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Sample records for operations area doe

  1. 49 CFR 192.905 - How does an operator identify a high consequence area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.905 How does an operator identify a high consequence area? (a...

  2. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-30

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2013 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2013 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. Due to the suspension of D&D activities in Area IV, no effluents were released into the atmosphere during 2013. Therefore, the potential radiation dose to the general public through airborne release was zero. Similarly, the radiation dose to an offsite member of the public (maximally exposed individual) due to direct radiation from SSFL is indistinguishable from background. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and/or other licensed sites approved by DOE for radioactive waste

  3. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2011 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2011 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  4. Site Environmental Report For Calendar Year 2012. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2012 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2012 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  5. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2009. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2009 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2009 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  6. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2010. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2010 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2010 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  7. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  8. Criteria development methodology for DOE decommissioning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Radiological Guide for DOE Decommissioning Operations provides a uniform basis for assessing hazard inventories, making risk analyses, performing site characterizations, and certifying decommissioning operations. While initially addressed to radioactive contaminants, in all likelihood it will be extended to include other contaminants

  9. Sustainable Rest Area Design and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    One way in which State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) can modernize their rest areas while reducing operations and maintenance costs is by incorporating sustainable practices into rest area design and operations. Sustainability practices that D...

  10. Release protocol to address DOE moratorium on shipments of waste generated in radiologically controlled areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, L.A.; Boothe, G.F.

    1992-10-01

    On May 17, 1991 the US DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a moratorium on the shipment of hazardous waste from radiologically contaminated or potentially contaminated areas on DOE sites to offsite facilities not licensed for radiological material. This document describes a release protocol generated by Westinghouse Hanford submitted for US DOE approval. Topics considered include designating Radiological Materials Management Areas (RMMAs), classification of wastes, handling of mixed wastes, detection limits

  11. Does Operational Risk Disclosure Quality Increase Operating Cash Flows?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham Nobanee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to measure the degree of operational risk disclosure and examine its impact on operating cash flow of banks listed on the UAE Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange (ADX and Dubai Financial Market (DFM during the period 2003-2016. The authors conducted content analysis of the annual reports to measure the degree of operational risk disclosure. In addition, they used dynamic panel data regressions to analyze the impact of operational risk disclosure on the operating cash flow generated by the banks. The results show a low degree of operational risk disclosure for all UAE banks, both Islamic and conventional. In addition, the results show no association between the levels of disclosure of operational risk and cash flow for all banks, conventional and Islamic. Operational risk disclosure of Islamic banks has not been examined by any prior researchers. In addition, this paper examines the potential impact of operational risk disclosure on the operating cash flow generated by the banks.

  12. Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) Implementation Plan for DOE Order 435.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRITZ, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual, on July 9, 1999, to replace U.S. Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. Compliance is required by July 9, 2000, where compliance is defined as ''implementing the requirements, or an approved implementation, or corrective action plan'' (refer to Manual, Introduction, paragraph four). This implementation plan identifies the status of each requirement for U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office Site contractors, and provides the plan, cost, and length of time required for achieving full implementation. The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office contractors (Fluor Hanford, Incorporated, DynCorp Tri-Cities Services, Bechtel Hanford, Inc., and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) conducted a line-by-line review of DOE Order 435.1 and associated manuals to determine which requirements were new, and which requirements already are used for compliance with the previous DOE Order 5820.2A or other requirements. The Gap Analysis for DOE Order 435.1 (HNF-5465) identified compliance gaps, along with other issues that would impact efforts for achieving compliance. The gap analysis also contained a series of assumptions made by the various projects in determining compliance status. The details and section-by-section analysis are contained in Appendix A. Some of the DOE Order 435.1 requirements invoke sections of other DOE Orders not incorporated in various U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office contracts (refer to Section 2.0, Table 2-1). Those additional DOE Orders are identified by contractor and will be left for evaluation in accordance with each contractor's requirements. No attempt was made to evaluate all of those orders at this time, although in many cases, contractors follow a similar older DOE Order, which is cited in the Appendix. In some areas

  13. 1987 DOE review: First collider run operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, S.; Crawford, J.; Dugan, G.

    1987-05-01

    This review covers the operations of the first run of the 1.8 TeV superconducting super collider. The papers enclosed cover: PBAR source status, fixed target operation, Tevatron cryogenic reliability and capacity upgrade, Tevatron Energy upgrade progress and plans, status of the D0 low beta insertion, 1.8 K and 4.7 K refrigeration for low-β quadrupoles, progress and plans for the LINAC and booster, near term and long term and long term performance improvements

  14. 200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met

  15. 300 Area TEDF DOE order compliance applicability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eacker, J.A.

    1994-11-08

    This report summarizes the results of an effort to determine applicability of Department of Energy Orders at the Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This assessment placed each of the reviewed orders into one of three compliance categories: (A) order applicable at a facility specific level (20 identified); (B) order applicable at a policy level (11 identified); or (C) order not applicable (21 identified). The scope of the assessment from the DOE Order standpoint was the 52 Level 1 Orders of interest to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB). Although the TEDF is a non-nuclear facility, this order basis was chosen as a Best Management Practice to be consistent with ongoing efforts across the Hanford Site. Three tables in the report summarize the DOE order applicability by the compliance categories, with a table for Level A, Level B, and Level C applicability. The attachment to the report documents the compliance applicability assessment for each individual DOE Order.

  16. 300 Area TEDF DOE order compliance applicability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eacker, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an effort to determine applicability of Department of Energy Orders at the Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This assessment placed each of the reviewed orders into one of three compliance categories: (A) order applicable at a facility specific level (20 identified); (B) order applicable at a policy level (11 identified); or (C) order not applicable (21 identified). The scope of the assessment from the DOE Order standpoint was the 52 Level 1 Orders of interest to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB). Although the TEDF is a non-nuclear facility, this order basis was chosen as a Best Management Practice to be consistent with ongoing efforts across the Hanford Site. Three tables in the report summarize the DOE order applicability by the compliance categories, with a table for Level A, Level B, and Level C applicability. The attachment to the report documents the compliance applicability assessment for each individual DOE Order

  17. Achieving RCRA compliance in DOE defense waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankhauser, W.A.; Shepard, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) generates significant volumes of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) through its defense-related activities. Defense RMW is co-regulated by DOE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/State agencies in accordance with requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). This paper highlights some of the problems encountered in co-regulation and discusses achievements of the defense waste management program in integrating RCRA requirements into RMW operations. Defense waste sites are planning facility modifications and major new construction projects to develop treatment, storage and disposal capacity for existing RMW inventories and projected needs

  18. DOE-EM-45 Packaging Operations And Maintenance Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R.; England, J.

    2010-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory - Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRNL-SRPT) delivered the inaugural offering of the Packaging Operations and Maintenance Course for DOE-EM-45's Packaging Certification Program (PCP) at the University of South Carolina Aiken on September 1 and 2, 2009. Twenty-nine students registered, attended, and completed this training. The DOE-EM-45 Packaging Certification Program (PCP) sponsored the presentation of a new training course, Packaging Maintenance and Operations, on September 1-2, 2009 at the University of South Carolina Aiken (USC-Aiken) campus in Aiken, SC. The premier offering of the course was developed and presented by the Savannah River National Laboratory, and attended by twenty-nine students across the DOE, NNSA and private industry. This training informed package users of the requirements associated with handling shipping containers at a facility (user) level and provided a basic overview of the requirements typically outlined in Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Chapters 1, 7, and 8. The course taught packaging personnel about the regulatory nature of SARPs to help reduce associated and often costly packaging errors. Some of the topics covered were package contents, loading, unloading, storage, torque requirements, maintaining records, how to handle abnormal conditions, lessons learned, leakage testing (including demonstration), and replacement parts. The target audience for this course was facility operations personnel, facility maintenance personnel, and field quality assurance personnel who are directly involved in the handling of shipping containers. The training also aimed at writers of SARP Chapters 1, 7, and 8, package designers, and anyone else involved in radioactive material packaging and transportation safety. Student feedback and critiques of the training were very positive. SRNL will offer the course again at USC Aiken in September 2010.

  19. Does area V3A predict positions of moving objects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit W Maus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A gradually fading moving object is perceived to disappear at positions beyond its luminance detection threshold, whereas abrupt offsets are usually localised accurately. What role does retinotopic activity in visual cortex play in this motion-induced mislocalization of the endpoint of fading objects? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we localised regions of interest (ROIs in retinotopic maps abutting the trajectory endpoint of a bar moving either towards or away from this position while gradually decreasing or increasing in luminance. Area V3A showed predictive activity, with stronger fMRI responses for motion towards versus away from the ROI. This effect was independent of the change in luminance. In Area V1 we found higher activity for high-contrast onsets and offsets near the ROI, but no significant differences between motion directions. We suggest that perceived final positions of moving objects are based on an interplay of predictive position representations in higher motion-sensitive retinotopic areas and offset transients in primary visual cortex.

  20. Space Flight Operations Center local area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ross V.

    1988-01-01

    The existing Mission Control and Computer Center at JPL will be replaced by the Space Flight Operations Center (SFOC). One part of the SFOC is the LAN-based distribution system. The purpose of the LAN is to distribute the processed data among the various elements of the SFOC. The SFOC LAN will provide a robust subsystem that will support the Magellan launch configuration and future project adaptation. Its capabilities include (1) a proven cable medium as the backbone for the entire network; (2) hardware components that are reliable, varied, and follow OSI standards; (3) accurate and detailed documentation for fault isolation and future expansion; and (4) proven monitoring and maintenance tools.

  1. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This radiological performance assessment for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US DOE. The analysis of SWSA 6 required the use of assumptions to supplement the available site data when the available data were incomplete for the purpose of analysis. Results indicate that SWSA 6 does not presently meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A. Changes in operations and continued work on the performance assessment are expected to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for continuing operations at the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF). All other disposal operations in SWSA 6 are to be discontinued as of January 1, 1994. The disposal units at which disposal operations are discontinued will be subject to CERCLA remediation, which will result in acceptable protection of the public health and safety

  2. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This radiological performance assessment for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US DOE. The analysis of SWSA 6 required the use of assumptions to supplement the available site data when the available data were incomplete for the purpose of analysis. Results indicate that SWSA 6 does not presently meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 5820.2A. Changes in operations and continued work on the performance assessment are expected to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for continuing operations at the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF). All other disposal operations in SWSA 6 are to be discontinued as of January 1, 1994. The disposal units at which disposal operations are discontinued will be subject to CERCLA remediation, which will result in acceptable protection of the public health and safety.

  3. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    OAK A271 Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 1999 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, these operations included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials under the former Atomics International Division. Other activities included the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities for testing of liquid metal fast breeder components at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility within Area IV. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. Large-scale D and D activities of the sodium test facilities began in 1996. This Annual Site Environmental Report provides information showing that there are no indications of any potential impact on public health and safety due to the operations conducted at the SSFL. All measures and calculations of off-site conditions demonstrate compliance with applicable regulations, which provide for protection of human health and the environment

  4. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-09-01

    OAK A271 Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 1999 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, these operations included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials under the former Atomics International Division. Other activities included the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities for testing of liquid metal fast breeder components at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility within Area IV. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. Large-scale D&D activities of the sodium test facilities began in 1996. This Annual Site Environmental Report provides information showing that there are no indications of any potential impact on public health and safety due to the operations conducted at the SSFL. All measures and calculations of off-site conditions demonstrate compliance with applicable regulations, which provide for protection of human health and the environment.

  5. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2000. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Rocketdyne Propulsion & Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Samuels, Sandy [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Lee, Majelle [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2000 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, these operations included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials, under the former Atomics International (AI) Division. Other activities included the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities for testing of liquid metal fast breeder components at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned company-operated, test facility within Area IV. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. Large-scale D&D activities of the sodium test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year of 2000 continue to indicate no significant releases of radioactive material from Rocketdyne sites. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and other sites approved by DOE and licensed for radioactive waste. Liquid radioactive wastes are not released into the environment and do not constitute an exposure pathway.

  6. Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1998, DOE operations at Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report for 1998 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) and De Soto facilities. In the past, these operations included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials, under the Atomics International (AI) Division. Other activities included the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities for testing of liquid metal fast breeder components at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned company-operated, test facility within Area IV. AI was merged into Rocketdyne in 1984 and many of the AI functions were transferred to existing Rocketdyne departments. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. Large-scale D and D activities of the sodium test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year of 1998 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Rocketdyne sites. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, and direct radiation. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and other sites approved by DOE and licensed for radioactive waste. Liquid radioactive wastes are not released into the environment and do not constitute an exposure pathway

  7. Military Operating Area Boundaries: Atlantic / Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An Operating Area (OPAREA) Complex boundary is the bounded area in which national defense training exercises and system qualification tests are routinely conducted....

  8. 25 CFR 39.101 - Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations? 39... SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula § 39.101 Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations? No. ISEF does not attempt to assess the actual cost of school operations either...

  9. 25 CFR 39.201 - Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations... Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations? ISEF does not attempt to assess the actual cost of school operations either at the local school level or in the aggregate nationally. ISEF is a...

  10. Rocketdyne Propulsion & Power DOE Operations Annual Site Environmental Report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, R. J. [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1997-11-10

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test operations sites operated in the Los Angeles area by Rocketdyne Propulsion & Power of Boeing North American. Inc. (formerly Rockwell International Corporation). These are identified as the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL and the De Soto site. The sites have been used for manufacturing; R&D, engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields, primarily rocket engine propulsion and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site essentially comprises office space and light industry with no remaining radiological operations, and has little potential impact on the environment. The SSFL site, because of its large size (2.668 acres), warrants comprehensive monitoring to ensure protection of the environment.

  11. Seismic qualification program plan for continued operation at DOE-SRS nuclear material processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Kennedy, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Facilities for the most part were constructed and maintained to standards that were developed by Du Pont and are not rigorously in compliance with the current General Design Criteria (GDC); DOE Order 6430.IA requirements. In addition, many of the facilities were built more than 30 years ago, well before DOE standards for design were issued. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) his developed a program to address the evaluation of the Nuclear Material Processing (NMP) facilities to GDC requirements. The program includes a facility base-line review, assessment of areas that are not in compliance with the GDC requirements, planned corrective actions or exemptions to address the requirements, and a safety assessment. The authors from their direct involvement with the Program, describe the program plan for seismic qualification including other natural phenomena hazards,for existing NMP facility structures to continue operation Professionals involved in similar effort at other DOE facilities may find the program useful

  12. Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power DOE Operations annual site environmental report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    This annual report discusses environmental monitoring at two manufacturing and test sites operated in the Los Angeles area by Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power of Boeing North American, Inc. These are identified as Area 4 of the SSFL and the De Soto site. These sites have been used for research and development (R and D), engineering, and testing in a broad range of technical fields primarily in energy research and nuclear reactor technology. The De Soto site had research and development laboratories involved with nuclear research. This work was terminated in 1995 and only D and D activities will have potential for impact on the environment. Since 1956, Area 4 has been used for work with nuclear materials, including fabricating nuclear reactor fuels, testing nuclear reactors, and dissembling used fuel elements. This work ended in 1988 and subsequent efforts have been directed toward decommissioning and decontamination of the former nuclear facilities. The primary purpose of this report is to present information on environmental and effluent monitoring of DOE-sponsored activities to the regulatory agencies responsible for oversight. Information presented here concentrates on Area 4 at SSFL, which is the only area at SSFL where DOE operations were performed

  13. How accelerator operations does business at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, David W. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The accelerator is staffed 24 hours a day by the MCC Operations Group. Shift rotations are for seven days on shift, followed by seven days off shift, of which three days are spent on off-shift activities. Personnel spend 70% of their time on shift and 30% off shift. The off-shift time is utilized for meetings, training and individual projects. Individual projects can consist of hardware or software development, training, documentation development or other areas of interest, depending on the individual. (author)

  14. DOE handbook: Guide to good practices for training and qualification of chemical operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide contractor training organizations with information that can be used as a reference to refine existing chemical operator training programs, or develop new training programs where no program exists. This guide, used in conjunction with facility-specific job analyses, will provide a framework for training and qualification programs for chemical operators at DOE reactor and nonreactor facilities. Recommendations for qualification are made in four areas: education, experience, physical attributes, and training. Contents include: initial qualification; administrative training; industrial safety training; specialized skills training; on-the-job training; trainee evaluation; continuing training; training effectiveness evaluation; and program records. Two appendices describe Fundamentals training and Process operations. This handbook covers chemical operators in transportation of fuels and wastes, spent fuel receiving and storage, fuel disassembly, fuel reprocessing, and both liquid and solid low-level waste processing

  15. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This revised performance assessment (PA) for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal contained in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. This revised PA considers disposal operations conducted from September 26, 1988, through the projects lifetime of the disposal facility

  16. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This revised performance assessment (PA) for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal contained in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. This revised PA considers disposal operations conducted from September 26, 1988, through the projects lifetime of the disposal facility.

  17. Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power DOE operations annual site environmental report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Rocketdyne currently operates several facilities in the San Fernando Valley/Simi Valley area, for manufacturing, testing, and research and development (R and D). These operations include manufacturing liquid-fueled rocket engines, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and engines used for expendable launch vehicles used to place artificial satellites into orbit. This work includes fabrication and testing of rocket engines, lasers, and heat-transfer systems; and R and D in a wide range of high-technology fields, such as the electrical power system for the Space Station. Previously, this work also included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials, under the Atomics International Division (AI). AI was merged into Rocketdyne in 1984 and many of the AI functions were transferred to existing Rocketdyne departments. This nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the previously used nuclear facilities and associated site areas. The majority of this work is done for the Department of Energy (DOE). This Annual Site Environmental Report for 1996 concentrates on the environmental conditions related to DOE operations at Area IV of SSFL and at De Soto

  18. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsible for the Underground Injection Control Program. You may call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners and Operators of Class V Injection Wells § 144.87 How does... Water Source Assessment and Protection Program in your area. You may call the Safe Drinking Water...

  19. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all

  20. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  1. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  2. Environmental dose-assessment methods for normal operations at DOE nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Corley, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    Methods for assessing public exposure to radiation from normal operations at DOE facilities are reviewed in this report. The report includes a discussion of environmental doses to be calculated, a review of currently available environmental pathway models and a set of recommended models for use when environmental pathway modeling is necessary. Currently available models reviewed include those used by DOE contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations involved in environmental assessments. General modeling areas considered for routine releases are atmospheric transport, airborne pathways, waterborne pathways, direct exposure to penetrating radiation, and internal dosimetry. The pathway models discussed in this report are applicable to long-term (annual) uniform releases to the environment: they do not apply to acute releases resulting from accidents or emergency situations

  3. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  4. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site's total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside

  5. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice.

  6. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice

  7. Wavy channel transistor for area efficient high performance operation

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2013-04-05

    We report a wavy channel FinFET like transistor where the channel is wavy to increase its width without any area penalty and thereby increasing its drive current. Through simulation and experiments, we show the effectiveness of such device architecture is capable of high performance operation compared to conventional FinFETs with comparatively higher area efficiency and lower chip latency as well as lower power consumption.

  8. Does light attract piglets to the creep area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M L V; Pedersen, L J

    2015-06-01

    Hypothermia, experienced by piglets, has been related to piglet deaths and high and early use of a heated creep area is considered important to prevent hypothermia. The aims of the present study were to investigate how a newly invented radiant heat source, eHeat, would affect piglets' use of the creep area and whether light in the creep area works as an attractant on piglets. A total of 39 sows, divided between two batches, were randomly distributed to three heat source treatments: (1) standard infrared heat lamp (CONT, n=19), (2) eHeat with light (EL, n=10) and (3) eHeat without light (ENL, n=10). Recordings of piglets' use of the creep area were made as scan sampling every 10 min for 3 h during two periods, one in daylight (0900 to 1200 h) and one in darkness (2100 to 2400 h), on day 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 postpartum. On the same days, piglets were weighted. Results showed an interaction between treatment and observation period (Pcreep area during darkness compared with daylight for CONT and EL litters, but not for ENL litters. Piglets average daily weight gain was not affected by treatment, but was positively correlated with piglets' birth weight and was lower in batch 1 compared with batch 2. Seen from the present results, neither eHeat nor light worked as an attractant on piglets; in contrast, piglets preferred to sleep in the dark and it would therefore be recommended to turn off the light in the creep area during darkness. Heating up the creep area without light can be accomplished by using a radiant heat source such as eHeat in contrast to the normally used light-emitting infrared heat lamp.

  9. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  10. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Uchiyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs, the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  11. Does light attract piglets to the creep area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2015-01-01

    Hypothermia, experienced by piglets, has been related to piglet deaths and high and early use of a heated creep area is considered important to prevent hypothermia. The aims of the present study were to investigate how a newly invented radiant heat source, eHeat, would affect piglets' use...... of the creep area and whether light in the creep area works as an attractant on piglets. A total of 39 sows, divided between two batches, were randomly distributed to three heat source treatments: (1) standard infrared heat lamp (CONT, n=19), (2) eHeat with light (EL, n=10) and (3) eHeat without light (ENL, n......=10). Recordings of piglets' use of the creep area were made as scan sampling every 10 min for 3 h during two periods, one in daylight (0900 to 1200 h) and one in darkness (2100 to 2400 h), on day 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 postpartum. On the same days, piglets were weighted. Results showed an interaction...

  12. Operational Art and Risk: Why Doctrine Does Not Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    across all levels of warfare towards a single immutable strategic end state. 19 The critical factor for the operational artists is the arrangement of...of tactical actions to strategic objectives happens from tactical to strategic levels of war. 20 Operational art is the mental gymnastics that creates

  13. Does a No-Take Marine Protected Area Benefit Seahorses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasti, David; Martin-Smith, Keith; Gladstone, William

    2014-01-01

    Seahorses are iconic charismatic species that are often used to ‘champion’ marine conservation causes around the world. As they are threatened in many countries by over-exploitation and habitat loss, marine protected areas (MPAs) could help with their protection and recovery. MPAs may conserve seahorses through protecting essential habitats and removing fishing pressures. Populations of White's seahorse, Hippocampus whitei, a species endemic to New South Wales, Australia, were monitored monthly from 2006 to 2009 using diver surveys at two sites within a no-take marine protected areas established in 1983, and at two control sites outside the no-take MPA sites. Predators of H. whitei were also identified and monitored. Hippocampus whitei were more abundant at the control sites. Seahorse predators (3 species of fish and 2 species of octopus) were more abundant within the no-take MPA sites. Seahorse and predator abundances were negatively correlated. Substantial variability in the seahorse population at one of the control sites reinforced the importance of long-term monitoring and use of multiple control sites to assess the outcomes of MPAs for seahorses. MPAs should be used cautiously to conserve seahorse populations as there is the risk of a negative impact through increased predator abundance. PMID:25137253

  14. Does a no-take marine protected area benefit seahorses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harasti

    Full Text Available Seahorses are iconic charismatic species that are often used to 'champion' marine conservation causes around the world. As they are threatened in many countries by over-exploitation and habitat loss, marine protected areas (MPAs could help with their protection and recovery. MPAs may conserve seahorses through protecting essential habitats and removing fishing pressures. Populations of White's seahorse, Hippocampus whitei, a species endemic to New South Wales, Australia, were monitored monthly from 2006 to 2009 using diver surveys at two sites within a no-take marine protected areas established in 1983, and at two control sites outside the no-take MPA sites. Predators of H. whitei were also identified and monitored. Hippocampus whitei were more abundant at the control sites. Seahorse predators (3 species of fish and 2 species of octopus were more abundant within the no-take MPA sites. Seahorse and predator abundances were negatively correlated. Substantial variability in the seahorse population at one of the control sites reinforced the importance of long-term monitoring and use of multiple control sites to assess the outcomes of MPAs for seahorses. MPAs should be used cautiously to conserve seahorse populations as there is the risk of a negative impact through increased predator abundance.

  15. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  16. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented

  17. Where does the customer fit in a service operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, R B

    1978-01-01

    While management skills can improve service systems, a manager is better off if he or she first has a clear understanding of the operating characteristics that set one service system apart from another. This author offers one view of services, which, if followed, results in a "rational approach to the rationalization" of services. His view, quite simply, is that the less direct contact the customer has with the service system, the greater the potential of the system to operate at peak efficiency. And, conversely, where the direct customer contact is high, the less the potential that exists to achieve high levels of efficiency. This distinction between high- and low-contact systems provides a basis for classifying service production systems that can enable the manager to develop a more effective service operation.

  18. 5 CFR 591.216 - How does OPM combine survey data for the DC area and for COLA areas with multiple survey areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.216 How does OPM...

  19. Rib fractures in trauma patients: does operative fixation improve outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majak, Peter; Næss, Pål A

    2016-12-01

    Renewed interest in surgical fixation of rib fractures has emerged. However, conservative treatment is still preferred at most surgical departments. We wanted to evaluate whether operative treatment of rib fractures may benefit severely injured patients. Several studies report a reduction in mechanical ventilation time, ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, pneumonia, need for tracheostomy, pain and costs in operatively treated patients with multiple rib fractures compared with patients treated nonoperatively. Although patient selection and timing of the operation seem crucial for successful outcome, no consensus exists. Mortality reduction has only been shown in a few studies. Most studies are retrospective cohort and case-control studies. Only four randomized control trials exist. Conservative treatment, consisting of respiratory assistance and pain control, is still the treatment of choice in the vast majority of patients with multiple rib fractures. In selected patients, operative fixation of fractured ribs within 72 h postinjury may lead to better outcome. More randomized control trials are needed to further determine who benefits from surgical fixation of rib fractures.

  20. SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-01-01

    This scoping summary supports development of the combined Remedial Investigation (RI)/Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA)/Feasibility Study (FS) for the P-Area Operable Unit (PAOU), or Combined document, which will be submitted on or before 09/28/2007. The objective of this Feasibility Study scoping summary meeting is to agree on the likely response actions to be evaluated and developed as alternatives in the combined document and agree on the uncertainties identified and whether they have been adequately managed

  1. SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-05-22

    This scoping summary supports development of the combined Remedial Investigation (RI)/Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA)/Feasibility Study (FS) for the P-Area Operable Unit (PAOU), or Combined document, which will be submitted on or before 09/28/2007. The objective of this Feasibility Study scoping summary meeting is to agree on the likely response actions to be evaluated and developed as alternatives in the combined document and agree on the uncertainties identified and whether they have been adequately managed.

  2. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Sturdy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in actual practice, not only resemble but also in fact are examples of operant conditioning (OC by any other name they select. We argue that language acquisition researchers should proceed by first ruling out OC before invoking alternative learning mechanisms. While it is possible that OC cannot explain all of the language acquisition, simple learning mechanisms that work across species may have some explanatory power in children’s language learning.

  3. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Christopher B.; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in actual practice, not only resemble but also in fact are examples of operant conditioning (OC) by any other name they select. We argue that language acquisition researchers should proceed by first ruling out OC before invoking alternative learning mechanisms. While it is possible that OC cannot explain all of the language acquisition, simple learning mechanisms that work across species may have some explanatory power in children’s language learning. PMID:29163295

  4. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Christopher B; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner's arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in actual practice, not only resemble but also in fact are examples of operant conditioning (OC) by any other name they select. We argue that language acquisition researchers should proceed by first ruling out OC before invoking alternative learning mechanisms. While it is possible that OC cannot explain all of the language acquisition, simple learning mechanisms that work across species may have some explanatory power in children's language learning.

  5. Marginal overweight operating scenario for DOE's initiative I highway casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.V.; Loud, G.C.; Heitzman, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential transport of high-capacity Initiative I highway casks under development by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) as permitted marginal overweight shipments that: exceed a gross vehicle weight (gvw) limit of 80,000, but weight less than 96,000 pounds; follow axle and axle group weight limits adopted by the Surface Transportation Assistance Act (STAA) of 1982; conform to dimensional restrictions to operate on most major highways; and comply with the Federal Bridge Formula. The marginal overweight tractor-trailer would operate in normal open-quotes over-the-roadclose quotes mode and comply with all laws and regulations. The vehicle would have a sleeper berth and two drivers - one to drive while the other provides escort and communications services and accumulates required off-duty time

  6. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    OpenAIRE

    Sturdy, Christopher B.; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in ...

  7. Preliminary investigation Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This report documents the characterization activities and findings of a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site. The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12 east of Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The characterization project was completed as a required condition of the ''Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit for the Discharge From Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Facility'' issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The project objective was to collect shallow soil samples in eight locations in the former surface discharge area. Based upon field observations, twelve locations were sampled on September 6, 1995 to better define the area of potential impact. Samples were collected from the surface to a depth of approximately 0.3 meters (one foot) below land surface. Discoloration of the surface soil was observed in the area of the discharge pipe and in localized areas in the natural drainage channel. The discoloration appeared to be consistent with the topographically low areas of the site. Hydrocarbon odors were noted in the areas of discoloration only. Samples collected were analyzed for bulk asbestos, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (Semi-VOCs), and gamma scan

  8. Fermi Large Area Telescope Operations: Progress Over 4 Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Robert A.; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched into orbit in June 2008, and is conducting a multi-year gamma-ray all-sky survey, using the main instrument on Fermi, the Large Area Telescope (LAT). Fermi began its science mission in August 2008, and has now been operating for almost 4 years. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory hosts the LAT Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC), which supports the operation of the LAT in conjunction with the Mission Operations Center (MOC) and the Fermi Science Support Center (FSSC), both at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The LAT has a continuous output data rate of about 1.5 Mbits per second, and data from the LAT are stored on Fermi and transmitted to the ground through TDRS and the MOC to the ISOC about 10 times per day. Several hundred computers at SLAC are used to process LAT data to perform event reconstruction, and gamma-ray photon data are subsequently delivered to the FSSC for public release with a few hours of being detected by the LAT. We summarize the current status of the LAT, and the evolution of the data processing and monitoring performed by the ISOC during the first 4 years of the Fermi mission, together with future plans for further changes to detected event data processing and instrument operations and monitoring.

  9. Review of DOE's proposal for Crystalline bedrock disposal of radioactive waste, north-central area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE's Region-to-Area Screening Methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-1), the Final North-Central Region Geologic Characterization Report (DOE/CH-8(1)), and the Draft Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project (DOE/CH-15), with the associated maps, were reviewed. The review has focused on all general information regarding geologic topics and all site-specific data for DOE sites NC-10 and NC-3. This report contains two parts: (1) a point-by-point critique of perceived errors, omissions, or other shortcomings in each of the three documents; and (2) a discussion of the feasibility of crystalline bedrock as a suitable host medium for high-level radioactive waste

  10. How does venture capital operate in medical innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, P; Miller, F A; Daudelin, G

    2016-07-01

    While health policy scholars wish to encourage the creation of technologies that bring more value to healthcare, they may not fully understand the mandate of venture capitalists and how they operate. This paper aims to clarify how venture capital operates and to illustrate its influence over the kinds of technologies that make their way into healthcare systems. The paper draws on the international innovation policy scholarship and the lessons our research team learned throughout a 5-year fieldwork conducted in Quebec (Canada). Current policies support the development of technologies that capital investors identify as valuable, and which may not align with important health needs. The level of congruence between a given health technology-based venture and the mandate of venture capital is highly variable, explaining why some types of innovation may never come into existence. While venture capitalists' mandate and worldview are extraneous to healthcare, they shape health technologies in several, tangible ways. Clinical leaders and health policy scholars could play a more active role in innovation policy. Because certain types of technology are more likely than others to help tackle the intractable problems of healthcare systems, public policies should be equipped to promote those that address the needs of a growing elderly population, support patients who are afflicted by chronic diseases and reduce health disparities.

  11. Site environmental report for calendar year 2002. DOE operations at the Boeing Company, Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2002 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing' s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL)). In the past, the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations at ETEC included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities at ETEC involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and, subsequently, all radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Closure of the liquid metal test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2002 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property ( land, structures, waste), and recycling. All radioactive w astes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and/or other licensed sites approved by DOE for radioactive waste disposal. No liquid radioactive wastes are released into the environment, and no structural debris from buildings w as transferred to municipal landfills or recycled in 2002.

  12. 300 Area Process Trenches Supplemental Information to the Hanford Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.A. Carlson

    1997-01-01

    The 300 Area Process Trenches are surface impoundments which were used to receive routine discharges of nonregulated process cooling water from operations in the 300 Area and dangerous waste from several research and development laboratories and the 300 Area Fuels Fabrication process. Discharges to the trenches ceased in 1994, and they were physically isolated in 1995. Remediation of the trenches is scheduled to begin during July 1997. Currently, there are no waste management activities required at the 300 Area Process Trenches and the unit does not present any significant hazards to adjacent units, personnel, or the environment. It is unlikely that any incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the 300 Area Process Trenches, however, during remediation, exposure, spill, fire, and industrial hazards will exist. This contingency plan addresses the emergency organization, equipment and evacuation routes pertinent to the process trenches during remediation

  13. Does Tranexamic Acid Reduce Bleeding during Femoral Fracture Operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Haghighi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Proximal Femoral shaft fractures are commonly associated with marked blood loss which can lead topostoperative acute anemia and some other complications.Tranexamic acid (TA is an antifibrinolytic medication that reduces intra-and postoperative blood loss and transfusionrequirements during some elective surgeries (1-3.The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous Tranexamic acid (TA on intraoperative blood loss and asubsequent need for transfusion in patients who were undergoing surgery for femoral shaft fractures in trauma setting.Methods:Thirty-eight ASA grade I-II patients undergoing proximal femoral shaft fracture surgery with intra medullarynailing were included in this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. They were allocated into two groups. GroupI, the intervention group with eighteen patients received 15 mg/kg (TA via intravenous infusion before surgical incision.Patients in the placebo group received an identical volume of normal saline.Hemoglobin level was measured four hours before and after the surgeries. Postoperative blood loss and hemoglobinchange as well as transfusion rates and volumes were compared between the two groups.Results:Mean Percentage fall in hemoglobin after surgery were 1.75±0.84 and 2.04±1.9 in the study and placebo groups,respectively (P=0.570. Hemoglobin loss was higher in the placebo group. Transfusion rates was lower in TA group(5.6% compared to the placebo group (30% (P=0.06. No significant difference in The Allowable Blood Loss during thesurgery was found between the two groups (P=0.894.Conclusion:Preoperative treatment with TA reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion duringtraumatic femoral fracture operation.

  14. Unguided bronchoscopic biopsy: Does yield increase with operator experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Rahul

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Bronchoscopic Forceps biopsy (Endobronchial Biopsy (EBB and Trans Bronchial Lung Biopsy (TBLB are commonly performed for diagnosis in patients with endobronchial abnormalities or diffuse parenchymal involvement. As the operator gains experience his yield of various diagnostic bronchoscopic biopsies is expected to increase, however, no studies on the subject are available in literature. Aims To determine the effect of on- job experience on the yield of unguided bronchoscopic biopsies. Methods A total of 244 bronchoscopies were performed between Oct 2013 and Oct 2016. A retrospective analysis of all these bronchoscopies was undertaken. All patients who underwent biopsy were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups with first group (Group A comprising of biopsies done between Oct 2013 to Apr 2015 and second group comprising biopsies done between May 2015 to Oct 2016 (Group B. The diagnostic yield in two groups was compared. Results Total 71 bronchoscopic biopsies were performed during Oct 2013 to Oct 2016. 36 patients were included in group A and 35 patients were included in group B. The groups were matched in demographic profile, clinical diagnosis, bronchoscopic findings and type of biopsy undertaken. The biopsy was diagnostic in 31 patient (43.6 per cent and nondiagnostic in 33 patients (46.4 per cent. There were 15 diagnostic biopsies in group A and 16 diagnostic biopsies in group B. The difference in the diagnostic biopsies between the two groups was not significant. Conclusion There was no significant impact of on job experience on diagnostic yield of biopsies. This may be due to adequate exposure during training leading to a diagnostic plateau being reached.

  15. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs

  16. Teachers' Job Dislike Areas: Implications for Operational Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. 'Tayo Subair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is the act, practice and occupation of a teacher. A teacher is a person who provides education for learners at a school or other place of formal education. The use of teacher in this study is conceptualized to involve all cadres of instructors and teaching team from primary and junior secondary (basic education to senior secondary school. The study examined the areas of job dislikes among teachers with their attendant implications for practice. Using a self-designed and pilot-tested questionnaire, data were collected from a random sample of 3,000 teachers drawn from Lagos, Ogun, and Osun states in the Southwestern geopolitical zone of the country. Specifically, 400 primary and 600 secondary school teachers were drawn from each state. The data were analyzed using simple percentage. It was found that teachers job dislike areas though differ but were within seven areas thus: writing lesson notes (98.5%, marking subject attendance register (98%, disciplining of students in school (90%, and serving as members of committees (78.9%. Other dislike areas include taking students out of school for extramural activities (73.3%, partaking in co-curricular activities in the school (60.3% and examination invigilation (59.1% as areas of common dislike and capable of inhibiting the satisfaction levels of teachers.Furthermore, it was found that differences exist in job dislikes between male and female teachers. The common job dislikes among male were non-interest in marking of scripts and invigilation of examinations whereas the female showed dislikes for serving as committee members and as year tutors.Thus, it was recommended that: some modifications in the operational approaches of classroom teachers (such as deemphasizing lesson note writing and marking of subject attendance register would be required. Teachers should also be financially encouraged via allowances for all other activities outside teaching.

  17. Staff Technical Position on geological repository operations area underground facility design: Thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataraja, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this Staff Technical Position (STP) is to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) with a methodology acceptable to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for demonstrating compliance with 10 CFR 60.133(i). The NRC staff's position is that DOE should develop and use a defensible methodology to demonstrate the acceptability of a geologic repository operations area (GROA) underground facility design. The staff anticipates that this methodology will include evaluation and development of appropriately coupled models, to account for the thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are induced by repository-generated thermal loads. With respect to 10 CFR 60.133(i), the GROA underground facility design: (1) should satisfy design goals/criteria initially selected, by considering the performance objectives; and (2) must satisfy the performance objectives 10 CFR 60.111, 60.112, and 60.113. The methodology in this STP suggests an iterative approach suitable for the underground facility design

  18. Operative Start Time Does Not Affect Post-Operative Infection Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, Christopher A; Davies, Stephen W; Willis, Rhett N; Dietch, Zachary C; Shah, Puja M; Sawyer, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Surgical care is delivered 24 h a day at most institutions. Alarmingly, some authors have found that certain operative start times are associated with greater morbidity and mortality rates. This effect has been noted in both the public and private sector. Although some of these differences may be related to process, they may also be caused by the human circadian rhythm and corresponding changes in host defenses. We hypothesized that the time of day of an operation would impact the frequency of certain post-operative outcomes significantly. Cases at a single tertiary-care center reported to the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program over a 10-year period were identified. Operative start times were divided into six-hour blocks, with 6 am to noon serving as the reference. Standard univariable techniques were applied. Multivariable logistic regression with mixed effects modeling then was used to determine the relation between operative start times and infectious outcomes, controlling for surgeon clustering. Statistical significance was set at p operative infectious complication. Seventy percent of these infections (n = 1,506) were surgical site infections. On univariable analysis considering all cases, nighttime and evening operations had higher rates of post-operative infections than those in performed during the day (9.1% from 6 am to noon; 9.7% from noon to 6 pm; 14.8% from 6 pm to midnight; and 14.4% from midnight to 6 am; p operative start time was not associated with the risk of post-operative infection, even when emergency cases were considered independently. Our data suggest that operative start times have no correlation with post-operative infectious complications. Further work is required to identify the source of the time-dependent outcome variability observed in previous studies.

  19. Volumes, Masses, and Surface Areas for Shippingport LWBR Spent Nuclear Fuel in a DOE SNF Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Davis

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate volumes, masses, and surface areas associated with (a) an empty Department of Energy (DOE) 18-inch diameter, 15-ft long spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister, (b) an empty DOE 24-inch diameter, 15-ft long SNF canister, (c) Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) SNF, and (d) the internal basket structure for the 18-in. canister that has been designed specifically to accommodate Seed fuel from the Shippingport LWBR. Estimates of volumes, masses, and surface areas are needed as input to structural, thermal, geochemical, nuclear criticality, and radiation shielding calculations to ensure the viability of the proposed disposal configuration

  20. Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth's most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability

  1. Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Operations Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen Tiger Team Assessment and eight Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) final reports have been received and reviewed by the DOE Training Coordination Program during Fiscal Year 1992. These assessments and appraisals included both reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities in their reports. The Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports both used TSA performance objectives, and list ''concerns'' as a result of their findings. However, the TSA reports categorized concerns into the following functional areas: (1) Organization and Administration, (2) Radiation Protection, (3) Nuclear Criticality Safety, (4) Occupational Safety, (5) Engineering/Technical Support, (6) Emergency Preparedness, (7) Safety Assessments, (8) Quality Verification, (9) Fire Protection, (10) Environmental Protection, and (11) Energetic Materials Safety. Although these functional areas match most of the TSA performance objectives, not all of the TSA performance objectives are addressed. For example, the TSA reports did not include Training, Maintenance, and Operations as functional areas. Rather, they included concerns that related to these topics throughout the 11 functional areas identified above. For consistency, the Operations concerns that were identified in each of the TSA report functional areas have been included in this summary with the corresponding TSA performance objective

  2. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alluvial valley floor exists if it finds that— (i) Unconsolidated streamlaid deposits holding streams are... on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial valley floors in the arid and semiarid areas west of....19 Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

  3. DOE High Performance Computing Operational Review (HPCOR): Enabling Data-Driven Scientific Discovery at HPC Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Allcock, William; Beggio, Chris; Campbell, Stuart; Cherry, Andrew; Cholia, Shreyas; Dart, Eli; England, Clay; Fahey, Tim; Foertter, Fernanda; Goldstone, Robin; Hick, Jason; Karelitz, David; Kelly, Kaki; Monroe, Laura; Prabhat,; Skinner, David; White, Julia

    2014-10-17

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities are on the verge of a paradigm shift in the way they deliver systems and services to science and engineering teams. Research projects are producing a wide variety of data at unprecedented scale and level of complexity, with community-specific services that are part of the data collection and analysis workflow. On June 18-19, 2014 representatives from six DOE HPC centers met in Oakland, CA at the DOE High Performance Operational Review (HPCOR) to discuss how they can best provide facilities and services to enable large-scale data-driven scientific discovery at the DOE national laboratories. The report contains findings from that review.

  4. 25 CFR 47.3 - How does a Bureau-operated school find out how much funding it will receive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION UNIFORM DIRECT FUNDING AND SUPPORT FOR BUREAU-OPERATED SCHOOLS § 47.3 How does a Bureau-operated school find out how much funding it will receive? The Office of Indian Education Programs (OIEP) will... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a Bureau-operated school find out how much...

  5. Characterization Report Operational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report - Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations

  6. 10 CFR 63.161 - Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area through permanent closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Planning Criteria § 63.161 Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area through permanent... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency plan for the geologic repository operations area... may occur at the geologic repository operations area, at any time before permanent closure and...

  7. Baseline risk assessment for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 microg/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  8. Environmental assessment for operations, upgrades, and modifications in SNL/NM Technical Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The proposed action for this EA for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Technical Area IV, includes continuing existing operations, modification of an existing accelerator (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II) to support defnese-related Z-pinch experiments, and construction of two transformer oil storage tanks to support the expansion of the Advanced Pulsed Power Research Module, a single pulse accelerator. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE believes that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA and CEQ NEPA implementing regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and a Finding of No Significant Impact is issued.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS IN RECOVERY AREAS AND OPERATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan I. Gâf-Deac

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that to date, intangible assets are considered "goods" and as such, the practice of classical accounting consider intellectual capital in the same category of "goods equivalent / similar to those visible / tangible". From research that literature on measuring knowledge assets / intellectual capital, both in Romania and worldwide, is not large enough and does not provide finite significant "strong" on classifications semantic of the content and quality issues in the field. The book titled New Economy between knowledge and risk – Infomin Ed., Deva, 2010 (www.infomindeva.ro (ISBN 978-973-7646-11-8, (Ioan I. Gâf-Deac  presents systematization and classification of original models and methodologies for measuring knowledge assets, intellectual capital in socio-economic sciences, and as such, in this present article resorting to the extension applied to formalizing measurement of intangible assets in areas operation and exploitation of natural resources.

  10. Environmental assessment for operations, upgrades, and modifications in SNL/NM Technical Area IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The proposed action for this EA for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Technical Area IV, includes continuing existing operations, modification of an existing accelerator (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II) to support defnese-related Z-pinch experiments, and construction of two transformer oil storage tanks to support the expansion of the Advanced Pulsed Power Research Module, a single pulse accelerator. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE believes that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA and CEQ NEPA implementing regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and a Finding of No Significant Impact is issued

  11. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications particularly for

  12. Technology strategy for integrated operations and real time reservoir management; Technology Target Areas; TTA5 - Integrated operations and RTRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    In Norway Integrated Operations (IO) is a concept which in the first phase (G1) has been used to describe how to integrate processes and people onshore and offshore using ICT solutions and facilities that improve onshore's ability to support offshore operationally. The second generation (G2) Integrated Operations aims to help operators utilize vendors' core competencies and services more efficiently. Utilizing digital services and vendor products, operators will be able to update reservoir models, drilling targets and well trajectories as wells are drilled, manage well completions remotely, optimize production from reservoir to export lines, and implement condition-based maintenance concepts. The total impact on production, recovery rates, costs and safety will be profound. When the international petroleum business moves to the Arctic region the setting is very different from what is the case on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and new challenges will arise. The Norwegian Ministry of Environment has recently issued an Integrated Management Plan for the Barents Sea where one focus is on 'Monitoring of the Marine Environment in the North'. The Government aims to establish a new and more coordinated system for monitoring the marine ecosystems in the north. A representative group consisting of the major Operators, the Service Industry, Academia and the Authorities have developed the enclosed strategy for the OG21 Integrated Operations and Real Time Reservoir Management (IO and RTRM) Technology Target Area (TTA). Major technology and work process research and development gaps have been identified in several areas: Bandwidth down-hole to surface; Sensor development including Nano-technology; Cross discipline use of Visualisation, Simulation and model development particularly in Drilling and Reservoir management areas; Software development in terms of data handling, model updating and calculation speed; Enabling reliable and robust communications

  13. Radiological impact on the surrounding area of Cernavoda NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busnita, M.; Penescu, M.; Neacsu, L.; Ion, M.; Moldoveanu, E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the protective measures provided to Cernavoda NPP for population and environment in case of normal operation and accidental situations. The paper describes the nuclear safety concept with the two aspects, the technical safety and the radiation protection, respectively, which represent the theoretical basis of the NPP design, construction and operation. The assessment of the potential radiological effects of Cernavoda NPP operation on the population and other environmental factors have been done by using the following input data: the natural and social characteristics of the site and the technical characteristics of the plant. The effects of Cernavoda NPP operation are also exposed in health risks which are compared with the daily risks of the population exposed of the natural phenomena or to the activities like transportation, domestics or industrial. (author). 1 tab., 6 refs

  14. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant H-Canyon operations. Supplement 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M M; Collier, C D; Fairobent, L A; Graham, R F; Mason, C L; McDuffee, W T; Owen, T L; Walker, D H [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1986-02-01

    The H-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the HM process to separate uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and fission products. Irradiated uranium fuels containing {sup 235}U at enrichments from 1.1% to 94% are processed and recovered, along with neptunium and plutonium isotopes. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. This SAR documents an analysis of the H-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the Conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some H-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the H-Carbon can be operated without due risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined an the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological does are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  15. General areas needing chemical competence to support reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proksch, E.; Bildstein, H.

    1963-01-01

    Chemical competence is needed not only for the development of new types of reactors but also for the start-up and safe operation of reactors. The activities of chemistry and chemical engineering cover a number of fields, namely chemical analysis, radiochemical analysis, corrosion research, radiolysis of water and water purification. The author reviews fields in reactor operation and maintenance in which chemical competence is needed. (author). 9 refs

  16. Does training of fellows affect peri-operative outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khene, Zine-Eddine; Peyronnet, Benoit; Bosquet, Elise; Pradère, Benjamin; Robert, Corentin; Fardoun, Tarek; Kammerer-Jacquet, Solène-Florence; Verhoest, Grégory; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Mathieu, Romain; Bensalah, Karim

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of fellows' involvement on the peri-operative outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). We analysed 216 patients who underwent RAPN for a small renal tumour. We stratified our cohort into two groups according to the involvement of a fellow surgeon during the procedure: expert surgeon operating alone (expert group) and fellow operating under the supervision of the expert surgeon (fellow group). Peri-operative data were compared between the two groups. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of fellows' involvement on peri-operative and postoperative outcomes. Trifecta and margins ischaemia complications (MIC) score achievement rates were used to assess the quality of surgery in both the expert and fellow groups. Trifecta was defined as a combination of warm ischaemia time negative surgical margins and no peri-operative complications. MIC score was defined as negative surgical margins, ischaemia time Training fellows to perform RAPN is associated with longer operating time and WIT but does not appear to compromise other peri-operative outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Wavy channel transistor for area efficient high performance operation

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Sevilla, Galo T.

