WorldWideScience

Sample records for operational radiation protection

  1. Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

  2. Operational radiation protection in high-energy physics accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, S H; Fassò, A; Liu, J C

    2009-11-01

    An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

  3. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  4. Radiation protection issues after 20 years of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    Forkel-Wirth, D; Roesler, S; Theis, C; Ulrici, L; Vincke, H; Vincke, Hz

    2011-01-01

    Since November 2009, the LHC commissioning progresses very well, both with proton and lead beams. It will continue in 2011 and nominal LHC operation is expected to be attained in 2013. In parallel, plans for various LHC upgrades are under discussion, suggesting a High-Luminosity (HL) upgrade first and a High-Energy (HE) upgrade in a later state. Whereas the upgrade in luminosity would require the modification of only some few key accelerator components like the inner triplets, the upgrade in beam energy from 7 TeV to 16.5 TeV would require the exchange of all dipoles and of numerous other accelerator components. The paper gives an overview of the radiation protection issues related to the dismantling of LHC components prior to the installation of the HE-LHC components, i.e. after about 20 years of LHC operation. Two main topics will be discussed: (i) the exposure of workers to ionizing radiation during the dismantling of dipoles, inner triplets or collimators and experiments and (ii) the production, condition...

  5. Ionizing radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: current radiation protection practice of invasive cardiology operators in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuckiene, Zivile; Jurenas, Martynas; Cibulskaite, Inga

    2016-09-01

    Ionizing radiation management is among the most important safety issues in interventional cardiology. Multiple radiation protection measures allow the minimization of x-ray exposure during interventional procedures. Our purpose was to assess the utilization and effectiveness of radiation protection and optimization techniques among interventional cardiologists in Lithuania. Interventional cardiologists of five cardiac centres were interviewed by anonymized questionnaire, addressing personal use of protective garments, shielding, table/detector positioning, frame rate (FR), resolution, field of view adjustment and collimation. Effective patient doses were compared between operators who work with and without x-ray optimization. Thirty one (68.9%) out of 45 Lithuanian interventional cardiologists participated in the survey. Protective aprons were universally used, but not the thyroid collars; 35.5% (n  =  11) operators use protective eyewear and 12.9% (n  =  4) wear radio-protective caps; 83.9% (n  =  26) use overhanging shields, 58.1% (n  =  18)-portable barriers; 12.9% (n  =  4)-abdominal patient's shielding; 35.5% (n  =  11) work at a high table position; 87.1% (n  =  27) keep an image intensifier/receiver close to the patient; 58.1% (n  =  18) reduce the fluoroscopy FR; 6.5% (n  =  2) reduce the fluoro image detail resolution; 83.9% (n  =  26) use a 'store fluoro' option; 41.9% (N  =  13) reduce magnification for catheter transit; 51.6% (n  =  16) limit image magnification; and 35.5% (n  =  11) use image collimation. Median effective patient doses were significantly lower with x-ray optimization techniques in both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Many of the ionizing radiation exposure reduction tools and techniques are underused by a considerable proportion of interventional cardiology operators. The application of basic radiation protection tools and

  6. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

  7. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    2001-04-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported.

  8. Technology development for evaluation of operational quantities in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Lyul; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, L. T.; Kim, B. H.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Lim, G. S.; Kim, J. S.; Nam, Y. M.; Chang, J. K.; Kim, D. Y.; Yang, J. S

    2000-03-01

    A study on the fabrication of a new personal thermo-luminescence dosimeter, which can evaluate the personal dose equivalent H{sub p}(d), has been performed. Optimum conditions for fabrication of a LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL phosphor powder has been determined and a disc type TL pellet has been fabricated from this TL powder. Another type of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,Mo TL material has been also fabricated. These two TL materials have shown greater TL sensitivity than the foreign-made commercial TL materials. Mono-energetic fluorescence X-ray from 8.6 keV to 75 keV for use in performance testing of the developed TLDs energy response have been constructed and evaluated for the performance of the purity, air kerma, beam uniformity and distribution, and scattered fraction of X-rays. Reference neutron field of a D{sub 2}O moderated {sup 252}Cf source was characterized and the irradiation system using {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs sources was installed to construct the environmental gamma reference radiation and the low-level gamma radiation. A capability of calibration and measurement of KAERI In Vivo counting system for transuranic elements in the lung has been evaluated through the participation in the overseas intercomparison study on the In Vivo radioactivity measurement. An improvement and advancement of KAERI lung counting technology have been made by the analysis off uncertainties from the assumption of uniform radioactivity distribution in the lung, experimental determination and comparing of detection efficiency with different lung sets, and mathematical efficiency calibration of In Vivo counting system. (author)

  9. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    Radioactive Shipping Service

    2005-01-01

    The section of the radiation protection group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  10. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tel. 73171

  11. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  12. Operational radiation protection in high-energy physics accelerators: implementation of ALARA in design and operation of accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassò, A; Rokni, S

    2009-11-01

    This paper considers the historical evolution of the concept of optimisation of radiation exposures, as commonly expressed by the acronym ALARA, and discusses its application to various aspects of radiation protection at high-energy accelerators.

  13. Considerations for NSLS-II Synchrotron Radiation Protection When Operating Damping Wigglers at Low Machine Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Dept.; Podobedov, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Dept.

    2015-12-30

    The NSLS-II storage ring vacuum chamber, including frontends (FE) and beamlines (BL), is protected from possible damage from synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted from insertion devices (IDs) by a dedicated active interlock system (AIS). The system monitors electron beam position and angle and triggers a beam dump if the beam orbit is outside of the active interlock envelope (AIE). The AIE was calculated under the assumptions of 3 GeV beam energy and ID gaps set to their minimum operating values (i.e. “fully closed”). Recently it was proposed to perform machine studies that would ramp the stored beam energy significantly below the nominal operational value of 3 GeV. These studies may potentially include the use of NSLS-II damping wigglers (DWs) for electron beam emittance reduction and control.

  14. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  15. Comparison of operator radiation exposure with optimized radiation protection devices during coronary angiograms and ad hoc percutaneous coronary interventions by radial and femoral routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasselet, Camille; Blanpain, Thierry; Tassan-Mangina, Sophie; Deschildre, Alain; Duval, Sébastien; Vitry, Fabien; Gaillot-Petit, Nathalie; Clément, Jean Paul; Metz, Damien

    2008-01-01

    Although underestimated by interventional cardiologists for a long time, radiation exposure of operators and patients is currently a major concern. The objective of the present operator-blinded registry was to compare related-peripheral arterial route radiation exposure of operators. During 420 consecutive coronary angiograms (CAs) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs), four interventional cardiologists were blindly screened. Radiation exposures were assessed using electronic personal dosimeters. Protection of operator was ensured using a lead apron, low leaded flaps, and leaded glass. Radiation exposure of operators was significantly higher using the radial route when compared with the femoral route for both CAs and CAs followed by ad hoc PCIs: 29.0 [1.0-195.0] microSv vs. 13.0 [1.0-164.0] microSv; P < 0.0001 and 69.5 [4.0-531.0] microSv vs. 41.0 [2.0-360.0] microSv; P = 0.018, respectively. Similarly, radiation exposure of patients was significantly higher using the radial route when compared with the femoral route for both CAs and CAs followed by ad hoc PCIs. Moreover, procedural durations and fluoroscopy times were significantly higher throughout the radial route. Although the radial route decreases peripheral arterial complication rates, increased radiation exposure of operators despite extensive use of specific protection devices is currently a growing problem for the interventional cardiologist health. Radial route indication should be promptly reconsidered in the light of the present findings.

  16. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators: Implementation of ALARA in Design and Operation of Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, A.; Rokni, S.; /SLAC

    2011-06-30

    It used to happen often, to us accelerator radiation protection staff, to be asked by a new radiation worker: ?How much dose am I still allowed?? And we smiled looking at the shocked reaction to our answer: ?You are not allowed any dose?. Nowadays, also thanks to improved training programs, this kind of question has become less frequent, but it is still not always easy to convince workers that staying below the exposure limits is not sufficient. After all, radiation is still the only harmful agent for which this is true: for all other risks in everyday life, from road speed limits to concentration of hazardous chemicals in air and water, compliance to regulations is ensured by keeping below a certain value. It appears that a tendency is starting to develop to extend the radiation approach to other pollutants (1), but it will take some time before the new attitude makes it way into national legislations.

  17. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  18. Operational Radiation Protection in Synchrotron Light and Free Electron Laser Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Vylet, Vaclav; /Jefferson Lab

    2009-12-11

    The 3rd generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power (< few tens of watts), but extremely high stored beam power ({approx} 1 GW). The 4th generation x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power (a few kW). Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes, and beam losses are first reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection operation and FEL facilities are discussed. The operational safety program, e.g., operation authorization, commissioning, training, and radiation measurements, for SR facilities is also presented.

  19. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Scottish Centre)

    1993-01-01

    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.).

