evaluation of the capacity of the MIMO channel between a BS and handheld device, such as a PDA or smart phone, held in front of the user’s body (data mode). The work is based on measurements of the MIMO channel between two widely separated BSs in a micro-cellular...

  20. Entanglement capacity of two-qubit unitary operator for rank two mixed states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI; YaoMin

    2007-01-01

    The entanglement capacity of two-qubit unitary operator acting on rank two mixed states in concurrence is discussed. The condition of perfect entangler is the same as that acting on pure states and the entanglement capacity is the mixing parameter v1. For non-perfect entangler, the upper and lower bound of the entanglement capacity are given.……

  1. Entanglement capacity of two-qubit unitary operator for rank two mixed states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The entanglement capacity of two-qubit unitary operator acting on rank two mixed states in concurrence is discussed. The condition of perfect entangler is the same as that acting on pure states and the entanglement capacity is the mixing parameter v1. For non-perfect entangler, the upper and lower bound of the entanglement capacity are given.

  2. 24 CFR 92.208 - Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity building costs. 92.208 Section 92.208 Housing... community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity building costs. (a) Up to 5... expenses of community housing development organizations (CHDOs). These funds may not be used to pay...

  3. The Strategies of Reducing the Financial Cost in Highway Operating Enterprises%探讨高速公路营运企业降低财务费用的策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠敏

    2013-01-01

    Taking the problems related to financial cost in highway operating enterprises as the research object, the paper analyzed and described some effective strategies of reducing the financial cost.%  本文以高速公路运营企业财务费用相关问题为研究对象,就能够降低财务费用的几点有效策略展开了详细分析与说明。Abstract:Taking the problems related to financial cost in highway operating enterprises as the research object, the paper analyzed and

  4. CFD evaluation of SFP cooling capacity during normal operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dong Hyeog; Kim, Jin Hyuck; Seul, Kwang Won [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In Fukushima nuclear accident, due to earthquake, the cooling system of the spent fuel pool failed and the safety issue of the spent fuel pool (SFP) generated. Because of the unavailability of offsite storage for spent nuclear fuel in Korea, the spent fuel should be placed in storage at specially designed facilities, kept and monitored in the plant. In recent years, spent fuel storage racks are being replaced with high density racks due to the lack of storage capacity. For the above reasons, the necessity is felt to analyze the safety of the spent fuel pool. Hence, to evaluate the safety of spent fuel pools, in case of loss of offsite power like the Fukushima nuclear accident, the safety analysis was conducted for Gori Unit 1 and Ulchin unit3 in order to estimate the time it takes for nuclear fuels to be uncovered, when water in the pool evaporated by decay heat of spent fuels. In addition, there are some researches evaluating heat removal, thermal hydraulic behaviors and accident circumstances in the spent fuel pool with system thermal hydraulic codes, such as RELAP, TRACE and ASTEC. Some researchers are attempting to carry out 3D CFD analysis. In this study, thermal hydraulic characteristics of the spent fuel pool of Ulchin unit 3 are investigated by using ANSYS CFX 13 which is a commercial CFD code. Three dimensional fluid flow and heat removal capacity of the spent fuel pool are evaluated by 3 D CFD simulation, while carrying out comparative analysis with the multi D analysis of MARS KS.

  5. Capacity Building in the Operational Environment: Stories and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    way we build and train the team here before deployment. The difficulty in 2004 was that PRTs were brand new. I remember looking at a wiring...A lot of them are sort of political, coffee table type books. When you are looking to have tools to get you in the door, a tool is a tool. The...they can read. Do they understand what’s going on? Where does their loyalty lie? It was a regimented system of operating out there, but we had our

  6. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in US manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries - Volume 1: Concepts and Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Serot, D.E. (D/E/S Research, Richland, WA (USA)); Kellogg, M.A. (ERCE, Inc., Portland, OR (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Development of integrated mobilization preparedness policies requires planning estimates of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. Such estimates must be developed in a manner to allow evaluation of current trends in capacity and the consideration of uncertainties in various data inputs and in engineering assumptions. This study developed estimates of emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 446 manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level of aggregation and for 24 key nonmanufacturing sectors. This volume lays out the general concepts and methods used to develop the emergency operating estimates. The historical analysis of capacity extends from 1974 through 1986. Some nonmanufacturing industries are included. In addition to mining and utilities, key industries in transportation, communication, and services were analyzed. Physical capacity and efficiency of production were measured. 3 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  7. Scandinavian hydrogen highway partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M.; Hansen, J. [H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark); Wennike, F. [Hydrogen Link Denmark Association, Ringkoebing (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    The Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership (SHHP) was launched in an effort to build hydrogen filling stations in Scandinavian countries by 2012 in order to enable hydrogen powered vehicles to operate and refuel when needed. Three hydrogen refueling stations are currently in operation in Scandinavia to fuel a fleet of 15 hydrogen-fuelled cars. It is anticipated that by the end of 2009, there will be 14 hydrogen refueling stations and more than 70 vehicles in operation. Beyond 2012, the number of filling stations and vehicles is expected to increase significantly through large scale demonstration, where SHHP aims to attract funding from the European Union. The current activities of SHHP are co-funded by national and regional authorities. The SHHP network is funded by Nordic Energy Research.

  8. Policy Safeguards and the Legitimacy of Highway Interdiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    strategy of highway interdiction, such as complaints of police misconduct or the public’s perception of unfair law enforcement practices. The...communities continue to express concerns associated with unfair treatment and exposure to police misconduct. The frustration of the minority community about...highway interdiction operations were reviewed by a supervisor with highway interdiction experience. This review is a distinctive advantage for

  9. VT Limited Access Highways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual carriageway, expressway, and partial controlled access highway, is a...

  10. Management model of productive capacity: integrating theory of constraints and the global operational efficiency index (IROG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Pacheco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of management capacity in productive systems integrating the concepts of the Theory of Constraints and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The main objective of this study is to discuss and propose a model of management capacity, able to answer the following key questions: i capacity indicators which should be considered and how to measure them to measure the productive capacity of manufacturing systems? ii what is the real productive capacity of the system analyzed under a determined relationship between capacity and demand? The discussion of the proposed model is relevant because the definition of productive capacity system enables better management of resources and capabilities, improve production scheduling on the factory floor and meeting the demands imposed by the market. This paper presents the proposition of using the Operating Income Index Global (IROG with a different approach from traditional literature dealing with the theme, presented by Nakajima (1988. The results of this paper enable to develop a model to determine the capacity of the production system and the impact on the productive capacity of the entire system, not to consider the quality conformances that occur after the bottleneck resource of the production flow.

  11. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in US manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Serot, D.E. (D/E/S Research, Richland, WA (USA)); Kellogg, M.A. (ERCE, Inc., Portland, OR (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Development of integrated mobilization preparedness policies requires planning estimates of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. Such estimates must be developed in a manner that allows evaluation of current trends in capacity and the consideration of uncertainties in various data inputs and in engineering assumptions. This study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), developed estimates of emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 446 manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level of aggregation and for 24 key non-manufacturing sectors. This volume presents tabular and graphical results of the historical analysis and projections for each SIC industry. (JF)

  12. Stabilization Operations Through Military Capacity Building-Integration Between Danish Conventional Forces and Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    N.Y: Frank Cass Publishers, 1998), 82–83. 146 Adams, US. Special Operations Forces in Action, 84–85. 147 Krepinevich Jr., The Army and Vietnam, 69...liaison teams, which were considered an important factor in the development of the Afghan National Army ( ANA ). Operational mentoring and liaison...Chief of Defence. Adams, Thomas K. U.S. Special Operations Forces in Action: The Challenge of Unconventional Warfare. New York: Frank Cass Publishers

  13. 一级公路路侧冲突强度与运行速度的相关性%Relationship between Roadside Conflict Intensity and Operating Speed of First Class Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常成利; 荣建; 任福田

    2011-01-01

    First class highway is one type of general multi-lane highway which takes the role of arterial function and collector-distributor function in domestic road network. Mixed traffic is very popular in Chinese highway system. Roadside conflict affects traffic operating speed, and quantitative analysis of influence of roadside conflict on traffic operating speed is an important job in highway design stage. Through investigation of driver's visual impression on different roadside conflict types, roadside conflict intensities were classified into four levels. Seven typical first class highway sections were chosen for observing traffic data, which were analysed by the method of variance analysis. The result indicates that when using V85 as the evaluation index of operating speed, the effect of roadside conflict is remarkable. By establishing the relationship between roadside conflict intensity level and V85 free flow operating speed, the influence of roadside conflict intensity on operating speed of first class highway was quantified.%一级公路是我国公路网中承担干线功能和集散功能的多车道普通公路形式.混行交通在我国公路交通中普遍存在,路侧冲突对交通流运行速度产生影响,定量分析路侧冲突对交通流的影响是公路设计的重要工作.通过调查驾驶员对不同路侧冲突类型的直观印象,为路侧冲突定义了4个强度等级,选择国内7个具有代表性的典型一级公路路段进行交通流数据观测,采用方差分析技术对试验数据进行分析.结果表明:当采用自由流速度的85%位车速作为运行速度的评价指标时,路侧冲突强度的影响是显著的.通过建立起路侧冲突强度等级与85%位自由流速度之间的关系,量化了路侧冲突强度对一级公路运行速度的影响.

  14. Highway Bureau Director on Highway Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINZHIGUO

    2005-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Highway experienced four renovations in the past 40 years and has now been asphalted. For the fourth renovation, some 1.17 billion Yuan was consumed. It is now a modern highway. Extending 2,100 km from Xining of Qinghai to Lhasa of Tibet, it became 1,937 km after re-working. It goes 1,400 km in Qinghai.The Xining-Golmud section crossed many mountains and many rivers,extending 782 km. The Golmud-Lhasa section crosses four mountains—Kunlun Mountains (4,700 meters), Fenghuoshan Mountain (4,800 meters),Tanggula Mountain (5,150 meters above sea level at the mouth) and Nyainqentanggula Mountain, and crossed three rivers---Tongtianhe River, Tutu River and Curmar River with an average elevation of 4,500 meters. The Highway extends 544 km in Tibet. More than 80 percent of goods were transported through the highway.

  15. Operational Capacity on Freeway Bottleneck Segment%高速公路瓶颈路段运营通行能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴德华; 邱志军

    2015-01-01

    高速公路瓶颈路段在发生交通拥堵后会引起运营通行能力突变现象,为了更加准确揭示瓶颈路段运营通行能力变化规律,引入非对称驾驶行为理论,改进Newell跟车模型,并对模型进行参数估计和应用分析.通过12个仿真场景及试验数据对比分析了改进模型和美国道路通行能力手册(2010)推荐模型的精确度,发现改进模型可以提高精度;分析了因车道减少导致的交通拥堵,发现关闭不同车道和车道数对运营通行能力影响结果不同,得出了相应的影响值;在一定交通量范围内,入口匝道和出口匝道交通量的增加都会导致主线拥堵路段运营通行能力的降低,并给出了最大降低幅度.研究结果可为缓解高速公路瓶颈路段交通拥堵提供借鉴.%The traffic congestion can cause operational capacity drop phenomenon on freeway bottleneck segment. To reveal the capacity diversification regular pattern, the asymmetric driver behavior theory is used to improve the Newell car-following model. The improved car-following model is calibrated and implemented in field data simulation. By 12 simulation scenarios and field data analysis, the results show that the improved Newell car-following model can increase accuracy in estimate the bottleneck operational capacity compared to the model that Highway Capacity Manual (HCM2010) provided. The traffic congestion due to the lane drop is analyzed, the operational capacity varied in condition close different lane and number of lanes, then the varied value is figured out. The operational capacity on major lane bottleneck segment decreases by changed the flow on on-ramp and off-ramp in range of certain flow change, and the most decreased value is calculated. In conclusion, the results can provide reference for migrate congestion on freeway bottleneck segment.

  16. [The changes in mental working capacity of operators during 24-hour shift work conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal'nysh, V V; Shvets', A V; Ieshchenko, O I

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysiological peculiarities of influence of a 24-hour shift work on the efficiency of operators have been discussed. It was shown that servicemen operators develop significant fatigue as a result of 24 hrs duty services. The informative psychophysiological characteristics which can be reliable indicators of fatigue level are highlighted. Individual psychophysiological indicators of fatigue level, according to different mechanisms of its development, have been proposed. The hypothesis about the existence of several compensatory mechanisms for maintenance of long duty operators' working capacity has been formulated.

  17. Simulation of traffic capacity at highway serial toll station%高速公路串行收费站通行能力仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌海军; 吴伟; 杜荣华

    2012-01-01

    针对基于车流到达服从标准泊松分布的并行收费站排队服务模型在交通流的时空复杂性、成本、可靠性等方面存在的不足,提出基于元胞自动机建模与仿真的串行收费站布设方式的通行能力、延误及布设个数的分析方法.研究结论表明:串行收费站的通行能力随布设个数的增加而增大,但增大幅度缓慢降低;串行收费站的车均延误以80%通行能力的流量水平为分界点,随着流量继续增大,车均延误急剧上升.给出了不同的流量水平所对应的串行收费站最佳布设个数.%The line up service model at parallel toll station, based on the traffic arrival subject to the standard Pois-son distribution, has some shortages in time and space complexity, cost, reliability and other aspects. Concerning these shortcomings, this paper presents an analytical method to review the traffic capacity, delay and setting number of serial toll station which is set based on cellular automata modeling and simulation. The study results show that the traffic capacity of serial toll station is increased with its setting number but the increment is becoming slower; the critical point of average traffic delay of serial toll station is at the level of eighty percent of traffic capacity, and average traffic delay will increase sharply over this point. This paper gives the best setting number of serial toll station at different flow levels.

  18. Evaluation of Railway Networks with Single Track Operation Using the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    lines and single track lines are discussed in this article. The principles of the UIC 406 of double track lines can be applied to single track lines-at least when more than one train follows each other in the same direction. In a presentation of the UIC 406 for single track operations, it is important...... to define where to divide the railway lines into line sections and how the conflicts between trains at crossing stations and junctions have to be analysed. The effects on railway networks with single track lines and their impact on capacity consumption are described to enable a consistent capacity statement....

  19. VT National Highway System (NHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The National Highway System (NHS) is a network of strategic highways within the United States, including the Interstate Highway System and other roads serving major...

  20. 基于随机森林的公路隧道运营缺失数据插补方法%Random Forest Based Operational Missing Data Imputation for Highway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱超; 陈建勋; 罗彦斌; 代亮

    2016-01-01

    Real-time & completely accessing and deeply mining of tunnel operational data such as environment state and traffic status is a foundation work to improve emergency response capacity and realize safety early warning. An imputation method is proposed based on Random Forest algorithm. Missing data set is separated according to missing features. Random Forest regression model is built to iteratively impute after the determination of stopping criterion. The optimal combination of decision tree numbers and variables numbers randomly sampled at each split in Random Forest are identified by taking the minimum normalized root mean square error as objective function. Imputation results on highway tunnel operational missing data indicate that the method provides significantly higher precision and better robustness than KNN, SVD, MICE, PPCA, reducing normalized root mean square error by at least 25%. Moreover, the imputation efficiency is improved significantly by using parallel computation. It covers the shortage of slow imputation speed and provides a warranty of effectiveness and timeliness in missing data imputation.%对隧道内环境、交通状态等各类运营数据的实时、完整获取并深入挖掘,是提高应急处置能力、实现运营安全预警的基础。提出一种基于随机森林的缺失数据插补方法,根据缺失特征对缺失数据集进行分割;建立随机森林回归模型进行迭代插补并确定迭代终止条件;以标准均方根误差最小确定了随机森林中决策树的数量和分裂节点随机抽取变量数的最优组合。对公路隧道运营缺失数据集插补结果表明:本方法插补精度高、鲁棒性好,与KNN、SVD、MICE和PPCA等插补方法相比,标准均方根误差降低25%以上;利用并行运算大幅度提高了插补效率,弥补了插补速度慢的缺陷,保证了插补的有效性和时效性。

  1. Highway travel time estimation with data fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Soriguera Martí, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a simple, innovative approach for the measurement and short-term prediction of highway travel times based on the fusion of inductive loop detector and toll ticket data. The methodology is generic and not technologically captive, allowing it to be easily generalized for other equivalent types of data. The book shows how Bayesian analysis can be used to obtain fused estimates that are more reliable than the original inputs, overcoming some of the drawbacks of travel-time estimations based on unique data sources. The developed methodology adds value and obtains the maximum (in terms of travel time estimation) from the available data, without recurrent and costly requirements for additional data. The application of the algorithms to empirical testing in the AP-7 toll highway in Barcelona proves that it is possible to develop an accurate real-time, travel-time information system on closed-toll highways with the existing surveillance equipment, suggesting that highway operators might provide...

  2. Geometric Design of Highways in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Baričević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the criteria, standards, and engineeringprocedures used to design principal elements of the highwayalignment, highway cross sections, and adjacent roadside environment.Development of a comprehensive highway design focuseson the establishment of travel lane configuration, alignmentlocation, and all dimensions related to the highway crosssection. A three-dimensional physical location is determinedthrough calculation of a horizontal and vertical alignment ofthe highway centerline, based on a variety of operational considerations.The results of these activities are refe"ed to as thegeometric design and represent all the visible features of a highwayor street. The first and major portion of the paper deals withthe design of motor-vehicle facilities. Specific design elementsare described and discussed with respect to design methodology.

  3. Operation Optimization Based on the Power Supply and Storage Capacity of an Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the interconnection and active management of Distributed Generation (DG and Energy Storage Systems (ESSs, the traditional electrical distribution network has become an Active Distribution Network (ADN, posing challenges to the operation optimization of the network. The power supply and storage capacity indexes of a Local Autonomy Control Region (LACR, which consists of DGs, ESSs and the network, are proposed in this paper to quantify the power regulating range of a LACR. DG/ESS and the network are considered as a whole in the model of the indexes, considering both network constraints and power constraints of the DG/ESS. The index quantifies the maximum LACR power supplied to or received from ADN lines. Similarly, power supply and storage capacity indexes of the ADN line are also proposed to quantify the maximum power exchanged between ADN lines. Then a practical algorithm to calculate the indexes is presented, and an operation optimization model is proposed based on the indexes to maximum the economic benefit of DG/ESS. In the optimization model, the power supply reliability of the ADN line is also considered. Finally, the indexes of power supply and storage capacity and the optimization are demonstrated in a case study.

  4. Reducing Wait Times through Operations Research: Optimizing the Use of Surge Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Jonathan; Puterman, Martin L

    2008-02-01

    Widespread public demand for improved access, political pressure for shorter wait times, a stretched workforce, an aging population and overutilized equipment and facilities challenge healthcare leaders to adopt new management approaches. This paper highlights the significant benefits that can be achieved by applying operations research (OR) methods to healthcare management. It shows how queuing theory provides managers with insights into the causes for excessive wait times and the relationship between wait times and capacity. It provides a case study of the use of several OR methods, including Markov decision processes, linear programming and simulation, to optimize the scheduling of patients with multiple priorities. The study shows that by applying this approach, wait time targets can be attained with the judicious use of surge capacity in the form of overtime. It concludes with some policy insights.

  5. Natural Airfield Pavements, Load-Carrying Capacities There Of, Principles Of Construction And Operational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper has been intended to present analytically derived relationships for aircraft wheels that move through the soil medium. The analyses have been conducted for both the rigid wheel and the pneumatic whell. The most fundamental principles of constructing natural(soil and sod/grass airfield pavements have been diccussed. Characteristic of soils typical of such pavements /surfaces have been defined. Proped are criteria for the evaluation of load-carring capacities of such pavements. The most essential principles that goven the operational use there of follow.

  6. 40 CFR 1051.105 - What are the exhaust emission standards for off-highway motorcycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gas-fueled off-highway motorcycles: NMHC emissions. (2) Alcohol-fueled off-highway motorcycles: THCE... operating life from advertisements or other marketing materials for any vehicles in the engine family....

  7. Research to policy and practice change: is capacity building in operational research delivering the goods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Rony; Guillerm, Nathalie; Berger, Selma; Kumar, Ajay M V; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Bissell, Karen; Edginton, Mary; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Khogali, Mohammed; Manzi, Marcel; Reid, Anthony J; Ramsay, Andrew; Reeder, John C; Harries, Anthony D

    2014-09-01

    Between 2009 and 2012, eight operational research capacity building courses were completed in Paris (3), Luxembourg (1), India (1), Nepal (1), Kenya (1) and Fiji (1). Courses had strict milestones that were subsequently adopted by the Structured Operational Research and Training InitiaTive (SORT IT) of the World Health Organization. We report on the numbers of enrolled participants who successfully completed courses, the number of papers published and their reported effect on policy and/or practice. Retrospective cohort study including a survey. Participant selection criteria ensured that only those proposing specific programme-related and relevant operational research questions were selected. Effects on policy and/or practice were assessed in a standardised manner by two independent reviewers. Of 93 enrolled participants from 31 countries (14 in Africa, 13 in Asia, two in Latin America and two in South Pacific), 83 (89%) completed their courses. A total of 96 papers were submitted to scientific journals of which 89 (93%) were published and 88 assessed for effect on policy and practice. There was a reported effect in 65 (74%) studies including changes to programme implementation (27), adaptation of monitoring tools (24) and changes to existing guidelines (20). Three quarters of published operational research studies from these structured courses had reported effects on policy and/or practice. It is important that this type of tracking becomes a standard component of operational research and research in general. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in U.S. manufacturing industries: 1994--2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1997-02-01

    To develop integrated policies for mobilization preparedness, planners require estimates and projections of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. This report develops projections of national emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 458 US manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level. These measures are intended for use in planning models that are designed to predict the demands for detailed industry sectors that would occur under conditions such as a military mobilization or a major national disaster. This report is part of an ongoing series of studies prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to support mobilization planning studies of the Federal Emergency Planning Agency/US Department of Defense (FEMA/DOD). Earlier sets of EOC estimates were developed in 1985 and 1991. This study presents estimates of EOC through 2005. As in the 1991 study, projections of capacity were based upon extrapolations of equipment capital stocks. The methodology uses time series regression models based on industry data to obtain a response function of industry capital stock to levels of industrial output. The distributed lag coefficients of these response function are then used with projected outputs to extrapolate the 1994 level of EOC. Projections of industrial outputs were taken from the intermediate-term forecast of the US economy prepared by INFORUM (Interindustry Forecasting Model, University of Maryland) in the spring of 1996.

  9. 14 CFR 93.68 - General rules: Seward Highway segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General rules: Seward Highway segment. 93.68 Section 93.68 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Area § 93.68 General rules: Seward Highway segment. (a) Each person operating an airplane in the...

  10. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 7: Traffic Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…

  11. A study on traffic weaving segment level of service on Malaysia urban highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Rohaya; Sadullah, Ahmad Farhan Mohd

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research is to observe weaving problems, analyze the capacity of the weaving segment and to identify the behavior of the Malaysian driver at urban freeway weaving segment. Field data collected during non - peak hours at km. 138.6-138.2 (north bound) Seberang Jaya: Penang Bridge, km.16.8 to km.17.0 Sunway Mentari: Damansara-Puchong Highway and km.21.4 to km.21.9 Puchong Intan: Damansara-Puchong Highway. These segments behave as a bottleneck during peak hour. The data collected are traffic volume, vehicle composition and the road geometry. The drivers behavior pattern at the freeway weaving segment is observed. This research analyses by two different methodologies, the first analysis is by referring to the US Highway Capacity Manual 2010 and the second analysis through a modified method to suit the local traffic composition. The consideration of motorcycle and light heavy vehicle in the analysis lead to a different evaluation of weaving segment capacity. The analysis results show a slight difference between both methods. LOS, weaving speed and density prediction by the modified method is slightly higher than the HCM method. These results, suggest that the numbers of light heavy vehicle and motorcycle contribute to the amount of traffic volume because the value factors of Passenger Car Equivalent (PCE). The adoption of the widely used method without taking consideration of local traffic condition, might lead to improper road planning or design or road operation management.

  12. The operating room case-mix problem under uncertainty and nurses capacity constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Zakaria; Eltawil, Amr B; Harraz, Nermine A

    2016-12-01

    Surgery is one of the key functions in hospitals; it generates significant revenue and admissions to hospitals. In this paper we address the decision of choosing a case-mix for a surgery department. The objective of this study is to generate an optimal case-mix plan of surgery patients with uncertain surgery operations, which includes uncertainty in surgery durations, length of stay, surgery demand and the availability of nurses. In order to obtain an optimal case-mix plan, a stochastic optimization model is proposed and the sample average approximation method is applied. The proposed model is used to determine the number of surgery cases to be weekly served, the amount of operating rooms' time dedicated to each specialty and the number of ward beds dedicated to each specialty. The optimal case-mix selection criterion is based upon a weighted score taking into account both the waiting list and the historical demand of each patient category. The score aims to maximizing the service level of the operating rooms by increasing the total number of surgery cases that could be served. A computational experiment is presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the stochastic model solution outperforms the expected value problem solution. Additional analysis is conducted to study the effect of varying the number of ORs and nurses capacity on the overall ORs' performance.

  13. Modelling of the operation of the multi-storey automated garage with a big capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Pypno

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper presents the issues of parking in the cities. The idea of multi-storey, overground garage with the capacity of 400 cars per hour has been proposed in the paper. The main focus is on analyzing loading and unloading as well as trans-shipment of the cars on the storeys of the garage. Methods: The queuing theory has been used in the modelling process of the vehicles operation. The theory may enable to draw up general methods which let us indicate basic factors describing the process of the operation and the evaluation of the quality of work of the queuing theory system. Aims: The subject of the paper is to check the influence of stochastic effects on the effectiveness of the parking operation in multi-storey garage.  Conclusions:  The garage could be a solution to parking problems in the city centres, in the vicinity of factories, office buildings, academic centres and the like. Furthermore the research method may support and speed up a decisional process while choosing the optimal structure, organization and first of all the construction of the parking.  

  14. Modeling worldwide highway networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Boas, Paulino R.; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; da F. Costa, Luciano

    2009-12-01

    This Letter addresses the problem of modeling the highway systems of different countries by using complex networks formalism. More specifically, we compare two traditional geographical models with a modified geometrical network model where paths, rather than edges, are incorporated at each step between the origin and the destination vertices. Optimal configurations of parameters are obtained for each model and used for the comparison. The highway networks of Australia, Brazil, India, and Romania are considered and shown to be properly modeled by the modified geographical model.

  15. An integrated model for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hao

    2011-01-01

    In China, environmental issues caused by construction and operation of highway catch more and more attention, and thus environmental impact assessment of highway has become an important part of feasibility study. According to the Specifications for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways...

  16. The Lincoln Highway in Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This guidebook is on the Lincoln Highway in the state of Utah. Its purpose is to describe as closely as possible the original route of the Highway, the major changes...

  17. Institutional and scientific co-operation, networking and capacity building in the field of food safety and quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Meerdink, G.; Banati, D.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Kuiper, H.A.; Houtman, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explains the situation in Hungary and The Netherlands regarding scientific co-operation, networking and capacity building in the field of food quality and safety. Specific details are given about institutional co-operation including exchanges between staff and students, collaborative proj

  18. Adapting to change in healthcare: aligning strategic intent and operational capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Randal; Boss, R Wayne; Angermeier, Ingo; Townson, Charles D; Jennings, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    The concept of a stakeholder is commonplace in a business context. Participative- democratic communication refers to those organization-wide principles and practices that "represent" many relevant stakeholders in the decision making of work-related activities. One case in point is as follows: In May 2000, the Spartanburg Regional Healthcare System board of directors forced its CEO to resign, ending his 6-year tenure and the heated controversy of the previous 2 months. The former CEO focused primarily on strategic growth to the detriment of operations. Through participative-democratic practices, the interim CEO mended the damaged relations between the hospital administration, the community, and employee stakeholders in surfacing conflict to bolster operational efficiency. The current CEO attended to building stakeholder relationships and trust as a way to wed strategic growth and the organization's capacity to maintain it. Top executive managers and directly involved community political leaders helped in developing the participative-democratic communication principles set forth in this article. These core principles are (a) creating the space for new communicative interaction, (b) safeguarding a credible and open process, and (c) reclaiming suppressed views.

  19. Highways: Interstate, US & State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains lines for all highways in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a USGS 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  20. Simulation model of discret events applied to the planning and operation of a toll plaza

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    AbstractThis work investigates the congestion and traffic flow in a tool plaza, and proposes a methodology for the classification of highway flows and its service levels based on a combination of the Highway Capacity Manual – HCM and Discrete Events Simulation fundaments. The proposed mesoscopic simulation is used to analyze service levels of different physical and operational arrangements of a particular toll gate. The model considers speed functions, toll gate arrivals and departures,...

  1. The influence of tollbooths on highway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei; Huang, Wei-neng

    2002-09-01

    We study the effects of tollbooths on the traffic flow. The highway traffic is simulated by the Nagel-Schreckenberg model. Various types of toll collection are examined, which can be characterized either by a waiting time or a reduced speed. A first-order phase transition is observed. The phase separation results a saturated flow, which is observed as a plateau region in the fundamental diagram. The effects of lane expansion near the tollbooth are examined. The full capacity of a highway can be restored. The emergence of vehicle queuing is studied. Besides the numerical results, we also obtain analytical expressions for various quantities. The numerical simulations can be well described by the analytical formulas. We also discuss the influence on the travel time and its variance. The tollbooth increases the travel time but decreases its variance. The differences between long- and short-distance travelers are also discussed.

  2. Qualitative study to develop processes and tools for the assessment and tracking of African institutions' capacity for operational health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Selina; Cole, Donald C; Gaye, Oumar; Mmbaga, Blandina T; Mwapasa, Victor; Tagbor, Harry; Bates, Imelda

    2017-09-05

    Research is key to achieving global development goals. Our objectives were to develop and test an evidence-informed process for assessing health research management and support systems (RMSS) in four African universities and for tracking interventions to address capacity gaps. Four African universities. 83 university staff and students from 11 cadres. A literature-informed 'benchmark' was developed and used to itemise all components of a university's health RMSS. Data on all components were collected during site visits to four African universities using interview guides, document reviews and facilities observation guides. Gaps in RMSS capacity were identified against the benchmark and institutional action plans developed to remedy gaps. Progress against indicators was tracked over 15 months and common challenges and successes identified. Common gaps in operational health research capacity included no accessible research strategy, a lack of research e-tracking capability and inadequate quality checks for proposal submissions and contracts. Feedback indicated that the capacity assessment was comprehensive and generated practical actions, several of which were no-cost. Regular follow-up helped to maintain focus on activities to strengthen health research capacity in the face of challenges. Identification of each institutions' strengths and weaknesses against an evidence-informed benchmark enabled them to identify gaps in in their operational health research systems, to develop prioritised action plans, to justify resource requests to fulfil the plans and to track progress in strengthening RMSS. Use of a standard benchmark, approach and tools enabled comparisons across institutions which has accelerated production of evidence about the science of research capacity strengthening. The tools could be used by institutions seeking to understand their strengths and to address gaps in research capacity. Research capacity gaps that were common to several institutions could be

  3. Qualitative study to develop processes and tools for the assessment and tracking of African institutions’ capacity for operational health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Gaye, Oumar; Mmbaga, Blandina T; Mwapasa, Victor; Tagbor, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Research is key to achieving global development goals. Our objectives were to develop and test an evidence-informed process for assessing health research management and support systems (RMSS) in four African universities and for tracking interventions to address capacity gaps. Setting Four African universities. Participants 83 university staff and students from 11 cadres. Intervention/methods A literature-informed ‘benchmark’ was developed and used to itemise all components of a university’s health RMSS. Data on all components were collected during site visits to four African universities using interview guides, document reviews and facilities observation guides. Gaps in RMSS capacity were identified against the benchmark and institutional action plans developed to remedy gaps. Progress against indicators was tracked over 15 months and common challenges and successes identified. Results Common gaps in operational health research capacity included no accessible research strategy, a lack of research e-tracking capability and inadequate quality checks for proposal submissions and contracts. Feedback indicated that the capacity assessment was comprehensive and generated practical actions, several of which were no-cost. Regular follow-up helped to maintain focus on activities to strengthen health research capacity in the face of challenges. Conclusions Identification of each institutions’ strengths and weaknesses against an evidence-informed benchmark enabled them to identify gaps in in their operational health research systems, to develop prioritised action plans, to justify resource requests to fulfil the plans and to track progress in strengthening RMSS. Use of a standard benchmark, approach and tools enabled comparisons across institutions which has accelerated production of evidence about the science of research capacity strengthening. The tools could be used by institutions seeking to understand their strengths and to address gaps in research

  4. Mobile operators have set ambitious targets – Is it possible to boost network capacity while reducing its energy consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben; Scheck, Hans-Otto

    2012-01-01

    the possible savings by adopting an energy-efficient capacity evolution together with an equipment replacement and site upgrade strategy. Results show that network operators can get relatively close to their targets, with energy reductions of up to 40% noted. While this can be improved further through software...

  5. International Contribution to the Highway Agency's Bridge Related Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowak, A. S.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    The objective of this paper is to summarize recent contributions of international experts to the research program sponsored by the Highways Agency. An efficient management of existing bridges requires methodology for an accurate evaluation of the actual loads and load carrying capacity and predic......The objective of this paper is to summarize recent contributions of international experts to the research program sponsored by the Highways Agency. An efficient management of existing bridges requires methodology for an accurate evaluation of the actual loads and load carrying capacity...... of reliability models for analysis of bridges subjected to corrosion and fatigue, and reliability-based optimization of maintenance strategies for bridges....

  6. The prognostic value of pre-operative predicted forced vital capacity in corrective spinal surgery for Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C M; Ambler, G; Edge, G

    2004-12-01

    The majority of patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy require corrective spinal surgery for scoliosis to maintain seated balance and to slow the progression of respiratory compromise, thereby facilitating nursing and enhancing their quality of life. Traditionally patients with a pre-operative forced vital capacity (PFVC) of 30% or below predicted have been denied this surgery as it was thought that the incidence of postoperative complications was unacceptably high. We present data collected prospectively from 45 consecutive operations undertaken in our unit. These cases indicate that there is no clinically significant difference in operative and postoperative outcomes between patients with PFVC > 30% and vital.

  7. REFINED METHOD OF COMPUTING MODES OF OPERATING OF CAPACITY-TYPE SOLAR HEATERS OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuratschii Vl.V.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The refined method procedure of thermal modes of solar heaters of water of the capacity type, based on use of an electro-thermal equivalent circuit and a method of central potentials is presented.

  8. Highways of hope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-08-15

    It is hoped that through public-private partnerships between Alpha Natural Resources and Pioneer Group and Virginia Department of Transportation, and between one of these coal companies and Buchanan County, Virginia, Industrial Development Authority a four-lane 'highway of hope' between Lovers Gap and Poplar Gap will be paved and a ridge top connector route will eventually be completed to Bull Gap where it will intersect with the Coalfields Expressway and US 460. The town of Grundy is also looking into strip mining coal from beneath the small mountaintop airport at Lovers Gap and turning it into a regional airport. The article discusses these plans. 4 photos.

  9. Relationship between the inability to climb two flights of stairs and outcome after major non-cardiac surgery: implications for the pre-operative assessment of functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biccard, B M

    2005-06-01

    Functional capacity is an integral component of the pre-operative evaluation of the cardiac patient for non-cardiac surgery. Stair climbing capacity has peri-operative prognostic importance. It may predict survival after lung resection and complications after major non-cardiac surgery. However, stair climbing cannot determine the aerobic metabolic capacity necessary to survive the peri-operative stress response. The potential benefits and current limitations of cardiopulmonary exercise testing to determine peri-operative aerobic capacity are discussed. Principles for the selection of an appropriate screening test of aerobic function are put forward.

  10. An Innovative Strategy for Maintenance of Highway Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Choudhary, Dr. P. K. Agarwal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Highway pavement are deteriorating fast due to lack of timely maintenance, leading to higher vehicle operating costs, increasing number of accidents etc. Thus, timely maintenance of the highway pavement is essential. Because, once pavements start to deteriorate; they deteriorate rapidly beyond the point where maintenance is effective. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a strategy for maintenance of pavement in a huge highway network. In this study, an innovative strategy for maintenance of highway pavement is proposed. A two stage maintenance strategy is proposed. In stage I, it is proposed to determine priority of highway sections. In Stage II, priority of various maintenance activities to be carried out on various sections will be determined. Maintenance priority of the pavement is based on importance of the road sections, present road conditions, and future road conditions. The methodology proposed in this study is illustrated with the help of example of some hypothetical highway network consisting of 4 sections. Analysis results indicated that the proposed strategy is considered to be more rational, innovative & logical. Some strategies for maintenance of urban roads are also presented in this study. Therefore, it is expected that this study will be useful for maintenance of huge highway network in India and thus will be useful for preserving huge asset of pavement infrastructure.

  11. 75 FR 18014 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...: Federal Highway Administration, Kentucky Division: Mr. Greg Rawlings, Transportation Specialist, 330...

  12. 78 FR 9771 - Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Transportation Project in Illinois and Indiana AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limitation on..., Federal Highway Administration, 3250 Executive Park Drive, Springfield, Illinois 62703, Phone: (217)...