    2013-01-01

    We report a wavy channel FinFET like transistor where the channel is wavy to increase its width without any area penalty and thereby increasing its drive current. Through simulation and experiments, we show the effectiveness of such device

  18. 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility operating specifications document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    These specifications deal with the release of treated water into the Columbia River via the TEDF submerged outfall. Specific limits are set for contaminants to be discharged in NPDES permit WA-002591-7. This section contains the operating ranges that will be used to best meet the permit limits

  19. 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility operational test specification. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met. The technical requirements for operational testing of the 200 Area TEDF are defined by the test requirements presented in Appendix A. These test requirements demonstrate the following: pump station No.1 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; pump station No. 2 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; water is transported through the collection and transfer lines to the disposal ponds with no detectable leakage; the disposal ponds accept flow from the transfer lines with all support equipment operating as designed; and the control systems operate and status the 200 Area TEDF including monitoring of appropriate generator discharge parameters

  20. FERMILAB: operation resumes in meson area; fast neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Improvements and modifications in the Meson Area at Fermilab are described. The target train was rebuilt and energy range of some beams raised to 400 GeV with provisions for Tevatron beams of 1000 GeV in the future. The work of the fast neutron therapy facility is summarised. (W.D.L.).

  1. Intra-Operational Area Coordination: The Zone EOC Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    200, operating as Asiana Airlines flight 214 , was on approach to runway 28L when it struck a seawall at San Francisco International Airport (SFIA...training and lacked the necessary training and experience to land a jumbo jet onto an airstrip with a sea wall. The Asiana Airline incident also...Crash of Asiana Flight 214 Accident Report Summary, 2014, accessed August 31, 2015, http://www.ntsb.gov/news/events/Pages/ 2014_Asiana_BMG

  2. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  3. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  4. Animal and Rabies Control in Joint Operations Areas (Working Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    appear lethargic with hypersalivation and anorexia . Two rabies syndromes are recognized in animals—the paralytic or “dumb” and hyperactive or “furious... nutritional needs, making populated areas a preferred habitat and increasing the reproductive capacity of animals which is attributed to improved... nutrition . Without appropriate vaccination and population control, feral animals contribute to the maintenance of sylvatic rabies cycles in local wildlife

  5. Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency's mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations

  6. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-07-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  7. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-01-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  8. First operation of the wide-area remote experiment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Y.; Hasegawa, K.; Ueno, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-area Remote Experiment System (WRES) at Spring-8 has been successfully developed. The system communicates with remote users on the basis of SSL/TLS with bi-directional authentication to avoid interference from unauthorized access to the system. The system has a message-filtering system to allow remote users access only to the corresponding beamline equipment and safety interlock system. This is to protect persons inside the experimental station from injury from any accidental motion of heavy equipment. The system also has a video streaming system to monitor samples or experimental equipment. We have tested the system from the point of view of safety, stability, reliability etc. and successfully performed the first experiment from a remote site, i.e., RIKEN's Wako campus, which is 480 km away from Spring-8, at the end of October 2010. (authors)

  9. 25 CFR 171.500 - How does BIA determine the annual operation and maintenance assessment rate for the irrigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... costs needed for the reliable operation of the irrigation facility infrastructure; (8) Maintenance of a... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does BIA determine the annual operation and... Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND...

  10. Joint operation of the TSTA under the collaboration between JAERI and U.S.-DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takumi; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Konishi, Satoshi

    1993-03-01

    An extended loop operation of the TSTA with the J-FCU was performed successfully with 100 grams of tritium on April-May 1992. One of the major purposes of this extended loop operation was to demonstrate stable control and safe operation of the entire TSTA during 25 days. This is one of the major milestones of the Collaborative Program on technology for fusion-fuel processing under the Annex IV between JAERI and US-DOE. From a technical point of view, this extended loop operation produced many highlights. Specially, it was noteworthy that the ISS with full four columns was controlled stably for 22 days. It was also noteworthy that the TSTA-FCU with magnesium bed and the J-FCU were first operated under the complete integrated TSTA loop with full (4) columns ISS and that both FCUs were processed simulated fusion-fuel exhaust with a various range of impurities stably and safely. This report describes the entire test plan and the brief test results. (author)

  11. Operational water management applications of snowcovered area observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.; Foster, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An effort was made to evaluate the utility of satellite snowcover observations for seasonal streamflow prediction. On a representative, large watershed(10 to the 5th power to 10 to the sixth power sq km) it was found, based on six years of data, that meteorological satellite observations of snow cover early in the snowmelt season exhibit a relationship to seasonal runoff having a statistically significant coefficient of determination of 0.92. Analyses of LANDSAT-1 snow-cover observations over the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming reveals that for areas with infrequent cloud cover the extent of snowcover and its change with time can be monitored on watersheds as small as 10 sq km in areal extent. The change in the snow cover with time as observed from LANDSAT-1 is found to reflect major differences in seasonal runoff from high altitude (mean altitude 3 km) and low altitude ( 3 km) watersheds. There are quantitative indications that LANDSAT observations over small watersheds could be used in a manner similar to that employed for meteorological satellite observations to relate the percent of a basin snowcovered on a given data to seasonal runoff.

  12. The Linkage of Joint Operational Fires, Information Operations and the Army: Does the Army Have Effective Feedback Mechanisms that Integrate Operational Fires (Physical Destruction) and Information Operations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, Charles

    2004-01-01

    The information revolution seems to hold a lot of promise to the U.S. economy and the U.S. military, but rigid bureaucratic hierarchies make it extremely difficult for effective integration of operational fires and information operations...

  13. Public Participation Plan for Waste Area Group 7 Operable Unit 7-13/14 at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. G. Meagher

    2007-01-01

    This Public Participation Plan outlines activities being planned to: (1) brief the public on results of the remedial investigation and feasibility study, (2) discuss the proposed plan for remediation of Operable Unit 7-13/14 with the public, and (3) encourage public participation in the decision-making process. Operable Unit 7-13/14 is the Comprehensive Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Group 7. Analysis focuses on the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory (Site). This plan, a supplement to the Idaho National Laboratory Community Relations Plan (DOE-ID 2004), will be updated as necessary. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will participate in the public involvement activities outlined in this plan. Collectively, DOE, DEQ, and EPA are referred to as the Agencies. Because history has shown that implementing the minimum required public involvement activities is not sufficient for high-visibility cleanup projects, this plan outlines additional opportunities the Agencies are providing to ensure that the public's information needs are met and that the Agencies can use the public's input for decisions regarding remediation activities

  14. Recommended management practices for operation and closure of shallow injection wells at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act established the Underground Injection Control (UIC) program to ensure that underground injection of wastes does not endanger an underground source of drinking water. Under UIC regulations, an injection well is a hole in the ground, deeper than it is wide, that receives wastes or other fluid substances. Types of injection wells range from deep cased wells to shallow sumps, drywells, and drainfields. The report describes the five classes of UIC wells and summarizes relevant regulations for each class of wells and for the UIC program. The main focus of the report is Class IV and V shallow injection wells. Class IV wells are prohibited and should be closed when they are identified. Class V wells are generally authorized by rule, but EPA or a delegated state may require a permit for a Class V well. This report provides recommendations on sound operating and closure practices for shallow injection wells. In addition the report contains copies of several relevant EPA documents that provide additional information on well operation and closure. Another appendix contains information on the UIC programs in 21 states in which there are DOE facilities discharging to injection wells. The appendix includes the name of the responsible regulatory agency and contact person, a summary of differences between the state's regulations and Federal regulations, and any closure guidelines for Class IV and V wells

  15. Designing for Wide-Area Situation Awareness in Future Power Grid Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Fiona F.

    Power grid operation uncertainty and complexity continue to increase with the rise of electricity market deregulation, renewable generation, and interconnectedness between multiple jurisdictions. Human operators need appropriate wide-area visualizations to help them monitor system status to ensure reliable operation of the interconnected power grid. We observed transmission operations at a control centre, conducted critical incident interviews, and led focus group sessions with operators. The results informed a Work Domain Analysis of power grid operations, which in turn informed an Ecological Interface Design concept for wide-area monitoring. I validated design concepts through tabletop discussions and a usability evaluation with operators, earning a mean System Usability Scale score of 77 out of 90. The design concepts aim to support an operator's complete and accurate understanding of the power grid state, which operators increasingly require due to the critical nature of power grid infrastructure and growing sources of system uncertainty.

  16. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  17. The effect of operating lamps on the protected area of a unidirectional down flow (UDF) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traversari, A.A.L.; Bottenheft, C.; Louman, R.; Heumen, S.P.M. van; Böggeman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Operating lamps are often seen as the most disruptive factors within the protective area in the operating theater (OT). The effect of the operation lamps (with different shapes) should be demonstrated in an OT by trial, since research on the effects of the lamps is still limited.

  18. Pre-operative Tei Index does not predict left ventricular function immediately after mitral valve repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirojit Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiographic assessment of systolic left ventricular (LV function in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR undergoing mitral valve (MV repair can be challenging because the measurement of ejection fraction (EF or fractional area change (FAC in pathological states is of questionable value. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of the pre-operative Tei Index in predicting left ventricular EF or FAC immediately after MV repair. One hundred and thirty patients undergoing MV repair with sinus rhythm pre- and post-operatively were enrolled in this prospective study. Twenty-six patients were excluded due to absence of sinus rhythm post-operatively. Standard transesophageal examination(IE 33,Philips,Netherlands was performed before and after cardiopulmonary bypass according to the guidelines of the ASE/SCA. FAC was determined in the transgastric midpapillary short-axis view. LV EF was measured in the midesophageal four- and two-chamber view. For calculation of the Tei Index, the deep transgastric and the midesophageal four-chamber view were used. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 17.0. values are expressed as mean with standard deviation. LV FAC and EF decreased significantly after MV repair (FAC: 56±12% vs. 50±14%, P<0.001; EF: 58±11 vs. 50±12Έ P<0.001. The Tei Index decreased from 0.66±0.23 before MV repair to 0.41±0.19 afterwards (P<0.001. No relationship between pre-operative Tei Index and post-operative FAC or post-operative EF were found (FAC: r=−0.061, P=0.554; EF: r=−0.29, P=0.771. Conclusion: Pre-operative Tei Index is not a good predictor for post-operative FAC and EF in patients undergoing MV repair.

  19. 13 CFR 120.835 - Application to expand an Area of Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application to expand an Area of Operations. 120.835 Section 120.835 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... program responsibilities in the proposed area. (b) Local Economic Area Expansion. A CDC seeking to expand...

  20. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  1. 40 CFR 60.2989 - Does this subpart directly affect incineration unit owners and operators in my State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incineration unit owners and operators in my State? 60.2989 Section 60.2989 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced... incineration unit owners and operators in my State? (a) No, this subpart does not directly affect incineration...

  2. Franchise Cellular Operator in Rural Areas (Operator Seluler Model Franchise Di Daerah Rural)

    OpenAIRE

    Parewe, Nurfadillah A; Hasan, Taufik; Kurniawan, Adit

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development in telecommunication motivates organizations or business person to gain some profits in telco-based business. However, very limited Indonesian villagers had access to these technologies. This problem was caused by the less attractive condition (even unfeasible) to invest in the rural areas because the cost to build a conventional telecommunication infrastructure was very high, eventhough this was a potential new market. The other is the limitations of the spectrum allo...

  3. Effect of military deployment in operational area on the trend of smoking among troops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, S.; Mubarik, H.

    2015-01-01

    To identify effect of military deployment in operational area on trend of smoking cigarettes among troops. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of study: The study was carried out in an Army Brigade deployed in Operation Al-Mizan, Swat, from Jan to March 2014. Material and Methods: Whole troops of an army brigade deployed in operation Al-Mizan, Swat were the part of present study. Total strength of brigade comprised of 1850 troops. Out of these 1850, officers constituted 53 (2.86%) and rest 1797 (97.14%) were Junior Commissioned officers (JCOs), noncommissioned officers (NCOs) and soldiers. All ranks other than officers were collectively termed as soldiers. All the individuals were given structured questionnaire to fill. The information was gathered on variables like age, rank, unit, education, duration of deployment in operational area, habit of smoking, intensity of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked daily) and change in the habit and intensity of smoking after being deployed in the operational area. Information was also gathered from the individuals about the reasons for change in the habit (starting or stopping smoking) and intensity of smoking after deployment in operational area. Forty nine individuals with less than 6 months duration in operational area were excluded. All the other officers and soldiers (1801) having served more than 6 months in the operational area were included in the study. Results: There were total 1801 individuals included in the study. Officers constituted 52 (2.88%) of the total and rest 1749 (97.12%) were soldiers. The mean age of officers was 26.34 ± 4.6 years and mean age of soldiers was 27.92 ± 4.5 years. The overall frequency of smoking in officers and soldiers in the operational area came out to be 29.6%, however the overall frequency of smoking in these individuals before coming to operational area was 26.8%. There were 3 officers and 47 soldiers who started smoking in the operational area

  4. Annual Site Environmental Report, Department of Energy Operations at the Energy Technology Engineering Center – Area IV, Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazee, Brad [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hay, Scott [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wondolleck, John [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sorrels, Earl [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rutherford, Phil [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dassler, David [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jones, John [North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2014 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the DOE at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The ETEC, a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  5. 5 CFR 591.215 - Where does OPM collect prices in the COLA and DC areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Survey areas. Each COLA area has one survey area, except Hawaii County, HI, and the U.S. Virgin Islands COLA areas. Hawaii County has two survey areas: the Hilo area and the Kailua Kona/Waimea area. The U.S... See paragraph (c) of this section. Honolulu City and County of Honolulu. Hawaii County Hilo area. 1...

  6. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) Lead Laboratory Providing Technical Assistance to the DOE Weapons Complex in Subsurface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J. A. Jr.; Corey, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA), a DOE-HQ EM-50 organization, is hosted and managed at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. SCFA is an integrated program chartered to find technology and scientific solutions to address DOE subsurface environmental restoration problems throughout the DOE Weapons Complex. Since its inception in 1989, the SCFA program has resulted in a total of 269 deployments of 83 innovative technologies. Until recently, the primary thrust of the program has been to develop, demonstrate, and deploy those remediation technology alternatives that are solutions to technology needs identified by the DOE Sites. Over the last several years, the DOE Sites began to express a need not only for innovative technologies, but also for technical assistance. In response to this need, DOE-HQ EM-50, in collaboration with and in support of a Strategic Lab Council recommendation directed each of its Focus Areas to implement a Lead Laboratory Concept to enhance their technical capabilities. Because each Focus Area is unique as defined by the contrast in either the type of contaminants involved or the environments in which they are found, the Focus Areas were given latitude in how they set up and implemented the Lead Lab Concept. The configuration of choice for the SCFA was a Lead-Partner Lab arrangement. Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) teamed with the SCFA as the Focus Area's Lead Laboratory. SRTC then partnered with the DOE National Laboratories to create a virtual consulting function within DOE. The National Laboratories were established to help solve the Nation's most difficult problems, drawing from a resource pool of the most talented and gifted scientists and engineers. Following that logic, SRTC, through the Lead-Partner Lab arrangement, has that same resource base to draw from to provide assistance to any SCFA DOE customer throughout the Complex. This paper briefly describes how this particular arrangement is organized and

  7. 14 CFR 93.177 - Operations in the Special Air Traffic Rule Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in the Special Air Traffic Rule Area. 93.177 Section 93.177 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Luke AFB, AZ §...

  8. 9 CFR 318.304 - Operations in the thermal processing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... area. 318.304 Section 318.304 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and Canned Products § 318.304 Operations in the thermal processing area. (a...

  9. Estimation of radon concentration in various operating areas of a reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayan, M.P.; Ashok Kumar, P.; Raman, Anand; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports 222 Rn concentration of various operating areas of a reprocessing facility and also the U-processing area, measured using a microcontroller based Continuous Radon Monitor (CRM) built indigenously by Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

  10. Evaluation of the Benefit of Flood Reduction by Artificial Groundwater Recharge Lake Operation in a Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Nuo; Tsai, Chih-Heng

    2017-04-01

    Inundation disasters often occur in the southwestern coastal plains of Taiwan. The coastal plains suffers mostly from land-subsidence, surface water is difficult to be drained during the typhoon period, leading to more severe flood disasters. Global climate warming has become more significant, which in turn has resulted in the increase in amplitude and frequency of climate change related disasters. In addition, climate change also induces a rise in sea water level year by year. The rise in sea water level does not only weakens the function of existing drainage system but also increases tidal levels and storm tide levels, which increases the probability and amount of inundation disasters. The serious land subsidence area at Linbian river basin was selected as the study area. An artificial groundwater recharge lake has been set up in Linbian river basin by Pingtung government. The development area of this lake is 58 hectare and the storage volume is 2.1 million cubic meters (210 × 104m3). The surface water from Linbian basin during a wet season is led into the artificial groundwater recharge lake by water diversion project, and then employ special hydro-geological conditions of the area for groundwater recharge, increase groundwater supply and decrease land subsidence rate, and incidentally some of the flood diversion, detention, reduce flooding. In this study, a Real-time Interactive Inundation Model is applied to simulate different flooding storage volume and gate operations to estimate the benefits of flood mitigation. According to the simulation results, the hydrograph shape, peak-flow reduction and time lag to peak of the flood reduction hydrograph into the lake are apparently different for each case of different gate operation at the same storage volume. Therefore, the effect of flood control and disaster mitigation is different. The flood control and disaster mitigation benefits are evaluated by different operation modes, which provide decision makers to

  11. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  12. Closure report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations steam-cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This Closure Report (CR) provides documentation of the completed corrective action at the Area 12 Fleet Operations site located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Field work was performed in July 1997 as outlined in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The CAP was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in June 1997. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) Number 12-19-01 and is the only CAS in Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. The former Area 12 Fleet Operations Building 12-16 functioned as a maintenance facility for light- and heavy-duty vehicles from approximately 1965 to January 1993. Services performed at the site included steam-cleaning, tire service, and preventative maintenance on vehicles and equipment. Past activities impacted the former steam-cleaning discharge area with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil

  13. Corrective action plan for CAU Number 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations, Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the method for implementing the corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). Detailed information of the site history and results of previous characterizations can be found in the Work Plan, the Preliminary Investigation Report, and the Phase 2 Characterization Report. Previous characterization investigations were completed as a condition of the Temporary Water Pollution Control Permit issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on July 14, 1992. The scope of this report is to prepare a CAP based upon the selected remedial alternative for closure of the Area 12, Building 12-16 Fleet Operations steam cleaning discharge area. The effluent discharge area has been impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as oil. The maximum hydrocarbon and VOC concentrations detected in the Preliminary and Phase 2 Site Characterization Investigations are summarized

  14. Control area readiness audit report of the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladish, L.A.; Campoli, G.; Le, Q.; Farrokhpay, S.; Kirby, B.; Penwell, C.; Weaver, S.; Vicini, D.; Wells, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) is a control area authority that is responsible for the safe and reliable operation of its portion of the bulk electric system in cooperation with neighbouring control areas. This audit by the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) reviewed the readiness of Ontario's IMO to meets its responsibilities as a control area operator. NERC recommended specific actions to correct the deficiencies that resulted in the blackout in southeastern Ontario and northeastern United States on August 14, 2003. Initiatives to strengthen compliance with existing standards were also suggested along with longer-term technical initiatives to prevent or mitigate the impacts of cascading blackouts in the future. The audit process included: a self-assessment questionnaire to the control area being audited; a questionnaire to neighbouring control areas; a questionnaire to the reliability coordinator and an on-site audit by a selected audit team. The following issues were reviewed: criteria and compliance, authority, responsibilities in the planning time frame, real time monitoring, system restoration, delegation of reliability coordinator functions, outage coordination, transmission and generation relaying, energy emergency plan, operating policy, line clearances, and nuclear power plant requirements. It was concluded that the IMO has the necessary plans, procedures, processes, tools and trained personnel to respond to emergency events. The audit did not find any major operational problems, but offered a few recommendations for improvement. tabs

  15. 25 CFR 547.4 - How does a tribal government, tribal gaming regulatory authority, or tribal gaming operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a tribal government, tribal gaming regulatory authority, or tribal gaming operation comply with this part? 547.4 Section 547.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING...

  16. Final report on evaluation of cyclocraft support of oil and gas operations in wetland areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.; Stevens, P.M.; John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Lindstedt, D.M.

    1994-10-01

    The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft, capable of VTOL, lifting heavy and bulky loads, highly controllable, having high safety characteristics and low operating costs. Mission Research Corporation (MRC), under Department of Energy sponsorship, is evaluating the potential use of cyclocraft in the transport of drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment, in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner, to support oil and gas drilling, production, and transportation operations in wetland areas. Based upon the results of an earlier parametric study, a cyclocraft design, having a payload capacity of 45 tons and designated H.1 Cyclocraft, was selected for further study, including the preparation of a preliminary design and a development plan, and the determination of operating costs. This report contains all of the results derived from the program to evaluate the use of cyclocraft in the support of oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas.

  17. 100 Area source operable unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS), a focused feasibility study (FFS) is performed for those waste sites which have been identified as candidates for interim remedial measures (IRM) based on information contained in applicable work plans and limited field investigations (LFI). The FFS process for the 100 Area source operable units will be conducted in two stages. This report, hereafter referred to as the Process Document, documents the first stage of the process. In this stage, IRM alternatives are developed and analyzed on the basis of waste site groups associated with the 100 Area source operable units. The second stage, site-specific evaluation of the IRM alternatives presented in this Process Document, is documented in a series of operable unit-specific reports. The objective of the FFS (this Process Document and subsequent operable unit-specific reports) is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of IRM for sites associated with the 100 Area source operable units. Accordingly, the following information is presented: a presentation of remedial action objectives; a description of 100 Area waste site groups and associated group profiles; a description of IRM alternatives; and detailed and comparative analyses of the IRM alternatives

  18. Optimizing hourly hydro operations at the Salt Lake City Area integrated projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselka, T.D.; Hamilton, S.; McCoy, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) is responsible for marketing the capacity and energy generated by the Colorado Storage, Collbran, and Rio Grande hydropower projects. These federal resources are collectively called the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). In recent years, stringent operational limitations have been placed on several of these hydropower plants including the Glen Canyon Dam, which accounts for approximately 80% of the SLCA/IP resources. Operational limitations on SLCA/IP hydropower plants continue to evolve as a result of decisions currently being made in the Glen Canyon Dam Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the Power Marketing EIS. To analyze a broad range of issues associated with many possible future operational restrictions, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with technical assistance from Western has developed the Hydro LP (Linear Program) Model. This model simulates hourly operations at SLCA/IP hydropower plants for weekly periods with the objective of maximizing Western's net revenues. The model considers hydropower operations for the purpose of serving SLCA firm loads, loads for special projects, Inland Power Pool (IPP) spinning reserve requirements, and Western's purchasing programs. The model estimates hourly SLCA/IP generation and spot market activities. For this paper, hourly SLCA/IP hydropower plant generation is simulated under three operational scenarios and three hydropower conditions. For each scenario an estimate of Western's net revenue is computed

  19. 75 FR 2133 - Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ (DOE/EIS-0440)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ (DOE/EIS-0440) AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration... proposed Quartzsite Solar Energy Project (Project) in La Paz County, near Quartzsite, Arizona. Quartzsite Solar Energy, LLC (QSE) has applied to Western to interconnect the proposed Project to Western's power...

  20. Does the Future Engineer Force Transition Engineer Units between Offensive and Stability Operations in Ways That Achieve Responsiveness, Versatility, Agility, Effectiveness, and Efficiency?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    London, David T

    2005-01-01

    .... The main question is as follows: Does the FEF transition engineer units between offensive and stability operations in ways that achieve responsiveness, versatility, agility, effectiveness, and efficiency...

  1. Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may......: Simulations indicated that adjustment for area limited the bias due to unmeasured confounders varying with area at the costs of a slight decrease in statistical power. In our cohort, rural and urban areas differed for air pollution levels and for many factors associated with respiratory health and exposure....... Area tended to modify effect measures of air pollution on respiratory health. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the size of the study area also increases the potential for residual confounding. Our simulations suggest that adjusting for type of area is a good option to limit residual confounding due to area...

  2. Baseline groundwater model update for p-area groundwater operable unit, NBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Amidon, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the development of a numerical groundwater flow and transport model of the hydrogeologic system of the P-Area Reactor Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). The P-Area model provides a tool to aid in understanding the hydrologic and geochemical processes that control the development and migration of the current tritium, tetrachloroethene (PCE), and trichloroethene (TCE) plumes in this region.

  3. The Effect of Operating Lamps on the Protected Area of a Unidirectional Down Flow (UDF) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversari, A A L; Bottenheft, C; Louman, R; van Heumen, S P M; Böggemann, J

    2017-04-01

    Operating lamps are often seen as the most disruptive factors within the protective area in the operating theater (OT). The effect of the operation lamps (with different shapes) should be demonstrated in an OT by trial, since research on the effects of the lamps is still limited. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of a skirt, different lamps, and the position of the lamp on the protected area. The concentration of airborne particles was measured under different circumstances, in order to determine the size and quality of the protected area. This entrainment/segregation test is based on the deliberate and controlled emission of particles outside the zone that is protected. The degree of protection (DP) at the center of the protected area was higher for the case with the skirt. This skirt stimulates more down flow and prevents the early entry of particles into the protected area. It can also be concluded that Lamp Y, due to its open shape, has the most positive effect on the DP at the center. It has also been shown that the position of the lamp has an effect on the protected area.

  4. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuel (Supplement 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P M

    1983-09-01

    Analysis of the Savannah River Plant RBOF and RRF included an evaluation of the reliability of process equipment and controls, administrative controls, and engineered safety features. The evaluation also identified potential scenarios and radiological consequences. Risks were calculated in terms of 50-year population dose commitment per year (man-rem/year) to the onsite and offsite population within an 80 Km radius of RBOF and RRF, and to an individual at the plant boundary. The total 50-year onsite and offsite population radiological risks of operating the RBOF and RRF were estimated to be 1.0 man-rem/year. These risks are significantly less than the population dose of 54,000 man/rem/yr for natural background radiation in a 50-mile radius. The 50-year maximum offsite individual risk from operating the facility was estimated to be 2.1 {times} 10{sup 5} rem/yr. These risks are significantly lower than 93 mrem/yr an individual is expected to receive from natural background radiation in this area. The analysis shows. that the RBOF and RRF can be operated without undue risk to onsite personnel or to the general public.

  5. Does parkland influence walking? The relationship between area of parkland and walking trips in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Tania L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using two different measures of park area, at three buffer distances, we sought to investigate the ways in which park area and proximity to parks, are related to the frequency of walking (for all purposes in Australian adults. Little previous research has been conducted in this area, and results of existing research have been mixed. Methods Residents of 50 urban areas in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia completed a physical activity survey (n = 2305. Respondents reported how often they walked for ≥10 minutes in the previous month. Walking frequency was dichotomised to ‘less than weekly’ (less than 1/week and ‘at least weekly’ (1/week or more. Using Geographic Information Systems, Euclidean buffers were created around each respondent’s home at three distances: 400metres (m, 800 m and 1200 m. Total area of parkland in each person’s buffer was calculated for the three buffers. Additionally, total area of ‘larger parks’, (park space ≥ park with Australian Rules Football oval (17,862 m2, was calculated for each set of buffers. Area of park was categorised into tertiles for area of all parks, and area of larger parks (the lowest tertile was used as the reference category. Multilevel logistic regression, with individuals nested within areas, was used to estimate the effect of area of parkland on walking frequency. Results No statistically significant associations were found between walking frequency and park area (total and large parks within 400 m of respondent’s homes. For total park area within 800 m, the odds of walking at least weekly were lower for those in the mid (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.91 and highest (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.95 tertile of park area compared to those living in areas with the least amount of park area. Similar results were observed for total park area in the 1200 m buffers. When only larger parks were investigated, again more frequent walking was less likely when respondents had

  6. A DOE multi-site approach to safeguards integration with facility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenak, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Accountability Technology Exchange (ATEX) Working Group was established in October 1986 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to help identify nuclear materials accountability measurement needs within the DOE plutonium community and recommend potential improvements. ATEX Working Group membership represents nuclear materials production, safeguards, nondestructive assay (NDA), and analytical chemistry at a multitude of DOE plutonium sites. Currently, the ATEX Working Group has identified twenty NDA accountability measurement needs that fall into five major classes: NDA standards representing various nuclear materials and matrix compositions; NDA for impure nuclear materials compounds, residues, and wastes; NDA for product-grade nuclear materials; NDA for nuclear materials process holdup and in-process inventory; and NDA for nuclear materials item control and verification. Specific needs within these classes have been evaluated and ranked for individual sites and for the total DOE plutonium community

  7. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  8. 9 CFR 381.304 - Operations in the thermal processing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in the thermal processing area. 381.304 Section 381.304 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...

  9. Determination of the wind power systems load to achieve operation in the maximum energy area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioncel, C. P.; Tirian, G. O.; Spunei, E.; Gillich, N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyses the operation of the wind turbine, WT, in the maximum power point, MPP, by linking the load of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator, PMSG, with the wind speed value. The load control methods at wind power systems aiming an optimum performance in terms of energy are based on the fact that the energy captured by the wind turbine significantly depends on the mechanical angular speed of the wind turbine. The presented control method consists in determining the optimal mechanical angular speed, ωOPTIM, using an auxiliary low power wind turbine, WTAUX, operating without load, at maximum angular velocity, ωMAX. The method relies on the fact that the ratio ωOPTIM/ωMAX has a constant value for a given wind turbine and does not depend on the time variation of the wind speed values.

  10. Sampling alien species inside and outside protected areas: Does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Aristides; Voutsela, Anneta; Katsanevakis, Stelios

    2018-06-01

    Data of alien species presences are generally more readily available in protected than non-protected areas due to higher sampling efforts inside protected areas. Are the results and conclusions based on analyses of data collected in protected areas representative of wider non-protected regions? We address this question by analysing some recently published data of alien plants in Greece. Mixed effects models were used with alien species presences in 8.25 x 8.25 km cells as dependent variable and the percentage of protected area, as well as the agricultural and artificial land cover types richness (as indicators of human presence) as independent variables. In addition, the spatial cross-correlation between the percentage of protected area and alien species richness was examined across scales. Results indicated that the percentage of protected area per cell is a poor predictor of alien species richness. Spatial analysis indicated that cells with higher percentage of protected areas have slightly less alien species than cells with lower percentage of protected areas. This result is likely to be driven by the overall negative correlation between habitat protection and anthropogenic activities. Thus, the conclusions deduced by data deriving from protected areas are likely to hold true for patterns of alien species in non-protected areas when the human pressures are accounted for.

  11. Sampling alien species inside and outside protected areas: Does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Aristides; Voutsela, Anneta; Katsanevakis, Stelios

    2018-06-01

    Data of alien species presences are generally more readily available in protected than non-protected areas due to higher sampling efforts inside protected areas. Are the results and conclusions based on analyses of data collected in protected areas representative of wider non-protected regions? We address this question by analysing some recently published data of alien plants in Greece. Mixed effects models were used with alien species presences in 8.25×8.25km cells as dependent variable and the percentage of protected area, as well as the agricultural and artificial land cover types richness (as indicators of human presence) as independent variables. In addition, the spatial cross-correlation between the percentage of protected area and alien species richness was examined across scales. Results indicated that the percentage of protected area per cell is a poor predictor of alien species richness. Spatial analysis indicated that cells with higher percentage of protected areas have slightly less alien species than cells with lower percentage of protected areas. This result is likely to be driven by the overall negative correlation between habitat protection and anthropogenic activities. Thus, the conclusions deduced by data deriving from protected areas are likely to hold true for patterns of alien species in non-protected areas when the human pressures are accounted for. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. How often does the operating list follow the planned order? An analysis of elective maxillofacial operating lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shofiq; Taylor, Christopher J; Ahmed, Siddiq; Ormiston, Ian W; Hayter, Jonathan P

    2015-12-01

    The authors explored consistency of the observed running order in operating sequence compared with prior scheduled listing. We analysed potential variables felt to be predictive in the chances of a patient having their procedure as previously scheduled. Data were retrospectively collected for a consecutive group of patients who underwent elective maxillofacial procedures over a four week period. The consistency of scheduled and observed running order was documented. We considered four independent variables (original list position, day of week, morning or afternoon list, seniority of surgeon) and analysed their relationship to the probability of a patient undergoing their operation as per listing. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant associations between predictor variables with an altered list order. Data were available for 35 lists (n = 133). 49% of lists were found to run according to prior given order, the remainder subject to some alteration. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between original scheduled position and day of week, with list position consistency. Patients listed first were twelve times more likely to have their operation as listed compared to those placed fourth (OR 12.7, 95% CI 3.7-43, p lists at the start of a week were subject to less alteration (p lists showed some alteration to the previously printed order. It appears that being first on an elective list offers the greatest guarantee that a patient will have their operation as per prior schedule. It may be reasonable for clinicians to be mindful of potential operating list alterations when preparing their patients for elective surgery. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Area 12 fleet operations steam cleaning discharge area, Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Unit 339

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) incorporates the methodology used for evaluating the remedial alternatives completed for a former steam cleaning discharge area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The former steam cleaning site is located in Area 12, east of the Fleet Operations Building 12-16. The discharge area has been impacted by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) F Listed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and petroleum hydrocarbons waste. Based upon these findings, resulting from Phase 1 and Phase 2 site investigations, corrective action is required at the site. To determine the appropriate corrective action to be proposed, an evaluation of remedial alternatives was completed. The evaluation was completed using a Corrective Measures Study (CMS). Based on the results of the CMS, the favored closure alternative for the site is plugging the effluent discharge line, removing the sandbagged barrier, completing excavation of VOC impacted soils, and fencing the soil area impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), east of the discharge line and west of the soil berm. Management of the F Listed VOCs are dictated by RCRA. Due to the small volume of impacted soil, excavation and transportation to a Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is the most practical method of management. It is anticipated that the TPH (as oil) impacted soils will remain in place based upon; the A through K Analysis, concentrations detected (maximum 8,600 milligrams per kilogram), expected natural degradation of the hydrocarbons over time, and the findings of the Phase 2 Investigation that vertical migration has been minimal

  15. Public participation in a DOE national program: The mixed waste focus area's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the Mixed Waste Focus Area's approach to involving interested Tribal and public members in the mixed waste technology development process. Evidence is provided to support the thesis that the Focus Area's systems engineering process, which provides visible and documented requirements and decision criteria, facilitates effective Tribal and public participation. Also described is a status of Tribal and public involvement at three levels of Focus Area activities

  16. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kurt T.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Pratt, Aaron C.

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  17. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  18. Operational experience of a large area x-ray camera for protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joachimiak, A.; Jorden, A. R.; Loeffen, P. W.; Naday, I.; Sanishvili, R.; Westbrook, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    After 3 years experience of operating very large area (210mm x 210mm) CCD-based detectors at the Advanced Photon Source, operational experience is reported. Four such detectors have been built, two for Structural Biology Center (APS-1 and SBC-2), one for Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center (Gold-2) at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source and one for Osaka University by Oxford Instruments, for use at Spring 8 (PX-21O). The detector is specifically designed as a high resolution and fast readout camera for macromolecular crystallography. Design trade-offs for speed and size are reviewed in light of operational experience and future requirements are considered. Operational data and examples of crystallography data are presented, together with plans for more development

  19. Outcomes from the regional Co-operation in the Area of the Safety Analysis Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.; Mavko, B.; Prosek, A.; Debrecin, N.; Bajs, T.

    2000-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carried out the Co-ordinated Research Program (CRP) ON V alidation of Accident and Safety Analysis Methodology'' in the period between 1995 and 1998. Three areas of interest identified by the participants referred to the pressurised water reactors of Western and Eastern type (PWR and WWER type). The specific areas of attention were: system behaviour of the primary and secondary loops (PS area), the containment response (CO area) and the severe accidents (SA area). During the CRP it became clear that the technology advancements, the available tools (i.e. codes) and the experimental databases in the above areas are quite different. At the conclusion of the CRP, all objectives of the program have been reached. This paper presents the summary of the regional co-operation in this framework. The CRP activities focused on the codes and expertise available at the participating organisations. This overview therefore summarises their experience related to the state-of-the-art in the field of computational accident analysis. In addition, the paper proposes the recommendations for future activities related to the code usage, the user effects and code development. In pursuing of these goals special attention is given to the importance of the international co-operation. (author)

  20. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at DOE facilities. Fiscal year 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Comprehensive safety programs are maintained at DOE facilities in order to protect both personnel and property from accidents. To ensure compliance with safety standards and regulations and maximize effectiveness of the safety programs, an extensive inspection and appraisal program is conducted at the contractor and field office levels by both DOE field and Headquarters safety personnel. When accidents do occur, investigations are conducted to identify causes and determine managerial or safety actions needed to prevent similar occurrences. DOE safety requirements include the reporting of personnel injury, property and motor vehicle losses on a quarterly basis, and radiation doses on an annual basis. The radiation dose data for CY 1978 are presented and reviewed in this report. All other data in this report are for FY 1978

  1. Analysis of dangerous area of single berth oil tanker operations based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lina; Zhu, Faxin; Lu, Jinshu; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Hailin

    2018-04-01

    Based on the single process in the liquid cargo tanker berths in the state as the research object, we analyzed the single berth oil tanker in the process of VOCs diffusion theory, built network model of VOCs diffusion with Gambit preprocessor, set up the simulation boundary conditions and simulated the five detection point sources in specific factors under the influence of VOCs concentration change with time by using Fluent software. We analyzed the dangerous area of single berth oil tanker operations through the diffusion of VOCs, so as to ensure the safe operation of oil tanker.

  2. Investigation on the Short Circuit Safe Operation Area of SiC MOSFET Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a better insight of the short circuit capability of state-of-the-art SiC MOSFET power modules rated at 1.2 kV by highlighting the physical limits under different operating conditions. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified, both reducing the short-circuit capability...... of SiC power modules in respect to discrete SiC devices. Based on such failure mechanisms, two short circuit criteria (i.e., short circuit current-based criterion and gate voltage-based criterion) are proposed in order to ensure their robustness under short-circuit conditions. A Safe Operation Area (SOA...

  3. THE REMOTE AND MOBILE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER AND ITS POSSIBLE APPLICATION TO THE OPERATIONAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea VAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of remote and mobile Air Traffic Control Tower (ATC TWR and its development has started in Europe, Australia and also in the USA, in order to improve the efficiency of Air Traffic Management (ATM systems in terms of air transportation safety. These new technologies are applicable in many countries in peace time, but on mobility reasons these are promoted to achieve commitments in the operational area. This article describes the devices and range of equipment of mobile and remote tower, and their specifications, which can even serve a medium sized airport, furthermore examines, whether how can those provide the air traffic services at an operational airfield.

  4. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Facility description - Layout E. Spiral ramp with one operational area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Stig [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Forsgren, Ebbe [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lange, Fritz [Lange Art AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    below ground. The proposal is based on a hypothetical inland location with a rail link. The report describes a layout with a spiral ramp as access to the deposition area and with a single operational area above ground. The ramp will be used as a transport route for heavy and bulky transports. A shaft, that connects the operational area with the central area of the deposition area, is used for utility systems and for staff transports between the surface and the deposition area. It has been assumed that the deposition areas and the central area are on the same level. The appendix, describing a two level alternative, shows how the underground area could be arranged if the deposition area for regular operation were to be divided into two levels. The facility description concentrates on the situation during regular operation. It also describes the gradual expansion programme, including land requirements and connections to existing infrastructure. The report concludes with some perspective sketches, which give a vision of how the repository might look when ready for operation. This facility description is a translation of the Swedish SKB report R-02-18. It is important to note that the report gives an example of one possible design for the deep repository. Many issues concerning system design, functional solutions, layout and design ought to be investigated further before deciding on the final design.

  5. Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. Facility description - Layout E. Spiral ramp with one operational area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Stig; Forsgren, Ebbe; Lange, Fritz

    2002-04-01

    ground. The proposal is based on a hypothetical inland location with a rail link. The report describes a layout with a spiral ramp as access to the deposition area and with a single operational area above ground. The ramp will be used as a transport route for heavy and bulky transports. A shaft, that connects the operational area with the central area of the deposition area, is used for utility systems and for staff transports between the surface and the deposition area. It has been assumed that the deposition areas and the central area are on the same level. The appendix, describing a two level alternative, shows how the underground area could be arranged if the deposition area for regular operation were to be divided into two levels. The facility description concentrates on the situation during regular operation. It also describes the gradual expansion programme, including land requirements and connections to existing infrastructure. The report concludes with some perspective sketches, which give a vision of how the repository might look when ready for operation. This facility description is a translation of the Swedish SKB report R-02-18. It is important to note that the report gives an example of one possible design for the deep repository. Many issues concerning system design, functional solutions, layout and design ought to be investigated further before deciding on the final design

  6. Local flooding phenomena in channel and land areas occurring during dynamic operation of a PEFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlen, S. von; Schneider, I.A. [Fuel Cell Diagnostics Activities, Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    In this work, we report on flooding phenomena occurring during dynamic operation of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The combination of high spatially and temporally resolved neutron radiography and submillimeter resolved current density distribution measurements enables the simultaneous observation of local liquid water content and current density transients in the channel and land areas of a differentially operated PEFC air cathode. The local transients of a triangular voltage sweep and a voltage step are presented here. Both results demonstrate that in the land area the current density is only marginally affected by the local liquid water content. In the voltage sweep experiment, at higher cell polarization a limiting current density is observed in the land area as a result of mass transport limitations due to the high lateral diffusion path length. In the channel area the corresponding transients of the liquid water content and the current density both exhibit a hysteresis. The transients of the voltage step indicate liquid water rearrangement in channel and land areas as a slow process occurring on a time scale of several minutes. Thereby, the local cell performance is primarily affected by the local liquid water content in front of the oxygen electrode. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. 5 CFR 591.206 - How does OPM establish COLA areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living... where agencies pay employees a COLA by virtue of living costs that are substantially higher than those...

  8. Air pollution in moderately polluted urban areas: How does the definition of "neighborhood" impact exposure assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenailleau, Quentin M; Mauny, Frédéric; Joly, Daniel; François, Stéphane; Bernard, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    Environmental health studies commonly quantify subjects' pollution exposure in their neighborhood. How this neighborhood is defined can vary, however, leading to different approaches to quantification whose impacts on exposure levels remain unclear. We explore the relationship between neighborhood definition and exposure assessment. NO2, benzene, PM10 and PM2.5 exposure estimates were computed in the vicinity of 10,825 buildings using twelve exposure assessment techniques reflecting different definitions of "neighborhood". At the city scale, its definition does not significantly influence exposure estimates. It does impact levels at the building scale, however: at least a quarter of the buildings' exposure estimates for a 400 m buffer differ from the estimated 50 m buffer value (±1.0 μg/m(3) for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5; and ±0.05 μg/m(3) for benzene). This variation is significantly related to the definition of neighborhood. It is vitally important for investigators to understand the impact of chosen assessment techniques on exposure estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does operational oceanography address the needs of fisheries and applied environmental scientists?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berx, B.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Skogen, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    whether recent developments in operational oceanographic products are addressing these needs. The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Working Group on Operational Oceanographic products for Fisheries and Environment (WGOOFE) identified a potential mismatch between user requirements......Although many oceanographic data products are now considered operational, continued dialogue between data producers and their user communities is still needed. The fisheries and environmental science communities have often been criticized for their lack of multidisciplinarity, and it is not clear...

  10. Comparison of Operational Subsidies on Less Favoured Areas in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lososová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at an analysis of operational subsidies on the Less Favoured Areas (LFA in the European Union countries. With the help of cluster analysis, the EU countries were divided into groups and, using correlation and regression analyses, the relations between defined indicators were evaluate. The indicators of FADN EU related to the cultivated land area were completed with relative indicators. Some differences were proved in subsidy effectiveness between particular groups of the countries. The amount of operational subsidies only has a positive impact on subsidised costs in the mountain LFAs. Worse productive and climate conditions increase the dependence of the output on subsidies related to cost effectiveness. No dependence of the output share of subsidies and the subsidised costs was proven in all groups.

  11. Pre-operative irradiation of eosinophilic granuloma in the parotid area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Satoshi; Toda, Yukio; Nakajima, Hisami; Takeyama, Isamu; Sodemoto, Yukio; Endo, Masaru

    1983-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is thought to originate in the reticuloendothelial system and cannot clearly be distinguished from the surrounding tissue during operation. An eosinophilic granuloma in the parotid area was removed after 25 days of irradiation at a dosage of 10.0 Gy per 3 days. A thin capsule of connective tissue was observed after the tumor was cut in half. Then, histopathological studies were performed on this connective tissue to determine the effect of the irradiation. Histopathologically, at the periphery of the tissue, atrophy of lymphocytes and destruction of the lymphoid tissue, which were thought to result in an increase in the connective tissue, were observed. It was concluded that a small dose of pre-operative radiation on eosinophilic granuloma in the parotid area made the tumor small and produced a capsule around the tumor. (author)

  12. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit

  13. Storage coordination and peak-shaving operation in urban areas with high renewable penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Voulis, N.; Warnier, Martijn; Brazier, F.M.

    2017-01-01

    As renewable power generation gains importance, balancing of power demand and supply becomes more and more challenging. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring the potential of individually-owned storage units in decentralised power systems with a high share of renewables. The focus is on the influence of coordination and peak-shaving operation of these individual units in realistic urban areas. Currently extensive amount of research exits on specific applications related to storage ...

  14. Interfacial area and interfacial transfer in two-phase systems. DOE final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Hibiki, T.; Revankar, S.T.; Kim, S.; Le Corre, J.M.

    2002-07-01

    In the two-fluid model, the field equations are expressed by the six conservation equations consisting of mass, momentum and energy equations for each phase. The existence of the interfacial transfer terms is one of the most important characteristics of the two-fluid model formulation. The interfacial transfer terms are strongly related to the interfacial area concentration and to the local transfer mechanisms such as the degree of turbulence near interfaces. This study focuses on the development of a closure relation for the interfacial area concentration. A brief summary of several problems of the current closure relation for the interfacial area concentration and a new concept to overcome the problem are given.

  15. Does taxonomic diversity in indicator groups influence their effectiveness in identifying priority areas for species conservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Larsen, Frank Wugt; Rahbek, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    The identification of priority areas for biodiversity conservation is a cornerstone of systematic conservation planning. However, biodiversity, or even the distribution of all species, cannot be directly quantified, due to the inherent complexity of natural systems. Species indicator groups may...... serve as important tools for the identification of priority areas for conservation. Yet, it is unclear which factors make certain indicator groups perform better than others. In this study, using data on the Danish distribution of 847 species of plants, vertebrates and insects, we assessed whether...... the taxonomic diversity in species indicator groups influence their effectiveness in the identification of priority areas for species conservation. We tested whether indicator groups comprising a higher taxonomic diversity (i.e. indicator groups consisting of species from many different taxonomic groups...

  16. A DOE/DP multisite approach to safeguards integration with facility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenak, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Accountability Technology Exchange (ATEX) Working Group was established in October 1986 by the plutonium processing technology exchange steering committee under the US Department of Energy/Department of Defense program's materials management executive committee (DOE/DP MMEC). The ATEX Working Group provides a multisite, multidisciplinary forum for discussing, evaluating, and recommending both existing and emerging nuclear materials accountability measurement technologies for implementation into DOE/DP plutonium processing facilities. This forum assists technologists in understanding state-of-the-art plutonium processing and accountability measurement practices throughout the complex, as well as current and projected technical needs. As a result, the ATEX Working Group will contribute to the improvement of plutonium processing technologies by helping to assure that the best possible nuclear materials accountability measurement techniques are made available to all sites to process plutonium safely, securely, and cost-effectively

  17. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure

  18. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  19. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program. Joint Research and Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Don

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation's electrical generation capability. By the end of 2014, about one-third of the existing domestic fleet will have passed their 40th anniversary of power operations, and about one-half of the fleet will reach the same 40-year mark within this decade. Recognizing the challenges associated with pursuing extended service life of commercial nuclear power plants, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy [NE] and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have established separate but complementary research and development programs (DOE-NE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability [LWRS] Program and EPRI's Long-Term Operations [LTO] Program) to address these challenges. To ensure that a proper linkage is maintained between the programs, DOE-NE and EPRI executed a memorandum of understanding in late 2010 to @@@establish guiding principles under which research activities (between LWRS and LTO) could be coordinated to the benefit of both parties.@@@ This document represents the third annual revision to the initial version (March 2011) of the plan as called for in the memorandum of understanding.

  20. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program. Joint Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Don

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation’s electrical generation capability. By the end of 2014, about one-third of the existing domestic fleet will have passed their 40th anniversary of power operations, and about one-half of the fleet will reach the same 40-year mark within this decade. Recognizing the challenges associated with pursuing extended service life of commercial nuclear power plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have established separate but complementary research and development programs (DOE-NE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability [LWRS] Program and EPRI’s Long-Term Operations [LTO] Program) to address these challenges. To ensure that a proper linkage is maintained between the programs, DOE-NE and EPRI executed a memorandum of understanding in late 2010 to “establish guiding principles under which research activities (between LWRS and LTO) could be coordinated to the benefit of both parties.” This document represents the third annual revision to the initial version (March 2011) of the plan as called for in the memorandum of understanding.