  20. Per-operative X-ray radiotherapy: personnel radiation protection in the operating theatre suite; Radiotherapie peroperatoire par rayons X: radioprotection du personnel au bloc operatoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbona, A.; Josset-Gaudaire, S.; Brunet, G.; Delpon, G. [ICO Centre Rene-Gauducheau, Saint-Herblain (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the radioprotection study required in the exploitation authorization file associated with the putting into service of the Zeiss Meditec Intrabeam system. After having evoked the characteristics of this equipment (power, dose rate, treatment duration) and some characteristics of the building, they report the results of the zoning and workstation study. Two situations have assessed: the operator is present in the operating theatre suite behind a leaded screens, or stands outside of the operating theatre suite. The received dose is assessed on a basis of 50 treatments a year. Dose rate levels comply with personnel radiation protection requirements. Short communication

  1. Ethics and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Sven Ove [Department of Philosophy and the History of Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 78 B, 2tr, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

  2. Physics for radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, James E

    2013-01-01

    A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

  3. Radiation protection in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  4. Radiation Protection Group

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to inform you that the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on the afternoon of Tuesday 19 December 2006. Thank-you for your understanding.

  5. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  6. CERN Radiation Protection (RP) calibration facilities

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082069; Macián-Juan, Rafael

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelera...

  7. Operational Radiation Protection in veterinary centres; Proteccion Radiologica Operacional en centros veterinarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, E.; Vigil, A.; Coll, A.

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a trend towards the use of digital radiography in the veterinary field. As a consequence, there could be a workload increase in the X-ray system and higher exposure for veterinarians and members of the public. In this study we analyze the influence of the X-ray machine output with with the radiation levels at the veterinarian position. We have considered the leads apron that each veterinarian center has and we have related its attenuation coefficient with the dose exposure at the veterinarian position. With the maximum workload, we have made a theoretical assessment for the primary barrier at 1 m of the X-ray focus.Despite there is a workload increase due to the digital technologies, the studied results show that is is very unlikely to be in excess of annual dose limit for the exposed workers. (Author) 5 refs.

  8. Strengthening the Radiation Protection System in Cuba (SRPS - Cuba). A co-operation project between Cuban and Swedish institutions, February 2001 - June 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Prendes, Miguel; Zerquera, Juan Tomas

    2004-02-01

    This project results from the co-operation between a number of Cuban and Swedish institutions. It started in February 2001 and ended in June 2003 and was made possible thanks to the contributions of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba (CPHR), and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The overall objective was to strengthen the radiation protection system in Cuba, and in this way contribute with the control and reduction of risks to man and the environment from exposures to ionizing radiation. The project focused on four priority areas: 1) Protection of workers and patients exposed to radiation in radiation practices; 2) Preparedness for response to an emergency situation; 3) Environmental radiological protection; and, 4) Exposure to radiation in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. The present report summarizes the findings of the whole project period, providing an overview of the overall achievements, as well as listing its deliverables. The results of an evaluation of the project, conducted during the final workshop, are also included. The report ends with a list of generic and specific conclusions and recommendations for implementation of the project's achievements and for further development of co-operation.

  9. Space radiation protection issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-11-01

    The complex charged particle environments in space pose considerable challenges with regard to potential health consequences that can impact mission design and crew selection. The lack of knowledge of the biological effects of different ions in isolation and in combination is a particular concern because the risk uncertainties are very high for both cancer and non-cancer late effects. Reducing the uncertainties is of high priority. Two principal components of space radiation each raise different concerns. Solar particle events (SPE) occur sporadically and are comprised primarily of low- to moderate-energy protons. Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is isotropic and relatively invariant in dose rate. GCR is also dominated by protons, but the energy range is wider than in SPE. In addition, the contribution of other light and heavy ions to the health risks from GCR must be addressed. This paper will introduce the principal issues under consideration for space radiation protection.

  10. Radiation protection at new reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissaud, A. [EDF INDUSTRY, Basic Design Department, EDF-SEPTEN, VILLEURBANNE Cedex (France)

    2000-05-01

    The theoritical knowledge and the feedback of operating experience concerning radiations in reactors is now considerable. It is available to the designer in the form of predictive softwares and data bases. Thus, it is possible to include the radiation protection component throughout all the design process. In France, the existing reactors have not been designed with quantified radiation protection targets, although considerable efforts have been made to reduce sources of radiation illustrated by the decrease of the average dose rates (typically a factor 5 between the first 900 MWe and the last 1300 MWe units). The EDF ALARA PROJECT has demonstrated that good practises, radiation protection awareness, careful work organization had a strong impact on operation and maintenance work volume. A decrease of the average collective dose by a factor 2 has been achieved without noticeable modifications of the units. In the case of new nuclear facilities projects (reactor, intermediate storage facility,...), or special operations (such as steam generator replacement), quantified radiation protection targets are included in terms of collective and average individual doses within the frame of a general optimization scheme. The target values by themselves are less important than the application of an optimization process throughout the design. This is because the optimization process requires to address all the components of the dose, particularly the work volume for operation and maintenance. A careful study of this parameter contributes to the economy of the project (suppression of unecessary tasks, time-saving ergonomy of work sites). This optimization process is currently applied to the design of the EPR. General radiation protection provisions have been addressed during the basic design phase by applying general rules aiming at the reduction of sources and dose rates. The basic design optimization phase has mainly dealt with the possibility to access the containment at full

  11. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial of Radiation Protection With a Patient Lead Shield and a Novel, Nonlead Surgical Cap for Operators Performing Coronary Angiography or Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzoni, Ashraf; Gordon, Chris L; Syed, Jaffer; Natarajan, Madhu K; Rokoss, Michael; Schwalm, Jon-David; Mehta, Shamir R; Sheth, Tej; Valettas, Nicholas; Velianou, James; Pandie, Shaheen; Al Khdair, Darar; Tsang, Michael; Meeks, Brandi; Colbran, Kiersten; Waller, Ed; Fu Lee, Shun; Marsden, Tamara; Jolly, Sanjit S

    2015-08-01

    Interventional cardiologists receive one of the highest levels of annual occupational radiation exposure. Further measures to protect healthcare workers are needed. We evaluated the efficacy of a pelvic lead shield and a novel surgical cap in reducing operators' radiation exposure. Patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention (n=230) were randomized to have their procedure with or without a lead shield (Ultraray Medical, Oakville, Canada) placed over the patient. During all procedures, operators wore the No Brainer surgical cap (Worldwide Innovations and Technology, Kansas City, KS) designed to protect the head from radiation exposure. The coprimary outcomes for the lead shield comparison were (1) operator dose (µSv) and (2) operator dose indexed for air kerma (µSv/mGy). For the cap comparison, the primary outcome was the difference between total radiation dose (µSv; internal and external to cap). The lead shield use resulted in a 76% reduction in operator dose (mean dose, 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.00-4.71 µSv lead shield group versus 12.57; 95% CI, 8.14-19.40 µSv control group; Plead shield group versus 0.015; 95% CI, 0.012-0.019 µSv/mGy control group; Plead shield and the cap reduced significantly the operator radiation exposure and can be easily incorporated into clinical practice. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02128035. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Radiation protection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised.

  14. Radiation protection considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Adorisio, C; Urscheler, C; Vincke, H

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the legal Radiation Protection (RP) framework to be considered in the design of HiLumi LHC. It details design limits and constraints, dose objectives and explains how the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) approach is formalized at CERN. Furthermore, features of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code are summarized that are of relevance for RP studies. Results of FLUKA simulations for residual dose rates during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) are compared to measurements demonstrating good agreement and providing proof for the accuracy of FLUKA predictions for future shutdowns. Finally, an outlook for the residual dose rate evolution until LS3 is given.

  15. Radiation protection in Swiss nuclear installations; Strahlenschutz in Schweizer Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Brunell, M. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Well developed measures on operational radiation protection within Swiss nuclear installations will be presented. The focus lays on competent authority actions. Results of the last ten years, including events on radiation issues, will be discussed. Finally a view on challenges for radiation protection personnel with respect to a renewed Swiss radiation protection legislation based on recent ICRP recommendations will be given.

  16. Radiation protection in medical imaging and radiation oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Stoeva, Magdalena S

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology focuses on the professional, operational, and regulatory aspects of radiation protection. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This book summarizes evidence supporting changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with these recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. It supports intelligent and practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients. The book is based on current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and is complemented by detailed practical sections and professional discussions by the world’s leading medical and health physics professionals. It also ...

  17. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)

    2000-03-15

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  18. Nanocomposites for electromagnetic radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrunin, V. F., E-mail: VFPetrunin@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Specific features that characterize nanoparticles and which are due to their small size and allow one to enhance the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation and nanostructured materials and to develop the effective protection of man and equipment against harmful uncontrolled radiation are reported. Examples of the development of nanocomposite radar absorbing materials that can be used for protection of man and equipment are presented.