  13. ANALYSIS OF SUFFICIENCY OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURES OF OPERATING SITES OF MAIN BUILDINGS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva Ekaterina Leonidovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon examination of eleven main buildings of power plants, analysis of defects and damages of building structures was performed. Thereafter, the damageability of principal bearing structures of main buildings of thermal plants was analyzed. It was identified that the fastest growing defects and damages were concentrated in the structures of operating sites. The research of the rate of development of the most frequent damages and defects made it possible to conclude that internal corrosion of the reinforcing steel was the most dangerous defect, as far as the reinforced concrete elements of operating sites were concerned. Methods of mathematical statistics were applied to identify the reinforcing steel development pattern inside reinforced concrete elements of floors of operating sites. It was identified that the probability of corrosion of reinforced concrete elements of operating sites was distributed in accordance with the demonstrative law. Based on these data, calculation of strength of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams was performed in terms of their regular sections, given the natural loads and the realistic condition of structures. As a result, dependence between the bearing capacity reserve ratio and the corrosion development pattern was identified for reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of operating sites. In order to analyze the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of building structures of operating sites in relation to their time in commission, equations were derived to identify the nature of dependence between the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of the operating sites and their time in commission.

  14. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes....

  15. User Influence on MIMO Channel Capacity for Handsets in Data Mode Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Yanakiev, Boyan Radkov; Bonev, Ivan Bonev;

    2012-01-01

    The current paper concerns realistic evaluation of the capacity of the MIMO channel between a BS and handheld device, such as a PDA or smartphone, held in front of the user’s body (data mode). The work is based on measurements of the MIMO channel between two widely separated BSs in a micro...

  16. Bosentan Improves Exercise Capacity in Adolescents and Adults After Fontan Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Anders; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Thilen, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Fontan procedure has improved survival in children with functionally univentricular hearts. With time, however, complications such as reduced exercise capacity are seen more frequently. Exercise intolerance is multifactorial, but pulmonary vascular resistance probably plays a cruc...... TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01292551....

  17. Towards consensus in operational definitions in functional capacity evaluation: A Delphi survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, R.; Van Der Schans, C.; Groothoff, J.; Geertzen, J.; Reneman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The problem of inconsistent terminology in Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE) has been widely addressed in the international literature. Many different terms seem to be used interchangeably while other terms appear to be interpreted differently. Objective: To gain consensus in operatio

  18. Impact of operating conditions on cooling capacity for sorption systems using water as refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremeac, Brice; Giraud, Florine; Vallon, Pierrick

    2017-02-01

    The implementation of compact heat exchanger in sorption systems is a key factor to allow the development of these systems. The aim of this paper is to develop a statistical model with a design of experiment (DOE) methodology and use dimensionless number to evaluate and understand the influence of the height of refrigerant liquid and secondary fluid inlet temperature on cooling capacity of a compact pate-type evaporator for sorption systems working near vacuum pressure. For this purpose, an experimental campaign was conducted on a small adsorption test bench using 13X/water as working couple. Cooling capacities from 640 to 2000 W were measured. The DOE is a Doelhert type with two parameters: the inlet secondary fluid temperature (from 10 to 21 °C) and the filing level of refrigerant in the evaporator (from 6 to 24 cm). Thanks to the exploitation of the mathematical model obtained, optimal points under different constraints were found. A maximum cooling capacity of 2021 +/-75 W in the entire experimental field was predicted for a secondary fluid inlet temperature of 25°C and a height of liquid level of 19.2 cm. Bond number and modified Jacob number per the ratio Psat/Ptriple were analyzed. The dimensionless numbers are correlated to the cooling capacity as a first step for designing compact plate-type evaporator for adsorption systems using water as refrigerant.

  19. Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has the responsibility to assure that adequate highway transportation information is available to support its functions and...

  20. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dobre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH is such a software control system. It is designed to assist and automate the use of a highway lane as a reserved lane. The idea is to allow and support drivers to travel at a speed higher, if in return they are willing to pay a small fee to reserve an empty virtual slot on the reserved lane. This slot is valid for a portion and of the highway and a time window, so each driver pays the fee depending thier its travelling needs. In return, drivers are guaranteed a congestion-free travel on that portion. In this paper, we present the proposed architecture of the ILRSH and its subsystems. The system is based on several proposed algorithms designed to assist the drivers, enter or exit the reserved lane, based on real-world driving observations. We present extensive simulation results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach, that can easily be implemented with little costs on already-existing highways, and the increase in traffic efficiency.

  1. Activation capacity of the alternative and classic complement pathways in patients operated on for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Nielsen, Erik; Iversen, Lene H; Svehag, Sven-Erik;

    2002-01-01

    . Significant differences in C3 activation capacities were observed between cancer patients that were related to Dukes stage and in patients with and without buffy coat-depleted red cells suspended in saline, adenine, glucose, and mannitol transfusion, infectious events, and deep venous thromboembolism......PURPOSE: Tumor cells may suppress activation of the host's complement system, and the functional state of the complement system may be a prognostic marker of outcome in patients with malignancies. Serial plasma samples from patients undergoing intended curative surgery for colorectal cancer were...... analyzed for complement factor C3 activation capacity. METHODS: Samples were collected from 91 patients with colorectal cancer and 13 with benign colorectal diseases before surgery and 1, 2, and 7 days after surgery, between 8 and 13 days after surgery, and 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after...

  2. First Time Go: Creating Capacity for Enduring Stability in Post-Operational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    like its namesake.107 Operation Talisman /Eclipse was General Dwight D. Eisenhower’s plan for the occupation of Germany after hostilities.108...Planning for Operation Talisman /Eclipse began before the invasion of Europe. In fact, senior commanders began executing portions of the draft plans without

  3. Draft environmental impact statement siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 4, Appendices D-R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains 15 appendices.

  4. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  5. Study on the reversible capacity loss of layered oxide cathode during low-temperature operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyang; Qian, Kun; He, Yan-Bing; Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Liu, Dongqing; Luo, Dan; Li, Hai; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu

    2017-02-01

    In this study, commercial Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2/graphite (NCM/C) lithium-ion batteries were cycled at -10 °C under different current rates ranging from 0.2 C to 1C. Electrochemical measurements and post-mortem analysis were performed to identify the root causes of the degradation in the electrochemical performance of the cells. The results reveal that apart from the increase of lithium plating on the anode, there is a considerable and abnormal capacity loss on the NCM cathode with the increase in current rate. The different degradation mechanisms including the loss of lithium inventory (LLI) and the specific capacity loss of NCM material (LAM) during cycling at -10 °C were analyzed quantitatively. It is shown that the evolution trend of LLI with the increase in current rate (8.6%, 35.0%, 55.8% for 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C respectively) corresponds closely to that of the capacity loss of the full-cells (8.6%, 45.5%, 63.6% for 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C, respectively), which is different to the trend of LAM (7.2%, 8.8%, 22.3% for 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C, respectively). Further analysis by XRD and HR-TEM clearly indicates that the crystallinity of the hexagonal layered structure of NCM was greatly impaired after low-temperature cycling at -10 °C, and spinel phase can be observed among the layered structure.

  6. Capacity of Air Force Operational Units to Conduct-the-Job Training: Development of Estimation Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    equation (1), aML/dTL<O, ML/ dTQ p>O, and aML/aR>O. * For equation (2), aMQ/aML<O, aMQ/aTL<O, aMQ/aTQ<O, aMQ/c)TQ >0, and 8MQ/dR>0. p 4i For equation (3...O1TQ/3MLɘ, dTQ /O)TL<O, and aTQ/oR>O. 17 MW"- ,. - - -- -~ TABLE 1: Factors Influencing OJT Capacity 0 Resource availability - Availability of

  7. High-Capacity Angularly Multiplexed Holographic Memory Operating at the Single-Photon Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapkiewicz, Radosław; Dąbrowski, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2017-02-10

    We experimentally demonstrate an angularly multiplexed holographic memory capable of intrinsic generation, storage, and retrieval of multiple photons, based on an off-resonant Raman interaction in warm rubidium-87 vapors. The memory capacity of up to 60 independent atomic spin-wave modes is evidenced by analyzing angular distributions of coincidences between Stokes and time-delayed anti-Stokes light, observed down to the level of single spin-wave excitation during the several-microsecond memory lifetime. We also propose how to practically enhance rates of single- and multiple-photon generation by combining our multimode emissive memory with existing fast optical switches.

  8. Assessment of the capacity of the national ecological network elements for road construction and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicošev Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Road construction and usage have a wide range of direct and indirect negative effects on protected areas. The impact of state roads on protected areas in Vojvodina was reviewed in this article, based on the orientation values of habitat loss and secondary negative effects originating from traffic functioning. Results of the assessment indicate that the use of existing roads constructed on habitats within the national ecological network exceeded the capacity of individual PA-protected areas (e.g., in case of Straža Natural Monument. Recorded capacity overflow on other PAs occurs solely as a consequence of overlapping between protected areas and areas of influence of roads routed along the borders of protected areas (which is the case with Slano Kopovo Special Nature Reserve and Selevenjske pustare Special Nature Reserve. The aim of this article is to show that even with the smallest values of the parameters related to the width of roads and critical distance from the habitat, the vulnerability of certain core areas of the national ecological network is evident.

  9. National Highway Planning Network (NHPN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NHPN (NTAD 2015) is a Geographical Information System (GIS) database that contains line features representing over 450,000 miles of current and planned highways...

  10. Engineering Competencies in International Development Co-operation - the Case of Capacity Development in Environment (CDE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2001-01-01

    on the transfer of managerial models across cultures, on how to develop inter-cultural competence in management, and on the significance of differences in engineering and industrial culture. Second, the concepts of dynamic assimilation and local learning processes and their implications for the practicing......The focus of the paper is the need for engineers to develop new competencies, when they are involved in international development cooperation. Drawing on the case of the Post-RIO strategy of capacity development in environment in developing countries, the paper reviews a recent response...... assistance provide a wider perspective on the need for new competencies. Funded by the Danish Agency for Environment and Development (DANCED) of the Ministry of Environment and Energy, a consortium of five Danish universities has conducted a series of field courses in Thailand, Malaysia and South Africa...

  11. Ito diffusions, modified capacity and harmonic measure. Applications to Schrodinger operators

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, S

    2010-01-01

    Using certain Ito's equation, we introduce the probability on the space of paths and show its relevance to the scattering properties of multidimensional Schrodinger operator. To relate the geometry of the support of potential to the spectral type we develop a special variant of Potential theory and prove some estimates on the modified Harmonic measure.

  12. The development of an ecological approach to manage the pollution risk from highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, B; Dempsey, P; Johnson, I; Whitehead, M

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the Highways Agency is responsible for operating, maintaining and improving the strategic road network in England. One focus of the Highways Agency's ongoing research into the nature and impact of highway runoff is aimed at ensuring that the Highways Agency will meet the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. A research programme, undertaken in partnership with the Environment Agency, is in progress to develop a better understanding of pollutants in highway runoff and their ecological impact. The paper presents the outcome of a study to: (1) monitor pollutants in highway runoff under different climate and traffic conditions; (2) develop standards to assess potential ecological risks from soluble pollutants in highway runoff; and (3) develop a model to predict pollutant concentrations in highway runoff. The model has been embedded in a design tool incorporating risk assessment procedures and receiving water standards for soluble and insoluble pollutants--the latter has been developed elsewhere in another project within the research programme. The design tool will be used to support improved guidance on where, and to what level, treatment of runoff is required for highway designers to manage the risk of ecological impact from highway runoff.

  13. Achieving Operational Adaptability: Capacity Building Needs to Become a Warfighting Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    platypus effect as described by David Green in The Serendipity Machine: A Voyage of Discovery Through the Unexpected World of Computers. Early in...Department of Defense, U.S. Army Field Manual 5-0: The Operations Process, 1-3. 56 David Green, The Serendipity Machine: A Voyage of Discovery Through the...York: Routledge, 2007. Green, David. The Serendipity Machine: A Voyage of Discovery Through the Unexpected World of Computers. Australia: Allen

  14. Highway three-dimensional modeling based on Vehicle-borne laser data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weili, Sun; Ruofei, Zhong; Jiangxia, Wei; Fanyang, Zeng

    2014-03-01

    The of Vehicle-borne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) scanning technology is an efficiently practical approach on the acquisition and application of 3D information and its geographic elements of highway(including road surface, rails, attached facilities, slopes, ditches, etc.). The acquired information is significant on many aspects such as road maintenance, reconstruction, survey, landscape design, visualized modelling and highway hazard supervision and prevention. The initial laser data cannot be directly used to construct highway 3D model, operations of pre-processing are necessary. This paper presented a set of procedure about pre-processing laser data and constructing TIN (Triangle Irregular Net) model of highway.

  15. Dimensionless Model of a Thermoelectric Cooling Device Operating at Real Heat Transfer Conditions: Maximum Cooling Capacity Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Kostishin, V. G.; Alenkov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Real operating conditions of a thermoelectric cooling device are in the presence of thermal resistances between thermoelectric material and a heat medium or cooling object. They limit performance of a device and should be considered when modeling. Here we propose a dimensionless mathematical steady state model, which takes them into account. Analytical equations for dimensionless cooling capacity, voltage, and coefficient of performance (COP) depending on dimensionless current are given. For improved accuracy a device can be modeled with use of numerical or combined analytical-numerical methods. The results of modeling are in acceptable accordance with experimental results. The case of zero temperature difference between hot and cold heat mediums at which the maximum cooling capacity mode appears is considered in detail. Optimal device parameters for maximal cooling capacity, such as fraction of thermal conductance on the cold side y, fraction of current relative to maximal j' are estimated in range of 0.38-0.44 and 0.48-0.95, respectively, for dimensionless conductance K' = 5-100. Also, a method for determination of thermal resistances of a thermoelectric cooling system is proposed.

  16. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  17. A bottom-up approach to identifying the maximum operational adaptive capacity of water resource systems to a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, S.; Noble, S.; Yates, A.; Timbs, M.; Westra, S.; Maier, H. R.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2016-09-01

    Many water resource systems have been designed assuming that the statistical characteristics of future inflows are similar to those of the historical record. This assumption is no longer valid due to large-scale changes in the global climate, potentially causing declines in water resource system performance, or even complete system failure. Upgrading system infrastructure to cope with climate change can require substantial financial outlay, so it might be preferable to optimize existing system performance when possible. This paper builds on decision scaling theory by proposing a bottom-up approach to designing optimal feedback control policies for a water system exposed to a changing climate. This approach not only describes optimal operational policies for a range of potential climatic changes but also enables an assessment of a system's upper limit of its operational adaptive capacity, beyond which upgrades to infrastructure become unavoidable. The approach is illustrated using the Lake Como system in Northern Italy—a regulated system with a complex relationship between climate and system performance. By optimizing system operation under different hydrometeorological states, it is shown that the system can continue to meet its minimum performance requirements for more than three times as many states as it can under current operations. Importantly, a single management policy, no matter how robust, cannot fully utilize existing infrastructure as effectively as an ensemble of flexible management policies that are updated as the climate changes.

  18. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  19. Feasibility of shoulder use for highway work zone optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Du

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Highway maintenance, often requiring lane closure, is very expensive in terms of the costs associated with transportation agencies (i. e. work zone setups and road users (i. e. delay. Longer work zones tend to increase the user delay but will be efficient because of fewer repeated setups. To increase road capacity and mitigate congestion impact for a short-term work zone, temporary shoulder use may be applied. This study develops an analytical model to optimize work zone length on a multi-lane highway considering time-varying traffic volume and road capacity affected by light condition, heavy vehicle percentage, and lane width. The results can be used to evaluate the work zone impact (i. e. delay and cost and assist engineers/planners to prepare and develop a cost-effective highway maintenance plan. A case study for a highway work zone in New Jersey has been conducted, in which the optimized solution is found. A guideline of using road shoulder under various circumstances is developed.

  20. DOES THE MRP LOGIC WORK FOR FINITE CAPACITY PLANNING AND OPERATIONS SCHEDULING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K Turner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: During the past five years, MRP based systems have increasingly been criticized for their inability to reduce inventory levels, meet due dates and to plan at an operational level. This paper suggests that the actual reasons for these problems are some fundamental flaws in the MRP logic and its assumptions. The logic of the optimized Production Technology (OPT is suggested as an alternative approach that addresses the limitations of MRP based systems.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Gedurende die afgelope vyf jaar het kritiek teen MRP-gebaseerde sisteme toegeneem. Die kritiek is hoofsaaklik dat MRP-sisteme vooraadvlakke nie voldoende verminder nie; beplande datums nie haal nie en ook nie op In operasionele vlak beplan nie. Hierdie artikel wil voorstel dat die rede hiervoor fundamentele foute in die MRP logika en aannames is. Die logika van "optimized Production Technology" (OPT word as alternatief voorgestel, aangesien dit die probleemareas in die MRP-logika aanspreek.

  1. A Generalized Mathematical Model for the Fracture Problem of the Suspended Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to answer dangling fracture problems of highway, the suspended pavement equivalent for non - suspended pavement, through the special boundary conditions has been suspended highway stress field of expression, in accordance with the 3D fracture model of crack formation, and establish a vacant, a general mathematics model for fracture problems of highway and analysis in highway suspended segment weight and vehicle load limit of highway capacity of Pu For overturning road inPu is less than the force of carrying more than compared to the work and fruit Bridge Hydropower Station Road engineering examples to verify suspended highway should force field expressions for the correctness and applicability. The results show that: when the hanging ratio R 0. 243177 limits of Pu design axle load 100kN. When the vertical crack in the vacant in the direction of length greater than 0. 1, the ultimate bearing capacity is less than the design axle load 100kN; when the hanging ratio R is less than 0. 5, the road to local fracture, the ultimate bearing capacity of suspended stress field expressions in solution; when the hanging ratio is greater than or equal to 0. 5, the road does not reach the limit bearing capacity of the whole body; torque shear surface of the effect is far less than the bending moments on shear planes.

  2. An integrated model for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hao

    2011-01-01

    in the People's Republic of China, this paper proposes an integrated model for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of highway. The model has two main characteristics. Firstly, the whole highway is divided into several sections, and then weight of each section is distributed by its importance. Secondly......In China, environmental issues caused by construction and operation of highway catch more and more attention, and thus environmental impact assessment of highway has become an important part of feasibility study. According to the Specifications for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highways......, a novel method is presented to standardize the second-class quantitative indexes. The proposed model is scientific, rational, objective, comprehensive and well operable. Its performance is satisfied in practice....

  3. 关于道路交叉口规划设计及通行能力的探讨%Inquiry on planning design and traffic capacity of highway intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瑞锋

    2014-01-01

    Through analyzing current urban road intersection problems, the paper studys intersection planning design scheme of Huanhuxi road and Huanhubei road around Jinyang lake, and analyzes traffic capacities of two intersection design schemes, with a view to release traffic pressure and improve driving conditions.%通过分析目前城市道路交叉口普遍存在的问题,对太原市晋阳湖周边路网环湖西路与环湖北路交叉口规划设计方案进行了研究,并分析了两种交叉口设计方案的通行能力,以缓解道路交通压力,改善居民出行条件。

  4. Managing Highway Maintenance--Training Guide and Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Clyde A.

    A model curriculum is reported for training personnel who are responsible for managing highway maintenance field operations. The training is organized and sequenced by five broad areas--management problems, management by objective, work planning, work control and management systems. In each area, one or more training units are provided for each of…

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 12: Highway Design, Construction and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 12 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on highway design, construction and maintenance. The purpose and specific objectives of such a program are described. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding…

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  7. Highway Reaches Out to Chengtang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAIXIANGDONG

    2003-01-01

    Chengtang Town,tucked away on the Chinese border between the Xigaze area and Nepal,is known for high mountains and deep ravines,People there still live on slash and burn farming.Latest news is that a highway is being built to that part of the world.

  8. Highway Companies Deny Windfall Profits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Securities Daily

    2011-01-01

    @@ There is no denying that the real estate industry sees huge profits, but it is hard to imag-ine that the gross profits of highway companies have reached a very high level, becoming another typical industry of huge profits.The sky-high road toll is attracting more and more public concerns about the seemingly low-profile and stable industry.

  9. Capacity optimization of battery-generator hybrid power system: Toward minimizing maintenance cost in expeditionary basecamp/operational energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuanumkpe, Jude C.

    Low and transient load condition are known to have deleterious impact on the efficiency and health of diesel generators (DGs). Extensive operation under such loads reduces fuel consumption and energy conversion efficiency, and contribute to diesel engine degradation, damage, or catastrophic failure. Non-ideal loads are prevalent in expeditionary base camps that support contingency operations in austere environments or remote locations where grid electricity is either non-existent or inaccessible. The impact of such loads on DGs exacerbates already overburdened basecamp energy logistics requirements. There is a need, therefore, to eliminate or prevent the occurrence of non-ideal loads. Although advances in diesel engine technologies have improved their performance, DGs remain vulnerable to the consequences of non-ideal loads and inherent inefficiencies of combustion. The mechanisms through which DGs respond to and mitigate non-ideal loads are also mechanically stressful and energy-intensive. Thus, this research investigated the idea of using batteries to prevent DGs from encountering non-ideal loads, as a way to reduce basecamp energy logistics requirements. Using a simple semi-empirical approach, the study modeled and simulated a battery-DG hybrid system under various load conditions. The simulation allowed for synthesis of design space in which specified battery and generator capacity can achieve optimal savings in fuel consumption and maintenance cost. Results show that a right-sized battery-diesel generator system allows for more than 50% cost savings relative to a standalone generator.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Battery Behavior with Different Modes of Discharge for Optimal Capacity Sizing and BMS Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Battery-operated systems are always concerned about the proper management and sizing of a battery. A Traditional Battery Management System (BMS only includes battery-aware task scheduling based on the discharge characteristics of a whole battery pack and do not take into account the mode of the load being served by the battery. On the other hand, an efficient and intelligent BMS should monitor the battery at a cell level and track the load with significant consideration of the load mode. Depending upon the load modes, the common modes of discharge (MOD of a battery identified so far are Constant Power Mode (CPM, Constant Current Mode (CCM and Constant Impedance Mode (CIM. This paper comparatively analyzes the discharging behavior of batteries at an individual cell level for different load modes. The difference in discharging behavior from mode to mode represents the study of the mode-dependent behavior of the battery before its deployment in some application. Based on simulation results, optimal capacity sizing and BMS operation of battery for an assumed situation in a remote microgrid has been proposed.

  11. Highway runoff quality in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu Desta, Mesfin; Bruen, Michael; Higgins, Neil; Johnston, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Highway runoff has been identified as a significant source of contaminants that impact on the receiving aquatic environment. Several studies have been completed documenting the characteristics of highway runoff and its implication to the receiving water in the UK and elsewhere. However, very little information is available for Ireland. The objective of this study was to determine the quality of highway runoff from major Irish roads under the current road drainage design and maintenance practice. Four sites were selected from the M4 and the M7 motorways outside Dublin. Automatic samplers and continuous monitoring devices were deployed to sample and monitor the runoff quality and quantity. More than 42 storm events were sampled and analysed for the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, 16 US EPA specified PAHs, volatile organic compounds including MTBE, and a number of conventional pollutants. All samples were analysed based on the Standard Methods. Significant quantities of solids and heavy metals were detected at all sites. PAHs were not detected very often, but when detected the values were different from quantities observed in UK highways. The heavy metal concentrations were strongly related to the total suspended solids concentrations, which has a useful implication for runoff management strategies. No strong relationship was discovered between pollutant concentrations and event characteristics such as rainfall intensity, antecedent dry days (ADD), or rainfall depth (volume). This study has demonstrated that runoff from Irish motorways was not any cleaner than in the UK although the traffic volume at the monitored sites was relatively smaller. This calls for a site specific investigation of highway runoff quality before adopting a given management strategy.

  12. Lead Isotopes in Highway Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M.; Lau, S.; Green, P. G.; Stenstrom, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    Lead (Pb) isotopes have been used extensively to study the provenance of lead pollution on air, water, and sediments. In this study, we measured Pb isotopes and Pb aqueous concentration in highway runoff in three west Los Angeles sites. Those three sites, part of a long-term study sponsored by the California Department of Transportation, represent small catchment areas, and host heavy traffic. In addition, there were no inputs of sand or salt to the highway because the sites are almost completely impervious and also due to the lack of snow to be controlled. Highway runoff from the three sites was collected for 7 storms during the 2004-2005 Winter. Grab samples were collected every 15 minutes during the first hour, and hourly afterwards. A total of 202 samples were collected and filtered into five size fractions (100μm). Aqueous concentration of Pb range from 0.08μg/L to 46.95μg/L (7.98±10.89μg/L) and it is not correlated with any of the lead isotope ratios. The 208Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 1.983 to 2.075 (2.024±0.026) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 208Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). However, the 208Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils yield 2.060±0.021 and it is statistically different from the ratios obtained for the highway runoff. This hints that the lead present in highway runoff does not come from local soils. The 207Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 0.804 to 0.847 (0.827±0.011) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 207Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). Surprisingly, there is also no statistical difference with the 207Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils (0.833±0.009).

  13. An Optimal Deployment of Wireless Charging Lane for Electric Vehicles on Highway Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongxi [Clemson University

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated modeling framework to optimally locate wireless charging facilities along a highway corridor to provide sufficient in-motion charging. The integrated model consists of a master, Infrastructure Planning Model that determines best locations with integrated two sub-models that explicitly capture energy consumption and charging and the interactions between electric vehicle and wireless charging technologies, geometrics of highway corridors, speed, and auxiliary system. The model is implemented in an illustrative case study of a highway corridor of Interstate 5 in Oregon. We found that the cost of establishing the charging lane is sensitive and increases with the speed to achieve. Through sensitivity analyses, we gain better understanding on the extent of impacts of geometric characteristics of highways and battery capacity on the charging lane design.

  14. Demand Analysis of Logistics Information Matching Platform: A Survey from Highway Freight Market in Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daqiang; Shen, Xiahong; Tong, Bing; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Feng, Tao

    With the increasing competition in logistics industry and promotion of lower logistics costs requirements, the construction of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation plays an important role, and the accuracy of platform design is the key to successful operation or not. Based on survey results of logistics service providers, customers and regulation authorities to access to information and in-depth information demand analysis of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation in Zhejiang province, a survey analysis for framework of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation is provided.

  15. Residential satisfaction close to highways : The impact of accessibility, nuisances and highway adjustment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Tillema, Taede; Sussman, Joseph; Arts, Jos

    In this paper we focus on gaining insight into the residential satisfaction of households near highways, based on survey data collected among 1225 respondents in the Netherlands living within 1000 m from a highway. Ordinal regression was used to study the impact of highway externalities on

  16. Residential satisfaction close to highways : The impact of accessibility, nuisances and highway adjustment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Tillema, Taede; Sussman, Joseph; Arts, Jos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we focus on gaining insight into the residential satisfaction of households near highways, based on survey data collected among 1225 respondents in the Netherlands living within 1000 m from a highway. Ordinal regression was used to study the impact of highway externalities on residenti

  17. Research on Risk Sharing Strategy for Highway Built-Operate-Transfer Projects Based on Option Point View%期权视角下高速公路BOT项目风险分担策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭健; 尹洁林; 林则夫

    2013-01-01

    BOT model has been widely used in the field of highway infrastructure in China in recent years.The paper studies the effective way to mitigate the traffic risks using the government minimum and maximum guarantee based on real options.A series of contracts may be signed between government and private investors to ensure the revenues that the private investors obtain.Government guarantees can be seen as a series of European set and call option combinations,and Black-Scholes option pricing formula can be used to calculate the option value and to determine the minimum and maximum incomes in BOT contracts.Finally,the risk-sharing strategy is applied to highway infrastructure projects to illustrate the method above.%近年来BOT模式在我国高速公路建设领域得到了广泛的应用,从实物期权的双边保证视角研究高速公路BOT项目有效分担交通量风险的策略.政府和私人投资者签订双边收入保证特许协议,规定政府担保的项目运营收入上限和下限,以分散风险.政府担保可以看作是一系列欧式看跌期权和看涨期权的组合,运用Black-Scholes期权定价公式计算期权价值进而确定运营收入下限和上限.最后将该风险分担策略应用于某高速公路基础设施项目进行案例分析.

  18. Pollution transport from a highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lygren, E.; Gjessing, E.; Berglind, L.

    1984-02-15

    In Norway a considerable amount of pavement dust is produced during a year, particularly during the winter season when studded tires are used on vehicles. The asphalt wear when using tires is estimated to be 20-50 g/km/vehicle. This matter will partly be deposited on the road surface and partly be transported through the atmosphere to the surrounding area together with other motor traffic pollutants. A 3 year programme, sponsored by the Norwegian Road Directorate, was aimed also at characterizing the nature and the fate of the particulate matter from a highway. The characterization included studies on particle-size distribution, heavy metal concentration and contents of organic micropollutants, such as PAH. It was found that a major part of the pollutants from a highway was deposited 5-25 m from the road. Further it was observed that an essential part of the pollutants were 'produced' through the snow accumulation period and released during the spring period. The period of snowmelt thus gave the most important effects on the surface water. (A.V.)

  19. Threshold Research on Highway Length under Typical Landscape Patterns Based on Drivers’ Physiological Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriately landscaped highway scenes may not only help improve road safety and comfort but also help protect ecological environment. Yet there is very little research data on highway length threshold with consideration of distinctive landscape patterns. Against this backdrop, the paper aims to quantitatively analyze highway landscape’s effect on driving behavior based on drivers’ physiological performance and quantify highway length thresholds under three typical landscape patterns, namely, “open,” “semiopen,” and “vertical” ones. The statistical analysis was based on data collected in a driving simulator and electrocardiograph. Specifically, vehicle-related data, ECG data, and supplemental subjective stress perception were collected. The study extracted two characteristic indices, lane deviation and LF/HF, and extrapolated the drivers’ U-shaped physiological response to landscape patterns. Models on highway length were built based on LF/HF’s variation trend with highway length. The results revealed that the theoretical highway length threshold tended to increase when the landscape pattern was switched to open, semiopen, and vertical ones. And the reliability and accuracy of the results were validated by questionnaires and field operational tests. Findings from this research will assist practitioners in taking active environmental countermeasures pertaining to different roadside landscape patterns.

  20. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    During the years 1996-2006, the Division of Highways and Transportation in the former county of Funen gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine as de-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor...

  1. Engineering geology as applied to highway construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Leonard M.

    1955-01-01

    A geologic study of the site for a relocated segment of State Highway 93 northwest of Denver Colo., was made by by the Engineering Geology Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey as a demonstration of the applicability of geologic mapping to problems of highway construction. The relocated segment provides access to the Rocky Flats plant of the Atomic Energy Commission.  

  2. National Highway Alignment from Namakkal to Erode Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The vision of the Highway Alignment is to increase the capacity, connectivity, efficiency and safety of the Highways System so as to enable balanced socioeconomic development of all sections of the people and all regions from NAMAKKAL to ERODE via and to reduce the traffic and travelling of the state. It is to establish shortest path for road network time in the roads which provide a better and comfortable base for updating the traffic and other related information in road administration. It is to identify the short route for the vehicles traveling from NAMAKKAL to ERODE and to reduce the time travel for the vehicles with possible paths or routes or places for laying eco-friendly highway. To optimize the route for the vehicles traveling from NAMAKKAL to ERODE using GIS with Network analysis tools. From this we can find the suitable route for peoples to carry out without any traffic disturbances and protecting the environment. It also took advantages of GIS capabilities that offer the ability to overlay maps, merge them, and perform spatial analysis on various layers of information in either two or three dimensions:

  3. A Study on Supply Model of Rural Highways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dexiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural highway has a significant impact to build a moderately prosperous society in all aspects, and it is an important critical infrastructure to build harmonious society. Highway has its own economics attributes, and rural highway also has its own characteristics. This paper combines with rural highway characteristics to analyze the supply model and problems of rural highway. It summarizes several mixed supply models of rural highways.

  4. Alaska Highway bibliography, 3rd edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    . The military need for the Alaska Highway and Canol pipeline declined at the end of World War II. In 1946, Canada officially accepted responsibility for maintaining and developing the Yukon portion of the Alaska Highway. The Alaska Highway affected both First Nations and non-First Nations peoples immediately...... the 1920s and 1930s a small but vocal group of “builders” began to campaign for a highway, either a coastal or inland route, to improve the northwest’s economic base. With the impending threat of war in the late 1930s, there was an increasing awareness by the American and Canadian governments....... The impacts included an increased awareness of the world outside of the Yukon, imported ideas and technology, improved health care, highway transportation, telecommunications, and the development of more mining and tourist-related industries....

  5. Computational Intelligence in Highway Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Pribyl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Highway management systems are used to improve safety and driving comfort on highways by using control strategies and providing information and warnings to drivers. They use several strategies starting from speed and lane management, through incident detection and warning systems, ramp metering, weather information up to, for example, informing drivers about alternative roads. This paper provides a review of the existing approaches to highway management systems, particularly speed harmonization and ramp metering. It is focused only on modern and advanced approaches, such as soft computing, multi-agent methods and their interconnection. Its objective is to provide guidance in the wide field of highway management and to point out the most relevant recent activities which demonstrate that development in the field of highway management is still important and that the existing research exhibits potential for further enhancement.

  6. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  7. Highway runoff quality models for the protection of environmentally sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents novel highway runoff quality models using artificial neural networks (ANN) which take into account site-specific highway traffic and seasonal storm event meteorological factors to predict the event mean concentration (EMC) statistics and mean daily unit area load (MDUAL) statistics of common highway pollutants for the design of roadside ditch treatment systems (RDTS) to protect sensitive receiving environs. A dataset of 940 monitored highway runoff events from fourteen sites located in five countries (Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand, and China) was compiled and used to develop ANN models for the prediction of highway runoff suspended solids (TSS) seasonal EMC statistical distribution parameters, as well as the MDUAL statistics for four different heavy metal species (Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb). TSS EMCs are needed to estimate the minimum required removal efficiency of the RDTS needed in order to improve highway runoff quality to meet applicable standards and MDUALs are needed to calculate the minimum required capacity of the RDTS to ensure performance longevity.

  8. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...

  9. Managing risk and expected financial return from selective expansion of operating room capacity: mean-variance analysis of a hospital's portfolio of surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Ledolter, Johannes

    2003-07-01

    Surgeons using the same amount of operating room (OR) time differ in their achieved hospital contribution margins (revenue minus variable costs) by >1000%. Thus, to improve the financial return from perioperative facilities, OR strategic decisions should selectively focus additional OR capacity and capital purchasing on a few surgeons or subspecialties. These decisions use estimates of each surgeon's and/or subspecialty's contribution margin per OR hour. The estimates are subject to uncertainty (e.g., from outliers). We account for the uncertainties by using mean-variance portfolio analysis (i.e., quadratic programming). This method characterizes the problem of selectively expanding OR capacity based on the expected financial return and risk of different portfolios of surgeons. The assessment reveals whether the choices, of which surgeons have their OR capacity expanded, are sensitive to the uncertainties in the surgeons' contribution margins per OR hour. Thus, mean-variance analysis reduces the chance of making strategic decisions based on spurious information. We also assess the financial benefit of using mean-variance portfolio analysis when the planned expansion of OR capacity is well diversified over at least several surgeons or subspecialties. Our results show that, in such circumstances, there may be little benefit from further changing the portfolio to reduce its financial risk. Surgeon and subspecialty specific hospital financial data are uncertain, a fact that should be taken into account when making decisions about expanding operating room capacity. We show that mean-variance portfolio analysis can incorporate this uncertainty, thereby guiding operating room management decision-making and reducing the chance of a strategic decision being made based on spurious information.

  10. HOV on the information highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Sick of rush-hour traffic jams? Tired of bottlenecks that keep you from getting where you want to go? Frustrated by sluggish drivers who tie you up on your way to work? The National Science Foundation (NSF) is hoping to put scientists back in the fast lane—of the Internet, that is.The recent boom in the popularity of the Internet has brought traffic on some parts of the information highway to a crawl. Since all packets of information sent across the Internet are treated equally, e-mail love letters and playful web browsing can interfere with scientific data transfers and high-performance on-line experiments and conferences.

  11. State Maintained Highways in Louisiana, UTM Zone 15 NAD83, LDOTD (2007) [state_highways_ldotd_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset represents the state maintained road network of Louisiana. The dataset includes Interstates, US highways, and Louisiana State Highways. This dataset was...

  12. A high specific capacity membraneless aluminum-air cell operated with an inorganic/organic hybrid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binbin; Leung, Dennis Y. C.; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum-air cells have attracted a lot of interests because they have the highest volumetric capacity density in theory among the different metal-air systems. To overcome the self-discharge issue of aluminum, a microfluidic aluminum-air cell working with KOH methanol-based anolyte was developed in this work. A specific capacity up to 2507 mAh g-1 (that is, 84.1% of the theoretical value) was achieved experimentally. The KOH concentration and water content in the methanol-based anolyte were found to have direct influence on the cell performance. A possible mechanism of the aluminum reactions in KOH methanol-based electrolyte was proposed to explain the observed phenomenon.

  13. A Probabilistic Method for Determining Grid-Accommodable Wind Power Capacity Based on Multiscenario System Operation Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qianyao; Kang, Chongqing; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    When conducting the wind power (WP) planning, it is very important for electric power companies to evaluate the penetration limit of the grid-accommodable WP. This paper proposes a probabilistic method for determining grid-accommodable WP capacity based on the multiscenario analysis. Typical power....... The validity and effectiveness of the new method are demonstrated in two cases, i.e., the IEEE 39-bus test system and a real large power system in China, respectively....

  14. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 3, Sections 7-12, Appendices A-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains references; a list of preparers and recipients; acronyms, abbreviations, and units of measure; a glossary; an index and three appendices.

  15. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 2, Sections 1-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains the analysis of programmatic alternatives, project alternatives, affected environment of alternative sites, environmental consequences, and environmental regulations and permit requirements.