  1. Patient-specific instrumentation for total knee arthroplasty does not match the pre-operative plan as assessed by intra-operative computer-assisted navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Corey; Sahni, Varun; Lustig, Sebastien; Parker, David A; Coolican, Myles R J

    2014-03-01

    The introduction of patient-specific instruments (PSI) for guiding bone cuts could increase the incidence of malalignment in primary total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement between one type of patient-specific instrumentation (Zimmer PSI) and the pre-operative plan with respect to bone cuts and component alignment during TKR using imageless computer navigation. A consecutive series of 30 femoral and tibial guides were assessed in-theatre by the same surgeon using computer navigation. Following surgical exposure, the PSI cutting guides were placed on the joint surface and alignment assessed using the navigation tracker. The difference between in-theatre data and the pre-operative plan was recorded and analysed. The error between in-theatre measurements and pre-operative plan for the femoral and tibial components exceeded 3° for 3 and 17% of the sample, respectively, while the error for total coronal alignment exceeded 3° for 27% of the sample. The present results indicate that alignment with Zimmer PSI cutting blocks, assessed by imageless navigation, does not match the pre-operative plan in a proportion of cases. To prevent unnecessary increases in the incidence of malalignment in primary TKR, it is recommended that these devices should not be used without objective verification of alignment, either in real-time or with post-operative imaging. Further work is required to identify the source of discrepancies and validate these devices prior to routine use. II.

  2. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information

  3. [Review comments on the Draft DOE Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project]: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutch, S.I.; Stiegliltz, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    Research performed under the grant primarily involved review and comment on the Draft Area Recommendations Report (DARR). However, because data and ''recommendations'' included in the DARR are unquestionably tied to years of research and dozens of technical reports and documents, i.e., Screening Methodologies, Regional characterization Reports, etc., it is essential that consultants to the Menominee Tribe review all the relevant DOE documents, working papers, etc. Given the short period provided for technical comment and limited funds available to the Tribe, a well designed and thorough technical review was (and is) without question impossible. What review and comment that did occur on a geotechnical level is included in this report

  4. A torque-measuring micromotor provides operator independent measurements marking four different density areas in maxillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Arosio, Paolo; Piattelli, Adriano; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2015-02-01

    Bone density at implant placement site is a key factor to obtain the primary stability of the fixture, which, in turn, is a prognostic factor for osseointegration and long-term success of an implant supported rehabilitation. Recently, an implant motor with a bone density measurement probe has been introduced. The aim of the present study was to test the objectiveness of the bone densities registered by the implant motor regardless of the operator performing them. A total of 3704 bone density measurements, performed by means of the implant motor, were registered by 39 operators at different implant sites during routine activity. Bone density measurements were grouped according to their distribution across the jaws. Specifically, four different areas were distinguished: a pre-antral (between teeth from first right maxillary premolar to first left maxillary premolar) and a sub-antral (more distally) zone in the maxilla, and an interforaminal (between and including teeth from first left mandibular premolar to first right mandibular premolar) and a retroforaminal (more distally) zone in the lower one. A statistical comparison was performed to check the inter-operators variability of the collected data. The device produced consistent and operator-independent bone density values at each tooth position, showing a reliable bone-density measurement. The implant motor demonstrated to be a helpful tool to properly plan implant placement and loading irrespective of the operator using it.

  5. Optimal operation method coping with uncertainty in multi-area small power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Tobaru

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Japan contains a vast number of isolated islands. Majority of these islands are poweredby diesel generators (DGs, which are operationally not economical. Therefore, the introduction of renewableenergy systems (RESs into these area is very much vital. However, the variability of RESs asa result of weather condition as well as load demand , battery energy storage system (BESS is broughtinto play. Demand response (DR programs have also been so attractive in the energy management systemsfor the past decades. Among them, the real-time pricing (RTP has been one of the most effectivedemand response program being utilized. This program encourages the customer to increase or reducethe load consumption by varying the electricity price. Also, due to the increase in power transactionmarket, Japan electric power exchange (JEPX has established spot (day-ahead, intraday hour-ahead,and forward market programs. This paper utilizes day-ahead and hour-ahead markets, since these marketscan make it possible to deal with uncertainty related to generated power fluctuations. Therefore,this paper presents the optimal operation method coping with the uncertainties of RESs in multi-areasmall power systems. The proposed method enables flexibility to correspond to the forecasting error byproviding two kinds of power markets among multi-area small power systems and trading the shortageand surplus powers. Furthermore, it accomplishes a stable power supply and demand by RTP. Thus, theproposed method was able to reduce operational cost for multi-area small power systems. The processof creating operational plan for RTP, power trading at the markets and the unit commitment of DGs arealso presented in this paper. Simulation results corroborate the merit of the proposed program.

  6. Does pre-operative psychological distress affect patient satisfaction after primary total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are concerns that pre-operative psychological distress might be associated with reduced patient satisfaction after total hip replacement (THR. Methods We investigated this in a multi-centre prospective study between January 1999 and January 2002. We dichotomised the patients into the mentally distressed (MHS ≤ 56 and the not mentally distressed (MHS > 56 groups based on their pre-operative Mental Health Score (MHS of SF36. Results 448 patients (340 not distressed and 108 distressed completed the patient satisfaction survey. Patient satisfaction rate at five year was 96.66% (415/448. There was no difference in patient satisfaction or willingness to have the surgery between the two groups. None of pre-operative variables predicted five year patient satisfaction in logistic regression. Conclusions Patient satisfaction after surgery may not be adversely affected by pre-operative psychological distress.

  7. Safety analysis -- 200 Area Savannah River Plant, F-Canyon Operations. Supplement 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M.M.; Collier, C.D.; Fairobent, L.A.; Graham, R.F.; Mason, C.L.; McDuffee, W.T.; Owen, T.L.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-02-01

    The F-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the Purex process to recover plutonium from reactor-irradiated uranium. The irradiated uranium is normally in the form of solid or hollow cylinders called slugs. These slugs are encased in aluminum cladding and are sent to the F-Canyon from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor areas or from the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the F-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. The previous SAR documented an analysis of the entire 200 Separations Area operations. This SAR documents an analysis of the F-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some F-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the F-Canyon can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined as the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological dose are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  8. The Haendeloe area in Norrkoeping, Sweden: Does it fit for Industrial Symbiosis development?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatefipour, Saeid; Baas, Leenard; Eklund, Mats (Div. of Environmental Technology and Management - Dept. of Management and Engineering, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: saeid.hatefipour@liu.se

    2011-06-15

    Today, sustainable cities/regions are playing an important role in sustainable development projects. The overall aim of the current paper is to demonstrate an Industrial Symbiosis development in the Haendeloe area of Norrkoeping city in the Oestergoetland county of Sweden. It is part of a research program called 'Sustainable Norrkoeping' focusing on developing links between the industrial and the urban part of the city. As analysis of the current situation is important for understanding the future development, the paper tries to map the current industrial symbiosis links and symbiotic network to identify potentials exist. To achieve this, paper gives a general view of how this area has been developed, constructed, and grown. The next stage is devoted to an inventory of different actors, stakeholders, and companies, their processes and relationships in the form of energy, materials and by-products exchanges, flows and streams into and out of the Haendeloe area considering the Haendeloe/Norrkoeping as system boundaries. In addition, by describing different tools, elements and approaches of industrial symbiosis and considering and applying two main key tools as industrial inventories and input/output matching the paper also tries to show that whether the already industrial activities formed inside the Haendeloe fits for an industrial symbiosis development

  9. The standard operating procedure of the DOE-JGI Microbial Genome Annotation Pipeline (MGAP v.4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Tripp, H James; Paez-Espino, David; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Szeto, Ernest; Pillay, Manoj; Chen, I-Min A; Pati, Amrita; Nielsen, Torben; Markowitz, Victor M; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-01-01

    The DOE-JGI Microbial Genome Annotation Pipeline performs structural and functional annotation of microbial genomes that are further included into the Integrated Microbial Genome comparative analysis system. MGAP is applied to assembled nucleotide sequence datasets that are provided via the IMG submission site. Dataset submission for annotation first requires project and associated metadata description in GOLD. The MGAP sequence data processing consists of feature prediction including identification of protein-coding genes, non-coding RNAs and regulatory RNA features, as well as CRISPR elements. Structural annotation is followed by assignment of protein product names and functions.

  10. Does modern helicopter construction reduce noise exposure in helicopter rescue operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Thomas; Jansing, Paul; Schöffl, Volker; van Der Giet, Simone

    2013-01-01

    During helicopter rescue operations the medical personnel are at high risk for hearing damage by noise exposure. There are two important factors to be taken into account: first, the extreme variability, with some days involving no exposure but other days with extreme exposure; second, the extreme noise levels during work outside the helicopter, e.g. during winch operations. The benefit of modern, less noisier constructions and the consequences for noise protection are still unknown. We estimated the noise exposure of the personnel for different helicopter types used during rescue operations in the Alps and in other regions of the world with special regard to the advanced types like Eurocopter EC 135 to compare the benefit of modern constructions for noise protection with earlier ones. The rescue operations over 1 year of four rescue bases in the Alps (Raron and Zermatt in Switzerland; Landeck and Innsbruck in Austria, n = 2731) were analyzed for duration of rescue operations (noise exposure). Noise levels were measured during rescue operations at defined points inside and outside the different aircraft. The setting is according to the European standard (Richtlinie 2003/10/EG Amtsblatt) and to Class 1 DIN/IEC 651. With both data sets the equivalent noise level L(eq8h) was calculated. For comparison it was assumed that all rescue operations were performed with a specific type of helicopter. Then model calculations for noise exposure by different helicopter types, such as Alouette IIIb, Alouette II 'Lama', Ecureuil AS350, Bell UH1D, Eurocopter EC135, and others were performed. Depending on modern technologies the situation for the personnel has been improved significantly. Nevertheless noise prevention, which includes noise intermissions in spare time, is essential. Medical checks of the crews by occupational medicine (e.g. 'G20' in Germany) are still mandatory.

  11. The role of rostral Brodmann area 6 in mental-operation tasks: an integrative neuroimaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanakawa, Takashi; Honda, Manabu; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Okada, Tomohisa; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Fukuyama, Hidena; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    Recent evidence indicates that classical 'motor' areas may also have cognitive functions. We performed three neuroimaging experiments to investigate the functional neuroanatomy underlying three types of nonmotor mental-operation tasks: numerical, verbal, and spatial. (i) Positron emission tomography showed that parts of the posterior frontal cortex, which are consistent with the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the rostral part of the dorsolateral premotor cortex (PMdr), were active during all three tasks. We also observed activity in the posterior parietal cortex and cerebellar hemispheres during all three tasks. Electrophysiological monitoring confirmed that there were no skeletomotor, oculomotor or articulatory movements during task performance. (ii) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed that PMdr activity during the mental-operation tasks was localized in the depths of the superior precentral sulcus, which substantially overlapped the region active during complex finger movements and was located dorsomedial to the presumptive frontal eye fields. (iii) Single-trial fMRI showed a transient increase in activity time-locked to the performance of mental operations in the pre-SMA and PMdr. The results of the present study suggest that the PMdr is important in the rule-based association of symbolic cues and responses in both motor and nonmotor behaviors.

  12. Towards Large-area Field-scale Operational Evapotranspiration for Water Use Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G. B.; Friedrichs, M.; Morton, C.; Huntington, J. L.; Verdin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Field-scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are needed for improving surface and groundwater use and water budget studies. Ideally, field-scale ET estimates would be at regional to national levels and cover long time periods. As a result of large data storage and computational requirements associated with processing field-scale satellite imagery such as Landsat, numerous challenges remain to develop operational ET estimates over large areas for detailed water use and availability studies. However, the combination of new science, data availability, and cloud computing technology is enabling unprecedented capabilities for ET mapping. To demonstrate this capability, we used Google's Earth Engine cloud computing platform to create nationwide annual ET estimates with 30-meter resolution Landsat ( 16,000 images) and gridded weather data using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model in support of the National Water Census, a USGS research program designed to build decision support capacity for water management agencies and other natural resource managers. By leveraging Google's Earth Engine Application Programming Interface (API) and developing software in a collaborative, open-platform environment, we rapidly advance from research towards applications for large-area field-scale ET mapping. Cloud computing of the Landsat image archive combined with other satellite, climate, and weather data, is creating never imagined opportunities for assessing ET model behavior and uncertainty, and ultimately providing the ability for more robust operational monitoring and assessment of water use at field-scales.

  13. Crew aiding and automation: A system concept for terminal area operations, and guidelines for automation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This research and development program comprised two efforts: the development of guidelines for the design of automated systems, with particular emphasis on automation design that takes advantage of contextual information, and the concept-level design of a crew aiding system, the Terminal Area Navigation Decision Aiding Mediator (TANDAM). This concept outlines a system capable of organizing navigation and communication information and assisting the crew in executing the operations required in descent and approach. In service of this endeavor, problem definition activities were conducted that identified terminal area navigation and operational familiarization exercises addressing the terminal area navigation problem. Both airborne and ground-based (ATC) elements of aircraft control were extensively researched. The TANDAM system concept was then specified, and the crew interface and associated systems described. Additionally, three descent and approach scenarios were devised in order to illustrate the principal functions of the TANDAM system concept in relation to the crew, the aircraft, and ATC. A plan for the evaluation of the TANDAM system was established. The guidelines were developed based on reviews of relevant literature, and on experience gained in the design effort.

  14. Why does the lumen maintenance of sodium-scandium metal halide lamps improve by VHF operation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Erk, W; Luijks, G M J F; Hitchcock, W

    2011-01-01

    Lifetime experiments show that sodium-scandium metal halide lamps perform better on very high frequency (VHF) drivers than on low frequency (LF) constant wattage autotransformer (CWA) ballasts. The question why, will be addressed with focus on arc tube aspects. It is argued that at high frequency operation sodium loss is less, and that the absence of thermal fluctuations in the electrode tip causes less damage and cracking to this part of the electrode. Sudden lm W -1 drops, observed with CWA-operated lamps, most probably occur when the arc attaches on such a corroded and cracked surface. Thorium is effective as an emitter both in the CWA and the VHF operation mode, despite the absence of cataphoretic transport to the cathode in the VHF case.

  15. Why does the lumen maintenance of sodium-scandium metal halide lamps improve by VHF operation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Erk, W [Philips Lighting, Sondervick 47, 5505 NB Veldhoven (Netherlands); Luijks, G M J F [Advanced Development Lighting, Philips Lighting, PO Box 80020, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hitchcock, W, E-mail: Gerard.luijks@philips.com [Philips Lighting Company, 7265 Route 54, Bath, NY 14810 (United States)

    2011-06-08

    Lifetime experiments show that sodium-scandium metal halide lamps perform better on very high frequency (VHF) drivers than on low frequency (LF) constant wattage autotransformer (CWA) ballasts. The question why, will be addressed with focus on arc tube aspects. It is argued that at high frequency operation sodium loss is less, and that the absence of thermal fluctuations in the electrode tip causes less damage and cracking to this part of the electrode. Sudden lm W{sup -1} drops, observed with CWA-operated lamps, most probably occur when the arc attaches on such a corroded and cracked surface. Thorium is effective as an emitter both in the CWA and the VHF operation mode, despite the absence of cataphoretic transport to the cathode in the VHF case.

  16. Conflict in Protected Areas: Who Says Co-Management Does Not Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobe De Pourcq

    Full Text Available Natural resource-related conflicts can be extremely destructive and undermine environmental protection. Since the 1990 s co-management schemes, whereby the management of resources is shared by public and/or private sector stakeholders, have been a main strategy for reducing these conflicts worldwide. Despite initial high hopes, in recent years co-management has been perceived as falling short of expectations. However, systematic assessments of its role in conflict prevention or mitigation are non-existent. Interviews with 584 residents from ten protected areas in Colombia revealed that co-management can be successful in reducing conflict at grassroots level, as long as some critical enabling conditions, such as effective participation in the co-management process, are fulfilled not only on paper but also by praxis. We hope these findings will re-incentivize global efforts to make co-management work in protected areas and other common pool resource contexts, such as fisheries, agriculture, forestry and water management.

  17. Does peroperative external pneumatic leg muscle compression prevent post-operative venous thrombosis in neurosurgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynke, O; Hillman, J; Lassvik, C

    1987-01-01

    Post-operative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a frequent and potentially life-threatening complication in neurosurgery. In this field of surgery, with its special demands for exact haemostasis, prophylaxis against deep venous thrombosis with anticoagulant drugs has been utilized only reluctantly. Postoperative pneumatic muscle compression (EPC) has been shown to be effective, although there are several practical considerations involved with this method which limit its clinical applicability. In the present study per-operative EPC was evaluated and was found to provide good protection against DVT in patients with increased risk from this complication. This method has the advantage of being effective, safe, inexpensive and readily practicable.

  18. Joint operation of TSTA under the collaboration between JAERI and DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; O-hira, Shigeru; Inoue, Masahiko

    1993-03-01

    Under the Annex IV of the US-Japan Collaboration Program, loop test of the TSTA was performed in October, 1990. This test is focused on the Isotope Separation System with 3 distillation columns operated. The system was stably operated and DT products were continuously obtained. Composition profile along the columns were successfully measured with the Gas Chromatograph. In the Fuel Cleanup System, amount of adsorbed tritium on the cold molecular sieve beds were measured and a large impact of this phenomena on inventory was revealed. (author)

  19. Transition of Attention in Terminal Area NextGen Operations Using Synthetic Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Arthur, Shelton, J. J., III; Prinzel, Lance J., III; Norman, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This experiment investigates the capability of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) to provide significant situation awareness in terminal area operations, specifically in low visibility conditions. The use of a Head-Up Display (HUD) and Head-Down Displays (HDD) with SVS is contrasted to baseline standard head down displays in terms of induced workload and pilot behavior in 1400 RVR visibility levels. Variances across performance and pilot behavior were reviewed for acceptability when using HUD or HDD with SVS under reduced minimums to acquire the necessary visual components to continue to land. The data suggest superior performance for HUD implementations. Improved attentional behavior is also suggested for HDD implementations of SVS for low-visibility approach and landing operations.

  20. Potential airborne release from soil-working operations in a contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, S.L.

    1980-08-01

    Experiments were performed to provide an indication of how much material could be made airborne during soil-working operations in a contaminated area. Approximately 50 kg of contaminated soil were collected, dried, and mixed, and particle size distribution and 137 Cs content were characterized. In four experiments performed in a 2 ft x 2 ft wind tunnel at the Radioactive Aerosol Release Test Facility, soil was pumped into an airstream moving at 3.2, 10.4, 15.2, and 20 mph. These experiments were designed to maximize airborne releases by fluidizing the soil as it was pumped into the wind tunnel. Thus the airborne releases should represent upper limit values for soil-working operations. Airborne concentration and particle size samples were collected and all of the material deposited downstream was collected to calculate a mass balance. The fraction airborne was calculated using these measurements

  1. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document for the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This MIRA is to be conducted to provide information that will aid in the selection and design of final remedial actions at OU2 that will address removal of suspected free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination. The Plan involves investigating the removal of residual free-phase VOCs by in situ vacuum-enhanced vapor extraction technology at 3 suspected VOC source areas within OU2. VOC-contaminated vapors extracted from the subsurface would be treated by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and discharged. The Plan also includes water table depression, when applicable at the test sites, to investigate the performance of vapor extraction technology in the saturated zone. The Plan provides for treatment of any contaminated ground water recovered during the IM/IRA at existing RFP treatment facilities. The proposed MVIRA Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2, '' dated 20 March 1992. Information concerning the proposed Subsurface IM/IRA was presented during a DOE Quarterly Review meeting held on 07 April 1992 and a public meeting held on 07 May 1992, at the Marriott Hotel in Golden, Colorado. The Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to date to DOE during the public comment period

  2. Does operational oceanography address the needs of fisheries and applied environmental scientists?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berx, B.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Skogen, M.D.; Roeck, de Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Although many oceanographic data products are now considered operational, continued dialogue between data producers and their user communities is still needed. The fisheries and environmental science communities have often been criticized for their lack of multidisciplinarity, and it is not clear

  3. Does arousal interfere with operant conditioning of spike-wave discharges in genetic epileptic rats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osterhagen, L.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    One of the ways in which brain computer interfaces can be used is neurofeedback (NF). Subjects use their brain activation to control an external device, and with this technique it is also possible to learn to control aspects of the brain activity by operant conditioning. Beneficial effects of NF

  4. Water Services in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: How Does State Regulation Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Verónica Rocca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the State regulation of drinking water and sanitation services in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Its main objective is to identify the continuities and ruptures in State regulation during the transition from private management (1993-2006 to renationalisation and State management (2006 onwards. The concept of “State capacities” (both administrative and relational is used to assess regulatory performance. For the administrative capacities, the correspondence between the design and resources of the agencies, as well as the differences between their formal functions and actual practices, is examined. For the relational capacities, the policies of the National Government and its interaction with both the water and sanitation companies and the regulatory and control agencies are considered. The analysis is based on official documents, legislation and statistics, company balance sheets and reports, newspaper articles and semi-structured interviews.

  5. Environmental Assessment for Ongoing and Future Operations at U.S. Navy Dabob Bay and Hood Canal Military Operating Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) of the Department of the Navy gives notice that an Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared for the proposed action of implement inc an Operations Management Plan for ongoing and future operations at the U.S...

  6. Status of remedial investigation activities in the Hanford Site 300 Area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulstrom, L.C.; Innis, B.E.; Frank, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    The Phase 1 remedial investigation (RI) and Phase 1 and 2 feasibility studies (FS) for the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit underlying the 300 Area on the Hanford Site have been completed. Analysis and evaluation of soil, sediment, and surface water, and biotic sampling data, groundwater chemistry, and radiological data gathered over the past 3 years has been completed. Risk assessment calculations have been performed. Use of the data gathered, coupled with information from an automated water level data collection system, has enabled engineers to track three plumes that represent the most significant contamination of the groundwater

  7. Part 5: Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve and Area under the Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple diagnostic tools are used by emergency physicians,every day. In addition, new tools are evaluated to obtainmore accurate methods and reduce time or cost of conventionalones. In the previous parts of this educationalseries, we described diagnostic performance characteristicsof diagnostic tests including sensitivity, specificity, positiveand negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Thereceiver operating characteristics (ROC curve is a graphicalpresentation of screening characteristics. ROC curve is usedto determine the best cutoff point and compare two or moretests or observers by measuring the area under the curve(AUC. In this part of our educational series, we explain ROCcurve and two methods to determine the best cutoff value.

  8. A Short-Circuit Safe Operation Area Identification Criterion for SiC MOSFET Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Luo, Haoze

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the investigation of the short-circuit safe operation area (SCSOA) of state-of-the-art SiC MOSFET power modules rated at 1.2 kV based on the variations in SiC MOSFET electrical parameters (e.g., short-circuit current and gate–source voltage). According...... to the experimental results, two different failure mechanisms have been identified, both reducing the short-circuit capability of SiC power modules with respect to discrete SiC devices. Based on such failure mechanisms, two short-circuit safety criteria have been formulated: 1) the short-circuit...

  9. Operative treatment of the midshaft fractures of the clavicle – does delay matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Andoljšek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures of the clavicle are common injuries and mostly treated non-operatively. Nearly always the fracture is clinically united within three to four weeks and functional recovery should be completed within two months. Traditionally thinking has been that operative treatment is indicated exceptionaly and that delayed surgery is less successful. In retrospective comparative study authors have asked – whether delay of surgery in middle-third clavicular fractures negatively affects functional results and – whether after delayed surgery complications are more frequent.Patients and methods: Thirty-seven of 733 fractures of the clavicle were treated operatively. Among these, 11 were fresh Allman Type I fractures (early procedure, 9 delayed- or non-unions and one malunion (late procedure. All fractures were fixed with plates and screws. In none of the reconstructive procedures composite bone grafting was performed, twice spongiotic bone graft and twice morsilized calus grafts were used. DASH and Constant scores were used for outcome evaluation.Results: Twenty-one of 22 patients were evaluated (one foreign turist missed on average 21 month after surgery. Average DASH scores for early operated patients were 14.4 and for late operated 18.5; an average Quich DASH were 16.4 and 20.5 respectively. Average Constant scores were 85.6 and 76.0. Statistically differences are not important. Three patients had early complications (two from early, one from late group. Five patients had late complications (four skin paresthesias, one non-union.Conclusions: In retrospective study, functional results of surgically treated fresh Type I fractures and after reconstructive surgery for delayed-, non- and mal-union of the midshaft of the clavicle were comparable. No significant differences in complication rates were confirmed.

  10. How does network design constrain optimal operation of intermittent water supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Anna; Wilkening, Jon; Rycroft, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Urban water distribution systems do not always supply water continuously or reliably. As pipes fill and empty, pressure transients may contribute to degraded infrastructure and poor water quality. To help understand and manage this undesirable side effect of intermittent water supply--a phenomenon affecting hundreds of millions of people in cities around the world--we study the relative contributions of fixed versus dynamic properties of the network. Using a dynamical model of unsteady transition pipe flow, we study how different elements of network design, such as network geometry, pipe material, and pipe slope, contribute to undesirable pressure transients. Using an optimization framework, we then investigate to what extent network operation decisions such as supply timing and inflow rate may mitigate these effects. We characterize some aspects of network design that make them more or less amenable to operational optimization.

  11. Joint operation of the TSTA under the collaboration between JAERI and U.S.-DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takumi; Konishi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Hirofumi

    1993-03-01

    A first complete integrated test of the J-FCU (JAERI Fuel Cleanup System) and the ISS (Isotope Separation System) with full four cryogenic distillation columns was performed successfully with 100 grams of tritium. This test was performed as a part of a 25 day TSTA extended loop run on April - May 1992. Through this operation, the J-FCU operated stably and safely. No significant problems was caused on the interaction between the J-FCU and the ISS. J-FCU processed more than 5 N1/min of simulated fusion-fuel exhaust with wide range of impurities and transferred pure hydrogen isotopes to the ISS and exhausted tritium free impurities to the TWT (Tritium Waste Treatment System) continuously. This report describes the detail result of the J-FCU part test under a 25 day TSTA extended loop run and discuss the JFCU performance. (author)

  12. Does antegrade JJ stenting affect the total operative time during laparoscopic pyeloplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Mustafa Suat; Çınar, Önder; Akdeniz, Ekrem

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to show the effect of retrograde JJ stenting and intraoperative antegrade JJ stenting techniques on operative time in patients who underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty. A total of 34 patients were retrospectively investigated (15 male and 19 female) with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Of the patients stentized under local anesthesia preoperatively, as a part of surgery, 15 were retrogradely stentized at the beginning of the procedure (Group 1), and 19 were antegradely stentized during the procedure (Group 2). A transperitoneal dismembered pyeloplasty technique was performed in all patients. The two groups were retrospectively compared in terms of complications, the mean total operative time, and the mean stenting times. The mean ages of the patients were 31.5±15.5 and 33.2±15.5 years (p=0.09), and the mean body mass indexes were 25.8±5.6 and 26.2.3±8.4 kg/m 2 in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The mean total operative times were 128.9±38.9 min and 112.7±21.9 min (p=0.04); the mean stenting times were 12.6±5.4 min and 3.5±2.4 min (p=0.02); and the mean rates of catheterization-to-total surgery times were 0.1 and 0.03 (p=0.01) in Group 1 and 2, respectively. The mean hospital stays and the mean anastomosis times were similar between the two groups (p>0.05). Antegrade JJ stenting during laparoscopic pyeloplasty significantly decreased the total operative time.

  13. Uncloaking the dagger: does adherence to the Geneva Conventions betray Special Operations Forces?

    OpenAIRE

    Staab, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Bombs, Special Operations Forces (SOF), and proxy forces are growth industries in the modern fight. As President Obama identified in an address covering the nation's strategy in Syria, "airstrikes, Special Forces, and working with local forces who are fighting to regain control of their own country -- that is how we'll achieve a more sustainable victory." [i] These remarks capture the nation's current policy for combating terrorist threats. From its origins in the Second World War to prese...

  14. Non-operative management of blunt hepatic trauma: Does angioembolization have a major impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertens, K A; Vogt, K N; Hernandez-Alejandro, R; Gray, D K

    2015-02-01

    A paradigm shift toward non-operative management (NOM) of blunt hepatic trauma has occurred. With advances in percutaneous interventions, even severe liver injuries are being managed non-operatively. However, although overall mortality is decreased with NOM, liver-related morbidity remains high. This study was undertaken to explore the morbidity and mortality of blunt hepatic trauma in the era of angioembolization (AE). A retrospective cohort of trauma patients with blunt hepatic injury who were assessed at our centre between 1999 and 2011 were identified. Logistic regression was undertaken to identify factors increasing the likelihood of operative management (OM) and mortality. We identified 396 patients with a mean ISS of 33 (± 14). Sixty-two (18%) patients had severe liver injuries (≥ AAST grade IV). OM occurred in 109 (27%) patients. Logistic regression revealed high ISS (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.05-1.10), and lower systolic blood pressure on arrival (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99) to be associated with OM. The overall mortality was 17%. Older patients (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.03-1.07), those with high ISS (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.08-1.14) and those requiring OM (OR 2.89; 95% CI 1.47-5.69) were more likely to die. Liver-related morbidities occurred in equal frequency in the OM (23%) and AE (29%) groups (p = 0.32). Only 3% of those with NOM experienced morbidity. The majority of patients with blunt hepatic trauma can be successfully managed non-operatively. Morbidity associated with NOM was low. Patients requiring AE had morbidity similar to OM.

  15. DOE/KEURP Site Operator Program year 5 first quarter report, July 1-- September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy` s Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU now has two electric cars. Both are electric conversion vehicles from Soleq Corporation out of Chicago. KSU in conjunction with KEURP also initiated procurement for the purchase of four (4) Chevy S-10 pickup trucks. Since the supplier, GE-Spartan, canceled its effort concerning the production of vehicles other appropriate sources were sought. Today, K-State and the Kansas Utilities are working with Troy Design and Manufacturing (TDM), Redford, Michigan. TDM is working with Ford Motor Company and expects to become the first certified electric vehicle Quality Vehicle Modifier (QVM). Kansas State has entered into an agreement to assist TDM in supporting the infrastructure and technical manual development for these vehicles. The Soleq EVcorts have not been signed to illustrate to the public that it is an electric vehicle. Magnetic signs have been made for special functions to ensure sponsor support is recognized and acknowledged. As soon as TDM`s Ford Ranger electric vehicles are delivered they will be used throughout the state by utility companies that are participating with K-State`s Site Operator Program.

  16. Does India perform medical research in areas where it is most needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempts to map medical research in India and answer an important policy question by literature analysis. I match the disease pattern on the basis of mortality and morbidity statistics with journals used by Indian medical researchers to publish their work as shown by the Science Citation Index (SCI). The former reflects the needs while the latter reflects the areas in which research is being done. The limited statistics available from both the Government of India and the World Health Organization point to diarrhoeal diseases, diseases of children, respiratory diseases, circulatory system diseases, infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis as the major medical problems faced by India. The journals used often by Indian medical researchers to publish their work, as seen from the SCI (1981-85), show that in terms of number of publications, they are mainly active in general medicine, pharmacology, tropical medicine, neurosciences, radiology, oncology and pathology. In terms of the share of the world's literature in different subfields, India is second only to USA in andrology, third in tropical medicine after the USA and the UK, tenth in hygiene and public health, and eleventh in general and internal medicine, and radiology and nuclear medicine. Overall, India's share in the medical journal literature is not only much less than that of many other countries, both advanced and middle level, but also much less than that of India's share of the literature in physics, chemistry, mathematics and engineering. Data on the observed citation impact of Indian research in different subfields of medicine show that the work done in India in general is not integrated well into international research. India could be much more purposive in her research priorities and probably should invest much more in medical research.

  17. Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Environmental Safety Health (ES and H) FY 2000 and FY 2001 Execution Commitment Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REEP, I.E.

    2000-12-01

    All sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex prepare this report annually for the DOE Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the previous and current year's Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) execution commitments and the Safety and Health (S&H) resources that support these activities. The fiscal year (FY) 2000 and 2001 information and data contained in the Richland Operations Environment, Safefy and Health Fiscal Year 2002 Budget-Risk Management Summary (RL 2000a) were the basis for preparing this report. Fiscal year 2001 activities are based on the President's Amended Congressional Budget Request of $689.6 million for funding Ofice of Environmental Management (EM) $44.0 million for Fast Flux Test Facility standby less $7.0 million in anticipated DOE, Headquarters holdbacks for Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE); and $55.3 million for Safeguards and Security (SAS). Any funding changes as a result of the Congressional appropriation process will be reflected in the Fiscal Year 2003 ES&H Budget-Risk Management Summary to be issued in May 2001. This report provides the end-of-year status of FY 2000 ES&H execution commitments, including actual S&H expenditures, and describes planned FY 2001 ES&H execution commitments and the S&H resources needed to support those activities. This requirement is included in the ES&H guidance contained in the FY 2002 Field Budget Call (DOE 2000).

  18. A strategic planning approach for operational-environmental tradeoff assessments in terminal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Hernando

    This thesis proposes the use of well established statistical analysis techniques, leveraging on recent developments in interactive data visualization capabilities, to quantitatively characterize the interactions, sensitivities, and tradeoffs prevalent in the complex behavior of airport operational and environmental performance. Within the strategic airport planning process, this approach is used in the assessment of airport performance under current/reference conditions, as well as in the evaluation of terminal area solutions under projected demand conditions. More specifically, customized designs of experiments are utilized to guide the intelligent selection and definition of modeling and simulation runs that will yield greater understanding, insight, and information about the inherent systemic complexity of a terminal area, with minimal computational expense. For the research documented in this thesis, a modeling and simulation environment was created featuring three primary components. First, a generator of schedules of operations, based primarily on previous work on aviation demand characterization, whereby growth factors and scheduling adjustment algorithms are applied on appropriate baseline schedules so as to generate notional operational sets representative of consistent future demand conditions. The second component pertains to the modeling and simulation of aircraft operations, defined by a schedule of operations, on the airport surface and within its terminal airspace. This component is a discrete event simulator for multiple queuing models that captures the operational architecture of the entire terminal area along with all the necessary operational logic pertaining to simulated Air Traffic Control (ATC) functions, rules, and standard practices. The third and final component is comprised of legacy aircraft performance, emissions and dispersion, and noise exposure modeling tools, that use the simulation history of aircraft movements to generate estimates

  19. Foreign Internal Defense. Does Air Force Special Operations Have What it Takes?,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    anything in the air or on the ground. However, while the desert conditions in areas of Peru and Chile are similarly without rain, their surrounding...example, during CABANAS 89, a joint/combined exercise, Honduran officials did not allow the use of CASA -212 aircraft in the. exercise because of...correctly understood while flying en route to Desert One on the Iranian hostage rescue mission. The experience is described by Col James H. Kyle, US Air Force

  20. Problems of economic assessment of social impacts of construction anO operation of nuctear power plant in the area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koudelka, F.

    1984-01-01

    The impacts of nuclear power plant construction and operation are divided into economic, demographic, on town planning, historic, etc. Further subdivision is performed according to the intensity of construction impacts, to the sequence and quality of impact and to the effects in space and time. The area of environmental impacts is classified into the protective area and the areas of immediate, limited and broad impact. The methods of the evaluation of nuclear power plant construction and operation impacts are discussed. (E.S.)

  1. Preoperative Anemia in Cardiac Operation: Does Hemoglobin Tell the Whole Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lu; Mick, Stephanie L; McCrae, Keith R; Houghtaling, Penny L; Sabik, Joseph F; Blackstone, Eugene H; Koch, Colleen G

    2018-01-01

    Preoperative anemia, defined by hemoglobin level, is associated with elevated risk after cardiac operation. Better understanding of anemia requires characterization beyond this. This investigation focuses on red cell size and its association with patient characteristics and outcomes after cardiac operation. From January 2010 to January 2014, 10,589 patients underwent elective cardiac operations at Cleveland Clinic. Anemia was characterized as normocytic, microcytic, or macrocytic based on mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Models for hospital complications were developed using multivariable logistic regression. Other outcomes were postoperative transfusion and intensive care unit (ICU) and postoperative hospital lengths of stay. A total of 2,715 patients (26%) were anemic. Of these, 2,365 (87%) had normocytic, 219 (8.1%) microcytic, and 131 (4.8%) macrocytic anemia. Non-anemic patients (n = 2,041, 26%) received transfusions compared with 1,553 (66%) normocytic, 148 (68%) microcytic, and 97 (74%) macrocytic anemia patients. Patients with normocytic or macrocytic anemia had more renal failure (normocytic: odds ratio (OR) 1.9, macrocytic: OR 3.5), other complications (normocytic: OR 1.3, macrocytic: OR 2.2) and death (normocytic: OR 2.0, macrocytic: OR 6.2) than non-anemic patients; patients with microcytic anemia had fewer reoperations (OR 0.35) and less postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR 0.50). Anemic patients experienced longer ICU (27 versus 48 hours, p < 0.001) and postoperative hospital (6.1 versus 7.4 days, p < 0.001) length of stay than non-anemic patients. Cardiac surgical patients are often anemic. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes are dissimilar according to red cell size. Patients with microcytic anemia had the lowest hemoglobin levels, yet the best clinical outcomes among anemic patients. MCV from the standard complete blood count adds additional information beyond hemoglobin for targeted intervention. Copyright © 2018 The Society

  2. Performing concurrent operations in academic vascular neurosurgery does not affect patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygourakis, Corinna C; Lee, Janelle; Barba, Julio; Lobo, Errol; Lawton, Michael T

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Concurrent surgeries, also known as "running two rooms" or simultaneous/overlapping operations, have recently come under intense scrutiny. The goal of this study was to evaluate the operative time and outcomes of concurrent versus nonconcurrent vascular neurosurgical procedures. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed 1219 procedures performed by 1 vascular neurosurgeon from 2012 to 2015 at the University of California, San Francisco. Data were collected on patient age, sex, severity of illness, risk of mortality, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, procedure type, admission type, insurance, transfer source, procedure time, presence of resident or fellow in operating room (OR), number of co-surgeons, estimated blood loss (EBL), concurrent vs nonconcurrent case, severe sepsis, acute respiratory failure, postoperative stroke causing neurological deficit, unplanned return to OR, 30-day mortality, and 30-day unplanned readmission. For aneurysm clipping cases, data were also obtained on intraoperative aneurysm rupture and postoperative residual aneurysm. Chi-square and t-tests were performed to compare concurrent versus nonconcurrent cases, and then mixed-effects models were created to adjust for different procedure types, patient demographics, and clinical indicators between the 2 groups. RESULTS There was a significant difference in procedure type for concurrent (n = 828) versus nonconcurrent (n = 391) cases. Concurrent cases were more likely to be routine/elective admissions (53% vs 35%, p returns to the OR (3.3% vs 6.9%; all p return to the OR and 30-day mortality were significantly lower in concurrent cases (odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.31-0.98, p = 0.0431, and odds ratio 0.81, p fashion. After adjusting for patient demographics, procedure type, and clinical indicators, concurrent cases had longer procedure times, but equivalent patient outcomes, as compared with nonconcurrent vascular neurosurgical procedures.

  3. Safety assessment and surveillance of decommissioning operations at DOE's nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, M.G.; Prochnow, D.; Worthington, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    A description is provided of a systematic approach currently being developed and deployed at the Department of Energy to obtain assurance that post-operational activities at nuclear facilities will be conducted in a safe manner. Using this approach, personnel will have available a formalized set of safety principles and associated question sets to assist them in the conducting of safety assessments and surveillance. Information gathered through this means will also be analyzed to determine if there are any generic complex-wide strengths or deficiencies associated with decommissioning activities and to which attention should be drawn

  4. Sustainable Pavement Management System in Urban Areas Considering the Vehicle Operating Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loprencipe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban roads constitute most of the existing roads and they are directly managed by small administrations. Normally, these small administrations do not have sufficient funds or sufficient qualified personnel to carry out this task. This paper deals with an easy-implementation Pavement Management System (PMS to develop strategies to maintain, preserve and rehabilitate urban roads. The proposed method includes the creation of the road network inventory, the visual surveys of the pavement and the evaluation of its condition by the Pavement Condition Index (PCI. The method intends to give a valid tool to road managers to compare alternative maintenance strategies and perform the priority analysis on the network. With this aim, the procedure assesses the Vehicle Operating Costs (VOC by a written regression between PCI and International Roughness Index (IRI. The proposed method has several advantages because it can be easily adapted to various situations and it does not require a large amount of time and money for its implementation.

  5. Does arousal interfere with operant conditioning of spike-wave discharges in genetic epileptic rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhagen, Lasse; Breteler, Marinus; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

    2010-06-01

    One of the ways in which brain computer interfaces can be used is neurofeedback (NF). Subjects use their brain activation to control an external device, and with this technique it is also possible to learn to control aspects of the brain activity by operant conditioning. Beneficial effects of NF training on seizure occurrence have been described in epileptic patients. Little research has been done about differentiating NF effectiveness by type of epilepsy, particularly, whether idiopathic generalized seizures are susceptible to NF. In this experiment, seizures that manifest themselves as spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG were reinforced during 10 sessions in 6 rats of the WAG/Rij strain, an animal model for absence epilepsy. EEG's were recorded before and after the training sessions. Reinforcing SWDs let to decreased SWD occurrences during training; however, the changes during training were not persistent in the post-training sessions. Because behavioural states are known to have an influence on the occurrence of SWDs, it is proposed that the reinforcement situation increased arousal which resulted in fewer SWDs. Additional tests supported this hypothesis. The outcomes have implications for the possibility to train SWDs with operant learning techniques. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary definition of the DOE/OCRWM transportation operating system: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, R.R.; Kline, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is based on the report ''Preliminary Definition of the Transportation Operations System'' and presents a summary of the preliminary definition of transportation operations activities for the cask shipment cycle, commencing with the dispatch of an empty cask, to loading and unloading of cask contents, and preparation of the empty cask for redispatch. It first presents a high-level description of the transportation cycle and then further describes each of the major activities in greater detail. For simplicity of presentation, the highway mode of transport is most often used to describe activities. The reader should keep in mind that the use of other modes will slightly alter the activities and possibly the sequences. Major activities and functions of the system are organized into a first cut of how they could be allocated to specific facilities. The reader should keep in mind that the assignment of functions and the aggregation of these into specific facilities are tasks which have yet to be performed. This paper simply presents a first look at possible groupings of the functions on a facility basis. 12 figs

  7. Future's operation areas: new-generation suppression enemy air defence (SEAD) elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazinedar, Ä.°lker

    2015-05-01

    Since air vehicles took place in the theater of operations, they have become the indispensable elements and the strongest attack power of armed forces. In the following period, with technological development, supersonic aircrafts took place in the operation area and this increased effectiveness of air vehicles much more. Air forces have used these aircrafts during important missions like strategic attack and air defense operations. On the other hand, decision makers understood that it was not feasible to intercept fighter aircrafts by executing combat air patrol flight missions. Since there is not enough reaction time to intercept the high speed aircrafts, ground stationed Surface to Air Missiles (SAM) system requirement has emerged. Therefore, SAM systems took place in the operation scene as well. Due to the fact that SAM systems emerged against the attack power, the attack aircrafts are to keep away from the fire of the ground stationed SAM systems. Hence, the requirement of Suppression Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) arose. SEAD elements take under suppression the radar of the SAM systems. In this way, attack aircrafts are able to attack without the risk of SAM systems. The purpose of this study is to find new methods or concepts in order to protect friendly attack aircrafts against ground based surface to air missiles' fires. Modernization of SAM systems and new generation SAM system producing activities have proceeded with positive acceleration. So, current SEAD elements and concepts are not able to cover the requirements due to the increased SAM system ranges. According to the concepts, SEAD weapons` ranges must be longer than the SAM weapons' ranges to protect friendly aircrafts. In this study, new concept was offered to overcome the deficiencies of current SEAD concept. The elements of new concepts were put forward. Classic SEAD concept and new generation concepts were assessed by using SWOT analysis technique. As a result, this study has revealed that, air forces

  8. Using wide area differential GPS to improve total system error for precision flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Keith Warren

    Total System Error (TSE) refers to an aircraft's total deviation from the desired flight path. TSE can be divided into Navigational System Error (NSE), the error attributable to the aircraft's navigation system, and Flight Technical Error (FTE), the error attributable to pilot or autopilot control. Improvement in either NSE or FTE reduces TSE and leads to the capability to fly more precise flight trajectories. The Federal Aviation Administration's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) became operational for non-safety critical applications in 2000 and will become operational for safety critical applications in 2002. This navigation service will provide precise 3-D positioning (demonstrated to better than 5 meters horizontal and vertical accuracy) for civil aircraft in the United States. Perhaps more importantly, this navigation system, which provides continuous operation across large regions, enables new flight instrumentation concepts which allow pilots to fly aircraft significantly more precisely, both for straight and curved flight paths. This research investigates the capabilities of some of these new concepts, including the Highway-In-The Sky (HITS) display, which not only improves FTE but also reduces pilot workload when compared to conventional flight instrumentation. Augmentation to the HITS display, including perspective terrain and terrain alerting, improves pilot situational awareness. Flight test results from demonstrations in Juneau, AK, and Lake Tahoe, CA, provide evidence of the overall feasibility of integrated, low-cost flight navigation systems based on these concepts. These systems, requiring no more computational power than current-generation low-end desktop computers, have immediate applicability to general aviation flight from Cessnas to business jets and can support safer and ultimately more economical flight operations. Commercial airlines may also, over time, benefit from these new technologies.

  9. Intercomparison of different operational oceanographic forecast products in the CMEMS IBI area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Pablo; Sotillo, Marcos G.; Dabrowski, Tomasz; Amo-Baladrón, Arancha; Aznar, Roland; De Pascual, Alvaro; Levier, Bruno; Bowyer, Peter; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Salon, Stefano; Tonani, Marina; Alvarez-Fanjul, Enrique

    2017-04-01

    The development of skill assessment software packages and dedicated web applications is a relatively novel theme in operational oceanography. Within the CMEMS IBI-MFC, the quality of IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland) forecast products is assessed by means of NARVAL (North Atlantic Regional VALidation) web-based tool. The validation of IBI against independent in situ and remote-sensing measurements is routinely conducted to evaluate model's veracity and prognostic capabilities. Noticeable efforts are in progress to define meaningful skill scores and statistical metrics to quantitatively assess the quality and reliability of the IBI model solution. Likewise, the IBI-MFC compares the IBI forecast products with other model solutions by setting up specific intercomparison exercises on overlapping areas at diverse timescales. In this context, NARVAL web tool already includes a specific module to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of IBI versus other CMEMS operational ocean forecasting systems (OOFSs). In particular, the IBI physical ocean solution is compared against the CMEMS MED and NWS OOFSs. These CMEMS regional services delivered for the Mediterranean and the North West Shelves include data assimilation schemes in their respective operational chains and generate analogous ocean forecast products to the IBI ones. A number of physical parameters (i.e. sea surface temperature, salinity and current velocities) are evaluated through NARVAL on a daily basis in the overlapping areas existing between these three regional systems. NARVAL is currently being updated in order to extend this intercomparison of ocean model parameters to the biogeochemical solutions provided by the aforementioned OOFSs. More specifically, the simulated chlorophyll concentration is evaluated over several subregions of particular concern by using as benchmark the CMEMS satellite-derived observational products. In addition to this IBI comparison against other regional CMEMS products on overlapping areas, a

  10. Newly developed dope-free coatings help improve running operations in remote protected areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Nestor J.; Gallo, Ernesto A. [TENARIS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Oil and Gas industry has been evolving in a permanent way to reach new sources of energy or to produce in the existing ones in a more efficient way, triggering in such a way the development of new drilling, completion and production techniques, equipment and processes; among these equipment, pipes and connections are not the exception, and the requirements on material and connections performance and reliability have been increased as well. The complexity of the new wells is not only related to the architecture of the well but also to the type of environments that are being found such as H2S, CO2, high pressure and/or high temperature; therefore, for these cases, connections have to be special premium connections threaded in most of the cases on highly alloyed materials (Ni-Cr alloys). Additionally, most of the regions under exploration are offshore and/or in remote areas of the planet which are considered untouchable due to economic reasons (fishing) or preservation (endangered flora and fauna) for instance Alaska, North Atlantic, North Sea, etc. For these areas, new environmental restrictions are applied which make it difficult for the operators to use standard practices. Among the recent solutions developed for Oil and Gas industry aiming to help with the protection of the environment are the dope-free coatings. These coatings are applied on tubing and casing connections providing a real greener alternative to traditional thread compounds, while maintaining the performance of the connections, for different materials as carbon steels, 13Cr and Corrosion Resistance Alloys (Ni, Cr). In spite of being a technically sound solution, the elimination of thread compounds may lead to potential operational problems such as galling, difficulties in making-up due to low temperature, etc. In addition, it is also necessary to evaluate the interaction between the dry coatings and the different connections to be used, as the designs have to be able to allocate the coating

  11. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater

  12. Kansas State University: DOE/KEURP Site Operator Program. Year 4, fourth quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Kansas State University, in support of a DOE and Kansas Electric Utilities Research Program subject contract, continues to test, evaluate, demonstrate, and develop electric vehicle and infrastructure technology. K-State is operating two Soleq EVcort vehicles. During this reporting period both vehicles were brought back to full operational status after warranty service was completed by Soleq. Vehicle failures occurred due to three unrelated battery cable failures in addition to the replacement of one battery. Both vehicles are being operated on a routine basis. K-State, along with York Technical College, has established a relationship with Troy Design and Manufacturing (TDM) Redford, Michigan. K-State has ordered no less than four Ford Ranger electric trucks from TDM. K-State is involved in the steering committee that is monitoring and refining information to direct the design and testing of these new technology vehicles. TDM should become the first automotive manufacturer certified by one of the Big Three under their Quality Vehicle Manufacturer program. Kansas State University and the Kansas Electric Utility Research Program look forward to working with TDM on their new EV program.