  19. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  20. Obligatory Radiation Protection Course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Since February 2008, participation in the radiation protection course has been a prerequisite for obtaining a CERN personal dosimeter for all Staff Members and Users. All Staff and Users holding a personal dosimeter were informed by the Bulletin and by a personal e-mail sent in February 2008 that they were required to participate in the course before the annual exchange of their dosimeter. Many people had not done so by that time and the Dosimetry Service exceptionally classified them for 2 months as short-term visitors (VCT), a category of monitored personnel to whom the training requirement does not presently apply. As all personnel concerned have since had time to participate in an RP course, this "grace period" will no longer be granted as of 1 October 2008 and the RP course must be completed before the personal dosimeter is exchanged. For newcomers to CERN, and for those returning to CERN after an absence of more than 1 year, one registration as a VCT for two months ...

  1. New approaches to radiation protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Michael Rosen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (eg., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion; hence the are called radiation countermeasures. Here we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development.

  2. An introduction to radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Alan; Beach, Karen; Cole, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The sixth edition of this established text takes the reader through the general background to the subject, the technical principles underlying the control of radiation hazards, radiation detection and measurement and the biological effects of radiation. These are followed by a consideration of radiation protection issues in the nuclear industry, the non-nuclear sector and the medical field. Further specialised topics include risk assessment, waste management and decommissioning, radiological incidents and emergencies, relevant legislation and organizational issues.

  3. Radiation protection policies to protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, J. [Commonwealth Massachusetts, Needham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Scientific data from plant, animal, and human populations more strongly find radiation essential to life, i.e., suppressing background radiation is debilitating and that moderately enhanced radiation doses have positive effects, than that low-moderate radiation dose has adverse effects. {close_quote} Federal radiation protection policy will be in the public interest and save hundreds of billions of dollars at no public health cost when known dose effects to exposed populations are applied to ensure no adverse health effects, with safety margins, and when appropriate research is funded (and public benefits from new radiation and nuclear science and technology applications are enabled) at the sole cost of reduced federal power and influence.

  4. Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaintes, C

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported.

  5. Radiation protection at synchrotron radiation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J C; Vylet, V

    2001-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the experimental floor around a normally thin concrete ring wall. This paper addresses the radiation issues, in particular the shielding design, associated with the storage ring and SR beamlines. Normal and abnormal beam losses for injection and stored beams, as well as typical storage ring operation, are described. Ring shielding design for photons and neutrons from beam losses in the ring is discussed. Radiation safety issues and shielding design for SR beamlines, considering gas bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, are reviewed. Radiation source terms and the methodologies for shielding calculations are presented.

  6. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

    2005-04-15

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells.

  7. Management information system on radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.b, E-mail: lss@cdtn.b, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Considering the flux complexity and the multi source information of all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations, an effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. An effective management information system is an essential tool to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Such kind of distinct knowledge is useful to reach an effective management and support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents a management information system based on Brazilian directives and regulations on radiation protection. Due to its generic characteristics, this radiation protection control system can be implemented on any nuclear organization by reediting the non restricted parameters which could differ considering all facilities and laboratories expected on-site with diverse technologies applications. This system can be considered as a powerful tool applied on the continuous management of radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations and research institutes as well as for long term planning, not only indicating how the safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. (author)

  8. IRPA initiative on radiation protection culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Natalia; Tulik, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    The concept of radiation protection culture, proposed by French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP) and then launched by International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is presented. The paper is focused on the role of radiation culture in preventing unjustified fear associated with the use of radiation. Principles of RP culture and optimization of radiation protection, as well as the problems how RP culture can be learned and how to engage the stakeholders are considered.

  9. Developing a Radiation Protection Hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Nolan E [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The WARP report issued by the NCRP study committee estimates that in ten years there will be a human capital crisis across the radiation safety community. The ability to respond to this shortage will be amplified by the fact that many radiation protection (health physics) academic programs will find it difficult to justify their continued existence since they are low volume programs, both in terms of enrollment and research funding, compared to the research funding return and visibility of more highly subscribed and highly funded academic disciplines. In addition, across the national laboratory complex, radiation protection research groups have been disbanded or dramatically reduced in size. The loss of both of these national resources is being accelerated by low and uncertain government funding priorities. The most effective solution to this problem would be to form a consortium that would bring together the radiation protection research, academic and training communities. The goal of such a consortium would be to engage in research, education and training of the next generation of radiation protection professionals. Furthermore the consortium could bring together the strengths of different universities, national laboratory programs and other entities in a strategic manner to accomplish a multifaceted research, educational and training agenda. This vision would forge a working and funded relationship between major research universities, national labs, four-year degree institutes, technical colleges and other partners.

  10. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  11. Activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Radiat. Prot. Cent. Vilnius

    2001-01-01

    Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000 is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues. Currently there are six departments at Radiation Protection Centre: two in Vilnius - Department of Radiation Protection Supervision and Control and Department of Programs and Expertise, and four in the districts. Brief information on subject controlled by each departments is provided focusing on main achievements and events.

  12. Radiation Protection at Light Water Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Prince, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This book is aimed at Health Physicists wishing to gain a better understanding of the principles and practices associated with a light water reactor (LWR) radiation protection program. The role of key program elements is presented in sufficient detail to assist practicing radiation protection professionals in improving and strengthening their current program. Details related to daily operation and discipline areas vital to maintaining an effective LWR radiation protection program are presented. Programmatic areas and functions important in preventing, responding to, and minimizing radiological incidents and the importance of performing effective incident evaluations and investigations are described. Elements that are integral in ensuring continuous program improvements are emphasized throughout the text.

  13. Mining and radiation protection law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, W.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the hazards of ionising radiation in the mining sector for the mining employees, the neighbouring population and the environment, with regard to prospecting, mining and processing radioactive ores. Due attention must also be paid to stockpiles, radioactive waste and imports of radioactive minerals. International radiation protection laws are to be applied on the basis of Euratom, IAEA, OECP/NEA and ICRP. The national law to be applied is Basic Law, Atomic Energy Law, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976. This law includes all activities having to do with mining of radioactive minerals, transport, imports and exports and waste management. Last not least, questions concerning the supervision carried out by the state and the administration are dealt with. (HSCH).

  14. Comparative Study and Detection of C-arm X-ray Machine Radiation Protection in the Operation Room%手术室C形臂X射线机的放射防护检测与对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华永; 刘帅; 苗路瑞; 蒋建; 晁勇

    2014-01-01

    本文测量了有防护和无防护手术间外X射线的辐射剂量,通过分析测量数据,说明了C形臂X射线机在无放射防护手术间中使用将对周围工作人员产生辐射危害,探讨手术间在无防护条件下电离辐射防护的解决方案。%The X-ray radiation doses in protected and non-protected operation room were measured. By analyzing the measurement data, it is proved that C-arm X-ray machine, without protection measures, will produce radiation hazard to the staff around the operation room. The solutions to the prevention of ionizing radiation in non-protected operation room are discussed in this paper.

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of Radiation Protection With a Patient Lead Shield and a Novel, Nonlead Surgical Cap for Operators Performing Coronary Angiography or Intervention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alazzoni, Ashraf; Gordon, Chris L; Syed, Jaffer; Natarajan, Madhu K; Rokoss, Michael; Schwalm, Jon-David; Mehta, Shamir R; Sheth, Tej; Valettas, Nicholas; Velianou, James; Pandie, Shaheen; Al Khdair, Darar; Tsang, Michael; Meeks, Brandi; Colbran, Kiersten; Waller, Ed; Fu Lee, Shun; Marsden, Tamara; Jolly, Sanjit S

    2015-01-01

    .... Further measures to protect healthcare workers are needed. METHODS AND RESULTS—We evaluated the efficacy of a pelvic lead shield and a novel surgical cap in reducing operators’ radiation exposure...

  16. The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering; Der Strahlenschutzbeauftragte in Medizin und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P.G.; Wolf, H.

    2008-06-15

    The directory covers the duties and responsibilities of the radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering, the fundamentals of radiation protection (German radiation protection law, limiting values, fundamental physics, biological radiation effects of ionizing radiation, radon at the working place, radiation protection for neutron handling), the accomplishment of radiation protection (radiation protection in case of open radioactive source handling, application of encapsulated radioactive materials, operation of facilities generating ionizing radiation, employment in foreign facilities or institutions, technical X-ray facilities or interfering radiation, X-ray facility in medicine, quality assurance in nuclear medicine).

  17. New Radiation Protection training room

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    From now on, the theory and practical components of the Radiation Protection training, developed by the RP Group and offered by the HSE Unit’s Safety Training team to people working in a Controlled Radiation Area, will take place in a dedicated teaching room, designed specifically for this kind of training.   The new room is in the Safety Training Centre on the Prévessin site and has been open since 16 October. It has an adjoining workshop that, like the room itself, can accommodate up to 12 people. It is also equipped with an interactive board as well as instruments and detectors to test for ionising radiation. This room is located near the recently inaugurated LHC tunnel mock-up where practical training exercises can be carried out in conditions almost identical to those in the real tunnel. To consult the safety training catalogue and/or sign up for Radiation Protection training, please go to: https://cta.cern.ch For further information, please contact the Safety Trainin...