  16. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 13: Traffic Engineering Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 13 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic engineering services. The introduction outlines the purposes and objectives of Highway Safety Program Standard 13 and the Highway Safety Program Manual. Program development and…

  17. Effects of the Schroth exercise on the Cobb’s angle and vital capacity of patients with idiopathic scoliosis that is an operative indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Don; Hwangbo, Pil-Neo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Schroth exercise on the Cobb’s angle and vital capacity of patients with growing idiopathic scoliosis, an operative indication. [Subjects] Five idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb’s angle of the thoracic vertebra of 40 degrees or higher and Risser sign stage 3 or higher. [Methods] The Schroth exercise was applied 3 times a week for 12 weeks. We measured the thoracic trunk inclination, Cobb’s angle, and vital capacity before and after the exercise program. [Results] The thoracic trunk rotation angle decreased from 11.86 ± 3.32° to 4.90 ± 1.91° on average, the thoracic Cobb’s angle decreased from 42.40 ± 7.86° to 26.0 ± 3.65° on average, and the vital capacity also increased from 2.83 ± 1.23° to 4.04° ± 1.67° on average. All these effects were significant. [Conclusion] The 12-week Schroth exercise caused significant effects in the thoracic trunk inclination, Cobb’s angle, and vital capacity. The conservative treatment method was found to be effective even at a 40 degree or higher Cobb’s angle. In the future, universal exercise approach methods and preventive training for the treatment of scoliosis should be developed further. PMID:27134385

  18. Permanent Deformation of Highway Subgrade Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive review of the literature and preliminary testing performed on a subgrade soil, a testing methodology for repeated load testing was established. This testing protocol was verified using data from subgrade soil. The successful application of this testing protocol on the two subgrade soils proves that it can provide consistent, reliable results. A power model was used to fit the accumulated axial strain over load repetitions with the first hundred cycles excluded from the data set. A number of factors influencing the accumulation of permanent deformation were investigated. The results indicate that confining pressure, load frequency and density are relatively minor contributors to deformation accumulation. Moisture content, deviator stress and first cycle freeze-thaw are major factors governing permanent deformation. The effects of stress history resulting from staged loading are dependent upon the level of applied deviator stress. The interpretation of the rich and consistent deformation data derived from this testing protocol provide valuable insights for transportation engineers relative to the design, construction, operation and maintenance strategy of highway subgrades as well as railway roadbeds.

  19. 75 FR 18095 - America's Marine Highway Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Department of Transportation receive funding to execute the research component of the program in order to... Marine Highway under this program. In crafting this definition, the Department of Transportation was...

  20. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  1. 2004 Alaska highway invasive plants pilot survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We investigated the distribution and abundance of non-native invasive plants along a section of the Alaska Highway adjacent to Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge, 20...

  2. Analysis of automated highway system risks and uncertainties. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicherman, A.

    1994-10-01

    This volume describes a risk analysis performed to help identify important Automated Highway System (AHS) deployment uncertainties and quantify their effect on costs and benefits for a range of AHS deployment scenarios. The analysis identified a suite of key factors affecting vehicle and roadway costs, capacities and market penetrations for alternative AHS deployment scenarios. A systematic protocol was utilized for obtaining expert judgments of key factor uncertainties in the form of subjective probability percentile assessments. Based on these assessments, probability distributions on vehicle and roadway costs, capacity and market penetration were developed for the different scenarios. The cost/benefit risk methodology and analysis provide insights by showing how uncertainties in key factors translate into uncertainties in summary cost/benefit indices.

  3. Highway Design on the Sections Affected by Aquaplaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Reznik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pouring rain, snow melting, water condensing, fog and other natural phenomena cause the collection of water on roadway pavement, leading to the decrease of road-holding capacity of a tyre.When a car or a light truck is moving at a high speed on wet road pavement, the water under its wheels cannot be expelled in time.It results in raising of the front wheels of the vehicle above the road surface under the action of a hydrodynamic force and loss of vehicle control.The methods ensuring traffic safety on road sections, where vehicle’s aquaplaning is possible, should be developed by identifying and improving these sections at the stages of highway design, reconstruction and maintenance and by limiting traffic speed of vehicles.Keywords: vehicle, road, road-holding capacity, aquaplaning, reconstruction, maintenance, traffic safety.DOI: 10.3846/mla.2009.6.06

  4. Stories About Highways in Tibet (Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BENGYI

    2005-01-01

    After the Xikang-Tibet Highway and the Qinghai-Tibet Highway were opened to traffic, other highways were constructed including the Xinjiang-Tibet Highway extending from Yecheng in Xinjiang to Ngari in Tibet, the Lhasa-Yadong Highway, the Lhasa-Zetang Highway, the Xigaze-Tingri Highway and the Heihe-Qamdo Highway. Sand and stone may only have covered these roads,but they were an embryonic form of modem transportation in Tibet and served as a solid foundation for development of modem highways. Until 1959, before the Democratic Reform in Tibet, the overall length of highways totaled 5,648 kilometers, creating a primary Tibetan road network with Lhasa as the center.

  5. STUDY REGARDING THE OPERATING SPEED OF FORAGE HARVESTING MACHINERY IN ORDER TO OPTIMIZE THE WORKING CAPACITY AND FUEL CONSUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MOISE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of forage production machinery system is partially reflected in someclassical economical indices, because the real efficiency of mechanical tillageutilization at forage harvesting and preparation must be reflected in the foragequality increasing and feed superior valorization by the farm livestock. An area of7.8 alfalfa ha was harvested with U-650M tractor and ROTO 165 rotary mower andwith U-650M tractor and Zakaz rotary mower at different speeds in field work.Average values of the speed in parcel work, work effective capacity, work capacityduring shift, specific work capacity on cutter width, fuel consume per land unit, andspecific fuel consume per mass unit were determined for each speed in field work.Power matching between the tractor and the mower do not always meet therequirements when forming harvesting mechanized systems. Classical mowers withcommon cutting units do not sufficiently load the U-650M tractor existing inmany Romanian farms, which determines an unfavorable functioning regime ofthe tractor engine correlated with increased fuel consumes.

  6. Sustainable Waste Management for Green Highway Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Nur Illiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green highway initiative is the transportation corridors based on sustainable concept of roadway. It incorporates both transportation functionality and ecological requirements. Green highway also provides more sustainable construction technique that maximizes the lifespan of highway. Waste management is one of the sustainable criterias in the elements of green highway. Construction of highway consumes enormous amounts of waste in term of materials and energy. These wastes need to be reduce to sustain the environment. This paper aims to identify the types of waste produced from highway construction. Additionally, this study also determine the waste minimization strategy and waste management practiced.. This study main focus are construction and demolition waste only. The methodology process begin with data collection by using questionnaire survey. 22 concession companies listed under Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia acted as a respondent. The questionnaires were distributed to all technical department staffs. The data received was analyzed using IBM SPSS. The results shows the most production of waste is wood, soil, tree root and concrete. The least production of waste is metal. For waste minimization, the best waste minimization is reuse for all type of waste except for tree root and stump. Whereas, the best waste management is providing strategic plan. The least practice for waste management is recording the quantity of waste.

  7. Spatial Planning for Transit Tourism on The Highway: A Case Study of Highway Е-75 Through Vojvodina (Horgoš – Belgrade Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuk GARAČA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality and extent of traffc infrastructure has an immense infuence on the development of tourist destinations and on tourism in gener-al. Transit tourism is a unique form of movement and represents a link between generating zones and destinations. The subject of this study is the planning and spatial organization along the route of Highway Е-75 thorough northern Serbian province of Vojvodina. The goal of the study is to scientifcally assert that the route of highway is inadequately equipped as it lacks adequate hospitality services considering its signifcance and the needs of passengers in transit. The pa-per intends to analyze the growing tourists’ de-mands perceived in passenger numbers and the passenger vehicles turnover with existing tourist products.The spatial extent of the research comprises the section of Highway Е-75 through Vojvodina (Horgoš – Subotica – Bačka Topola – Vrbas – Novi Sad – Beška – Indjija – Stara Pazova. The study utilizes mixed quantitative and qual-itative methods, and employs preliminary desk research, feld work, comparative analysis, and a description to establish a critical synthetic narrative. The statistical method of Pearson cor-relation was used for quantitative data analysis and to assess the relationship between overnight stays in places along the highway and the num-ber of passengers travelling the highway. The results of the research pointed out that the initial hypothesis which refers to the lack of specialized accommodation capacity in the highway zone is valid.

  8. 76 FR 1664 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 99 (Segment G)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Highway 99 (Segment G... relate to a proposed highway project, Grand Parkway (State Highway 99) Segment G, from Interstate Highway... the following highway project in the State of Texas: Grand Parkway (State Highway 99) Segment G from...

  9. Investigations on Cationic Exchange Capacity and Unused Bed Zone according to operational conditions in a Fixed Bed Reactor for water lead removal by a natural zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélemy JP.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attention has been focused on the behaviour of the Cationic Exchange Capacity (CEC and the Unused Bed Zone (UBZ, according to the operating parameters (bed length: L, column diameter: D, particle diameter: d and fl ow rate: Q in a Fixed Bed Reactor (FBR. The investigations are performed for a single-component study of lead on New Zealand clinoptilolite at 25 ± 1°C. The results show a constant operating CEC of 1.00 ± 0.015 meq.g-1 which is independent of the operational parameters listed above. The performance of the operations expressed as UBZ, shows an optimum for the ratio L/D (bed length and column diameter fi xed at 18.1, for Q = 2.9 BV.h-1 (bed volume per hour and particle diameter d = 0.38 mm (the ratio particle diameter on column diameter d/D at 0.057. This maximum performance is reached with the lowest UBZ value of 5.6% of the operating CEC. Overall interpretation drawn from the results according to UBZ shows that decreasing the particles size improves the performance of ion exchange process; as well as decreasing the fl ow rate. Nevertheless, the increase of L/D to a certain extent does not improve ion exchange performances.

  10. Highway Surveying. Instructor's Guide for an Adult Course. Highway Technicians Program Unit III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimmano, Ralph; Kacharian, John C.

    The revised instructor's guide, which is part of the New York State Highway Technician's Program to provide needed technicians and engineers by upgrading people in the lower-level technician jobs, is geared toward the improvement of technical skills and knowledge in highway surveying. In view of the shortage of qualified technicians and engineers…

  11. Adaptive Capacity and Social-Environmental Change: Theoretical and Operational Modeling of Smallholder Coffee Systems Response in Mesoamerican Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Hallie; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.; Diaz, Rafael Monterde; Castellanos, Edwin; Haggar, Jeremy

    2011-03-01

    Communities who rely directly on the natural environment for their survival typically have developed risk management strategies to enable them to avoid dangerous thresholds of change to their livelihoods. Development policy appropriate for natural resource-based communities requires an understanding of the primary drivers of social-ecological change, the ways in which affected households autonomously respond to such drivers, and the appropriate avenues for intervention to reduce vulnerability. Coffee has been, and still remains, one of the most important commodities of the Mesoamerican region, and hundreds of thousands of smallholder households in the region are dependent in some way on the coffee industry for their livelihood stability. We used the Analytical Network Process to synthesize expert knowledge on the primary drivers of livelihood change in the region as well as the most common household strategies and associated capacities necessary for effective response. The assessment identified both gradual systemic processes as well as specific environmental and market shocks as significant drivers of livelihood change across the region. Agronomic adjustments and new forms of social organization were among the more significant responses of farmers to these changes. The assessment indicates that public interventions in support of adaptation should focus on enhancing farmers' access to market and technical information and finance, as well as on increasing the viability of farmers' organizations and cooperatives.

  12. REDESIGN OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ON HIGHWAYS, STREETS AND AVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi OGUCHI

    2008-01-01

    The handling of transport demands, especially in urban areas with traffic congestion, is important because the prediction of demand is very difficult under such conditions the true demand possibly becoming a potentiality caused by traffic congestion. One of the solutions of this difficulty is also proposed. The junction treatments, including traffic signal control, dominate over the LOS of the road transport system network in urban streets and avenues. The process of design, control, and operation of junctions at critical intersections is proposed. A tentative evaluation method for highway LOS is also discussed.

  13. 基于物联网背景下中小公路运输企业运营管理创新%Study on Innovation of Operation Management of Small and Medium-sized Highway Transportation Enterprises Based on Background of Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艾武; 冯百侠

    2015-01-01

    In China ,small and medium‐sized road transport enterprises still play important role in the sec‐ond and third tier cities transportation industry .These cities still adopt the operational policies of inde‐pendent management ,search the business by themselves .Therefore ,the disadvantages is quite obvious , for example the waste of resource ,cost and time .It is unfavorable and unsustainable for the long‐term de‐velopment of small and medium highway transportation .The technology of Internet of things has been made full use in other areas .Sensor technology in intelligent Logistics and GPS technology indicates the important links of goods delivering ,transporting and storage ,so as to reduce the waste of resource ,cost and time .Aiming at the characteristics of the small and medium highway transportation enterprises ,pro‐motional effect of internet of things on the enterprises was proposed ,and new models were analyzed based on innovative models of operations and management of technology of internet of things ,so as to provide new operation ideas for small and medium highway transportation enterprises with old models .%中小公路运输企业在我国二、三线城市运输业中仍旧占据着重要地位,这些企业仍旧采用的是独立经营,自寻业务,各自为政的经营政策,故缺点也是相当明显,如:浪费资源、浪费成本、浪费时间等。从中小公路运输企业的长远发展来看,这是相当不利的,也是不可持续发展的。物联网技术在物流行业的其他领域早已得到了广泛的应用,智能物流使用传感器技术和G PS技术等,能够对物品的配送、运输,以及仓库的储存情况等重要环节进行调配、监控、指示等,从而对配送物品、车辆调配进行高效、智能的管理,减少了资源、成本、时间的浪费。将从物联网的提出,针对中小公路运输企业的缺点,提出物联网对这些企业的促进作用,

  14. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  15. The Arnot capacity increase project - An integrated boiler and turbine retrofit by Alstom - Implementation and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Mike; Stephen, Don; Rich, Glyn; Mills, Jeff; Allen, Steve

    2010-09-15

    In cooperation with South African utility giant Eskom, Alstom has undertaken an ambitious project to upgrade the six-unit Arnot Power Station. The objective was to retrofit major plant components in a cost effective manner in order to extend plant life and increase output. This paper will consider the implementation of the project, the challenges overcome and the operational experience subsequently gained. Lessons learned will be identified. Conclusions will be drawn concerning the effectiveness of a comprehensive feasibility study prior to project implementation and the ability of modern design and manufacturing techniques to retrofit older machines, thus releasing latent potential.

  16. The Arnot capacity increase project - An integrated boiler and turbine retrofit by Alstom - Implementation and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Mike; Stephen, Don; Rich, Glyn; Mills, Jeff; Allen, Steve

    2010-09-15

    In cooperation with South African utility giant Eskom, Alstom has undertaken an ambitious project to upgrade the six-unit Arnot Power Station. The objective was to retrofit major plant components in a cost effective manner in order to extend plant life and increase output. This paper will consider the implementation of the project, the challenges overcome and the operational experience subsequently gained. Lessons learned will be identified. Conclusions will be drawn concerning the effectiveness of a comprehensive feasibility study prior to project implementation and the ability of modern design and manufacturing techniques to retrofit older machines, thus releasing latent potential.

  17. Optimizing Traffic Operation in Designing Specific Upgrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Sangsefidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport forms one of the primary needs in all categories of the population in modern society; it is of paramount concern for traffic engineers, transport planners, and policy makers to understand and evaluate the quality of service being provided by the transport facilities designed by them. This paper presents an investigation in profile geometric design and traffic flow operation on two-lane two-way highways and provides analyses that will help in a better understanding of traffic operation on these facilities to select the optimum profile configuration. The effects of influencing parameters consisting of grade, length of grade, traffic composition, and traffic volume are evaluated and finally a systematic procedure to evaluate flow rate under the base condition is presented. Finally, based on these achievements an algorithm is introduced to select optimum Finished Ground of profile view. Results show that the percentage of heavy vehicles has a contributing effect on traffic operation so that the optimum profile configuration is incredibly affected by this factor. Source data have been obtained from Highway Capacity Manual (HCM as a pioneer document in respect of quantifying the concept of capacity for a transport facility.

  18. Challenges in Mechanization Efforts of Small Diameter Eucalyptus Harvesting Operations with a Low Capacity Running Skyline Yarder in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hoffmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines the performance of the Igland Hauler employed in small diameter Eucalyptus clear-cut operations in Guangxi, China. A yarding crew of eight persons was monitored by a snap back elemental time study for 19.23 SMH (scheduled machine hours, with 159 yarding cycles and a yarded log volume at landing of 49.4 m³ solid over bark. A gross-productivity of 2.50 m³/SMH and net-productivity of 5.06 m³/PMH0 (productive machine hours excluding delay times was achieved, leading to a machine utilization rate of 49.5%. The costs of the yarder and associated overhead as well as the personnel costs of a large crew with eight people sum up to extraction costs of 50.24 USD/m³. The high costs make it difficult to compete economically with the locally common manual extraction system as long as abundant labor at a low hourly rate is available in the region. Further performance improvement through skill development, but also technical and organizational system modification in conjunction with rising wages and decreasing labor force in rural primary production will determine the justification of employing such yarding systems. However, new silvicultural regimes with extended rotations and supply requirements of the forest products industry in China demand new operational systems.

  19. Aeration tank settling and real time control as a tool to improve the hydraulic capacity and treatment efficiency during wet weather: Results from 7 years' full-scale operational data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Guildal, T.; Thomsen, H.A.R.

    2013-01-01

    in the form of reduced costs for electricity and green taxes. However, in very few cases the ATS operation in combination with RTC was not able to handle design capacity, and some overflows occurred at flows below the design capacity. The frequency of these overflows may increase in the future due...

  20. Market definition studies for photovoltaic highway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Prospects for solar electric power in applications related to highways within the continental United States are examined. Principal prospective users are found to be the highway departments of the various states. Economic analysis is employed to demonstrate that suitable applications can occur when powering apparatus such as signs, crossing signals, or instruments which consume less than 100 watts on the average, provided they are located at least one-half mile from existing utility power. Such applications are projected to occur two or three times per state per year. Attitudes of highway officials toward possible use of solar power are sampled and described. Although falling photovoltaic cell prices are expected to have little effect on sales potential here, methods for federal stimulation of this market are discussed.

  1. Induced Polarization Surveying for Acid Rock Screening in Highway Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, K. E.; Al, T.; Bishop, T.

    2004-05-01

    Highway and pipeline construction agencies have become increasingly vigilant in their efforts to avoid cutting through sulphide-bearing bedrock that has potential to produce acid rock drainage. Blasting and fragmentation of such rock increases the surface area available for sulphide oxidation and hence increases the risk of acid rock drainage unless the rock contains enough natural buffering capacity to neutralize the pH. In December, 2001, the New Brunswick Department of Transportation (NBOT) sponsored a field trial of geophysical surveying in order to assess its suitability as a screening tool for locating near-surface sulphides along proposed highway alignments. The goal was to develop a protocol that would allow existing programs of drilling and geochemical testing to be targeted more effectively, and provide design engineers with the information needed to reduce rock cuts where necessary and dispose of blasted material in a responsible fashion. Induced polarization (IP) was chosen as the primary geophysical method given its ability to detect low-grade disseminated mineralization. The survey was conducted in dipole-dipole mode using an exploration-style time domain IP system, dipoles 8 to 25 m in length, and six potential dipoles for each current dipole location (i.e. n = 1 - 6). Supplementary information was provided by resistivity and VLF-EM surveys sensitive to lateral changes in electrical conductivity, and by magnetic field surveying chosen for its sensitivity to the magnetic susceptibility of pyrrhotite. Geological and geochemical analyses of samples taken from several IP anomalies located along 4.3 line-km of proposed highway confirmed the effectiveness of the screening technique. IP pseudosections from a region of metamorphosed shales and volcaniclastic rocks identified discrete, well-defined mineralized zones. Stronger, overlapping, and more laterally extensive IP anomalies were observed over a section of graphitic and sulphide-bearing metasedimentary

  2. Calibration of safety performance function for crashes on inter-city four lane highways in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar ChikkaKrishna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant need to improve the highway safety during roadway planning, design and operations in developing countries like India. To receive appropriate consideration, safety needs to be dealt objectively within the transportation planning and highway design processes. Lack of available tools is a deterrent to quantify safety of a transportation facility during the planning or highway design process. The objective of this paper is to develop safety performance functions considering various elements involved in the planning, design and operation of a section on four-lane National Highway (NH-58 located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. The mixed traffic on Indian multilane highways comes with a lot of variability within, ranging from different vehicle types to different driver characteristics. This could result in variability in the effect of explanatory variables on crashes across locations. Hence, explanatory variables for highway segment safety analysis considered were geometric characteristics like curvature change rate, slope change rate, transverse slope and traffic characteristics in the form of average daily traffic, light vehicle traffic, light commercial vehicle traffic, heavy vehicle traffic, two-wheelers, non-motorised traffic volume and operating speed were analysed against dependent variable as crash count per 200 m per year. Safety performance functions involving the explanatory variables are calibrated to predict crash frequency using Poisson Weibull technique and crash types are predicted using ordered logit model. Model results suggest that increase in traffic volume leads to higher probability of crash risk and traffic safety is significantly distorted by higher curvature change rate values.

  3. 公路设计中应注意的问题及对策%Analysis of Problems and Countermeasures in Highway Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景超

    2014-01-01

    在公路运行过程中,在多种因素影响下出现路面损坏等质量问题,这些问题的产生与公路设计存在着重要联系。结合西宁某一级公路工程设计实例,对公路设计中应注意的问题进行研究,并提出相应的解决对策。%Highway is the main form of modern transportation.The traffic quality of highways directly in-fluences regional transportation conditions and economic development,which also plays a significant part in na-tional economy development.During the operation of highways,there are several quality problems like fretting caused by various factors,which have a vital relationship with the highway design.Combined with a certain first-class highway design case in Xining,the paper makes a study on problems of highway design and comes up with countermeasures.Practice has proven that enhancing quality control of highway design plays a vital part in improving highway design levels,ensuring highway construction quality and realizing comprehensive benefits.

  4. EFFECT OF CONGESTION ON FUEL COST AND TRAVEL TIME COST ON MULTI-LANE HIGHWAYS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Errampalli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicles normally move at their free speeds when it is least impeded due to traffic flow under lean traffic (free flow conditions. As traffic flow increases, the vehicles cannot sustain their free speeds due to interactions from other vehicles in the traffic stream. In addition to that the vehicles that are operating in the congested traffic conditions will consume more fuel than those operating in steady state traffic conditions for the same average speed. This leads to increase in travel time and fuel consumption of the vehicles and thereby adding to total road user cost (RUC. On the contrary, fuel consumption is also high at very high speeds under free flow traffic flow conditions leading to increase RUC. Considering these scenarios, the travel time and fuel cost of the vehicle due to the congestion and free flow conditions (uncongested has to be necessarily modelled in order to estimate realistic assessment of RUC on Indian highways. In the present study, the congestion cost relationships have been developed between Congestion Factor, a ratio of cost under congestion and steady state conditions and Volume-Capacity Ratio by considering various vehicle types plying on varying widths of multi-lane highways (four, six and eight lane divided carriageways through the collection of exhaustive time related and fuel related data. Time related data was collected through questionnaire survey method whereas fuel consumption data was collected using advanced sophisticated fuel flow measuring equipment (V-Box. The developed equations have been successfully applied to demonstrate their applicability in terms of estimating realistic effect of congestion on time and fuel cost by considering a section on NH-2 in Delhi. The analysis shows that the congestion effect is more significant on fuel cost for heavy commercial vehicles whereas it is more prominent on time cost for passenger vehicles. However, the congestion effect on combined fuel and time cost is

  5. Stories About Highways in Tibet (Ⅳ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BENGYI

    2005-01-01

    Tibet's First International Highway The China-Nepal Highway is Tibet's only international highway. It extends 1,036 krn from Lhasa to Kathmandu, capital of Nepal. The Tibetan section extends 827 km. Construction of the highway lasted 10 years. Between March 1951 and October 20, 1955, the Lhasa-Xigaze Highway was constructed, bringing to an end a history of the Xigaze region possessing no proper roads. In 1955 the 90-km Xigaze-Gyangze section was constructed, being opened to traffic in October 1955. In 1956, the Lhasa-Yadong Highway was constructed, extending 547 km. In 1958, the Xigaze-Tingri Highway was completed, followed in 1960 by the Lhasa-Burang Highway.

  6. A before-after control-impact assessment to understand the potential impacts of highway construction noise and activity on an endangered songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ashley M; Colón, Melanie R; Bosman, Jessica L; Robinson, Dianne H; Pruett, Hannah L; McFarland, Tiffany M; Mathewson, Heather A; Szewczak, Joseph M; Newnam, J Cal; Morrison, Michael L

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise associated with highway construction and operation can have individual- and population-level consequences for wildlife (e.g., reduced densities, decreased reproductive success, behavioral changes). We used a before-after control-impact study design to examine the potential impacts of highway construction and traffic noise on endangered golden-cheeked warblers (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter warbler) in urban Texas. We mapped and monitored warbler territories before (2009-2011), during (2012-2013), and after (2014) highway construction at three study sites: a treatment site exposed to highway construction and traffic noise, a control site exposed only to traffic noise, and a second control site exposed to neither highway construction or traffic noise. We measured noise levels at varying distances from the highway at sites exposed to construction and traffic noise. We examined how highway construction and traffic noise influenced warbler territory density, territory placement, productivity, and song characteristics. In addition, we conducted a playback experiment within study sites to evaluate acute behavioral responses to highway construction noises. Noise decreased with increasing distance from the highways. However, noise did not differ between the construction and traffic noise sites or across time. Warbler territory density increased over time at all study sites, and we found no differences in warbler territory placement, productivity, behavior, or song characteristics that we can attribute to highway construction or traffic noise. As such, we found no evidence to suggest that highway construction or traffic noise had a negative effect on warblers during our study. Because human population growth will require recurring improvements to transportation infrastructure, understanding wildlife responses to anthropogenic noise associated with the construction and operation of roads is essential for effective management and recovery of prioritized

  7. Vehicles In Highway Communication System Using ZigBee And Bluetooth Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EiThuzarKhin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally many vehicle types operate on the highway system. And highway infrastructure stakeholders have developed a number of products intended to facilitate the identification of critical assets and provide guidance for conductiong security planning. Many of these productsare conducted as joint efforts between the state highway agencies.The main aim of the system is to have a network between Roadside Unit RSU and On-Board Unit OBU and between On-Board Unit OBU and another On-Board Unit OBU . ZigBee is a consortium of software hardware and services companies having improved a common standard for wireless networking of sensors and microcontrollers.Bluetooth is a technology of wireless standard for exchanging data for short distances. In this article we point out sending data to the drivers via not only ZigBee module but also Bluetooth module.

  8. OML-Highway within the framework of SELMAGIS. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Becker, T.; Ketzel, M.; Loefstroem, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H. (Aarhus Univ., National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark)); Lorentz, H. (Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer (Germany))

    2010-06-15

    This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution concentration levels at receptor points along a highway road network, while SELMAGIS is a framework for calculating and representing air pollutant emissions and concentrations in a geographical information system (GIS). (author)

  9. OML-Highway within the framework of SELMAGIS. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Becker, T.; Ketzel, M.; Loefstroem, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H. (Aarhus Univ., National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark)); Lorentz, H. (Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer (Germany))

    2010-06-15

    This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution concentration levels at receptor points along a highway road network, while SELMAGIS is a framework for calculating and representing air pollutant emissions and concentrations in a geographical information system (GIS). (author)

  10. The impact analysis of the connecting pipe length and diameter on the operation of a piston hybrid power machine of positive displacement with gas suction capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherba, V. E.; Grigoriev, A. V.; Averyanov, G. S.; Surikov, V. I.; Vedruchenko, V. P.; Galdin, N. S.; Trukhanova, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The article analyzes the impact of the connecting liquid pipe length and diameter on consumables and power characteristics of the piston hybrid power machine with gas suction capacity. The following operating characteristics of the machine were constructed and analyzed: the average height of the liquid column in the jacket space; instantaneous velocity and height of the liquid column in the jacket space; the relative height of the liquid column in the jacket space; volumetric efficiency; indicator isothermal efficiency; flowrate in the pump section; relative pressure losses during suction; relative flowrate. The dependence of the instantaneous pressure in the work space and the suction space of the compressor section on the rotation angle of the crankshaft is determined for different values of the length and diameter of the connecting pipeline.

  11. 76 FR 6690 - Highway Systems; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stefan Natzke, National Systems and Economic Development Team, (202... document can be used to cross reference this action with the Unified Agenda. List of Subjects in 23 CFR...)(1), and footnote 1 to read as follows: Sec. 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional...

  12. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  13. Highway Traffic Safety Manpower Functions Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    The purpose of the project, "Revision and Update of Traffic Safety Manpower Training Program Development Guide," was to develop the HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY MANPOWER FUNCTIONS GUIDE. This document provides an organizational schema illustrating the functions essential to be performed and the interrelationship of these functions to carry out…

  14. Traffic Flow Control In Automated Highway Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Luis; Horowitz, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    This report studies the problem of traffic control in the Automated Highway System (AHS) hierarchical architecture of the California PATH program. A link layer controller for the PATH AHS architecture is presented. It is shown that the proposed control laws stabilize the vehicular density and flow around predetermined profiles.

  15. 77 FR 37093 - Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ..., Guideline No. 6 Codes and Laws, Guideline No. 16 Management of Highway Incidents (formerly Debris Hazard... activities statewide. Highway Safety Program Guideline No. 16 Management of Highway Incidents (Formerly... program should provide at a minimum that: A. Traffic Incident Management programs are effective and...

  16. Explaining residential moving intentions : the case of highway locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Heinen, Eva; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper Structural Equation Modeling is used to test a theoretical framework to explain the impact of highway externalities (i.e. accessibility and nuisance) on moving intentions of people living close to highways. We aimed to study whether highway externalities (alongside other contextual fac

  17. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  18. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 10: Traffic Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 10 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic records. The purpose and specific objectives of a traffic records program are discussed. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a traffic records…

  19. Sources of Operating Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James

    2005-01-01

    Historically, road vehicle operating costs have tended to dominate highway economic appraisals in developing countries, due to the poor road surfaces that can occur there. The operating costs of railways and ports are also substantial, and form key components of cost benefit analyses of their associated infrastructure. The definition of operating costs for Bank projects is therefore important ...

  20. Study on energy consumption evaluation of mountainous highway based on LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Lunlin; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Yongqing

    2017-06-01

    For the system to understand the road construction energy consumption process, this paper selects a typical mountainous highway in the south, using the theory and method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantitatively study the energy consumption of the whole process of highway raw materials production, construction and operation. The results show that the energy consumption in the raw material production stage is the highest, followed by the highway operation and construction stage. The energy consumption per unit of tunnel engineering, bridge engineering, roadbed engineering and pavement engineering in the construction phase are 2279.00 tce, 1718.07 tce, 542.19 tce and 34.02 tce, and in operational phase, 85.44% of electricity consumption comes from tunnel ventilation and lighting. Therefore, in the bridge and tunnel construction process, we should promote energy-saving innovation of the construction technology and mechanical equipment, and further strengthen the research and development of tunnel ventilation, lighting energy-saving equipment and intelligent control technology, which will help significantly reduce the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of the life cycle of highway.

  1. Landslides along Highways: GIS-based Inventory and Planning Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Ann-Kathrin; Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo

    2015-04-01

    Highways rank as critical transportation infrastructures that are at risk of landslides in many areas worldwide (e.g., Hungr et al., 1999; Bhandary et al., 2013). Safe and affordable operations of traffic routes constitute the two main criteria for transportation planning in landslide-prone terrain. A right balancing of these often conflicting priorities requires profound knowledge of landslide locations across highway networks and the costs caused by landslides in the past (e.g., Saha et al., 2005). Much of the direct costs affecting transportation departments relate to capital investments for landslide repair or mitigation and operational expenditures in connection with maintenance works. A systematic collection and inventory of such data sets combined with an acquisition of hazard information on vulnerable road sections is still rarely the case in engineering practice. This is despite significant cost impacts and budgetary burdens, especially in peripheral mountain areas where financial resources are naturally limited (e.g., Klose et al., 2014). The present contribution introduces a regional inventory of landslides along highways in the Harz Mountains, NW Germany. As subset of a landslide database for the entire country, this focused GIS-based inventory has been compiled in close collaboration with the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation. The inventory includes data sets gathered by archive studies and relies on high-quality information sources such as maintenance protocols, geotechnical reports, and documents from tendering, controlling, and accounting. A mapping tool in ArcGIS format is used to specify and visualize road sections affected by landslides. This spatial information on hazard exposure is complemented by narrative risk profiles for landslide sites showing a long history of damage events. By summarizing the occurrence dates of landslides, the associated damages, and the types and costs of repair or prevention, such risk profiles are useful to

  2. Comparison of Ferry Boat and Highway Bridge Energy Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D. Cottrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger ferries serve a variety of transport needs in the U.S., such as providing vital links across bodies of water, and supplementing highway bridges. In some cases in which there is a ferry connection but no bridge, a bridge would be impractical; in other cases, a bridge might be feasible. The paper compares the energy consumption of ferries and motor vehicles on bridges, to determine which link is more fuel efficient. One finding is that limited data are available on ferry boat fuel consumption: despite there being 208 ferry boat operators in the U.S. as of 2008, only eight were providing energy use data to the National Transit Database. Examinations of three of the systems found that the passenger-MPG of the ferries ranged from 2.61 to 14.00 (1.11 to 5.95 km/L, while that of the motor vehicles on adjacent highway bridge connections ranged from 25.34 to 32.45 (10.77 to 13.79 km/L. Data from the eight systems are used to develop a ferry MPG model. The model is used to show that the Ryer Island and Charles Hall Ferries are less fuel efficient than hypothetical bridges in those locations. The fuel efficiencies and consumptions of the ferries would equal those of motor vehicles on the bridges, however, if smaller vessels were used, and if the frequency of service was reduced.

  3. OML-Highway within the framework of SELMAGIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias;

    This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbüro Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution concentr......This report describes the OML-Highway model and its integration into SELMAGIS. The National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) has developed the OML-Highway model and Ingenieurbüro Lohmeyer from Germany has developed SELMAGIS. The OML-Highway model is able to calculate air pollution...... concentration levels at receptor points along a highway road network, while SELMAGIS is a framework for calculating and representing air pollutant emissions and concentrations in a geographical information system (GIS)...

  4. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... in rail passenger kilometers of European countries since 1996. However, costs are higher and efficiency is lower than European best practice. This paper provides an innovative methodology for assessing the efficiency of passenger operators in capacity utilization. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used...... to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...

  5. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  6. Analysis Of Highway Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The traffic is growing at rapid rate in urban areas of India and the management of traffic operations on the limited road network of the cities has become a gigantic task to the concerned authorities. Despite the concerted efforts of concerned authorities aimed at augmenting road infrastructure, traffic congestion is continuing to increase leading to environmental degradation. Eventually, a major study was commissioned by the Government of India to quantify urban travel by road and associated air pollutants coming from automobile exhausts in eight cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Agra. The main objective was to make an accurate assessment of total number of vehicles and develop database and techniques to estimate road traffic and pollution loads in each city. This paper describes operating characteristics of traffic and quantification of traffic and air pollution loads (base and horizon year on major road network of Chennai city. Comparatively urbanization is moderate in India. This is because the major contributor to the Indian economy is agriculture and it is rural based. As per the Census of India 2001, the urban population of India is around 28 percent of the total population. This proportion of urban population has grown from ten percent in 1901 to twenty eight percent in 2001. The disturbing aspect of the urbanization trends in India is the skewed distribution of the urban population. Nearly seventy percent of the urban population is located in Class-I cities (i.e. population of 100 Thousand and above. Further, 38 percent of the total urban population is located in metropolitan cities (i.e. population of 1 million and above numbering about thirty-five. This heavy concentration of population in a few centers has resulted in the expansion of cities in density as well as area.

  7. Mathematical design of a highway exit curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdemirli, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    A highway exit curve is designed under the assumption that the tangential and normal components of the acceleration of the vehicle remain constant throughout the path. Using fundamental principles of physics and calculus, the differential equation determining the curve function is derived. The equation and initial conditions are cast into a dimensionless form first for universality of the results. It is found that the curves are effected by only one dimensionless parameter which is the ratio of the tangential acceleration to the normal acceleration. For no tangential acceleration, the equation can be solved analytically yielding a circular arc solution as expected. For nonzero tangential acceleration, the function is complicated and no closed-form solutions exist for the differential equation. The equation is solved numerically for various acceleration ratios. Discussions for applications to highway exits are given.

  8. Ecological stability of Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhibin; XU Xinwen; LEI Jiaqiang; LI Shengyu

    2006-01-01

    The Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt,located in hinterland of Taklimakan Desert, is irrigated by underground saline water, with three to thirty gram per litter mineral degrees. The sustainability and stability are affected by multifarious stress.The structural and functional characteristics of shelterbelt are studied to probe into correlation between environment and shelterbelt. On basis, decision analysis is applied to study ecological stability of the Tarim Desert Highway shelterbelt, to screen out limited factors, to establish general index system, and to evaluate the stability of the shelterbelt nowadays.Finally, the concept of ecological stability is utilized to manage the artificial ecosystem. The results show that the artificial ecosystem is relatively flimsy, whose stability can be increased by adjusting stand structure and improving the nutrient cycle.

  9. Alaska Highway bibliography, 3rd edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prange, Laurie

    Since the early 20th century various schemes were considered for the construction of roads, trails or railways 71 to link the Yukon, northern British Columbia and Alaska to the “outside.” These schemes were motivated by economic interests, including mining, lumber and tourism concerns. During the....... The impacts included an increased awareness of the world outside of the Yukon, imported ideas and technology, improved health care, highway transportation, telecommunications, and the development of more mining and tourist-related industries....... land route to Alaska for defence purposes. The military was not interested in developing or planning a highway for the civilian needs of the future. The chosen route ran from Edmonton to Whitehorse, then on to Fairbanks. The U.S. Army and U.S. Public Roads Administration (PRA) roughed out a “pioneer...