  13. [Does co-operation research provide approaches to explain the changes in the German hospital market?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, C; Leidl, R

    2004-11-01

    The German hospital market faces an extensive process of consolidation. In this change hospitals consider cooperation as one possibility to improve competitiveness. To investigate explanations of changes in the German hospital market by theoretical approaches of cooperation research. The aims and mechanism of the theories, their relevance in terms of contents and their potential for empirical tests were used as criteria to assess the approaches, with current and future trends in the German hospital market providing the framework. Based on literature review, six theoretical approaches were investigated: industrial organization, transaction cost theory, game theory, resource dependency, institutional theory, and co-operative investment and finance theory. In addition, the data needed to empirically test the theories were specified. As a general problem, some of the theoretical approaches set a perfect market as a precondition. This precondition is not met by the heavily regulated German hospital market. Given the current regulations and the assessment criteria, industrial organization as well as resource-dependency and institutional theory approaches showed the highest potential to explain various aspects of the changes in the hospital market. So far, none of the approaches investigated provides a comprehensive and empirically tested explanation of the changes in the German hospital market. However, some of the approaches provide a theoretical background for part of the changes. As this dynamic market is economically of high significance, there is a need for further development and empirical testing of relevant theoretical approaches.

  14. Incidence, characteristics and management of pain in one operational area of medical emergency teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiński, Sylweriusz; Bryja, Magdalena; Wojtaszowicz, Rafał; Górka, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Experience of pain associated with both chronic as well as acute medical conditions is a main cause for call for ambulance. The aim of this study was to establish both frequency and characteristics of pain reported by patients treated in pre-hospital environment in a single operational area. The supplementary goal was an analysis of methods of pain alleviation applied by medical personnel in the above described scenario. The written documentation of 6 months of year 2009 provided by doctor-manned as well as paramedic-only ambulances operating in Tatra county, Małopolska, Poland was analyzed. Medical personnel inquired about pain experienced in 57.4% of cases, 10-point numerical rating scale was used in 22.3% of patients. Pain was reported by 43.8% of patients, the most frequent reasons of experienced pain were trauma and cardiovascular diseases. In almost half of the cases pain was referred to the areas of chest and abdomen. Non-traumatic pain was reported by 47.7% of patients, post-traumatic in 41.3% of cases, 11% of subjects reported ischemic chest pain. 42.3% of pain-reporting patients received some form of analgesia, yet only 3% of subjects in this group received opiates. Personnel of paramedic-only ambulances tended to use pain intensity scale more often (P < 0.01), yet administered pain alleviating drugs noticeably less often than the doctor-manned teams (P < 0.01). The use of pain alleviating drugs, opiates especially, was inadequate in proportion to frequency and intensity of pain reported by patients. General, nation-wide standards of pain measurement and treatment in pre-hospital rescue are suggested as a means to improve the efficacy of pain reduction treatment.

  15. Simulator Investigation of Pilot Aids for Helicopter Terminal Area Operations with One Engine Inoperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseler, Laura; Chen, Robert; Dearing, Munro; Decker, William; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Two recent piloted simulation experiments have investigated advanced display concepts applied to civil transport helicopter terminal area operations. Civil Category A helicopter operations apply to multi-engine helicopters wherein a safe recovery (land or fly out) is required in the event of a single engine failure. The investigation used the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator, which has a full six degrees of freedom, to simulate the flight task as closely as possible. The goal of these experiments was to use advanced cockpit displays to improve flight safety and enhance the mission performance of Category A terminal area operations in confined areas. The first experiment investigated the use of military display formats to assist civil rotorcraft in performing a Category A takeoff in confined terminal areas. Specifically, it addressed how well a difficult hovering backup path could be followed using conventional instruments in comparison to panel mounted integrated displays. The hovering backup takeoff, which enables pilots to land back to the confined area pad in the event of an engine failure, was chosen since it is a difficult task to perform. Seven NASA and Army test pilots participated in the experiment. Evaluations, based on task performance and pilot workload, showed that an integrated display enabled the pilot to consistently achieve adequate or desired performance with reasonable pilot workload. Use of conventional instruments, however, frequently resulted in unacceptable performance (poor flight path tracking), higher pilot workload, and poor situational awareness. Although OEI landbacks were considered a visual task, the improved performance on the backup portion, in conjunction with increased situational awareness resulting from use of integrated displays, enabled the pilots to handle an engine failure and land back safely. In contrast, use of conventional instruments frequently led to excessive rates of sink at touchdown. A second

  16. Environmental Assessment for Ongoing and Future Operations at U.S. Navy Dabob Bay and Hood Canal Military Operating Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    well as being cultivated in aquaculture operations in Puget Sound, including Hood Canal and Dabob Bay (Figure 3.4-2). Pacific oysters (Crassostrea...gigas) are widely cultivated in aquaculture operations in Puget Sound. Commercial oyster beds exist in Dabob Bay, mostly at the north end. Dabob Bay... Ecotoxicology of metals in aquatic sediments: binding and release, bioavailability, risk assessment, and remediation. Canadian Journal of

  17. Risk assessment of the Krsko NPP normal operation on the public in the Zagreb area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanata, D.; Pevec, D.

    1994-01-01

    In the paper, a very short review of the ICRP recommendations related to effective dose limitation for the workers as well as for the public, is given. Particular attention is paid to the risk coefficients values. In the short manner, description of the applied methodology and achieved result related to the risk assessment of the Krsko NPP normal operation on the public in the Zagreb Area, are given too. The mentioned assessment was performed as an activity within the Case Study Zagreb Project developed under the Inter-Agency Programme on the Assessment and Management of Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems (UNEP, WHO, IAEA and UNIDO). Making comparison between assessment risk of the Krsko NPP normal operation and risks to which inhabitants of the City of Zagreb are normally exposed, it is concluded that living in the vicinity of such nuclear power plant as it is Krsko NPP (PWR, 664 MWe), is not so risky as risky are some everyday activities

  18. Limited Area Predictability: Is There A Limit To The Operational Usefulness of A Lam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, F.

    The issue of the limited area predictability in the context of the operational experience of the Eta Model, driven by the LBCs of the NCEP global spectral (Avn) model, is examined. The traditional view is that "the contamination at the lateral boundaries ... limits the operational usefulness of the LAM beyond some forecast time range". In the case of the Eta this contamination consists not only of the lower resolution of the Avn LBCs and the much discussed mathematical "lateral boundary error", but also of the use of the LBCs of the previous Avn run, at 0000 and 1200 UTC estimated to amount to about an 8 h loss in accuracy. Looking for the signs of the Eta accuracy in relative terms falling behind that of the Avn we have examined the trend of the Eta vs Avn precipitation scores, the rms fits to raobs of the two models as a function of time, and the errors of these models at extended forecast times in placing the centers of major lows. In none of these efforts, some including forecasts out to 84 h, we were able to notice signs of the Eta accuracy being visibly affected by the inflow of the lateral boundary errors. It is therefore hypothesized that some of the Eta design features compensate for the increasing influence of the Avn LBC errors. Candidate features are discussed, with the eta coordinate being a contender to play a major role. This situation being possible for the pair of models discussed, existence of a general limit for the operational usefulness of a LAM seems questionable.

  19. Does Histologic Subtype Influence the Post-Operative Outcome in Spinal Meningioma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zham, Hanieh; Moradi, Afshin; Rakhshan, Azadeh; Zali, Alireza; Rahbari, Ali; Raee, Mohammadreza; Ashrafi, Farzad; Ahadi, Mahsa; Larijani, Leila; Baikpour, Masoud; Khayamzadeh, Maryam

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative outcome of spinal meningiomas is an important issue in surgery decision-making. There are limited and conflicting data in the literature about the prognostic factors influencing recovery, especially about the histopathologic subtypes. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of some of these factors on postoperative outcome. This study was performed on 39 patients operated for spinal meningioma between October 1998 and January 2012; their histopathologic subtype was determined according to WHO criteria. The follow up period ranged between 8 - 120 months. The influence of histopathologic subtype, grade, age, sex, surgical approach, local adhesion and anatomical location was assessed according to Frankel classification of neurologic deficit. From a total number of 39 spinal meningiomas, 34 cases were WHO grade I, from which 15 cases were psammomatous, 7 cases were meningothelial, 9 cases were transitional and 3 cases were fibroblastic. Five cases were grade II, 3 of which had clear cell appearance and the remaining 2 had chordoid appearance. The mean age was 51.6 (22 to 76) years; 25 cases were female and 14 cases were male. This study revealed that grade II meningioma cases had poor prognosis in all 5 cases and psammomatous subtype had poor postoperative outcome in 40% of cases while the other subtypes had good outcome in all cases (P = 0.026). Cervical location of the tumor was also related with poor outcome in 37.5% of the cases, while 22.5% had poor outcome in other locations (P = 0.029). Age below and above 45 years and sex had no significant influence on the outcome. Spinal meningiomas of psammomatous type and grade II spinal meningiomas are associated with less favorable postoperative neurologic outcome. Cervical location has also a negative correlation with a good outcome.

  20. THE SUCCESS OF COMPANIES OPERATING IN THE AREA OF TAX HAVENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available What is an offshore company? It is a company operating outside the country in which it was established. What is a tax haven? It is a country or jurisdiction where companies have tax advantages usually zero tax. (eg Andorra, British Virgin Islands, Panama, Liechtenstein, Cayman Islands, Seychelles, Cyprus, Malta, etc. How do I open an offshore bank account? Opening an account is a particular problem, which is mostly open once the offshore company is established. Paradise is characterized by the absence levies tax as tax on the income of individuals or legal entities, in respect of succession duties, and of course as tax on capital. Consequently, these areas generally did not sign tax agreement designed to avoid double taxation, having nothing to negotiate in this direction; the several agreements signed disclaim reception facilities made available to foreign investors. Foreign source income will generally support the tax levy the maximum light source of local law provisions. The rule that a very low tax burden, or even an absence of tax levy, generates tax havens should be relaxed. In this paper we decided to present three main areas of interest are the old tax havens: banking and insurance companies, shipping companies and investment and development activities.

  1. Geologic and operational summary, COST No. G-2 well, Georges Bank area, North Atlantic OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Roger V.; Simonis, Edvardas K.

    1980-01-01

    The Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) No. G-2 well is the second deep well to be drilled in the Georges Bank Basin and the third in a series of COST wells on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The G-2 was drilled by Ocean Production Company, acting as the operator for 19 participating companies between January 6 and August 30, 1977. The semisubmersible rig Ocean Victory was used to drill the well to a depth of 21,874 feet at a location 132 statute miles east-southeast of Nantucket Island in 272 feet of water. An earlier deep Stratigraphic test, the COST No. G-l well, was drilled 42 statute miles west of the G-2 well, to a depth of 16,071 feet in 1976 (fig. 1). Geological and engineering data obtained from the well were used by companies and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluating the petroleum potential and possible drilling problems in the U.S. North Atlantic OCS area in preparation for lease sale 42 held on December 18, 1979. The Stratigraphic test was intentionally drilled away from any potential petroleum-bearing feature, but in a block bordering several tracts that were included in the sale area.

  2. Power scaling and experimentally fitted model for broad area quantum cascade lasers in continuous wave operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttinger, Matthew; Go, Rowel; Figueiredo, Pedro; Todi, Ankesh; Shu, Hong; Leshin, Jason; Lyakh, Arkadiy

    2018-01-01

    Experimental and model results for 15-stage broad area quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are presented. Continuous wave (CW) power scaling from 1.62 to 2.34 W has been experimentally demonstrated for 3.15-mm long, high reflection-coated QCLs for an active region width increased from 10 to 20 μm. A semiempirical model for broad area devices operating in CW mode is presented. The model uses measured pulsed transparency current, injection efficiency, waveguide losses, and differential gain as input parameters. It also takes into account active region self-heating and sublinearity of pulsed power versus current laser characteristic. The model predicts that an 11% improvement in maximum CW power and increased wall-plug efficiency can be achieved from 3.15 mm×25 μm devices with 21 stages of the same design, but half doping in the active region. For a 16-stage design with a reduced stage thickness of 300 Å, pulsed rollover current density of 6 kA/cm2, and InGaAs waveguide layers, an optical power increase of 41% is projected. Finally, the model projects that power level can be increased to ˜4.5 W from 3.15 mm×31 μm devices with the baseline configuration with T0 increased from 140 K for the present design to 250 K.

  3. Ventilation design modifications at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory major plutonium operational areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, R.G.; Gallimore, J.C. Jr.; Mitchell, R.N.; Maraman, W.J.; McNeese, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Major ventilation design modifications in plutonium operational areas at Los Alamos have occurred during the past two years. An additional stage of HEPA filters has been added to DP West glove-box process exhaust resulting in significant effluent reductions. The additional stage of HEPA filters is unique in that each filter may be individually DOP tested. Radiological filter efficiencies of each process exhaust stage is presented. DP West room air ventilation systems have been modified to incorporate a single stage of HEPA filters in contrast to a previous American Air Filter PL-24 filtration system. Plutonium effluent reductions of 10 2 to 10 3 have resulted in these new systems. Modified DOP testing procedures for room air filtration systems are discussed. Major plutonium areas of the CMR Building utilizing Aerosolve 95 process exhaust filtration systems have been upgraded with two stages of HEPA filters. Significant reductions in effluent are evident. A unique method of DOP testing each bank of HEPA filters is discussed. Radiological efficiencies of both single and two-stage filters are discussed. (U.S.)

  4. Cloud Cover Assessment for Operational Crop Monitoring Systems in Tropical Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaque Daniel Rocha Eberhardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of optical remote sensing data to identify, map and monitor croplands is well recognized. However, clouds strongly limit the usefulness of optical imagery for these applications. This paper aims at assessing cloud cover conditions over four states in the tropical and sub-tropical Center-South region of Brazil to guide the development of an appropriate agricultural monitoring system based on Landsat-like imagery. Cloudiness was assessed during overlapping four months periods to match the typical length of crop cycles in the study area. The percentage of clear sky occurrence was computed from the 1 km resolution MODIS Cloud Mask product (MOD35 considering 14 years of data between July 2000 and June 2014. Results showed high seasonality of cloud occurrence within the crop year with strong variations across the study area. The maximum seasonality was observed for the two states in the northern part of the study area (i.e., the ones closer to the Equator line, which also presented the lowest averaged values (15% of clear sky occurrence during the main (summer cropping period (November to February. In these locations, optical data faces severe constraints for mapping summer crops. On the other hand, relatively favorable conditions were found in the southern part of the study region. In the South, clear sky values of around 45% were found and no significant clear sky seasonality was observed. Results underpin the challenges to implement an operational crop monitoring system based solely on optical remote sensing imagery in tropical and sub-tropical regions, in particular if short-cycle crops have to be monitored during the cloudy summer months. To cope with cloudiness issues, we recommend the use of new systems with higher repetition rates such as Sentinel-2. For local studies, Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAVs might be used to augment the observing capability. Multi-sensor approaches combining optical and microwave data can be another

  5. Water level measurements for modeling hydraulic properties in the 300-FF-5 and 100 Aggregate Area Operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.D.; McMahon, W.J.; Simpson, K.R.

    1993-04-01

    Pressure transducers connected to dataloggers were used to measure ground water and Columbia River water elevations simultaneously and hourly at 35 locations in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and 16 locations in the 100 Aggregate Area Operable Unit on the Hanford Site. Water temperatures were also measured at 12 of these locations. This report details the findings of these studies

  6. Map showing areas of visible land disturbances caused by two military training operations in the Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prose, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    This map shows areas that retain visible land disturbances produced during two military armored-vehicle training operations in the Mojave Desert, California. The map documents the lasting visual effects these operations have on this arid region and provides a data base for monitoring changes in the extent of visual disturbances in the future.

  7. Vegetated treatment area (VTAs) efficiencies for E. coli and nutrient removal on small-scale swine operations

    OpenAIRE

    R. Daren Harmel; Rehanon Pampell; Terry Gentry; Doug R. Smith; Chad Hajda; Kevin Wagner; Patti K. Smith; Rick L. Haney; Kori D. Higgs

    2018-01-01

    As small-scale animal feeding operations work to manage their byproducts and avoid regulation, they need practical, cost-effective methods to reduce environmental impact. One such option is using vegetative treatment areas (VTAs) with perennial grasses to treat runoff; however, research is limited on VTA effectiveness as a waste management alternative for smaller operations. This study evaluated the efficiencies of VTAs in reducing bacteria and nutrient runoff from small-scale swine operation...

  8. 46 CFR 153.903 - Operating a United States ship in special areas: Categories A, B, and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NLS residue in a special area unless— (a) The ship's Certificate of Inspection is endorsed in... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating a United States ship in special areas... (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS...

  9. 33 CFR 334.720 - Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, south from..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.720 Gulf of Mexico, south from Choctawhatchee Bay; guided missiles test operations area, Headquarters Air Proving...

  10. Large Area Silicon Carbide Vertical JFETs for 1200 V Cascode Switch Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Veliadis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available SiC VJFETs are excellent candidates for reliable high-power/temperature switching as they only use pn junctions in the active device area where the high-electric fields occur. VJFETs do not suffer from forward voltage degradation, exhibit excellent short-circuit performance, and operate at 300°C. 0.19 cm2 1200 V normally-on and 0.15 cm2 low-voltage normally-off VJFETs were fabricated. The 1200-V VJFET outputs 53 A with a forward drain voltage drop of 2 V and a specific onstate resistance of 5.4 mΩ cm2. The low-voltage VJFET outputs 28 A with a forward drain voltage drop of 3.3 V and a specific onstate resistance of 15 mΩ cm2. The 1200-V SiC VJFET was connected in the cascode configuration with two Si MOSFETs and with a low-voltage SiC VJFET to form normally-off power switches. At a forward drain voltage drop of 2.2 V, the SiC/MOSFETs cascode switch outputs 33 A. The all-SiC cascode switch outputs 24 A at a voltage drop of 4.7 V.

  11. Frequency of gingival and periodontal diseases among troops deployed in operational area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, A.; Manzoor, M.A.; Rafi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find the Frequency of Gingival and Periodontal Diseases among Troops Deployed in Operational Area and to evaluate the treatment needs which might be helpful in oral health policy planning and specific intervention against periodontal disease. Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at 140 mobile dental unit Swat from Dec 2009 to June 2011. Subjects and Methods: the periodontal status of 1500 personnels of Pakistan Army was examined using Basic periodontal Examination Index. Data was evaluated by SPSS version 16. Percentage of various gingival and periodontal disease traits was calculated and treatment needs determined. Results: Out of total 1500 subjects 12.8% subjects were having satisfactory periodontal health and required no treatment whereas 38.3% were having gingivitis requiring oral hygiene instruction and prophylaxis. Gingivitis modified by local factors was seen in 23.5% and required oral hygiene instruction and correction of modifying factors. Some (13.6%) were having mild periodontitis and required scaling, root planning and oral hygiene instruction whereas 11.8% were having moderate or advance periodontitis and required comprehensive periodontal treatment including surgical treatment. Conclusion: A large number of cases (82.7%) of gingivitis and periodontitis were detected in subject population which shows lack of awareness and self -consciousness among troops regarding their oral hygiene. (author)

  12. Characteristics of residential areas and transportational walking among frail and non-frail Dutch elderly: Does the size of the area matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Schop-Etman (Astrid); C.B.M. Kamphuis (Carlijn); R. Prins (Remco); A. Burdorf (Alex); F.H. Pierik (Frank); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A residential area supportive for walking may facilitate elderly to live longer independently. However, current evidence on area characteristics potentially important for walking among older persons is mixed. This study hypothesized that the importance of area characteristics

  13. Characteristics of residential areas and transportational walking among frail and non-frail Dutch elderly : Does the size of the area matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, Astrid; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Prins, Richard G.; Burdorf, Alex; Pierik, Frank H.; van Lenthe, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A residential area supportive for walking may facilitate elderly to live longer independently. However, current evidence on area characteristics potentially important for walking among older persons is mixed. This study hypothesized that the importance of area characteristics for

  14. Characteristics of residential areas and transportational walking among frail and non-frail Dutch elderly: does the size of the area matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Kamphuis, C.B.M.; Prins, R.G.; Burdorf, A.; Pierik, F.H.; Lenthe, F.J. van

    2014-01-01

    Background: A residential area supportive for walking may facilitate elderly to live longer independently. However, current evidence on area characteristics potentially important for walking among older persons is mixed. This study hypothesized that the importance of area characteristics for

  15. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, A. J. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program; Maldonado, D. G. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program; Hansen, Tom [Ameriphysics, LLC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil

  16. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Winter Tourism: Challenges for Ski Area Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, A.; Köberl, J.; Prettenthaler, F.; Töglhofer, C.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons pose a big challenge for the winter tourism industry. Changing natural snow reliability influences tourism demand and ski area operators are faced with an enhanced need of technical snow production. The goal of the present research work is to analyze the economic effects of technical snow production under future climate conditions. Snowmaking as an adaptation strategy to climate change impacts on the ski tourism industry is already taken into consideration in several studies from a scientific perspective concerning snowmaking potentials under future climate conditions and the impacts on ski season length (e.g. Scott et al. 2003; Scott & McBoyle 2007; Hennessy et al. 2008; Steiger 2010). A few studies considered economic aspects of technical snowmaking (e.g. Teich et al. 2007; Gonseth 2008). However, a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of snowmaking under future climate and snow conditions based on sophisticated climate and snow models has not been carried out yet. The present study addresses the gap of knowledge concerning the economic profitability of prospective snowmaking requirements under future climate scenarios. We carry out a detailed cost-revenue analysis of snowmaking under current and future climate conditions for a case study site in Styria (Austria) using dynamic investment models. The starting point of all economic calculations is the daily demand for artificial snow that determines the requirements for additional snowmaking investments and additional operating costs. The demand for artificial snow is delivered by the snow cover model AMUNDSEN (see Strasser et al. 2011) and is driven by four climate scenarios. Apart from future climate conditions the profitability of snowmaking depends on changes in costs and visitor numbers. The results of a ski tourism demand model analyzing daily visitor numbers and their dependencies of prevailing weather conditions enter the cost-revenue analysis of

  17. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil

  18. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Tennessee Natural Areas Registry under Tennessee Code Annotated (TCA) section 11-14-112, Natural Areas designated by the Tennessee General Assembly under TCA 11-14-108, areas adjoining Tennessee Scenic Rivers designated under TCA 11-13-101, and Scenic Trails designated under TCA 11-11-101. ...

  19. Ozone impact minimization through coordinated scheduling of turnaround operations from multiple olefin plants in an ozone nonattainment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Sijie; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Turnaround operations (start-up and shutdown) are critical operations in olefin plants, which emit large quantities of VOCs, NOx and CO. The emission has great potentials to impact the ozone level in ozone nonattainment areas. This study demonstrates a novel practice to minimize the ozone impact through coordinated scheduling of turnaround operations from multiple olefin plants located in Houston, Texas, an ozone nonattainment area. The study considered two olefin plants scheduled to conduct turnaround operations: one start-up and one shutdown, simultaneously on the same day within a five-hour window. Through dynamic simulations of the turnaround operations using ASPEN Plus Dynamics and air quality simulations using CAMx, the study predicts the ozone impact from the combined effect of the two turnaround operations under different starting-time scenarios. The simulations predict that the ozone impact from planned turnaround operations ranges from a maximum of 11.4 ppb to a minimum of 1.4 ppb. Hence, a reduction of up to 10.0 ppb can be achieved on a single day based on the selected two simulation days. This study demonstrates a cost-effective and environmentally benign ozone control practice for relevant stakeholders, including environmental agencies, regional plant operators, and local communities.

  20. STOL terminal area operating systems (aircraft and onboard avionics, ATC, navigation aids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrous, C.; Erzberger, H.; Johnson, N.; Neuman, F.

    1974-01-01

    Operational procedures and systems onboard the STOL aircraft which are required to enable the aircraft to perform acceptably in restricted airspace in all types of atmospheric conditions and weather are discussed. Results of simulation and flight investigations to establish operational criteria are presented.

  1. Monitoring of high-radiation areas for the assessment of operational and body doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.J.; Tung, C.J.; Yeh, W.W.; Liao, R.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended a system of dose limits for the protection of ionizing radiation. This system was established based on the effective dose, E, and the equivalent dose to an organ or tissue, H T , to assess stochastic and deterministic effects. In radiation protection monitoring for external radiation, operational doses such as the deep dose equivalent index, H I,d , shallow dose equivalent index, H I,s , ambient dose equivalent [1,4-6], H*, directional dose equivalent, H', individual dose equivalent-penetrating, H p , and individual dose equivalent-superficial, H s , are implemented. These quantities are defined in an International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) sphere and in an anthropomorphic phantom under simplified irradiation conditions. They are useful when equivalent doses are below the corresponding limits. In the case of equivalent doses far below the limits, the exposure or air kerma is commonly applied. For workers exposed to high levels of radiation, accurate assessments of effective doses and equivalent doses may be needed in order to acquire legal and health information. In the general principles of monitoring for radiation protection of workers, ICRP recommended that: 'A graduated response is advocated for the monitoring of the workplace and for individual monitoring - graduated in the sense that a greater degree of monitoring is deemed to be necessary as doses increase of as unpredictability increases. Gradually more complex or realistic procedures should be adopted as doses become higher. Thus, at low dose equivalents (corresponding say to those within Working Condition B) dosimetric quantities might be used directly to assess exposure, since accuracy is not crucial. At intermediate dose equivalents (corresponding say to Working Condition A and slight overexposures) somewhat greater accuracy is warranted, and the conversion coefficients from dosimetric to radiation

  2. 31 CFR 30.14 - Q-14: How does section 111 of EESA operate in connection with an acquisition, merger, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Q-14: How does section 111 of EESA operate in connection with an acquisition, merger, or reorganization? 30.14 Section 30.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE...

  3. Better-Than-Visual Technologies for Next Generation Air Transportation System Terminal Maneuvering Area Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steve P.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Ellis, Kyle E.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium of industry, academia and government agencies are devising new concepts for future U.S. aviation operations under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) replicating the capacity and safety of today's visual flight rules (VFR) in all-weather conditions. NASA is striving to develop the technologies and knowledge to enable EVO and to extend EVO towards a Better-Than-Visual (BTV) operational concept. The BTV operational concept uses an electronic means to provide sufficient visual references of the external world and other required flight references on flight deck displays that enable VFR-like operational tempos and maintain and improve the safety of VFR while using VFR-like procedures in all-weather conditions. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) research on technologies to enable the concept of BTV is described.

  4. Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry Does Not Control Proliferation in Primary Cultures of Human Metastatic Renal Cellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dragoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE is activated following depletion of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ pool to regulate proliferation in immortalized cell lines established from either primary or metastatic lesions. The molecular nature of SOCE may involve both Stim1, which senses Ca2+ levels within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+ reservoir, and a number of a Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membrane, including Orai1, Orai3, and members of the canonical transient receptor (TRPC1–7 family of ion channels. The present study was undertaken to assess whether SOCE is expressed and controls proliferation in primary cultures isolated from secondary lesions of heavily pretreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. SOCE was induced following pharmacological depletion of the ER Ca2+ store, but not by InsP3-dependent Ca2+ release. Metastatic RCC cells express Stim1-2, Orai1–3, and TRPC1–7 transcripts and proteins. In these cells, SOCE was insensitive to BTP-2, 10 µM Gd3+ and Pyr6, while it was inhibited by 100 µM Gd3+, 2-APB, and carboxyamidotriazole (CAI. Neither Gd3+ nor 2-APB or CAI impaired mRCC cell proliferation. Consistently, no detectable Ca2+ signal was elicited by growth factor stimulation. Therefore, a functional SOCE is expressed but does not control proliferation of mRCC cells isolated from patients resistant to multikinase inhibitors.

  5. Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry Does Not Control Proliferation in Primary Cultures of Human Metastatic Renal Cellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turin, Ilaria; Potenza, Duilio Michele; Bottino, Cinzia; Glasnov, Toma N.; Ferulli, Federica; Mosca, Alessandra; Guerra, Germano; Rosti, Vittorio; Luinetti, Ombretta; Porta, Camillo; Pedrazzoli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is activated following depletion of the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-sensitive Ca2+ pool to regulate proliferation in immortalized cell lines established from either primary or metastatic lesions. The molecular nature of SOCE may involve both Stim1, which senses Ca2+ levels within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ reservoir, and a number of a Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membrane, including Orai1, Orai3, and members of the canonical transient receptor (TRPC1–7) family of ion channels. The present study was undertaken to assess whether SOCE is expressed and controls proliferation in primary cultures isolated from secondary lesions of heavily pretreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients. SOCE was induced following pharmacological depletion of the ER Ca2+ store, but not by InsP3-dependent Ca2+ release. Metastatic RCC cells express Stim1-2, Orai1–3, and TRPC1–7 transcripts and proteins. In these cells, SOCE was insensitive to BTP-2, 10 µM Gd3+ and Pyr6, while it was inhibited by 100 µM Gd3+, 2-APB, and carboxyamidotriazole (CAI). Neither Gd3+ nor 2-APB or CAI impaired mRCC cell proliferation. Consistently, no detectable Ca2+ signal was elicited by growth factor stimulation. Therefore, a functional SOCE is expressed but does not control proliferation of mRCC cells isolated from patients resistant to multikinase inhibitors. PMID:25126575

  6. 32 CFR 536.9 - Responsibilities and operations of area claims offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... detachment, recruiting company or station, or DOD agency) within the area appoints a claims officer to... their areas of jurisdiction, appropriate legal publications on state or territorial law and precedent... understanding between the affected commands. (3) Normally, claims that cannot be settled by a COE ACO will be...

  7. Organizing SOCOM for Cross-Functional and Geographic Area Operations in the Global War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cabanas, Kevin A

    2005-01-01

    .... The first organization would plan, direct, and execute direct-action type operations designed to defeat the terrorist threat, while the second organization would plan, direct, and execute long-term...

  8. Vegetated treatment area (VTAs) efficiences for E. coli and nutrient removal on small-scale swine operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    As small-scale animal feeding operations work to manage their byproducts and avoid regulation, they need practical, cost-effective methods to reduce environmental impact. One such option is using vegetative treatment areas (VTAs) with perennial grasses to treat runoff; however, research is limited ...

  9. Developing computer systems to support emergency operations: Standardization efforts by the Department of Energy and implementation at the DOE Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBusk, R.E.; Fulton, G.J.; O'Dell, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the development of standards for emergency operations computer systems for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The proposed DOE computer standards prescribe the necessary power and simplicity to meet the expanding needs of emergency managers. Standards include networked UNIX workstations based on the client server model and software that presents information graphically using icons and windowing technology. DOE standards are based on those of the computer industry although Proposed DOE is implementing the latest technology to ensure a solid base for future growth. A case of how these proposed standards are being implemented is also presented. The Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE facility near Aiken, South Carolina is automating a manual information system, proven over years of development. This system is generalized as a model that can apply to most, if not all, Emergency Operations Centers. This model can provide timely and validated information to emergency managers. By automating this proven system, the system is made easier to use. As experience in the case study demonstrates, computers are only an effective information tool when used as part of a proven process

  10. A Task No Maritime Operational Commander Wants: Maritime Interception Operations (MIO) Are Not Going Away

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawley, Sterling

    2003-01-01

    Maritime Interception Operations (MIO) as a mission area for USN and USCG assets does not seem to be going away anytime soon The purpose of this essay is to assess past MIO efforts and offer recommendations to assist the operational...

  11. Navy Ordnance Analysis of Business Area Efforts to Streamline Operations and Reduce Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... The Navy reorganized this business area in 1993 in order to reduce costs and address various deficiencies in ordnance logistics management that were identified during Desert Shield/Desert Storm...

  12. Theory of mind broad and narrow: reasoning about social exchange engages ToM areas, precautionary reasoning does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Guerin, Scott A; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Miller, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    Baron-Cohen (1995) proposed that the theory of mind (ToM) inference system evolved to promote strategic social interaction. Social exchange--a form of co-operation for mutual benefit--involves strategic social interaction and requires ToM inferences about the contents of other individuals' mental states, especially their desires, goals, and intentions. There are behavioral and neuropsychological dissociations between reasoning about social exchange and reasoning about equivalent problems tapping other, more general content domains. It has therefore been proposed that social exchange behavior is regulated by social contract algorithms: a domain-specific inference system that is functionally specialized for reasoning about social exchange. We report an fMRI study using the Wason selection task that provides further support for this hypothesis. Precautionary rules share so many properties with social exchange rules--they are conditional, deontic, and involve subjective utilities--that most reasoning theories claim they are processed by the same neurocomputational machinery. Nevertheless, neuroimaging shows that reasoning about social exchange activates brain areas not activated by reasoning about precautionary rules, and vice versa. As predicted, neural correlates of ToM (anterior and posterior temporal cortex) were activated when subjects interpreted social exchange rules, but not precautionary rules (where ToM inferences are unnecessary). We argue that the interaction between ToM and social contract algorithms can be reciprocal: social contract algorithms requires ToM inferences, but their functional logic also allows ToM inferences to be made. By considering interactions between ToM in the narrower sense (belief-desire reasoning) and all the social inference systems that create the logic of human social interaction--ones that enable as well as use inferences about the content of mental states--a broader conception of ToM may emerge: a computational model embodying

  13. A Flexible 5G Wide Area Solution for TDD with Asymmetric Link Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus I.; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Frederiksen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    optimization on a per-link basis is proposed. The solution encompasses the possibility to schedule users with different transmission time intervals to best match their service equirements and radio conditions. Due to the large downlink/uplink transmission power imbalance for each link, asymmetric link...... operation is proposed, where users operate with different minimum transmission times for the two link directions. This is achieved by using a highly flexible asynchronous hybrid Automatic repeat request (HARQ) scheme, as well as a novel solution with in-resource control channel signaling for the scheduling...

  14. Operating a wide-area remote observing system for the W. M. Keck Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Gregory D.; Kibrick, Robert I.; Goodrich, Robert W.; Lyke, James E.

    2008-07-01

    For over a decade, the W. M. Keck Observatory's two 10-meter telescopes have been operated remotely from its Waimea headquarters. Over the last 6 years, WMKO remote observing has expanded to allow teams at dedicated sites in California to observe either in collaboration with colleagues in Waimea or entirely from the U.S. mainland. Once an experimental effort, the Observatory's mainland observing capability is now fully operational, supported on all science instruments (except the interferometer) and regularly used by astronomers at eight mainland sites. Establishing a convenient and secure observing capability from those sites required careful planning to ensure that they are properly equipped and configured. It also entailed a significant investment in hardware and software, including both custom scripts to simplify launching the instrument interface at remote sites and automated routers employing ISDN backup lines to ensure continuation of observing during Internet outages. Observers often wait until shortly before their runs to request use of the mainland facilities. Scheduling these requests and ensuring proper system operation prior to observing requires close coordination between personnel at WMKO and the mainland sites. An established protocol for approving requests and carrying out pre-run checkout has proven useful in ensuring success. The Observatory anticipates enhancing and expanding its remote observing system. Future plans include deploying dedicated summit computers for running VNC server software, implementing a web-based tracking system for mainland-based observing requests, expanding the system to additional mainland sites, and converting to full-time VNC operation for all instruments.

  15. Prevalence of Post-operative Wound Infections in Rural area of Latur District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Rajput

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical site infection (SSI continues to be a major source of morbidity following operative procedures. The modern surgeon cannot escape the responsibility of dealing with infections, having the knowledge for the appropriate use of aseptic and antiseptic technique, proper use of prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotics, and adequate monitoring and support with novel surgical and pharmacologic as well as nonpharmacologic aids. Objective: To study the most common organisms encountered in postoperative wound infections and to find out the most effective Antibiotics in case of Post Operative Wound Infections. Methodology: It is an Observational study done on 50 operated cases of post operative wounds. Results: Most common microorganism encountered in present series was E. coli in 13 cases (26%. Least common micro organism was Proteus (2%. E. coli was also encountered in mixed culture with Kleibsiella, Pseudomonas and Citrobacter. Most effective antibiotic in present series was Imipenem. Other common effective antibiotics were Amikacin, Netillin, Piperacillin, Tetracycline and Gentamycin. Least effective antibiotics were Penicillin, Cefotaxime, Cefuroxime and Cefoxitin. Conclusion: E. coli was the most common organism cultured. Imipenem and Amikacin were the most effective antibiotics.

  16. Structural evaluation for the core sampling trucks, RMCS operations, 200 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the structural adequacy and the integrity of the existing core sampling trucks to withstand impact should the trucks drop off the ramp, either onto the soft ground or onto a non-yielding surface due to operational error, wind, or earthquake. The report also addresses if the allowable tank dome load will be exceeded by the addition of the impact load

  17. Study of distribution of doses in maintenance operations and interventions in restricted areas of IPEN's radiopharmacy center, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Jessica S.; Souza, Daiane C.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Gerulis, Eduardo; Todo, Alberto S.

    2013-01-01

    This research was developed at the Radiopharmacy Center of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN/CNEN/SP, Brazil, that performs the production of radiopharmaceuticals with isotopes of the 131 I, 123 I, 201 Tl, 67 Ga, 18 F and 99 Mo for use in nuclear medicine. The radioisotopes are produced on an industrial scale and the installation was designed to meet radiation safety standards and quality control requirements. To ensure the production, there are skilled professionals who perform the tasks of maintenance of the equipment and instruments, installed in the cells of processing of radiopharmaceuticals, without which it is not possible to conduct the work with safety and quality. This study was done a survey called Survey of Variables, based on the maintenance operations and interventions in restricted areas of the Centre of Radiopharmacy and in the survey of the distribution of doses in these tasks, carried out during the period from 2005 to 2011. This research aims to identify and determine the main variables that have an impact on the worker's dose. The results are presented for the Occupationally Exposed Individual variable, variable operation, variable area/Cell, task and Feature variable and variable duration of operation, depending on the Dose variable. It is intended in this way to contribute to improvements in operations in restricted areas that may result in lower individual doses without causing significant changes in the routine of work

  18. Fabrication of Large Area Fishnet Optical Metamaterial Structures Operational at Near-IR Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis W. Prather

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a fabrication process for large area (2 mm × 2 mm fishnet metamaterial structures for near IR wavelengths. This process involves: (a defining a sacrificial Si template structure onto a quartz wafer using deep-UV lithography and a dry etching process (b deposition of a stack of Au-SiO2-Au layers and (c a ‘lift-off’ process which removes the sacrificial template structure to yield the fishnet structure. The fabrication steps in this process are compatible with today’s CMOS technology making it eminently well suited for batch fabrication. Also, depending on area of the exposure mask available for patterning the template structure, this fabrication process can potentially lead to optical metamaterials spanning across wafer-size areas.

  19. SUPPLEMENTAL PACKAGE FOR THE SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic and selenium were tentatively identified as ecological RCOCs for the PAOU Ash Basin (PAOU Post-Characterization/Problem Identification Scoping Meeting, March 2007). Core Team agreed to consider eliminating these constituents as RCOCs based on a revised uncertainty discussion. The ecological risk tables and revised text (in its entirety) for the PAOU Ash Basin are provided in the Supplemental Information Package for the FS Scoping Meeting (June 2007). Arsenic and selenium have been traditionally carried through as ecological RCOCs (D-Area Ash Basin, A-Area Ash Pile)

  20. SUPPLEMENTAL PACKAGE FOR THE SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-05-23

    Arsenic and selenium were tentatively identified as ecological RCOCs for the PAOU Ash Basin (PAOU Post-Characterization/Problem Identification Scoping Meeting, March 2007). Core Team agreed to consider eliminating these constituents as RCOCs based on a revised uncertainty discussion. The ecological risk tables and revised text (in its entirety) for the PAOU Ash Basin are provided in the Supplemental Information Package for the FS Scoping Meeting (June 2007). Arsenic and selenium have been traditionally carried through as ecological RCOCs (D-Area Ash Basin, A-Area Ash Pile).

  1. Danish environmental support fund for Eastern Europe. Co-operation development 1991-1996 and programme priority areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The publication gives an account of environmental co-operation between Denmark and 12 countries in Eastern Europe. The basis of co-operation is a country programme, describing present and future priority areas in the recipient countries, as an expression of common understanding between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environment in the recipient countries. The publication also describe the environmental efforts made in 1991-1996 under the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Eastern Europe (DESF) administered by the DEPA. (au)

  2. Multicriteria focus to evaluate the operation of technologies of renewable energy in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the problem of the selection of renewable energy alternatives in rural regions in the developing world. We discuss a multicriteria method, MAP RESURL, for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of the energy systems that have been installed in rural areas. The purpose is to improve the effectiveness of energization policies

  3. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This appendix provides the radionuclide inventory data used for the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 Performance Assessment (PA). The uncertainties in the radionuclide inventory data are also provided, along with the descriptions of the methods used to estimate the uncertainties. of the methods used to estimate the uncertainties

  4. Multicriteria method to evaluate the operation of technologies of renewable energy in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judilh

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the problem of the selection of renewable energy alternatives in rural regions in the developing world. We discuss a multicriteria method, map result, for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of the energy systems that have been installed in rural areas. The purpose is to improve the effectiveness of energization policies

  5. 'Blocked area' of a citizens' action group in operating plan permit accoding to Mining Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-26

    On the question as to whether a citizen's action group, organized in the form of a registered club, has the right to file suit as defined by paragraph 2 of sect. 42 of the rules of administrative courts, in case they bring forward that their right to the reforestation of an estate, ensured by easement, will be affected by a skeleton operating plan permit issued under the mining law. Since the protection of the recreational function of forests is a task the safeguarding of which is solely assigned to bodies of public administration, anyone who has a real right may not claim neighbourly protection under public law in so far. On the relationship between operating plan approval, procedures are according to mining laws and the licensing procedures concerning construction permits.

  6. Design, construction, and operations experience with the SWSA 6 [Solid Waste Storage Area] Tumulus Disposal Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Van Cleve, J.E.; Wylie, A.N.; Williams, L.C.; Bolinsky, J.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge to improve the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. An engineered disposal concept demonstration involving placement of concrete encased waste on a monitored concrete pad with an earthen cover is being conducted. The design, construction, and operations experience with this project, the SWSA 6 Tumulus Disposal Demonstration, is described. 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. THE SUCCESS OF COMPANIES OPERATING IN THE AREA OF TAX HAVENS

    OpenAIRE

    ENEA CONSTANTIN; ENEA CONSTANTA

    2015-01-01

    What is an offshore company? It is a company operating outside the country in which it was established. What is a tax haven? It is a country or jurisdiction where companies have tax advantages usually zero tax. (eg Andorra, British Virgin Islands, Panama, Liechtenstein, Cayman Islands, Seychelles, Cyprus, Malta, etc. How do I open an offshore bank account? Opening an account is a particular problem, which is mostly open once the offshore company is established. Paradise is char...

  8. Quantitative risk assessment of the New York State operated West Valley Radioactive Waste Disposal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, B John; Stetkar, John W; Bembia, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    This article is based on a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) that was performed on a radioactive waste disposal area within the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in western New York State. The QRA results were instrumental in the decision by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to support a strategy of in-place management of the disposal area for another decade. The QRA methodology adopted for this first of a kind application was a scenario-based approach in the framework of the triplet definition of risk (scenarios, likelihoods, consequences). The measure of risk is the frequency of occurrence of different levels of radiation dose to humans at prescribed locations. The risk from each scenario is determined by (1) the frequency of disruptive events or natural processes that cause a release of radioactive materials from the disposal area; (2) the physical form, quantity, and radionuclide content of the material that is released during each scenario; (3) distribution, dilution, and deposition of the released materials throughout the environment surrounding the disposal area; and (4) public exposure to the distributed material and the accumulated radiation dose from that exposure. The risks of the individual scenarios are assembled into a representation of the risk from the disposal area. In addition to quantifying the total risk to the public, the analysis ranks the importance of each contributing scenario, which facilitates taking corrective actions and implementing effective risk management. Perhaps most importantly, quantification of the uncertainties is an intrinsic part of the risk results. This approach to safety analysis has demonstrated many advantages of applying QRA principles to assessing the risk of facilities involving hazardous materials.

  9. Analysis of groundwater response to tidal fluctuations, Operable Unit 2, Area 8, Naval Base Kitsap, Keyport, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatz, Chad C.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2018-05-21

    Operable Unit 2, Area 8, at Naval Base Kitsap, Keyport is the site of a former chrome-plating facility that released metals (primarily chromium and cadmium), chlorinated volatile organic compounds, and petroleum compounds into the local environment. To ensure long-term protectiveness, as stipulated in the Fourth Five-Year Review for the site, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Northwest collaborated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and the Suquamish Tribe, to collect data to monitor the contamination left in place and to ensure the site does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. To support these efforts, refined information was needed on the interaction of fresh groundwater with seawater in response to the up-to 13-ft tidal fluctuations at this nearshore site adjacent to Port Orchard Bay. The information was analyzed to meet the primary objective of this investigation, which was to determine the optimal time during the semi-diurnal and the neap-spring tidal cycles to sample groundwater for freshwater contaminants in Area 8 monitoring wells.Groundwater levels and specific conductance in five monitoring wells, along with marine water-levels (tidal levels) in Port Orchard Bay, were monitored every 15 minutes during a 3-week duration to determine how nearshore groundwater responds to tidal forcing. Time series data were collected from October 24, 2017, to November 16, 2017, a period that included neap and spring tides. Vertical profiles of specific conductance were also measured once in the screened interval of each well prior to instrument deployment to determine if a freshwater/saltwater interface was present in the well during that particular time.The vertical profiles of specific conductance were measured only one time during an ebbing tide at approximately the top, middle, and bottom of the saturated thickness within the screened interval of each well. The landward-most well, MW8-8, was

  10. Air pollution in moderately polluted urban areas: How does the definition of “neighborhood” impact exposure assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenailleau, Quentin M.; Mauny, Frédéric; Joly, Daniel; François, Stéphane; Bernard, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Environmental health studies commonly quantify subjects' pollution exposure in their neighborhood. How this neighborhood is defined can vary, however, leading to different approaches to quantification whose impacts on exposure levels remain unclear. We explore the relationship between neighborhood definition and exposure assessment. NO 2 , benzene, PM 10 and PM 2.5 exposure estimates were computed in the vicinity of 10,825 buildings using twelve exposure assessment techniques reflecting different definitions of “neighborhood”. At the city scale, its definition does not significantly influence exposure estimates. It does impact levels at the building scale, however: at least a quarter of the buildings' exposure estimates for a 400 m buffer differ from the estimated 50 m buffer value (±1.0 μg/m 3 for NO 2 , PM 10 and PM 2.5 ; and ±0.05 μg/m 3 for benzene). This variation is significantly related to the definition of neighborhood. It is vitally important for investigators to understand the impact of chosen assessment techniques on exposure estimates. - Highlights: • Residential building air pollution was calculated using 12 assessment techniques. • These techniques refer to common epidemiological definitions of neighborhood. • At the city scale, neighborhood definition does not impact exposure estimates. • At the building scale, neighborhood definition does impact exposure estimates. • The impact of neighborhood definition varies with physical/deprivation variables. - Ignoring the impact of the neighborhood's definition on exposure estimates could lead to exposure quantification errors that impact resulting health studies, health risk evaluation, and consequently all the decision-making process.

  11. Does It Help to Use Mathematically Superfluous Brackets When Teaching the Rules for the Order of Operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Robert; Sönnerhed, Wang Wei; Hernell, Bernt

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that mathematically superfluous brackets can be useful when teaching the rules for the order of operations is challenged. The idea of the hypothesis is that with brackets it is possible to emphasize the order priority of one operation over another. An experiment was conducted where expressions with mixed operations were studied,…

  12. Evidence Base for the Development of an Enduring DND/CAF Operational Energy Strategy (DOES): Expressing Canadian Values Through Defence Operational Energy Stewardship Here and Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    exceptional energy densities. When including internal plus external components the volumetric 46 https://www.gov.uk/government/ publications /dcdc-global...and Hebabi, M. (2010), Canadian Energy Security: What Does Energy Security Mean for Canada?, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs...as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2014 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la

  13. Concept of the core for a small-to-medium-sized BWR that does not use control rods during normal operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakadozono, N.; Ikegawa, T., E-mail: naoyuki.nakadozono.st@hitachi.com [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan); Nishida, K. [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    A small-to-medium-sized boiling water reactor (BWR) with a natural circulation system is being developed for countries where initial investment funds for construction are limited and electricity transmission networks have not been fully constructed. To lighten operators' work load, a core that does not use control rods during normal operation (control rod-free core) was developed by using a neutronics calculation system coupled with core flow evaluation. The control rod-free core had large core power fluctuation with conventional burnable poison design. The target of core power fluctuation was set to less than 10% and was achieved by optimization of burnable poison arrangement. (author)

  14. U.S. DOE Geopressured/Geothermal Program: Final report on well plug and abandonment operations and well site restoration, Louisiana and Texas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-08-30

    Some of the critical operations conducted during the plugging and abandonment of the three producing wells of the U.S. DOE GEOPRESSURED/GEOTHERL PROGRAM were witnessed by D-O-R Engineering personnel. All operations witnessed by D-O-R personnel were in compliance with the respective state regulations and were conducted as per D-O-R's recommendations to the Department of Energy and their prime contractor, EG&G Idaho. It is our belief that competent cement plugs were left in all three wells. The following describes the work actually witnessed by D-O-R personnel.