  18. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  19. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  20. Regulation on expert knowledge in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-25

    The regulation is to be applied to licenses according to paragraphs 3, 15, 16, 20, 20a of the Radiation Protection Law, paragraphs 6, 7, 9 of the Atomic Law, to notices according to paragraphs 4, 17 of the Radiation Protection Law as well as in the prospecting, mining and processing of radioactive minerals. It regulates the extent and evidence of the special knowledge required for radiation protection of radiological safety officers and personnel responsible for radiation protection.

  1. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco

    2014-04-01

    National space agencies are planning a human mission to Mars in the XXI century. Space radiation is generally acknowledged as a potential showstopper for this mission for two reasons: a) high uncertainty on the risk of radiation-induced morbidity, and b) lack of simple countermeasures to reduce the exposure. The need for radiation exposure mitigation tools in a mission to Mars is supported by the recent measurements of the radiation field on the Mars Science Laboratory. Shielding is the simplest physical countermeasure, but the current materials provide poor reduction of the dose deposited by high-energy cosmic rays. Accelerator-based tests of new materials can be used to assess additional protection in the spacecraft. Active shielding is very promising, but as yet not applicable in practical cases. Several studies are developing technologies based on superconducting magnetic fields in space. Reducing the transit time to Mars is arguably the best solution but novel nuclear thermal-electric propulsion systems also seem to be far from practical realization. It is likely that the first mission to Mars will employ a combination of these options to reduce radiation exposure.

  2. State Supervision and Control of Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 1999-2001 is presented.

  3. State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented.

  4. CERN radiation protection (RP) calibration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Fabio

    2016-04-14

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelerators and at the CERN borders. A new state-of-the-art radiation protection calibration facility was designed, constructed and commissioned following the related ISO recommendations to replace the previous ageing (more than 30 years old) laboratory. In fact, the new laboratory aims also at the official accreditation according to the ISO standards in order to be able to release certified calibrations. Four radiation fields are provided: neutrons, photons and beta sources and an X-ray generator. Its construction did not only involve a pure civil engineering work; many radiation protection studies were performed to provide a facility that could answer the CERN calibration needs and fulfill all related safety requirements. Monte Carlo simulations have been confirmed to be a valuable tool for the optimization of the building design, the radiation protection aspects, e.g. shielding, and, as consequence, the overall cost. After the source and irradiator installation

  5. Training in Radiation Protection for Interventional Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Guibelalde, E.

    2002-07-01

    Several potential problems have been detected in the safety aspects for the practice of interventional radiology procedures: a) An important increase in the number cases and their complexity and the corresponding increase of installations and specialists involved; b) New X ray systems more sophisticated, with advanced operational possibilities, requiring special skills in the operators to obtain the expected benefits;c) New medical specialists arriving to the interventional arena to profit the benefits of the interventional techniques without previous experience in radiation protection. For that reason, education and training is one of the basic areas in any optimisation programme in radiation protection (RP). the medical field and especially interventional radiology requires actions to promote and to profit the benefit of the new emerging technologies for training (Internet, electronic books, etc). The EC has recently sponsored the MARTIR programme (Multimedia and Audio-visual Radiation Protection Training in Interventional Radiology) with the production of two videos on basic aspects of RP and quality control and one interactive CD-ROM to allow tailored individual training programmes. those educational tools are being distributed cost free in the main European languages. To go ahead with these actions, the EC has decided to promote during 2002, a forum with the main Medical European Societies involved in these interventional procedures. (Author)

  6. Operational radiation protection in the PET/MRI Installation of Research Laboratory of Human Cardiovascular imaging of the CNIC; Proteccion radiologica operacional en la instalacion PET/RM del laboratorio de investigacion de imagen cardiovascular humana del CNIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero Toro, R.; Delgado Alberquilla, R.; Moreno Lopez, J.; Lopez, G.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the implications in the design of facilities, shielding calculation and design of radioactive sources of calibration encapsulated compatible with RM and, on the other hand, specify, after the start-up of the laboratory, the operational monitoring of the installation, the use of monitors pollution and radiation within the room and its compatibility with the RM, dosimetry control area and exposed personnel and occupational radiation protection and the patient. (Author)

  7. [X-ray in trauma and orthopedic surgery. Physical and biological impact, reasonable use, and radiation protection in the operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresing, K

    2011-02-01

    Orthopedic and especially trauma surgeons' use of x-rays during operations vary extensively, especially in minimally invasive osteosynthesis procedures. Radiation hazards often are neglected. In this paper, a short overview of physical and biological effects of radiation are given. In addition, practical information about how to lower radiation exposure in the daily work in the operating room (OR) is given. The operating team is exposed mainly to scattered radiation. The radiation exposure is 10 times higher on the tube side than on the amplifier side. The distance between tube and surgeon must be as great as possible. The tube should be positioned under the OR table, and the distance between tube and patient should be as short as possible. The positioning of the C-arm device without radiation is important. The use of patient landmarks is used to position the C-arm over the region of interest, but the preoperative training of surgeons and team with virtual learning tools, e.g., virtX, is very effective in reducing radiation hazards.

  8. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  9. New general radiation protection training course

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Some members of CERN personnel, users included, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be concerned with activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety rules all persons whose work may encounter ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, about the basic principles of radiation protection and of the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as about safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses addressed to its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This...

  10. New general radiation protection training course

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Some members of CERN personnel, including users, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be involved in activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety Rules all persons whose work may be associated with ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, the basic principles of radiation protection and the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses for its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This new ½ day cours...

  11. Biological research for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  12. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  13. Radiation Protection Group Annual Report 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, M

    2004-01-01

    The RP Annual Report summarises the activities carried out by CERN’s Radiation Protection Group in the year 2003. It includes contribution from the EN section of the TIS/IE Group on environmental monitoring. Chapter 1 reports on the measurements and estimations of the impact on the environment and public exposure due to the Organisation’s activities. Chapter 2 provides the results of the monitoring of CERN’s staff, users and contractors to occupational exposure. Chapter 3 deals with operational radiation protection around the accelerators and in the experimental areas. Chapter 4 reports on RP design studies for the LHC and CNGS projects. Chapter 5 addresses the various services provided by the RP Group to other Groups and Divisions at CERN, which include managing radioactive waste, high-level dosimetry, lending radioactive test sources and shipping radioactive materials. Chapter 6 describes activities other than the routine and service tasks, i.e. development work in the field of instrumentation and res...

  14. Radiation protection and safety of workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, J.C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    This section briefly reviews the principles applicable to radiation protection and safety of workers, and methods that could be used to minimise occupational exposure in reclamation work. In considering the clean up of areas shortly after an accident, a decision would have to be made whether to implement clean-up actions early and thus cause higher occupational doses, or wait until short-lived isotopes have decayed and/or weathering has reduced the radiation levels. For example, the decision may be to stabilise the contamination using sprays to prevent re-suspension followed by a delay before actual clean-up starts. The timing of such actions would depend on many factors, including weather conditions, the area involved, equipment available and the competence of the work force. Means of reducing occupational exposure while carrying out the tasks should, as far as possible, be clearly defined in `work procedures`. In general, reductions in occupational exposure during operational tasks can be accomplished by the use of shielding and limiting the time that workers spend exposed to radiation. (au). 10 refs.

  15. Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głuszewski, Wojciech; Zagórski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

  16. Chemical Protection Against Ionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    experimentally obtained. SPONSOR: Div of Cancer Treatment, NIH /A TOPICS: 2D PI/ORG: Moss, Alfred J; Veterans Administration Ned Ctr, Little Rock AR TITLE...Robert C; Dartmouth- Hitchcock Ned Ctr, Hanover NH TITLE: Radiation-chemical induction of mutagenesis. SUMMARY: Effects of sensitizers on radiation

  17. C形臂X射线机术中应用的放射防护探讨%Radiation protection for the C-arm X-ray machine in operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张为华; 倪卫东; 易光兆

    2011-01-01

    目的:加强C形臂X射线机术中应用的放射防护措施,保障医务人员和患者的健康。方法:采用辐射剂量检测仪,现场检测C形臂X射线机在术中应用时床边手术人员的受照剂量率,评价其放射防护情况。结果:C形臂X射线机在术中应用时,床边手术人员的头部、颈部、胸部、手部和腹部5个部位受照剂量检测均值超过国标准规定的限值,以胸部和手部受照剂量率较高。结论:C形臂X射线机术中应用时存在放射防护问题。须加强医务人员X射线防护技术的培训,采用屏蔽防护、时间防护及距离防护等综合防护措施,来降低医务人员的受照剂量,尽可能减少电离辐射对医务人员和患者健康的影响。%Objiective:To strengthen radiation protection for the C-arm X-ray machine in operation,and protect the health of the physicians and patients.Methods: We monitored the dose rate on the body of the physicians by radiation dose detector when the C-arm X-ray machines were using in operation,and assessed the radiation protection.Results: The mean of dose rate on the head,neck,chest,hand and abdomen of the physicians outnumbered the international standard,and the mean of dose rate on the chest and hand are higher than the rest three parts.Conclusion: Some problems of radiation protection exist in using the c-arm X-ray machine in operation,we must strengthen training for physicians in radiation protection,and adopt comprehensive measures including shielding protection,limitting the exposure time and trying to stay away from the C-arm X-ray machine,etc to avoid radiation damage.