  10. Approximating Mexican highways with slime mould

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Chapa-Vergara, Sergio V; Asomoza-Palacio, Rene; Stephens, Christopher R

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye. During its foraging behavior the cell spans spatially distributed sources of nutrients with a protoplasmic network. Geometrical structure of the protoplasmic networks allows the plasmodium to optimize transport of nutrients between remote parts of its body. Assuming major Mexican cities are sources of nutrients how much structure of Physarum protoplasmic network correspond to structure of Mexican Federal highway network? To find an answer undertook a series of laboratory experiments with living Physarum polycephalum. We represent geographical locations of major cities by oat flakes, place a piece of plasmodium in Mexico city area, record the plasmodium's foraging behavior and extract topology of nutrient transport networks. Results of our experiments show that the protoplasmic network formed by Physarum is isomorphic, subject to limitations imposed, to a network of principle highways. Ideas and results of the paper may contribute tow...

  11. The Full Cost of Intercity Highway Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson; David Gillen

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we review the theoretical and empirical literature on the cost structure of the provision of intercity highway transportation and specify and estimate our own cost functions . We develop a full cost model which identifies the key cost components and then estimate costs component by component: user costs, infrastructure costs, time and congestion costs, noise costs, accident costs, and pollution costs. The total long run average cost is $0.34 per vehicle kilometer traveled. The s...

  12. Sound absorption mapping of highway noise barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Grosso, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Sound propagation from highway to the urban areas can be reduced using noise barriers. The general computational modeling takes typically into account sound ray lines, reflection and diffraction, although the absorption distribution over the surface in not considered. The sound absorption coefficient can be calculated using a PU probe, by the impedance measured “in situ” close by the surface. Well known methods are available on the market for estimating the sound absor...

  13. Biological evaluation of Trans-African highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Kayem, Anne V. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-African highway network is a unique concept of integrated development of transport corridors spanning all African countries and providing landlocked countries access to seaports. The planned road system is still maturing and just partially complete, thus giving us a chance to play with different scenarios of its growth and to consider potential alternative transport networks. We study the evolving transport network in the African continent with a groundbreaking technique of imitating growing transport networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent the major urban areas of Africa with a source of nutrients, inoculate a piece of the slime mould in Cairo and allow the mould to span all urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We then compare the slime mould networks with existing and planned highway corridors. We found that slime mould provides a good approximation of the Trans-African highway network, with some roads of Eastern Africa delineated by P. polycephalum in a larger number of laboratory experiments. We demonstrate direct matches between protoplasmic tubes and Trans-Sahelian as well as Lagos-Mombasa corridors. Finally we analyse the bio-logic of transport network development in families of generalised Physarum graphs.

  14. Effective flow resistivity of highway pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Judith L; Read, David R

    2013-12-01

    In the case of highway traffic noise, propagating sound is influenced by the ground over which it travels, whether it is the pavement itself or the ground between the highway and nearby communities. Properly accounting for ground type in modeling can increase accuracy in noise impact determinations and noise abatement design. Pavement-specific effective flow resistivity values are being investigated for inclusion in the Federal Highway Administration Traffic Noise Model, which uses these values in the sound propagation algorithms and currently applies a single effective flow resistivity value to all pavement. Pavement-specific effective flow resistivity values were obtained by applying a modified version of the American National Standards Institute S1.18 standard. The data analysis process was tailored to allow for increased sensitivity and extraction of effective flow resistivity values for a broad range of pavements (sound absorptive to reflective). For porous pavements (sound absorptive), it was determined that examination of the measured data can reveal influence from an underlying structure. Use of such techniques can aid in the design of quieter pavements.

  15. Implementation of a model for the reduction of latent capacity of an air-conditioner at part-load conditions with continuous fan operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, K.H.; Blake, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2004-07-01

    The performance of air-conditioners and their moisture removal effectiveness is degraded when the indoor circulation fan is in continuous mode and the compressor is off. Early experiments have shown that when the compressor is off, the cooling coil acts as an evaporative cooler and vapour condensates on its surface. This vapour goes back into the air stream and back to the conditioned space, resulting in higher humidity levels. A model has been developed by previous examiners to predict the degradation of the performance of the air-conditioner. The model accounts for the conditions of the air entering the coil, thermostat cycling rate, air-conditioner transient performance, and the moisture-retaining characteristics of the cooling coil. However, this model has not been used within a building energy simulation program. This paper demonstrates how the model can be used as part of an air-conditioning model in the ESP-r/HOT3000 building energy analysis program. Within ESP-r/HOT3000, the model can determine the effect of moisture evaporation from the coil, during compressor off-cycle within continuous fan operation. It can also examine the effect on temperature and relative humidity inside a residential building during the cooling season. The model can also determine the effect of equipment latent capacity degradation on electricity use by air conditioners. The study identifies the problems associated with an over-sized air conditioner. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  17. 49 CFR 325.33 - Site characteristics; highway operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... free of large sound-reflecting objects. However, the following objects may be within the test site... irregular tire, body, or chassis impact noise; and (2) Loose material, such as gravel or sand. (f)...

  18. Optimum Design of Highway Excavation Slope Angle: Evidence from Dawu Section of Jingzhu Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The optimum design of the highway excavation slope angle is one of the most important problems to the highway construction and to the slope improvement. The Dawu Section of Jingzhu (Beijing-Zhuhai) Highway is taken as an example to illustrate the study method for excavation slope angle design.The analysis of the engineering condition from different angles with different factors shows that the stability of the slope is calculated by using residual pushing force and the Sarma method. Then the sensitive analysis of the slope stability is conducted by using residual pushing force method. Finally, the optimum angle of design is presented on the precondition of ensuring the whole stability of slope and the economic reasonability. The study results show that the most sensitive factors are the shear strength parameter and t he seismic force, and that the optimum excavation slope angle is 60°.``

  19. 高速路网上电动汽车充电站布点优化%Planning of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in Highway Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾龙; 胡泽春; 宋永华; 占恺峤; 丁华杰

    2015-01-01

    电动汽车的发展需要合理规划的充电站与之匹配,高速路网上的充电站是电动汽车在城市间远距离行驶的保证。研究了电动汽车在高速路网中的充电需求分布,采用两阶段法确定充电站规划方案。考虑充电站距高速公路出入口的距离和续航里程确定候选站址;考虑充电需求,最小化建站成本、接电网成本和运维成本,确定最优建站位置和容量。在包含6个出入口、4个交叉路口的算例系统中选出90个候选站址,规划得到24座充电站。采用的方法可以满足目标,并随初始电池荷电状态期望、站间影响因数和建站数量约束变化而得到不同的规划方案。%The rapid development of electric vehicles (EVs) requires the appropriate planning of EV charging stations.EV charging stations in a highway network are the guarantee for long distance driving.This paper studies the charging demand distribution in highway network and proposes a planning scheme by the two-step method.The first step is to determine the candidate stations considering the distance from highway entrance/exit to charging stations and EV mileage.The second step is to determine the optimal location and capacity of EV charging stations considering the charging demand,minimal construction cost,grid connection cost,operation and maintenance cost.A highway network containing six gateways and four intersections is proposed to select 90 candidate stations and build 24 optimal charging stations.The method proposed is able to meet all the objectives and the planning scheme varies with the state-of-charge expectation,and affecting factors between stations and quantity constraint of stations.

  20. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  1. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...... capacity to run more trains is examined. The paper presents a method to examine the expected capacity utilization of future timetables. The method is based on the plan of operation instead of the exact (known) timetable. At the end of the paper it is described how it is possible to make capacity statements...

  2. 26 CFR 41.4482(a)-1 - Definition of highway motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of highway motor vehicle. 41.4482(a... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Tax on Use of Certain Highway Motor Vehicles § 41.4482(a)-1 Definition of highway motor vehicle. (a) Highway...

  3. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise... types used in Federal-aid highway traffic noise analyses. Current highway traffic noise analyses rely on... suggestions on whether and how to include additional pavement types in Federal-aid highway traffic...

  4. 76 FR 65561 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Federal Highway Administration Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program AGENCY: Federal... Operations and Management (MCOM) Program authorized by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient... transportation challenges facing the efficient and effective operation and management of...

  5. Isolating the effects of climate-mediated changes in temperature and water availability on the capacity expansion and operations of the U.S. power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, A.; Macknick, J.; Averyt, K.; Livneh, B.; Steinberg, D. C.; Eurek, K.; Newmark, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change has the potential to affect the U.S. power sector in several ways. Rising air temperatures can affect the seasonal and total demand for electricity (by affecting heating and cooling service demands), alter the thermal efficiency of power plants, and lower the maximum capacity of electric transmission lines. Changes in precipitation and the hydrologic cycle can affect the seasonal and total availability of water used for power plant operations. As a result of these and other effects, climate change has potential to affect both the supply and demand of electricity in the United States. Quantifying the magnitude, direction, and interaction of these potential impacts is challenging but essential for understanding how climate change may shape the evolution of the U.S. power sector at a national and regional level. While prior studies have examined some of these effects, there has been no systematic study quantifying and comparing the importance of these climate-induced effects in isolation and in combination. To address this gap, we perform a systematic assessment using the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) electricity sector model in combination with downscaled climate results from several models in the CMIP5 archive. The ReEDS model captures dynamic climate and hydrological resource data in its optimization routines. Climate scenarios and associated downscaled results are selected through an algorithm evaluating regional trends and intra-annual variability in temperature and runoff. In this effort, through scenario analysis we examine how different climate-induced changes in air temperature and water availability, considered in isolation and in combination, may affect key energy and economic outcomes at a regional and national level from the present through 2050. Results of this modeling effort help indicate which climate-induced effects could contribute most to projected changes in national level energy-economic outcomes and which could

  6. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  7. OPTIMIZING HIGHWAY PROFILES FOR INDIVIDUAL COST ITEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Dabbour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the current practice, vertical alignment of a highway segment is usually selected by creating a profile showing the actual ground surface and selecting initial and final grades to minimize the overall cut and fill quantities. Those grades are connected together with a parabolic curve. However, in many highway construction or rehabilitation projects, the cost of cut may be substantially different from that of fill (e.g. in extremely hard soils where blasting is needed to cut the soil. In that case, an optimization process will be needed to minimize the overall cost of cut and fill rather than to minimize their quantities. This paper proposes a nonlinear optimization model to select optimum vertical curve parameters based on individual cost items of cut and fill. The parameters selected by the optimization model include the initial grade, the final grade, the station and elevation of the point of vertical curvature (PVC, and the station and elevation of the point of vertical tangency (PVT. The model is flexible to include any design constraints for particular design problems. Different application examples are provided using the Evolutionary Algorithm in Microsoft Excel’s Solver add-in. The application examples validated the model and demonstrated its advantage of minimizing the overall cost rather than minimizing the overall volume of cut and fill quantities.

  8. CAUSES OF HIGHWAY FAILURES IN NIGERIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. NDEFO OKIGBO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the road networks in the developing countries of Africa are in deplorable conditions. Nigeria being one of these countries is not an exception. The conditions of the roads in Nigeria were examined. The causes of these conditions of the roads in Nigeria were articulated and their effects to the citizen, government and theeconomy of the country were highlighted and solutions to these problems given in the form of recommendations that will remedy the situation. Some of the identified causes were; poor design and construction, poor maintenance of already built highways, use of low quality materials in construction, poor workmanship and poorsupervision of construction work and the plying of heavy traffic that were not meant for the road on the road. Some of the recommendations to remedy the situation are; Use of the appropriate design of the roads, avoiding unnecessary congestion of the roads with traffic especially heavy traffics that were not meant for the roads inthe first place, prompt maintenance of the roads, application of suitable construction material in the construction of the roads, applying appropriate tests to the soil in road construction, use of qualified engineering personnel in road construction and the application of sanctions for highway failures.

  9. Fracture of highway and airport pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsamooj, D. V.

    1993-03-01

    Existing solutions for the stresses in a cracked slab containing a crack and supported by an elastic foundation are extended to obtain the stress intensity factor (SIF) for a crack in a pavement subjected to moving vehicular loads. In the existing solutions the stresses can be obtained only for a uniform bending stress (before the crack occurs) along the crack surface. For pavements subjected to moving vehicular loads, the stress distribution along the crack surface is not uniform and the approximation of a uniform stress is often unsatisfactory. The present work extends the above solutions to cover more realistic loading of highway and airport pavements. This facilitates the application of the principles of fracture mechanics to the fatigue crack propagation and fracture of pavements. Beginning with a part-through semi-elliptical starter crack, the crack is assumed to grow under load and the SIF is presented at various stages of crack growth, from the starter crack into a short through-crack that eventually becomes a very long through-crack. Some examples of the fracture of typical rigid and flexible highway and airport pavements are presented to show the need to consider fracture in the design of pavements.

  10. Introduction of Service Area Planning and Designing in Taiwan Highway%台湾高速公路服务区规划设计介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔佳伟; 孙家驷

    2011-01-01

    高速公路服务区是高速公路工程的重要组成部分之一,它既是为高速公路运营提供各项服务的交通设施,又是在高速公路上开设的内部出入口,对高速公路的行车功能有一定的影响作用.在分析台湾高速公路服务区布局与建设特点的基础上,结合重庆高速公路服务区存在的问题,提出规划设计思路,供同行交流和研讨.%Service area of highway is an essential part of highway project. On the one hand, it provides operation of highway with different kinds of services and facilities. On the other hand, it functions as an interior access of highway. That is why it has certain influence on the traffic of highway. On the basis of analyzing the layout and construction features of Taiwan Highway' s service area, a few planning thoughts which aim at the present issues of Chongqing' s highway are proposed.

  11. Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2004-05-08

    The transportation sector includes many subcategories--for example, on-highway, off-highway, and non-highway. Use of fuel for off-highway purposes is not well documented, nor is the number of off-highway vehicles. The number of and fuel usage for on-highway and aviation, marine, and rail categories are much better documented than for off-highway land-based use. Several sources document off-highway fuel use under specific conditions--such as use by application (e.g., recreation) or by fuel type (e.g., gasoline). There is, however, no single source that documents the total fuel used off-highway and the number of vehicles that use the fuel. This report estimates the fuel usage and number of vehicles/equipment for the off-highway category. No new data have been collected nor new models developed to estimate the off-highway data--this study is limited in scope to using data that already exist. In this report, unless they are being quoted from a source that uses different terminology, the terms are used as listed below. (1) ''On-highway/on-road'' includes land-based transport used on the highway system or other paved roadways. (2) ''Off-highway/off-road'' includes land-based transport not using the highway system or other paved roadways. (3) ''Non-highway/non-road'' includes other modes not traveling on highways such as aviation, marine, and rail. It should be noted that the term ''transportation'' as used in this study is not typical. Generally, ''transportation'' is understood to mean the movement of people or goods from one point to another. Some of the off-highway equipment included in this study doesn't transport either people or goods, but it has utility in movement (e.g., a forklift or a lawn mower). Along these lines, a chain saw also has utility in movement, but it cannot transport itself (i.e., it must be carried) because it does not have wheels. Therefore

  12. 75 FR 17829 - Motorcyclist Advisory Council to the Federal Highway Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Federal Highway Administration Motorcyclist Advisory Council to the Federal Highway Administration AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of advisory committee. SUMMARY: This document announces the eighth meeting of the Motorcyclist Advisory Council to the Federal...

  13. 77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of public symposium. SUMMARY: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is announcing...

  14. 75 FR 55628 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements: Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Office of Crash Avoidance Standards...

  15. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - A guide to capacity building requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.; Gunning, R. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Stapleton, G. [Global Sustainable Energy Solutions Pty Ltd, GSES, Ulladulla 2539 (Australia)

    2003-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the topic of 'capacity building' in rural electrification projects. Capacity building is defined here as the development of an organisation's or individual's core knowledge, skills and capabilities in order to build and enhance the organisation's effectiveness and sustainability. This document identifies capacity building measures that should be undertaken as an integral component of a PV-based rural electrification implementation programme. Capacity building is to be facilitated through the provision of technical support activities, training, specific technical assistance and resource networking. The assessment of existing knowledge and the identification of training needs are discussed and training needs and their implementation by governmental and commercial players is discussed. Eleven case studies complete the report.

  16. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... standard or governmental political objective exists. In most cases it was possible to select a set of indicators, including thresholds that are workable in a carrying capacity planning at the local administrative levels. Not all relevant sectors at the decentralized level were included. Indicators of SCC...

  17. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR...

  18. 23 CFR 200.9 - State highway agency responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administration. (2) Section 162a of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 (section 324, title 23 U.S.C.) requires... requirements of section 162a of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1973 have been added to its assurances. (3)...

  19. Mathematical model of transportation flow dynamics on a multilane highway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazurin, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a microscopic model for the dynamics of a transportation flow based on cellular automata with improved lane changing rules. With this model, we study the influence of crossing transportation flows on the throughput of a multilane highway. For a two-lane highway with an exit, we obtain spa

  20. New highway development in the Netherlands: a residents' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of new highway development from a residents’ perspective. Data were collected by questionnaire in two residential areas, Son and Uden, both situated along the new A50 highway in the Netherlands. The objectives of this study are: 1) to analyse the extent to which h

  1. Capacity of Multi-vehicle-types Mixed Traffic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-quan; WANG Wei; DENG Wei

    2001-01-01

    Based on the gap acceptance theory, the mixed traffic flow composed of r representative typesflows on the unsignalized intersection is set up. It is an extension of capacity model for one type vehicletraffic flow, and it is very fitter to the Chinese highway traffic condition than the other models.

  2. 30 CFR 941.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction...

  3. 30 CFR 942.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction...

  4. 30 CFR 912.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incident to...

  5. 30 CFR 939.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction...

  6. 30 CFR 905.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction...

  7. 30 CFR 933.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction...

  8. 30 CFR 910.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction...

  9. 30 CFR 947.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction...

  10. 30 CFR 921.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to Government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction...

  11. 30 CFR 903.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction...

  12. 30 CFR 922.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction...

  13. 30 CFR 937.707 - Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incident to... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.707 Exemption for coal extraction incident to government-financed highway or other construction. Part 707 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incident to...

  14. What We've Learned about Highway Traffic Congestion%我们能从道路交通拥堵中学到什么

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pravin Varaiya; 吕大玮

    2012-01-01

    Freeway operational data become more available and enriched with the improvement of surveillance systems. By analyzing five years of freeway operational data archived in California, this paper quantitatively elaborates the causes of highway congestion from different perspectives, including congestion dynamics analysis, traffic bottleneck identification, ramp metering performance evaluation, travel time prediction, and etc. In addition, this paper quantifies the performance of HOV lanes and their impacts on other lanes in California Bay Area by analyzing capacity loss and comparing the speed and flow within and outside of HOV restriction periods for the same highway segment. Each of the aforementioned studies measures the severity and cause of congestion, and suggests mitigation approaches.%随着高速公路监测手段的完善,高速公路运行数据日益丰富.通过深入挖掘、分析加州高速公路运行监测系统5年来收集的数据,从不同角度定量理解拥堵产生的原因,包括拥堵动态分析、交通瓶颈识别、匝道控制效益评价、出行时间预测等.此外,基于上述数据,以加州湾区HOV车道为例,通过分析通行能力损失、对比路段相同位置HOV限制与非限制时段车道流量及速度变化,定量评价了HOV车道的实施效果及其给其他车道带来的拥堵后果.上述各项研究均衡量了拥堵的严重程度及产生原因,并给出了相应的缓堵方法.

  15. A Synopsis of Technical Issues for Monitoring Sediment in Highway and Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Gray, John R.; Smith, Kirk P.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Accurate and representative sediment data are critical for assessing the potential effects of highway and urban runoff on receiving waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identified sediment as the most widespread pollutant in the Nation's rivers and streams, affecting aquatic habitat, drinking water treatment processes, and recreational uses of rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Representative sediment data are also necessary for quantifying and interpreting concentrations, loads, and effects of trace elements and organic constituents associated with highway and urban runoff. Many technical issues associated with the collecting, processing, and analyzing of samples must be addressed to produce valid (useful for intended purposes), current, complete, and technically defensible data for local, regional, and national information needs. All aspects of sediment data-collection programs need to be evaluated, and adequate quality-control data must be collected and documented so that the comparability and representativeness of data obtained for highway- and urban-runoff studies may be assessed. Collection of representative samples for the measurement of sediment in highway and urban runoff involves a number of interrelated issues. Temporal and spatial variability in runoff result from a combination of factors, including volume and intensity of precipitation, rate of snowmelt, and features of the drainage basin such as area, slope, infiltration capacity, channel roughness, and storage characteristics. In small drainage basins such as those found in many highway and urban settings, automatic samplers are often the most suitable method for collecting samples of runoff for a variety of reasons. Indirect sediment-measurement methods are also useful as supplementary and(or) surrogate means for monitoring sediment in runoff. All of these methods have limitations in addition to benefits, which must be identified and quantified to produce representative data. Methods for

  16. Outflow of traffic from the national capital Kuala Lumpur to the north, south and east coast highways using flow, speed and density relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional relationships between flow (veh/km, density (veh/h and speed (km/h in traffic congestion have a long history of research. However, their findings and techniques persist to be relevant to this day. The analysis is pertinent, particularly in finding the best fit for the three major highways in Malaysia, namely the KL-Karak Highway, KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. The trans-logarithm function of density–speed model was compared to the classical models of Greenshields, Greenberg, Underwood and Drake et al. using data provided by the Transport Statistics Malaysia 2014. The results of regression analysis revealed that the Greenshields and Greenberg models were statistically significant. The trans-logarithm function was also tested and the results were nonetheless without exception. Its usefulness in addition to statistical significance related to the derived economic concepts of maximum speed and the related number of vehicles, flow and density and the limits of free speed were relevant in comparing the individual levels of traffic congestion between highways. For instance, KL-Karak Highway was least congested compared to KL-Seremban Highway and KL-Ipoh Highway. Their maximum speeds, based on three lanes carriage capacity of one direction, were 33.4 km/h for KL-Karak, 15.9 km/h for KL-Seremban, and 21.1 km/h for KL-Ipoh. Their corresponding flows were approximated at 1080.9 veh/h, 1555.4 veh/h, and 1436.6 veh/h.

  17. Interaction study of permafrost and highway along Qinghai-Xizang Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qingbai; (吴青柏); SHI; Bin; (施; 斌); LIU; Yongzhi; (刘永智)

    2003-01-01

    Eight monitoring sites are set along the Qinghai-Xizang Highway (QXH) to investigate the characteristics and process of interaction between permafrost and highway, including the upper and down boundaries of active layer under natural surface, seasonally freezing-thawing depth under asphalt pavement, permafrost table temperature and roadbed stability. The investigation results show that the changes of active layer thickness and permafrost table temperature under asphalt pavement are greater than these under natural surface due to the absorbing heat action and less evaporation of asphalt pavement, as a result, the engineering geological problems such as thaw settlement and frost heave present frequently along QXH line and produce the adverse impact on roadbed stability.

  18. Highway bridge seismic design: summary of FHWA/MCEER project on seismic vulnerability of new highway construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) sponsored a large, multi-year project conducted by theMultidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (MCEER) titled "Seismic Vulnerability of New HighwayConstruction" (MCEER Project 112), which was completed in 1998. MCEER coordinated the work of many researchers, whoperformed studies on the seismic design and vulnerability analysis of highway bridges, tunnels, and retaining structures.Extensive research was conducted to provide revisions and improvements to current design and detailing approaches andnational design specifications for highway bridges. The program included both analytical and experimental studies, andaddressed seismic hazard exposure and ground motion input for the U.S. highway system; foundation design and soil behavior;structural importance, analysis, and response; structural design issues and details; and structural design criteria.

  19. Conceptual Model for Smart Cities: Irrigation and Highway Lamps using IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijender Kumar Solanki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Keeping in mind the need to preserve energy as well as utilize the available at its best the need was felt to develop a module that would be able to sort out the problem where resources such as water and electricity were wasted, in urban as well as rural area. Resource (electricity was wasted as beside the point operation of Highway and High Mast Lamp; while wastage of water followed by improper trends and methodologies imparted for watering of city park, road side plantation and highway plantation. Thus as per Energy survey statistics of a City (Lucknow, India it was found that major portion of resources (water and electricity were being wasted due to negligent activities of officials who were in charge of resource management. So to facilitate energy saving trends and to completely modernize it to autonomous system, module below is proposed which incorporates modern technological peripheral and has its base ingrained in IoT (Internet of Things which when put into consideration would result in large scale resource and energy saving.This developed module incorporates the peripherals such as Arduino, Texas Instruments ultra low power kits etc. in accordance with software technology including Lab View which help to monitor as well as control the various operation from the base station, located far away from the site. Lab View Interface interacts with all the module located at various city parks, subways and highway lighting modules. Later below in several section a detailed pattern and application frame has been put up.

  20. Evaluation of the New Jersey Digital Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Jeng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the usefulness of the New Jersey Digital Highway (NJDH, www.njdigitalhighway.org and its portal structure. The NJDH intends to provide an immersive and user-centered portal for New Jersey history and culture. The research recruited 145 participants and used a Web-based questionnaire that contained three sections: for everyone, for educators, and for curators. The feedback on the usefulness of the NJDH was positive and the portal structure was favorable. The research uncovered several reasons why some collections did not want to or could not participate. The findings also suggested priorities for further development. This study is one of the few on the evaluation of cultural heritage digital library.

  1. Optimum Maintenance Strategies for Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frangopol, Dan M.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Das, Parag C.;

    As bridges become older and maintenance costs become higher, transportation agencies are facing challenges related to implementation of optimal bridge management programs based on life cycle cost considerations. A reliability-based approach is necessary to find optimal solutions based on minimum...... expected life-cycle costs or maximum life-cycle benefits. This is because many maintenance activities can be associated with significant costs, but their effects on bridge safety can be minor. In this paper, the program of an investigation on optimum maintenance strategies for different bridge types...... is described. The end result of this investigation will be a general reliability-based framework to be used by the UK Highways Agency in order to plan optimal strategies for the maintenance of its bridge network so as to optimize whole-life costs....

  2. Autoimmunity and the highway to diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P

    1997-02-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an immunopathological condition involving loss of beta cell function, but views of how this arises are confusing and contradictory. For example, studies with non-obese diabetic mice implicate abnormal cytokine production in disease pathogenesis, but give little insight into how this arises. Many genetic and environmental risk factors have been described, but no single factor predicts the development of disease. Moreover, the prevalence of auto-antibodies suggests an autoimmune aetiology, but no antigen is recognized by all individuals. As an aid to understanding how IDDM develops, this review considers the risk factors as distinct starting points on a journey, and reviews current literature in search of the point where the roads from each origin merge into a highway to diabetes.

  3. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... and ACC may increase the political focus on resources and environmental issues and may help to move local authorities towards a more holistic spatial planning approach. A carrying capacity approach could be an inspiration for local spatial planning in developing countries. A spatial planning act...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  4. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for the Large-Scale Rural Highway Network Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changxi Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the layout problem of rural highway network, which is often characterized by a cluster of geographically dispersed nodes, neither the Prim algorithm nor the Kruskal algorithm can be readily applied, because the calculating speed and accuracy are by no means satisfactory. Rather than these two polynomial algorithms and the traditional genetic algorithm, this paper proposes an improved genetic algorithm. It encodes the minimum spanning trees of large-scale rural highway network layout with Prufer array, a method which can reduce the length of chromosome; it decodes Prufer array by using an efficient algorithm with time complexity o(n and adopting the single transposition method and orthoposition exchange method, substitutes for traditional crossover and mutation operations, which can effectively overcome the prematurity of genetic algorithm. Computer simulation tests and case study confirm that the improved genetic algorithm is better than the traditional one.

  5. Forensic aspects of the highway crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, P W

    1983-01-01

    It can be stated that patterns of injury in highway crashes can often be related to specific design and damage features of the vehicle. The restraint systems designed to attenuate injury may also, under severe crash circumstances, produce trauma. Problems may arise as to identification of vehicular drivers. It behooves the pathologist concerned with the necropsy of crash victims and the physician responsible for treating crash victims to become familiar with the pathogenesis of injuries. Such knowledge can be utilized in the recommendation for improvement of vehicles to render them more crashworthy. Awareness of the various mechanisms of injury in vehicle crashes also enhances the diagnostic skill of the initial treating physician when he or she is confronted with a crash victim in the emergency department. Ideally, when the victim arrives at the hospital, the emergency room physician should be supplied with the details of the crash including the type of vehicle, position within the vehicle, use or nonuse of restraint systems, and the direction of the impact. When a fatality results from a car crash, ideally the autopsy pathologist should inspect the vehicle or at least view pictures of the exterior and interior of the vehicle to help establish the pathogenesis of injury in a specific collision. Unfortunately, because of time constraints, this ideal is not always achieved. Because of the considerable volume of civil and criminal litigation resulting from highway crashes, there is a need for competent medical expertise to help both the plaintiff and the defendent. The pathologist involved in forensic work and the treating physician play a particularly important role in the judicial arena.

  6. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance Criteria for Evaluating Requests for Modifications to the National Highway System D Appendix D to Subpart A of Part 470 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems...

  7. An Analysis of Cesarean Section and Emergency Hernia Ratios as Markers of Surgical Capacity in Low-Income Countries Affected by Humanitarian Emergencies from 2008 – 2014 at Médecins sans Frontières Operations Centre Brussels Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Barclay; Wong, Evan; Papillon-Smith, Jessica; Trelles Centurion, Miguel Antonio; Dominguez, Lynette; Ao, Supongmeren; Jean-Paul, Basimuoneye Kahutsi; Kamal, Mustafa; Helmand, Rahmatullah; Naseer, Aamer; Kushner, Adam L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical capacity assessments in low-income countries have demonstrated critical deficiencies. Though vital for planning capacity improvements, these assessments are resource intensive and impractical during the planning phase of a humanitarian crisis. This study aimed to determine cesarean sections to total operations performed (CSR) and emergency herniorrhaphies to all herniorrhaphies performed (EHR) ratios from Médecins Sans Frontières Operations Centre Brussels (MSF-OCB) projects and examine if these established metrics are useful proxies for surgical capacity in low-income countries affected by crisis. Methods: All procedures performed in MSF-OCB operating theatres from July 2008 through June 2014 were reviewed. Projects providing only specialty care, not fully operational or not offering elective surgeries were excluded. Annual CSRs and EHRs were calculated for each project. Their relationship was assessed with linear regression. Results: After applying the exclusion criteria, there were 47,472 cases performed at 13 sites in 8 countries. There were 13,939 CS performed (29% of total cases). Of the 4,632 herniorrhaphies performed (10% of total cases), 30% were emergency procedures. CSRs ranged from 0.06 to 0.65 and EHRs ranged from 0.03 to 1.0. Linear regression of annual ratios at each project did not demonstrate statistical evidence for the CSR to predict EHR [F(2,30)=2.34, p=0.11, R2=0.11]. The regression equation was: EHR = 0.25 + 0.52(CSR) + 0.10(reason for MSF-OCB assistance). Conclusion: Surgical humanitarian assistance projects operate in areas with critical surgical capacity deficiencies that are further disrupted by crisis. Rapid, accurate assessments of surgical capacity are necessary to plan cost- and clinically-effective humanitarian responses to baseline and acute unmet surgical needs in LICs affected by crisis. Though CSR and EHR may meet these criteria in ‘steady-state’ healthcare systems, they may not be useful during

  8. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  9. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...... and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...

  10. [Environmental, social, and roadway vulnerability in accidents involving transportation of hazardous products: a case study of the BR-101 highway between Osório and Torres in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Maria Auxiliadora Cannarozzo; Nodari, Christine Tessele; Pereira, Kimberllyn Rosa da Silva

    2016-09-19

    This study aimed to assess the environmental and social vulnerability and identify critical highway stretches for accidents involving transportation of hazardous products on the BR-101 highway between the cities of Osório and Torres in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The study's approach consisted of a multiple-criteria analysis combining highway safety analysis and environmental and social vulnerability analysis in the occurrence of accidents with hazardous products, plus cartographic analysis techniques. Thirty-eight kilometers of the highway showed high vulnerability, of which 8 kilometers with critical vulnerability, associated with bridges over rivers, water uptake points, a tunnel, environmental preservation areas, and an urban area. These stretches should be prioritized when developing action plans for accident mitigation and development of public policies for this highway. This proved to be an unprecedented approach when compared to existing studies and a potentially useful tool for decision-making in emergency operations.

  11. Electronic Highway or Weaving Loom? Thinking about Conferencing Technologies for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Elizabeth J.

    Information highways are high speed data networks used to transport information and link people together. As more limitations of and problems with the information highway ("potholes") become apparent, the highway metaphor may have to be revisited, and the information highway must be examined with a critical eye. Distance educators…

  12. 23 CFR 500.204 - TMS components for highway traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false TMS components for highway traffic data. 500.204 Section... for highway traffic data. (a) General. Each State's TMS, including those using alternative procedures... highway traffic data shall include the testing of equipment used in the collection of the data....

  13. A network of field test sites as a platform for research on engineering and management of the highway transportation infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Frangopol, Dan M.; Ghasemi, Hamid; Shenton, Harry W.; Shinozuka, Masanobu; Madanat, Samar

    2004-07-01

    An effort is currently underway to create an Engineering Research Consortium Initiative (ERCI) focused on engineering and management of the highway transportation infrastructure. The goal of the ERCI will be to provide administrative and logistical support for a coordinated, problem-focused research program on the highway transportation infrastructure system. The cornerstone of the initiative will be field test-sites. Example sites might include major long span bridges, sample populations of operating bridges, decommissioned bridges, a regional network of highways and bridges, various types of pavement and geotechnical structures, or a major transportation hub serving a metropolitan area. Sites would be instrumented to collect a broad range of engineering (structural, geotechnical, hydraulic), human (traffic) and natural (climatological, seismological) response data. The field sites would be networked to provide real-time access to test facilities across the country; a secure central repository would be established for collecting data from the sites. The data and information gathered from these sites would be used by engineers and scientists to study the complex interactions and cause-and-effect relations of the various engineered, human and natural components of the highway hyper-system. A major research thrust of the ERCI will be security of the highway infrastructure system, with particular emphasis on bridges. The National Science Foundation and the Federal Highway Administration are expected to provide funding for the program through a joint agency initiative. Two workshops were recently held with experts from around the world to discuss the plans for the ERCI. The paper provides more details on the ERCI and the status of the effort to date.

  14. Concession of Brazilian Federal Highways: Orphan Assets Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel de Rezende Salgado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the uses of public service concession contracts in Brazil is in the road infrastructure sector, existing at the federal level 21 roads’ concession contracts, totaling approximately 10 thousand kilometers, which is 12.6% of the federal road network. Whereas in this type of contract the government does not transfer ownership of the asset, but only access to the concessionaire for the operation of public services, this study aims to determine in which entity (public or private are registered the federal roads, object of the concession contracts. To address the research question, the financial statements of 21 utility companies or controlling group were analyzed, as well the balance sheet of the National Land Transportation Agency (ANTT, all for the year 2014. The study findings show that the Brazilian federal highways are not recorded in public statements or in the financial statements of utility companies, providing evidence that these infrastructure assets meet the definition of orphan assets. Thus, the net worth of the ANTT is not adequately represented in its balance sheet.

  15. Highway Construction Management%公路施工管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2015-01-01

    In the highway construction, the construction process should be scientific, reasonable management, and in the latter do a good job in the maintenance work, to ensure the quality of the highway. Based on this, this paper analyzes the highway construction management, in order to promote the sustainable development of highway engineering in China.%在公路施工前,应当对施工过程进行科学、合理的管理,并在工程后期做好养护工作,保证公路的质量.基于此,对公路施工管理进行了分析,以促进我国公路工程的可持续发展.

  16. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    The paper discusses the long term mass balance of pollutants in highway ponds. The accumulations of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six heavy metals have been measured in eight Danish detention ponds, which receive runoff from highways only. For each pollutant the accumulation has...... been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds....... The results also show that the accumulation rates for the heavy metals depend significantly on the relative pond area (pond area divided by catchment area). The conclusion is that the mass balances of heavy metals and PAHs in highway ponds can be estimated with acceptable accuracy from a combination of short...

  17. Photonic Technologies for Ultra-High-Speed Information Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchoule, S; Lèfevre, R.; Legros, E.;

    1999-01-01

    The ACTS project HIGHWAY (AC067) addresses promising ultra-high speed optoelectronic components and system technologies for 40 Gbit/s time-division-multiplexed (TDM) transport systems. Advanced 40 Gbit/s TDM system lab demonstrators are to be realized and tested over installed field fiber testbed....... This paper reviews the current status of 40 Gbit/s TDM components and subsystem technologies achieved in HIGHWAY. The results of HIGHWAY 40 Gbit/s TDM systems and field tests will be reported in a subsequent paper. (C) 1999 Academic Press.......The ACTS project HIGHWAY (AC067) addresses promising ultra-high speed optoelectronic components and system technologies for 40 Gbit/s time-division-multiplexed (TDM) transport systems. Advanced 40 Gbit/s TDM system lab demonstrators are to be realized and tested over installed field fiber testbeds...

  18. Highway vehicle systems contractors coordination meeting. Seventeenth summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts was prepared for each of the 62 papers presented at the Contractors' Coordination meeting on highway vehicle systems. One paper had previously appeared in DOE's data base.