  15. Concept of the core for a small-to-medium-sized BWR that does not use control rods during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakadozono, N.; Ikegawa, T.; Nishida, K.

    2013-01-01

    A small-to-medium-sized boiling water reactor (BWR) with a natural circulation system is being developed for countries where initial investment funds for construction are limited and electricity transmission networks have not been fully constructed. To lighten operators' work load, a core that does not use control rods during normal operation (control rod-free core) was developed by using a neutronics calculation system coupled with core flow evaluation. The control rod-free core had large core power fluctuation with conventional burnable poison design. The target of core power fluctuation was set to less than 10% and was achieved by optimization of burnable poison arrangement. (author)

  16. Geologic and operational summary, COST No. 1 well, Georges Bank area, North Atlantic OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Roger V.; Bebout, John W.

    1980-01-01

    The first Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test (COST) well on the U.S. North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) was drilled by Ocean Production Company between April 6 and July 26, 1976, and designated the COST No. G-l. Geological and engineering data obtained from this deep well in the Georges Bank Basin were used by the 31 participating companies and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for evaluating the petroleum potential and possible drilling problems in the U.S. North Atlantic OCS area in preparation for Lease Sale 42 held on December 18, 1979.

  17. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  18. The decision-making process during accidents or incidents in the operational nuclear area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina Vanni [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], email: penhamartins@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: sjcvanni@yahoo.com.br; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: delvonei@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    This study reflects on one of the human behavior mediating factors that face nuclear facility operators during their decision-making process. It includes some mental processes used to determine the best course of action, based on intuitive and creative decisions, within a specific set of rational conditions which depend much more on perception about threats than on theoretical knowledge. A fast and efficient decision, in an unstable and ongoing changing scenario/environment, is extremely complex. The decision-making process goes beyond the purely rational level and many times is influenced by intuition. The importance of the decision-making process leads the study to also review human factors. The methodology used in this paper is based on cognitive aspects which are focused essentially on studies such as: decision process models, decision types and human rationality limits (time) versus individual decisions. Lastly, it makes assessments on how reason, emotion and being under stress relate to the decision-making process (author)

  19. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) Battery Test Operations User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTA Battery Test Operations. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  20. The decision-making process during accidents or incidents in the operational nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina Vanni; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2009-01-01

    This study reflects on one of the human behavior mediating factors that face nuclear facility operators during their decision-making process. It includes some mental processes used to determine the best course of action, based on intuitive and creative decisions, within a specific set of rational conditions which depend much more on perception about threats than on theoretical knowledge. A fast and efficient decision, in an unstable and ongoing changing scenario/environment, is extremely complex. The decision-making process goes beyond the purely rational level and many times is influenced by intuition. The importance of the decision-making process leads the study to also review human factors. The methodology used in this paper is based on cognitive aspects which are focused essentially on studies such as: decision process models, decision types and human rationality limits (time) versus individual decisions. Lastly, it makes assessments on how reason, emotion and being under stress relate to the decision-making process (author)

  1. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) Pyrotechnic Operations: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has created and refined innovative analysis, design, development, and testing techniques that have been demonstrated in all phases of spaceflight. JSC is uniquely positioned to apply this expertise to components, systems, and vehicles that operate in remote or harsh environments. We offer a highly skilled workforce, unique facilities, flexible project management, and a proven management system. The purpose of this guide is to acquaint Test Requesters with the requirements for test, analysis, or simulation services at JSC. The guide includes facility services and capabilities, inputs required by the facility, major milestones, a roadmap of the facility s process, and roles and responsibilities of the facility and the requester. Samples of deliverables, facility interfaces, and inputs necessary to define the cost and schedule are included as appendices to the guide.

  2. Disadvantages of using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to assess imaging tests: A discussion and proposal for an alternative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halligan, Steve; Altman, Douglas G.; Mallett, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The objectives are to describe the disadvantages of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC) to measure diagnostic test performance and to propose an alternative based on net benefit. We use a narrative review supplemented by data from a study of computer-assisted detection for CT colonography. We identified problems with ROC AUC. Confidence scoring by readers was highly non-normal, and score distribution was bimodal. Consequently, ROC curves were highly extrapolated with AUC mostly dependent on areas without patient data. AUC depended on the method used for curve fitting. ROC AUC does not account for prevalence or different misclassification costs arising from false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. Change in ROC AUC has little direct clinical meaning for clinicians. An alternative analysis based on net benefit is proposed, based on the change in sensitivity and specificity at clinically relevant thresholds. Net benefit incorporates estimates of prevalence and misclassification costs, and it is clinically interpretable since it reflects changes in correct and incorrect diagnoses when a new diagnostic test is introduced. ROC AUC is most useful in the early stages of test assessment whereas methods based on net benefit are more useful to assess radiological tests where the clinical context is known. Net benefit is more useful for assessing clinical impact. (orig.)

  3. How do Continuous Climb Operations affect the capacity of a Terminal Manoeuvre Area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Casan, J.A.

    2016-07-01

    Continuous climb operations are the following step to optimise departure trajectories with the goals of minimizing fuel consumption and pollutants and noise emissions in the airports neighbourhood, although due to intrinsic nature of these procedures, the integration of these procedures need to develop a new framework for airline operators and air traffic control. Based on the BADA model developed by EUROCONTROL, three activities have been carried out: simulation of several continuous climbs for three aircraft types (Light, Medium and Heavy), analysation of different applied separations throughout the climb from the runway up to cruise level and, as third activity, definition of new separation minima to ensure that the minimum separations are not violated with this new procedures along the climb. In this work are presented the results of modelling three continuous climb type (constant true airspeed, constant climb angle and constant vertical speed) and new time-based separations for most used models in Palma TMA, which will be the case-study scenario. Finally, this theoretical analysis has been applied to a real scenario in Palma de Mallorca TMA in order to compare how the capacity deals with the introduction of this new procedure to standard departures, standard departures are understood as a departure with a level-off at a determined altitude and with the possibility to be affected by any ATC action. First outcomes are promising because capacity, theoretically, would not be grossly diminished, which could initially be expected based on previous studies on continuous descent approaches, although these results should be considered cautiously due to the fact that the model lacks several factors of associated uncertainty for a real climb. (Author)

  4. Why Does Not the Leaf Weight-Area Allometry of Bamboos Follow the 3/2-Power Law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyan Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principle of similarity (Thompson, 1917 states that the weight of an organism follows the 3/2-power law of its surface area and is proportional to its volume on the condition that the density is constant. However, the allometric relationship between leaf weight and leaf area has been reported to greatly deviate from the 3/2-power law, with the irregularity of leaf density largely ignored for explaining this deviation. Here, we choose 11 bamboo species to explore the allometric relationships among leaf area (A, density (ρ, length (L, thickness (T, and weight (W. Because the edge of a bamboo leaf follows a simplified two-parameter Gielis equation, we could show that A ∝ L2 and that A ∝ T2. This then allowed us to derive the density-thickness allometry ρ ∝ Tb and the weight-area allometry W ∝ A(b+3/2 ≈ A9/8, where b approximates −3/4. Leaf density is strikingly negatively associated with leaf thickness, and it is this inverse relationship that results in the weight-area allometry to deviate from the 3/2-power law. In conclusion, although plants are prone to invest less dry mass and thus produce thinner leaves when the leaf area is sufficient for photosynthesis, such leaf thinning needs to be accompanied with elevated density to ensure structural stability. The findings provide the insights on the evolutionary clue about the biomass investment and output of photosynthetic organs of plants. Because of the importance of leaves, plants could have enhanced the ratio of dry material per unit area of leaf in order to increase the efficiency of photosynthesis, relative the other parts of plants. Although the conclusion is drawn only based on 11 bamboo species, it should also be applicable to the other plants, especially considering previous works on the exponent of the weight-area relationship being less than 3/2 in plants.

  5. Higher operation temperature quadrant photon detectors of 2-11 μm wavelength radiation with large photosensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, J.; Sosna, A.; Wojnowski, D.; Koźniewski, A.; Romanis, M.; Gawron, W.; Piotrowski, J.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the quadrant photon HgCdTe detectors optimized for 2-11 μm wavelength spectral range and Peltier or no cooling, and photosensitive area of a quad-cell of 1×1 to 4×4 mm. The devices are fabricated as photoconductors or multiple photovoltaic cells connected in series (PVM). The former are characterized by a relatively uniform photosensitive area. The PVM photovoltaic cells are distributed along the wafer surface, comprising a periodical stripe structure with a period of 20 μm. Within each period, there is an insensitive gap/trench spot of size close to the period, but becomes negligible for the optimal spot size comparable to a quadrant-cell area. The photoconductors produce 1/f noise with about 10 kHz knee frequency, due to bias necessary for their operation. The PVM photodiodes are typically operated at 0 V bias, so they generate no 1/f noise and operation from DC is enabled. At 230 K, upper corner frequency of 16 to 100 MHz is obtained for photoconductor and 60 to 80 MHz for PVM, normalized detectivity D* 6×107 cm×Hz1/2/W to >1.4×108 cm×Hz1/2/W for photoconductor and >1.7×108 cm·Hz1/2/W for PVM, allowing for position control of the radiation beam with submicron accuracy at 16 MHz, 10.6 μm wavelength of pulsed radiation spot of 0.8 mm dia at the close-to-maximal input radiation power density in a range of detector linear operation.

  6. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles (mi)) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the ''Management Plan

  7. 200 city survey. JEMS 2001 annual report on EMS operational & clinical trends in large, urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Geoff

    2002-02-01

    commence will be an important component of future strategies. More sophisticated EMD, CAD and AVL technologies will also play an indispensable role in reforming system design and daily operations. In light of the events of Sept. 11 and events yet to occur, EMS managers and providers face significant operational challenges. Overcoming these challenges will require leadership, a willingness to question and change tradition and the ability to cope with the discomfort of changing demands and uncertainty. Maintaining the hard-fought successes of EMS will increasingly require more imagination and the willingness of current and future practitioners to study, develop and implement innovative approaches to addressing future requirements.

  8. CDX-U Operation with a Large Area Liquid Lithium Limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Majeski; M. Boaz; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; R. Kaita; H. Kugel; T. Munsat; J. Spaleta; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R.W. Conn; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; R. Maingi; M. Ulrickson

    2002-01-01

    The Current Drive experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has begun experiments with a fully toroidal liquid lithium limiter. CDX-U is a compact [R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, B(subscript)toroidal = 2 kG, I(subscript)P = 100 kA, T(subscript)e(0) ∼ 100 eV, n(subscript)e(0) ∼ 5 x 10 19 m -3 ] short-pulse (<25 msec) spherical torus with extensive diagnostics. The limiter, which consists of a shallow circular stainless steel tray of radius 34 cm and width 10 cm, can be filled with lithium to a depth of a few millimeters, and forms the lower limiting surface for the discharge. Heating elements beneath the tray are used to liquefy the lithium prior to the experiment. Surface coatings are evident on part of the lithium. Despite the surface coatings, tokamak discharges operated in contact with the lithium-filled tray show evidence of reduced impurities and recycling. The reduction in recycling is largest when the lithium is liquefied by heating to 250 degrees Celsius

  9. Tools to identify linear combination of prognostic factors which maximizes area under receiver operator curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Nicolae; Todor, Irina; Săplăcan, Gavril

    2014-01-01

    The linear combination of variables is an attractive method in many medical analyses targeting a score to classify patients. In the case of ROC curves the most popular problem is to identify the linear combination which maximizes area under curve (AUC). This problem is complete closed when normality assumptions are met. With no assumption of normality search algorithm are avoided because it is accepted that we have to evaluate AUC n(d) times where n is the number of distinct observation and d is the number of variables. For d = 2, using particularities of AUC formula, we described an algorithm which lowered the number of evaluations of AUC from n(2) to n(n-1) + 1. For d > 2 our proposed solution is an approximate method by considering equidistant points on the unit sphere in R(d) where we evaluate AUC. The algorithms were applied to data from our lab to predict response of treatment by a set of molecular markers in cervical cancers patients. In order to evaluate the strength of our algorithms a simulation was added. In the case of no normality presented algorithms are feasible. For many variables computation time could be increased but acceptable.

  10. Does Physical Activity Mediate the Associations Between Local-Area Descriptive Norms, Built Environment Walkability, and Glycosylated Hemoglobin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Suzanne J; Niyonsenga, Theo; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2017-08-23

    Associations between local-area residential features and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ) may be mediated by individual-level health behaviors. Such indirect effects have rarely been tested. This study assessed whether individual-level self-reported physical activity mediated the influence of local-area descriptive norms and objectively expressed walkability on 10-year change in HbA 1c . HbA 1c was assessed three times for adults in a 10-year population-based biomedical cohort ( n = 4056). Local-area norms specific to each participant were calculated, aggregating responses from a separate statewide surveillance survey for 1600 m road-network buffers centered on participant addresses (local prevalence of overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m²) and physical inactivity (Walkability was directly and indirectly protective of worsening HbA 1c . Local-area descriptive norms and walkability influence cardiometabolic risk trajectory through individual-level physical activity. Efforts to reduce population cardiometabolic risk should consider the extent of local-area unhealthful behavioral norms and walkability in tailoring strategies to improve physical activity.

  11. Injury Prevention for Ski-Area Employees: A Physiological Assessment of Lift Operators, Instructors, and Patrollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Roberts

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Momentary lapses in concentration contribute to workplace accidents. Given that blood glucose (BG and hydration levels have been shown to affect vigilance, this study proposed to investigate these parameters and functional movement patterns of ski-resort workers and to determine whether an educational program to stabilize BG and hydration and encourage joint stability had an effect in decreasing occupational injuries. Methods. Seventy-five instructors, patrollers and, lift-operators at five snowsport resorts were evaluated for BG, vigilance, workload, dietary/hydration practices, and functional-movement patterns. Injury rates were tabulated before and after an educational program for nutrition and functional-movement awareness and compared to other resorts. Results. Workers showed poor stability at the lumbar spine, knee, and shoulder. BG levels were normal but variable (%CV = 14±6. Diets were high in sugar and fat and low in water and many nutrients. Medical Aid and Lost Time claims declined significantly by 65.1±20.0% (confidence interval −90.0% ≤μ≤−40.2% in resorts that used the educational program whereas four control resorts not using the program experienced increases of 33.4±42.9% (confidence interval −19.7% ≤μ≤−86.7%; F[2,12] = 21.35, P<0.0001 over the same season. Conclusion. Provision of snowsport resort workers with educational programs encouraging hydration, diet to stabilize BG, and functional-movement awareness was effective in reducing worksite injuries in this population.

  12. Transparent, broadband, flexible, and bifacial-operable photodetectors containing a large-area graphene-gold oxide heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Lun; Yu, Chen-Chieh; Lin, Keng-Te; Yang, Tai-Chi; Wang, En-Yun; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2015-05-26

    In this study, we combine graphene with gold oxide (AuOx), a transparent and high-work-function electrode material, to achieve a high-efficient, low-bias, large-area, flexible, transparent, broadband, and bifacial-operable photodetector. The photodetector operates through hot electrons being generated in the graphene and charge separation occurring at the AuOx-graphene heterojunction. The large-area graphene covering the AuOx electrode efficiently prevented reduction of its surface; it also acted as a square-centimeter-scale active area for light harvesting and photodetection. Our graphene/AuOx photodetector displays high responsivity under low-intensity light illumination, demonstrating picowatt sensitivity in the ultraviolet regime and nanowatt sensitivity in the infrared regime for optical telecommunication. In addition, this photodetector not only exhibited broadband (from UV to IR) high responsivity-3300 A W(-1) at 310 nm (UV), 58 A W(-1) at 500 nm (visible), and 9 A W(-1) at 1550 nm (IR)-but also required only a low applied bias (0.1 V). The hot-carrier-assisted photoresponse was excellent, especially in the short-wavelength regime. In addition, the graphene/AuOx photodetector exhibited great flexibility and stability. Moreover, such vertical heterojunction-based graphene/AuOx photodetectors should be compatible with other transparent optoelectronic devices, suggesting applications in flexible and wearable optoelectronic technologies.

  13. 77 FR 55829 - Western Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of... one or more phases, dependent on one or more power sale contracts. The proposed wind park would... that limit construction vehicle speed limits. Foresight indicated that the wind park contractor will...

  14. 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 400 Area at Hanford is home primarily to the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), a DOE-owned, formerly operating, 400-megawatt (thermal) liquid-metal (sodium)-cooled...

  15. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  16. Operation of a real-time warning system for debris flows in the San Francisco bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond C.; Mark, Robert K.; Barbato, Gary; ,

    1993-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed an operational warning system for debris flows during severe rainstorms in the San Francisco Bay region. The NWS makes quantitative forecasts of precipitation from storm systems approaching the Bay area and coordinates a regional network of radio-telemetered rain gages. The USGS has formulated thresholds for the intensity and duration of rainfall required to initiate debris flows. The first successful public warnings were issued during a severe storm sequence in February 1986. Continued operation of the warning system since 1986 has provided valuable working experience in rainfall forecasting and monitoring, refined rainfall thresholds, and streamlined procedures for issuing public warnings. Advisory statements issued since 1986 are summarized.

  17. Design, operations, and maintenance of the soil vapor extraction systems for the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranbarger, R.K.

    1996-05-01

    This report provides the design, operating, and maintenance guidelines for the soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems implemented as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride ERA. Additionally, this document provides general information regarding the ERA, the SVE system design, and the general approach towards soil vapor extraction. The remaining content of this document includes the following: regulatory compliance; summary of vadose zone physical and containment characteristics; past and present SVE system designs and potential design upgrades; general design and monitoring considerations for the SVE systems; descriptions of the SVE system components and their respective functions; safety requirements; operation of the SVE systems including startup, surveillances, shutdown, GAC canister changeouts, and wellfield characterization; monitoring requirements; SVE optimization; and instrument calibrations, preventive maintenance, and spare parts and site inventory requirements

  18. A DOE Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kristin

    2004-03-01

    As one of the lead agencies for nanotechnology research and development, the Department of Energy (DOE) is revolutionizing the way we understand and manipulate materials at the nanoscale. As the Federal government's single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and overseeing the Nation's cross-cutting research programs in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and fusion energy sciences, the DOE guides the grand challenges in nanomaterials research that will have an impact on everything from medicine, to energy production, to manufacturing. Within the DOE's Office of Science, the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) leads research and development at the nanoscale, which supports the Department's missions of national security, energy, science, and the environment. The cornerstone of the program in nanoscience is the establishment and operation of five new Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs), which are under development at six DOE Laboratories. Throughout its history, DOE's Office of Science has designed, constructed and operated many of the nation's most advanced, large-scale research and development user facilities, of importance to all areas of science. These state-of-the art facilities are shared with the science community worldwide and contain technologies and instruments that are available nowhere else. Like all DOE national user facilities, the new NSRCs are designed to make novel state-of-the-art research tools available to the world, and to accelerate a broad scale national effort in basic nanoscience and nanotechnology. The NSRCs will be sited adjacent to or near existing DOE/BES major user facilities, and are designed to enable national user access to world-class capabilities for the synthesis, processing, fabrication, and analysis of materials at the nanoscale, and to transform the nation's approach to nanomaterials.

  19. TV White spaces for wireless broadband in rural areas: the regulator, broadcaster and telecommunication(s) operator viewpoint

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mfupe, LP

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA) has recently conducted occupancy measurement audit of two Ultra High Frequency (UHF) radio spectrum bands: the 450 - 470 MHz and the 790- 862 MHz in major South African cities. The results from these audits..., such as 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE), to a possible operation in UHF TVWS bands is considered. In many cases, it is assumed that TVWS would be largely available in rural areas where broadband connectivity is rarely available. The LTE - Time Division...

  20. [Importance of material logistics in the interface management of operation departments: is the supply of sterile equipment a new business area of operation room organization?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeck, J; Schmeck, S B; Kohnen, W; Werner, C; Schäfer, M; Gervais, H

    2008-08-01

    The implementation of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) sharply increased economic pressure on hospitals. Hence, process optimization was focussed on cost-intensive areas, namely the operation room (OR) departments. Work-flow in the OR is characterized by a mandatory interlocking of the job functions of many different occupational groups and the availability of a variety of different materials. Alternatives for staff assignment optimization have been published in numerous publications dealing with the importance of OR management. In this connection the issue of material logistics in the context of OR management has not been frequently addressed. In order to perform a surgical procedure according to plan, one depends on personnel and on timely availability of the materials needed. Supply of sterilized materials is of utmost importance, because in most hospitals sterilized surgical devices constitute a critical resource. In order to coordinate the OR process with the production flow of sterilized materials, an organizational connection to the OR management makes sense. Hence, in a German university hospital the Department of Hospital Sterile Supplies was integrated into the OR management of the Department of Anesthesiology. This led to a close coordination of work-flow processes, and concomitantly a significant reduction of production costs of sterile supplies could be achieved by direct interaction with the OR. Thus, hospital sterile supplies can reasonably be integrated into an OR management representing a new interesting business area for OR organization.

  1. Methane from shallow seep areas of the NW Svalbard Arctic margin does not reach the sea surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silyakova, Anna; Greinert, Jens; Jansson, Pär; Ferré, Bénédicte

    2015-04-01

    Methane, an important greenhouse gas, leaks from large areas of the Arctic Ocean floor. One overall question is how much methane passes from the seabed through the water column, potentially reaching the atmosphere. Transport of methane from the ocean floor into and through the water column depends on many factors such as distribution of gas seeps, microbial methane oxidation, and ambient oceanographic conditions, which may trigger a change in seep activity. From June-July 2014 we investigated dissolved methane in the water column emanating from the "Prins Karls Forland seeps" area offshore the NW Svalbard Arctic margin. Measurements of the spatial variability of dissolved methane in the water column included 65 CTD stations located in a grid covering an area of 30 by 15 km. We repeated an oceanographic transect twice in a week for time lapse studies, thus documenting significant temporal variability in dissolved methane above one shallow seep site (~100 m water depth). Analysis of both nutrient concentrations and dissolved methane in water samples from the same transect, reveal striking similarities in spatial patterns of both dissolved methane and nutrients indicating that microbial community is involved in methane cycling above the gas seepage. Our preliminary results suggest that although methane release can increase in a week's time, providing twice as much dissolved gas to the water column, no methane from a seep reaches the sea surface. Instead it spreads horizontally under the pycnocline. Yet microbial communities react rapidly to the methane supply above gas seepage areas and may also have an important role as an effective filter, hindering methane release from the ocean to the atmosphere during rapid methane ebullition. This study is funded by CAGE (Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate), Norwegian Research Council grant no. 223259.

  2. Does the Visibility of Greenery Increase Perceived Safety in Urban Areas? Evidence from the Place Pulse 1.0 Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojiang Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban green space provides a series of esthetic, environmental and psychological benefits to urban residents. However, the relationship between the visibility of green vegetation and perceived safety is still in debate. This research investigated whether green vegetation could help to increase the perceived safety based on a crowdsourced dataset: the Place Pulse 1.0 dataset. Place Pulse 1.0 dataset, which was generated from a large number of votes by online participants, includes geo-tagged Google Street View images and the corresponding perceived safety score for each image. In this study, we conducted statistical analyses to analyze the relationship between perceived safety and green vegetation characteristics, which were extracted from Google Street View images. Results show that the visibility of green vegetation plays an important role in increasing perceived safety in urban areas. For different land use types, the relationship between vegetation structures and perceived safety varies. In residential, urban public/institutional, commercial and open land areas, the visibility of vegetation higher than 2.5 m has significant positive correlations with perceived safety, but there exists no significant correlation between perceived safety and the percentage of green vegetation in transportation and industrial areas. The visibility of vegetation below 2.5 m has no significant relationship with the perceived safety in almost all land use types, except for multifamily residential land and urban public/institutional land. In general, this study provided insight for the relationship between green vegetation characteristics and the perception of environment, as well as valuable reference data for developing urban greening programs.

  3. Activity in the fusiform face area supports expert perception in radiologists and does not depend upon holistic processing of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Stephen A.; Harley, Erin M.; Pope, Whitney B.; Villablanca, J. Pablo; Mazziotta, John C.; Enzmann, Dieter

    2009-02-01

    Training in radiology dramatically changes observers' ability to process images, but the neural bases of this visual expertise remain unexplored. Prior imaging work has suggested that the fusiform face area (FFA), normally selectively responsive to faces, becomes responsive to images in observers' area of expertise. The FFA has been hypothesized to be important for "holistic" processing that integrates information across the entire image. Here, we report a cross-sectional study of radiologists that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural activity in first-year radiology residents, fourth-year radiology residents, and practicing radiologists as they detected abnormalities in chest radiographs. Across subjects, activity in the FFA correlated with visual expertise, measured as behavioral performance during scanning. To test whether processing in the FFA was holistic, we measured its responses both to intact radiographs and radiographs that had been divided into 25 square pieces whose locations were scrambled. Activity in the FFA was equal in magnitude for intact and scrambled images, and responses to both kinds of stimuli correlated reliably with expertise. These results suggest that the FFA is one of the cortical regions that provides the basis of expertise in radiology, but that its contribution is not holistic processing of images.

  4. Does small-sided-games’ court area influence metabolic, perceptual, and physical performance parameters of young elite basketball players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, PR; Aoki, MS; Arruda, AFS; Freitas, CG; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of court size on physiological responses and physical performance of young elite basketball players. Twelve male basketball players (18.6 ± 0.5 years; 88.8 ± 14.5 kg; 192.6 ± 6.5 cm) from an under-19 team performed two small-sided games (matches) with different court areas (28x15 m and 28x9 m; 28x15 and 28x9 protocols). The number of players (3x3) was kept the same in each protocol. The players performed a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test before and after each match. Blood lactate concentration was collected before (pre) and after (post) the matches, and the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) was determined 30 minutes after the match. Best and mean time in the RSA test were not different between the 28x15 and the 28x9 match protocols (p > 0.05). A significant difference was observed for lactate concentration from pre- to post-match (p 0.05, ES=0.41). In summary, the results of the current study suggest that the different court areas induced similar responses. Although there was no significant difference in effort perception, players tended to perceive a greater effort in the larger court size. PMID:26985132

  5. Sixty strabismus cases operated with the Computerized Strabismus Model 1.0: When does it benefit, when not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); H.M. van Minderhout; H. Spekreijse (Henk)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWhile, in routine strabismus surgery, empirical guidelines and experience are the best in judging which eye muscles to operate, a complex case may need a unique surgical approach, the consequences of which cannot always be envisioned in detail. We sought to improve the results of surgery

  6. Study of Interdependence of Wind Generation Output and Potential PV Generation in the Area of ENERGA-OPERATOR SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Bajor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the interdependence of wind generation output and photovoltaic generation potential in the ENERGA-OPERATOR SA grid. The first study of the interdependence of these two types of renewable sources’ generation outputs was carried out by the Gdańsk Branch of the Institute of Power Engineering in cooperation with ENERGA-OPERATOR in 2012. An important conclusion of the study was the need to repeat the analysis for a larger set of input data as the study covered the period of one year only, and for obvious reasons a limited number of wind farms. The present study’s inputs included a period of four years and more wind farms, due to the continuous connecting of new facilities to the grid. Thus, the results are characterized by a much higher level of credibility, and allow drawing mor correct conclusions regarding the analysed interdependence. The research on the interdependence of the annual wind generation output and potential generation from photovoltaic sources indicates that both generation types are characterized by mutual spatio-temporal dependency. In the study the relationship was quantified by evaluation of the maximum actual wind generation output in specific areas in the case of high PV generation output in a given area and vice versa. The results may allow for appropriate (i.e. substantiating the modelled operating conditions of the system in relation to reality consideration of both types of sources in various types of system analyses of their impact on the grid performance, such as interconnection studies for new sources and distribution grid development planning.

  7. Does localized recharge occur at a discharge area within the ground-water flow system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Kroitoru, L.; Ronen, D.; Magaritz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies done in 1984, at a central site on Franklin Lake playa (also known as Alkali Flat, a major discharge area of the ground-water flow system that includes Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository) yield limited hydraulic-head and hydrochemical data from a 3-piezometer nest which indicated a slightly downward hydraulic gradient (-0.02) and decreasing concentration of dissolved solids with increasing depth. Hydraulic-head measurements in June, 1989 made at the piezometer nest showed a substantially larger downward gradient (-0.10) and a 0. 83-meter higher water level in the shallowest piezometer (3.29 meters deep), indicating the possibility of localized recharge. during the period of September-November, 1989, a multilevel sampler was used to obtain detailed hydrochemical profiles of the uppermost 1. 5 m of the saturated zone

  8. Optimization of operating variables for production of ultra-fine talc in a stirred mill. Specific surface area investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toraman Oner Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its properties such as chemical inertness, softness, whiteness, high thermal conductivity, low electrical conductivity and adsorption properties talc has wide industrial applications in paper, cosmetics, paints, polymer, ceramics, refractory materials and pharmaceutical. The demand for ultra-fine talc is emerging which drives the mineral industry to produce value added products. In this study, it was investigated how certain grinding parameters such as mill speed, ball filling ratio, powder filling ratio and grinding time of dry stirred mill affect grindability of talc ore (d97=127 μm. A series of laboratory experiments using a 24 full factorial design was conducted to determine the optimal operational parameters of a stirred mill in order to minimize the specific surface area. The main and interaction effects on the volume specific surface area (SV, m2.cm−3 of the ground product were evaluated using the Yates analysis. Under the optimal conditions at the stirrer speed of 600 rpm, grinding time of 20 min, sample mass of 5% and ball ratio of 70%, the resulting talc powder had larger volume specific surface area (i.e., 3.48 m2.cm−3 than the starting material (i.e., 1.84 m2.cm−3.

  9. National Scale Operational Mapping of Burnt Areas as a Tool for the Better Understanding of Contemporary Wildfire Patterns and Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panteleimon Xofis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an operational nationwide burnt area mapping service realized over Greece for the years 2007–2011, through the implementation of the so-called BSM_NOA dedicated method developed at the National Observatory of Athens for post-fire recovery management. The method exploits multispectral satellite imagery, such as Landsat-TM, SPOT, FORMOSAT-2, WorldView and IKONOS. The analysis of fire size distribution reveals that a high number of fire events evolve to large and extremely large wildfires under favorable wildfire conditions, confirming the reported trend of an increasing fire-severity in recent years. Furthermore, under such conditions wildfires affect to a higher degree areas at high altitudes, threatening the existence of ecologically significant ecosystems. Finally, recent socioeconomic changes and land abandonment has resulted in the encroachment of former agricultural areas of limited productivity by shrubs and trees, resulting both in increased fuel availability and continuity, and subsequently increased burnability.

  10. Vegetated treatment area (VTAs efficiencies for E. coli and nutrient removal on small-scale swine operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Daren Harmel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As small-scale animal feeding operations work to manage their byproducts and avoid regulation, they need practical, cost-effective methods to reduce environmental impact. One such option is using vegetative treatment areas (VTAs with perennial grasses to treat runoff; however, research is limited on VTA effectiveness as a waste management alternative for smaller operations. This study evaluated the efficiencies of VTAs in reducing bacteria and nutrient runoff from small-scale swine operations in three counties in Central Texas. Based on 4 yr of runoff data, the Bell and Brazos VTAs significantly reduced loads and concentrations of E. coli and nutrients (except NO3-N and had treatment efficiencies of 73–94%. Most notably, the Bell VTA reduced loads of E. coli, NH4-N, PO4-P, total N, and total P similar to that of the background (control. In spite of significant reductions, runoff from the Brazos VTA had higher concentrations and loads than the control site, especially following installation of concrete pens and increased pen washing, which produced standing water and increased E. coli and nutrient influx. The Robertson VTA produced fewer significant reductions and had lower treatment efficiencies (29–69%; however, E. coli and nutrient concentrations and loads leaving this VTA were much lower than observed at the Bell and Brazos County sites due to alternative solids management and enclosed pens. Based on these results and previous research, VTAs can be practical, effective waste management alternatives for reducing nutrient and bacteria losses from small-scale animal operations, but only if properly designed and managed. Keywords: Bacteria, Nutrients, Swine manure, Waste management, Water quality

  11. Routine Drainage of the Operative Bed Following Elective Distal Pancreatectomy Does Not Reduce the Occurrence of Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Stephen W.; Zarzaur, Ben L.; Parmar, Abhishek; Riall, Taylor S.; Hall, Bruce L.; Pitt, Henry A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Routine drainage of the operative bed following elective pancreatectomy remains controversial. Data specific to distal pancreatectomy (DP) have not been examined in a multi-institutional collaborative. Methods Data from the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pancreatectomy Demonstration Project were utilized. The impact of drain placement on development of pancreatectomy-related and overall morbidity were analyzed. Propensity scores for drain placement were calculated, and nearest neighbor matching was used to create a matched cohort. Groups were compared using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Results Over 14 months, 761 patients undergoing DP were accrued; 606 were drained. Propensity score matching was possible in 116 patients. Drain and no drain groups were not different with respect to multiple preoperative and operative variables. All pancreatic fistulas (ppancreatectomy was associated with a higher overall morbidity and pancreatic fistulas. Drains did not reduce intra-abdominal septic morbidity, clinically relevant pancreatic fistulas nor the need for postoperative therapeutic intervention. PMID:25115324

  12. Does degree of gyrification underlie the phenotypic and genetic associations between cortical surface area and cognitive ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Anna R; Hagler, Donald J; Panizzon, Matthew S; Neale, Michael C; Eyler, Lisa T; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Franz, Carol E; Jak, Amy; Lyons, Michael J; Rinker, Daniel A; Thompson, Wesley K; Tsuang, Ming T; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2015-02-01

    The phenotypic and genetic relationship between global cortical size and general cognitive ability (GCA) appears to be driven by surface area (SA) and not cortical thickness (CT). Gyrification (cortical folding) is an important property of the cortex that helps to increase SA within a finite space, and may also improve connectivity by reducing distance between regions. Hence, gyrification may be what underlies the SA-GCA relationship. In previous phenotypic studies, a 3-dimensional gyrification index (3DGI) has been positively associated with cognitive ability and negatively associated with mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and psychiatric disorders affecting cognition. However, the differential genetic associations of 3DGI and SA with GCA are still unclear. We examined the heritability of 3DGI, and the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental associations of 3DGI with SA and GCA in a large sample of adult male twins (N = 512). Nearly 85% of the variance in 3DGI was due to genes, and 3DGI had a strong phenotypic and genetic association with SA. Both 3DGI and total SA had positive phenotypic correlations with GCA. However, the SA-GCA correlation remained significant after controlling for 3DGI, but not the other way around. There was also significant genetic covariance between SA and GCA, but not between 3DGI and GCA. Thus, despite the phenotypic and genetic associations between 3DGI and SA, our results do not support the hypothesis that gyrification underlies the association between SA and GCA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Where does blue water go in the semi-arid area of northern China under changing environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ren

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available River flow regimes in the semi-arid region of northern China show a decreasing trend in terms of quantity. River runoff (i.e. blue water reduction within the Laohahe catchment, the source area of the Liaohe River basin, manifests the aridity that exists widely in northern China. According to the water balance equation, during the past half-century, observed streamflow records in the Laohahe catchment show that blue water was re-directed to green water flow (i.e. evapotranspiration over annual and decadal time scales, whereas precipitation did not vary much. Human activities and land-use/land-cover changes are the fundamental reasons for such runoff change. In the studied catchment, extensive land reclamation for agriculture, water withdrawal from streams, and abstraction from aquifers for irrigation are the direct and main causes leading to the decrease in observed blue water. These factors further demonstrate that a land-use decision is also a decision about water. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated modelling framework to intrinsically link climate, hydrological, and agricultural models with social and economic analyses.

  14. The Harm that Underestimation of Uncertainty Does to Our Community: A Case Study Using Sunspot Area Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres

    2017-08-01

    Data products in heliospheric physics are very often provided without clear estimates of uncertainty. From helioseismology in the solar interior, all the way to in situ solar wind measurements beyond 1AU, uncertainty estimates are typically hard for users to find (buried inside long documents that are separate from the data products), or simply non-existent.There are two main reasons why uncertainty measurements are hard to find:1. Understanding instrumental systematic errors is given a much higher priority inside instrumental teams.2. The desire to perfectly understand all sources of uncertainty postpones indefinitely the actual quantification of uncertainty in our measurements.Using the cross calibration of 200 years of sunspot area measurements as a case study, in this presentation we will discuss the negative impact that inadequate measurements of uncertainty have on users, through the appearance of toxic and unnecessary controversies, and data providers, through the creation of unrealistic expectations regarding the information that can be extracted from their data. We will discuss how empirical estimates of uncertainty represent a very good alternative to not providing any estimates at all, and finalize by discussing the bare essentials that should become our standard practice for future instruments and surveys.

  15. Operant conditioning of the soleus H-reflex does not induce long-term changes in the gastrocnemius H-reflexes and does not disturb normal locomotion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Yukiko; Segal, Richard L; Wolpaw, Jonathan R; Thompson, Aiko K

    2014-09-15

    In normal animals, operant conditioning of the spinal stretch reflex or the H-reflex has lesser effects on synergist muscle reflexes. In rats and people with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), soleus H-reflex operant conditioning can improve locomotion. We studied in normal humans the impact of soleus H-reflex down-conditioning on medial (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) H-reflexes and on locomotion. Subjects completed 6 baseline and 30 conditioning sessions. During conditioning trials, the subject was encouraged to decrease soleus H-reflex size with the aid of visual feedback. Every sixth session, MG and LG H-reflexes were measured. Locomotion was assessed before and after conditioning. In successfully conditioned subjects, the soleus H-reflex decreased 27.2%. This was the sum of within-session (task dependent) adaptation (13.2%) and across-session (long term) change (14%). The MG H-reflex decreased 14.5%, due mainly to task-dependent adaptation (13.4%). The LG H-reflex showed no task-dependent adaptation or long-term change. No consistent changes were detected across subjects in locomotor H-reflexes, EMG activity, joint angles, or step symmetry. Thus, in normal humans, soleus H-reflex down-conditioning does not induce long-term changes in MG/LG H-reflexes and does not change locomotion. In these subjects, task-dependent adaptation of the soleus H-reflex is greater than it is in people with SCI, whereas long-term change is less. This difference from results in people with SCI is consistent with the fact that long-term change is beneficial in people with SCI, since it improves locomotion. In contrast, in normal subjects, long-term change is not beneficial and may necessitate compensatory plasticity to preserve satisfactory locomotion. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Does arsenic in soil contribute to arsenic urinary concentrations in a French population living in a naturally arsenic contaminated area?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillol, Clemence; Dor, Frederic; Clozel, Blandine; Goria, Sarah; Seta, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    A cross sectional study using environmental and biological samples was implemented to assess the association between arsenic (As) concentrations in the environment and urinary As levels of residents living in an area where the soil is naturally As rich. As was measured in drinking water, atmospheric particulate matter, and soil and a geographic information system was used to assign environmental concentrations closest to the participants' dwellings and the sum of inorganic As and metabolites in urine samples. The only potential source of As environmental contamination was from soil with a range of 13-131 mg As/kg of dry matter. As(V) was the only species present among As extracted from the analyzed soil samples. The chemical extraction showed a poor mobility of As soil. There was no difference between child and teenager, and adult urinary As concentrations, though men had higher urinary As concentrations than women (p < 0.001). Given the important differences in lifestyle between 7-18 year olds, men, and women, these groups were analyzed separately. Whilst we were unable to find a stable model for the 7-18 year old group, for the adult men group we found that seafood consumption in the 3 days prior to the investigation (p = 0.02), and beer (p = 0.03) and wine consumption in the 4 days before the study, were associated with As urinary levels (μg/L). In adult women, creatinine was the only variable significantly associated with As urinary concentration (μg/L). The concentrations we measured in soils were variable and although high, only moderately so and no link between As concentrations in the soil and urinary As concentrations could be found for either men or women. Some individual factors explained half of the variability of adult men urinary As levels. The unexplained part of the variability should be searched notably in As mobility in soil and uncharacterized human behavior.

  17. Does arsenic in soil contribute to arsenic urinary concentrations in a French population living in a naturally arsenic contaminated area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillol, Clemence, E-mail: c.fillol@invs.sante.fr [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement, EA 4064, Paris (France); Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Dor, Frederic [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Clozel, Blandine [BRGM French Geological Survey, Service Geologique Regional Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Goria, Sarah [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, Departement Sante Environnement, Saint-Maurice (France); Seta, Nathalie [Universite Paris Descartes, Laboratoire Sante Publique et Environnement, EA 4064, Paris (France); AP-HP, Hopital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Biochimie, Paris (France)

    2010-11-01

    A cross sectional study using environmental and biological samples was implemented to assess the association between arsenic (As) concentrations in the environment and urinary As levels of residents living in an area where the soil is naturally As rich. As was measured in drinking water, atmospheric particulate matter, and soil and a geographic information system was used to assign environmental concentrations closest to the participants' dwellings and the sum of inorganic As and metabolites in urine samples. The only potential source of As environmental contamination was from soil with a range of 13-131 mg As/kg of dry matter. As(V) was the only species present among As extracted from the analyzed soil samples. The chemical extraction showed a poor mobility of As soil. There was no difference between child and teenager, and adult urinary As concentrations, though men had higher urinary As concentrations than women (p < 0.001). Given the important differences in lifestyle between 7-18 year olds, men, and women, these groups were analyzed separately. Whilst we were unable to find a stable model for the 7-18 year old group, for the adult men group we found that seafood consumption in the 3 days prior to the investigation (p = 0.02), and beer (p = 0.03) and wine consumption in the 4 days before the study, were associated with As urinary levels ({mu}g/L). In adult women, creatinine was the only variable significantly associated with As urinary concentration ({mu}g/L). The concentrations we measured in soils were variable and although high, only moderately so and no link between As concentrations in the soil and urinary As concentrations could be found for either men or women. Some individual factors explained half of the variability of adult men urinary As levels. The unexplained part of the variability should be searched notably in As mobility in soil and uncharacterized human behavior.

  18. Does formal education and training of staff reduce the operation rate for fractures of the distal radius?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kyle; Murphy, Lynn; Gallagher, Brendan; Eames, Niall

    2013-12-01

    Fractures of the distal radius are one of the most common extremity fractures, and operation rates are increasing. Staff within our unit felt that formal teaching, particularly of new medical staff, with regards to fracture reduction and appropriate cast application could result in a reduction in operation rates. Retrospective data was extracted from FORD (Fracture Outcome and Research Database), including: number of fractures, number of fractures undergoing ORIF, fracture configuration, patient demographics, and mechanism of injury. All patients undergoing ORIF had their radiographs assessed by two separate reviewers. Information regarding adequate fracture reduction, adequate cast application (using Gap Index), and appropriate plaster cast moulding was recorded. Formal teaching was then given to the next group of medical staff rotating through the unit, and the same data was collected prospectively for that six-month period. Exclusion criteria included bilateral injuries, and polytrauma patients. A total of 1623 distal radial fractures were treated in our unit over the 12-month period, with 71 undergoing ORIF in the first 6 months and 39 in the second 6 months, this was statistically significant (p = 0.0009). Our study found that formal teaching and education significantly reduced the operation rate for distal radial fractures. This effect was most significant for extra-articular, dorsally angulated fractures of the distal radius. Our study proves that just 1 h of basic training at the beginning of an attachment can have significant benefits to both the unit and, more importantly, the patients. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Is it possible to do a re-sizing of a warehouse without affecting the quality and requirements of the operative areas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagnino, Miguel Angel; Ferrario, Alejandro Daniel

    2010-09-15

    VISION: In that case we considered, within of Supplying Area, to count whit Deposits of Materials-DM, distributed geographically according to an optimal criterion, determine the proportions suitably, contemplating the Logistics of Supplying to the different Operative Areas, diminishing the energy cost and with an optimal amount of materials according to, on the one hand, the operative requirements and, on the other, adopting an iron Policy of Stock Management. DEVELOPMENT: we began from a real case where as a result of a companies merger, one took place a rearrangement and re-sizing of the Operative Areas of each one of the original Companies.

  20. Does tree harvesting in riparian areas increase stream sedimentation and turbidity - world-wide experience relative to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, D.; Smethurst, P.; Petrone, K.

    2009-04-01

    A typical improved-pasture property in the high-rainfall zone of Australia contains 0.5-2.0 km of waterways per 100 ha. Nationwide, some 25-30 million ha of improved pasture contains about 100,000 km of streams, of which about 75% are currently un-buffered and contributing to soil and water degradation. Farmers and natural resource managers are considering ways to enhance environmental outcomes at farm and catchment scales using stream-side buffers of trees and other perennial vegetation. Benefits of buffers include improved water quality, biodiversity, carbon sequestration and aesthetics. Lack of sound information and funding for establishing and managing buffer zones is hindering wide-scale adoption of this practice. Stream-side areas of farms are generally highly productive (wet and nutrient-rich) and contain a high biodiversity, but they are also high-risk zones for soil and water values and stock safety. Development of options based on a balance between environmental and economic outcomes would potentially promote wider adoption. Australian codes of forest practice currently discourage or prevent harvesting of trees in streamside buffers. These codes were developed exclusively for large-scale native forests and industrial-scale plantations, and were applicable to farm forestry as now required. In countries including USA and Germany trees in stream-side buffers are harvested using Best Management Practices. Trees may grow at a faster rate in riparian zones and provide a commercial return, but the impacts of tree establishment and harvesting on water yield and quality must be evaluated. However, there have been few designed experiments investigating this problem. Australia has recently initiated studies to explore the use of high-value timber species and associated vegetation in riparian zones to improve water quality, particularly suspended sediment. Preliminary information from the Yan Yan Gurt Catchment in Victoria indicate that forested riparian strips can

  1. Successful continuous injection of coal into gasification and PFBC system operating pressures exceeding 500 psi - DOE funded program results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, T.; Aldred, D.; Rutkowski, M. [Stamet Inc., North Holywood, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The current US energy program is focussed towards commercialisation of coal-based power and IGCC technologies that offer significant improvements in efficiency and reductions in emissions. For gasification and pressurised fluidized bed combustors to be widely accepted, certain operational components need to be significantly improved. One of the most pressing is provision of reliable, controlled and cost-effective solid fuel feeding into the pressure environment. The US Department of Energy has funded research to develop the unique Stamet 'Posimetric{reg_sign} Solids Pump' to be capable of feeding coal into current gasification and PFBC operating pressures. The research objective is a mechanical rotary device able to continuously feed and meter coal into pressured environments of at least 34 bar (500 psi). The research program comprised an initial design and testing phase to feed coal into 20 bar (300 psi) and a second phase for feeding into 34 bar (500 psi). The first phase target was achieved in December 2003. Following modification and optimization, in January 2005, the Stamet Pump achieved a world-record pressure level for continuous injection of coal of 38 bar (560 psi). Research is now targeting 69 bar (1000 psi). The paper reviews the successful pump design, optimisations and results of the testing. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Does Pre-Operative Multiple Immunosuppressive Therapy Associate with Surgical Site Infection in Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Motoi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Bando, Toshihiro; Hirose, Kei; Hirata, Akihiro; Chohno, Teruhiro; Sasaki, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Takesue, Yoshio; Hida, Nobuyuki; Hori, Kazutoshi; Nakamura, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Almost all surgeries for ulcerative colitis (UC) are performed under immunosuppressive conditions. Immunomodulators or biologics, with the exception of corticosteroids, do not appear to be risk factors for post-operative infectious complications. However, many patients are on multiagent immunosuppressive therapy at the time of surgery. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of pre-operative multiple immunosuppressives on the occurrence of surgical site infection (SSI) in UC. We reviewed surveillance data from 181 patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy between January 2012 and March 2014. The incidences of SSI and the possible risk factors among patients receiving different immunosuppressive therapies were compared and analyzed. The incidence of incisional (INC) SSI was 13.3% and that of organ/space (O/S) SSI was 7.2%. The number of immunosuppressives did not significantly correlate with each incidence. Total prednisolone administration ≥12,000 mg (OR 2.6) and an American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3 (OR 2.8) were shown to be independent risk factors for overall SSI, whereas corticosteroid use in INC SSI (OR 17.4) and severe disease (OR 5.2) and a large amount of blood loss (OR 3.9) in O/S SSI were identified as risk factors. Although a correlation between multiple immunosuppressive therapy and SSIs was not found, it is not recommended that all patients be treated with multiple immunosuppressive therapy. Treatment strategy should be applied based on the patient's condition. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Service design: a review of methods and techniques inthe point of view of service operations management area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Torres Júnior

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As in many developing countries, the service sector in Brazil is responsible for generating income and employment for a significant portion of the population. Due to this economic relevance, service organizations are faced with an increasingly demanding and competitive market. This demand greater innovation and business planning. Despite this, the process of service development remains a relatively unexplored subject in the literature. Several issues regarding the planning and management remain without clear ideas or propositions that guide their appropriate treatment. The result of this situation, the methods and techniques that help design the services are not properly disseminated. These are scattered through the literature of operations management services. Given this framework, the light of a review of the literature and concerning the elements that compose the service project according to the works of Machuca, Zamora-Gonzalez and Aguilar-Escobar (2007 and Edvardsson (1997, the present work points and examine the methods and techniques suggested by many authors and works on the area of Service Operations. It was found that the knowledge about the methods and techniques is diffuse. This knowledge is concentrated on the design process and determining the location of services.