  18. RADIATION HAZARD AND PROTECTION OF LOW ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷清章

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the origin and type of radiation hazards as well as the main aspects of radiation protection for low-energy accelerators are discussed in general,and the problems of radiation protection and the experimental results of the operational monitoring of the five accelecrators in the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology,Sichuan University,namely,one 1.2M cyclofron,two Cockroft-waltons and two Van de Graafts,as well as a powerful electron accelerator for industrial irradiation are described.The discussion and evaluation are made according to the requirments of the national standards GB5172-85.

  19. Radiation protection at Hadron therapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccioni, Maorizio

    2011-07-01

    The Italian National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy is currently under construction in Pavia. It is designed for the treatment of deep-seated tumours (up to a depth of 27 cm of water equivalent) with proton and C-ion beams as well as for both clinical and radiobiological research. The particles will be accelerated by a 7-MeV u(-1) LINAC injector and a 400-MeV u(-1) synchrotron. In the first phase of the project, three treatment rooms will be in operation, equipped with four fixed beams, three horizontal and one vertical. The accelerators are currently undergoing commissioning. The main radiation protection problems encountered (shielding, activation, etc.) are hereby illustrated and discussed in relation to the constraints set by the Italian national authorities.

  20. Application of Virtual Reality to Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamela, B.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.; Mreino, A.; Sarti, F.

    2004-07-01

    In order to optimize the operations and procedures in several aspects of a Nuclear Power Plants, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Consultoria (Iberinco) has been developed some projects with Virtual Reality: CIPRES, ACEWO, TILOS and SICOMORO. With the experience acquired in these projects, Iberinco has checked the utility and advantageous of Virtual Reality applications that could have a direct application to Radiation Protection. With Virtual Reality it is possible to optimize the procedures involved in several critical aspects of the Plant Management. A training program bases on Virtual Reality systems could be one of the most important application. In Emergency situations the time of reaction is very important and in order to reduce it and dose, Virtual Reality is a very important tool, that could be used for training and to guide response team actions. Finally, the reduction of dose to workers, in a NPP, and patients, in hospital, is one of the most important application of Virtual Reality. (Author) 5 refs.

  1. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  2. Radiation. Protection. Health. Proceedings; Strahlen. Schutz. Gesundheit. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, Michael [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wien (Austria); Maringer, Franz Josef; Steurer, Andreas [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria); Schwaiger, Martina [Seibersdorf Labor GmbH, Seibersdorf (Austria); Timal, Guenter (ed.) [Bundesministerium fuer Inneres, Wien (Austria)

    2015-07-01

    The topics of the meeting are the diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionizing radiations, the application of radiation in research, industry and engineering and radiation protection. The volume includes the following chapters: Radiation protection and society, radiation protection infrastructure, population and environment, metrology and measuring techniques, 1. Workshop on population and environment, NORM and radon, 2. Update: dose - extent of damage - limiting value definition, radiation protection for personnel (except medicine), radiation protection in medicine.

  3. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  4. Radiation Risk to the Fluoroscopy Operator and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Cosette M; Meisinger, Quinn C; Andre, Michael P; Kinney, Thomas B; Newton, Isabel G

    2016-10-01

    Recent articles discussing cases of brain cancer in interventionalists have raised concerns regarding the hazards of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. We review the basics of radiation dose and the potential radiation effects, particularly as they pertain to the operator. Then we present the data regarding the risk of each type of radiation effect to the fluoroscopy operator and staff, with special attention on cancer induction, radiation-induced cataracts, and the pregnant operator. Although the evidence overwhelmingly shows that exposure to higher doses of radiation carries a risk of cancer and tissue reactions, the risks of chronic exposure to low-level radiation are less clear. Many studies examining occupational exposure to radiation fail to show an increased risk of stochastic effects of radiation, but the positive results raise concern that the studies are underpowered to consistently detect the small risk. The lack of information in these studies about radiation doses and adherence to radiation protection further confound their interpretation. Large prospective studies of populations with occupational exposure to low-level radiation might clarify this issue. More clearly established are the risks of radiation to the fetus and the risk of cataracts in interventional cardiologists and interventional radiologists. Interventionalists can mitigate these risks by following established radiation safety practices.

  5. The ICRP protection policy. The conceptual framework of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.H. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    Within twelve months of the discovery of X-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radioation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects - mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980s, sufficient human epidemiological and had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates that the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived from occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to restrict the doses that people receive, levels of acceptable risk must be estabilished for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of `acceptable`, `unacceptable` and `tolerable` and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. The values differ as between normal operations, the potential for accidents, recovery of contaminated land, and for workers or the public. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and the way in which the International Commission on Radiological Protection has used acceptability of risk in setting its new standards for protection. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb von zwoelf Monaten nach der Entdeckung der radioaktiven Strahlung im Jahre 1895 wurde deren schaedigende Wirkung auf menschliche Organismen festgestellt. Die ersten Strahlenschutzstandards wurden aufgestellt, um Schaeden durch eine unmittelbare Bestrahlung vorzubeugen. In den fuenfziger Jahren wurden Gesundheitsrisiken von Strahlung ausgesetzten Bevoelkerungsschichten

  6. Evaluation of a radiation protection cabin for invasive electrophysiological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragusin, Octavian; Weerasooriya, Rukshen; Jaïs, Pierre; Hocini, Mélèze; Ector, Joris; Takahashi, Yoshihide; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Bosmans, Hilde; Heidbüchel, Hein

    2007-01-01

    Complex invasive electrophysiological procedures may result in high cumulative operator radiation exposure. Classical protection with lead aprons results in discomfort while radioprotection is still incomplete. This study evaluated the usefulness of a radiation protection cabin (RPC) that completely surrounds the operator. The evaluation was performed independently in two electrophysiology laboratories (E1-Leuven, Belgium; E2-Bordeaux, France), comparing operator radiation exposure using the RPC vs. a 0.5 mm lead-equivalent apron (total of 135 procedures). E1 used thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs) placed at 16 positions in and out of the RPC and nine positions in and out of the apron. E2 used more sensitive electronic personal dosimeters (EPD), placed at waist and neck. The sensitivity thresholds of the TLDs and EPDs were 10-20 microSv and 1-1.5 microSv, respectively. All procedures could be performed unimpeded with the RPC. Median TLD dose values outside protected areas were in the range of 57-452 microSv, whereas doses under the apron or inside the RPC were all at the background radiation level, irrespective of procedure and fluoroscopy duration and of radiation energy delivered. In addition, the RPC was protecting the entire body (except the hands), whereas lead apron protection is incomplete. Also with the more sensitive EPDs, the radiation dose within the RPC was at the sensitivity threshold/background level (1.3+/-0.6 microSv). Again, radiation to the head was significantly lower within the RPC (1.9+/-1.2 microSv) than with the apron (102+/-23 microSv, P<0.001). The use of the RPC allows performing catheter ablation procedures without compromising catheter manipulation, and with negligible radiation exposure for the operator.

  7. A defense in depth approach to radiation protection for 125I production activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, T; Potter, C A

    2001-08-01

    Not all operational radiation protection situations lend themselves to simple solutions. Often a Radiation Protection Program must be developed and implemented for difficult situations. A defense in depth approach to radiation protection was developed for 125I production activities. Defense in depth relies on key radiation protection elements that tend to be mutually supportive and in combination provide reasonable assurance that the overall desired level of protection has been provided. For difficult situations, defense in depth can provide both a reasonable and appropriate approach to radiation protection.