  19. Road and Street Centerlines - MO 2010 Highway Patrol Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This is a representation of current Missouri Highway Patrol Districts. Derived from TIGER/Line Files this shapefile and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  20. Analysis of potential highway routes to Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathisan, S.K.; Parentela, E.M.; Lee, M.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    States have been provided the authority to designate routes for the transport of highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. The state of Nevada is currently evaluating alternative routes for such designation. This paper provides a preliminary assessment of potential system impacts of Nevada`s highway route designation for the shipment of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLRW) to the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A potential route being evaluated by Nevada was used to specify routing constraints for highway shipments to Yucca Mountain. Individual routes were determined for shipments from each origin using the HIGHWAY model for unconstrained and constrained routing scenarios. Results of the analysis indicate that the imposition of the routing constraint would result in increased travel times and shipment distances. These increases range from about 1.25 percent to about 80 percent. However, the magnitude of such increases is highly dependent on the geographic location of the origin.

  1. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... and performance. (3) Involved Parties. Provide the organizational structure of the parties... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor represents...

  2. Hanford Reach - Highway 24 Homestead Reclamation Project 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Highway 24 Homestead project is a multi-year reclamation effort in part designed to address habitat degradation and hazardous fuels issues in part caused by past...

  3. Hanford Reach - Highway 24 Homestead Reclamation Project 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Highway 24 Homestead project is a multi-year reclamation effort in part designed to address habitat degradation and hazardous fuels issues in part caused by past...

  4. A Practical Model for Deformation Prediction of Highway Subgrade Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports a practical constitutive relation for highway subgrade soils. The proposed model is derived based on the laboratory repeated-load testing of four subgrade soils. Statistical parameters generally used in the power model of subgrade permanent strain are expanded into material constants with engineering significance. The constitutional relation reported in this paper can be used in the mechanistic-based pavement design of highway flexible pavements and railroad tracks.

  5. Highway increases concentrations of toxic metals in giant panda habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying-Juan; Chen, Yi-Ping; Maltby, Lorraine; Jin, Xue-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The Qinling panda subspecies (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis) is highly endangered with fewer than 350 individuals inhabiting the Qinling Mountains. Previous studies have indicated that giant pandas are exposed to heavy metals, and a possible source is vehicle emission. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As in soil samples collected from sites along a major highway bisecting the panda's habitat were analyzed to investigate whether the highway was an important source of metal contamination. There were 11 sites along a 30-km stretch of the 108th National Highway, and at each site, soil samples were taken at four distances from the highway (0, 50, 100, and 300 m) and at three soil depths (0, 5, 10 cm). Concentrations of all metals except As exceeded background levels, and concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cd decreased significantly with increasing distance from the highway. Geo-accumulation index indicated that topsoil next to the highway was moderately contaminated with Pb and Zn, whereas topsoil up to 300 m away from the highway was extremely contaminated with Cd. The potential ecological risk index demonstrated that this area was in a high degree of ecological hazards, which were also due to serious Cd contamination. And, the hazard quotient indicated that Cd, Pb, and Mn especially Cd could pose the health risk to giant pandas. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the highway was the main source of Cd, Pb, and Zn and also put some influence on Mn. The study has confirmed that traffic does contaminate roadside soils and poses a potential threat to the health of pandas. This should not be ignored when the conservation and management of pandas is considered.

  6. 连锁经营超市的物流服务能力及服务质量研究%Study on Logistics Service Capacity and Service Quality of Chain-operated Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    念延辉

    2013-01-01

    分析研究了连锁经营超市物流服务能力及其物流服务质量关系和作用机制的问题,对连锁经营超市物流服务能力和服务质量的组成因素进行了分析,最后从物流作业系统总体要素选择、过程要素选择和支持性要索选择三个方面进行了方案设计,旨在提升连锁经营超市的物流服务能力和物流服务质量.%In this paper,we analyzed the relationship and acting mechanism between the logistics service capacity and service quality of chain-operated supermarkets,analyzed the composing factors of the capacity and quality of logistics services,and finally,from the aspects of overall factors of logistics activity system,process factors and supportive factors,designed the plan to improve the service capacity and quality of the chain-operated supermarkets.

  7. Disrupting Capacity Management of Service Operation System under Decision-maker's Risk Attitude%考虑管理者风险态度的大型服务运作系统能力应急管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包兴; 季建华

    2009-01-01

    The capacity loss of large-scale service operation system after disruption is considered, and the capacity management mode during the disrupting periods is analyzed. Mathematic model is created with the capacity recovery and procurement under the consideration of decision-maker's risk attitude. Four important managerial insights are obtained through numerical simulation, which are useful for the guidance in the scientific decision making of service operation system and social administration department.%以突发事件发生后,大型服务运作系统的运营能力遭受损伤为研究背景,分析了应急期间服务运作系统能力的应急管理模式,围绕应急期间系统内部能力恢复和外部能力采购以及管理者风险态度的3方面因素,构建了以应急总成本最小为目标的能力应急管理模型.通过数值分析得到4个重要的应急管理结论,对社会管理部门以及运作系统自身科学的应急决策均具有一定的指导意义.

  8. Economic power plant operation requires a nes market model. Capacity market can be a solution; Wirtschaftlicher Kraftwerksbetrieb erfordert neues Marktmodell. Kapazitaetsmarkt kann Loesung sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, Michael [Stadtwerke Hannover (Germany). Abt. Energiewirtschaft

    2012-06-15

    In the future, the efficiency is not the decisive factor anymore. Rather, it's about flexibility and availability. As the current market model reaches its limit and threatens the economic viability of the power plants. As part of the energy policy turnaround it needs any kind of capacity as a counterpoint to the fluctuating power generation from renewable energy sources in order to cover a few hundred hours a year with maximum residual load. Economically, it seems to make sense to include all the capabilities in a common market model.

  9. Sand harm in taklimakan Desert highway and sand control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANZhiwen; WANGTao; SUNQingwei; DONGZhibao; WANGXunming

    2003-01-01

    Reputed as a wonderful achievement of the world’s highway construction history,the Taklimakan Desert highway is nor facing serious sand drift encroachment problems due to its 447-km-long passage of sand sea consisting of crescent dunes,barchan chains,compound transverse dune ridges and complex megadunes.To solve some technical problems in the protection of the highway from sang drift encroachment,desert experts have been conducting the theoretical and applied studies on sand movement laws;causes,severities and time-space differentiation of sand drift damages;and control ways including mechanical,chemical and biological measures.In this paper the authors give an overall summry on the research contents and recent progress in the control of sand drift damages in China and hold that the theoretical researc results and practices in the prevention of sand drift encroachment on the cross-desert highway represnt a breakthrough and has an cpoch-making significance.Since the construction of protective forest along the cross-desert highway requires large amount of ground water,what will be its environmental consequence and whether it can effectively halt sand drift encroachment on the highway forever are the questions to be studied urgently.

  10. 10 CFR 904.9 - Excess capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess capacity. 904.9 Section 904.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing § 904.9 Excess capacity. (a) If the Uprating Program results in Excess Capacity, Western shall be entitled to such Excess Capacity to integrate the operation of the Boulder City Area Projects and...

  11. Personal capacities needed for transitional co-operation in energy webs between glasshouses and non-horticultural counterparts in The Netherlands - three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, T.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, P.C.M.; Weel, van P.A.; Poot, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Though technically and economically challenging, heat exchange between glasshouses and non-horticultural counterparts (here after called Energy Webs) has been shown to be viable based on two operational webs and a number of feasibility studies for different locations within The Netherlands. The orga

  12. On Building Operational Capacity of the System of Legal Writing%论构建操作性的法律写作能力系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱林

    2011-01-01

    Writing culture and the ability to operate the writing thought are the two factors that determine the writing ability. The writer accomplishes the writing of articles under the control of writing culture, with the right development and operation of the writing thought. Therefore, the utmost operational legal writing system must be built up according to the objective laws of writing thought, mainly from the writing culture and the operational ability of writing thought. Meanwhile the innovative development of legal writing courses in colleges and universities should target to achieve along this direction to build up a new and operational theory of writing systems and training methods and train- ing content.%写作文化和写作思维操作能力是决定写作能力的两大主要因素,写者是在时代写作文化的控制下,通过写作思维操作的正确展开去完成文章写作的。因此,当代前沿的、操作性的法律写作能力系统必须按照写作思维的客观规律,主要从写作文化和写作思维操作能力两大方面去构建,而高校法律写作课程的发展更新也应当沿着这个方向去实现。

  13. 改扩建公路路线设计要点%Route design features of the highway expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏宁

    2015-01-01

    The existing road construction has been unable to meet the needs of traffic operation, therefore, the need for highway expansion. Renovation and expansion of the highway route to note straight, horizontal curve, vertical slope, linear combinations of other design elements, according to the characteristics of highway reconstruction and do surveys and collect data and other basic work, a comprehensive identification, determine the design preferred route planning programs to ensure our expansion highway route design of scientific rationality.%现有的公路建设已经不能满足交通运行的需求,因此,需要进行公路扩建。改扩建公路路线需要注意直线、平曲线、纵坡度、线形组合等设计要点,根据公路改建的特点,做好调查和收集资料等基础工作,综合辨别、择优确定设计路线规划方案,保证我国改扩建公路路线设计的科学性、合理性。

  14. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  15. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that

  16. Visual object-oriented application for lane following on intelligent highway system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangChunyan; WangWi; LuJian; ChangYulin

    2003-01-01

    A visual object-oriented software for lane following on intelligent highway system (IHS) is proposed. According to object-oriented theory, 3 typical user services of self-check, transfer of human driving and automatic running and abnormal information input from the sensors are chosen out. In addition, the functions of real-time display, information exchanging interface, determination and operation interweaving in the 3 user services are separated into 5 object-oriented classes.Moreover, the 5 classes are organized in the visual development environment. At last, experimental result proves the validity and reliability of the control application.

  17. Study of a New Quick-Charging Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Highway Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem, because of which conventional quick-charging strategies (CQCS cannot meet the requirements of quick-charging for multiple types of electric vehicles (EV on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive, this paper proposed a new quick-charging strategy (NQCS for EVs: on the premise of not affecting those EVs being charged, the remaining power of the quick-charging pile with multiple power output interfaces is used to provide a synchronous charging service for EVs waiting in the queue. To verify the effectiveness of this strategy, a power distribution model of charging pile and a queuing model of charging station (CS were constructed. In addition, based on an actual highway service area where vehicle inflow is excessive during the simulation period (0:00–24:00, charging situations of CQCS and NQCS were respectively simulated in a charging station (CS, with different number of chargers, by basic queuing algorithm and an improved queuing algorithm. The simulation results showed that when the relative EV inflow is excessive, compared to CQCS, NQCS not only can reduce user waiting time, charging time, and stay time, but also can improve the utilisation rate of charging infrastructure and service capacity of CS and reduce the queue length of CS. At the same time, NQCS can reduce the impact on the power grid. In addition, in NQCS, the on-demand power distribution method is more efficient than the average power distribution method. Therefore, NQCS is more suitable for quick-charging for multiple types of EVs on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive.

  18. Effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality in a part of the Calumet Aquifer, northwestern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lee R.; Bayless, E. Randall; Buszka, Paul M.; Wilson, John T.

    2002-01-01

    in ground water were determined in samples collected during the spring and summer from wells open to the water table within about 9 feet of the highway. Chloride concentrations in ground water that were attributable to highway deicers also were found in tested wells about 400 feet downgradient from US?12 during the fall and winter and at greater depths than in wells closer to US?12. Chloride concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 milligrams per liter for drinking water at seven wells downgradient from the highway during late winter, spring, and summer samplings. The chloride standard was exceeded only in water from wells with total depths that are less than about 10 feet below land surface. Sodium concentrations in water periodically exceeded the USEPA drinking-water equivalency level of 20 milligrams per liter in both the uppermost (deicer affected) and lower one-thirds of the aquifer. Sodium concentrations in ground water downgradient from US?12 and in the upper 5 feet of the aquifer also occasionally exceeded drinking-water standards for sodium (160 milligrams per liter) as set by the State of Florida and a standard for taste (200 milligrams per liter) as set by the World Health Organization. Dispersion was identified by analysis of aquifer-test data, isotopic dating of ground water, and water-quality data to be the process most responsible for reducing concentrations of highway deicers in the aquifer. Chemical analyses of the sand composing the aquifer indicated that cation exchange decreased the mass of deicer-related sodium in ground water, although the sand has a limited capacity to sustain the process. Automated daily measurements of specific conductance, correlated to chloride concentrations, indicated that some deicer is retained in the aquifer near the highway throughout the entire year and acts as a continuous chloride source for ground water. Peak concentrations of

  19. Capacity comparisons and operating experience of reciprocating chillers with R 407C and R 22; Kolbenkaltwassersaetze mit R 407C und R 22 - Leistungsvergleiche und Betriebserfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, K. [Carrier GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Although the zeotrope refrigerant R407C has similar characteristics like R22, it can not be considered as a full Drop-In for R22. Regarding trouble-free compressor performance especially the different solubility of refrigerant into synthetic oil has to be noted, at start up the oil pump must handle increased demand. Exact measurements show also differences in heat transfer, where plate heat exchanger perform better than plate fine coils and shell and tube exchanger respectively. With several heat exchanger configurations and numerous laboratory tests it is shown that general numbers in procent of capacity changes are not valuable and that an only change of refrigerant in R22 systems will result in lower COP in any case. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das zeotrope Kaeltemittel R407C hat zwar aehnliche thermodynamische Eigenschaften wie R22, doch aus mehreren Gruenden kann es nicht als vollwertiges Drop-In fuer R22 bezeichnet werden. Hinsichtlich stoerungsfreier Verdichterbetriebsweise ist vor allem die unterschiedliche Loeslichkeit von Kaeltemitteln im Synthetikoel zu beachten; im Anfahrbetrieb muss die Oelpumpe mehr foerdern. Exakte Messungen belegen auch Unterschiede im Waermeuebergang, wobei Plattenwaermeaustauscher besser als Lamellen- oder Rohrbuendelaustauscher abschneiden. Auch die Abstimmung der Bauteile im Kaeltemittelsystem hat Einfluss auf Kaelteleistung und Leistungszahl, ebenso Druckverhaeltnis bzw. Einsatzbereich. Es wird anhand verschiedener Konstruktionen mittels zahlreicher Testreihen aufgezeigt, dass generelle Angaben der Leistungsaenderung in Prozent nicht sinnvoll sind und dass beim blossen Austausch des Kaeltemittels in R22-Anlagen immer eine schlechtere Leistungszahl zu erwarten ist. (orig.)

  20. Prizing on Paths: A PTAS for the Highway Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Grandoni, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    In the highway problem, we are given an n-edge line graph (the highway), and a set of paths (the drivers), each one with its own budget. For a given assignment of edge weights (the tolls), the highway owner collects from each driver the weight of the associated path, when it does not exceed the budget of the driver, and zero otherwise. The goal is choosing weights so as to maximize the profit. A lot of research has been devoted to this apparently simple problem. The highway problem was shown to be strongly NP-hard only recently [Elbassioni,Raman,Ray-'09]. The best-known approximation is O(\\log n/\\log\\log n) [Gamzu,Segev-'10], which improves on the previous-best O(\\log n) approximation [Balcan,Blum-'06]. In this paper we present a PTAS for the highway problem, hence closing the complexity status of the problem. Our result is based on a novel randomized dissection approach, which has some points in common with Arora's quadtree dissection for Euclidean network design [Arora-'98]. The basic idea is enclosing the ...

  1. A speed-flow relationship model of highway traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; LI Wei; REN Gang

    2005-01-01

    In the view that the generally used speed-flow relationship model is insufficient in the traffic analysis under over-saturated conditions, this paper first establishes the theoretical models of speed flow relationship for each highway class based upon a large number of traffic data collected from the field. Then by analyzing the traffic flow dissipation mechanism under peak hour over-saturated traffic conditions, the speed flow relationship model structures for each highway class are reviewed under different traffic load conditions. Through curve-fitting of large numbers of observed data, functional equations of general speed-flow relationship models for each highway class under any traffic load conditions are established. The practical model parameters for each highway class under different design speeds are also put forward. This model is successful in solving the speed-forecasting problem of the traffic flow under peak hour over-saturated conditions. This provides the theoretical bases for the development of projects related to highway network planning, economic analysis, etc.

  2. Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

  3. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused on roadway accident frequency analysis, but relatively little research has examined safety evaluation at highway-rail grade crossings. Highway-rail grade crossings are critical spatial locations of utmost importance for transportation safety because traffic crashes at highway-rail grade crossings are often catastrophic with serious consequences. The Poisson regression model has been employed to analyze vehicle accident frequency as a good starting point for many years. The most commonly applied variations of Poisson including negative binomial, and zero-inflated Poisson. These models are used to deal with common crash data issues such as over-dispersion (sample variance is larger than the sample mean) and preponderance of zeros (low sample mean and small sample size). On rare occasions traffic crash data have been shown to be under-dispersed (sample variance is smaller than the sample mean) and traditional distributions such as Poisson or negative binomial cannot handle under-dispersion well. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare various alternate highway-rail grade crossing accident frequency models that can handle the under-dispersion issue. The contributions of the paper are two-fold: (1) application of probability models to deal with under-dispersion issues and (2) obtain insights regarding to vehicle crashes at public highway-rail grade crossings.

  4. Capacity and Capacity Utilization in Fishing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkley, James E; Squires, Dale

    1999-01-01

    Excess capacity of fishing fleets is one of the most pressing problems facing the world's fisheries and the sustainable harvesting of resource stocks. Considerable confusion persists over the definition and measurement of capacity and capacity utilization in fishing. Fishing capacity and capacity utilization, rather than capital (or effort) utilization, provide the appropriate framework. This paper provides both technological-economic and economic definitions of capacity and excess capacity i...

  5. Application and challenges of big data in quality monitoring of highway engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xianglin; Zhou, Chunrong

    2017-03-01

    Generation of big data brings opportunities and challenges to quality monitoring technologies of highway engineering. Big data of highway engineering quality monitoring is featured by typical "4V" characteristics. In order to deeply analyze application of big data in quality monitoring of highway engineering, the paper discusses generation, processing processes, key technologies as well as other aspects of big data of highway engineering quality monitoring. The paper analyzes storage structure, computing courses and data visualized processing processes of the big data of highway engineering quality monitoring and points out the problems and challenges encountered by application of big data in quality monitoring of highway engineering.

  6. External Costs to Parties Involved in Highway Traffic Accidents: The Perspective of Highway Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores highway travellers’ willingness to pay (WTP for external costs caused by traffic accidents. There are a number of further external costs, the paper focuses on two externalities: air pollution and time delays. Data collection was performed using the face-to-face survey method, and the surveys were carried out at highway rest areas. Air pollution and time delays were divided into three levels of severity (light, moderate and severe to obtain the interviewees’ WTP according to each level of severity. The result of this study demonstrates that there are many samples with zero WTP because penalties for pollution caused by traffic accidents are not currently enforced in Taiwan. Thus, the spike model was adopted in this study to overcome any estimation error that might be caused by excessive NT$0 WTP samples. The results show that variables such as age, education, income and willingness to participate in activities of environmental protection have a positive effect on WTP for air pollution, whereas variables such as occupation, travel purpose, traveller identity, travel time and travel distance have a significantly positive effect on WTP for time delays. WTP for nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is NT$8862–11,502/metric ton (US$1 = NT$30 and WTP for carbon dioxide (CO2 is NT$1070–2693/metric ton. Moreover, WTP for time delays is NT$960–1320/h. The findings of this study not only demonstrate WTP for air pollution and time delays in the minds of parties to traffic accidents but also help to provide agencies with a basis to formulate applicable penalties in the future.

  7. Removal of 1,4-dioxane from industrial wastewaters: routes of decomposition under different operational conditions to determine the ozone oxidation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barndõk, Helen; Cortijo, Luis; Hermosilla, Daphne; Negro, Carlos; Blanco, Angeles

    2014-09-15

    This paper denotes the importance of operational parameters for the feasibility of ozone (O3) oxidation for the treatment of wastewaters containing 1,4-dioxane. Results show that O3 process, which has formerly been considered insufficient as a sole treatment for such wastewaters, could be a viable treatment for the degradation of 1,4-dioxane at the adequate operation conditions. The treatment of both synthetic solution of 1,4-dioxane and industrial wastewaters, containing 1,4-dioxane and 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane (MDO), showed that about 90% of chemical oxygen demand can be removed and almost a total removal of 1,4-dioxane and MDO is reached by O3 at optimal process conditions. Data from on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provides a good insight to its different decomposition routes that eventually determine the viability of degrading this toxic and hazardous compound from industrial waters. The degradation at pH>9 occurs faster through the formation of ethylene glycol as a primary intermediate; whereas the decomposition in acidic conditions (pH<5.7) consists in the formation and slower degradation of ethylene glycol diformate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Automatic speed control of highway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingman, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Vehicle control system monitors all vehicles in its range, and automatically slows down speeding vehicles by activating governor in vehicle. System determines only maximum speed; speeds below maximum are controlled by vehicle operator. Loss of transmitted signal or activation of emergency over-ride will open fuel line and return control to operator.

  9. Study of minimum-weight highway transporters for spent nuclear fuel casks: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, J.A.; Drago, V.J.

    1989-05-01

    There are federal and state limits on the maximum tractor-trailer- payload combination and individual axle loads permissible on US highways. These can generally be considered as two sets, i.e., legal-weight and overweight limits. The number of individual shipments required will decrease as the capacity of the spent nuclear fuel cask increases. Thus, there is an incentive for identifying readily available minimum-weight tractors and trailers capable of safely and reliably transporting as large a cask as possible without exceeding the legal gross combination weight (GCW) of 80,000 lb or selected overweight GCW limit of 110,000 lb. This study identifies options for commercially available heavy-duty on-highway tractors and trailers for transporting proposed future loaded spent nuclear fuel casks. Loaded cask weights of 56,000 and 80,000 lb were selected as reference design points for the legal-weight and overweight transporters, respectively. The technical data on tractor and trailer characteristics obtained indicate that it is possible to develop a tractor-trailer combination, tailored for spent nuclear fuel transportation service, utilizing existing technology and commercially available components, capable of safely and reliably transporting 56,000 and 80,000-lb spent nuclear fuel casks without exceeding GCWs of 80,000 and 10,000 lb, respectively. 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Assessment of the neighborhood environmental effects of highway improvements through micronetwork simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimpeler, C.C. (Schimpeler--Corradino Associates, Louisville, KY); Corradino, J.C.; Siria, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    New Cut Road is a major arterial highway serving South Louisville. Until recently, it was a narrow two-lane highway of rural-type design carrying up to 14,000 vehicles per day under forced flow conditions. Then construction began to widen the road from Southside Drive to Old Third Street Road, as a result of Urban Corridor Demonstration Program funding. The impacts (traffic, noise, and air pollution) on the neighborhoods surrounding this widening have been measured through micronetwork simulation techniques. Traffic will be diverted from surrounding roads (up to 20 percent) to the widened New Cut facility, thereby eliminating ''over-capacity'' conditions in these facilities, adding several years' life. Further, expeditious movement of vehicles through the New Cut Road ''area of influence'' will have a beneficial, albeit small, effect on the local air and noise environment. New Cut Road will be a highly cost-effective, low-capital-intensive improvement.

  11. Design and analysis of highway windmill electric generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Mashyal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with designing a portable highway wind turbine, which is to be contribute towards the global trend in wind energy production in a feasible way. Wind turbines are traditionally employed in rural areas; the main goal the work is to design a wind turbine that can be used in cities. In particular, the turbines will use the wind draft created by vehicles on the highway to generate electricity. The idea is to offset the amount of pollution created by burning fossil fuels by introducing a potential source of clean energy. As the automobiles moves from highways/expressways, there is a creation of pressure column on both the sides of the road. This pressure column is created due to imbalance of high pressure/low pressure energy band created by the automobiles. Due to this pressure band wind flow and create pressure thrust. The pressure thrust is sufficient to generate electricity through designed wind turbine.

  12. Abandoned Highway Sections: an Opportunity for Requalification Landscape Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Moretti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With technology constantly improving, modern highways can nowadays be built through terrains where construction used to be either technically infeasible or too costly. While this results in faster connections and shorter commuting times, it leaves the abandoned historic routes behind without any use. This workshop was aimed at developing solutions for the requalification of abandoned highway sections, focusing on the example of the Autostrada del Sole which bypasses the little town of Vado, Bologna. A concept of converting the section into a Sole Park - a park which offers both relaxation and amusement elements - was developed in order to attract visitors from the neighboring villages and the high-speed highway. Within this context, potential locations for lookouts were identified, giving stunning vistas of the Tuscan-Emilian landscape.

  13. Brief Analysis on Highway Construction and Urban Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; XU; Zhongxiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of studying influence of means of transportation on urban distribution and form,this paper focuses on influence of highway on modern urban areas. Results show that construction of highway accelerates urbanization,forms organic traffic network connecting large, medium and small cities and towns,and promotes development of modern urban agglomeration. Finally,it presents rational ideas of strengthening planning,integrating urban and rural development,preventing blind expansion of urban areas,and building ecological and garden cities.

  14. Behavioral intentions within off-highway vehicle communities in the northeastern U.S.: an application of the theory of planned behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter D' Luhosch; Diane Kuehn; Rudy M. Schuster

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in the northeastern United States suggests the need for more effective recreation management strategies in public forest areas. This study employed the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen 1991) to examine the attitudes and perceptions of OHV operators. Hypotheses were tested regarding differences in attitudes toward...

  15. Impact of Cylinder Deactivation on Active Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration at Highway Cruise Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueting eLu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Heavy-duty over-the-road trucks require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to clean the filter of stored particulate matter. These events require sustained temperatures between 500 and 600□C to complete the regeneration process. Engine operation during typical 65 mile/hour highway cruise conditions (1200 rpm/7.6 bar results in temperatures of approximately 350□C, and can reach approximately 420□C with late fuel injection. This necessitates hydrocarbon fueling of a diesel oxidation catalyst or burner located upstream of the diesel particulate filter to reach the required regeneration temperatures. These strategies require increased fuel consumption, and the presence of a fuel-dosed oxidation catalyst (or burner between the engine and particulate filter. This paper experimentally demonstrates that, at the highway cruise condition, deactivation of valve motions and fuel injection for two or three (of six cylinders can instead be used to reach engine outlet temperatures of 520-570□C, a 170-220□C increase compared to normal operation. This is primarily a result of a reduction in the air-to-fuel ratio realized by reducing the displaced cylinder volume through cylinder deactivation.

  16. An assessment of The Capacity Drops at The Bottleneck Segments: A review on the existing methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarto Sugiarto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The term of capacity is very useful to quantify the ability of transport facilities in terms of carrying traffic. The capacity of the road is an essential ingredient in the planning, design, and operation of roadways. It is desirable for traffic analyst to be able to predict the time and places where congestion will occur and the volumes to be expected. Most of urbanized areas have been experiencing of traffic congestion problems particularly at urban arterial systems. High traffic demand and limited supply of roadways are always the main factors produced traffic congestion. However, there are other sources of local and temporal congestion, such as uncontrolled access point, median opening and on-street parking activities, which are caused a reduction of roadway capacity during peak operations. Those locations could result in reduction of travel speed and road, as known as hidden bottlenecks. This is bottleneck which is without any changes in geometric of the segments. The Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual (IHCM, 1997 is used to assess urban arterial systems till current days. IHCM provides a static method for examining the capacityand does not systematically take into account of bottleneck activities. However, bottleneck activities create interruption smooth traffic flow along arterial streets, which in turns stimulate related problems, such as, excessive air pollution, additional energy consumption and driver’s frustration due to traffic jammed. This condition could happen simultaneously; mostly repetitive and predictable in same peak hour demands. Therefore, this paper carefully summarize on the existing methodologies considering required data, handled data processing and expected output of each proposed of analysis. We further notice that dynamic approach could be more appropriated for analyzing temporal congestion segments (median opening, on street parking, etc.. Method of oblique cumulative plot seems to be more applicable in terms of

  17. Career Counseling and the Information Highway: Heeding the Road Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Theresa M.; Fahr, Alicia V.; Keller, Jenny R.

    2002-01-01

    Traveling the "information highway" in the process of career counseling or providing career counseling services via the Internet pose additional challenges for counselors. The authors use current ethical guidelines to guide discussion of, and possible resolutions to, challenges posed by incorporating the Internet into career counseling. (Contains…

  18. 78 FR 71715 - Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...), James Stowe, and the University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center (UNC). The majority of... Board (NTSB), New York State Office for the Aging (NYSOA), University of North Carolina (UNC), as well... autonomy possible; Establish a Medical Advisory Board (MAB), consisting of a range of medical...

  19. 46 CFR 393.4 - Marine Highway Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Include the projected savings in life-cycle costs of publicly maintained infrastructure. (vi) Business... avoided, infrastructure construction or expansion deferred). Timeliness factor. Is the project on track... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine Highway Projects. 393.4 Section 393.4 Shipping...

  20. assessment of traffic flow on enugu highways using speed density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    This research provides practical application for speed estimation, construction, maintenance and optimization of the highways using the speed-density models which will enhance traffic ... engineering. .... machines without actually taking physical field traffic .... Federal Road Safety Corps, Enugu State Command, 2015.

  1. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents results from an experimental and numerical study of wind-induced flows and transportation patterns in highway wet detention ponds. The study presented here is part of a general investigation on road runoff and pollution in respect to wet detention ponds. The objective is to eva......-uniform wind field distributions are not significant to this study....

  2. Managing Highway Maintenance: Budget Preparation, Unit 9, Level 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit describes the essential steps in developing a maintenance budget, or performance budget, based on the work to be done. It is designed for field engineers and supervisors who assist department officials in preparing work programs and budgets. The format is a programed,…

  3. 23 CFR 470.107 - Federal-aid highway systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intermodal transportation facilities and other major travel destinations; meet national defense requirements; and serve interstate and interregional travel. All routes on the Interstate System are a part of the... consultation with appropriate Federal agencies and the States. The STRAHNET includes highways which...

  4. Wind Effects on Retention Time in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    is to evaluate the quality of long term simulations based on historical rain series of the pollutant discharges from roads and highways. The idea of this paper is to evaluate the effects of wind on the retention time and compare the retention time for the situation of a spatial uniform wind shear stress...

  5. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

  6. Highway Expenditures and Associated Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Paz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the satisfaction of the Nevadans with respect to their highway transportation system and the corresponding expenditures of Nevada Department of Transportation (NDOT. A survey questionnaire was designed to capture the opinions of the Nevadans (customers about a number of characteristics of their transportation system. Data from the financial data warehouse of the NDOT was used to evaluate expenditures. Multinomial probit models were estimated to study the correlations between customers’ opinion and the government expenditures in transportation. The results indicate the customer satisfaction is decreasing with respect to traffic safety throughout Northwestern and Southern Nevada highways. In addition, users of Northwestern highways are more likely to be satisfied, compared to their counterparts, with increasing construction spending to reduce the time taken to complete construction projects. In Southern Nevada highways, customers’ satisfaction increases with the expenditures associated with reduction of congestion. These insights are examples of the conclusions that were obtained as a consequence of simultaneously considering customer satisfaction and the corresponding expenditures in transportation.

  7. Engineering metabolic highways in Lactococci and other lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used in industrial food fermentations and are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of food and pharmaceutical products. Glycolytic conversion of sugars into lactic acid is the main metabolic highway in these Gram-positive

  8. Investigation of the Seismic Performance of Reinforced Highway Embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoy, Y. S.; Edinçliler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the fact that highway embankments are highly prone to earthquake induced damage, there are not enough studies in the literature concentrated on improving the seismic performance of highway embankments. Embankments which are quite stable under static load conditions can simply collapse during earthquakes due to the destructive seismic loading. This situation poses a high sequence thread to the structural integrity of the embankment, service quality and serviceability. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of the geosynthetic reinforcement on the seismic performance of the highway embankments and evaluate the seismic performance of the geotextile reinforced embankment under different earthquake motions. A 1:50 scale highway embankment model is designed and reinforced with geosynthetics in order to increase the seismic performance of the embankment model. A series of shaking table tests were performed for the identical unreinforced and reinforced embankment models using earthquake excitations with different characteristics. The experimental results were evaluated comparing the unreinforced and reinforced cases. Results revealed that reinforced embankment models perform better seismic performance especially under specificied ground excitations used in this study. Also, the prototype embankment was numerically modelled. It is seen that similar seismic behavior trend is obtained in the finite element simulations.

  9. Traffic control and intelligent vehicle highway systems: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle

  10. Basic Course in Highway Traffic Records; Course Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The twelve-part course is structured on a modular basis to allow the various topical areas and units of instruction to satisfy differing training requirements of state and local agencies which vary from state to state. It is specifically designed to provide guidence to state highway safety program management personnel, traffic records…

  11. Colleges and Universities Highway Traffic and Safety Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, James E., Ed.; Ritzel, Dale O., Ed.

    After consideration of the organizing of university safety centers and the growth and role of such centers in the future, descriptions are presented of the activities and practices in each of 16 existing college and university highway traffic and safety centers. Information is presented regarding center objectives, programs, staff composition,…

  12. Engineering metabolic highways in Lactococci and other lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used in industrial food fermentations and are receiving increased attention for use as cell factories for the production of food and pharmaceutical products. Glycolytic conversion of sugars into lactic acid is the main metabolic highway in these Gram-positive ba

  13. 26 CFR 48.6421-0 - Off-highway business use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Off-highway business use. 48.6421-0 Section 48... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6421-0 Off-highway business use. For purposes of the regulations under section 6421, after March 31, 1983, the term “off-highway business use...

  14. 26 CFR 48.6427-0 - Off-highway business use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Off-highway business use. 48.6427-0 Section 48... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6427-0 Off-highway business use. For purposes of the regulations under section 6427, after March 31, 1983, the term “off-highway business use...

  15. The Impacts of Highway Expansion on Population Change: An Integrated Spatial Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangqing

    2010-01-01

    The effects of highways on transforming human society and promoting population change have been investigated in several disciplines, including geography, sociology, economics, and planning. Currently, the primary highway construction activity in the nation is highway expansion; however, this expansion has not been the focus of much of the existing…

  16. 49 CFR 234.261 - Highway traffic signal pre-emption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Highway traffic signal pre-emption. 234.261... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.261 Highway traffic signal pre-emption. Highway traffic signal pre-emption interconnections, for which a railroad has maintenance...

  17. 77 FR 14857 - Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... addresses provided above. The FEIS and ROD can be viewed and downloaded from the project Web site at www... Hoops, Major Projects Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, Raleigh, North Carolina. BILLING CODE... Federal Highway Administration Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina AGENCY...

  18. Respirable crystalline silica exposures during asphalt pavement milling at eleven highway construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Duane R; Shulman, Stanley A; Echt, Alan S

    2016-07-01

    Asphalt pavement milling machines use a rotating cutter drum to remove the deteriorated road surface for recycling. The removal of the road surface has the potential to release respirable crystalline silica, to which workers can be exposed. This article describes an evaluation of respirable crystalline silica exposures to the operator and ground worker from two different half-lane and larger asphalt pavement milling machines that had ventilation dust controls and water-sprays designed and installed by the manufacturers. Manufacturer A completed milling for 11 days at 4 highway construction sites in Wisconsin, and Manufacturer B completed milling for 10 days at 7 highway construction sites in Indiana. To evaluate the dust controls, full-shift personal breathing zone air samples were collected from an operator and ground worker during the course of normal employee work activities of asphalt pavement milling at 11 different sites. Forty-two personal breathing zone air samples were collected over 21 days (sampling on an operator and ground worker each day). All samples were below 50 µg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit. The geometric mean personal breathing zone air sample was 6.2 µg/m(3) for the operator and 6.1 µg/m(3) for the ground worker for the Manufacturer A milling machine. The geometric mean personal breathing zone air sample was 4.2 µg/m(3) for the operator and 9.0 µg/m(3) for the ground worker for the Manufacturer B milling machine. In addition, upper 95% confidence limits for the mean exposure for each occupation were well below 50 µg/m(3) for both studies. The silica content in the bulk asphalt material being milled ranged from 7-23% silica for roads milled by Manufacturer A and from 5-12% silica for roads milled by Manufacturer B. The results indicate that engineering controls consisting of ventilation controls in combination with water-sprays are

  19. Infiuence of Bicycle Traffic on Capacity of Typical Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiaoming; SHAO Chunfu; YUE Hao

    2007-01-01

    Bicycle traffic has a significant effect on the capacity of signalized intersections. This paper divides the influence of bicyclists on vehicular flow into four types with the time durations estimated based on probability, shock wave, and gap acceptance theory. Vehicular saturation flow rate is predicted for various conditions on the basis of the speed-flow curve for the capacity of typical intersections influenced by bicycle traffic.The model overcomes the limitations of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM, 2000) method for left-turns due to data collection, and takes into account the effect of trapped bicycles on the through vehicular traffic.The numerical results show that the left-turn and through capacities predicted by the model are lower than those of the HCM method. The right-turn capacity is close to that of the HCM method at Iow bicycle volumes and higher than that of the HCM method at high bicycle volumes.

  20. 47 CFR 80.919 - Required capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required capacity. 80.919 Section 80.919... capacity. If either the main or reserve power supply includes batteries, these batteries must have sufficient reserve capacity to permit proper operation of the required transmitter and receiver for at...