  4. DOE management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that GAO, as well as the Department of Energy's Inspector General, have pointed out the need for major improvement in the University of California's management of the three DOE laboratories-Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Lawrence Berkeley- and DOE oversight of that management effort. GAO found problems with University of California controls over laboratory operations, such as managing property, protecting classified documents, and ensuring that subcontractors are not subject to foreign influence, which might lead to transfers of nuclear technology to foreign influence, which might lead to transfers of nuclear technology or materials to foreign countries. In addition, clauses in the University of California contracts hamper DOE's ability to effectively manage the laboratories. DOE has addressed many of the specific problems that GAO identified and has tried to improve overall contract management. Negotiations with the University of California to extend the laboratory contracts will present another opportunity for DOE to take a firm stance on the need for management improvements. Having appropriate procedures and resources in place would also help DOE carry out its administration of contracts

  5. Aquatic invertebrate sampling at selected outfalls in Operable Unit 1082; Technical areas 9, 11, 16 and 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-09-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory conducted preliminary aquatic sampling at outfalls within Operable Unit 1082 and nearby natural waterways. Eleven outfalls were sampled a total of eighteen times. Three natural waterways (upper Pajarito Canyon, Starmer`s Gulch, and Bulldog Spring) in the vicinity were sampled a total of six times. At most sites, EST recorded hydrological condition, physico-chemical parameters, wildlife uses, and vegetation. At each outfall with water and each natural waterway, EST collected an aquatic invertebrate sample which was analyzed by taxa composition, Wilhm`s biodiversity index, the community tolerance quotient (CTQ), and density. The physico-chemical parameters at most outfalls and natural waterways fell within the normal range of natural waters in the area. However, the outfalls are characterized by low biodiversity and severely stressed communities composed of a restricted number of taxa. The habitat at the other outfalls could probably support well-developed aquatic communities if sufficient water was available. At present, the hydrology at these outfalls is too slight and/or sporadic to support such a community in the foreseeable future. In contrast to the outfalls, the natural waterways of the area had greater densities of aquatic invertebrates, higher biodiversities, and lower CTQs.

  6. Birth defects in perinatal infants in areas contiguous to Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant before its normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ling; Yin Zhihua; Han Zhonghui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the status of birth defects among the perinatal infants in the areas contiguous to Hongyanhe nuclear power plant before its normal operation, so as to provide background information for the evaluation of the impact of nuclear power plant on birth defects. Methods: From 1 October 1995 to 30 September 2009 the midwifery units at second class and above of Wafangdian City were asked to be in charge of recording the birth defects among the perinatal infants born during this period within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant. Results: The total number of birth defects was 697, and the maternal number Was 83779. The average defect rate Was 83.20/10 4 . There were significant differences in the birth defect rate among different years (χ 2 =39.54, P<0.05), however, without linear trend therein,and among the survey areas (χ 2 =15.36, P<0.05) as well. The top five birth defects were congenital heart disease (148 cases), cleft lip with cleft palate (67 cases), congenital hydrocephalus (63 cases), and spina bifida (37 cases) and cleft lip (36 cases). Conclusions: The birth defect rate within the range of 50 km around the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant is lower than that of the region of Liaoning Province and the national rate of birth defects. (authors)

  7. Surface motion near underground nuclear explosions in desert alluvium Operation Nougat I, Area 3, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, W.R.

    1978-05-01

    During Operation Nougat I, which was conducted in late 1961 and the first half of 1962, Sandia Laboratories measured surface motion in the vicinity of all contained underground nuclear explosions conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. This report presents and analyses most of the data derived from that study. Propagation velocities in the desert alluvium, 4440 ft/sec, and underlying tuff, 6020 ft/sec, are typical of those derived from later measurements. Motion attenuation data exhibit considerable scatter, in part because of early measurement and data reduction techniques but primarily because of differences in the characteristics of the geologic media which had not then been recognized. However, regression fits to the scaled data show attenuation of scaled acceleration at a rate 35% greater than that observed for Merlin event data (Merlin was conducted later in Area 3). The attenuation rate for particle velocity data from Nougat I events was 47% less than that for Merlin data, and the Nougat I scaled displacement data attenuation rate was 87% less than that for Merlin data. Analysis of data from a vertical string of gages extending to the surface above the Mink explosion has established a significant difference between normal spallation above contained explosions in competent rock and the reaction of uncemented alluvium to similar explosive loading

  8. Does different duration of non-operative immobilization have an effect on the redislocation rate of primary patellar dislocation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaewkongnok, Bo; Bøvling, Anders; Milandt, Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immobilization devices such as plaster splints, casts and braces have been used for first time patellar dislocation (FTPD) in order to prevent redislocation. This study evaluates different non-operative immobilization regimes upon rates of redislocation. METHODS: A retrospective cohort...... study with a study population of 1366 in which 601 subjects under 30years with FTPD were included from three hospitals. Exclusion criteria were osteochondral fracture, ligament injury and subluxation. Subjects were divided into five groups; unknown/none, two weeks of brace, two weeks of brace followed...... by bandage, four weeks of brace and six weeks of brace with increasing of range of motion. Radiographs were evaluated for trochlear dysplasia (TD), patella alta, trochlear depth and growth zone. Crude analysis and logistic regression adjusted for radiographic assessments, age, gender and rehabilitation...

  9. Modeling of Multi Phase Flow in Porous Media: Operator Splitting, Front Tracking, Interfacial Area and Network Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhaug, Hans Fredrik

    2001-07-01

    In reservoir problems we consider some or all of the following phases: Oil, gas, water and solid. The solid phase is normally assumed to be immobile and non-deforming, but in general this does not need to be the case. By multi phase flow we will mean the flow of oil, gas and water. The phases are categorized according to their different physical quantities. A hydrocarbon phase, may consist of different hydrocarbon components, e.g., the oil phase can contain several oil and gas types. In this work the components are neglected and only the phases are considered. A porous medium is any solid phase, e.g. sand stone, that is permeable. The flow in a porous medium takes place through connected pores in the rock. Regions on a larger scale that contain oil or gas are called reservoirs. The typical size of a reservoir is kilometers in each direction while the pore scale size is millimeters or less. Solving the Navier-Stokes equation at the pore scale to obtain the transport on a larger scale is not numerically feasible because of the huge difference in scales. Therefore, some averaging is necessary to go from the pore scale (micro scale) to the reservoir scale (macro scale). In this process the Navier-Stokes equations are replaced by macro scale equations that are solved for macro scale variables. The papers presented herein cover several topics in multi phase flow in porous media, and they address some central problems both on the micro scale as well as on the macro scale. In addition, operator splitting techniques have been developed for convection dominated non-linear transport equations.

  10. Does the number of veins ligated during varicococele surgery influence post-operative semen and hormone results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzoub, A; Elbardisi, H; Arafa, M; Agarwal, A; Al Said, S; Al Rumaihi, K

    2016-09-01

    Varicocele is a well-established cause of male subfertility, which is directly proportional to its clinical grade. Although newer ultrasonic grading systems have taken into account the existence of pampiniform venous plexi, little is known about the clinical significance of the number of veins ligated during surgery. Very few undersized studies reported an influence which triggered the need to evaluate such association. This is a retrospective study of 378 patients who underwent left microsurgical subinguinal varicocoelectomy. Semen analyses and blood hormone studies performed pre-operatively were compared to those executed 6 months after surgery. Patients were divided into abnormal semen and normal semen groups based on their initial semen results. They were also subdivided according to the number of veins ligated intraoperatively into three groups: 10 veins. Sperm count, total motility, and progressive motility were significantly increased in 62, 60.3, and 53.3% of patients post-operatively (p = 0.001), respectively. No significant differences in hormone levels were detected overall. Of the 378 patients, 332 had an abnormal semen analysis, while the remaining 46 patients had a normal result. Sperm count, total motility, and progressive motility significantly increased after varicocoelectomy in patients with an abnormal initial semen analysis (p = 0.001). In 48.7% of patients, 5-10 veins were ligated during surgery, whereas 28.3% had >10 and 23% had <5 ligated veins. No statistically significant differences were noted in the initial or the follow-up results among the number of vein subgroups. Varicocele ligation improves patients' fertility potential. This improvement, however, is not influenced by the number of veins ligated intraoperatively. Clinical grading maintains its superiority in the evaluation of varicocele patients. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation

  12. Preliminary Results of Reductive Dechlorination Conducted at the X-749/X-120 Area of the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieske, D. E.; Baird, D. R.; Lawson, N. E.

    2006-01-01

    Reductive dechlorination is being implemented at the X-749/X-120 trichloroethene (TCE) plume South Barrier Wall containment site at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The purpose of this paper is to present the effectiveness of the reductive dechlorination at PORTS. Reductive dechlorination is an in situ remediation technology that utilizes existing subsurface microbes to biologically degrade volatile organic compounds in groundwater. Monitoring in the barrier wall area reveals the presence of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC) injected in the spring of 2004 in two groundwater monitoring wells closest to the injection points. Oxidation/reduction potential in these two wells has decreased steadily since injection, but has not yet reached optimal reducing levels for TCE degradation. Monitoring the effectiveness of the injection is hampered by near-stagnant groundwater flow due in part to the South Barrier Wall. The X-749/X-120 TCE groundwater plume lies beneath approximately 91 acres in the southern portion of PORTS, and extends southward threatening to cross the DOE property boundary. A 1,077-foot long subsurface bentonite barrier wall was installed in 1993 at the southern DOE property boundary to restrict movement of contaminated groundwater from traveling off-site until other remedial technologies could be implemented. In 2003, TCE was detected on the south side of the barrier wall (but still within DOE property) above drinking water standards of 5 micrograms per liter. Monitoring has also detected TCE in groundwater beyond the western edge of the barrier wall. In the spring of 2004, DOE initiated the injection of a reductive dechlorination compound known as Hydrogen Release Compound-extended release formula (HRC-X) into the subsurface using direct push technology (DPT). The HRC-X was injected within the saturated zone from the top of bedrock to 10 feet above bedrock as the probe was withdrawn from the push. A total of 180 DPT

  13. Scene perception and memory revealed by eye movements and receiver-operating characteristic analyses: does a cultural difference truly exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kris; Rotello, Caren M; Li, Xingshan; Rayner, Keith

    2009-02-01

    Cultural differences have been observed in scene perception and memory: Chinese participants purportedly attend to the background information more than did American participants. We investigated the influence of culture by recording eye movements during scene perception and while participants made recognition memory judgements. Real-world pictures with a focal object on a background were shown to both American and Chinese participants while their eye movements were recorded. Later, memory for the focal object in each scene was tested, and the relationship between the focal object (studied, new) and the background context (studied, new) was manipulated. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves show that both sensitivity and response bias were changed when objects were tested in new contexts. However, neither the decrease in accuracy nor the response bias shift differed with culture. The eye movement patterns were also similar across cultural groups. Both groups made longer and more fixations on the focal objects than on the contexts. The similarity of eye movement patterns and recognition memory behaviour suggests that both Americans and Chinese use the same strategies in scene perception and memory.

  14. Status of DOE information network modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides an update on changes that have been made or are taking place to the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Information Network. Areas of focus are as follows: data acquisition from commercial disposal site operators, specifically, the information delivery system called Manifest Information Management System; improved access methods to DOE Information Network; progress on personal computer interfaces, and availability of end user support

  15. Installation and Initial Operation of DOE's 449-MHz Wind Profiling Radars on the U.S. West Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Victor R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, J. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); White, A. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ayers, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jordan, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); King, Clark W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has recently completed the installation of three new wind profiling radars on the Washington and Oregon coasts. These systems operate at a frequency of 449 MHz and provide mean wind profiles to a height of roughly 8 km, with the maximum measurement height depending on time-varying atmospheric conditions. This is roughly half the depth of the troposphere at these latitudes. Each system is also equipped with a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), which provides a measure of the temperature profile to heights of approximately 2 km. Other equipment deployed alongside the radar includes a surface meteorological station and GPS for column water vapor. This project began in fiscal year 2014, starting with equipment procurements and site selection. In addition, environmental reviews, equipment assembly and testing, site access agreements, and infrastructure preparations have been performed. Finally, with equipment deployment with data collection and dissemination, the primary tasks of this project have been completed. The three new wind profiling radars have been deployed at airports near Coos Bay, OR, and Astoria, OR, and at an industrial park near Forks, WA. Data are available through the NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory Data Display website, and will soon be made available through the DOE Atmosphere to Electrons data archive and portal as well.

  16. Application of operational contingency analysis as a tool to reduce loss in the energy and utility area; Aplicacao da analise de contingencia operacional como ferramenta de minimizacao de perdas na area de energia e utilidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Adriano Francisco dos; Alvarenga, Zenilton Galhano; Grijo, Fabio Becalli [ArcelorMittal Tubarao, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Producao de Gusa e Energia

    2009-11-01

    All new implementation of activities and equipment needs special attention regarding programming, preparation and operations performance, service and necessary interventions in order to achieve success considering operation, safety and environment. The real challenge in order to realize this change is to guarantee for the costumers the minimum interference, once it is performed on an operational routine basis. The energy distribution area from ArcelorMittal Tubarao (IGC-D) has a very important operational tool to succeed on this task: the operational contingency analysis. The objective of this paper is showing how the operational contingency analysis has been used as a tool to help IGC-D operation on preventing interruptions on supplying the internal costumers as well as keeping the maximum efficiency at the plant. (author)

  17. Pre-operative use of dexamethasone does not reduce incidence or intensity of bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity. A triple-blind, parallel-design, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Poubel, Luiz Augusto; de Gouvea, Cresus Vinicius Deppes; Calazans, Fernanda Signorelli; Dip, Etyene Castro; Alves, Wesley Veltri; Marins, Stella Soares; Barcelos, Roberta; Barceleiro, Marcos Oliveira

    2018-04-25

    This study evaluated the effect of the administration of pre-operative dexamethasone on tooth sensitivity stemming from in-office bleaching. A triple-blind, parallel-design, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 70 volunteers who received dexamethasone or placebo capsules. The drugs were administered in a protocol of three daily 8-mg doses of the drug, starting 48 h before the in-office bleaching treatment. Two bleaching sessions with 37.5% hydrogen peroxide gel were performed with a 1-week interval. Tooth sensitivity (TS) was recorded on visual analog scales (VAS) and numeric rating scales (NRS) in different periods up to 48 h after bleaching. The color evaluations were also performed. The absolute risk of TS and its intensity were evaluated by using Fisher's exact test. Comparisons of the TS intensity (NRS and VAS data) were performed by using the Mann-Whitney U test and a two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test, respectively. In both groups, a high risk of TS (Dexa 80% x Placebo 94%) was detected. No significant difference was observed in terms of TS intensity. A whitening of approximately 3 shade guide units of the VITA Classical was detected in both groups, which were statistically similar. It was concluded that the administration pre-operatively of dexamethasone, in the proposed protocol, does not reduce the incidence or intensity of bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity. The use of dexamethasone drug before in-office bleaching treatment does not reduce incidence or intensity of tooth sensitivity. NCT02956070.

  18. Operational Assessment of ICDS Scheme at Grass Root Level in a Rural Area of Eastern India: Time to Introspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jyotiranjan; Mahajan, Preetam B; Bhatia, Vikas; Patra, Abhinash K; Hembram, Dilip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS), a flagship program of Government of India (GoI) for early childhood development hasn’t delivered the desired results since its inception four decades ago. This could be due to infrastructural problems, lack of awareness and proper utilization by the local people, inadequate program monitoring and corruption in food supplies, etc. This study is an audit of 36 Anganwadi centres at Khordha district, Odisha, to evaluate the implementation of the ICDS. Aim To assess operational aspects of ICDS program in a rural area of Odisha, in Eastern India. Materials and Methods A total of 36 out of 50 Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) were included in the study. We interviewed the Anganwadi Workers (AWW) and carried out observations on the AWCs using a checklist. We gathered information under three domains manpower resource, material resource and functional aspects of the AWC. Results Most of the AWCs were adequately staffed. Most of the AWWs were well educated. However, more than 85% of the AWCs did not have designated building for daily functioning which resulted in issues related to implementation of program. Water, toilet and electricity facilities were almost non-existent. Indoor air pollution posed a serious threat to the health of the children. Lack of play materials; lack of health assessment tools for promoting, monitoring physical and mental development; and multiple de-motivating factors within the work environment, eventually translated into lack of faith among the beneficiaries in the rural community. Conclusion Inadequate infrastructure and logistic supply were the most prominent issues found, which resulted in poor implementation of ICDS program. Strengthening of grass root level facilities based on need assessment, effective monitoring and supervision will definitely help in revamping the ICDS program in rural areas. PMID:28208890

  19. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-01-01

    The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter

  20. Intra-Operative Surgical Irrigation of the Surgical Incision: What Does the Future Hold-Saline, Antibiotic Agents, or Antiseptic Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Leaper, David J

    2016-12-01

    Intra-operative surgical site irrigation (lavage) is common practice in surgical procedures in general, with all disciplines advocating some form of irrigation before incision closure. This practice, however, has been neither standardized nor is there compelling evidence that it effectively reduces the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). This narrative review addresses the laboratory and clinical evidence that is available to support the practice of irrigation of the abdominal cavity and superficial/deep incisional tissues, using specific irrigation solutions at the end of an operative procedure to reduce the microbial burden at wound closure. Review of PubMed and OVID for pertinent, scientific, and clinical publications in the English language was performed. Incision irrigation was found to afford a three-fold benefit: First, to hydrate the bed; second, to assist in allowing better examination of the area immediately before closure; and finally, by removing superficial and deep incisional contamination and lowering the bioburden, expedite the healing process. The clinical practice of intra-operative peritoneal lavage is highly variable and is dependent solely on surgeon preference. By contrast, intra-operative irrigation after device-related procedures has become a standard of care for the prophylaxis of acute peri-prosthetic infection. The clinical evidence that supports the use of antibiotic irrigation is limited and based on retrospective analysis and few acceptable randomized controlled trials. The results of laboratory and animal studies using aqueous 0.05% chlorhexidine gluconate are favorable, suggesting that further studies are justified to determine its clinical efficacy. The adoption of appropriate and standardized intra-operative irrigation practices into peri-operative care bundles, which include other evidence-based strategies (weight-based antimicrobial prophylaxis, antimicrobial sutures, maintenance of normothermia, and glycemic control), offers

  1. Influence of a Storm Surge Barrier’s Operation on the Flood Frequency in the Rhine Delta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rhine River Delta is crucial to the Dutch economy. The Maeslant barrier was built in 1997 to protect the Rhine estuary, with the city and port of Rotterdam, from storm surges. This research takes a simple approach to quantify the influence of the Maeslant storm surge barrier on design water levels behind the barrier. The dikes in the area are supposed to be able to withstand these levels. Equal Level Curves approach is used to calculate the Rotterdam water levels by using Rhine discharges and sea water levels as input. Their joint probability function generates the occurrence frequency of a certain combination that will lead to a certain high water level in Rotterdam. The results show that the flood frequency in Rotterdam is reduced effectively with the controlled barrier in current and in future scenarios influenced by climate change. In addition, an investigation of the sensitivity of the operational parameters suggests that there is a negligible influence on the high water level frequency when the decision closing water level for the barrier is set higher due to the benefits of navigation (but not exceeding the design safety level 4 m MSL.

  2. Does preoperative breast MRI significantly impact on initial surgical procedure and re-operation rates in patients with screen-detected invasive lobular carcinoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, K.; Sakellariou, S.; Dawson, N.; Litherland, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes the management of patients with screen-detected invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Materials and methods: A retrospective, controlled, single-centre analysis of 138 cases of screen-detected ILC was performed. All patients were assessed by a single multidisciplinary team as to whether preoperative MRI altered the initial management decision or reduced re-operation rates. Results: Forty-three percent of patients had preoperative MRI. MRI guided surgical management in 40.7% patients. Primary mastectomy rates were not significantly different between the MRI and non-MRI groups (32% and 30% respectively, p=0.71). The MRI group had a lower secondary surgery rate (6.8% versus 15.2%); however, the results did not reach statistical significance, and there were no unnecessary mastectomies. Conclusion: MRI can be used appropriately to guide primary surgery in screen-detected ILC cases and affects the initial management decision in 40.7% of patients. It does not significantly affect the overall mastectomy rate or re-operation rates, but reduces the likelihood of the latter. As a result of this review, the authors' local policy for the use of MRI in screen-detected ILC patients has been modified. For patients undergoing mastectomy for ILC, MRI is no longer performed routinely to search for contralateral malignancy as this has no proven added benefit. - Highlights: • Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows more accurate tumour assessment and detects additional foci of disease in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). • Over the study's 3 year time frame, MRI guided surgical management of 40.7% screen-detected ILC patients scanned. • No statistically significant difference in mastectomy rates between MRI and non MRI groups. • Observed lower re-operation rate (6.8%-v-15.2%) in MRI group not statistically significant. • No MRI benefit for contralateral disease detection in ILC patients for

  3. Hanford Area 2000 Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Scott, Michael J.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, to provide demographic data required for ongoing environmental assessments and safety analyses at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This document includes 2000 Census estimates for the resident population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the Hanford Site. Population distributions are reported relative to five reference points centered on meteorological stations within major operating areas of the Hanford Site - the 100 F, 100 K, 200, 300, and 400 Areas. These data are presented in both graphical and tabular format, and are provided for total populations residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the reference points, as well as for Native American, Hispanic and Latino, total minority, and low-income populations

  4. Comparison of surgical outcomes after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: does the intra-operative use of a microscope improve surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine; Reiser, Elizabeth; Ziegler, Cole; Freischlag, Kyle; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess and compare the complications profile as well as long-term clinical outcomes between patients undergoing an Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) procedure with and without the use of an intra-operative microscope. One hundred and forty adult patients (non-microscope cohort: 81; microscope cohort: 59) undergoing ACDF at a major academic medical center were included in this study. Enrollment criteria included available demographic, surgical and clinical outcome data. All patients had prospectively collected patient-reported outcomes measures and a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients completed the neck disability index (NDI), short-form 12 (SF-12) and visual analog pain scale (VAS) before surgery, then at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Clinical outcomes and complication rates were compared between both patient cohorts. Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts. The mean ± standard deviation duration of surgery was longer in the microscope cohort (microscope: 169±34 minutes vs. non-microscope: 98±42 minutes, Pmicroscope and non-microscope cohorts demonstrated similar improvement from base line in NDI (microscope: 13.52±25.77 vs. non-microscope: 19.51±27.47, Pmicroscope: 4.15±26.39 vs. non-microscope: 11.98±22.96, Pmicroscope: 9.47±32.38 vs. non-microscope: 16.19±30.44, Pmicroscope: 2.22±4.00 vs. non-microscope: 3.69±3.61, Pmicroscope does not improve overall surgery-related outcomes, nor does it lead to superior long-term outcomes in pain and functional disability, 2 years after index surgery.

  5. Change in cross-sectional area of esophageal muscle does not correlate with the outcome of achalasia after pneumatic balloon dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Dong Hyun; Choi, Yong Sung; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Eun Ran; Son, Hee Jung; Kim, Jae J; Rhee, Jong Chul; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2010-03-01

    Patients with achalasia have a thicker muscularis propria compared to normal patients. Because pneumatic balloon dilatation (PD) is an effective treatment for achalasia, the changes in the esophageal muscles after PD may predict treatment outcomes, if muscular change is of primary importance. In the present study, we aimed to observe the changes in esophageal muscle thickness following PD and assessed whether symptom relapse can be predicted on the basis of the esophageal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), as measured by high-frequency intraluminal ultrasound (HFIUS). Fifteen patients treated by PD were studied and followed up for a median of 3.6 years. An HFIUS was done before PD and 6 months after PD. The esophageal muscle CSA measured at the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), and 3 and 6 cm above the LES, was used to see whether any association was present between symptom recurrence and the esophageal muscle CSA. A single PD resulted in a 2-year remission rate of 66%. A significance variance in change (-65%-248%) was noticed in the muscle CSA after PD. The predilation muscle CSA, post-dilation muscle CSA, and change in the muscle CSA after PD was not associated with symptom recurrence. Our findings suggest that measuring the muscle CSA does not help to predict treatment outcome. Muscular changes in achalasia might be just reactive changes.

  6. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  7. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality

  8. Environmental and Socio-economic Aspects of the Operation of Industrial Regions: The Case Study of the Industrial Area of Alexandroupolis (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theofanoudi, Aglaia; Diakaki, Christina; Katsivela, Eleftheria

    2009-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of a study concerning the operation of industrial plants and their effects to the environment. It also addresses, shortly, the consequences to the quality of human life and proposes potential measures that may contribute to the reduction of the negative environmental impacts. The relatively small organized Industrial Area of Alexandroupolis (Greece) is examined as a case study. In particular, the activities of its major industrial facilities are presented and their emissions to the environment are examined. In addition, the socio-economic aspects of the operation of the Industrial Area are studied. The results of the study showed that the operation of the Industrial Area has specific negative effects in the natural environment of the region and in the quality of life of the residents. Methodological and legislative tools, such as control systems for the environmental pollution, the green chemistry, and the environmental management systems, may be employed to assist the prevention and confrontation of environmental problems

  9. The Foundations of Operational Resilience Assessing the Ability to Operate in an Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) Environment: The Analytical Framework, Lexicon, and Characteristics of the Operational Resilience Analysis Model (ORAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-07

    University , Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama). He shaped the definition of operational resilience and, therefore, the resulting analytic framework with...of airbases: • Type A: Main Operating Base ( MOB ). A facility outside the United States and U.S. territories with permanently stationed operating... MOB . [JP 1-02, 2014] • Type C: Forward Operating Location (FOL). A forward operating base that is served by a less extensive support structure than

  10. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohiuddin, Kazi; Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F.; Stelcer, Eduard; Evans, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and

  11. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohiuddin, Kazi, E-mail: kazi.mohiuddin@students.mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F. [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Stelcer, Eduard [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Evans, Tim [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and

  12. Peri-operative oral caffeine does not prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation after heart valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: A randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, David; Nee, Laetitia; Guieu, Régis; Kerbaul, François; Fenouillet, Emmanuel; Roux, Nicolas; Giorgi, Roch; Theron, Alexis; Grisoli, Dominique; Gariboldi, Vlad; Collart, Frederic; Bruder, Nicolas; Velly, Lionel; Guidon, Catherine

    2018-04-26

    Raised plasma levels of endogenous adenosine after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have been related to the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF). We wished to assess if caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist could have a beneficial effect on the incidence of POAF. A randomised controlled study. Single University Hospital. One hundred and ten patients scheduled for heart valve surgery with CPB. We randomly assigned patients to receive peri-operative oral caffeine (400 mg every 8 h for 2 days) or placebo. Adenosine plasma concentrations and caffeine pharmacokinetic profile were evaluated in a subgroup of 50 patients. The primary endpoint was the rate of atrial fibrillation during postoperative hospital stay. The current study was stopped for futility by the data monitoring board after an interim analysis. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was similar in the caffeine and in the placebo group during hospital stay (33 vs. 29%, P = 0.67) and the first 3 postoperative days (18 vs. 15%; P = 0.60). Basal and postoperative adenosine plasma levels were significantly associated with the primary outcome. Adenosine plasma levels were similar in the two treatment groups. Caffeine administration was associated with a higher incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (27 vs. 7%, P = 0.005). Oral caffeine does not prevent POAF after heart valve surgery with CPB but increased the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. ClinicalTrials.gov, no.: NCT01999829.

  13. Cavity Ring-Down Measurement of Aerosol Optical Properties During the Asian Dust Above Monterey Experiment and DOE Aerosol Intensive Operating Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, K.; Strawa, A. W.; Provencal, R.; Castaneda, R.; Bucholtz, A.; Schmid, B.

    2004-01-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects of aerosols on climate require improved in-situ measurements of extinction coefficient and single-scattering albedo. This paper describes preliminary results from Cadenza, a new continuous wave cavity ring-down (CW-CRD) instrument designed to address these uncertainties. Cadenza measures the aerosol extinction coefficient for 675 nm and 1550 nm light, and simultaneously measures the scattering coefficient at 675 nm. In the past year Cadenza was deployed in the Asian Dust Above Monterey (ADAM) and DOE Aerosol Intensive Operating Period (IOP) field projects. During these flights Cadenza produced measurements of aerosol extinction in the range from 0.2 to 300/Mm with an estimated precision of 0.1/Mm for 1550 nm light and 0.2/Mm for 675 nm light. Cadenza data from the ADAM and Aerosol IOP missions compared favorably with data from the other instruments aboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft and participating in those projects. We present comparisons between the Cadenza measurements and those from a TSI nephelometer, Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), and the AATS 14 sun-photometer. Measurements of the optical properties of smoke and dust plumes sampled during these campaigns are presented and estimates of heating rates due to these plumes are made.

  14. DOE contractor vulnerability analysis: DPA or MAIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, D.E.; Nichols, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Two vulnerability analysis techniques, Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) and Matrix Analysis of the Insider Threat (MAIT), were applied by EG and G Idaho, Inc. Safeguards and Security to the same item accountable SNM storage area at INEL. Technical and cost data for each methodology were collected and compared. A recommendation that MAIT be utilized for future vulnerability analyses of item accountable SNM storage and use areas operated by EG and G Idaho for DOE-ID resulted. Unclassified results of the two techniques and MAIT/DPA technical and cost comparisons will be presented which show that MAIT can be used for vulnerability analyses to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) requirements

  15. Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Annual Status Report for Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2007-05-09

    This report provides a status of the progress made in Fiscal Year 2006 on tasks identified in the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan. Major accomplishments include: (1) groundwater sampling and review of the groundwater monitoring data, (2) installation of a Sitewide groundwater-level monitoring network, (3) update of the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan of Operable Unit 10-08, (4) re-evaluation of the risk at Site TSF-08, (5) progress on the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model.

  16. The SSAC (State System of Accounting and Control) of Argentina: possible areas to increase co-operation with ABACC and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Laura B.; Vicens, Hugo E.; Maceiras, Elena; Saavedra, Analia D.; Valentino, Lucia I.; Llacer, Carlos D.; Mairal, Maria L.; Fernandez Moreno, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with one of the measures identified in the program 93+2 to enhance international safeguards effectiveness and efficiency. This measure is related to increase co-operation between the IAEA and the SSAC in the implementation of safeguards. It is recognized that an effective SSAC could contribute to better safeguards. During the discussion to strengthen the safeguards system different levels of co-operation between the IAEA and SSAC were identified, depending on their features and capabilities. To start assessing the possibility of increasing this co-operation, a 'SSAC Questionnaire' was submitted by the IAEA to Member States, EURATOM and ABACC. At present, those questionnaires are being assessed by the IAEA in order to identify areas for further co-operation. One important aspect is the increased co-operation level that might be achieved when the Additional Protocol becomes an integral part of the safeguard agreements. Another one refers to the methodology that IAEA might employ to audit the quality and performance of the SSAC regarding the different levels of such co-operation. This paper will also describe the features of the SSAC of Argentina emphasizing its capabilities and the various areas that might be considered to increase further co-operation with ABACC and the IAEA. (author)

  17. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Building 221-H, B-Line, Scrap Recovery Facility (Supplement 2A): Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-07-01

    The now HB-Line is located an top of the 221-H Building on the fifth and sixth levels and is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The new HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, Neptunium Facility, and Plutonium Oxide Facility. The Scrap Recovery Facility is designed to routinely generate nitrate solutions of {sup 235}U{sup 239}Pu and Pu-238 fromscrap for purification by anion exchange or by solvent extraction in the canyon. The now facility incorporates improvements in: (1) engineered controls for nuclear criticality, (2) cabinet integrity and engineered barriers to contain contamination and minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  18. Operating history and environmental effects of seepage basins in chemical-separations areas of the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, J.W.; Horton, J.H.

    1973-01-01

    This report summarizes the history of operation and monitoring of the earthen seepage basins, presents results of a comprehensive study of radionuclide distribution in groundwater downgradient from the basins, and evaluates past performance and possible future alternatives for these basins

  19. Financial Reporting Procedures for Defense Distribution Depots - Defense Logistics Agency Business Area of the Defense Business Operations Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Shelton

    1994-01-01

    In our audit of the FY 1993 Financial Statements for the Distribution Depots--Defense Logistics Agency Business Mea of the Defense Business Operations Fund, we evaluated procedures and controls used...

  20. Tribal Geographic Area (RTOC) Polygons with Representative Information, US EPA Region 9, 2015, Regional Tribal Operations Committee

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Regional Tribal Operations Committee (RTOC) is a working committee of EPA and Tribal personnel co-chaired by an EPA representative and a Tribal representative....

  1. Enhanced/synthetic vision and head-worn display technologies for terminal maneuvering area NextGen operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Norman, R. Mike

    2011-06-01

    NASA is researching innovative technologies for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) to provide a "Better-Than-Visual" (BTV) capability as adjunct to "Equivalent Visual Operations" (EVO); that is, airport throughputs equivalent to that normally achieved during Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations rates with equivalent and better safety in all weather and visibility conditions including Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). These new technologies build on proven flight deck systems and leverage synthetic and enhanced vision systems. Two piloted simulation studies were conducted to access the use of a Head-Worn Display (HWD) with head tracking for synthetic and enhanced vision systems concepts. The first experiment evaluated the use a HWD for equivalent visual operations to San Francisco International Airport (airport identifier: KSFO) compared to a visual concept and a head-down display concept. A second experiment evaluated symbology variations under different visibility conditions using a HWD during taxi operations at Chicago O'Hare airport (airport identifier: KORD). Two experiments were conducted, one in a simulated San Francisco airport (KSFO) approach operation and the other, in simulated Chicago O'Hare surface operations, evaluating enhanced/synthetic vision and head-worn display technologies for NextGen operations. While flying a closely-spaced parallel approach to KSFO, pilots rated the HWD, under low-visibility conditions, equivalent to the out-the-window condition, under unlimited visibility, in terms of situational awareness (SA) and mental workload compared to a head-down enhanced vision system. There were no differences between the 3 display concepts in terms of traffic spacing and distance and the pilot decision-making to land or go-around. For the KORD experiment, the visibility condition was not a factor in pilot's rating of clutter effects from symbology. Several concepts for enhanced implementations of an unlimited field

  2. Converter Compressor Building, SWMU 089, Hot Spot Areas 1, 2, and 5 Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    This Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report (OMMR) presents the findings, observations, and results from operation of the air sparging (AS) interim measure (IM) for Hot Spot (HS) Areas 1, 2, and 5 at the Converter Compressor Building (CCB) located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The objective of the IM at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5 is to decrease concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater in the treatment zones via AS to levels that will enable a transition to a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) phase. This OMMR presents system operations and maintenance (O&M) information and performance monitoring results since full-scale O&M began in June 2014 (2 months after initial system startup in April 2014), including quarterly performance monitoring events in July and October 2014 and January and May 2015. Based on the results to date, the AS system is operating as designed and is meeting the performance criteria and IM objective. The performance monitoring network is adequately constructed for assessment of IM performance at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5. At the March 2014 KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) Meeting, team consensus was reached for the design prepared for expansion of the system to treat the HS 4 area, and at the November 2014 KSCRT Meeting, team consensus was reached that HS 3 was adequately delineated horizontally and vertically and for selection of AS for the remedial approach for HS 3. At the July 2015 KSCRT meeting, team consensus was reached to continue IM operations in all zones until HSs 3 and 4 is operational, once HS 3 and 4 zones are operational discontinue operations in HS 1, 2, and 5 zones where concentrations are less than GCTLs to observe whether rebounding conditions occur. Team consensus was also reached to continue quarterly performance monitoring to determine whether operational zones achieve GCTLs and to continue annual IGWM of CCB-MW0012, CCBMW0013, and CCB-MW0056, located south of the treatment area. The

  3. Does competition influence safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamme, H.

    2000-01-01

    Competition in the deregulated electricity market does not leave nuclear power plants unaffected. Operators seek to run their plants at maximum availability and with optimized cost structures so that specific generating costs are minimized. The 'costs of safety', with their fixed-cost character, are elements of this cost structure. Hence the question whether safety is going to suffer under the cost pressure on the market. The study shows that the process of economic optimization does not permit cost minimization for its own sake in the area of operating costs which can be influenced by management or are 'avoidable'. The basis of assessment rather must be potential risks which could entail losses of availability. Prophylactic investments made in order to avoid losses of availability to a large extent also imply unchanged or even higher levels of safety. Economic viability and safety thus are closely correlated. Competition in a deregulated marekt so far has not done any direct harm to plant safety. An even more efficient use of scarce funds and, hopefully, a tolerable political environment should allow the safety level of nuclear power plants to be upheld, and safety culture to be maintained, also in the future. (orig.) [de

  4. Metropolitan Transportation Commission, San Francisco Bay area : developing regional objectives and performance measures to improve system operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) uses an objectives-driven, performance-based approach in its transportation planning for the San Francisco Bay Area. This approach focuses attention on transportation investments of highest priority. T...

  5. Does the operations of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana align with the goals of Primary Health Care? Perspectives of key stakeholders in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Tindana, Paulina; Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Nartey, Harry; Akazili, James

    2016-09-05

    In 2005, the World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) urged member states to aim at achieving affordable universal coverage and access to key promotive, preventive, curative, rehabilitative and palliative health interventions for all their citizens on the basis of equity and solidarity. Since then, some African countries, including Ghana, have taken steps to introduce national health insurance reforms as one of the key strategies towards achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The aim of this study was to get a better understanding of how Ghana's health insurance institutions interact with stakeholders and other health sector programmes in promoting primary health care (PHC). Specifically, the study identified the key areas of misalignment between the operations of the NHIS and that of PHC. Using qualitative and survey methods, this study involved interviews with various stakeholders in six selected districts in the Upper East region of Ghana. The key stakeholders included the National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA), district coordinators of the National Health Insurance Schemes (NHIS), the Ghana Health Service (GHS) and District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) who supervise the district hospitals, health centers/clinics and the Community-based Health and Planning Services (CHPS) compounds as well as other public and private PHC providers. A stakeholders' workshop was organized to validate the preliminary results which provided a platform for stakeholders to deliberate on the key areas of misalignment especially, and to elicit additional information, ideas and responses, comments and recommendations from respondents for the achievement of the goals of UHC and PHC. The key areas of misalignments identified during this pilot study included: delays in reimbursements of claims for services provided by health care providers, which serves as a disincentive for service providers to support the NHIS; inadequate coordination among

  6. Particulate matter over a seven year period in urban and rural areas within, proximal and far from mining and power station operations in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, A G; Zoras, S; Evagelopoulos, V

    2006-11-01

    Lignite mining operations and lignite-fired power stations result in major particulate pollution (fly ash and fugitive dust) problems in the areas surrounding these activities. The problem is more complicated, especially, for urban areas located not far from these activities, due to additional contribution from the urban pollution sources. Knowledge of the distribution of airborne particulate matter into size fraction has become an increasing area of focus when examining the effects of particulate pollution. On the other hand, airborne particle concentration measurements are useful in order to assess the air pollution levels based on national and international air quality standards. These measurements are also necessary for developing air pollutants control strategies or for evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies, especially, for long periods. In this study an attempt is made in order to investigate the particle size distribution of fly ash and fugitive dust in a heavy industrialized (mining and power stations operations) area with complex terrain in the northwestern part of Greece. Parallel total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10) concentrations are analyzed. These measurements gathered from thirteen monitoring stations located in the greater area of interest. Spatial, temporal variation and trend are analyzed over the last seven years. Furthermore, the geographical variation of PM10 - TSP correlation and PM10/TSP ratio are investigated and compared to those in the literature. The analysis has indicated that a complex system of sources and meteorological conditions modulate the particulate pollution of the examined area.

  7. Chicago Operations Office: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This document has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT and E) activities funded through the Chicago Operations Office. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US Industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information has been assembled from recently produced OTD documents which highlight technology development activities within each of the OTD program elements. OTD technologies addresses three specific problem areas: (1) groundwater and soils cleanup; (2) waste retrieval and processing; and (3) pollution prevention. These problems are not unique to DOE, but are associated with other Federal agency and industry sites as well. Thus, technical solutions developed within OTD programs will benefit DOE, and should have direct applications in outside markets.

  8. Where to go first: prioritization of damaged areas for allocation of Urban Search and Rescue (USAR operations (PI-USAR model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hassanzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a spatial model for the allocation of the Urban Search and Rescue (USAR operation by computing the priority index of damaged areas (PI-USAR model. The relevant prioritization criteria were identified through a literature review and interviews with 30 disaster managers. The relative importance of these criteria was computed as weights using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP method; the criteria were combined based on AHP rules and spatial multi-criteria decision-making analysis in geographic information system (GIS. The PI-USAR model was applied in the case study area of the Bam city in Iran and a priority map was produced indicating four highly prioritized areas. The model was validated by comparing the obtained priority map with the actual priority map (APM using fuzzy inference system and relative operating characteristic methods. The result suggested a good fit between the APM and the model's output. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the map removal and the single parameter methods. With the uncertainties and complexities that are inherent to the spatial data, spatial modelling and the earthquake phenomenon itself, the PI-USAR model offers some utility to disaster managers in understanding the significance of each criterion in the decision-making process and in identifying the highly prioritized areas for the allocation of USAR operations. However, its utility is best exploited in conjunction with other complementary sources of field data based on the immediate post-disaster situation.

  9. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  10. Surface Area Analysis Using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Method: Standard Operating Procedure Series: SOP-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    provide a foundational understanding of the steps involved, how to per- form them in a repeatable and reliable manner , and to provide the theory behind...how to perform them in a repeatable and reliable manner , and to provide the theory behind the analysis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Surface area, BET

  11. Al Sahawa-The Awakening Volume 4-A: Area of Operations Topeka, East Ramadi and the Shark Fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    the neighborhood leader, where are your engineers , where are your electricians, where are your guys who used to operate these dump trucks ? Where are...populated by well- educated Sunnis either from the military or professional, engineers , or accountants… they were very highly educated compared to...61 The unit began preparing to build a tall concrete wall. Multiple flatbed trucks brought the walls in. Some of the concrete was prepositioned so

  12. Does the presence of the nerve root sedimentation sign on MRI correlate with the operative level in patients undergoing posterior lumbar decompression for lumbar stenosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Akil; Yoo, Andrew; Bendo, John A

    2013-08-01

    Recent research describes the use of a nerve root sedimentation sign to diagnose lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). The lack of sedimentation of the nerve roots (positive sedimentation sign) to the dorsal part of the dural sac is the characteristic feature of this new radiological parameter. To demonstrate how the nerve root sedimentation sign compares with other more traditional radiological parameters in patients who have been operated for LSS. A retrospective chart and image review. Preoperative magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were reviewed from 71 consecutive operative patients who presented with LSS and received spinal decompression surgery from 2006 to 2010. Preoperative T2-weighted MRIs were reviewed for each patient. One hundred thirty-four vertebral levels from L1 to L5 were measured for: sedimentation sign, cross-sectional area (CSA) and anterior/posterior (A/P) diameter of the dural sac, thickness of the ligamentum flavum, and Fujiwara grade of facet hypertrophy. Radiological measurements were made using Surgimap 1.1.2.169 software (Nemaris, Inc., New York, NY, USA). Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Significance was demonstrated using unpaired t tests and chi-squared tests. Study funding was departmental. There were no study-specific conflicts of interest-associated biases. A positive sedimentation sign was determined in 120 operated levels (89.5%), whereas 14 levels (10.5%) had no sign (negative sedimentation sign). The mean CSA and A/P diameter were 140.62 mm(2) (standard deviation [SD]=53) and 11.76 mm (SD=3), respectively, for the no-sign group; the mean CSA and A/P diameter were 81.87 mm(2) (SD=35) and 8.76 mm (SD=2.2), respectively, for the sedimentation sign group (p<.001). We found that 60% of levels with Fujiwara Grade A facet hypertrophy did not have a sedimentation sign, whereas 86.3% of levels with Grade B, 93.2% of levels with Grade C, and 100.0% of levels with Grade D

  13. Control of eolic erosion in a coal Port, by means of re-vegetation of arid areas and operational procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Pilar

    1992-01-01

    To the phenomenon of haulage of floor particles for the wind is known as erosion by deflation, and one in the ways of eolic erosion existent, although many authors constitutes they refer to her as eolic erosion. The eolic erosion includes the movement processes, transport, separation and deposition, it can present in any area that presents the following conditions: 1) Soil dry and loose until certain finely divided degree, 2) flat surface with little or any vegetable cover, 3) quite extensive land 4) sufficiently strong wind to transport the earth particles. It is considered that to begin the movement of particles 0.1 mm of diameter winds they are needed to 30 cm of height of 4,4m/s (FAO, 1961). All these conditions are presented in Port Bolivar in more or smaller measure. In port Bolivar two main groups of areas have been identified in process of material movement

  14. Sampling and analysis plan for the site characterization of the waste area Grouping 1 groundwater operable unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative buildings. Site operations have contaminated groundwater, principally with radiological contamination. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to a known extent. In addition, karst geology, numerous spills, and pipeline leaks, together with the long and varied history of activities at specific facilities at ORNL, complicate contaminant migration-pathway analysis and source identification. To evaluate the extent of contamination, site characterization activity will include semiannual and annual groundwater sampling, as well as monthly water level measurements (both manual and continuous) at WAG 1. This sampling and analysis plan provides the methods and procedures to conduct site characterization for the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation of the WAG 1 Groundwater Operable Unit

  15. Coordinated increase in skeletal muscle fiber area and expression of IGF-I with resistance exercise in elderly post-operative patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Andersen, Jesper L

    2010-01-01

    Hypertrophy of developing skeletal muscle involves stimulation by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), however, the role of IGF-I in adult muscle is less clarified. In the present study, the mRNA splice variants of IGF-I (IGF-IEa and MGF) and the changes in muscle fiber cross sectional area after...... and in addition induces marked increases in the expression of IGF-I splice variants, supporting the idea that IGF-I is involved in regulating muscle hypertrophy.......-operated-side served as a within subject control. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of both limbs at +2d post-operative (baseline), at 5weeks and 12weeks post-surgery to analyze for changes in type 1 and type 2 muscle fiber area. Changes in expression levels of IGF-I mRNA isoforms were determined...

  16. Interpreting operational altimetry signals in near-coastal areas using underwater autonomous vehicles and remotely sensed ocean colour data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, Ines; Oddo, Paolo; Russo, Aniello; Coelho, Emanuel

    2017-04-01

    During the LOGMEC16 (Long-Term Glider Mission for Environmental Characterization) sea trial carried out in the eastern Ligurian Sea (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), two oceanographic gliders rated to a maximum depth of 1000m were operating continuously from 3 May to 27 June 2016. When possible, glider tracks were synchronized with the footprints of contemporaneous altimeters (i.e., Jason 2, Altika and Cryosat 2). Temperature and salinity measured by the gliders along the tracks that were co-localized with the altimeter passages, were used to calculate along-track dynamic heights. The latter were then compared with near-real time absolute sea level CMEMS-TAPAS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service - Tailored Product for Data Assimilation) product. TAPAS provides along-track sea level anomaly (SLA) estimates together with all the terms used in the correction and the associated Mean Dynamic Topography. Where available, the CMEMS near-real time 1km resolution, Aqua-MODIS ocean colour data was also used as a tracer of the main oceanographic features of the region. Comparison between SLA derived from gliders and TAPAS along common transects, indicates that differences increase for larger sampling time lags between platforms and especially when time differences exceed 20 hrs. In fact, contemporaneous ocean color images reveal the presence of several mesoscale/sub-mesoscale structures (i.e., transient meanders and filaments), suggesting that the oceanographic variability of the region is likely the main cause for the differences observed between the glider and altimetry-based SLA. Results from this study provide additional evidence of the advantages on using a networked ocean observing system. In fact, the interpretation of in-situ observations obtained from a continuously operating sampling platform (also during ongoing experiments at sea) can be greatly improved when combined with other operational datasets, as the CMEMS SLA used here.