  8. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in intraoral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda Saicla; Rocha, Anna Silvia Penteado Setti da, E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (PPGEB/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Biomedica; Tilly Junior, Joao Gilberto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UNIR/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Unidade de Imagem e Radioterapia; Almeida, Claudio Domingues de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica

    2016-04-15

    Introduction: The dental radiology represents about 20% of human exposure to radiation in radio diagnostic. Although the doses practiced in intraoral dentistry are considered low, they should not be ignored due to the volume of the performed procedures. This study presents the radiation protection conditions for intraoral radiology in Curitiba - PR. Methods: Data was collected through a quantitative field research of a descriptive nature during the period between September of 2013 and December of 2014. The survey sample consisted of 97 dentists and 130 intraoral equipment. The data related to the equipment was collected using structured questions and quality control evaluations. The evaluations of the entrance skin dose, the size of the radiation field and the total filtration were performed with dosimetry kits provided and evaluated by IRD/CNEN. The exposure time and voltage were measured using noninvasive detectors. The occupational dose was verified by thermoluminescent dosimeters. The existence of personal protection equipment, the type of image processing and knowledge of dentists about radiation protection were verified through the application of a questionnaire. Results: Among the survey's results, it is important to emphasize that 90% of the evaluated equipment do not meet all the requirements of the Brazilian radiation protection standards. Conclusion: The lack of knowledge about radiation protection, the poor operating conditions of the equipment, and the image processing through visual method are mainly responsible for the unnecessary exposure of patients to ionizing radiation. (author)

  9. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in intraoral radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Miguel

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The dental radiology represents about 20% of human exposure to radiation in radio diagnostic. Although the doses practiced in intraoral dentistry are considered low, they should not be ignored due to the volume of the performed procedures. This study presents the radiation protection conditions for intraoral radiology in Curitiba - PR. Methods Data was collected through a quantitative field research of a descriptive nature during the period between September of 2013 and December of 2014. The survey sample consisted of 97 dentists and 130 intraoral equipments. The data related to the equipments was collected using structured questions and quality control evaluations. The evaluations of the entrance skin dose, the size of the radiation field and the total filtration were performed with dosimetry kits provided and evaluated by IRD/CNEN. The exposure time and voltage were measured using noninvasive detectors. The occupational dose was verified by thermoluminescent dosimeters. The existence of personal protection equipment, the type of image processing and knowledge of dentists about radiation protection were verified through the application of a questionnaire. Results Among the survey's results, it is important to emphasize that 90% of the evaluated equipments do not meet all the requirements of the Brazilian radiation protection standards. Conclusion The lack of knowledge about radiation protection, the poor operating conditions of the equipments, and the image processing through visual method are mainly responsible for the unnecessary exposure of patients to ionizing radiation.

  10. Protection contre les radiations recommandations

    CERN Document Server

    Claude, A; Kipfer, P; Bacq, Z

    Considérations générales ; mesures de sécurité vis-à-vis des sources de rayonnement externes ; mesures de sécurité vis-à-vis des radioisotopes ; étude spéciale de la protection dans quelques cas particuliers ; mesures de sécurité vis-à-vis des neutrons ; mesures de protection pour les appareils de supervoltage ; appareils physiques de mesure et de contrôle pour la protection.

  11. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    preparing 90Y-Zevalin were measured. CONCLUSIONS. Good laboratory practice is important to keep radiation doses low. To reduce bremsstrahlung, 90Y should not be shielded by lead but instead perspex (10 mm) or aluminium (5 mm). Bremsstrahlung radiation can be further reduced by adding a millimetre of lead......, and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons...

  12. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

  13. Operator radiation exposure in cone-beam computed tomography guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, S.J.; Strijen Van, M. J L; Meijer, E.; Heesewijk Van, J. P M; Mali, W. P T M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Quantitative analysis of operator dose in cone-beam computed tomography guidance (CBCT-guidance) and the effect of protective shielding. Methods: Using a Rando phantom, a model was set-up to measure radiation dose for the operator hand, thyroid and gonad region. The effect of sterile rad

  14. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry An Introduction to Health Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stabin, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive text provides an overview of all relevant topics in the field of radiation protection (health physics). Radiation Protection and Dosimetry serves as an essential handbook for practicing health physics professionals, and is also ideal as a teaching text for courses at the university level. The book is organized to introduce the reader to basic principles of radiation decay and interactions, to review current knowledge and historical aspects of the biological effects of radiation, and to cover important operational topics such as radiation shielding and dosimetry. In addition to presenting the most up to date treatment of the topics and references to the literature, most chapters contain numerical problems with their solutions for use in teaching or self assessment. One chapter is devoted to Environmental Health Physics, which was written in collaboration with leading professionals in the area.

  15. Radiation Protection Elephants in the Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, R. J.

    2004-07-01

    As our system of radiological protection evolves, several significant issues loom within radiation protection discussions and publications. These issues influence the nature of epidemiological and radiobiological research and the establishment of radiation protection recommendations, standards, and regulations. These issues are like the proverbial ''elephants in the room''. They are large, and it is unwise to ignore them. This paper discusses the impact of three young elephants as they make their presence increasingly obvious: increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation, terrorism and fear of radiation, and patient safety. Increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation is emerging as a discussion topic related to the safety of computed tomography (CT) and other medical modalities. Shortly after publication of CT dose data, manufacturers were helping to reduce doses to children by increasing flexibility for adjustment of technique factors. Also, radiation epidemiological data are being used in the development of guidance on exposure to chemical carcinogens during early life. Re-emergence of public fear of radiation has been fueled by threats of radiological dispersion devises and confusing messages about personal decontamination, emergency room acceptance or rejection of contaminated victims, and environmental clean-up. Finally, several professional publications have characterized risk of medical radiation exposure in terms of patient deaths even though epidemiological data do not support such conclusions. All three of these elephants require excellent science and sophisticated data analysis to coax them from the room. Anecdotal communications that confuse the public should be avoided. These are not the only elephants in the room, but these three are making their presence increasingly obvious. This paper discusses the need for radiation protection professionals to rely on good science in the

  16. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    , and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons...... preparing 90Y-Zevalin were measured. CONCLUSIONS. Good laboratory practice is important to keep radiation doses low. To reduce bremsstrahlung, 90Y should not be shielded by lead but instead perspex (10 mm) or aluminium (5 mm). Bremsstrahlung radiation can be further reduced by adding a millimetre of lead......BACKGROUND. Beta emitters, such as 90Y, are increasingly being used for cancer treatment. However, beta emitters demand other precautions than gamma emitters during preparation and administration, especially concerning shielding. AIM. To discuss practical precautions for handling beta emitters...

  17. IAEA activities and new developments in optimization of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Seong H. [IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-07-01

    Providing effective support for occupational radiation protection to IAEA Member States is an increasingly more demanding task. The Agency is approaching the challenge through implementation of a multicomponent programme based on the development of comprehensive guidance presented in the Safety Standards document series. These are augmented by specific technical recommendations published in the newly established Safety Reports series. Direct national and regional assistance, based on the recommendations and information presented in the IAEA documents is provided through an active Technical Cooperation programme. Finally, specific technical issues, including optimization of radiation protection, are addressed through occupational protection programmes. Further information on IAEA radiation protection programmes can be found on the Web site at: www.iaea.org/ns/rasanet/. Optimization of protection is an idea of very broad application. It can be used at all levels from simple day to day decisions to major analysis of different types of plant design and it should be applied in all areas of radiation protection; including medical diagnostic uses of radiation, control of exposure to natural radiation and the control of exposures in general industry as well as in the perhaps more publicized area of the nuclear power industry. The optimization idea should also in principle apply to procedures designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of accidents or incidents that could lead to radiation exposure. In this paper the focus is on the principle of optimization stated in the BSS. And it presents the key concepts of optimization of radiation protection and main indicators of dose reduction, which have been collected from existing reports including drafts under developing. The effect of applying the optimization procedure for maintenance operations are also introduced as well as the main causes to prolong exposure time. (author). 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  18. Management information system applied to radiation protection services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela; Figueiredo, Arthur, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br, E-mail: lss@cdtn.br, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.br, E-mail: arthurqof@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. The complex and multisource information flux from all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations requires a robust tool/system to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Those organized and processed data are useful to reach a successful management and to support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents recent improvements on a management information system based on the radiation protection directives and regulations from Brazilian regulatory body. This radiation protection control system is applied to any radiation protection services and research institutes subjected to Brazilian nuclear regulation and is a powerful tool for continuous management, not only indicating how the health and safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned showing up the critical points. (author)

  19. Applying radiation health effects data to radiation protection policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, James [Center for Nuclear Technology and Society at WPI, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Data from the peer-reviewed scientific literature establish a sound basis to define a low-dose, low-dose-rate, dose-response. These data include human health dose-response studies; immunologically 'whole' animal studies; and cellular and molecular biological studies of complete biological systems for the relevant immunological and physiological responses. Initiatives are required to constructively apply these data to both radiation research and radiation protection policies. First, current low level radiation health effects research must apply existing data to define research projects to integrate and confirm existing dose-response data, with specific emphasis on the biological bases that exist in definitive and reproducible cellular and biological dose-response. Second, dose-response assessment must identify and incorporate all existing substantial and confirmed data, including natural radiation sources, to establish the bases for radiation protection policy for interventions to protect public health and safety. A preliminary assessment of these data is applied to: 1) Specify research that can be constructively applied to describe radiation health effects dose-response. 2) Apply health effects dose-response to radiation and radioactivity applications policies to maximize radiation health effects interventions for occupational applications, medical applications, and other radiation and radioactive materials applications controls to cost-effectively assure public health and safety. An assessment of the proposed revisions to ICRP radiation protection policies is provided that associates the basis for administrative limits with the previous proposal of the US NRC for a 'Below Regulatory Concern' (BRC) policy. This proposal ignores the context of the fact that very low levels of radiation exposure are far within the variations of natural radiation exposures, and therefore can have no gross net consequences. The equivalent failure of the BRC proposal