  1. 男性青年体成分与军事体力作业能力相关性研究%Correlation between military physical operation capacity and body compositions in young men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游嘉; 张婷; 王建; 刘戟环; 王卫平; 张乾勇; 陈卡; 常辉; 易龙; 糜漫天; 朱俊东; 周永; 郎和东; 王斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 测定不同体能战士的体成分,并探讨军事体力作业能力与体成分间的相互关系,为构建我军军事体力作业能力预测及评估模型提供依据.方法 选取200名青年男性战士,根据GJB1337-92规定的方法测定5000m跑、引体向上、立定跳远的运动成绩和最大摄氧量(VO2max),并参照其评价标准,将受试者按体能分为差、较差、中等、良好和优秀5个组,同时利用多频生物电阻抗技术(multiple frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis,MBIA)测定各组战士的体成分,并探讨战士体成分与军事体力作业能力相关性.结果 随着体能的增强,机体的体脂百分比(percentage body fat,PBF)逐渐下降,肌肉百分比(percentage body muscle,PBM)逐渐增加.其中PBM与VO2 max、引体向上成绩、立定跳远成绩显著正相关(r =0.30,0.48,0.18,P<0.05),与5000m跑耗时显著负相关(r=-0.26,P<0.01);而PBF与VO2 max、引体向上成绩、立定跳远成绩显著负相关(r=-0.30,-0.47,-0.19,P<0.05),与5000m跑时间显著正相关(r=0.25,P<0.05);腰臀脂肪比(waist-hip fat ratio)与VO2 max、引体向上成绩显著负相关(r=-0.16,-0.17,P<0.05).结论 人体肌肉含量的增加与军事体力作业能力显著正相关,而脂肪含量的增加和腰臀脂肪比的升高与军事体力作业能力显著负相关,肌肉、体脂含量及腰臀脂肪比可作为我军军事体力作业能力预测与评估模型的重要参数因子.%Objective To provide the evidence for establishing a prediction and assessment model of military physical operation capacity by analyzing soldiers' s body compositions and studying the correlation between military physical operation capacity and body compositions. Methods Two hundred male soldiers were enrolled in this study. Their performance of 5 000 m run, pull-ups, standing long distance jump and V02max was measured following the GJB1337-92 criteria. The soldiers were divided into poorest, poorer, mode

  2. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul [Cummins Power Generation; Fuchs, Benjamin S. [Cummins Power Generation; Booten, Chuck W. [Protonex Technology, LLC

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  3. Field Measurement and Calibration of HDM-4 Fuel Consumption Model on Interstate Highway in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jiao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fuel consumptions are measured by operating passenger car and tractor-trailer on two interstate roadway sites in Florida. Each site contains flexible pavement and rigid pavement with similar pavement, traffic and environmental condition. Field test reveals that the average fuel consumption differences between vehicle operating on flexible pavement and rigid pavement at given test condition are 4.04% for tractor-trailer and 2.50% for passenger car, with a fuel saving on rigid pavement. The fuel consumption differences are found statistically significant at 95% confidence level for both vehicle types. Test data are then used to calibrate the Highway Development and Management IV (HDM-4 fuel consumption model and model coefficients are obtained for three sets of observations. Field measurement and prediction by calibrated model shows generally good agreement. Nevertheless, verification and adjustment with more experiment or data sources would be expected in future studies.

  4. Research on Energy Storage Capacity Allocation for Low Voltage Operation of the Permanent Magnetic Synchronous Generator%永磁直驱风力机低电压运行储能容量取值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鑫; 晁勤; 邱先智; 罗绍青; 覃金彩

    2015-01-01

    针对永磁直驱风力机低电压运行时存在的直流侧过电压问题,建立了运用超级电容器储能来解决该问题的方案,提出了超级电容器储能容量取值方法。对故障前后系统能量变化进行分析设计了储能系统充放电控制策略,结合超级电容器等效模型进行数学推导得出储能容量计算表达式。通过模拟不同深度电压跌落故障进行仿真计算,分别得出所需超级电容器储能容量。最后对比储能投入前后直流侧电压变化证明了所提出的储能容量计算方法的正确性以及储能系统控制策略的有效性。%In view of the overvoltage which occurs to the DC side when the permanent magnetic synchronous generator (PMSG)operates at a low voltage,this paper proposes to use the Super Capacitor Energy Storage (SCES),and also the rea-sonable value range of the storage capacity. Firstly,it analyzes the energy change of the system before and after the fault and designs the energy storage system charge/discharge control stra-tegy. The energy storage capacity expression is acquired by means of the mathematical derivation with super capacitor equivalent models. Simultaneously, the different depths of voltage sag faults are simulated and calculated to obtain the storage capacity of the super capacitor energy as required. Finally,comparisons of voltage changes in the DC side before and after the energy storage verify the validity of calculation method about energy storage capacities and the effectiveness of energy storage system control strategy.

  5. Higher Capacity, Improved Conductive Matrix VB2/Air Batteries (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-18

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no...provide a practical capacity of up to 1,756 Wh/L, which is 5-fold higher than that of rechargeable Li-ion batteries and 10-fold higher than conventional...macroscopic VB2/air batteries of various capacities. Each cell is discharged over the same load (3,000 ohm ), and, as in our prior studies, each anode

  6. 高强度间歇训练对特战队员有氧能力的影响%Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on aerobic capacity of special force operation unit members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凯琳; 王凌; 张敏

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HUT) on the aerobic capacity of special force operation unit members and to support the theory and practice for target-oriented training execution.[Method]a 8-week HUT training (3~5 times per week) was performed to 30 male special force operation unit members. The indexes of physical function and endurance before and after the training were detected and quantitatively analyzed.[Results]The measurement indexes after training include: quiet pulse(65.22 ± 5.25)n/min, vital capacity(4 553.3 ± 524.33) ml, vo2max(50.75 ± 4.53) ml(kg·min)-1, pull-up (16.55 ± 5.27) n, push-up (70.62 ± 10.56) n/min, 5 000 m run (1230.16 ± 77.21)s, and the changes are superior to pre-trainfng(P < 0.01).[Conclusion]Changes of the measurement indexes reflect that the aerobic capacity has been optimized after training. HUT has performed effect on improving the aerobic capacity of special force operation unit member.%[目的]研究高强度间歇训练(high-intensity intermittent training,HIIT)对特战队员有氧能力的影响,为有针对性地实施训练提供理论依据和实践支持.[方法]对30名男性特战队员实施8周(3~5次/周)HIIT训练,检测训练前后的身体机能和耐力素质指标,对检测结果进行统计分析.[结果]训练后测试指标分别为:安静脉搏(65.22±5.25)次/min、肺活量(4553.3±524.33)ml、VO2max(50.75±4.53) ml·(kg· min)-1、引体向上(16.55±5.27)次、俯卧撑(70.62±10.56)次/min、5000m跑(1230.16±77.21)s,各指标均有显著性改变(P<0.01).[结论]训练后测试指标的变化能够反映机体的有氧运动能力趋于优化,HIIT训练对提高特战队员的有氧能力有显著效果.

  7. Capacitated Dynamic Lot Sizing with Capacity Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    One of the fundamental problems in operations management is to determine the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory planning decisions...... with inventory carrying costs. The production per period limited by a capacity restriction. The underlying capacity must be purchased up front for the upcoming season and remains constant over the entire season. We assume that the capacity acquisition cost is smooth and convex. For this situation, we develop...

  8. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars

    meant that six salt barns could be phased out. This made it possible to revise the staff's duty roster and thus meet the rest hour demands raised by the health and safety at work acts. Successful pre-salting is, of course, dependent on reliable weather forecasts and on staff well trained in the art...... traffic flow the spread rate of pure sodium chloride (and thus the environmental impact) in the pre-salting operations was cut back by more than one third. Compared to neighbouring counties the use of salt is less than fifty percent per square meter. In addition, supply of brine from two mixer-plants...

  9. Coordination of Nordic system operators in the electric power market - profit from improved capacity utilization and a more flexible division into price zones; Koordinering av nordiske systemoperatoerer i kraftmarkedet - gevinster ved bedret kapasitetsutnyttelse og mer fleksibel prisomraadeinndeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2001-08-01

    This report evaluates the possible profits of establishing a common system operator function in the Nordic electric power market. The main focus is placed on how to deal with congestion in the transmission grid. To estimate possible profits from a better utilization of the resources in the Nordic grid, the authors have analyzed socio-economic profits for several load scenarios. A simplified model of the Nordic stock area was used in the calculations. The existence of two methods of dealing with congestion in the grid may lead to reduced capacity utilization and to greater price differences than necessary. The examples show that ''indirect'' congestion control may be very expensive and that considerable cost reduction can be achieved by improved exploitation of congestion. This implies that if the Nordic area is divided into price zones, it is advantageous to regard the grid as an entity independent of national borders and system operators and to let the real transmission limitations determine the price zoning.

  10. Mixed Traffic Flow Capacity of More Major Lanes Unsignalized Intersection%主路多车道无信号交叉口混合交通流的通行能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田新现

    2008-01-01

    Highway capacity is defined as maximum volume of traffic flow through the particular highway section under given traffic conditions,road conditions and so on.Highway construction and management is judged by capacity standard.The reasonable scale and time of highway construction,rational network structure and optimal management mode of highway network can be determined by analyzing the fitness between capacity and traffic volume.All over the world,highway capacity is studied to different extent in different country. Based on the gap acceptance theory,the mixed traffic flow composed of two representative vehicle types heavy and light vehicles is analyzed with probability theory.Capacity model of the minor mixed traffic flows crossing m major lanes,on which the traffic flows fix in with M3 distributed headway,on the unsignalized intersection is set up,and it is an extension of minor lane capacity theory for one vehicle-type and one major-lane traffic flow.

  11. Improving Capacity for Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Reintegration” Programs, Paris/New York/Geneva: CERI /SGDN/PSIS, September 2004; Robert Muggah, “No Magic Bullet: A Critical Perspective on Disarma- ment...Anti-Politics of Contemporary “Disarmament, Demobilization & Reintegration” Programs, Paris/New York/Geneva: CERI / SGDN/PSIS, September 2004. Public

  12. 重载交通条件下榆佳高速公路汽车荷载研究%Research on Vehicle Load of Highway Bridges on Yu-Jia Highway under Heavy Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成立涛; 刘宁

    2013-01-01

    榆林至佳县高速公路是陕西省重要的能源运输大通道,重型汽车比例高,交通量大,应用现行规范公路—Ⅰ级汽车荷载进行设计难以满足目标可靠度要求.在对该区域进行交通量调查、研究的基础上,提出适应于该高速公路重载交通特点的桥梁荷载模型.该模型采用车列荷载模式,能直观反映作用于桥梁汽车轴重、总重、轴距等参数,方便桥梁的运营管理,且使桥梁在实际重载交通条件下的安全性和耐久性得到保证.该汽车荷载模型与公路—Ⅰ级的对比分析表明:若采用公路—Ⅰ级汽车荷载乘以放大系数的方法进行设计,会造成不必要的浪费,却未必起到控制设计的目的.采用该汽车荷载进行桥梁设计对总造价影响较小,却能提高公路通行能力.%The highway of Yulin to Jiaxian,with a high proportion of heavy vehicles and large traffic volume,is an important energy transport passage in Shaanxi province.It is hard to meet the reliability requirements using Highway-Ⅰ Class traffic load to design the bridges.A special live load model of highway bridges suitable for the heavy traffic is established after site investigation.The model consists of standard vehicles,which can intuitively reflect the axle loads,gross weight,and wheelbase,etc.,and makes the management of bridge easy and the safty and durability of bridge on heavy traffic to be guaranteed.The comparison between the model and Highway-Ⅰ Class traffic load shows that it will cause in unnecessary waste if using the design method of Highway-Ⅰ Class load multiplied by amplification fator,which will not surely reach the control target.However,this load model has slight effect on overall project cost and can improve the traffic capacity greatly.

  13. Fleet size estimation for spreading operation considering road geometry, weather and traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I-Jy Chien

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions(i.e. snow storm in winter time have caused significant travel disruptions and increased delay and traffic accidents. Snow plowing and salt spreading are the most common counter-measures for making our roads safer for motorists. To assist highway maintenance authorities with better planning and allocation of winter maintenance resources, this study introduces an analytical model to estimate the required number of trucks for spreading operation subjective to pre-specified service time constraints considering road geometry, weather and traffic. The complexity of the research problem lies in dealing with heterogeneous road geometry of road sections, truck capacities, spreading patterns, and traffic speeds under different weather conditions and time periods of an event. The proposed model is applied to two maintenance yards with seven road sections in New Jersey (USA, which demonstrates itself fairly practical to be implemented, considering diverse operational conditions.

  14. Competence building capacity shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather

  15. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart A of... - Federal-Aid Highway Contractors Annual EEO Report (Form PR-1391)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal-Aid Highway Contractors Annual EEO Report (Form PR-1391) C Appendix C to Subpart A of Part 230 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Construction Contracts (Including Supportive Services) Pt. 230, Subpt. A, App. C Appendix C to Subpart A...

  16. Analysis of business and function of highway monitoring system%道路监控系统的业务与功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常鹏; 孙铸

    2012-01-01

      On the basis of the fact that the monitoring system plays an important role in the highway management and in reference of the basic concepts and theory of management science, business requiprements of highway monitoring system are teased based on the business supervision demands and unobstructed highway guaranteeing demands combined with the specific contents of the highway operation and management, including highway administration, maintenance administration, toll management and service zone management and through the analysis of the difference between management factors and management functions. Technologies for realization of highway monitoring system functions which include supervision and feedback, strategy planning, organizing and commanding are analyzed.%  基于道路监控系统在高速公路运营管理的重要地位和作用,借鉴管理学的基本概念和理论,结合高速公路运营管理中路政管理、养护管理、收费管理和服务区管理的具体业务内容,按运营管理业务中管理要素、管理职能的差异,将道路监控系统的业务需求分业务监管需要和道路保畅需要两部分进行了梳理,并在此基础上,对实现各业务管理中监督反馈、决策计划和组织指挥环节所需的技术手段,即道路监控系统的功能进行了分析。

  17. Mechanical Properties of Asphalt Pavement Structure in Highway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chun-xiang; GUO Zhong-yin

    2008-01-01

    A linear full 3D finite element method (FEM) was performed in order to present the key design parameters of highway tunnel asphalt pavement under double-wheel load on rectangular loaded area considering horizontal contact stress induced by the acceleration/deceleration of vehicles. The key design parameters are the maximum horizontal tensile stresses at the surface of the asphalt layer, the maximum horizontal tensile stresses at the bottom of the asphalt layer and the maximum vertical shear stresses at the surface of the as- phalt layer were calculated. The influencing factors such as double-wheel weight; asphalt layer thickness; base course stiffness modulus and thickness; and the contact conditions among the structure layers on these key design parameters were also examined separately to propose construction procedures of highway tunnel asphalt pavement.

  18. Fracture Mechanics Prediction of Fatigue Life of Aluminum Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Fracture mechanics prediction of the fatigue life of aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined from fracture mechanics analyses and the results obtained have been compared with results from experimental investigations. The fati......Fracture mechanics prediction of the fatigue life of aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined from fracture mechanics analyses and the results obtained have been compared with results from experimental investigations...... against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. Furthermore, it was in both investigations found that the validity of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  19. Monitoring of a Landslide Induced by New Highway Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacova, Ivana; Kolomaznik, Jan; Halounova, Lena

    2015-05-01

    During a highway construction, a nearby slope was discovered to be sliding down due to the geological character of the area. Our aim is to find the extent of the landslide and to find out whether the landslide was active even before the start of the highway construction. Persistent scatterers InSAR method has been applied using two tracks of Envisat ASAR data. The area of interest has a rural character. The time-series of ASAR data suffer from a couple of 1-year time gaps as well as long perpendicular baselines. Exclusion of the scenes from the processing was not feasible, because in that case there would be too few scenes for processing. On the contrary, we try to estimate the approximate accuracy empirically and separately for each date of acquisition.

  20. Risk assessment of wind turbines close to highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2012-01-01

    from Denmark and abroad and with the same basic technology as new large wind turbines. These data contain information on events where parts of the turbine is thrown / dropped at a distance from the turbine. Based on the data, the risk is estimated that persons in car are killed because of wind turbine......This paper describes an assessment of the minimum distance from wind turbines to highways based on risk assessments of the consequences due to total or partial failure of a wind turbine and due to ice throw in case of over-icing. Data has been collected from a large number of modern wind turbines...... parts 'thrown away' from a wind turbine in events with total or partial failure. The risk is expressed as a probability per kilometer. It is assumed that a row of wind turbines is placed along a highway with a typical total height of 120m (equivalent to wind turbines in the underlying data base...

  1. Measurements of air pollution from a Danish highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellermann, T.; Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M.; Loefstroem, P. Massling, A.

    2009-07-15

    This report presents the results from a measurement campaign carried out at the Holbaek Highway during 2008. The objective of the campaign was to determine the emission factors for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} due to highway traffic. The campaign included measurements of NO{sub x}, NO, NO{sub 2}, TEOM PM{sub 2.5}, TEOM PM{sub 10}, O{sub 3}, particle size distribution and local meteorology. The emission factors for PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} were determined to 45 and 155 mg/(vehicle km), respectively. This is comparable to the emission factors previously determined for H. C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen and somewhat higher than found at Jagtvej, Copenhagen. (author)

  2. Research on combined coal mining technology under highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Wenjun

    2017-05-01

    Based on the 3107 working face of a mine in Shanxi province, using the theoretical calculation and field measurement methods, explored a coal mining technology by combining use of the caving method and the roadway filling method, to solve the coal mining problems under the highway, under the premise that not change the mining layout of the coal mine. The results show that it is feasible to solve the problem of coal mining under the highway by using the combined mining technology. The surface subsidence can be controlled at the range of 282 to 312mm and 278 85mm, in parallel to and vertical to the working face direction, respectively, by using this technology; and the maximum slope of the surface deformation was controlled at 1.52mm/m, and all of the deformation variables are controlled under the requirement of the regulation

  3. Highway 3D model from image and lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Chu, Henry; Sun, Xiaoduan

    2014-05-01

    We present a new method of highway 3-D model construction developed based on feature extraction in highway images and LIDAR data. We describe the processing road coordinate data that connect the image frames to the coordinates of the elevation data. Image processing methods are used to extract sky, road, and ground regions as well as significant objects (such as signs and building fronts) in the roadside for the 3D model. LIDAR data are interpolated and processed to extract the road lanes as well as other features such as trees, ditches, and elevated objects to form the 3D model. 3D geometry reasoning is used to match the image features to the 3D model. Results from successive frames are integrated to improve the final model.

  4. Hydraulic performance of grass swales for managing highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Allen P; Stagge, James H; Jamil, Eliea; Kim, Hunho

    2012-12-15

    The hydraulic performance of grass swales as a highway stormwater control measure was evaluated in a field-scale study adjacent to a Maryland highway. Two common swale design alternatives, pretreatment grass filter strips and vegetated check dams, were compared during 52 storm events over 4.5 years. Swale performance is described via three regimes, dependent on the relative size of the rainfall event. Overall, half of the events were small enough that the entire flow was stored, infiltrated, and evapotranspirated by the swales, resulting in no net swale discharge. Swales significantly reduced total volume and flow magnitudes generally during events with rainfall less than 3 cm. While the majority of improvement can be attributed to the swales, inclusion of check dams increases swale effectiveness. Pretreatment grass filter strips produced mixed effects. The swales demonstrated essentially no volumetric reduction during large storm events, functioning instead as conveyance, and smoothing fluctuations in flow.

  5. Robust Vehicle and Traffic Information Extraction for Highway Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Jay Kuo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A robust vision-based traffic monitoring system for vehicle and traffic information extraction is developed in this research. It is challenging to maintain detection robustness at all time for a highway surveillance system. There are three major problems in detecting and tracking a vehicle: (1 the moving cast shadow effect, (2 the occlusion effect, and (3 nighttime detection. For moving cast shadow elimination, a 2D joint vehicle-shadow model is employed. For occlusion detection, a multiple-camera system is used to detect occlusion so as to extract the exact location of each vehicle. For vehicle nighttime detection, a rear-view monitoring technique is proposed to maintain tracking and detection accuracy. Furthermore, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of background extraction, which usually serves as the first step in any vehicle detection processing. Experimental results are given to demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient for vision-based highway surveillance.

  6. Porous Flame-retarded Asphalt Pavement for Highway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shuguang; HUANG Shaolong; Ding Qingjun

    2008-01-01

    A new way to improve the tunnel fire protection by using flame-retarded porous asphalt pavement containing ATH powders was introduced. Based on the miniature burning test designed and conducted, the burning time and temperature of porous asphalt (PA) and flame-retarded porous asphalt (FRPA) were studied comparing with cement concrete pavement, dense-graded HMA and S MA. Results of burning test and pavement performance test indicate that FRPA is appropriate and suitable as the pavement material of highway tunnel.

  7. The Design of Logistics Information Matching Platform for Highway Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daqiang; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Tong, Bing; Shen, Xiahong; Feng, Tao

    The development status of logistics in the financial crisis requires the shippers and carriers' overall goal focus on cost reduction. This paper firstly analyzes the problem of information mismatch between shipper and carrier in nowadays, and describes the shippers and carriers' demand for information platform. Then based on requirement investigation and questionnaire statistics, the specific demands for logistics information matching platform are analyzed. Finally, logistics information matching platform system for highway transportation is designed.

  8. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  9. Pollutant Removal from Highway Runoff Using Retention/Detention Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf El-Shahat Elsayed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Highway runoff contains total suspended solids, hydrocarbons, oil and greases, chloride, and other contaminants that are transported in solution and particulate forms to adjacent floodplains, roadside swales, and retention/detention ponds. Oil and grit chambers represent a type of retention/detention unit used for removing heavy particulates and adsorbed hydrocarbon particulates. Storage/sediment units also represent a type of retention/detention unit used for controlling peak flow and removing suspended solids. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of traffic volume and site characteristics on highway runoff quality. The study also aims to evaluate the performance of retention/detention units that collect runoff from the Prague-Brno and Prague-Plzeň highways, Czech Republic. The results of this study indicate no definitive relationship between average daily traffic and concentration of runoff constituents, though the site characteristics have a strong relation to some constituents. The results also show that retention/detention units are effective in treating organic compounds.

  10. Idling - cruising the fuel inefficiency highway.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Levinson, T. (Energy Systems); (DOE)

    2011-06-30

    What is the purpose of idling? The scale of idling can be small, as when parents idle their vehicles while waiting for their children outside of school, or it can be large, as when ocean liners are in port. In many cases, the primary purpose for idling is to control the temperature of a passenger or freight compartment. Large line-haul trucks idle overnight to keep fuel and the engine warm, for the resting driver's comfort, to mask out noises and smells, and for safety. In addition, all classes of trucks idle during the workday at ports and terminals, busy delivery sites, border crossings, and other work sites. They may be idling to enable slow movement in a queue (creep idling) or to provide other services. Bus drivers also idle their vehicles while they wait for passengers and to warm up in the morning. Even locomotive engines are idled so they start, for hotel load, to keep the battery charged, to keep the toilet water from freezing, and for air brakes, or because the operator idles out of habit. Although this document focuses on long-haul trucks, much of the information applies to other vehicles as well. The impacts of idling are substantial, with as much as 6 billion gallons of fuel burned unnecessarily each year in the United States at a cost of over $20 billion. The extra hours of engine operation also cost the owners money for more frequent maintenance and overhauls. In addition, idling vehicles emit particulates (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). These emissions, along with noise from idling vehicles, have led to many local and state restrictions on idling. Two main factors have combined to create a surge of interest in idling reduction (IR): (1) Increasing restrictions on idling for heavy vehicles and (2) The price of diesel fuel. Because stakeholders focus their efforts on improving different factors (air quality, fuel economy, noise level), they do not necessarily agree on the most

  11. Design and Implementation of Traffic Management and Information Service System for Highway Network%公路网交通管理和信息服务系统设计及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王露; 周继彪; 李晓伟; 王龙飞

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve effective balance of the highway resources and ensure the efficiency of highway operation from the network level,this paper proposes an integrated command scheduling strategy and designs a platform of traffic management and information service system for the highway network.Firstly,the scheduling needs and overall objectives of the highway network are analyzed.In addition,the highway network's own situation is considered.The platform utilizes the Highway Network Dispatch and Command Management System Platform (HNDCMSP) design as the basic framework.It combines the highway network information collection,information analysis and information service,to achieve the function of traffic information searching for both traffic managers and highway users.Furthermore,this strategy is expected to realize traffic control,emergency treatment,highways emergency rescue,and special weather emergency disposal for highway network system,and to finally achieve the accuracy,fast-responding and high-efficiency highway traffic management and information service.%为了实现公路网资源的有效均衡和保障公路网运输的效率,在分析公路网调度需求和总体目标的基础上,结合公路网实际状况,提出了公路网综合指挥调度策略,并设计了公路网交通管理和信息服务系统平台.该平台以公路网指挥调度系统平台设计为基本框架,综合公路交通信息采集、信息分析以及信息服务功能,实现面向交通管理者和面向公路使用者的交通信息查询功能设计,以期实现公路网交通疏导控制、事故应急处理、路政紧急救援、特殊天气应急处置的目的,进一步实现公路网交通管理和信息服务的准确、快速、高效运行.

  12. Optimization of fractional composition of the excipient in the elastomeric covering for asphalt highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Nurullaev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The computational method of optimum fractional composition of a dispersible filler of polymeric composite on the basis of three-dimensionally linked elastomer is developed according to non-linear programming. The coefficient of dynamic viscosity of polymeric suspension or the initial module of a viscoelasticity of the join solidification low-molecular rubbers with the final functional groups, filled by many fractional dioxide of silicon are considered as criteria of optimization. Influence of the limiting volume filling on energy of mechanical destruction was investigated. The elastomeric material is offered for use as a covering of asphalt highways in the form of a frost-proof waterproofing layer, which allowing multiply to increase operating properties.

  13. Exposure characterization for highway construction. Part I: Cut and cover and tunnel finish stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, N A; Woskie, S R; Greenspan, C A

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize respirable dust, crystalline silica, diesel, and noise exposures to construction workers on a large highway construction project in Boston, Massachusetts. The study primarily focused on operating engineers and laborers, and to a lesser extent on ironworkers and carpenters during the tunnel finish and cut and cover stages. Full and partial shift noise dosimeter measurements were collected. Eighty percent of the 40 noise measurements were at or above 85 dBA, with the operating engineers averaging 91 dBA. Sample collection for respirable dust, crystalline silica, and diesel particulates measured as elemental carbon was done using cyclones and personal cascade impactors. Exposure to respirable dust ranged from 0.06 to 21.77 mg/m3 for the 77 workers sampled, with the laborers having the highest mean concentration of 2.85 mg/m3. The respirable quartz measurements for the 32 samples collected ranged from the detection limit of 0.008 mg/m3 to 1.64 mg/m3, with the highest mean concentration of 0.31 mg/m3 attributed to the laborers. The use of drills, when compared to other machine types, produced the highest exposures to respirable quartz. The levels for elemental carbon ranged from 4 to 178 micrograms/m3 (mean of 41 micrograms/m3) inside enclosed work spaces, compared with 0.5 to 53 micrograms/m3 (mean of 10 micrograms/m3) for samples collected in unenclosed work sites. Statistical modeling of the factors influencing the elemental carbon exposures showed that machine type, worker distance from the diesel source, the number of other diesel sources in the work area, and site enclosure were all significant exposure determinants. The results indicate that high exposures to noise, respirable dust, and crystalline silica are common in the highway construction industry.

  14. 对综合气象观测业务体系保障能力建设的思考%Thought on Constructing the Guarantee Capacity of Comprehensive Meteorological Observation Operational System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 张连霞; 夏莹; 李莉; 邢明华

    2014-01-01

    In order to strengthen the construction of guarantee capacity of comprehensive meteorological observation operational system, the maintenance security laboratory should be built and the training of basic maintenance personnel should be carried out, so as to achieve the goals of“solving little trouble by themselves, guiding to solve common troubles and solving difficult troubles at next station”. Thereby the requirements of saving guarantee funds, improving the guarantee efficiency and ensuring the effectiveness were achieved.%为了加强综合气象观测业务体系保障能力建设,地区气象局应构建维护保障实验室,开展对基层维护人员的培训,逐步实现“小故障自己解决,一般故障指导解决,疑难故障下站解决”的目标,从而达到节约保障经费、提高保障效率、保证保障时效的要求。

  15. 高速公路监控系统现状及发展趋势%Status Quo and Development Trend of the Highway Monitoring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆塔巴尔·木合塔尔

    2015-01-01

    高速公路是我国公路交通步入现代化的重要标志,甚至直接成为当前我国国民经济发展的必要性基础设施,并且对人们日常生活和工作也变得越来越重要.而为了能够提升高速公路运行的可靠性及安全性,相应的监控系统开始被应用在高速公路当中,监控系统的运用直接促使了告诉公路正常稳定的运行,因此起到非常关键的作用.文章主要针对高速公路监控系统的现状进行分析,并对其未来的发展趋势进行展望,通过简要论述的方式以供参考.%Highway is important sign of road trafifc into the modernization of China, or even directly into the development of national economy in our country the necessary infrastructure, and on people's daily life and work has become more and more important. And in order to improve the reliability and safety of the operation of highway, the corresponding control system began to be applied in highway, the use of monitoring system directly contributed to the told highway normal stable operation and therefore plays a very important role. This paper mainly analyzes the present situation of the highway monitoring system, and gives a prospect of its future development trend.

  16. Floodflow characteristics of Filbin Creek at proposed interstate highway 526, North Charleston, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study to determine the impact of two alternative construction plans for proposed interchange between the existing Interstate Highway 26 and Interstate Highway 526 in the Filbin Creek drainage basin near North Charleston, South Carolina was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Highways and Public Transportation. A computerized reservoir routing technique was used to route synthetic flood hydrographs through the basin system. Simulation results indicate that the new roadway will cause little or no change in water-surface elevations downstream of Interstate Highway 26. Upstream of Interstate Highway 26, approximately 0.5 foot of backwater will be created by either alternative during a 100-year flood as a result of the Interstate Highway 526 embankments and structures. (USGS)

  17. Construction Traffic-keeping Organization Design for Reconstruction and Expansion Highway%改扩建高速公路施工保通组织设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗维宏; 高荣春; 姚聪

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the impact on the trip of residents along the highway in the process of reconstruction and expansion of Yunnan Provincial QUjing-Songming (Xiaopu) highway, the goal, principles and measures of construction traffic-keeping organization design of reconstruction and expansion highway are proposed from construction traffic-keeping organization design, so as to minimize the impact on the trip of residents along the highway in the process of project construction, reduce traffic congestion, and ensure the normal operation of the existing road during construction period.%针对云南曲靖至嵩明(小铺)高速公路改扩建工程建设过程中对沿线居民出行产生的影响,从施工保通组织设计出发,提出改扩建高速公路施工保通设计的目标、原则和措施,尽量降低项目建设过程中对沿线居民出行的影响,减少交通拥堵,确保建设期既有道路的正常运营.

  18. Improved Fuzzification Method for Multi-Objective Decision-Making and Its Application in Evaluation of Highway Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷秀娟; 史忠科

    2003-01-01

    A new fuzzification method for multi-objective decision-making and selective sorting is proposed on the basis of the fuzzy consistent relation, and the specific algorithm is presented. The method is applied to the evaluation of highway planning of Zhanjiang city. To decrease the subjectivity in the process of decision-making, the LOWA operator is introduced, and a discussion on how to select appropriate weights involved in multi-objective sorting is made. It is concluded that it is feasible to apply the fuzzy consistent relation to multi-objective decision-making analysis, and the improved fuzzication method is workable.

  19. Impacts of new highways and subsequent landscape urbanization on stream habitat and biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, A.P.; Angermeier, P.L.; Rosenberger, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    New highways are pervasive, pernicious threats to stream ecosystems because of their short- and long-term physical, chemical, and biological impacts. Unfortunately, standard environmental impact statements (EISs) and environmental assessments (EAs) focus narrowly on the initial direct impacts of construction and ignore other long-term indirect impacts. More thorough consideration of highway impacts, and, ultimately, better land use decisions may be facilitated by conceptualizing highway development in three stages: initial highway construction, highway presence, and eventual landscape urbanization. Highway construction is characterized by localized physical disturbances, which generally subside through time. In contrast, highway presence and landscape urbanization are characterized by physical and chemical impacts that are temporally persistent. Although the impacts of highway presence and landscape urbanization are of similar natures, the impacts are of a greater magnitude and more widespread in the urbanization phase. Our review reveals that the landscape urbanization stage is clearly the greatest threat to stream habitat and biota, as stream ecosystems are sensitive to even low levels (<10%) of watershed urban development. Although highway construction is ongoing, pervasive, and has severe biological consequences, we found few published investigations of its impacts on streams. Researchers know little about the occurrence, loading rates, and biotic responses to specific contaminants in highway runoff. Also needed is a detailed understanding of how highway crossings, especially culverts, affect fish populations via constraints on movement and how highway networks alter natural regimes (e.g., streamflow, temperature). Urbanization research topics that may yield especially useful results include a) the relative importance and biological effects of specific components of urban development - e.g., commercial or residential; b) the scenarios under which impacts are

  20. Response of benthic macroinvertebrate communities to highway construction in an Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.; Lin, L.-S.; Chen, Y.; Wei, X.

    2010-01-01

    Highway construction in mountainous areas can result in sedimentation of streams, negatively impacting stream habitat, water quality, and biotic communities. We assessed the impacts of construction of a segment of Corridor H, a four-lane highway, in the Lost River watershed, West Virginia, by monitoring benthic macroinvertebrate communities and water quality, before, during, and after highway construction and prior to highway use at upstream and downstream sites from 1997 through 2007. Data analysis of temporal impacts of highway construction followed a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) study design. Highway construction impacts included an increase in stream sedimentation during the construction phase. This was indicated by an increase in turbidity and total suspended solids. Benthic macroinvertebrate metrics indicated a community more tolerant during and after construction than in the period before construction. The percent of Chironomidae and the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) increased, while percent of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) decreased. Our 10-year study addressed short-term impacts of highway construction and found that impacts were relatively minimal. A recovery of the number of EPT taxa collected after construction indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate community may be recovering from impacts of highway construction. However, this study only addressed a period of 3 years before, 3 years during, and 4 years post construction. Inferences cannot be made concerning the long-term impacts of the highway, highway traffic, runoff, and other factors associated with highway use. Continual monitoring of the watershed is necessary to determine if the highway has a continual impact on stream habitat, water quality, and biotic integrity. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Cálculo de la capacidad de trabajo y parámetros de funcionamiento de los cojinetes de deslizamiento, actualidad del tema. // Calculation of work capacity and operation parameters of sliding bearings, topic actuality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García Toll

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los cojinetes de deslizamiento es indispensable para garantizar el adecuado funcionamiento y un correcto mantenimientode las máquinas. Este es un tema muy actual, en los últimos años se sometieron al proceso de aprobación, por el comité técnico 123 dela ISO, 4 normas referidas al cálculo de cojinetes de deslizamiento de diferentes características constructivas y lubricaciónhidrodinámica e hidrostática.Este trabajo presenta un método de cálculo que valora la capacidad de carga de cojinetes en condiciones de lubricación hidrodinámica.El procedimiento se basa en el estudio de la norma DIN 31652 (1983, y la propuesta de norma ISO/DIS 7902, debatida de octubre adiciembre de 1997.El cálculo consiste en determinar si el cojinete bajo el efecto de las cargas y en las condiciones de trabajo es capaz de formar ymantener una cuña de lubricante, que impida el contacto de las superficies empleando el número de Sommerfield (So. Con el uso dedicho método se pueden determinar los factores que influyen en el buen establecimiento de la cuña de lubricante, lo que permitegarantizar las correctas condiciones de funcionamiento en cada caso y una adecuada reparación de los apoyos. Algunos de estosfactores son: la holgura radial, la velocidad de giro del árbol, la viscosidad del lubricante, el diámetro y la longitud del cojinete,rugosidad superficial, carga radial. En el trabajo aparece también un ejemplo de cálculo.Palabras claves: Cojinetes de deslizamiento, lubricación hidrodinámica, capacidad de trabajo.____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The study of sliding bearings is indispensable to guarantee the appropriate operation and correct maintenance of machines.This is a very actual topic, in recent years underwent the approval process by the 123 ISO technical committee, 4 normsreferred to calculation of sliding bearings of different constructive characteristic, hydrodynamic and

  2. Hydrological modeling using high resolution dem to level control on highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Zeynep; Cömert, Çetin

    2016-04-01

    Floods are natural disasters that must be managed, controlled and taken precautions before it happens considering the damage they inflicted to environment and human lives. As to highways, the main vein of urban life flow, must be taken into consideration as a different entity that affected by excessive rainfalls and floods. Due to inadequate drainage that allow rainfall to form water ponds on highways cause vehicles to lose control and that lead vehicles to have traffic accidents. To reduce the traffic accidents caused by ponding waters on highways we need to know area of inundation and water depths. In this context we used FLO-2D Basic Model (2009) to hydrological modeling of Black Sea Coastal Highway with meteorological and hydrological data using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this study, ponding areas on highways determined by simulating the rainfall with a high resolution DEM that can represent the actual road surface correctly. With this information, General Directorate of Highways (GDH) in Turkey can adjust the cross-sectional and longitudinal slope or build better and bigger drainage structures where water accumulated to prevent ponding. With the results obtained from Hydrological Model, GDH can rapidly control highways conformity to regulations before highways come into service. Also these ponding areas acquired by reveals where to prioritize in flood risk managements. Key Words: Area of Inundation, Digital Elevation Model, FLO-2D, Hydrological Modeling, Highway, Rainfall-Runoff Simulation, Water Depth.

  3. Map of Federal Lands Highway American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The map depicts Federal Lands Highway (FLH) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) projects, which are administered through the Federal Lands Divisions (FLD)....