  17. Data Base Management Plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This Data Base Management Plan describes the gathering, verifying, analyzing, reporting, and archiving of data generated during the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3. This investigation will produce data documenting wellhead surveys, well headspace gas pressure measurements, geophysical surveys, water level measurements, and borehole geophysical logs. Close Support Laboratory analyses will be performed on well headspace gas and well water samples

  18. Measurement of new operational quantities with radiation protection instruments designed for working area monitoring and for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, R.; Chary, J.; Chemtob, M.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRP recommended a dose limitation system based on numerical evaluation of the dose equivalent to organs or tissues, H T , which are used to calculate the effective dose, H E , by weighting. The ICRU proposed new operational quantities accessible to measurement which are conservative with respect to these recommendations. The objective of this paper is to recall briefly the basic recommendations and to find out if radiation protection instruments presently used calibrated in terms of the previous quantities are capable to measure these new quantities. A dozen of practical cases are presented. (author)

  19. Al SahawaThe Awakening Volume III: Al Anbar Province, Western Euphrates River Valley, Area of Operations Denver- Transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    could not be stopped or stalled . On 1 September 2008, conditions were stable enough to hand over the province to the Iraqis Government. What happened...international jihadists]. On any given day, they’d play well together in the sand box; that probably wasn’t a good day for us. Other days they’d fight...roam around up there, by all means, go for it, just let us know for purposes of de-confliction. You’re free to operate anywhere ten clicks north of the

  20. Measurement of new operational quantities with radiation protection instruments designed for working area monitoring and for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, R.; Chary, J.; Chemtob, M.; Lebouleux, P.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRP recommended a dose limitation system based on numerical evaluation of the dose equivalent to organs or tissues, H T , which are used to calculate the effective dose, H E , by weighting. The ICRU proposed new operational quantities accessible to measurement which are conservative with respect to these recommendations. The objective of this paper is to recall briefly the basic recommendations and to find out if radiation protection instruments presently used calibrated in terms of the previous quantities are capable to measure these new quantities. A dozen of practical cases are presented

  1. Evaluation of Radiological Impacts on the Operating Kartini Reactor and Natural Radioactivity of the Site Plan of Nuclear Power Plant Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, M; Sutresna, G; Sulistyono, A; Ngasifudin

    1996-01-01

    This radiological impacts evaluation covered of radioactivity in water, soil, grass, air samples and ambient gamma radiation that have been carried out in the Kartini reactor area and in the site plan of nuclear power plan are at Ujung Lemah Abang, Jepara, Central Java. The aim of this research was to determine that radiological impacts in the environment around the Kartini reactor compared to natural radioactivity for site plan of nuclear power plan area. The radioactivity in the water, soil and grass samples ware measured by low background beta counting system and were identified by low background gamma spectrometer. The radioactivity in the air samples was measured by beta portable counting system and the ambient gamma radiation was measured by portable high pressurized ionization chamber model RSS-112 Reuther-Stokes. The reactor data measurement was compared to the site plan of nuclear power plant area data for evaluation of radiological impacts on the operating reactor. From the evaluation and comparison can be concluded there are no indication of the radionuclide release from the reactor operation. The average radiactivity in the water, soil grass and air sample from the reactor area were between 0.17 - 0.61 Bq/1; 0,47 - 0,74 Bq/g; 4.43 - 4.60 Bq/g.ash and 49.53 - 70.90 x 10 Bq/cc. The average radioactivity of those sample from the nuclear power plant area were between 0.06-0.90 Bq/I; 0.02-0.86 Bq/g; 1.68-8.07 Bq/g.ash and 65.0-152.3 x 10 Bq/cc. The ambient gamma radiation were between 6.9-36.7 urad/h for the reactor area and 6.8-19.2 urad/h for the nuclear power plant area

  2. Operation of a Five-Stage 40,000-CM2-Area Insulator Stack at 158 KV/CM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson RA; Clark, Robert E; Corcoran, PA; Douglas, John W; Gilliland, TL; Horry, ML; Hughes, Thomas P; Ives, HC; Long, FW; Martin, TH; McDaniel, DH; Milton, Osborne; Mostrom, Michael A; Seamen, JF; Shoup, RW; Smith, ID; Smith, JW; Spielman, RB; Struve, KW; Stygar, WA; Vogtlin, George E; Wagoner, TC; Yamamoto, Osamu

    1999-01-01

    We have demonstrated successful operation of a 3.35- m-diameter insulator stack at 158 kV/cm on five consecutive Z-accelerator shots. The stack consisted of five +45 deg;-profile 5.715-cm-thick cross-linked-polystyrene (Rexolite- 1422) insulator rings, and four anodized- aluminum grading rings shaped to reduce the field at cathode triple junctions. The width of the voltage pulse at 89% of peak was 32 ns. We compare this result to a new empirical flashover relation developed from previous small-insulator experiments conducted with flat unanodized electrodes. The relation predicts a 50% flashover probability for a Rexolite insulator during an applied voltage pulse when E max e -0.27/d (t eff C) 1/10 = 224, where E max is the peak mean electric field (kV/cm), d is the insulator thickness (cm), t eff is the effective pulse width (ps), and C is the insulator circumference (cm). We find the Z stack can be operated at a stress at least 19% higher than predicted. This result, and previous experiments conducted by Vogtlin, suggest anodized electrodes with geometries that reduce the field at both anode and cathode triple junctions would improve the flashover strength of +45 deg; insulators

  3. Pre-operational monitoring program of Ra-226 in biological material in uranium mining and milling areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Pereira, Wagner de; Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de; Kelecom, Alphonse; Iatesta, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The environmental licensing processes of 'Santa Quiteria' uranium mining and milling unit are being carried out nowadays. The pre-operational radiological environmental monitoring program is part of those processes, which has the objective of determining the background for further comparisons and evaluation of radiological environmental impact of the operation unit. This work shows the results of Ra-226 determination in the most consumed farm products of the region, which are black beans, corn and milk. These data are compared with data available in the literature. Measurement results of Ra-226 in black beans vary from 3.3 x 10 -2 Bq/Kg to 9.1 x 10 -2 Bq/Kg; in corn, the results vary from 8.0 x 10 -3 Bq/Kg to 4.6 x 10 -2 Bq/Kg; in milk the results vary from 1.0 x 10 -3 Bq/Kg to 7.0 x 10 -3 Bq/Kg that represents the smallest variation range. All of these results are in good agreement with literature reported data. (author)

  4. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  5. Hydrologic behaviour of stormwater infiltration trenches in a central urban area during 2 3/4 years of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnaars, E.; Larsen, A.V.; Jacobsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    overflow. Analyses of falling water tables after rain indicated slight clogging, but this effect is less important than the general lack of knowledge about soil permeability for normal design situations. The results indicate that the stormwater infiltration in central urban areas with compressed soils...... an initial soil survey. Although the two trenches are placed close to each other they function rather differently, corresponding to effective soil permeabilities of 2.10(-6) m/s in one trench and a factor 10 smaller in the other. During 23/4 years of measuring 89 events were recorded, of which 7 caused...

  6. Operating and impact of the compensation mechanism of the electric utility charges on the energy offer in non connected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levratto, N.

    2005-01-01

    Since the law of the 10 february 2000 relative to the modernization and the development of the electric utility, the France adopted a mechanism aiming to compensate the costs subjected by EDF and other suppliers providing a public utility mission in the domain of the electricity production and distribution. This document takes stock on the organization, the evaluation and the economical and environmental consequences of the implementing of a compensation system of costs bond to the electricity production in non connected areas. (A.L.B.)

  7. Air pollution in the area of operating siderite plant in Nižná Slaná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gešperová Dana

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The dust deposition analyses the imission load in the area of Siderite Plant Nižná Slaná has been carried out for tens of years. In the present time the observation of freshly fallen snow quality has begun to be realized with the aim to determine the collected pollutants in the snow. The pollutants have the municipal as well as the industrial origin. The range of plant emission by the chemical data processing and by their comparision with the dust deposition was investigated. Finally, the imission action of the plant on its wider surroundings was found out by this way.

  8. Field Operations Procedures Manual for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses meteorological monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Meteorological monitoring of various climatological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity) will be collected by instruments installed at WAG 6. Data will be recorded electronically at frequencies varying from 5-min intervals to 1-h intervals, dependent upon parameter. The data will be downloaded every 2 weeks, evaluated, compressed, and uploaded into a WAG 6 data base for subsequent use. The meteorological data will be used in water balance calculations in support of the WAG 6 hydrogeological model

  9. 40 CFR 51.907 - For an area that fails to attain the 8-hour NAAQS by its attainment date, how does EPA interpret...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.907 For an area that... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false For an area that fails to attain the 8... the CAA? 51.907 Section 51.907 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  10. Does Taking One Step Back Get You Two Steps Forward? Grade Retention and School Performance in Poor Areas in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinxin; Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rise in grade retention in poor areas in rural China recently, little work has been done to understand the impact of grade retention on the educational performance of students in these areas in rural China. This paper seeks to redress this shortcoming and examines the effect of grade retention on educational performance on 1649…

  11. Summary of Survey and Workshop Results on Areas of Research in Human Factors for the Design and Operation of New Nuclear Plant Technology - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persensky, Julius J.; Joe, Jeffrey; Richards, Robert E.; Barnes, Valerie; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear community is currently at a stage where existing reactor control stations are undergoing various forms of modernization, new reactors are being built in many countries with computer-based control rooms, and advanced reactors are being designed through international cooperation to support power generation for decades to come. With the introduction of advanced plants, we will see new reactor and system designs, new tools to support plant personnel, and changes to nuclear power plant (NPP) staffing configurations. The concepts of operation and maintenance for this new generation of plants are likely to be quite different from those employed in today's plants. It is important that the potential impact of these developments is evaluated and understood by prospective operators and regulators responsible for determining the acceptability of new designs to support human performance in maintaining plant safety. The introduction of new technology is viewed as having promise for improving the safe and efficient operation of NPPs. To ensure the appropriate application of technology to support human performance and plant safety, it is important to evaluate the technological advances in terms of both potential negative and positive effects. Research described in this paper can provide the technical basis to help ensure that the benefits of new technology are realized and that the potential negative effects are minimized. The impetus for the current effort grew out of a Nuclear Energy Agency, Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations, Working Group on Human and Organizational Factors, Technical Opinion Paper (TOP) titled, 'Research on Human Factors in New Nuclear Plant Technology' [NEA/CSNI/R(2009)7], which identified eight broad topic areas that warrant further research: 1. Operating Experience (OpEx) from New and Modernized Plants. 2. Evolving Concepts for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. 3. The Role of Automation and Personnel: New Concepts of Teamwork

  12. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES ampersand H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing)

  13. Analysis of the quality of wastewater from the service stations located in the operative area of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Dahal, Karna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to analyse the data of pollutant parameters for waste water from the service stations situated in the operative area of the Viikinmäki and Suomenoja WWTPs in the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY). The main reason for this analysis was that HSY wanted to know about the quality of waste water discharged from the service stations into the influent of its WWTPs. The number of cars used in Finland is increasing day by day; hence, au...

  14. Chicago Operations Office: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This document has been prepared by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT and E) activities funded through the Chicago Operations Office. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US Industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information has been assembled from recently produced OTD documents which highlight technology development activities within each of the OTD program elements. OTD technologies addresses three specific problem areas: (1) groundwater and soils cleanup; (2) waste retrieval and processing; and (3) pollution prevention. These problems are not unique to DOE, but are associated with other Federal agency and industry sites as well. Thus, technical solutions developed within OTD programs will benefit DOE, and should have direct applications in outside markets

  15. Correlation of free-response and receiver-operating-characteristic area-under-the-curve estimates: Results from independently conducted FROC/ROC studies in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanca, Federica; Hillis, Stephen L.; Claus, Filip; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Celis, Valerie; Provoost, Veerle; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Bosmans, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: From independently conducted free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiments, to study fixed-reader associations between three estimators: the area under the alternative FROC (AFROC) curve computed from FROC data, the area under the ROC curve computed from FROC highest rating data, and the area under the ROC curve computed from confidence-of-disease ratings. Methods: Two hundred mammograms, 100 of which were abnormal, were processed by two image-processing algorithms and interpreted by four radiologists under the FROC paradigm. From the FROC data, inferred-ROC data were derived, using the highest rating assumption. Eighteen months afterwards, the images were interpreted by the same radiologists under the conventional ROC paradigm; conventional-ROC data (in contrast to inferred-ROC data) were obtained. FROC and ROC (inferred, conventional) data were analyzed using the nonparametric area-under-the-curve (AUC), (AFROC and ROC curve, respectively). Pearson correlation was used to quantify the degree of association between the modality-specific AUC indices and standard errors were computed using the bootstrap-after-bootstrap method. The magnitude of the correlations was assessed by comparison with computed Obuchowski-Rockette fixed reader correlations. Results: Average Pearson correlations (with 95% confidence intervals in square brackets) were: Corr(FROC, inferred ROC) = 0.76[0.64, 0.84] > Corr(inferred ROC, conventional ROC) = 0.40[0.18, 0.58] > Corr (FROC, conventional ROC) = 0.32[0.16, 0.46]. Conclusions: Correlation between FROC and inferred-ROC data AUC estimates was high. Correlation between inferred- and conventional-ROC AUC was similar to the correlation between two modalities for a single reader using one estimation method, suggesting that the highest rating assumption might be questionable.

  16. Numerical Prediction of the Influence of Process Parameters on Large Area Diamond Deposition by DC Arcjet with ARC Roots Rotating and Operating at Gas Recycling Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, F. X.; Huang, T. B.; Tang, W. Z.; Song, J. H.; Tong, Y. M.

    A computer model have been set up for simulation of the flow and temperature field, and the radial distribution of atomic hydrogen and active carbonaceous species over a large area substrate surface for a new type dc arc plasma torch with rotating arc roots and operating at gas recycling mode A gas recycling radio of 90% was assumed. In numerical calculation of plasma chemistry, the Thermal-Calc program and a powerful thermodynamic database were employed. Numerical calculations to the computer model were performed using boundary conditions close to the experimental setup for large area diamond films deposition. The results showed that the flow and temperature field over substrate surface of Φ60-100mm were smooth and uniform. Calculations were also made with plasma of the same geometry but no arc roots rotation. It was clearly demonstrated that the design of rotating arc roots was advantageous for high quality uniform deposition of large area diamond films. Theoretical predictions on growth rate and film quality as well as their radial uniformity, and the influence of process parameters on large area diamond deposition were discussed in detail based on the spatial distribution of atomic hydrogen and the carbonaceous species in the plasma over the substrate surface obtained from thermodynamic calculations of plasma chemistry, and were compared with experimental observations.

  17. Identifying non-toxic doses of manganese for manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to map brain areas activated by operant behavior in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálosi, Rita; Szalay, Csaba; Aradi, Mihály; Perlaki, Gábor; Pál, József; Steier, Roy; Lénárd, László; Karádi, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) offers unique advantages such as studying brain activation in freely moving rats, but its usefulness has not been previously evaluated during operant behavior training. Manganese in a form of MnCl 2 , at a dose of 20mg/kg, was intraperitoneally infused. The administration was repeated and separated by 24h to reach the dose of 40mg/kg or 60mg/kg, respectively. Hepatotoxicity of the MnCl 2 was evaluated by determining serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin and protein levels. Neurological examination was also carried out. The animals were tested in visual cue discriminated operant task. Imaging was performed using a 3T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were determined before and after MnCl 2 administrations. Manganese-enhanced images of each animal were subtracted from their baseline images to calculate decrease in the T1 value (ΔT1) voxel by voxel. The subtracted T1 maps of trained animals performing visual cue discriminated operant task, and those of naive rats were compared. The dose of 60mg/kg MnCl 2 showed hepatotoxic effect, but even these animals did not exhibit neurological symptoms. The dose of 20 and 40mg/kg MnCl 2 increased the number of omissions and did not affect the accuracy of performing the visual cue discriminated operant task. Using the accumulated dose of 40mg/kg, voxels with a significant enhanced ΔT1 value were detected in the following brain areas of the visual cue discriminated operant behavior performed animals compared to those in the controls: the visual, somatosensory, motor and premotor cortices, the insula, cingulate, ectorhinal, entorhinal, perirhinal and piriform cortices, hippocampus, amygdala with amygdalohippocampal areas, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens core, substantia nigra, and retrorubral field. In conclusion, the MEMRI proved to be a reliable method to accomplish brain activity mapping in correlation with the operant behavior

  18. Does area-based social capital matter for the health of Australians? A multilevel analysis of self-rated health in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Anne M; Turrell, Gavin; Subramanian, S V

    2006-06-01

    Material circumstances and collective psychosocial processes have been invoked as potential explanations for socioeconomic inequalities in health; and, linking social capital has been proposed as a way of reconciling these apparently opposing explanations. We conducted multilevel logistic regression of self-rated health (fair or poor vs excellent, very good, or good) on 14 495 individuals living within 41 statistical local areas who were respondents to the 1998 Tasmanian Healthy Communities Study. We modelled the effects of area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and social capital (neighbourhood integration, neighbourhood alienation, neighbourhood safety, social trust, trust in public/private institutions, and political participation), and adjusted for the effects of individual characteristics. Area-level socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with poor self-rated health (beta = 0.0937, P trust was associated with a reduction in poor self-rated health (beta = -0.0501, p = 0.008) and remained significant when individual characteristics (beta = -0.0398, P = 0.005) were included. Political participation was non-significant in the unadjusted model but became significant when adjusted for individual characteristics (beta = -0.2557, P = 0.045). The effects of social trust and political participation were attenuated and became non-significant when area-level socioeconomic disadvantage was included. Area-based socioeconomic disadvantage is a determinant of self-rated health in Tasmania, but we did not find an independent effect of area-level social capital. These findings suggest that in Tasmania investments in improving the material circumstances in which people live are likely to lead to greater improvements in population health than attempts to increase area-level social capital.

  19. The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP). A Public/Private Partnership for Improving Short Term Wind Energy Forecasts and Quantifying the Benefits of Utility Operations -- the Northern Study Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Cathy [WindLogics, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report contains the results from research aimed at improving short-range (0-6 hour) hub-height wind forecasts in the NOAA weather forecast models through additional data assimilation and model physics improvements for use in wind energy forecasting. Additional meteorological observing platforms including wind profilers, sodars, and surface stations were deployed for this study by NOAA and DOE, and additional meteorological data at or near wind turbine hub height were provided by South Dakota State University and WindLogics/NextEra Energy Resources over a large geographical area in the U.S. Northern Plains for assimilation into NOAA research weather forecast models. The resulting improvements in wind energy forecasts based on the research weather forecast models (with the additional data assimilation and model physics improvements) were examined in many different ways and compared with wind energy forecasts based on the current operational weather forecast models to quantify the forecast improvements important to power grid system operators and wind plant owners/operators participating in energy markets. Two operational weather forecast models (OP_RUC, OP_RAP) and two research weather forecast models (ESRL_RAP, HRRR) were used as the base wind forecasts for generating several different wind power forecasts for the NextEra Energy wind plants in the study area. Power forecasts were generated from the wind forecasts in a variety of ways, from very simple to quite sophisticated, as they might be used by a wide range of both general users and commercial wind energy forecast vendors. The error characteristics of each of these types of forecasts were examined and quantified using bulk error statistics for both the local wind plant and the system aggregate forecasts. The wind power forecast accuracy was also evaluated separately for high-impact wind energy ramp events. The overall bulk error statistics calculated over the first six hours of the forecasts at both the

  20. Budget Issues: Accrual Budgeting Useful in Certain Areas but Does Not Provide Sufficient Information for Reporting on Our Nation’s Longer-Term Fiscal Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Government Auditing Standards GDP gross domestic product IPSAS International Public Sector Accounting Standards OBEGAL Operating Balance...aligned with the international public sector accounting standards ( IPSAS ), but there were some deviations from IPSAS for constitutional reasons such...which is required under IPSAS . Besides developing the accounting standards to be used in the budget, a key challenge when switching to accrual

  1. How Much Does it Cost to Expand a Protected Area System? Some Critical Determining Factors and Ranges of Costs for Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vanessa M.; Segan, Daniel B.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Many governments have recently gone on record promising large-scale expansions of protected areas to meet global commitments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity. As systems of protected areas are expanded to be more comprehensive, they are more likely to be implemented if planners have realistic budget estimates so that appropriate funding can be requested. Estimating financial budgets a priori must acknowledge the inherent uncertainties and assumptions associated with key parameters, so planners should recognize these uncertainties by estimating ranges of potential costs. We explore the challenge of budgeting a priori for protected area expansion in the face of uncertainty, specifically considering the future expansion of protected areas in Queensland, Australia. The government has committed to adding ∼12 million ha to the reserve system, bringing the total area protected to 20 million ha by 2020. We used Marxan to estimate the costs of potential reserve designs with data on actual land value, market value, transaction costs, and land tenure. With scenarios, we explored three sources of budget variability: size of biodiversity objectives; subdivision of properties; and legal acquisition routes varying with tenure. Depending on the assumptions made, our budget estimates ranged from $214 million to $2.9 billion. Estimates were most sensitive to assumptions made about legal acquisition routes for leasehold land. Unexpected costs (costs encountered by planners when real-world costs deviate from assumed costs) responded non-linearly to inability to subdivide and percentage purchase of private land. A financially conservative approach - one that safeguards against large cost increases while allowing for potential financial windfalls - would involve less optimistic assumptions about acquisition and subdivision to allow Marxan to avoid expensive properties where possible while meeting conservation objectives. We demonstrate how a rigorous analysis can inform

  2. Contaminant accumulation and biomarker responses in caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to evaluate bioavailability and toxicological effects of remobilized chemicals during dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocchetti, Raffaella; Fattorini, Daniele; Pisanelli, Barbara; Macchia, Simona; Oliviero, Lisa; Pilato, Fabiano; Pellegrini, David; Regoli, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Remobilization of chemicals from contaminated sediments is a major risk associated with dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas. In this work caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were chosen as bioindicator organisms to reveal the impact and recovery of organisms from these activities in the harbour of Piombino (Tuscany, Italy) where approximately 100,000 m 3 of sediments were removed and disposed in a local confined disposal facility (CDF). Organisms were deployed before, during and after the end of operations, selecting sites differently impacted by these activities. Temporal changes in environmental bioavailability and biological effects of pollutants were assessed by integrating analyses of trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in tissues of caged mussels with a wide array of biomarkers reflecting exposure to specific classes of pollutants and different levels of cellular unbalance or toxicity. Such biological responses included levels of metallothioneins, activity of acyl CoA oxidase (AOX) as a marker of peroxisome proliferation, oxidative stress biomarkers (content of glutathione, enzymatic activities of catalase, glutathione S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases), total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) toward peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, lysosomal membrane stability and genotoxic effects measured as DNA strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei. Obtained results indicated that a general disturbance was already present in the whole harbour area and especially in the inner site before the beginning of operations, when caged mussels exhibited a significant accumulation of PAHs and Pb, lower TOSC values and higher levels of both lysosomal and genotoxic damages. Bioavailability of trace metals and PAHs markedly increased during dredging activities with values up to 40 μg/g for Pb and up to 2200 ng/g for PAHs in tissues of caged mussels, a significant inhibition of antioxidant

  3. Contaminant accumulation and biomarker responses in caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to evaluate bioavailability and toxicological effects of remobilized chemicals during dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocchetti, Raffaella; Fattorini, Daniele; Pisanelli, Barbara [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri Monte d' Ago, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Macchia, Simona; Oliviero, Lisa; Pilato, Fabiano; Pellegrini, David [Istituto Centrale per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Applicata al Mare (ICRAM), Viale Nazario Sauro 4, 57128 Livorno (Italy); Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri Monte d' Ago, 60100 Ancona (Italy)], E-mail: f.regoli@univpm.it

    2008-09-29

    Remobilization of chemicals from contaminated sediments is a major risk associated with dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas. In this work caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were chosen as bioindicator organisms to reveal the impact and recovery of organisms from these activities in the harbour of Piombino (Tuscany, Italy) where approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of sediments were removed and disposed in a local confined disposal facility (CDF). Organisms were deployed before, during and after the end of operations, selecting sites differently impacted by these activities. Temporal changes in environmental bioavailability and biological effects of pollutants were assessed by integrating analyses of trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in tissues of caged mussels with a wide array of biomarkers reflecting exposure to specific classes of pollutants and different levels of cellular unbalance or toxicity. Such biological responses included levels of metallothioneins, activity of acyl CoA oxidase (AOX) as a marker of peroxisome proliferation, oxidative stress biomarkers (content of glutathione, enzymatic activities of catalase, glutathione S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases), total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) toward peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, lysosomal membrane stability and genotoxic effects measured as DNA strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei. Obtained results indicated that a general disturbance was already present in the whole harbour area and especially in the inner site before the beginning of operations, when caged mussels exhibited a significant accumulation of PAHs and Pb, lower TOSC values and higher levels of both lysosomal and genotoxic damages. Bioavailability of trace metals and PAHs markedly increased during dredging activities with values up to 40 {mu}g/g for Pb and up to 2200 ng/g for PAHs in tissues of caged mussels, a significant inhibition of antioxidant

  4. Conduct of operations: establishing operational focus and setting operational standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.; McGuigan, K.

    1998-01-01

    Due to the nature of our business, we have often tended to focus on the technological aspects of the nuclear industry. The focus of this paper is directed towards the importance of addressing the people skills, attitudes, and 'culture' within, and surrounding, our facilities as key areas of improvement. Within Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OLIN) we have developed the terminology 'event free' operation and 'event free' culture. 'Event Free' recognizes errors as a part of human performance. 'Event Free' takes into account human weaknesses, and provides tools (such as standards) to manage, control, and mitigate errors. In essence, 'Event Free' encompasses two concepts: 1. Prevent errors from occurring; 2. If an error is made, catch it before it can affect safe operation of the facility, learn from the error, and ensure that it does not happen again. In addressing these business realities, Ontario Hydro has identified a number of key support mechanisms and corresponding performance standards that are essential for achieving operating excellence and an 'event free' business culture. This paper will discuss two operational aspects of an 'event free' culture, the first being a set of expectations to enhance the culture, and the second an example of cultural change: 1. Operating Standards - establishing clear expectations for human performance in operating staff; 2. Operational Focus - the understanding that, as a nuclear worker, you should consider every task, activity, in fact everything you do in this business, for the potential to affect safe and reliable operation of a nuclear facility. Note that although the term 'Operational' appears in the title, this concept applies to every individual in the nuclear business, from the cleaner, to the Board of Directors, to the external supplier. (author)

  5. DOE enforcement program roles and responsibilities: DOE handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Price-Anderson Act provides indemnification to DOE contractors who manage and conduct nuclear activities in the DOE complex. The government acts as an insurer for these contractors against any findings of liability from the nuclear activities of the contractor within the scope of its contract. 10 CFR Part 820 establishes the legal framework for implementing DOE's Nuclear Safety Enforcement Program. Integration with other DOE organizations and programs would assure that the enforcement process properly considers the actual or potential safety significance of a violation when determining an appropriate enforcement sanction. Achieving a proactive contractor compliance assurance rather than a heavy enforcement hand, will require a foundation of cooperation and teamwork across DOE organizations. This handbook identifies the areas of interface for the DOE Enforcement Program and provides guidance on roles and responsibilities for the key DOE organizational areas. It complements DOE-HDBK-1087-95 and 1089-95

  6. Accelerator Operators and Software Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April Miller; Michele Joyce

    2001-01-01

    At Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, accelerator operators perform tasks in their areas of specialization in addition to their machine operations duties. One crucial area in which operators contribute is software development. Operators with programming skills are uniquely qualified to develop certain controls applications because of their expertise in the day-to-day operation of the accelerator. Jefferson Lab is one of the few laboratories that utilizes the skills and knowledge of operators to create software that enhances machine operations. Through the programs written; by operators, Jefferson Lab has improved machine efficiency and beam availability. Because many of these applications involve automation of procedures and need graphical user interfaces, the scripting language Tcl and the Tk toolkit have been adopted. In addition to automation, some operator-developed applications are used for information distribution. For this purpose, several standard web development tools such as perl, VBScript, and ASP are used. Examples of applications written by operators include injector steering, spin angle changes, system status reports, magnet cycling routines, and quantum efficiency measurements. This paper summarizes how the unique knowledge of accelerator operators has contributed to the success of the Jefferson Lab control system. *This work was supported by the U.S. DOE contract No. DE-AC05-84-ER40150

  7. Strength and durability tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing under the influence of operational loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with integrated research works and tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” which is laid in the eternally frozen grounds. In order to ensure the above-ground routing method for the oil pipeline “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” and in view of the lack of construction experience in case of above-ground routing of oil pipelines, the leading research institute of JSC “Transneft” - LLC “NII TNN” over the period of August, 2011 - September, 2012 performed a research and development work on the subject “Development and production of pipeline supports and pile foundation test specimens for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe”. In the course of the works, the test specimens of fixed support, linear-sliding and free-sliding pipeline supports DN1000 and DN800 were produced and examined. For ensuring the stable structural reliability of the supports constructions and operational integrity of the pipelines the complex research works and tests were performed: 1. Cyclic tests of structural elements of the fixed support on the test bed of JSC “Diascan” by means of internal pressure and bending moment with the application of specially prepared equipment for defining the pipeline supports strength and durability. 2. Tests of the fixed support under the influence of limit operating loads and by means of internal pressure for confirming the support’s integrity. On the test bed there were simulated all the maximum loads on the support (vertical, longitudinal, side loadings, bending moment including subsidence of the neighboring sliding support and, simultaneously, internal pressure of the carried medium. 3. Cyclic tests of endurance and stability of the displacements of sliding supports under the influence of limit operating loads for confirming their operation capacity. Relocation of the pipeline on the sliding

  8. Does Operation Scheduling Make a Difference: Tapping the Potential of Optimized Design for Skipping-Stop Strategy in Reducing Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of corporate social responsibility has promoted bus operation agencies to rethink how to provide not only efficient but also environmentally friendly services for residents. A study on the potential of using an optimized design of skip-stop services, one of the essential operational strategies in practice, to reduce emissions is conducted in this paper. The underlying scheduling problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem with the primary objective of optimizing the total costs for both passengers and operating agencies, as well as with the secondary objective of minimizing bus emissions. A solution method is developed to solve the problem. A real-world case of Route 16 in Beijing is studied, in which the optimal scheduling strategy that maximizes the cost savings and environmental benefits is determined. The costs and emissions of the proposed scheduling strategy are compared with the optimal scheduling with skip-stop services without considering bus emissions. The results show that the proposed scheduling strategy outperforms the other operating strategy with respect to operational costs and bus emissions. A sensitivity study is then conducted to investigate the impact of the fleet size in operations and passenger demand on the effectiveness of the proposed stop-skipping strategy considering bus emissions.

  9. Excessive iodine intake does not increase the recurrence rate of graves' disease after withdrawal of the antithyroid drug in an iodine-replete area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Mi; Cho, Yoon Young; Joung, Ji Young; Sohn, Seo Young; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between iodine intake and effects of antithyroid drugs (ATD) for Graves' disease, especially in iodine-deficient areas, has been demonstrated in many studies. However, it was not clear how chronic high iodine intake influenced the effectiveness of ATD in an iodine-replete area. This study aimed to clarify the effect of iodine intake on clinical outcomes of Graves' disease after discontinuation of ATD in Korea, an iodine-replete area. A total of 142 patients with Graves' disease who visited the outpatient clinic regularly and stopped their ATD between October 2011 and April 2013 were enrolled in our study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured just before and after the discontinuation of ATD. Median UIC was not significantly different between the remission and relapse groups, as well as among the four treatment groups (group 1, remission after initial treatment; group 2, remission after repeated treatment; group 3, early relapse within a year; group 4, late relapse after a year). Remission rates did not show a significant difference between the excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥300 μg/l) and average iodine intake groups (UIC Graves' disease in an iodine-replete area, and therefore diet control with iodine restriction might not be necessary in the management of Graves' disease.

  10. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  11. Assessment of the effect of Nd:YAG laser pulse operating parameters on the metallurgical characteristics of different tool steels using DOE software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Muhič

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the reliability of repair welded tool surfaces, clad quality should be improved. The relationships between metallurgical characteristics of cladding and laser input welding parameters were studied using the design of experiments software. The influence of laser power, welding speed, focal point position and diameter of welding wire on the weld-bead geometry (i.e. penetration, cladding zone width and heat-affected-zone width, microstructural homogeneity, dilution and bond strength was investigated on commonly used tool steels 1,2083, 1,2312 and 1,2343, using DOE software.

  12. Does Injection of Lidocaine with 1/100000 Epinephrine Immediately before Lateral Osteotomy Reduce Post-Operative Periorbital Edema and Ecchymosis in Rhinoplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mansoor zojajy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative periorbital edema and ecchymosis are common after rhinoplasty. We studied the effect of local injection of Lidocaine/Adrenaline immediately before osteotomy on prevention of post-operative periorbital edema and ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy candidates for rhinoplasty were enrolled in the self-controlled clinical trial study. Lidocaine/Adrenaline solution injected randomly to one side just prior to the lateral osteotomy. The opposite side used as a control. The degree of edema/ecchymosis on both sides was compared on the 1st, 2nd and 7th day postoperatively.Results: Mean of severity of edema, 24 hours after operation was 3in both sides, (Mann-whitney U; p=0.829. Mean of severity of edema, 48 hours after operation was 2 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.867 and it was 1 in both sides 7 days after operation (Mann-whitney U; p=0.756.There was no significant difference between two sides. Mean of severity of ecchymosis, 24 hours after operation was 3 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.692. Mean of severity of ecchymosis, 48 hours after operation was 2 in both sides (Mann-whitney U; p=0.655 and it was 1 in both sides 7 days after operation (Mann-whitney U; p=0.873. There was no significant difference between two sides.Conclusion: local injection of Lidocaine/Adrenaline solution immediately before lateral osteotomy could not reduce postoperative edema and ecchymosis in rhinoplasty.

  13. Data management implementation plan for the site characterization of the Waste Area Grouping 1 Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, T.S.; Nickle, E.B.

    1994-10-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization. This project is not mandated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); therefore, no formalized meetings for data quality objective (DQO) development were held. Internally, DQOs were generated by the project team based on the end uses of the data to be collected. The 150-acre WAG 1 is contained within the ORNL security area. It includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative facilities. The goal of the WAG 1 Groundwater Site Characterization is to provide the necessary data on the nature and extent of groundwater contamination with an acceptable level of uncertainty to support the selection of remedial alternatives and to identify additional data needs for future actions. Primary objectives for the site characterization are: (1) To identify and characterize contaminant migration pathways based on the collection of groundwater data; (2) to identify sources of groundwater contamination and evaluate remedial actions which could be implemented to control or eliminate these sources; and (3) To conduct groundwater monitoring in support of other OUs in WAG 1 and the ORNL Groundwater OU

  14. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H.; Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied

  15. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  16. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is

  17. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-10-04

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is

  18. Consumption of homegrown products does not increase dietary intake of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury by young children living in an industrialized area of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Michael; Wittsiepe, Juergen; Schrey, Petra; Hilbig, Annett; Kersting, Mathilde

    2005-01-01

    The dietary intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) was studied among young German children with different food consumption behaviour (consumption of own grown foodstuffs and of products from the supermarket). The study area comprised an industrialized and a rural area of West Germany. Dietary intake of contaminants was measured by the duplicate method according to the WHO guideline. A total 588 duplicate portions were collected daily from 84 individuals between May and September 1998. Intake of food groups was calculated from dietary records. Determination of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb was performed following high-pressure digestion of lyophilized samples by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Geometric mean weekly intake [μg/(kg bw .week)] was as follows: As 1.4, Cd 2.3, Hg 0.16, and Pb 5.3. Geometric mean intake corresponded to the percentage of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) as follows: As 9.7%, Cd 32%, Hg 3.3%, Pb 21%. As and Hg intake were mainly influenced by fish consumption. The amount of cereals and bakery wares mainly determined the Cd and Pb intake. Children living in the industrialized area with a substantial food consumption of own grown vegetables or products from domestic animals products had no increased dietary intake of the metals

  19. Social class, income, education, area of residence and psychological distress: does social class have an independent effect on psychological distress in Antalya, Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belek, I

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the separate effects of social class, income, education and area of residence on psychological distress. The study also assesses whether the association between prevalence of high score on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12) and social class is independent of other variables. Psychological distress was assessed by means of the GHQ 12. The study covered 1,092 adults aged 15 years or more living in two different quarters of Antalya. Social class status was defined by occupational position, with income, education and area of residence treated as confounders. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the data. Large inequalities in psychological distress by all variables were observed. Psychological distress was significantly associated with class status, after adjusting for income, education, area of residence and other potential confounders (age, sex and marital status). Class inequalities in psychological distress were observed between blue-collar workers/unqualified employees and bourgeoisie. These findings support the view that the recent widening of inequalities among social classes in Turkey pose a substantial threat to health.

  20. Does expert opinion match the operational definition of the Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS)? A case-based construct validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Vera; Huq, Molla; Franklyn, Kate; Calderone, Alicia; Lateef, Aisha; Lau, Chak Sing; Lee, Alfred Lok Hang; Navarra, Sandra Teresa V; Godfrey, Timothy; Oon, Shereen; Hoi, Alberta Yik Bun; Morand, Eric Francis; Nikpour, Mandana

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the construct validity of the Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS), a treatment target in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Fifty SLE case summaries based on real patients were prepared and assessed independently for meeting the operational definition of LLDAS. Fifty international rheumatologists with expertise in SLE, but with no prior involvement in the LLDAS project, responded to a survey in which they were asked to categorize the disease activity state of each case as remission, low, moderate, or high. Agreement between expert opinion and LLDAS was assessed using Cohen's kappa. Overall agreement between expert opinion and the operational definition of LLDAS was 77.96% (95% CI: 76.34-79.58%), with a Cohen's kappa of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.55-0.61). Of the cases (22 of 50) that fulfilled the operational definition of LLDAS, only 5.34% (59 of 22 × 50) of responses classified the cases as moderate/high activity. Of the cases that did not fulfill the operational definition of LLDAS (28 of 50), 35.14% (492 of 28 × 50) of responses classified the cases as remission/low activity. Common reasons for discordance were assignment to remission/low activity of cases with higher corticosteroid doses than defined in LLDAS (prednisolone ≤ 7.5mg) or with SLEDAI-2K >4 due to serological activity (high anti-dsDNA antibody and/or low complement). LLDAS has good construct validity with high overall agreement between the operational definition of LLDAS and expert opinion. Discordance of results suggests that the operational definition of LLDAS is more stringent than expert opinion at defining a low disease activity state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program – Joint Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Williams

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation's electrical generation capability.

  2. Guidelines for the Use of Mathematics in Operational Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes Using the Sterile Insect Technique with a Special Focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, H.L.; Enkerlin, W.R.; Manoukis, N.C.; Reyes-Flores, J.

    2016-01-01

    This guideline attempts to assist managers in the use of mathematics in area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). It describes mathematical tools that can be used at different stages of suppression/eradication programmes. For instance, it provides simple methods for calculating the various quantities of sterile insects required in the intervention area so that more realistic sterile: fertile rates to suppress pest populations can be achieved. The calculations, for the most part, only involve high school mathematics and can be done easily with small portable computers or calculators. The guideline is intended to be a reference book, to be consulted when necessary. As such, any particular AW-IPM programme using the SIT will probably only need certain sections, and much of the book can be ignored if that is the case. For example, if the intervention area is relatively small and well isolated, then the section on dispersal can safely be ignored, as the boundedness of the area means that dispersal should not be a problem, and so the section on diffusion equations can be ignored. An overview is given in each chapter to try to let the programme manager make a decision about where to put the programme efforts. On the other hand, most SIT programmes have an information system (many of them based on GIS) that produces reliable profiles of historic information. Based on the results of past activities they describe what has happened in the last days or weeks but usually do not explain, or barely explain, what is expected in the following days or weeks. Current AW-IPM progammes using the SIT have produced over many years a vast amount of every-day data from the field operations and from the mass rearing facility and packing and sterile insect releasing centres. With the help of this guideline, that information can be used to develop predictive models for their particular conditions to better plan control measures.

  3. DOE enrichment plants-safeguards means business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., is a full service enrichment plant. Its long enriching cascade can process uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) feeds at almost any 235 U level and can produce UF 6 over the complete spectrum from depleted to very highly enriched uranium. The DOE uranium enrichment program is a government-owned enterprise operating as a business. The operating concerns of the DOE uranium enrichment plants and their safeguards programs have evolved together over the past three decades, and that evolution will likely continue. As the risk associated with possession, processing, and shipment of strategic nuclear material increased, the protection and control of it increased; as the value of the product grew with time, better ways were found to measure and conserve it. In each of these areas, safeguards objectives and the business requirements of the plant are complementary, and the progress made in one area has been reflected by progress in the other. The plant's material control and accountability program has become crucial to such business requirements as quantifying the enriched uranium (separative work units) produced in each monthly period and convincing financial auditors that the multibillion dollar enriched uranium assets located at the Portsmouth plant are properly stated

  4. Development of a low-budget, remote, solar powered, and self-operating rain gauge for spatial rainfall real time data monitoring in pristine and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei Shiva, J.; Chandler, D. G.; Nucera, K. J.; Valinski, N.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the main components of the hydrological cycle and simulations and it is generally stated as an average value for the study area. However, due to high spatial variability of precipitation in some situations, more precise local data is required. In order to acquire the precipitation data, interpolation of neighbor gauged precipitation data is used which is the most affordable technique for a watershed scale study. Moreover, novel spatial rain measurements such as Doppler radars and satellite image processing have been widely used in recent studies. Although, due to impediments in the radar data processing and the effect of the local setting on the accuracy of the interpolated data, the local measurement of the precipitation remains as one of the most reliable approaches in attaining rain data. In this regard, development of a low-budget, remote, solar powered, and self-operating rain gauge for spatial rainfall real time data monitoring for pristine and urban areas has been presented in this research. The proposed rain gauge consists of two main parts: (a) hydraulic instruments and (b) electrical devices. The hydraulic instruments will collect the rain fall and store it in a PVC container which is connected to the high sensitivity pressure transducer systems. These electrical devices will transmit the data via cellphone networks which will be available for further analysis in less than one minute, after processing. The above-mentioned real time rain fall data can be employed in the precipitation measurement and the evaporation estimation. Due to the installed solar panel for battery recharging and designed siphon system for draining cumulative rain, this device is considered as a self-operating rain gauge. At this time, more than ten rain gauges are built and installed in the urban area of Syracuse, NY. Furthermore, these data are also useful for calibration and validation of data obtained by other rain gauging devices and estimation techniques

  5. DOE standard: Radiological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  6. DOE standard: Radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ''Occupational Radiation Protection''. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835

  7. RF-source development for ITER: Large area H- beam extraction, modifications for long pulse operation and design of a half size ITER source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Falter, H.D.; Franzen, P.; Speth, E.; Entscheva, A.; Fantz, U.; Franke, T.; Holtum, D.; Martens, Ch.; McNeely, P.; Riedl, R.; Wilhelm, R.

    2005-01-01

    With an extraction area of 152 cm 2 a calorimetrically measured H - current density of 19.3 mA/cm 2 has been achieved at 0.45 Pa with 90 kW RF power. With 306 cm 2 the electrically measured H - current has reached up to 9.7 A corresponding to 32 mA/cm 2 at 100 kW. The current on the calorimeter is limited by the extraction system. Down to 0.2 Pa only a weak dependence on the source pressure has been observed. The test bed will be upgraded to demonstrate cw operation with deuterium. Based on the tested prototype a half size ITER RF-source of 80 cm x 90 cm with 360 kW RF power has been designed

  8. On occurrence of a neurogenic sarcoma in irradiation area after combined operative-radiogenic therapy of an adenosarcoma in kidney during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, H.J.; Friedrich, S.; Herrmann, T.; Roy, U.

    1990-01-01

    Malignant neoplasias in childhood generally are an increased risk for the patient to fall ill with a second tumor. Second tumors in former irradiation field are seldom, but are acknowledged radiogenically if histology is different to that of the first tumor and a sufficiently long period is between the two tumors. A patient is presented who had been operated and irradiated because of an adenosarcoma of the kidney at the age of seven and who has fallen ill with a neurogenic sarcoma in the irradiation area more than 30 years later. The same patient had to suffer from radiogenic retardation during differentiation of the lumbar apparatus of attitude and locomotion and on the other hand be became father of a healthy daughter at the age of 32. (author)

  9. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance

  10. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  11. Does small-sided-games’ court area influence metabolic, perceptual, and physical performance parameters of young elite basketball players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR Marcelino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of court size on physiological responses and physical performance of young elite basketball players. Twelve male basketball players (18.6 ± 0.5 years; 88.8 ± 14.5 kg; 192.6 ± 6.5 cm from an under-19 team performed two small-sided games (matches with different court areas (28x15 m and 28x9 m; 28x15 and 28x9 protocols. The number of players (3x3 was kept the same in each protocol. The players performed a repeated-sprint ability (RSA test before and after each match. Blood lactate concentration was collected before (pre and after (post the matches, and the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE was determined 30 minutes after the match. Best and mean time in the RSA test were not different between the 28x15 and the 28x9 match protocols (p>0.05. A significant difference was observed for lactate concentration from pre- to post-match (p 0.0S, ES=(0.41. In summary, the results of the current study suggest that the different court areas induced similar responses. Although there was no significant difference in effort perception, players tended to perceive a greater effort in the larger court size.

  12. Benefits from flywheel energy storage for area regulation in California - demonstration results : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2009-10-01

    This report documents a high-level analysis of the benefit and cost for flywheel energy storage used to provide area regulation for the electricity supply and transmission system in California. Area regulation is an 'ancillary service' needed for a reliable and stable regional electricity grid. The analysis was based on results from a demonstration, in California, of flywheel energy storage developed by Beacon Power Corporation (the system's manufacturer). Demonstrated was flywheel storage systems ability to provide 'rapid-response' regulation. Flywheel storage output can be varied much more rapidly than the output from conventional regulation sources, making flywheels more attractive than conventional regulation resources. The performance of the flywheel storage system demonstrated was generally consistent with requirements for a possible new class of regulation resources - 'rapid-response' energy-storage-based regulation - in California. In short, it was demonstrated that Beacon Power Corporation's flywheel system follows a rapidly changing control signal (the ACE, which changes every four seconds). Based on the results and on expected plant cost and performance, the Beacon Power flywheel storage system has a good chance of being a financially viable regulation resource. Results indicate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.5 to 1.8 using what may be somewhat conservative assumptions. A benefit/cost ratio of one indicates that, based on the financial assumptions used, the investment's financial returns just meet the investors target.

  13. Influence of Mining Operation on Selected Factors of Environment in the Area of Nižná Slaná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Fedorová

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The area of Nižná Nižná, in whiche only one iron-ore mining plant is operating in Slovakia, namely Siderit, Ltd., is well-known by its mining activities from long-ago. In the past a main interest was focused on gold, copper, mercury and from the beginning of the 20th century also on iron. Thus, thermal technologies are applied in the production of Fe-concentrates and finally of blast furnace pellets, which are suitable for metallurgical processing. An operation of such technologies is often connected with the pollution of air and through this factor also in the contamination of other components of environment. The emission situation is observed by suitable monitoring systems. But, as to immisions a little information is available during the last period. An improvement came from the cooperation between the Siderite plant and the Institute of Geotechnics SAV. The Institute carry out the observation of the immission load of selected environmental factors from the viewpoint of solid pollutants, dustiness, SO2, As a Hg. Recently, the dustfall is monitored on 17 sampling points in the surrounding of the plant. On the basis of obtained results of monitoring, it can be stated that the immission load gradually decreases during the last observed period.

  14. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  15. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites

  16. Effect of different economic support policies on the optimal synthesis and operation of a distributed energy supply system with renewable energy sources for an industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casisi, Melchiorre; De Nardi, Alberto; Pinamonti, Piero; Reini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP model optimization identifies best structure and operation of an energy system. • Total cost of the system is minimized according to industrial stakeholders wills. • Effects of the adoption of economic support policies on the system are evaluated. • Social cost of incentives is comparted with correspondent CO 2 emission reduction. • Support schemes that promote an actual environmental benefit are highlighted. - Abstract: Economic support policies are widely adopted in European countries in order to promote a more efficient energy usage and the growth of renewable energy technologies. On one hand these schemes allow us to reduce the overall pollutant emissions and the total cost from the point of view of the energy systems, but on the other hand their social impact in terms of economic investment needs to be evaluated. The aim of this paper is to compare the social cost of the application of each incentive with the correspondent CO 2 emission reduction and overall energy saving. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming optimization procedure is used to evaluate the effect of different economic support policies on the optimal configuration and operation of a distributed energy supply system of an industrial area located in the north-east of Italy. The minimized objective function is the total annual cost for owning, operating and maintaining the whole energy system. The expectation is that a proper mix of renewable energy technologies and cogeneration systems will be included in the optimal solution, depending on the amount and nature of the supporting policies, highlighting the incentives that promote a real environmental benefit

  17. Progress Toward Cleanup of Operable Unit 1 Groundwater at the US DOE Mound, Ohio, Site: Success of a Phase-Combined Remedy – 15310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, Gwendolyn [U.S. Department of Energy, Harrison, OH (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Cato, Rebecca [Stoller Newport News Nuclear Inc., Weldon Spring, MS (United States); Looney, Brian [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Huntsman, Brent [Terran Corporation, Beavercreek, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) soil and groundwater have been affected by volatile organic compounds (VOC) Present groundwater remedy is collection, treatment, and disposal (pump and treat [P&T]) Several combinations of technologies were used to address soil and groundwater contamination Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is a viable alternative Majority of source term has been excavated VOC concentrations in groundwater have decreased Attenuation mechanisms have been observed in the subsurface at OU-1

  18. The Customs Regulation of Export-Import Operations in the Context of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between Ukraine and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleh Ye.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the problems of reforming the customs regulation of export-import operations in the context of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between Ukraine and the EU. Both the goods and the territorial structures of Ukraine’s export-import activities with the EU Member States were analyzed. Trends in the cooperation of the foreign economic actors in the Lviv region with the EU counterparts were explored. The key activities carried out in Ukraine in the sphere of customs regulation in the context of implementation of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area between Ukraine and the EU have been outlined and characterized, in particular: administration of tariff quotas, issuance of certificates by the customs authorities for the transport of EUR 1 goods, granting of the status of authorized exporter to economic entities, launching of an automated system of customs services «One-stop window», transition to electronic declaration, etc. The results, problematic issues and benefits of implementing the above activities in the sphere of customs regulation of the export-import activities of enterprises have been characterized.