  20. Review on radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid karami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of x-ray and using of it for medical imaging produce tremendous outcomes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nowadays, more than 10 million diagnostic radiological procedures are perform around the world. Despite of unique benefits of ionizing radiations, in the field of radiation protection, they are associated with potential risks such as cancer and genetically abnormalities. It is estimated that radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray procedures are annually responsible for 7,587 and 5,695 cases of radiation induced cancer in the population of Japan and united states of America, respectively. Although the radiation dose associated with most radiological procedures are very low, but rapid increasing of x-ray procedures during two past decades and also reports of the substantial fraction of patients undergoing multiple x-ray procedures have been concerned due to the deterministic and stochastic effects of ionizing radiations. According to the recommendations of the radiation protection regulatory organizations, radiological procedure must be done with respect to social and economic factors in which exposure of patient and population kept as low as reasonable and achievable. Obtain to the desirable image quality associated with reduce radiation dose to patients is the aim of any diagnostic x-ray procedure. Correctly use of various factors such as collimating the primary beam to the region of diagnostic interest, optimal exposure parameters (high Kvp and low MAS, using of techniques and views that are desirable to reach higher radiation protection, reducing exposure time and shielding can reduce the patients' exposure besides the saving of image quality. Accurately following of the recommended protection instructions considerably decrease the exposure risks.

  1. National congress of radiation protection; Congres national de radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

  2. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  3. Radiation protection, radiation safety and radiation shielding assessment of HIE-ISOLDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

    2013-07-01

    The high intensity and energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is an upgrade to the existing ISOLDE facility at CERN. The foreseen increase in the nominal intensity and the energy of the primary proton beam of the existing ISOLDE facility aims at increasing the intensity of the produced radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The currently existing ISOLDE facility uses the proton beam from the proton-synchrotron booster with an energy of 1.4 GeV and an intensity up to 2 μA. After upgrade (final stage), the HIE-ISOLDE facility is supposed to run at an energy up to 2 GeV and an intensity up to 4 μA. The foreseen upgrade imposes constrains, from the radiation protection and the radiation safety point of view, to the existing experimental and supply areas. Taking into account the upgraded energy and intensity of the primary proton beam, a new assessment of the radiation protection and radiation safety of the HIE-ISOLDE facility is necessary. Special attention must be devoted to the shielding assessment of the beam dumps and of the experimental areas. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo particle transport simulation program FLUKA was used to perform the computation of the ambient dose equivalent rate distribution and of the particle fluxes in the projected HIE-ISOLDE facility (taking into account the upgrade nominal primary proton beam energy and intensity) and the shielding assessment of the facility, with the aim of identifying in the existing facility (ISOLDE) the critical areas and locations where new or reinforced shielding may be necessary. The consequences of the upgraded proton beam parameters on the operational radiation protection of the facility were studied.

  4. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  5. Consequences of the new radiation protection law on the radiation protection register and the occupational radiation protection; Auswirkungen des neuen Strahlenschutzgesetzes auf das Strahlenschutzregister und die berufliche Strahlenueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of the guideline 2013/59/EURATOM has been performed in the new radiation protection law. The most important consequences of the new radiation protection law for the occupational radiation protection are the following: the introduction of an explicit personal indicator and the actualization of occupational categories for employees. These facts require technical and administrative reorganization in data transmission of the licensee to the regulatory monitoring executive and the radiation protection register.

  6. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, part 1: physics, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Doran M; Jenkins, Mark S; Sugarman, Stephen L; Glassman, Erik S

    2014-03-01

    Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses are exceedingly rare; therefore, most physicians have never managed such conditions. When confronted with a possible radiation injury or illness, most physicians must seek specialty consultation. Protection of responders, health care workers, and patients is an absolute priority for the delivery of medical care. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, as well as radiation protection, requires a basic understanding of physics. Also, to provide a greater measure of safety when working with radioactive materials, instrumentation for detection and identification of radiation is needed. Because any health care professional could face a radiation emergency, it is imperative that all institutions have emergency response plans in place before an incident occurs. The present article is an introduction to basic physics, ionizing radiation, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation, and it provides a basis for management of the consequences of a radiologic or nuclear incident.

  7. Conditions for radiation protection in industrial radiography

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The leaflet specifies radiation protection requirements for industrial radiography in Norway. The regulations are directed towards companies using or distributing sealed radioactive sources, x-ray equipment or accelerators in non-destructive material testing (NDT). Technical requirements to the equipment, as well as administrative requirements for use, licensing, qualifications, handling of accidents etc. are given. (Author)

  8. Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to inform you that the Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP) located on the Prévessin site has moved from Building 865 (ground floor) to new premises in Wing A of Building 892 (second floor). Telephone numbers remain the same. SC/SL/RP section

  9. Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Applied to Radiation Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Majborn, Benny

    1982-01-01

    This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range...

  10. Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, Marco

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next. shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy. (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). (51 refs).

  11. Radiation Protection of Environment under the Light of the New Concept of Radiation Protection of Non-Human Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansruedi Voelkle [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Environmental Radioactivity Section, c/o Physics Department, University of Fribourg Chemin du Musee 3, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the question of whether radiation protection should be extended to plants and animals. Until now the recommendations of ICRP have been focused exclusively on the protection of man from ionizing radiation. It was assumed that, if man is protected, the quality of the living environment is not impaired. In recent years adequate principles, recommendations and laws have become necessary in order to protect the environment from man made toxins. These recommendations aimed to conserve plants and animals, to maintain the diversity of species, the health and status of natural habitats and the natural resources of our planet, to warrant natural evolution and selection processes in order to transmit a healthy world to future generations. Reflections have been made as to whether particular protection of fauna and flora from ionizing radiation should be included. This article presents some considerations from the point of view of operational radiation protection and some comments to the work already done by ICRP committee 5. The final purpose is to invite the audience to make its own reflections and to communicate any criticisms, comments or suggestions to committee 5 of ICRP. (author)

  12. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision.

  13. Review on radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Karami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of x-ray and using of it for medical imaging have produced tremendous outcomes for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. More than 10 million diagnostic radiological procedures and 100,000 nuclear medicine exams are being performed daily around the world. According to the national commission on radiological protection and measurements (NCRP-report 160, medical x-ray is contribute to approximately 95% of all radiological examinations that is responsible for 74% of the collective dose to the US population. Despite of unique benefits of ionizing radiations, in the field of radiation protection, they are associated with potential risks such as cancer and genetically abnormalities. The cancer risk attributable to diagnostic radiology is estimated about 0.6% to 3%. It is estimated that the radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray procedures are annually responsible for 7,587 and 5,695 cases of radiation induced cancer in the population of Japan and US, respectively. Although the radiation dose associated with most radiological procedures are very low, but rapid increasing use of radiography procedures during two past decades have been concerned due to the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiations. On the base of linear no-threshold (LNT model of dose-response curve, any level of exposure is dangerous. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the main target of ionizing radiation. For radiological exposure with low dose, the stochastic effects such as genetic damages and leukemia are concerned. According to the recommendations of the radiation protection regulatory organizations, radiological procedure must be done with respect to social and economic factors in which exposure of patient and population kept as low as reasonable and achievable. Hence, prescription of a radiological test is acceptable only when its advantages are higher than its damages. Optimizing the different parameters such as: collimating the primary beam field to the area of

  14. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

  15. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Eric M; Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The Committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable x-ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  16. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Kathryn H.; Goldin, Eric M.

    2016-02-29

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  17. Biological research for the radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Chan Kug; Shim, Hae Won; Jung, Il Lae; Byun, Hee Sun; Moon, Myung Sook; Cho, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Sik

    2003-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H{sub 2}O{sub 2})- induced apoptosis, we utilized {alpha}-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death.

  18. Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

    2010-01-01

    BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

  19. The gender problem in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars [Nobel Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

  20. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection. [Ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underlie antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  1. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

  2. Radiation protection and radiation safety: CERN and its host states to sign a tripartite agreement.

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On 15 November CERN and its Host States will sign a tripartite agreement that replaces the existing bilateral agreements in matters of radiation protection and radiation safety at CERN. It will provide, for the first time, a single forum where the three parties will discuss how maximum overall safety can best be achieved in the specific CERN context.   CERN has always maintained close collaboration with its Host States in matters of safety. “The aim of this collaboration is especially to ensure best practice in the field of radiation protection and the safe operation of CERN’s facilities”, explains Ralf Trant, Head of the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) Unit. Until today, CERN’s collaboration with its Host States was carried out under two sets of bilateral agreements: depending on which side of the French-Swiss border they were being carried out on, a different framework applied to the same activities. This approach has b...