  4. Integrated Evaluation on Highway Engineering Geological Hazard in Mountainous Area of Enshi, Hubei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Bin

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at the geological features of highway engineering in mountainous area of Enshi, Hubei Province, the principles to set up an integrated evaluation system for highway engineering geological hazard are formulated. Then, the integrated evaluation system for highway engineering geological hazard in mountainous area of Enshi is established. In the evaluation system, the first-level evaluation indices are geological development degree, geological conditions, and damaging power, whereas the second-level indices including key factors affecting main kinds of geological hazard. Meanwhile, the borders of indices are determined. At last, the method of Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) is adopted to quantitatively evaluate the highway engineering geological hazard in mountainous area of Enshi.

  5. Approximation Algorithms for the Highway Problem under the Coupon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamane, Ryoso; Itoh, Toshiya; Tomita, Kouhei

    When a store sells items to customers, the store wishes to decide the prices of items to maximize its profit. Intuitively, if the store sells the items with low (resp. high) prices, the customers buy more (resp. less) items, which provides less profit to the store. So it would be hard for the store to decide the prices of items. Assume that the store has a set V of n items and there is a set E of m customers who wish to buy the items, and also assume that each item i ∈ V has the production cost di and each customer ej ∈ E has the valuation vj on the bundle ej ⊆ V of items. When the store sells an item i ∈ V at the price ri, the profit for the item i is pi = ri - di. The goal of the store is to decide the price of each item to maximize its total profit. We refer to this maximization problem as the item pricing problem. In most of the previous works, the item pricing problem was considered under the assumption that pi ≥ 0 for each i ∈ V, however, Balcan, et al. [In Proc. of WINE, LNCS 4858, 2007] introduced the notion of “loss-leader, ” and showed that the seller can get more total profit in the case that pi customer is interested in an interval on the line of the items) and the cycle highway problem (in which each customer is interested in an interval on the cycle of the items), and show approximation algorithms for the line highway problem and the cycle highway problem in which the smallest valuation is s and the largest valuation is l (this is called an [s, l]-valuation setting) or all valuations are identical (this is called a single valuation setting).

  6. Sexually transmitted infections among male highway coach drivers in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Wah Wah; Thant, Myo; Wai, Khin Thet; Aye, Mya Mya; Ei, Phyu Win; Myint, Thuzar; Thidar, Moe

    2013-05-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from February 2008 to December 2009 at the largest Highway Terminal, Yangon, Myanmar to determine the prevalence of curable STIs (syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infections, and trichomoniasis), to find out the associated factors for STIs, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of gonococcal infection among highway drivers. Urine and blood specimens were collected from 601 male highway coach drivers after an interview about their behavior. Standard laboratory tests were carried out to detect STIs. Multivariate analysis was used to ascertain potential risk factors for STIs. The prevalence rates of syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial infections, and trichomoniasis were 4.8, 4.3, 5.7, and 9.8%, respectively. One hundred and two (17.0%) were infected with at least one of the tested four STIs, and 34 (5.7%) had STI co-infections (2STIs). Those who had multiple sexual contacts were likely to be infected with at least one STI, and those who had a history of inconsistent condom use within past two weeks and multiple sexual contacts were more likely to have STI co-infections (p < 0.05). Antimicrobial susceptibility of 21 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates showed that 85.7% were susceptible to azithromycin, 80.9% to spectinomycin, 66.7% to cefixime, 61.9% to ceftriaxone, and 38.1% to ciprofloxacin. The high prevalence of STIs in this study and the decreased susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cephalosporin and fluoroquinolone highlighted the role of periodic screening in early diagnosis and effective treatment of STIs among high-risk populations.

  7. Landscaping of highway medians and roadway safety at unsignalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyun; Fabregas, Aldo; Lin, Pei-Sung

    2016-05-01

    Well-planted and maintained landscaping can help reduce driving stress, provide better visual quality, and decrease over speeding, thus improving roadway safety. Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) Standard Index (SI-546) is one of the more demanding standards in the U.S. for landscaping design criteria at highway medians near intersections. The purposes of this study were to (1) empirically evaluate the safety results of SI-546 at unsignalized intersections and (2) quantify the impacts of geometrics, traffic, and landscaping design features on total crashes and injury plus fatal crashes. The studied unsignalized intersections were divided into (1) those without median trees near intersections, (2) those with median trees near intersections that were compliant with SI-546, and (3) those with median trees near intersections that were non-compliant with SI-546. A total of 72 intersections were selected, for which five-year crash data from 2006-2010 were collected. The sites that were compliant with SI-546 showed the best safety performance in terms of the lowest crash counts and crash rates. Four crash predictive models-two for total crashes and two for injury crashes-were developed. The results indicated that improperly planted and maintained median trees near highway intersections can increase the total number of crashes and injury plus fatal crashes at a 90% confidence level; no significant difference could be found in crash rates between sites that were compliant with SI-546 and sites without trees. All other conditions remaining the same, an intersection with trees that was not compliant with SI-546 had 63% more crashes and almost doubled injury plus fatal crashes than those at intersections without trees. The study indicates that appropriate landscaping in highway medians near intersections can be an engineering technology that not only improves roadway environmental quality but also maintains intersection safety.

  8. Artificial ultra-fine aerosol tracers for highway transect studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Barnes, David E.; Wuest, Leann; Gribble, David; Buscho, David; Miller, Roger S.; De la Croix, Camille

    2016-07-01

    The persistent evidence of health impacts of roadway aerosols requires extensive information for urban planning to avoid putting populations at risk, especially in-fill projects. The required information must cover both highway aerosol sources as well as transport into residential areas under a variety of roadway configurations, traffic conditions, downwind vegetation, and meteorology. Such studies are difficult and expensive to do, but were easier in the past when there was a robust fine aerosol tracer uniquely tied to traffic - lead. In this report we propose and test a modern alternative, highway safety flare aerosols. Roadway safety flares on vehicles in traffic can provide very fine and ultra-fine aerosols of unique composition that can be detected quantitatively far downwind of roadways due to a lack of upwind interferences. The collection method uses inexpensive portable aerosol collection hardware and x-ray analysis protocols. The time required for each transect is typically 1 h. Side by side tests showed precision at ± 4%. We have evaluated this technique both by aerosol removal in vegetation in a wind tunnel and by tracking aerosols downwind of freeways as a function of season, highway configuration and vegetation coverage. The results show that sound walls for at-grade freeways cause freeway pollution to extend much farther downwind than standard models predict. The elevated or fill section freeway on a berm projected essentially undiluted roadway aerosols at distances well beyond 325 m, deep into residential neighborhoods. Canopy vegetation with roughly 70% cover reduced very fine and ultra-fine aerosols by up to a factor of 2 at distances up to 200 m downwind.

  9. Fatigue in Aluminum Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Søren; Agerskov, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in aluminum highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test...... is normally used in the design against fatigue in aluminum bridges, may give results which are unconservative. The validity of the results obtained from Miner’s rule will depend on the distribution of the load history in tension and compression....

  10. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    . The improvements gained by the county of Funen were mainly due to the use of technologies (brine spreading with nozzles) giving a more precise spread pattern than the traditional gritting of pre-wetted salt. The spread pattern for every spreader, tested in The County of Funen, has been meassured 3 hours after...... spreading on a highway with traffic. A total of 800 spots were measured for residual salt for every spreader. The measurements and the spread pattern for brine spreading with nozzles were so precisely, that we learned: “When there is moisture, water or ice on the road, we need to take into account...

  11. RESOURCE SAVING IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY WITH HIGHWAY BRANCH AS EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Roudensky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of energy is an objective (independent on cost fluctuations technical efficiency criterion of any construction or repair work. Highway/road (particularly bituminous pavement sector is an important construction industry part. Bituminous road pavement construction consists of such components as excavation and preparation of basic materials, manufacture of mixes, ready mix laying/compacting and transportation of all materials. Average energy consumption for every bituminous pavement construction component is assessed. Approach to resource and energy saving presented in the article may be used in construction industry to develop and implement innovativetechnical and organizational solutions both of general application and for individual projects.

  12. Risk assessment of wind turbines close to highways

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of the minimum distance from wind turbines to highways based on risk assessments of the consequences due to total or partial failure of a wind turbine and due to ice throw in case of over-icing. Data has been collected from a large number of modern wind turbines from Denmark and abroad and with the same basic technology as new large wind turbines. These data contain information on events where parts of the turbine is thrown / dropped at a distance from the t...

  13. Hempcrete Noise Barrier Wall for Highway Noise Insulation : Research & Construction

    OpenAIRE

    KC, Prabesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the possibility of Hempcrete or hemp-lime composite noise barrier walls in the highways and to construct the walls for the acoustic test according to the European Union Standards EN ISO 717-1 and ISO 10140-2 for air-borne sound insulation. The thesis was commissioned by the company Hemprefine Oy, and all the standard tests were performed in the HAMK-Ruukki Sheet Metal Centre in Hämeenlinna and the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd in Espoo. ...

  14. SUPER-THIN COATING MATERIAL FOR HIGH-GRADE HIGHWAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The road surface of cement concrete in highway is easily cracked and even destroyed due to inhomogeneous subsiding of the road foundation. In this work, a super-thin-coating material is prepared in order to repair the destroyed thin road surface, in which polymers and steel-fibers are added into ordinary concrete to form a steel fiber reinforced polymer-cement-based composite. the composite was successfully used to repair road surface. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites are measured and analyzed.

  15. Multi-fractal analysis of highway traffic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Peng-Jian; Shen Jin-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the presence of multi-fractal behaviours in the traffic time series not only by statistical approaches but also by geometrical approaches. The pointwise H(o)lder exponent of a function is calculated by developing an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of H(o)lder exponent of time series. The traffic time series observed on the Beijing Yuquanying highway are analysed. The results from all these methods indicate that the traffic data exhibit the multi-fractal behaviour.

  16. Macroscopic modeling for traffic flow on three-lane highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Fang, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a macroscopic traffic flow model for three-lane highways is proposed. The model is an extension of the speed gradient model by taking into account the lane changing. The new source and sink terms of lane change rate are added into the continuity equations and the speed dynamic equations to describe the lane-changing behavior. The result of the steady state analysis shows that our model can describe the lane usage inversion phenomenon. The numerical results demonstrate that the present model effectively reproduces several traffic phenomena observed in real traffic such as shock and rarefaction waves, stop-and-go waves and local clusters.

  17. Highway of dreams a critical view along the information superhighway

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, A Michael

    2013-01-01

    This important volume reviews the history of the telecommunication superhighway pointing out its beginnings in the interactive TV and broadband highway of the wired cities more than two decades ago. It explains the technological uncertainties of the superhighway and many of its futuristic services, and also gives an understandable review of the technological principles behind today's modern telecommunication networks and systems. Recognizing that technology is only one factor in shaping the future, the author, a well-recognized telecommunications expert, analyzes the financial, policy

  18. Assessment of highway slope failure using neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung-lin LEE; Hung-ming LIN; Yuh-pin LU

    2009-01-01

    An artificial intelligence technique of back-propagation neural networks is used to assess the slope failure. On-site slope failure data from the South Cross-Island Highway in southern Taiwan are used to test the performance of the neural network model. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of artificial neural networks in the evaluation of slope failure potential based on five major factors, such as the slope gradient angle, the slope height, the cumulative precipitation, daily rainfall and strength of materials.

  19. 14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...

  20. Linear-programming-based heuristics for project capacity planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gademann, Noud; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Many multi-project organizations are capacity driven, which means that their operations are constrained by various scarce resources. An important planning aspect in a capacity driven multi-project organization is capacity planning. By capacity planning, we mean the problem of matching demand for

  1. Making the Traffic Operations Case for Congestion Pricing: Operational Impacts of Congestion Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    Congestion begins when an excess of vehicles on a segment of roadway at a given time, resulting in speeds that are significantly slower than normal or 'free flow' speeds. Congestion often means stop-and-go traffic. The transition occurs when vehicle density (the number of vehicles per mile in a lane) exceeds a critical level. Once traffic enters a state of congestion, recovery or time to return to a free-flow state is lengthy; and during the recovery process, delay continues to accumulate. The breakdown in speed and flow greatly impedes the efficient operation of the freeway system, resulting in economic, mobility, environmental and safety problems. Freeways are designed to function as access-controlled highways characterized by uninterrupted traffic flow so references to freeway performance relate primarily to the quality of traffic flow or traffic conditions as experienced by users of the freeway. The maximum flow or capacity of a freeway segment is reached while traffic is moving freely. As a result, freeways are most productive when they carry capacity flows at 60 mph, whereas lower speeds impose freeway delay, resulting in bottlenecks. Bottlenecks may be caused by physical disruptions, such as a reduced number of lanes, a change in grade, or an on-ramp with a short merge lane. This type of bottleneck occurs on a predictable or 'recurrent' basis at the same time of day and same day of week. Recurrent congestion totals 45% of congestion and is primarily from bottlenecks (40%) as well as inadequate signal timing (5%). Nonrecurring bottlenecks result from crashes, work zone disruptions, adverse weather conditions, and special events that create surges in demand and that account for over 55% of experienced congestion. Figure 1.1 shows that nonrecurring congestion is composed of traffic incidents (25%), severe weather (15%), work zones, (10%), and special events (5%). Between 1995 and 2005, the average percentage change in increased peak traveler

  2. Geospatial techniques for allocating vulnerability zoning of geohazards along the Karakorum Highway, Gilgit-Baltistan-Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, K. M.; Rashid, S.; Yaseen, M.; Ikram, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Karakoram Highway (KKH) 'eighth wonder of the world', constructed and completed by the consent of Pakistan and China in 1979 as a Friendship Highway. It connect Gilgit-Baltistan, a strategically prominent region of Pakistan, with Xinjiang region in China. Due to manifold geology/geomorphology, soil formation, steep slopes, climate change well as unsustainable anthropogenic activities, still, KKH is remarkably vulnerable to natural hazards i.e. land subsistence, landslides, erosion, rock fall, floods, debris flows, cyclical torrential rainfall and snowfall, lake outburst etc. Most of the time these geohazard's damaging effects jeopardized the life in the region. To ascertain the nature and frequency of the disaster and vulnerability zoning, a rating and management (logistic) analysis were made to investigate the spatiotemporal sharing of the natural hazard. The substantial dynamics of the physiograpy, geology, geomorphology, soils and climate were carefully understand while slope, aspect, elevation, profile curvature and rock hardness was calculated by different techniques. To assess the nature and intensity geospatial analysis were conducted and magnitude of every factor was gauged by using logistic regression. Moreover, ever relative variable was integrated in the evaluation process. Logistic regression and geospatial techniques were used to map the geohazard vulnerability zoning (GVZ). The GVZ model findings were endorsed by the reviews of documented hazards in the current years and the precision was realized more than 88.1 %. The study has proved the model authentication by highlighting the comfortable indenture among the vulnerability mapping and past documented hazards. By using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the logistic regression model made satisfactory results. The outcomes will be useful in sustainable land use and infrastructure planning, mainly in high risk zones for reduceing economic damages and community betterment.

  3. Potentials for Platooning in U.S. Highway Freight Transport: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo; Holden, Jacob; Lammert, Michael; Duran, Adam; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeffrey

    2017-03-15

    Smart technologies enabling connection among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure as well as vehicle automation to assist human operators are receiving significant attention as means for improving road transportation systems by reducing fuel consumption - and related emissions - while also providing additional benefits through improving overall traffic safety and efficiency. For truck applications, currently responsible for nearly three-quarters of the total U.S. freight energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, platooning has been identified as an early feature for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) that could provide significant fuel savings and improved traffic safety and efficiency without radical design or technology changes compared to existing vehicles. A statistical analysis was performed based on a large collection of real-world U.S. truck usage data to estimate the fraction of total miles that are technically suitable for platooning. In particular, our analysis focuses on estimating 'platoonable' mileage based on overall highway vehicle use and prolonged high-velocity traveling, establishing that about 65% of the total miles driven by combination trucks could be driven in platoon formation, leading to a 4% reduction in total truck fuel consumption. This technical potential for 'platoonable' miles in the U.S. provides an upper bound for scenario analysis considering fleet willingness to platoon as an estimate of overall benefits of early adoption of CAV technologies. A benefit analysis is proposed to assess the overall potential for energy savings and emissions mitigation by widespread implementation of highway platooning for trucks.

  4. Gaseous emissions from compressed natural gas buses in urban road and highway tests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tingting; Chai, Fahe; Hu, Jingnan; Jia, Ming; Bao, Xiaofeng; Li, Zhenhua; He, Liqang; Zu, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The natural gas vehicle market is rapidly developing throughout the world, and the majority of such vehicles operate on compressed natural gas (CNG). However, most studies on the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles rely on laboratory chassis dynamometer measurements, which do not accurately represent actual road driving conditions. To further investigate the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles, two CNG city buses and two CNG coaches were tested on public urban roads and highway sections. Our results show that when speeds of 0-10km/hr were increased to 10-20km/hr, the CO2, CO, nitrogen oxide (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission factors decreased by (71.6±4.3)%, (65.6±9.5)%, (64.9±9.2)% and (67.8±0.3)%, respectively. In this study, The Beijing city buses with stricter emission standards (Euro IV) did not have lower emission factors than the Chongqing coaches with Euro II emission standards. Both the higher emission factors at 0-10km/hr speeds and the higher percentage of driving in the low-speed regime during the entire road cycle may have contributed to the higher CO2 and CO emission factors of these city buses. Additionally, compared with the emission factors produced in the urban road tests, the CO emission factors of the CNG buses in highway tests decreased the most (by 83.2%), followed by the THC emission factors, which decreased by 67.1%. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Speed Distribution on Two-Lane Rural Highways with Mixed Traffic: A Case Study in North East India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Pritam; Roy, Nabanita; Sarkar, Ashoke Kumar; Pal, Manish

    2017-06-01

    This work focuses on minimising inaccuracies in distributional assumptions of speed data on two-lane roads with heterogeneous traffic to improve accuracy in capacity and level of service analysis. Accordingly, field study was conducted on a two-lane highway in India that exhibits heterogeneity in its traffic composition. Two distribution functions, namely, normal and logistic were examined for the observed speed data. The appropriate function was chosen using a methodology based on K-S test and field validation. Logistic distribution function was found to exhibit its aptness in describing speed under such traffic and was, thereby, considered in estimating the limiting speed of slower vehicles that tends to obstruct the flow of traffic. Vehicles that move at or below this speed cause delay to the faster ones resulting in formation of platoons at moderate and heavy flow when passing is restricted. Since the percent time-spent-following, a performance measure to assess level-of-service of two-lane highways, considers proportion of vehicles that are trapped inside platoons, it is imperative to estimate the limiting speed of slower vehicles correctly to approximate the delayed vehicles.

  6. Special Operations Research Topics 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject...Air University and JSOU Associate Fellow William W. Mendel Colonel, U.S. Army, Ret. JSOU Senior Fellow Alvaro de Souza Pinheiro Major General...and law and JSOU Senior Fellow Rich Yarger Ph.D., History JSOU Senior Fellow Joint Special Operations University and the Center for Special

  7. Impact of Plastic Hinge Properties on Capacity Curve of Reinforced Concrete Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Shatarat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pushover analysis is becoming recently the most practical tool for nonlinear analysis of regular and irregular highway bridges. The nonlinear behaviour of structural elements in this type of analysis can be modeled through automated-hinge or user-defined hinge models. The nonlinear properties of the user-defined hinge model for existing highway bridges can be determined in accordance with the recommendations of the Seismic Retrofit Manual by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-SRM. Finite element software such as the software SAP2000 offers a simpler and easier approach to determine the nonlinear hinge properties through the automated-hinge model which are determined automatically from the member material and cross section properties. However, the uncertainties in using the automated-hinge model in place of user-defined hinge model have never been addressed, especially for existing and widened bridges. In response to this need, pushover analysis was carried out for four old highway bridges, of which two were widened using the same superstructure but with more attention to seismic detailing requirements. The results of the analyses showed noticeable differences in the capacity curves obtained utilizing the user-defined and automated-hinge models. The study recommends that bridge design manuals clearly ask bridge designers to evaluate the deformation capacities of existing bridges and widened bridges using user-defined hinge model that is determined in accordance with the provisions of the FHWA-SRM.

  8. Capacitated dynamic lot sizing with capacity acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    2011-01-01

    batch, along with inventory carrying costs. The production per period is limited by a capacity restriction. The underlying capacity must be purchased up front for the upcoming season and remains constant over the entire season. We assume that the capacity acquisition cost is smooth and convex......One of the fundamental problems in operations management is determining the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision, once made, is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory...... planning decisions directly. In this article, we address the joint capacitated lot-sizing and capacity-acquisition problems. The firm can produce goods in each of the finite periods into which the production season is partitioned. Fixed as well as variable production costs are incurred for each production...

  9. Three-dimensional laser scanning for geometry documentation and construction management of highway tunnels during excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the use and explores the potential of laser scanning technology to accurately track excavation and construction activities of highway tunnels. It provides a detailed overview of the static laser scanning method, its principles of operation and applications for tunnel construction operations. Also, it discusses the planning, execution, data processing and analysis phases of laser scanning activities, with emphasis given on geo-referencing, mesh model generation and cross-section extraction. Specific case studies are considered based on two construction sites in Greece. Particularly, the potential of the method is examined for checking the tunnel profile, producing volume computations and validating the smoothness/thickness of shotcrete layers at an excavation stage and during the completion of excavation support and primary lining. An additional example of the use of the method in the geometric documentation of the concrete lining formwork is examined and comparisons against dimensional tolerances are examined. Experimental comparisons and analyses of the laser scanning method against conventional surveying techniques are also considered.

  10. Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Gikas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the use and explores the potential of laser scanning technology to accurately track excavation and construction activities of highway tunnels. It provides a detailed overview of the static laser scanning method, its principles of operation and applications for tunnel construction operations. Also, it discusses the planning, execution, data processing and analysis phases of laser scanning activities, with emphasis given on geo-referencing, mesh model generation and cross-section extraction. Specific case studies are considered based on two construction sites in Greece. Particularly, the potential of the method is examined for checking the tunnel profile, producing volume computations and validating the smoothness/thickness of shotcrete layers at an excavation stage and during the completion of excavation support and primary lining. An additional example of the use of the method in the geometric documentation of the concrete lining formwork is examined and comparisons against dimensional tolerances are examined. Experimental comparisons and analyses of the laser scanning method against conventional surveying techniques are also considered.

  11. Pollution by lead near the Turin--Milan highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapetti, C.; Arduino, E.

    1973-10-01

    Soil samples taken at 5 to 50 m from the Turin-Milan highway at depths ranging from 0 to 30 cm on two different sites were analyzed for lead residues by atomic absorption spectrophotometry following extraction by means of ammoniacal EDTA at pH 9. Soil samples from the surface layer taken in one well-ventilated site contained 11.5 to 12.4 ppM lead, while subsoil samples had 5.7 to 9.8 ppM. Soil samples taken in the other site with poor ventilation contained 23.5 to 43.3 ppM lead in the surface layer, and 9.2 to 15.4 ppM in the subsoil. Decrease of the lead concentrations in the soil with increasing depth and distance from the highway was noted. Plant samples taken from the same sites contained 6.4 to 32.2 ppM lead. Lead was fixed predominantly to the exchange complex; partly to the clay fraction, and partly to the humic fraction.

  12. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  13. 76 FR 36173 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California... Review of Actions by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 327... 99/ State Route 219 (Kiernan Avenue) interchange in the community of Salida in Stanislaus County,...

  14. Regional Risk Evaluation of Flood Disasters for the Trunk-Highway in Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Qi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complicated environment there are various types of highway disasters in Shaanxi Province (China. The damages caused are severe, losses are heavy, and have rapidly increased over the years, especially those caused by flood disasters along the rivers in mountainous areas. Therefore, research on risk evaluations, which play important roles in the prevention and mitigation of highway disasters are very important. An evaluation model was established based on the superposition theory of regional influencing factors to highway flood disasters. Based on the formation mechanism and influencing factors of highway flood disasters, the main influencing factors were selected. These factors include rainstorms, terrain slopes, soil types, vegetation coverage and regional river density, which are based on evaluation indexes from climate conditions and underlying surface of the basin. A regional risk evaluation of highway flood disasters in Shaanxi was established using GIS. The risk index was divided into five levels using statistical methods, in accordance with the regional characteristics of highway flood disasters. Considering the difference in upfront investments, road grade, etc, between expressways and trunk-highways in China, a regional risk evaluation of trunk-highway flood disasters was completed. The evaluation results indicate that the risk evaluation is consistent with the actual situation.

  15. PLUS highway network analysis: Case of in-coming traffic burden in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrah, Norhaidah Mohd; Djauhari, Maman Abdurachman; Mohamad, Ismail

    2017-05-01

    PLUS highway is the largest concessionary in Malaysia. The study on PLUS highway development, in order to overcome the demand for efficient road transportation, is crucial. If the highways have better interconnected network, it will help the economic activities such as trade to increase. If economic activities are increasing, the benefit will come to the people and state. In its turn, it will help the leaders to plan and conduct national development program. In this paper, network analysis approach will be used to study the in-coming traffic burden during the year of 2013. The highway network linking all the toll plazas is a dynamic network. The objective of this study is to learn and understand about highway network in terms of the in-coming traffic burden entering to each toll plazas along PLUS highway. For this purpose, the filtered network topology based on the forest of all possible minimum spanning trees is used. The in-coming traffic burden of a city is represented by the number of cars passing through the corresponding toll plaza. To interpret the filtered network, centrality measures such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, eigenvector centrality are used. An overall centrality will be proposed if those four measures are assumed to have the same role. Based on the results, some suggestions and recommendations for PLUS highway network development will be delivered to PLUS highway management.

  16. 76 FR 44649 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... 1899 ; and Land and Water Conservation Fund . 8. Executive Orders: E.O. 11990 Protection of Wetlands; E... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Texas AGENCY... Texas. Those actions grant licenses, permits and approvals for the project. DATES: By this notice,...

  17. Road Tripping down the Digital Preservation Highway: Part IV--Classic Rides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colati, Jessica Branco; Colati, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    "Road Tripping Down the Digital Preservation Highway" follows the continuing adventures of Peter Palmer, erstwhile librarian at Bellaluna University and manager of the library's and University's digital content, as he journeys down the Digital Preservation Highway. Palmer's problem this month was somewhat more philosophical. As manager of the…

  18. Road Tripping Down the Digital Preservation Highway: Part III. Rolls Royce, Ford, or Dune Buggy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colati, Jessica Branco; Colati, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    "Road Tripping Down the Digital Preservation Highway" follows the continuing adventures of Peter Palmer, erstwhile librarian at Bellaluna University and manager of the library's and University's digital content, as he journeys down the Digital Preservation Highway. In this article, Palmer is put in charge of a task force to determine…

  19. Random-parameters analysis of highway characteristics on crash frequency and injury severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bismark R.D.K. Agbelie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Factors that affect highway-related crash frequency and injury severity vary across observations. Using a methodology that does not account nor correct for heterogeneity in observed and unobserved crash factors across highway segments may lead to biased and inconsistent estimated coefficients, thus resulting in erroneous inferences. The present paper demonstrates the use of random-parameters models to facilitate and enhance how crash factors affect crash frequency and injury severity along a highway segment. The results indicate that a unit increase in the presence of stop sign along a highway segment reduces crash frequency by 2.471 for 87.24% of the roadway segments. For the remaining 12.76% of the roadway segments, crash frequency is increased by the same margin. Using the random-parameters multinomial logit model, the result indicates that, for 90.89% of the observations, the presence of a stop sign on a highway segment increases the probability of the injury outcome. For 9.11% of the observations, the presence of a stop sign on a highway segment reduces the probability of the injury outcome, and the marginal effect value across observations is 0.0017. Vertical grades greater than 5% increase crash frequency for 58.46% of the highway segments, and decrease for 41.54% of the highway segments by 0.121 for one unit increase in vertical grades.

  20. 23 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - State Highway Agency Equal Employment Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... promotions, i.e., advancement of minorities and women to key jobs, new career heights, etc. d. Training. The...). part i—contractor compliance I. Organization and structure. A. Statehighway agency EEO Coordinator... highway agency EEO Coordinator. (Provided organization charts of the State highway agency and of the...

  1. 78 FR 25524 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Populations; E.O. 11593 Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural Environment; E.O. 13007 Indian Sacred Sites... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California... Review of Actions by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), pursuant to 23 U.S.C....

  2. 75 FR 3522 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... and Enhancement of the Cultural Environment; E.O. 13007 Indian Sacred Sites; E.O. 13287 Preserve... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California... Review of Actions by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), pursuant to 23 USC...

  3. 75 FR 36466 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Cultural Environment; E.O. 13007 Indian Sacred Sites; E.O. 13287 Preserve America; E.O. 13175 Consultation... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California... Review of Actions by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), pursuant to 23 U.S.C....

  4. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs.

  5. A Synopsis of Technical Issues of Concern for Monitoring Trace Elements in Highway and Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    elements and other sources of bias and variability in the sampling process. Trace elements have both natural and anthropogenic sources that may affect the sampling process, including the sample-collection and handling materials used in many trace-element monitoring studies. Trace elements also react with these materials within the timescales typical for collection, processing and analysis of runoff samples. To study the characteristics and potential effects of trace elements in highway and urban runoff, investigators typically sample one or more operationally defined matrixes including: whole water, dissolved (filtered water), suspended sediment, bottom sediment, biological tissue, and contaminant sources. The sampling and analysis of each of these sample matrixes can provide specific information about the occurrence and distribution of trace elements in runoff and receiving waters. There are, however, technical concerns specific to each matrix that must be understood and addressed through use of proper collection and processing protocols. Valid protocols are designed to minimize inherent problems and to maximize the accuracy, precision, comparability, and representativeness of data collected. Documentation, including information about monitoring protocols, quality assurance and quality control efforts, and ancillary data also is necessary to establish data quality. This documentation is especially important for evaluation of historical traceelement monitoring data, because trace-element monitoring protocols and analysis methods have been constantly changing over the past 30 years.

  6. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.

  7. An application of stochastic processes for analyzing risks in highway projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meysam Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The successes on highway projects are uncertain because of organizational features, improper scope definitions and long lasting complicated processes. Highway projects under uncertain environment can effectively be managed with the application of risk management throughout their life cycles. Risk management within highway projects, therefore, has been recognized vital to improve their performances and increase the success of these projects. Processes of the projects are dynamic by nature. Therefore, commonly used static techniques do not analyze the potential risks properly. The stochastic process is a highly effective tool to quantitatively deal with the risk analysis. In this paper, a new approach based on Markov chain is proposed to assess the potential risks of highway projects in a dynamic framework. The approach takes advantage of the capability of probabilistic tools. Furthermore, using an application example in highway projects, the proposed approach is demonstrated in detail. Finally, the risk management effectiveness of using the stochastic processes is illustrated.

  8. A mathematical modeling approach to resource allocation for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konur, Dinçer; Golias, Mihalis M; Darks, Brandon

    2013-03-01

    State Departments of Transportation (S-DOT's) periodically allocate budget for safety upgrades at railroad-highway crossings. Efficient resource allocation is crucial for reducing accidents at railroad-highway crossings and increasing railroad as well as highway transportation safety. While a specific method is not restricted to S-DOT's, sorting type of procedures are recommended by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of Transportation for the resource allocation problem. In this study, a generic mathematical model is proposed for the resource allocation problem for railroad-highway crossing safety upgrades. The proposed approach is compared to sorting based methods for safety upgrades of public at-grade railroad-highway crossings in Tennessee. The comparison shows that the proposed mathematical modeling approach is more efficient than sorting methods in reducing accidents and severity.

  9. Highway construction and ecological protection%公路建设与生态保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马翊

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the importance of the relationship between highway construction and environment protection, and the current highway construction has negative influence on ecological environment, the author describes measures of protecting ecological environment along the highway from aspects of highway project planning design and project construction, thus letting the highway traffic construction coordinate with environment construction.%针对公路建设与环境保护之间关系的重要性以及目前公路建设存在的对生态环境造成的负面影响,分别从公路工程规划设计及工程施工两方面阐述了保护公路沿线生态环境的措施,从而使道路交通建设与环境建设相协调.

  10. OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE PRODUCTS IN THE U.S. HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Knowles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the market potential for wood plastic composite (WPC products in the highway construction sector in place of non-renewable materials (e.g. virgin plastic and steel and preservative-based products (treated wood. State-level transportation officials indicate that the majority of highway construction purchases are conducted by highway construction contractors. Results from a mail survey of highway contractors in eight western U.S. states indicate that a substantial volume of highway construction material may be suitable for substitution with WPCs. Overall, respondents were not familiar with WPC as a material, but compared it favorably with other materials commonly used in the sector. When making purchase decisions, respondents were most concerned with products meeting regulatory specifications, cost, availability, and trust in quality. Attributes related to sustainability, location of manufacture, and content of recycled material were viewed as less important.

  11. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  12. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  13. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  14. The Comprehensive Analysis of the Slope Stability and Reinforcement Theory of Highway%高速公路边坡稳定性及加固理论的综合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊建军

    2014-01-01

    为了维持高速公路的正常运营和驾驶安全,本文从高速公路边坡变形破坏的主要影响因素出发,对边坡稳定性及加固技术进行了综合分析,希望为我国目前的高速公路边坡地质灾害防治提供了参考和借鉴。%In order to maintain the normal operation of hig-hway and the safety of driving, this article carries on the com-prehensive analysis of the slope stability and reinforcement theory from the main influencing factors of highway side slope deformation and destruction, and hope to provide reference for Chinese current highway slope geological disaster prevention.

  15. Determination of Optimum Cross-section for Oran Highway Revetment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Deniz; Sogut, Erdinc; Guler, Isikhan

    2017-04-01

    Revetments are shore parallel, sloping coastal structures which are built to provide protection from the negative effects of the sea. The revetment mentioned in this study is located in the City of Oran, Algeria and is currently under construction. This study investigates the determination of the optimum revetment cross section for Oran highway, considering both the hydraulic stability of the revetment and economy. The existence of cliffs in the region and the settlement of the City of Oran created a necessity to re-align Oran highway; therefore, it was shifted towards the Gulf of Oran. Approximately 1 km of the highway is to be constructed on the Mediterranean Sea due to the new alignment. In order to protect the sea side of the road from the adverse effects of the sea, a revetment was designed. The proposed cross section had an armour layer composed of 23 tons of antifer units and regular placement of armour units was recommended. In order to check the hydraulic stability of the proposed section, physical model tests were performed in the laboratory of LEM (Laboratoire d'Etudes Maritimes) in Algeria, using the pre-determined design wave conditions. The physical model tests revealed that the trunk of the revetment was totaly damaged. Accordingly, the proposed section was found insufficient and certain modifications were required. The first modification was made in the arrangement of armour units, changing them from regular to irregular. After testing the new cross section, it was observed that the revetment was vulnerable to breaking wave attack due to the toe geometry and thus the toe of the revetment had to be re-shaped. Therefore, the second option was to reduce the toe elevation. It was observed that even though the revetment trunk was safe, the damage in the toe was not in acceptable limits. The new cross section was found insufficient and as the final option, the weight of the antifer units used in the armour layer was increased, the toe length of the

  16. Development of the method of landslide hazard assessment on areas of highways in terms of fuzzy information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Леонід Іванович Нефьодов

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Factors of landslide hazard on areas of highways have been analyzed. The main steps of fuzzy inference method are described. The method of landslide hazard assessment on areas of highways in terms of fuzzy information has been developed. The example of landslide hazard assessment on areas of highways in terms of fuzzy information in Matlab has been provided.

  17. 77 FR 65840 - Section 610 Reviews of Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements (Heavy-Duty 610... EPA's 610 Review related to Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur... Review of Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements...

  18. 76 FR 56493 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on State Loop 375 From Interstate Highway 10 to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Conservation Fund (LWCF), 16 U.S.C. 4601-4604; Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300(f)-300(j)(6... Interstate Highway 10 to the Franklin Mountains State Park in Texas AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration..., upgrades to Texas State Loop 375 from Interstate Highway 10 to 0.479 Mile East of the Tom Mays Unit of the...

  19. Epidemiologic features of lethal head injury caused by highway traffic accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To study the epidemiologic features of highway traffic accidents by analyzing the clinical data of the patients died of head injury.Methods:The reatures of the cases' age,occupation,status of head injury and complications.and the rescue procedures were retrospectively analyzed based on the data of 214 patients died of head injury.Results:The main victime were adults(78%)and peasants(52.8%).And the ost common head injuries were severe cerebral contusion with intracranial hematomas(73.4%).The mean arrival time from the accident spots to hospitals was(2.2±1.9)h.And the mean interval time between the arrival and operation was(1.9±0.9)h.Primary and secondary brainstem damage were the main causes of early death.Yet pulmonary infection and multiple organs failure were the common reasons for late death.Conclusions:Enhancing the propaganda for traffic regulations,establishing perfect pre-hospital and in-hospital EMS(emergency medical service)system,catching the opportunity of operation,and preventing complications are essential to reduce the mortality of traffic accidents induced head trauma.

  20. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve J. Merrill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1 the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2 evaluation of various sources of power, (3 estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4 a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M, vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M, reduction of accidents ($544.6 M, and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M. These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project.

  1. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Steve J.; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P.; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. PMID:27419201

  2. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Steve J; Paz, Alexander; Molano, Victor; Shrestha, Pramen P; Maheshwari, Pankaj; Stephen, Haroon; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project.