  19. Interference from the Deep Space Network's 70-m High Power Transmitter in Goldstone, CA to 3G Mobile Users Operating in the Surrounding Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has allocated 2110-2200 MHz for the third generation (3G) mobile services. Part of the spectrum (2110-2120 MHz) is allocated for space research service and has been used by the DSN for years for sending command uplinks to deep space missions. Due to the extremely high power transmitted, potential interference to 3G users in areas surrounding DSN Goldstone exists. To address this issue, a preliminary analytical study has been performed and computer models have been developed. The goal is to provide theoretical foundation and tools to estimate the strength of interference as a function of distance from the transmitter for various interference mechanisms, (or propagation modes), and then determine the size of the area in which 3G users are susceptible to interference from the 400-kW transmitter in Goldstone. The focus is non-line-of-sight interference, taking into account of terrain shielding, anomalous propagation mechanisms, and technical and operational characteristics of the DSN and the 3G services.

  20. Serum estradiol does not differentiate stress, mixed and urge incontinent women around menopause. A report from the Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Maria Andrada; Källén, Karin; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Teleman, Pia

    2011-11-01

    To outline serum estradiol levels in perimenopausal women with stress, mixed or urge incontinence. We believe the majority of urgency symptoms in perimenopausal women to be caused by a pelvic floor dysfunction and a hypermobility of the bladder neck. If this is the case, there would be no difference in estradiol levels between the groups. University hospital. In the observational Women's Health in the Lund Area study, a subset of 400/2221 women reporting urinary incontinence completed a detailed questionnaire regarding lower urinary tract symptoms and had their serum steroid hormone levels measured. Statistical analyses were made by Chi-square test, nonparametrical tests, ANOVA, multi- and univariate logistic regression analysis. Stress incontinence was reported by 196, mixed incontinence by 153 and urge incontinence by 43 women; in 369, serumestradiol values were available. Serum estradiol did not differ significantly between stress incontinent (median 49.5 pmo/l, range 2.63-875.4), urge incontinent (median 31.6 pmol/l, range 2.63-460.7) or mixed incontinent women (median 35.5 pmol/l, range 2.63-787.9, p=0.62). Logistic regression analysis correcting for age, parity, hormonal status, smoking, hysterectomy and BMI also failed to show any difference in estradiol levels between the groups (p=0.41-0.58). No significant differences in serum estradiol levels between stress, mixed or urge incontinent perimenopausal women could be demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Does Council Tax Valuation Band (CTVB correlate with Under-Privileged Area 8 (UPA8 score and could it be a better 'Jarman Index'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Gordon

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread scepticism persists on the use of the Under-Privileged Area (UPA8 score of Jarman in distributing supplementary resources to so-attributed 'deprived' UK general practices. The search for better 'needs' markers continues. Having already shown that Council Tax Valuation Band (CTVB is a predictor of UK GP workload, we compare, here, CTVB of residence of a random sample of patients with their respective 'Jarman' scores. Methods Correlation coefficient is calculated between (i the CTVB of residence of a randomised sample of patients from an English general practice and (ii the UPA8 scores of the relevant enumeration districts in which they live. Results There is a highly significant correlation between the two measures despite modest study size of 478 patients (85% response. Conclusions The proposal that CTVB is a marker of deprivation and of clinical demand should be examined in more detail: it correlates with 'Jarman', which is already used in NHS resource allocation. But unlike 'Jarman', CTVB is simple, objective, and free of the problems of Census data. CTVB, being household-based, can be aggregated at will.

  2. Does a 4 diagram manual enable laypersons to operate the laryngeal mask supreme®? A pilot study in the manikin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schälte Gereon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bystander resuscitation plays an important role in lifesaving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. A significant reduction in the "no-flow-time", quantitatively better chest compressions and an improved quality of ventilation can be demonstrated during CPR using supraglottic airway devices (SADs. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of inexperienced persons to operate SADs after brief instruction. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether an instruction manual consisting of four diagrams enables laypersons to operate a Laryngeal Mask Supreme® (LMAS in the manikin. Methods An instruction manual of four illustrations with speech bubbles displaying the correct use of the LMAS was designed. Laypersons were handed a bag containing a LMAS, a bag mask valve device (BMV, a syringe prefilled with air and the instruction sheet, and were asked to perform and ventilate the manikin as displayed. Time to ventilation was recorded and degree of success evaluated. Results A total of 150 laypersons took part. Overall 145 participants (96.7% inserted the LMAS in the manikin in the right direction. The device was inserted inverted or twisted in 13 (8.7% attempts. Eight (5.3% individuals recognized this and corrected the position. Within the first 2 minutes 119 (79.3% applicants were able to insert the LMAS and provide tidal volumes greater than 150 ml (estimated dead space. Time to insertion and first ventilation was 83.2 ± 29 s. No significant difference related to previous BLS training (P = 0.85, technical education (P = 0.07 or gender could be demonstrated (P = 0.25. Conclusion In manikin laypersons could insert LMAS in the correct direction after onsite instruction by a simple manual with a high success rate. This indicates some basic procedural understanding and intellectual transfer in principle. Operating errors (n = 91 were frequently not recognized and corrected (n = 77. Improvements in labeling and the quality of

  3. Does rating the operation videos with a checklist score improve the effect of E-learning for bariatric surgical training? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Javier Rodrigo; Kowalewski, Karl-Friedrich; Friedrich, Mirco; Schmidt, Mona Wanda; Bruckner, Thomas; Kenngott, Hannes Götz; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat-Peter; Nickel, Felix

    2017-03-21

    Laparoscopic training has become an important part of surgical education. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric procedure performed. Surgeons must be well trained prior to operating on a patient. Multimodality training is vital for bariatric surgery. E-learning with videos is a standard approach for training. The present study investigates whether scoring the operation videos with performance checklists improves learning effects and transfer to a simulated operation. This is a monocentric, two-arm, randomized controlled trial. The trainees are medical students from the University of Heidelberg in their clinical years with no prior laparoscopic experience. After a laparoscopic basic virtual reality (VR) training, 80 students are randomized into one of two arms in a 1:1 ratio to the checklist group (group A) and control group without a checklist (group B). After all students are given an introduction of the training center, VR trainer and laparoscopic instruments, they start with E-learning while watching explanations and videos of RYGB. Only group A will perform ratings with a modified Bariatric Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (BOSATS) scale checklist for all videos watched. Group B watches the same videos without rating. Both groups will then perform an RYGB in the VR trainer as a primary endpoint and small bowel suturing as an additional test in the box trainer for evaluation. This study aims to assess if E-learning and rating bariatric surgical videos with a modified BOSATS checklist will improve the learning curve for medical students in an RYGB VR performance. This study may help in future laparoscopic and bariatric training courses. German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00010493 . Registered on 20 May 2016.

  4. Does damming of the Colorado River affect the nursery area of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Decapoda: Penaeidae in the Upper Gulf of California?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Alberto Aragón-Noriega

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available After damming the Colorado River the freshwater flow was reduced to 1 % of its virgin flow to the Upper Gulf of California (UGC. The ecological effects need to be properly documented. The UGC is the nursery area for Litopenaeus stylirostris, the most profitable fishery in the zone. In order to know the relative abundance of L. stylirostris postlarval stage we conducted a sampled survey every 14 days in 1993, 1994 and 1997, plus an intensive sampling during a complete tide cycle in July 1995 and 1996. We did 10 min trawls each hour during the flood tide. Relative abundance of postlarvae was higher (pEl represamiento del Río Colorado ha ocasionado que el flujo de agua dulce sobre el Alto Golfo de California (AGC se haya reducido hasta el 1 % del flujo original. Se ha documentado el efecto de la reducción de agua dulce sobre las condiciones hidrográficas del AGC, pero las repercusiones ecológicas no se han descrito apropiadamente. El AGC ha sido área de crianza para especies comerciales como el camarón Litopenaeus stylirostris. Se hicieron recolectas de postlarvas de L. stylirostris en el AGC durante cinco años consecutivos. Los muestreos fueron catorcenalmente en los años de 1993, 1994 y 1997 y se realizó una recolecta diaria durante 15 días consecutivos en los años 1995 y 1996. Para ello se arrastró una red de plancton de 505 µ durante 10 min cada hora durante el flujo de marea. La abundancia relativa de las postlarvas de camarón en esta zona viaria considerablemente en años cuando el flujo de agua dulce incrementa. La abundancia es mayor hasta en un 200 % (p < 0.05 cuando existe descarga de agua dulce al AGC.

  5. Cavitation vulnerability in roots and shoots: does Populus euphratica Oliv., a poplar from arid areas of Central Asia, differ from other poplar species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukin, D; Cochard, H; Dreyer, E; Le Thiec, D; Bogeat-Triboulot, M B

    2005-08-01

    Populus euphratica is a poplar species growing in arid regions of Central Asia, where its distribution remains nevertheless restricted to river-banks or to areas with an access to deep water tables. To test whether the hydraulic architecture of this species differs from that of other poplars with respect to this ecological distribution, the vulnerability to cavitation of P. euphratica was compared with that of P. alba and of P. trichocarpa x koreana. The occurrence of a potential hydraulic segmentation through cavitation was also investigated by assessing the vulnerability of roots, stems, and leaf mid-rib veins. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was used to assess the level of embolism in fine roots and leaf mid-ribs and a low pressure flowmeter (LPFM) was used for stems and main roots. The cryo-SEM technique was validated against LPFM measurements on paired samples. In P. alba and P. trichocarpa x koreana, leaf mid-ribs were more vulnerable to cavitation than stems and roots. In P. euphratica, leaf mid-ribs and stems were equally vulnerable and, contrary to what has been observed in other species, roots were significantly less vulnerable than shoots. P. euphratica was by far the most vulnerable. The water potential inducing 50% loss of conductivity in stems was close to -0.7 MPa, against approximately -1.45 MPa for the two others species. Such a large vulnerability was confirmed by recording losses of conductivity during a gradual drought. Moreover, significant stem embolism was recorded before stomatal closure, indicating the lack of an efficient safety margin for hydraulic functions in this species. Embolism was not reversed by rewatering. These observations are discussed with respect to the ecology of P. euphratica.

  6. Application of the DOE Nuclear Safety Policy goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Hey, B.E.; Leach, D.S.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1992-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) issued their Nuclear Safety Policy for implementation on September 9, 1991. The statement noted that it was the DOE's policy that the general public should be protected such that no individual would bear significant additional risk to health and safety from operation of their nuclear facilities above the risks to which members of the general population were normally exposed. The intent is that from the nuclear safety policy will follow specific safety rules, orders, standards and other requirements. The DOE Nuclear Safety Policy provides general statements in the areas of management involvement and accountability, providing technically competent personnel, oversight and self-assessment, promoting a safety culture, and quantitative safety goals as aiming points for performance. In general, most DOE Management and Operating Contractors should have programs in place which address the general statements noted above. Thus, compliance with the general statements of the DOE Nuclear Safety Policy should present no significant difficulty. Consequently, the focus of this paper will be the two quantitative safety goals reproduced below from the DOE Nuclear Safety Policy. ''The risk to an average individual in the vicinity of a DOE facility for prompt fatalities that might result from accidents should not exceed one tenth of one percent (0.1 %) of the sum of prompt fatalities resulting from other accidents to which members of the population are generally exposed. For evaluation purposes, individuals are assumed to be located within one mile of the site boundary.'' ''The risk to the population in the area of a DOE nuclear facility for cancer fatalities that might result from operations should not exceed one tenth of one percent (0.1 %) of the sum of all cancer fatality risks resulting from all other causes. For evaluation purposes, individuals are assumed to be located within 10 miles of the site boundary.''

  7. Does the adhesive strategy influence the post-operative sensitivity in adult patients with posterior resin composite restorations?: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Alessandra; Dourado Loguercio, Alessandro; Schroeder, Marcos; Luque-Martinez, Issis; Masterson, Danielle; Cople Maia, Lucianne

    2015-09-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on the risk and intensity of postoperative sensitivity (POS) in posterior resin composite restorations bonded with self-etch (SE) and etch-and-rinse (ER) adhesives. A comprehensive search was performed in the MEDLINE via PubMeb, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS, BBO and Cochrane Library and SIGLE without restrictions. The abstracts of the annual conference of the IADR (1990-2014), unpublished and ongoing trials registry were also searched. Dissertations and theses were searched using the ProQuest Dissertations and Periodicos Capes Theses databases. We included randomized clinical trials that compared the clinical effectiveness of SE and ER used for direct resin composite restorations in permanent dentition of adult patients. The risk/intensity of POS was the primary outcome. The risk of bias tool of the Cochrane Collaboration was used. The meta-analysis was performed on the studies considered 'low' risk of bias. After duplicates removal, 2600 articles were identified but only 29 remained in the qualitative synthesis. Five were considered to be 'high' risk of bias and eleven were considered to be 'unclear' in the key domains, yielding 13 studies for meta-analysis. The overall relative risk of the spontaneous POS was 0.63 (95% CI 0.35 to 1.15), while the stimuli-induced POS was 0.99 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.56). The overall standardized mean difference was 0.08 (95%CI -0.19 to 0.35). No overall effect was revealed in the meta-analyses, meaning that no influence of the ER or SE strategy on POS. The type of adhesive strategy (ER or SE) for posterior resin composite restorations does not influence the risk and intensity of POS. CRD42014006617. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does Artificial Ascites Induce the Heat-Sink Phenomenon during Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of the Hepatic Subcapsular Area?: an in vivo Experimental Study Using a Rabbit Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Choi, Dong Il; Lim, Hyo K.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the heat-sink phenomenon induced by artificial ascites on the size of the ablation zone during percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area in an in vivo rabbit model. A total of 21 percutaneous rabbit liver RF ablations were performed with and without artificial ascites (5% dextrose aqueous solution). The rabbits were divided into three groups: a) control group (C, n = 7); b) room temperature ascites group (R, n = 7); and c) warmed ascites group (W, n = 7). The tip of a 1 cm, internally cooled electrode was placed on the subcapsular region of the hepatic dome via ultrasound guidance, and ablation was continued for 6 min. Changes in temperature of the ascites were monitored during the ablation. The size of the ablation zones of the excised livers and immediate complications rates were compared statistically between the groups (Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, linear-by-linear association, p = 0.05). One rabbit from the 'W' group expired during the procedure. In all groups, the ascites temperatures approached their respective body temperatures as the ablations continued; however, a significant difference in ascites temperature was found between groups 'W' and 'R' throughout the procedures (39.2± 0.4 .deg. C in group W and 33.4±4.3 .deg. C in group R at 6 min, p = 0.003). No significant difference was found between the size of the ablation zones (782.4±237.3 mL in group C, 1,172.0±468.9 mL in group R, and 1,030.6±665.1 mL in group W, p = 0.170) for the excised liver specimens. Diaphragmatic injury was identified in three of seven cases (42.9%) upon visual inspection of group 'C' rabbits (p = 0.030). Artificial ascites are not likely to cause a significant heat-sink phenomenon in the percutaneous RF ablation of the hepatic subcapsular region

  9. Does artificial ascites induce the heat-sink phenomenon during percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area?: an in vivo experimental study using a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the heat-sink phenomenon induced by artificial ascites on the size of the ablation zone during percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area in an in vivo rabbit model. A total of 21 percutaneous rabbit liver RF ablations were performed with and without artificial ascites (5% dextrose aqueous solution). The rabbits were divided into three groups: a) control group (C, n = 7); b) room temperature ascites group (R, n = 7); and c) warmed ascites group (W, n = 7). The tip of a 1 cm, internally cooled electrode was placed on the subcapsular region of the hepatic dome via ultrasound guidance, and ablation was continued for 6 min. Changes in temperature of the ascites were monitored during the ablation. The size of the ablation zones of the excised livers and immediate complications rates were compared statistically between the groups (Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, linear-by-linear association, p = 0.05). One rabbit from the "W" group expired during the procedure. In all groups, the ascites temperatures approached their respective body temperatures as the ablations continued; however, a significant difference in ascites temperature was found between groups "W" and "R" throughout the procedures (39.2+/-0.4 degrees C in group W and 33.4+/-4.3 degrees C in group R at 6 min, p = 0.003). No significant difference was found between the size of the ablation zones (782.4+/-237.3 mL in group C, 1,172.0+/-468.9 mL in group R, and 1,030.6+/-665.1 mL in group W, p = 0.170) for the excised liver specimens. Diaphragmatic injury was identified in three of seven cases (42.9%) upon visual inspection of group "C" rabbits (p = 0.030). Artificial ascites are not likely to cause a significant heat-sink phenomenon in the percutaneous RF ablation of the hepatic subcapsular region.

  10. Decision 99-8 : Shell Canada Limited application to construct and operate an oil sands bitumen upgrader in the Fort Saskatchewan area : Shell Canada Products Limited application to amend refinery approval in the Fort Saskatchewan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board considered an application by Shell Canada Limited to construct and operate an oil sands bitumen upgrader on Shell's property adjoining the existing Scotford refinery in the County of Strathcona. The upgrader would process bitumen from Shell's proposed Muskeg River Mine, located 70 km north of Fort McMurray, and other feedstocks available in the area. The Board also considered an application for an amendment to the existing Scotford refinery approval, Industrial Development Permit 89-10, for the processing of 3.75 million cubic metres per year of sour conversion feedstock. Under a coordinated application process, Shell filed a joint Shell Scotford Upgrader application/Environmental Impact Assessment. Issues considered with respect to these applications were: technology selection, air/health, sulphur recovery, noise/traffic, and land use conflict. Shell stated that its Scotford refinery is the most energy efficient refinery in the Americas and that is has the highest liquid yield per unit volume of crude oil feedstock of any refinery in the world. The refinery's hydrocracking capacity would make it possible to use hydro-conversion technology for its upgrader which is environmentally advantageous. After examining all of the evidence pertaining to the applications, the Board found the projects to be in the public interest and is prepared to approve the Scotford Upgrader and Scotford Refinery modifications assuming that certain prescribed conditions are met

  11. Addendum to: Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, DOE/NV-977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The environmental remediation closure process for the nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) has progressed from the approved Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) to this addendum. The closure process required the installation of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells and validation analysis of the flow and transport model. The model validation analysis led to the conclusion that the hydraulic heads simulated by the flow model did not adequately predict observed heads at the MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3 validation points (wells and piezometers). The observed heads from screened intervals near the test horizon were higher than the model predicted and are believed to be the result of detonation-related effects that have persisted since the nuclear test. These effects, which include elevated heads out from the detonation zone and lower heads in the immediate vicinity of the detonation, are seen at other nuclear tests and typically dissipate within a few years. These effects were not included in the initial head distribution of the model. The head variations at CNTA are believed to have persisted due to the very low permeability of the material at the detonation level.

  12. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  13. Does post-operative knee awareness differ between knees in bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty? Predictors of high or low knee awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine Abildgaard; Thomsen, Morten Grove; Latifi, Roshan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the difference in post-operative knee awareness between knees in patients undergoing bilateral simultaneous total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to assess factors predicting high or low knee awareness. METHODS: This study was conducted on 99 bilateral simultaneous TKAs performed...... at our institution from 2008 to 2012. All patients received one set of questionnaires [Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) and Oxford Knee Score (OKS)] for each knee. Based on the FJS, the patients' knees were divided into two groups: "best" and "worst" knees. The median of the absolute difference in FJS and OKS...... within each patient was calculated. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify factors affecting FJS. RESULTS: The difference between knees was 1 point (CI 0-5) for the FJS and 1 point (CI 0-2) for the OKS. The FJS for females increased (decreasing awareness) with increasing age. Males had...

  14. Does One Need a 4.5 K Screen in Cryostats of Superconducting Accelerator Devices Operating in Superfluid Helium? Lessons from the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, Ph; Tavian, L

    2014-01-01

    Superfluid helium is increasingly used as a coolant for superconducting devices in particle accelerators: the lower temperature enhances the performance of superconductors in high-field magnets and reduces BCS losses in RF acceleration cavities, while the excellent transport properties of superfluid helium can be put to work in efficient distributed cooling systems. The thermodynamic penalty of operating at lower temperature however requires careful management of the heat loads, achieved inter alia through proper design and construction of the cryostats. A recurrent question appears to be that of the need and practical feasibility of an additional screen cooled by normal helium at around 4.5 K surrounding the cold mass at about 2 K, in such cryostats equipped with a standard 80 K screen. We introduce the issue in terms of first principles applied to the configuration of the cryostats, discuss technical constraints and economical limitations, and illustrate the argumentation with examples taken from large proj...

  15. Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement combined with left subclavian artery 'chimney operation': therapeutic analysis of 15 cases with insufficient proximal anchor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiayi; Huang Lianjun; Fan Zhanming; Zhang Zhaoqi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the strategies for the management of insufficient proximal anchoring area during the performance of transluminal stent-graft placement (TSGP), and to evaluate the feasibility of intentional coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSA) together with left subclavian artery stent-graft placement by using 'chimney operation' technique. Methods: A total of 15 patients with thoracic aortic diseases complicated by insufficient proximal anchoring area, who were encountered in authors' hospital during the period from Dec. 2009 to April 2011, were enrolled in this study. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The thoracic aortic diseases included aortic dissection (n=6), aortic pseudoaneurysm (n=1), aortic aneurysm (n=4) and penetrating ulcer (n=4). Of the 15 patients, the distance between the lesion and LSA anchoring site 15 mm in 2. TSGP was carried out. The ostium of LSA was intentionally and completely covered by thoracic aortic stent-graft and left subclavian artery stent-graft placement was subsequently performed. The patients were kept under observation for symptoms of cerebral and upper limb ischemia. The postoperative complications such as endoleak and the patency of LSA were assessed with angiography. Results: Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement was successfully carried out in all 15 patients. In addition, one 'chimney' stent was properly implanted in LSA in each patient. After the procedure, no complications of nervous system or severe ischemia of upper extremity occurred. Follow-up examinations performed between 5 days to 3 months after the treatment revealed that the aortic stent-graft remained in stable condition and no type Ⅰ endoleak occurred, meanwhile the blood flow in 'chimney' stent was unobstructed. Conclusion: Intentional LSA coverage with 'chimney operation' can expand the applicability of TSGP with high tolerability. It is especially useful for patients with left vertebral artery blood supply dominance or with

  16. Early planning and transition management from operation into decommissioning - Vision of future work in the area of human and organisational factors based on experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P.; Gil, B.; Lekberg, A.; Hansson, B.; Frischknecht, A.; Pyy, Pekka; )

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Decommissioning commercial nuclear power plants with their employees and stakeholders leads to a range of safety management, socio-technical and societal challenges. These aspects need to be taken into account in order to assure smooth end-of -operation and decommissioning. The focus of this paper is especially in the planning and transition period into decommissioning. The areas found as critical as a conclusion of the workshop organised by Committee on Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) in 1999 are used as the starting point of the evaluation. The topic is discussed based on experiences from mainly two countries with different cultural and regulatory frameworks: Spain and Sweden. The discussion is completed by information about the accomplishments of Special Expert Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF) in the area. The area of treating human and organisational factors in planning and transition is broken down into five sub-areas. Each topic ends up with a view of the situation and visions for future, of which the most important are elaborated more in the concluding remarks. Decommissioning commercial nuclear power plants leads to a broad range of safety management, socio-technical and societal challenges. Organisational aspects are fundamental to any successful decommissioning process. Organisations must provide support for the management of change and must assure that resource and competence needs are appropriately specified, that uncertainty of personnel is minimised and staff morale is maintained. Furthermore, many new technical challenges must be met. The organisations too often have to address all these challenges with little guidance or experience, with reduced resources and surrounded by societal pressures. During the planning and transition into decommissioning, an organisation needs to determine and implement a range of organisational processes: management of change, work planning and management, safety management, and

  17. DOE groundwater protection strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtman, S.

    1988-01-01

    EH is developing a DOE-wide Groundwater Quality Protection Strategy to express DOE's commitment to the protection of groundwater quality at or near its facilities. This strategy responds to a September 1986 recommendation of the General Accounting Office. It builds on EPA's August 1984 Ground-Water Protection Strategy, which establishes a classification system designed to protect groundwater according to its value and vulnerability. The purposes of DOE's strategy are to highlight groundwater protection as part of current DOE programs and future Departmental planning, to guide DOE managers in developing site-specific groundwater protection practices where DOE has discretion, and to guide DOE's approach to negotiations with EPA/states where regulatory processes apply to groundwater protection at Departmental facilities. The strategy calls for the prevention of groundwater contamination and the cleanup of groundwater commensurate with its usefulness. It would require long-term groundwater protection with reliance on physical rather than institutional control methods. The strategy provides guidance on providing long-term protection of groundwater resources; standards for new remedial actions;guidance on establishing points of compliance; requirements for establishing classification review area; and general guidance on obtaining variances, where applicable, from regulatory requirements. It also outlines management tools to implement this strategy

  18. Hymenoptera of Afghanistan and the central command area of operations: assessing the threat to deployed U.S. service members with insect venom hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbyville, Joseph C; Dunford, James C; Nelson, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Insect venom hypersensitivity can pose a threat to personnel deployed to a combat zone but the exposure risk in Afghanistan is currently unknown. This study was designed to assess the threat of Hymenoptera stings and associated allergic reactions in Afghanistan. Hymenoptera species were collected during a deployment to southern Afghanistan from June 2010 through January 2011. The literature was also reviewed to determine species of medically important Hymenoptera recorded in the region. The U.S. Army theater electronic medical data system was mined for ICD-9 codes associated with insect stings to determine the number of theater medical clinic encounters addressing insect sting reactions. Three species of flying hymenoptera were commonly encountered during the study period: Vespa orientalis L., Polistes wattii Cameron, and Vespula germanica (F.). A literature review also confirms the presence of honeybees (Apidae), numerous velvet ant (Mutillidae) species, and various ant (Formicidae) species all capable of stinging. No evidence was identified to suggest that fire ants (Solenopsis ssp.) are a threat in the region. Based on electronic medical records from the U.S. Central Command area of operations over a 2-year period, roughly 1 in 500 clinic visits involved a patient with a diagnosis of insect bite or sting. Cross-reactive members of all five flying Hymenoptera species commonly assessed for in Hymenoptera allergy evaluations are present in Afghanistan. The review of in-theater medical records confirms that insect stings pose an environmental threat to deployed service members.

  19. Development of a Large Area Advanced Fast RICH Detector for Particle Identification at the Large Hadron Collider Operated with Heavy Ions

    CERN Multimedia

    Piuz, F; Braem, A; Van beelen, J B; Lion, G; Gandi, A

    2002-01-01

    %RD26 %title\\\\ \\\\During the past two years, RD26 groups have focused their activities on the production of CsI-RICH prototypes of large area, up to a square meter, to demonstrate their application in High Energy experiments. Many large CsI-photocathodes (up to 40) were produced following the processing techniques furthermore developped in the collaboration. Taking the Quantum Efficiency (QE) measured at 180 nm as a comparative figure of merit of a CsI-PC. Figure 1 shows the increase of the performance while improvements were successively implemented in the PC processing sequence. Most efficient were the use of substrates made of nickel, the heat treatment and handling of the PCs under inert gas. Actually, three large systems based on CsI-RICH have got approval in the following HEP experiments: HADES at GSI, COMPASS/NA58 at CERN and HMPID/ALICE at LHC implying up to 14 square metres of CsI-PC. In addition, several CsI-RICH detectors have been successfully operated in the Threshold Imaging Detector at NA44 and ...

  20. Does Post-operative Psychotherapy Contribute to Improved Comorbidities in Bariatric Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder Traits and Bulimia Tendencies? A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallé, Francesca; Maida, Pietro; Cirella, Assunta; Giuliano, Elena; Belfiore, Patrizia; Liguori, Giorgio

    2017-07-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and eating disorders may affect the outcomes of bariatric surgery. This study was aimed to evaluate the influence of a post-operative dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) intervention on weight loss and comorbidities in a sample of comorbid obese Italian patients with BPD traits and bulimia tendencies who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). One hundred fifty-four LRYGB or LAGB patients showing BPD and bulimia traits and type II diabetes, hypertension, and/or sleep apnea (OSAS) voluntarily adhered to DBT (n = 72) or treatment as usual (n = 82) for 12 months after surgery. Total weight loss (%TWL) and remission/improvement of comorbidities were considered as outcomes. Differences between treatment groups and between LRYGB and LAGB subgroups were evaluated through Student's t test for TWL and chi-square test for comorbidities. DBT was more effective than treatment as usual (TAU) in reducing weight loss (p bulimia tendencies. Further in-depth investigations and a longer follow-up are needed to strengthen these results.

  1. Does one need a 4.5 K screen in cryostats of superconducting accelerator devices operating in superfluid helium? lessons from the LHL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Philippe; Parma, Vittorio; Tavian, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Superfluid helium is increasingly used as a coolant for superconducting devices in particle accelerators: the lower temperature enhances the performance of superconductors in high-field magnets and reduces BCS losses in RF acceleration cavities, while the excellent transport properties of superfluid helium can be put to work in efficient distributed cooling systems. The thermodynamic penalty of operating at lower temperature however requires careful management of the heat loads, achieved inter alia through proper design and construction of the cryostats. A recurrent question appears to be that of the need and practical feasibility of an additional screen cooled by normal helium at around 4.5 K surrounding the cold mass at about 2 K, in such cryostats equipped with a standard 80 K screen. We introduce the issue in terms of first principles applied to the configuration of the cryostats, discuss technical constraints and economical limitations, and illustrate the argumentation with examples taken from large projects confronted with this issue, i.e. CEBAF, SPL, ESS, LHC, TESLA, European X-FEL, ILC.

  2. Lessons from Iowa : development of a 270 megawatt compressed air energy storage project in midwest Independent System Operator : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst, Kent (Iowa Stored Energy Plant Agency, Traer, IA); Huff, Georgianne; Schulte, Robert H. (Schulte Associates LLC, Northfield, MN); Critelli, Nicholas (Critelli Law Office PC, Des Moines, IA)

    2012-01-01

    The Iowa Stored Energy Park was an innovative, 270 Megawatt, $400 million compressed air energy storage (CAES) project proposed for in-service near Des Moines, Iowa, in 2015. After eight years in development the project was terminated because of site geological limitations. However, much was learned in the development process regarding what it takes to do a utility-scale, bulk energy storage facility and coordinate it with regional renewable wind energy resources in an Independent System Operator (ISO) marketplace. Lessons include the costs and long-term economics of a CAES facility compared to conventional natural gas-fired generation alternatives; market, legislative, and contract issues related to enabling energy storage in an ISO market; the importance of due diligence in project management; and community relations and marketing for siting of large energy projects. Although many of the lessons relate to CAES applications in particular, most of the lessons learned are independent of site location or geology, or even the particular energy storage technology involved.

  3. The impact of respiratory motion and active breathing control on the displacement of target area in patients with gastric cancer treated with post-operative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaoli; Zhang Zhen; Gu Weilie; Hu Weigang; Zhu Ji; Cai Gang; Li Guichao; He Shaoqin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of respiratory motion on the displacement of target area and to analyze the discrimination between free breathing and active breathing control (ABC) in patients with gastric cancer treated with post-operative radiotherapy. Methods: From January 2005 to November 2006, 22 patients with post-operatively confirmed gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. All diseases were T 3 / N +, staging II - IV. Patients were CT scanned and treated by radiation with the use of ABC. Image J software was used in image processing, motion measurement and data analysis. Surgical clips were implanted as fiducial marks in the tumor bed and lymphatic drainage area. The motion range of each clip was measured in the resultant-projection image. Motions of the clips in superior-inferior (S-I), right-left (R-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) directions were determined from fluoroscopy movies obtained in the treatment position. Results: The motion ranges in S-I, R-L and A-P directions were 11.1 mam, 1.9 mm and 2.5 mm (F = 85.15, P = 0. 000) under free breathing, with 2.2 mm, 1.1 mm and 1.7 nun under ABC (F = 17.64, P = 0. 000), and the reduction of motion ranges was significant in both S-I and A-P directions (t = 4.36, P = 0. 000;t = 3.73,P = 0.000). When compared with under free-breathing, the motion ranges under ABC were kept unchanged in the same breathing phase of the same treatment fraction, while significant increased in different breathing phase in all three directions (t = - 4.36, P = 0. 000; t = - 3.52, P = 0.000; t =-3.79, P = 0. 000), with a numerical value of 3.7 mm, 1.6 mm and 2.8 mm, respectively (F = 19.46, P = 0. 000) . With ABC between different treatment fractions , the maximum displacements were 2.7 mm, 1.7 mm and 2.5 mm for the centre of the clip cluster (F =4.07,P =0. 019), and were 4.6 mm, 3.1 mm and 4.2 mm for the clips (F =5.17 ,P =0.007). The motion ranges were significant increased in all the three directions (t = - 4.09, P=0.000 ; t =-4

  4. Linac-based isocentric electron-photon treatment of radically operated breast carcinoma with enhanced dose uniformity in the field gap area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhunen, Mikko; Nyman, Heidi; Strengell, Satu; Vaalavirta, Leila

    2009-10-01

    Isocentric treatment technique is a standard method in photon radiotherapy with the primary advantage of requiring only a single patient set-up procedure for multiple fields. However, in electron treatments the size of the standard applicators does not generally allow to use an isocentric treatment technique. In this work we have modified and dosimetrically tested electron applicators for isocentric treatments in combination with photons. An isocentric treatment technique with photons and electrons for postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) has been developed with special emphasis on improving the dose uniformity in the field gap area. Standard electron applicators of two Varian Clinac 2100CD linear accelerators were shortened by 10cm allowing isocentric treatments of 90cmelectron fields. Shortened applicators were commissioned and configured for the electron calculation algorithm of the treatment planning system. The field arrangement of PMRT was modified by combining three photon field segments with different gaps and overlaps with the electron field to improve dose uniformity. The developed technique and two other methods for PMRT were compared with each other in the group of 20 patients. Depth dose characteristics of the shortened applicators remained unchanged from those of the standard applicators. Penumbrae were broadened by 0-3mm depending on electron energy and depth as the air gap was increased from 5cm (standard applicator at SSD=100cm) to 10cm (shortened applicator at SSD=95cm). The dose calculation performance of the modified applicators at 95cmelectron dose calculation algorithm of the treatment planning system (Varian Eclipse). The modified isocentric treatment technique for PMRT was superior than the traditional two-dimensional technique. However, with the tangential photon fields without electrons the even better dose uniformity within PTV could be achieved but with increased irradiation of healthy tissues (lung, heart, and contralateral breast

  5. National synchrotron light source guidelines for the conduct of operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, M.

    1998-01-01

    To improve the quality and uniformity of operations at the Department of Energy's facilities, the DOE issued Order 5480.19 ''Conduct of Operations Requirements at DOE facilities.'' This order recognizes that the success of a facility's mission critically depends upon a high level of performance by its personnel and equipment. This performance can be severely impaired if the facility's Conduct of Operations pays inadequate attention to issues of organization, safety, health, and the environment. These guidelines are Brookhaven National Laboratory's and the National Synchrotron Light Source's acknowledgement of the principles of Conduct of Operations and the response to DOE Order 5480.19. These guidelines cover the following areas: (1) operations organization and administration; (2) shift routines and operating practices; (3) control area activities; (4) communications; (5) control of on-shift training; (6) investigation of abnormal events; (7) notifications; (8) control of equipment and system studies; (9) lockouts and tagouts; (10) independent verification; (11) log-keeping; (12) operations turnover; (13) operations aspects of facility process control (14) required reading; (15) timely orders to operators; (16) operations procedures; (17) operator aid posting; and (18) equipment sizing and labeling

  6. DOE/RL Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Annual Compliance Certification Report for the Period July 2 2001 through December 31 2001 [SEC 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREEN, W.E.

    2002-05-22

    The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit (AOP), Number 00-05-006, became effective on July 2, 2001. The AOP, Section 4.3.4, ''Annual Compliance Certification'', requires submittal of an annual compliance certification report no later than 12 months following the effective date of the permit. This report is to be certified for truth, accuracy, and completeness by a Responsible Official. This first annual compliance certification report contains information for the period from July 2, 2001 through December 31, 2001. Hereafter, the annual compliance certification report will contain information for the period from January 1 through December 31, as required by the AOP Section 4.3, ''Submittals''. Copies of the annual compliance certification reports are transmitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), the Benton Clean Air Authority (BCAA), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. For the applicable reporting period, Section 4.3.3, ''Annual Compliance Certification'', requires the following content for the annual compliance certification report: (1) The identification of each term or condition of the permit that is the basis of the certification; (2) The compliance status; (3) Whether compliance was continuous or intermittent; (4) The method(s) used to determine the compliance status of the source over the reporting period consistent with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173401 -61 5(3)(a); and (5) Such other facts as Ecology, WDOH, or BCAA might be required to determine the compliance status of the source. According to WAC 173-401-630(5), no certification is required for insignificant emission units. The specific terms and conditions for this annual compliance certification report consist of all emission point specific terms and conditions contained in the AOP Attachment 1 and Attachment 2 tables, plus Attachment 3 for

  7. DOE/RL Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Annual Compliance Certification Report for the Period July 2 2001 through December 31 2001 [SEC 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREEN, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit (AOP), Number 00-05-006, became effective on July 2, 2001. The AOP, Section 4.3.4, ''Annual Compliance Certification'', requires submittal of an annual compliance certification report no later than 12 months following the effective date of the permit. This report is to be certified for truth, accuracy, and completeness by a Responsible Official. This first annual compliance certification report contains information for the period from July 2, 2001 through December 31, 2001. Hereafter, the annual compliance certification report will contain information for the period from January 1 through December 31, as required by the AOP Section 4.3, ''Submittals''. Copies of the annual compliance certification reports are transmitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), the Benton Clean Air Authority (BCAA), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. For the applicable reporting period, Section 4.3.3, ''Annual Compliance Certification'', requires the following content for the annual compliance certification report: (1) The identification of each term or condition of the permit that is the basis of the certification; (2) The compliance status; (3) Whether compliance was continuous or intermittent; (4) The method(s) used to determine the compliance status of the source over the reporting period consistent with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173401 -61 5(3)(a); and (5) Such other facts as Ecology, WDOH, or BCAA might be required to determine the compliance status of the source. According to WAC 173-401-630(5), no certification is required for insignificant emission units. The specific terms and conditions for this annual compliance certification report consist of all emission point specific terms and conditions contained in the AOP Attachment 1 and Attachment 2 tables, plus Attachment 3 for asbestos and open burning

  8. Race and time from diagnosis to radical prostatectomy: does equal access mean equal timely access to the operating room?--Results from the SEARCH database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañez, Lionel L; Terris, Martha K; Aronson, William J; Presti, Joseph C; Kane, Christopher J; Amling, Christopher L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2009-04-01

    African American men with prostate cancer are at higher risk for cancer-specific death than Caucasian men. We determine whether significant delays in management contribute to this disparity. We hypothesize that in an equal-access health care system, time interval from diagnosis to treatment would not differ by race. We identified 1,532 African American and Caucasian men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) from 1988 to 2007 at one of four Veterans Affairs Medical Centers that comprise the Shared Equal-Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database with known biopsy date. We compared time from biopsy to RP between racial groups using linear regression adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. We analyzed risk of potential clinically relevant delays by determining odds of delays >90 and >180 days. Median time interval from diagnosis to RP was 76 and 68 days for African Americans and Caucasian men, respectively (P = 0.004). After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, race was not associated with the time interval between diagnosis and RP (P = 0.09). Furthermore, race was not associated with increased risk of delays >90 (P = 0.45) or >180 days (P = 0.31). In a cohort of men undergoing RP in an equal-access setting, there was no significant difference between racial groups with regard to time interval from diagnosis to RP. Thus, equal-access includes equal timely access to the operating room. Given our previous finding of poorer outcomes among African Americans, treatment delays do not seem to explain these observations. Our findings need to be confirmed in patients electing other treatment modalities and in other practice settings.

  9. Transhiatal and transthoracic resection in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus: Does the operative approach have an influence on the long-term prognosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kneist Werner

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of the present analysis was to investigate the long-term prognosis for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus treated with either the transhiatal (TH or the transthoracic (TT operative approach. Methods Between September 1985 and March 2004, esophageal resection due to carcinoma was performed on a total of 424 patients. This manuscript takes into account the 150 patients suffering from adenocarcinoma of the esophagus in whom a transhiatal resection of the esophagus was performed. In the event of transmural tumor growth and a justifiable risk of surgery, the transthoracic resection was selected. An extended mediastinal lymph node dissection, however, was only carried out in the course of the transthoracic approach. Results The transthoracic resection of the esophagus demonstrated a higher rate of general complications (p = 0.011 as well as a higher mortality rate (p = 0.011. The mediastinal dissection of the lymph nodes, however, revealed no prognostic influence. Considering all of the 150 patients with adenocarcinoma, as well as only those patients who had undergone curative resections (R0, the transhiatal approach was seen to demonstrate a better five-year survival rate of 32.1% versus 35.1%, with a median survival time of 24 versus 28 months, as compared with those who had undergone a transthoracic approach with a five-year survival rate of 13.6% (all patients versus 17.7% (R0 resection with a median survival time of 16 versus 17 months (p Conclusion The prognosis in patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is influenced by the depth of the tumor (pT and the pM-category, as shown in the multivariate analysis. The present analysis did not demonstrate a relevant difference in survival for patients with N0 and N1 stages undergoing transhiatal or transthoracic esophagectomy. It is questionable, if a more extensive mediastinal lymph node dissection, in addition to the clearance of abdominal lymph nodes, offers prognostic

  10. Nuclear energy: Environmental issues at DOE's nuclear defense facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    GAO's review of nine Department of Energy defense facilities identified a number of significant environmental issues: (1) eight facilities have groundwater contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous substances to high levels; (2) six facilities have soil contamination in unexpected areas, including offsite locations; (3) four facilities are not in full compliance with the Clean Water Act; and (4) all nine facilities are significantly changing their waste disposal practices to obtain a permit under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. GAO is recommending that DOE develop and overall groundwater and soil protection strategy that would provide a better perspective on the environmental risks and impacts associated with operating DOE's nuclear defense facilities. GAO also recommends that DOE allow outside independent inspections of the disposal practices used for any waste DOE self-regulates and revise its order governing the management of hazardous and mixed waste

  11. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  12. Does the individual adaption of standardized speech paradigmas for clinical functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) effect the localization of the language-dominant hemisphere and of Broca's and Wernicke's areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, F.; Nennig, E.; Kress, B.; Sartor, K.; Stippich, C.; Ochmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) localizes Broca's area (B) and Wernicke's area (W) and the hemisphere dominant for language. In clinical fMRI, adapting the stimulation paradigms to each patient's individual cognitive capacity is crucial for diagnostic success. To interpret clinical fMRI findings correctly, we studied the effect of varying frequency and number of stimuli on functional localization, determination of language dominance and BOLD signals. Materials and Methods: Ten volunteers (VP) were investigated at 1.5 Tesla during visually triggered sentence generation using a standardized block design. In four different measurements, the stimuli were presented to each VP with frequencies of (1/1)s, (1/2)s,(1/3)s and (1/6)s. Results: The functional localizations and the correlations of the measured BOLD signals to the applied hemodynamic reference function (r) were almost independent from frequency and number of the stimuli in both hemispheres, whereas the relative BOLD signal changes (ΔS) in B and W increased with the stimulation rate, which also changed the lateralization indices. The strongest BOLD activations were achieved with the highest stimulation rate or with the maximum language production task, respectively. Conclusion: The adaptation of language paradigms necessary in clinical fMRI does not alter the functional localizations but changes the BOLD signals and language lateralization which should not be attributed to the underlying brain pathology. (orig.)

  13. [Does the individual adaptation of standardized speech paradigmas for clinical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) effect the localization of the language-dominant hemisphere and of Broca's and Wernicke's areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, F; Nennig, E; Ochmann, H; Kress, B; Sartor, K; Stippich, C

    2005-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) localizes Broca's area (B) and Wernicke's area (W) and the hemisphere dominant for language. In clinical fMRI, adapting the stimulation paradigms to each patient's individual cognitive capacity is crucial for diagnostic success. To interpret clinical fMRI findings correctly, we studied the effect of varying frequency and number of stimuli on functional localization, determination of language dominance and BOLD signals. Ten volunteers (VP) were investigated at 1.5 Tesla during visually triggered sentence generation using a standardized block design. In four different measurements, the stimuli were presented to each VP with frequencies of 1/1 s, (1/2) s, (1/3) s and (1/6) s. The functional localizations and the correlations of the measured BOLD signals to the applied hemodynamic reference function (r) were almost independent from frequency and number of the stimuli in both hemispheres, whereas the relative BOLD signal changes (DeltaS) in B and W increased with the stimulation rate, which also changed the lateralization indices. The strongest BOLD activations were achieved with the highest stimulation rate or with the maximum language production task, respectively. The adaptation of language paradigms necessary in clinical fMRI does not alter the functional localizations but changes the BOLD signals and language lateralization which should not be attributed to the underlying brain pathology.

  14. First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovskii, A. Ya.; Zhizhaev, A. M.; Saprykin, A. I.; Degermendzhi, A. G.; Rubailo, A. I.

    2011-07-01

    This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences first revealed the multiple excess of 238U over the background content in different areas of the Yenisei River basin, such as the region of the Yenisei River near the effluents of the mining and chemical combine (MCC), and the territories of the Bol'shaya Tel' and Kan rivers. In these regions, the 238U content in water reaches 2.1-4.0 μg/l, which exceeds its content upstream from the MCC (0.3-0.6 μg/l) by almost an order of magnitude. The studies of the isotopic composition of uranium in water samples, which were carried out at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, showed the presence of a technogenic isotope of uranium 236U in the samples from the Bolshaya Tel' River and revealed the deviation of the isotope ratio 238U/235U (167 ± 3 and 177 ± 3) from the equilibrium natural ratio (238U/235U = 138). These facts attest to the technogenic origin of part of the uranium in water of the Bol'shaya Tel' River connected with the activity of MCC. The excess uranium content in the Kan River requires additional studies to ascertain the fraction of uranium of technogenic origin connected with the activity of the electrochemical plant (ECP) (Fig. 1, Table 4).

  15. Operational concepts for the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Configuration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    DOE has initiated a planning process in anticipation of upgrading all DOE waste management operations and facilities. The EM Configuration Study examines four areas: (1) planning considerations, (2) system configuration, (3) operational concepts, and (4) resource assessments. Each area is addressed by a different team. Objective of the Operational Concepts Team 3 study is to investigate, identify, define, and evaluate alternative ways to manage DOE waste management facilities, while taking into consideration the information gathered by the other EM Configuration teams. This report provides information and criteria for evaluating the relative effectiveness and efficiency of various organizational alternatives that can be used to operate and manage DOE waste facilities. Intent of this report is not to select one best management alternative but rather to provide recommendations, conclusions, and background information from which decisions will be made at a future date.

  16. Environment, safety, and health. Status of DOE's reorganization of its safety oversight function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannerman, Carl J.; Cannon, Doris E.; Jones, Gary L.; Ulrich, Timothy W.

    1990-01-01

    Several major events that preceded the Secretary's decision to restructure DOE's management of its nuclear facilities were identified. The proposed restructuring plan, in concept, is designed to set in place an oversight framework, which will provide confidence in DOE's ability to operate its nuclear facilities in a safe manner. Further, on the basis of the previous work in this area as well as other independent studies, several issues were identified that may affect the success of the proposed restructuring plan

  17. DOE Office of Environmental Management, 2016 Year in Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    2016 accomplishments and primary areas of focus for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management and EM sites are presented. For DOE EM, these include Focusing on the Field, Teaming with Cleanup Partners, Developing New Technology, and Maximizing Cleanup Dollars. Major 2016 achievements are highlighted for EM, Richland Operations Office, Office of River Protection, Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Los Alamos, Portsmouth, Paducah, West Valley Demonstration Project, and the Nevada National Security Site,