  3. Modeling land development along highway 4 in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potjamas Chuangchang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the change of developed land in three different locations along Highway 4 Road from Phattalung to HatYai. The method involves creating a digitized grid of geographical coordinates covering the study area. The land-use codes and plot identifiers were recorded in database tables indexed by grid coordinates. Logistic regression of land development adjusted for spatial correlation was used to model its change over a 9-year period using land-use at the previous survey combined with location as a determinant. The results show increasing average percentages of developed land (3% in 2000 and 5% in 2009. Land development occurred mostly in the northern location along the Pattalung to HatYai road.

  4. Intelligent Management of Highways Congestion based SensorNetworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guezouli Lyamine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to enable congestion prediction on urban freeways and objectively measure its impact on daily life. Indeed, cars€™ trafic becomes increasingly difficult and, often causes traffic jams that can last for hours, because of growing number of used cars, in addition to the unforeseen events that may complicate more and more this problem (weather, accidents, road works .... This is mainly due to the lack of efficient management of roads' congestions. This paper attempts to bring a technological response to significantly reduce the congestion problem. Our approach is based on smart sensors which allow traffic jam detecting and relaying such critical information. Thus, while providing the drivers with context aware information such as those related to the highway status before crossing, we enable them to make decision and select another road avoiding the congested one and reducing, by the way, the congestion itself.

  5. Strategic role of satellites in 21st century information highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1994-03-01

    The planning of advanced broadband digital networks, or the information highways, gives rise to a host of problems in terms of the public versus private roles, computer versus telecommunications applications, research versus educational objectives, and political versus technical goals. Among these dangers is the possibility that a form of `technological determinism' will be used to create an all fiber based network that is one-dimensional in concept, rather inflexible in design, and ill-suited to accommodate rural and remote locations in the form of isolated research centers, hospitals, or universities. There is a serious need to consider the assymetrical nature of research networks, variable restoration needs, mobile access links to research networks, and the diversity of requirements for educational, medical and other user communities.

  6. Evaluation of super-water reducers for highway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, D.

    1981-03-01

    Super-water reducers were characterized and evaluated as potential candidates for production of low water to cement ratio, high strength concretes for highway construction applications. Admixtures were composed of either naphthalene or melamine sulfonated formaldehyde condensates. A mini-slump procedure was used to assess dosage requirements and behavior of workability with time of cement pastes. Required dosage was found to be a function of tricalcium aluminate content, alkali content, and fineness of the cement. Concretes exhibited high rates of slump loss when super-water reducers were used. The most promising area of application of these products appears to be in production of dense, high cement content concrete using mobile concrete mixer/transporters.

  7. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1999-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in steel highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens...... correspond to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gauge measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Faro Bridges in Denmark. The test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both...... the fracture mechanics analysis and the fatigue test results indicate that Miner's rule, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results that are unconservative. The validity. of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend on the distribution of the load history...

  8. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, J.A.; Vejrum, Tina

    1997-01-01

    In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel highway bridges under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis.In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series...... to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gage measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Farø Bridges in Denmark.The test series which have been carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both...... the fatigue test results and the fracture mechanics analysis indicate that the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results, which are unconservative. The validity of the results obtained from the linear fatigue damage...

  9. Using Fuzzy Inference Systems to Optimize Highway Alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Dell’Acqua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the research project is to explore innovations in integrating infrastructure and land use planning for transportation corridors. In contexts with environmental impact, the choice of transportation routes must address the sensitivity of current and preexisting conditions. Multi-criteria analyses are used to solve problems of this nature, but they do not define an objective approach on a quantitative basis taking into account some important, but often intrinsically unmeasurable parameters. Fuzzy logic becomes a more effective model as systems become more complex. During the preliminary design phase, fuzzy inference systems offer a contribution to decision-making which is much more complete than a benefits/and costs analysis. In this study, alternative alignment options are considered, combining engineering, social, environmental, and economic factors in the decision-making. The research formalizes a general method useful for analyzing different case studies. The method can be used to justify highway alignment choices in environmental impact study analysis.

  10. The Damage Effects in Steel Bridges under Highway Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel bridges under highway random loading is studied. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load...... histories, which correspond to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gage measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Farø Bridges in Denmark. Both the results that have been obtained in the test series carried through and the results of fracture mechanics analysis...... indicate that the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results, which are unconservative....

  11. Chain-reaction crash on a highway in high visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    We study the chain-reaction crash (multiple-vehicle collision) in high-visibility condition on a highway. In the traffic situation, drivers control their vehicles by both gear-changing and braking. Drivers change the gears according to the headway and brake according to taillights of the forward vehicle. We investigate whether or not the first collision induces the chain-reaction crash numerically. It is shown that dynamic transitions occur from no collisions, through a single collision, to multiple collisions with decreasing the headway. Also, we find that the dynamic transition occurs from the finite chain reaction to the infinite chain reaction when the headway is less than the critical value. We compare the multiple-vehicle collisions in high-visibility with that in low-visibility. We derive the transition points and the region maps for the chain-reaction crash in high visibility.

  12. 浅析我高速公路养护成本核算%Analysis of Chinese Maintenance Cost Accounting of Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶佳仪

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance costs of Highway are not only the main premise basis of the current financial management, but also the top priority of relevant operational sector accounts. In this article, the author discusses the problems and solutions of current highway accounting system.%高速公路养护成本不仅是目前财务管理的主要前提依据,也是相关运营部门核算的重中之重。本文就当前高速公路会计核算系统所存在的问题及解决方案进行了肤浅的探讨。

  13. 论高速公路路基工程施工项目成本管理%Discussion on highway subgrade engineering construction project cost management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建祥

    2016-01-01

    简述了高速公路路基工程施工中成本管理的必要性,针对路基施工中成本管理的现状,从树立成本管理理念、建立信息系统、使用作业成本法三方面,阐述了成本管理的策略,以提升公路项目的成本管理水平。%The paper discusses the necessity of cost management in highway subgrade engineering construction. In light of cost management status in subgrade construction,starting from three aspects of establishing cost management concept,establishing information system and using operation cost method,it describes cost management strategies,with a view to improve highway project cost management level.

  14. Investigation of Groundwater Flow at Highway Construction Areas in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Park, Y.; Ji, S.; Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.

    2006-05-01

    Contamination by acid rock drainage was found at highway construction areas in Korea, where pyrites were included in materials to raise the ground level. To remediate the acid rock drainage, groundwater flow direction and total flow rate were investigated in addition to the relationship between groundwater and surface water. Multiple boreholes were installed for geological structure surveys, pumping tests, slug test and tracer tests. Geological survey showed that a water-table aquifer system included a relatively homogeneous earthen layer and an underlying undisturbed alluvial layer. Transmissivity and storativity of the upper layer were investigated 0.1-2.6m2/day and 0.3 relatively by pumping tests. Hydraulic conductivity of the upper layer was investigated 0.1m/day by slug tests. Chloride ion was used in tracer tests, which included a natural gradient method and a push-pull method. In the natural gradient method, it was failed to detect chloride ion in groundwater. In the push-pull test, dispersivity ranges from 0.001m to 0.3m for several drift time. With the characteristic parameters from aquifer tests and tracer tests, numerical modeling techniques were used to evaluate groundwater flow directions and rates. Boundary conditions were decided to reflect geological and geographical boundaries, like concrete barriers, water divides and rivers. Numerical simulations showed the differences between groundwater flow before constructions and that after constructions. After the highway constructions are finished, groundwater direction changes seriously and total amount of the acid rock drainage is estimated 166.5m3/day. To find out the effect of precipitation changes, several numerical simulations were performed. It was shown that total amount of the acid rock drainage ranges from 73.8m3/day in the dry season to 323.6m3/day in the rainy season.

  15. Glaciers along proposed routes extending the Copper River Highway, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Three inland highway routes are being considered by the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities to connect the community of Cordova in southcentral Alaska to a statewide road system. The routes use part of a Copper River and Northwest Railway alignment along the Copper River through mountainous terrain having numerous glaciers. An advance of any of several glaciers could block and destroy the roadway, whereas retreating glaciers expose large quantities of unconsolidated, unvegetated, and commonly ice-rich sediments. The purpose of this study was to map historical locations of glacier termini near these routes and to describe hazards associated with glaciers and seasonal snow. Historical and recent locations of glacier termini along the proposed Copper River Highway routes were determined by reviewing reports and maps and by interpreting aerial photographs. The termini of Childs, Grinnell, Tasnuna, and Woodworth Glaciers were 1 mile or less from a proposed route in the most recently available aerial photography (1978-91); the termini of Allen, Heney, and Schwan Glaciers were 1.5 miles or less from a proposed route. In general, since 1911, most glaciers have slowly retreated, but many glaciers have had occasional advances. Deserted Glacier and one of its tributary glaciers have surge-type medial moraines, indicating potential rapid advances. The terminus of Deserted Glacier was about 2.1 miles from a proposed route in 1978, but showed no evidence of surging. Snow and rock avalanches and snowdrifts are common along the proposed routes and will periodically obstruct the roadway. Floods from ice-dammed lakes also pose a threat. For example, Van Cleve Lake, adjacent to Miles Glacier, is as large as 4.4 square miles and empties about every 6 years. Floods from drainages of Van Cleve Lake have caused the Copper River to rise on the order of 20 feet at Million Dollar Bridge.

  16. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  17. Operational Modal Analysis of Large Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Schanke, Sindre Aavik

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the new coastal highway E39 which is being planned and built along the west coast of Norway by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration, state of the art methods of structural dynamics needs to be developed and used to cross the deep and wide fjords. Operational modal analysis aims to find the modal properties; natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of a structure while it is under operating conditions using its vibration data. Several methods of operati...

  18. Effects of heavy metal pollution of highway origin on soil nematode guilds in North Shenyang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dechang; ZHANG Xiaoke; TOMAR Vijay Vikram Singh; LI Qi; WEN Dazhong; LIANG Wenju

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were collected with distance at 5, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 m from the Shen-Ha Highway, Northeast China, to investigate the effect of heavy metals of highway origin on soil nematode guilds. The contents of soil Pb, Cu and Zn and the nematode community structure in this investigation were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of total and available Pb, Cu and Zn varied significantly with the different distances from the highway. Pb was the main pollutant in the soils in the vicinity of Shen-Ha Highway and the zone from 20 to 40 m away from the highway was the most polluted area. The highest abundance of soil nematodes was found at 5 m while the lowest at 20 m away from the highway. Thirty six genera of nematodes belonging to 23 families were identified. Nematode guilds having different responses to soil heavy metals were classified into four types. Soil nematode guilds may act as a prominent indicator to heavy metal pollution of highway origin.

  19. Inter-individual variability of stone marten behavioral responses to a highway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ascensão

    Full Text Available Efforts to reduce the negative impacts of roads on wildlife may be hindered if individuals within the population vary widely in their responses to roads and mitigation strategies ignore this variability. This knowledge is particularly important for medium-sized carnivores as they are vulnerable to road mortality, while also known to use available road passages (e.g., drainage culverts for safely crossing highways. Our goal in this study was to assess whether this apparently contradictory pattern of high road-kill numbers associated with a regular use of road passages is attributable to the variation in behavioral responses toward the highway between individuals. We investigated the responses of seven radio-tracked stone martens (Martes foina to a highway by measuring their utilization distribution, response turning angles and highway crossing patterns. We compared the observed responses to simulated movement parameterized by the observed space use and movement characteristics of each individual, but naïve to the presence of the highway. Our results suggested that martens demonstrate a diversity of responses to the highway, including attraction, indifference, or avoidance. Martens also varied in their highway crossing patterns, with some crossing repeatedly at the same location (often coincident with highway passages. We suspect that the response variability derives from the individual's familiarity of the landscape, including their awareness of highway passage locations. Because of these variable yet potentially attributable responses, we support the use of exclusionary fencing to guide transient (e.g., dispersers individuals to existing passages to reduce the road-kill risk.

  20. Refrigerator with variable capacity compressor and cycle priming action through capacity control and associated methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Litch, Andrew D.; Wu, Guolian

    2016-03-15

    A refrigerator appliance (and associated method) that includes a condenser, evaporator and a multi-capacity compressor. The appliance also includes a pressure reducing device arranged within an evaporator-condenser refrigerant circuit, and a valve system for directing or restricting refrigerant flow through the device. The appliance further includes a controller for operating the compressor upon the initiation of a compressor ON-cycle at a priming capacity above a nominal capacity for a predetermined or calculated duration.

  1. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  2. A Causal and Real-Time Capable Power Management Algorithm for Off-Highway Hybrid Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schalk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid propulsion systems allow for a reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of future off-highway applications. A challenging aspect of a hybridization is the larger number of system components that further increases both the complexity and the diversification of such systems. Hence, beside a standardization on the hardware side for off-highway systems, a high flexibility and modularity of the control schemes is required to employ them in as many different applications as possible. In this paper, a causal optimization-based power management algorithm is introduced to control the power split between engine and electric machine in a hybrid powertrain. The algorithm optimizes the power split to achieve the maximum power supply efficiency and, thereby, considers the energy cost for maintaining the battery charge. Furthermore, the power management provides an optional function to control the battery state of charge in such a way that a target value is attained. In a simulation case study, the potential and the benefits of the proposed power management for the hybrid powertrain—aiming at a reduction of the fuel consumption of a DMU (diesel multiple unit train operated on a representative track—will be shown.

  3. Risk assessment of wind turbines sited close to highways; Risikovurdering i forbindelse med vindmoeller og motorveje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalsgaard Soerensen, J.; Lemming, J. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Noerkaer Soerensen, J. (Danmarks Tekniske Univ., DTU Mekanik, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2011-06-15

    This report treats risk assessment of siting wind turbines close to highways in Denmark. The assessment only deals with the risk of total or partly failure of the turbines and the risk of ice throw from the blades. The report describes the fundamental methods, risk assessments as well as the assumptions and limitations the results are based on. The results is based on an example with a number of turbines sited alone the highway and presented as the risk per driven km on the highway. (Author)

  4. A perspective of the Malaysian highway energy consumption and future power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqr, Khalid M., E-mail: mmdmskhalid2@live.utm.my [High-Speed Reacting Flow Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Musa, Md. Nor [Department of Thermofluids, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-06-15

    In this short communication, we discuss the energy consumption trends in the Malaysian road transport sector, with a special emphasis on the energy losses due to vehicle aerodynamic drag on highways. The recent trends of energy consumption in the Malaysian road transport sector are reviewed. It is evidently shown that the aerodynamic losses represented exceed 1.2 MTOE annually since 2002. A novel concept of vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) farms for harvesting aerodynamic energy losses on Malaysian highways is preliminarily proposed. The novel concept aims at providing a sustainable and green energy source for the lighting of the highway network in the country.

  5. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  6. Low-cost, quantitative assessment of highway bridges through the use of unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Andrew; Kontsos, Antonios; Moon, Franklin; Bartoli, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Many envision that in the near future the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will impact the civil engineering industry. Use of UAVs is currently experiencing tremendous growth, primarily in military and homeland security applications. It is only a matter of time until UAVs will be widely accepted as platforms for implementing monitoring/surveillance and inspection in other fields. Most UAVs already have payloads as well as hardware/software capabilities to incorporate a number of non-contact remote sensors, such as high resolution cameras, multi-spectral imaging systems, and laser ranging systems (LIDARs). Of critical importance to realizing the potential of UAVs within the infrastructure realm is to establish how (and the extent to which) such information may be used to inform preservation and renewal decisions. Achieving this will depend both on our ability to quantify information from images (through, for example, optical metrology techniques) and to fuse data from the array of non-contact sensing systems. Through a series of applications to both laboratory-scale and field implementations on operating infrastructure, this paper will present and evaluate (through comparison with conventional approaches) various image processing and data fusion strategies tailored specifically for the assessment of highway bridges. Example scenarios that guided this study include the assessment of delaminations within reinforced concrete bridge decks, the quantification of the deterioration of steel coatings, assessment of the functionality of movement mechanisms, and the estimation of live load responses (inclusive of both strain and displacement).

  7. An Intelligent System Proposal for Improving the Safety and Accessibility of Public Transit by Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Pérez, Ricardo; Alayón, Francisco

    2015-08-18

    The development of public transit systems that are accessible and safe for everyone, including people with special needs, is an objective that is justified from the civic and economic points of view. Unfortunately, public transit services are conceived for people who do not have reduced physical or cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present an intelligent public transit system by highway with the goal of facilitating access and improving the safety of public transit for persons with special needs. The system is deployed using components that are commonly available in transport infrastructure, e.g., sensors, mobile communications systems, and positioning systems. In addition, the system can operate in non-urban transport contexts, e.g., isolated rural areas, where the availability of basic infrastructure, such as electricity and communications infrastructures, is not always guaranteed. To construct the system, the principles and techniques of Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence have been employed. To illustrate the utility of the system, two cases of services rendered by the system are described: the first case involves a surveillance system to guarantee accessibility at bus stops; the second case involves a route assistant for blind people.

  8. Occupational ergonomic issues in highway construction surveyed in Wisconsin, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang D; Hudson, Lisa; Kangas, Peter; Jungen, Brett; Maple, Jennifer; Bowen, Chevon

    2007-06-01

    This study discusses the workplace ergonomic issues in highway construction, and the safe work practices associated with the prevention of ergonomic-related injuries and illnesses in the construction field. In order to achieve the study objectives, a survey was designed and sent to Wisconsin based construction contractors. To design an adequate questionnaire, the research team first conducted a pilot study. The findings from the pilot survey provided a clear direction in creating the final survey. The survey results indicated that hand and finger injuries due to cutting operations and back injuries due to the manual handling of heavy materials to be the most frequent construction task/injury combination. All of the construction firms surveyed had a safety program; however, most of the contractors did not have a site-specific ergonomics program. The construction workers were usually walking/working on the ground, ladder and scaffold, and spent significant amount of time for the manual lifting or carrying heavy materials. The findings from this study may assist safety and health professionals in the construction industry in making effective changes for improving health and productivity.

  9. An Intelligent System Proposal for Improving the Safety and Accessibility of Public Transit by Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo R. García

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of public transit systems that are accessible and safe for everyone, including people with special needs, is an objective that is justified from the civic and economic points of view. Unfortunately, public transit services are conceived for people who do not have reduced physical or cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present an intelligent public transit system by highway with the goal of facilitating access and improving the safety of public transit for persons with special needs. The system is deployed using components that are commonly available in transport infrastructure, e.g., sensors, mobile communications systems, and positioning systems. In addition, the system can operate in non-urban transport contexts, e.g., isolated rural areas, where the availability of basic infrastructure, such as electricity and communications infrastructures, is not always guaranteed. To construct the system, the principles and techniques of Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence have been employed. To illustrate the utility of the system, two cases of services rendered by the system are described: the first case involves a surveillance system to guarantee accessibility at bus stops; the second case involves a route assistant for blind people.

  10. User costs as one of main advantages of precast concrete application in highway construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Radan

    2017-09-01

    Road user cost primarily refer to the monetized components of road (re)construction impacts, such as the user delay costs, vehicle operating costs, crash costs and emission costs. Objective of this paper is to analyze and appraise the advantages and benefits of the innovative prefabrication approach in contrast to traditional cast-in-place construction method. The goal is to reduce these additional costs borne by motorists and the community at-large as a result of road construction activity to their minimum through application of the prefabrication. Assessing two basic possible approaches to highway infrastructure construction - casting the road pavements and structures either in place or precast off the site - it can be concluded that the initial capital investment costs do not vary much. Substantial differences can be recognized when comparing their life-cycle costs and an extent to which their construction process affects the public, environment and the local economy. Prefabrication of any structure component off-site offers major construction time and user cost savings in comparison with the traditional cast-in-place methods of construction. Precast prestressed road pavements’ technology and precasting bridges’ parts and elements offers dramatic increase in durability, while it also substantially decreases construction time and resulting user costs.

  11. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  12. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  13. 公路交通建设项目的PPP应用模式探讨%Discussion of PPP Mode Application in Highway Transportation Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德华

    2015-01-01

    PPP模式可以缓解建设项目投资与债务的矛盾,在我国公路交通建设项目中有广阔的应用前景.结合公路建设的特点,梳理政府与社会资本分工合作、融资建设相统一以及运营补偿等三种PPP模式的实施方法及优缺点,并从政府层面提出完善我国公路交通建设PPP模式保障机制的建议.%Public-Private Partnership(PPP)mode is a way which can ease the contradiction between project investment and debt,therefore has promising application in highway transportation construction in China. This paper combines the characteristics of highway transportation construction,analyzes three application methods with advantages and disadvantages known as division and corporation of government and social assets mode, unification of financing and constructing mode,and operating compensation mode,provides suggestions for perfection of guarantee mechanism of PPP mode in highway transportation construction from government level.

  14. The Impact of the Combination of Circular Curve and Transition Curve on Highway Operation Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Youlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the accident in 2009 and 2011 of Taijiu Expressway, the study analyzed the relationship between the horizontal curve radiuses, the length of horizontal curve, the length of transition curve and the number of accidents, established the corresponding regression model. The trend of accidents was determined with different length of transition curve and different combination of circular curve according to this model. The results show that the circular curve radius and length of transition curve increase with the decreases of accidents number, the number of accidents decreases with the increase of the ratio of the length of the transition curve and the length of the round curve. When the ratio of the parameters of the transition curve and the radius of the circle is between 0.3-0.6, the accidents are more focused. The bigger change rate of curves is, there are more accidents of flat curve. To evaluate road traffic safety from the perspective of horizontal curve alignment design, these regularities have very important reference.

  15. Study on preventing frost heave methods for highway foundation in seasonal frozen area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LI

    2006-01-01

    In order to resolve the frost-heave problem of highway foundation, firstly, the author discussed the law to frost heave of highway roadbed and gave an analysis on its influencing factors, such as soil, water and temperature. Meanwhile, sand clay and silt are given a classification according to frost heave ratio. Secondly, the roadbed frozen damage shows to frost heave and froze boiling based on the frost heave law and its influencing factors. In addition, taking some highway as an example and some principle suggestion was given through the theory on providing frostbite methods for highway foundation frost heave in seasonal frozen area. Specially, an effective method, STYROFOAM extruded polystyrene foam was introduced.

  16. Highway as a source of water pollution: an appraisal with the heavy metal lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxen, D.P.H.; Harrison, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Factors influencing the impact of highway lead on the quality of water resources are discussed, and the available information on each factor critically evaluated. Hence, the sources of lead input to the highway environment are described and the subsequent airborne and waterborne dispersal to the receiving waters discussed in detail. It appears that the impact on surface waters is confined to the lead contained in surface runoff, as the lead dispersed to roadside soils is effectively immobilized in the top 10 cm of soil. The concentration of lead in highway runoff can reach levels far in excess of those normally encountered in surface waters. However, when evaluating the impact on the receiving waters, the importance of considering both the lead mass discharge from the highway and the subsequent dilution by the receiving water is stressed. Finally, the present inadequate understanding of the physiochemical forms of lead in polluted and natural waters is highlighted.

  17. Eklutna River at Glenn Highway Bridge, Alaska Cross-Section Survey, 2016 and 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of survey data, plots, photos, and a photo index from a cross section survey of the Eklutna River at the Glenn Highway bridge in Alaska. The...

  18. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) from rainfall runoff on an urban highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Hyoungjun; Kim, Youngjin; Han, Moo Young

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characterization of the event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff during heavy precipitation events on highways. Highway runoff quality data were collected from the 7th highway, in South Korea during 2007-2009. The samples were analyzed for runoff quantity and quality parameters such as COD(cr), TSS, TPHs, TKN, NO₃, TP, PO₄ and six heavy metals, e.g., As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Analysis of resulting hydrographs and pollutant graphs indicates that the peak of the pollutant concentrations in runoff occurs 20 min after the first rainfall runoff occurrence. The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and the rainfall intensity. The results of this study can be used as a reference for water quality management of urban highways.

  19. 75 FR 1114 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Populations and Low Income Populations. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Number 20.205, Highway... Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, as amended. 6. Hazardous...

  20. Disaster Reduction Decision Support System Against Debris Flows and Landslides Along Highway in Mountainous Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiFa-bin; WeiFang-qiang; CuiPeng; ZhouWan-cun

    2003-01-01

    Highways in mountainous areas are easy to be damaged by such natural disasters as debris flows and landslides and disaster reduction decision support system (DRDSS) is one of the important means to mitigate these disasters. Guided by the theories and technologies of debris flow and landslide reduction and supported by geographical information system (GIS), remote sensing and database techniques, a DRDSS against debris flow and landslide along highways in mountainous areas has been established on the basis of such principles as pertinence, systematicness, effectiveness, easy to use, open and expandability. The system consists of database, disaster analysis models and decisions on reduction of debris flows and landslides, mainly functioning to zone disaster dangerous degree, analyze debris flow activity,simulate debris flow deposition and diffusion, analyze landslide stability, select optimal highway renovation scheme and plan disaster prevention and control engineering. This system has been applied successfully to the debris flow and landslide treatment works along Palongzangbu Section of Siehuan-Tibet Highway.

  1. Disaster Reduction Decision Support System Against Debris Flows and Landslides Along Highway in Mountainous Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fa-bin; Wei Fang-qiang; Cui Peng; Zhou Wan-cun

    2003-01-01

    Highways in mountainous areas are easy to be damaged by such natural disasters as debris flows and landslides and disaster reduction decision support system (DRDSS) is one of the important means to mitigate these disasters. Guided by the theories and technologies of debris flow and landslide reduction and supported by geographical information system (GIS), remote sensing and database techniques, a DRDSS against debris flow and landslide along highways in mountainous areas has been established on the basis of such principles as pertinence, systematicness, effectiveness, easy to use, open and expandability. The system consists of database, disaster analysis models and decisions on reduction of debris flows and landslides, mainly functioning to zone disaster dangerous degree, analyze debris flow activity,simulate debris flow deposition and diffusion, analyze landslide stability, select optimal highway renovation scheme and plan disaster prevention and control ergineering. This system has been applied successfully to the debris flow and landslide treatment works along Palongzangbu Section of Sichuan-Tibet Highway.

  2. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  3. 76 FR 51462 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Midvalley Highway Project, To Address Traffic Congestion on UT-36 and at the I-80 Lake Point interchange... anticipated congestion on SR-36, and reduce anticipated congestion at the Lake Point interchange with...

  4. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zongzhi Li; Hoang Dao; Harshingar Patel; Yi Liu; Bei Zhou

    2017-01-01

    .... This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI) as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis...

  5. Neural Networks Based Modelling of Traffic Accidents in Interurban Rural Highways, Duzce Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgan, Ercan; Demirci, Recep

    this study, alternatively, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based modelling of traffic accidents on two line interurban rural highways in terms of number of accidents; injuries and dead have been presented. This study was conducted for D100/11 state highway section in Duzce. In this section of the highway, totally 783 traffic accidents occurred and 1396 vehicles involved in these accidents between 2002 and 2006 years. Using traffic accident reports data, ANN was applied for modelling of traffic accidents with respect to distance and months. As a result, it was observed that there was a perfect fit between the simulation results and actual data of accidents and the created neural network model of accidents resembles the actual data. Therefore, the developed model could be an alternative method for predictions of traffic accidents on interurban rural highways.

  6. 49 CFR 1.50 - Delegation to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., identification and surveillance of accident locations, and highway-related aspects of pedestrian and bicycle... from Separate Calculation Requirement; (6) Section 131(b)(2) and (c)(1), Plug-in Electric Drive Vehicle...

  7. Description and History of the MOBILE Highway Vehicle Emission Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOBILE is an EPA model for estimating pollution from highway vehicles. It has been superseded by the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES). MOBILE calculates emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO).

  8. "Qualitative and Quantitative Study of Heavy Metals in Runoff of Highways of Tehran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Nouri

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution of soil, plants and deposits around highways endanger urban environment through heavy metals as the by-products of vehicles and urban industries along with other pollutants. In this research, three main highways of Tehran city; namely Shahid Chamran, Shahid Hemmat and Yadegar Emam which had the highest rate of vehicle transportation were selected and required sampling was performed in various distances and specific spots. After preparation of the sample by applying standard method, the concentration of 5 metals such as; lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc and copper were measured by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometer–flame absorption. The TSS, TS, sodium and potassium contents were measured as well. The results showed the presence of maximum zinc contents ranging from 0.86 to 5.85 mg l-1 and lead contents of 0.6 to6.5 mg/l, both as the highest metal contents in the three highways. On the other hand, the average concentration of total heavy metals found in the highways were measured for the 5 metals and showed the degree of pollution in Chamran highway, with 3.294 mg/l zinc, 3.06 mg/l lead, 0.210 mg/l copper, 0.127 mg/l nickel and 0.058 mg/l cadmium concentrations. Nevertheless, the heavy metals concentration in Hemmat highway had the minimum amount. It seemed that the high degree of pollution in Chamran highway is due to very heavy and lengthy traffic in this highway, since it is located in the central part of Tehran. It also joins northern part of the city to the downtown area and tolerates a heavy traffic jam of vehicles. In addition, due to the slow traffic move and long stops in Chamran highway, tires undergo more abrasion due to repeated brakes and this intensifies, zinc discharge and lead releases from automobile fuels, all of which are being factors that lead to an increase in the metals contents of runoffs of Chamran highway. The aforementioned subject matters reveal urban management’s need to arrange for

  9. Capacity and Delay Estimation for Roundabouts Using Conflict Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the capacity of roundabouts more accurately, the priority rank of each stream is determined through the classification technique given in the Highway Capacity Manual 2010 (HCM2010, which is based on macroscopical analysis of the relationship between entry flow and circulating flow. Then a conflict matrix is established using the additive conflict flow method and by considering the impacts of traffic characteristics and limited priority with high volume. Correspondingly, the conflict relationships of streams are built using probability theory. Furthermore, the entry capacity model of roundabouts is built, and sensitivity analysis is conducted on the model parameters. Finally, the entrance delay model is derived using queuing theory, and the proposed capacity model is compared with the model proposed by Wu and that in the HCM2010. The results show that the capacity calculated by the proposed model is lower than the others for an A-type roundabout, while it is basically consistent with the estimated values from HCM2010 for a B-type roundabout.

  10. Capacity and delay estimation for roundabouts using conflict theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhaowei; Duan, Yuzhou; Hu, Hongyu; Song, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the capacity of roundabouts more accurately, the priority rank of each stream is determined through the classification technique given in the Highway Capacity Manual 2010 (HCM2010), which is based on macroscopical analysis of the relationship between entry flow and circulating flow. Then a conflict matrix is established using the additive conflict flow method and by considering the impacts of traffic characteristics and limited priority with high volume. Correspondingly, the conflict relationships of streams are built using probability theory. Furthermore, the entry capacity model of roundabouts is built, and sensitivity analysis is conducted on the model parameters. Finally, the entrance delay model is derived using queuing theory, and the proposed capacity model is compared with the model proposed by Wu and that in the HCM2010. The results show that the capacity calculated by the proposed model is lower than the others for an A-type roundabout, while it is basically consistent with the estimated values from HCM2010 for a B-type roundabout.

  11. Numerical Modelling of Suspended Transport and Deposition of Highway Deposited Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Bach, Christine;

    Good data for calibration and validation of numerical models are of high importance. In the natural environment data can be hard to archive and the stochastic nature have governing influence on the data archived. Hence for modelling of suspended transport and deposition of particles, originating...... from the highway surfaces, in highway detention ponds, four experiments are carried out. To simplify the complexity of a real pond and for easy control and measurement the sediment transports where carried out in two rectangular channels....

  12. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  13. Learning text representation using recurrent convolutional neural network with highway layers

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Ying; Zhang, Weinan; Luo, Rui; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the rapid development of word embedding and neural networks has brought new inspiration to various NLP and IR tasks. In this paper, we describe a staged hybrid model combining Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks (RCNN) with highway layers. The highway network module is incorporated in the middle takes the output of the bi-directional Recurrent Neural Network (Bi-RNN) module in the first stage and provides the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) module in the last stage with the i...

  14. The use of highway crossings to maintain landscape connectivity for moose and roe deer

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly wildlife managers and land managers are challenged to maintain the viability and connectivity among large mammal populations. Thus, it is important that effective highway crossings are identified and optimized with respect to construction cost, facilitation of ungulate movements, and ability to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The use of exclusion fencing to reduce ungulate-vehicle collisions is commonly installed along Swedish highways. However, exclusion fences may pose a th...

  15. HRIS (Highway Research Information Service) Abstracts. Volume 21, Number 4 - Winter 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    HRIS Abstracts is a quarterly publication that provides information about highway and nonrail mass-transit research. It is compiled from computer records of the Highway Research Information Services (HRIS), an important subfile of the Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) data base. The issue consists of four sections: Abstracts of research reports; Source Index listing names and addresses of corporate authors; Author Index; Retrieval Term Index listing subject terms for the HRIS Subject Terms List.

  16. PHYSICAL LOAD RELATED TO HIGHWAY-DRIVING AMONG DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi IKEDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving environments have been designed basically for travel by physically and mentally unimpaired people. On the other hand, sufficient, special considerations are not given to the vehicles driven by disabled people. In order to examine the ergonomic driving load put on both disabled and physically unimpaired people while they are on highways, the driving conditions and the muscle-stress of disabled people were evaluated on the approach to curves. Also the influence of acceleration-and-deceleration and centrifugal force on vehicles were evaluated in straight, split and inter-flows of traffic. The subjects of this study consisted of 5 physically unimpaired people and 10 disabled people who required auxiliaries for their vehicles due to handicaps of their lower limbs or to both upper and lower limbs. The study was conducted on the loop line of the Hanshin Expressway in Osaka, Japan. As a result of measuring the accelerated velocity of vehicles in motion and electromyograms of drivers of the vehicles, it was found that the driving load of disabled people is heavier than that of physically unimpaired people. It was also found that certain driving conditions are different for disabled people to travel at high speed.

  17. A Sublogarithmic Approximation for Highway and Tollbooth Pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Gamzu, Iftah

    2010-01-01

    An instance of the tollbooth problem consists of an undirected network and a collection of single-minded customers, each of which is interested in purchasing a fixed path subject to an individual budget constraint. The objective is to assign a per-unit price to each edge in a way that maximizes the collective revenue obtained from all customers. The revenue generated by any customer is equal to the overall price of the edges in her desired path, when this cost falls within her budget; otherwise, that customer will not purchase any edge. Our main result is a deterministic algorithm for the tollbooth problem on trees whose approximation ratio is O(log m / log log m), where m denotes the number of edges in the underlying graph. This finding improves on the currently best performance guarantees for trees, due to Elbassioni et al. (SAGT '09), as well as for paths (commonly known as the highway problem), due to Balcan and Blum (EC '06). An additional interesting consequence is a computational separation between tol...

  18. Improving E-Bike Safety on Urban Highways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine characteristics of e-bike fatal crashes on urban highways in China. Crash data were retrieved from the three-year crash reports (2010–2012 of Taixing City. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine characteristics of e-bike riders, drivers, and crashes. The important findings include the following: (1 most fatal crashes were related to e-bike riders’ aberrant driving behaviors, including driving in motorized lanes, red-light running, driving against the direction of traffic, inattentive driving, and drunk driving; (2 e-bike riders with lower educational background tended to perform illegal or inattentive driving behaviors in fatal crashes; (3 most drivers were not found to commit any faults and very few drivers were found to commit drunk driving offences; (4 most nighttime fatal crashes were related to absence of street lightings; (5 heavy good vehicles (HGVs and small passenger cars were the two vehicle types that were mostly involved in the e-bike fatal crashes. This study provides useful information that can help traffic engineers better understand e-bike safety in China and develop safety countermeasures.

  19. Statistical modeling of total crash frequency at highway intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash M. Roshandeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intersection-related crashes are associated with high proportion of accidents involving drivers, occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. In general, the purpose of intersection safety analysis is to determine the impact of safety-related variables on pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles, so as to facilitate the design of effective and efficient countermeasure strategies to improve safety at intersections. This study investigates the effects of traffic, environmental, intersection geometric and pavement-related characteristics on total crash frequencies at intersections. A random-parameter Poisson model was used with crash data from 357 signalized intersections in Chicago from 2004 to 2010. The results indicate that out of the identified factors, evening peak period traffic volume, pavement condition, and unlighted intersections have the greatest effects on crash frequencies. Overall, the results seek to suggest that, in order to improve effective highway-related safety countermeasures at intersections, significant attention must be focused on ensuring that pavements are adequately maintained and intersections should be well lighted. It needs to be mentioned that, projects could be implemented at and around the study intersections during the study period (7 years, which could affect the crash frequency over the time. This is an important variable which could be a part of the future studies to investigate the impacts of safety-related works at intersections and their marginal effects on crash frequency at signalized intersections.

  20. Analysis of Yearly Traffic Fluctuation on Latvian Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimanis, A.; Paeglı¯tis, A.

    2015-11-01

    Average annual daily traffic and average annual truck traffic are two most used metrics for road management decisions. They are calculated from data gathered by continuous counting stations embedded in road pavement, manual counting sessions or mobile counting devices. Last two usually do not last longer than a couple of weeks so the information gathered is influenced by yearly traffic fluctuations. Data containing a total of 8,186,871 vehicles or 1989 days from 4 WIM stations installed on highways in Latvia were used in this study. Each of the files was supposed to contain data from only 1 day and additional data were deleted. No other data cleaning steps were performed, which increased the number of vehicles as counting systems sometimes split vehicles into two. Weekly traffic and weekly truck traffic was normalized against respective average values. Each weekly value was then plotted against its number in a year for better visual perception. Weekly traffic amplitudes were used to assess differences between different locations and standard deviations for fluctuation comparison of truck and regular traffic at the same location. Results show that truck traffic fluctuates more than regular traffic during a year, especially around holidays. Differences between counting locations were larger for regular traffic than truck traffic. These results show that average annual daily traffic could be influenced more if short term counting results are adjusted by factors derived from unsuitable continuous counting stations, but truck traffic is more influenced by the time of year in which counting is done.