  3. Melatonin as Protection Against Radiation Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D; Andersen, L P H; Rosenberg, J

    2016-01-01

    -hormone melatonin is a free radical scavenger, and induces several anti-oxidative enzymes. This review investigates the scientific literature on the protective effects of melatonin against exposure to ionizing radiation, and discusses the clinical potential of melatonin as prophylactic treatment against ionizing...... radiation damage. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed and included experimental or clinical studies written in English that investigated the protective effects of melatonin against gamma or X-ray irradiation in vivo. Studies were excluded if patients were treated with chemotherapy...... concomitantly. Results: 37 studies were included in the review. All were of experimental case-control design and employed animals. The studies demonstrated that exogenous melatonin reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in all investigated tissues. Furthermore, melatonin increased 30-day survival...

  4. New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Pozzi, Fabio; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the 'point-zero' measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underly antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  6. Radiation protection tasks on the Kiev research reactor WWR-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobach Yuri N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the description of and the operational experience with the radiation protection system at the research reactor WWR-M are presented. The list of the factors regarding the radiation hazards during the reactor routine operation is given and the main activities on the radiation safety provision are established. The statistical information for the staff exposure, the radioactive aerosol releases and the external radiation monitoring is shown. The preliminary considerations on the system upgrading for the decommissioning are presented.

  7. Evaluation of radiation protection principles observance in Iranian dental schools

    OpenAIRE

    GhazikhanlouSani K.; Eskandarlou A

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground and Aim: In recent decades many guidelines has been conducted by radiation protection organizations about radiation protection in dentistry. This study was designed to evaluate the observance of these guidelines in educational clinics of all dental schools in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a questionnaire based on National Radiation Protection guidelines was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of questions about radiation protection princ...

  8. Reproducibility of operator processing for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui Shen; DeNardo, Gerald L.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Aina, Yuan; DeNardo, Diane A.; Lamborn, Kathleen R

    1997-01-01

    Reproducibility of operator processing for radiation dose and biological half-life was assessed for radioimmunotherapy. Mean coefficient of variation for intra-operator consecutive processing and for inter-operator processing was less than 15% for all tissues. The mean coefficient of variation for intra-operator processing over 2 wk or inter-operator processing comparing an experienced and less experienced operator was generally greater, and particularly so for tumors. Satisfactory reproducibility was achievable using visual determination of regions of interests after 80 h of training.

  9. Machine Protection and Operation for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the accelerator with the highest stored energy per beam, with a record of 140 MJ at a beam energy of 4 TeV, almost a factor of 50 higher than other accelerators. With such a high stored energy, machine protection aspects set the boundary conditions for operation during all phases of the machine cycle. Only the low-intensity commissioning beams can be considered as relatively safe. This document discusses the interplay of machine operation and machine protection at the LHC, from commissioning to regular operation.

  10. Information as a part of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurovic, B.; Misovic, M. [Military Medical Academy, Radiation Protection Dept., Belgrade Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Spasic-Jokic, V. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lab. of Physics, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia)

    2006-07-01

    The increasing range of application of ionizing radiation in many different areas requires the needs for further education and training. Unfortunately, some aspects of application of ionizing radiation are not planed and announced for all involved personnel-like in military conflicts, when radiation and radioactivity are used as a new kind of ammunition. In that situation there is no time for formal and planned education. During the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. depleted uranium (D.U.) ammunition was used. Before that, it was used in Gulf War in 1991. for the first time. Faced with the health consequences of Gulf War for the soldiers of both sides, which were mainly attributed to D.U., Military Medical Service in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, prepared educational material for the soldiers who could be employed in the area of the D.U. contamination. Considering the information/knowledge as very important part of radiation protection, booklet was prepared and distributed before the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro. In this paper we present the booklet prepared for the military personnel. In the simplified way the nature of D.U. is explained. Some practical aspects of protection and prevention in D.U. contaminated area-how to avoid and minimize radiological hazard of D.U. in the battlefield, as well as how to avoid long-term hazards of D.U., are presented. It is also explained when to ask for medical care and what kind of examination would be necessary in the case of D.U. contamination. 5AUTHORS.

  11. Implications of the new dose limit crystalline in operational radiation protection in interventional medicine; Implicaciones del nuevo limite de dosis en cristalino en la proteccion radiologica operacional en intervencionismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roch Gonzalez, M.; Garcia Castanon, P.; Giner Sala, M.; Rodriguez Martin, G.; Espana Lopez, M. L.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the implications of this new limit of equivalent dose in the lens can be assumed in the radiation protection of cardiologists, radiologists, nursing professionals, etc. that perform their work in units of intervention, both in terms of additional protective measures and the classification of them as workers exposed. (Author)

  12. Educational programme on radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, G.; Popovic, D. [School of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Hygiene and Dept. of Physics, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1992-07-01

    The education of radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists on the University of Belgrade is integrated both in regular graduate studies and in postgraduate studies. Within the graduate studies, students attend courses in physics and biophysics and in radiation hygiene. During postgraduate or specialistic veterinary medicine studies, veterinary medicine specialists expand their knowledge in radiation protection through a number of courses on radiation biophysics, radioecology, nuclear instrumentation and environmental protection. (author)

  13. The HERMES silicon project—the radiation protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beuzekom, M. G.; Bouhali, O.; Mexner, V.; Mos, S.; Reischl, A.; Steijger, J. J. M.

    2003-10-01

    The HERMES-detector has recently been upgraded with a silicon detector called the Lambda Wheels. This is the first detector following the interaction region. It consists of two disks of silicon detectors close to the beamline. This location makes it vulnerable to increased radiation levels which may be caused by beam instabilities. The Lambda Wheel detector, therefore, contains a system to detect these instabilities. This additional system triggers a kicker which dumps the HERA-lepton beam when the radiation level becomes too high. This contribution describes the radiation monitor which consists of two sets of three ionization chambers each, and the data-acquisition system which reads them out. The system has been installed and is operational since the summer of 2001. The HERA-accelerator was being commissioned after an upgrade during this time and several kinds of beam instabilities were observed with this protection system. The characteristics of some events will be described.

  14. Radiation shielding is not a solution. Radiation protection of air crews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Theresia [Vereinigung Cockpit e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). AG Strahlenschutz

    2012-06-15

    In most working environments it is fairly easy to minimize radiation doses of workers as postulated by radiation protection basics: Increasing the distance to the radiation source, reducing the exposure time, and the use of protective clothing or shielding. With air crews however, being the largest group of exposed persons and receiving the highest collective doses, classical protective measures are difficult or even impossible to enforce. Without neglecting the economical situation, effective measures could nevertheless be realized. Planning flights at slightly lower altitudes and further away from the geomagnetic poles can significantly reduce the radiation exposure for both crew and passengers. Furthermore, affordable high-quality dosimeters with the size of mobile phones have reached marketability. If installed on board, they could measure and display the actually received radiation during normal operation and additionally warn the flight crew in case of an abnormally high dose rate during solar particle events. Pilots could react to such warnings according to procedures that are yet to be installed. (orig.)

  15. Radiation exposure to operators during vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komemushi, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Sawada, Satoshi

    2005-10-01

    To measure the radiation received by physicians during percutaneous vertebroplasty with use of two types of injection devices with the interventional equipment guided by computed tomography (CT) and an angiographic/CT system. Twenty consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups, the 1-mL syringe group and the bone cement injector group. Percutaneous vertebroplasties were performed with the IVR-CT system, which combines angiographic and CT equipment with a single fluoroscopy table. Radiation dose to operators was measured as equivalent dose penetrating at a 10-mm tissue depth with use of electronic personal dosimeters attached outside and inside lead aprons. Effective radiation dose (HE) was estimated based on the radiation dose outside the lead apron (Ha) and the radiation dose inside the lead apron (Hb). Differences between the groups in doses and fluoroscopic duration were analyzed. In the 1-mL syringe group and bone cement injector group, mean Ha measurements were 320.8 microSv and 116.2 microSv, respectively. Mean Hb measurements were 14.5 microSv versus 7.8 microSv and mean HE measurements were 48.2 microSv versus 19.7 microSv. Significant differences were found in Ha, Hb, and HE. However, duration of fluoroscopy did not differ significantly between groups. Radiation dose was relatively high for operators performing percutaneous vertebroplasty. The bone cement injector was useful in reducing the level of radiation exposure to operators during vertebroplasty.

  16. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  17. Radiation protection guidelines for the skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    With the exception of the function of cells in the skin associated with immunocompetence nonstochastic effects have been well characterized and threshold doses are known with a precision appropriate for setting radiation protection standards. A dose limitation of 0.5 Sv per year and a working lifetime dose limit of 20 Sv should protect the worker population adequately and therefore, the current protection standards are quite adequate. The risk estimate for skin cancer is very dependent on the selection of the projection model and on the mortality rate assumed. Based on the relative risk model, a mortality rate of 0.2% and summing risks for both UVR exposed and shielded skin the risk is about twice (1.94/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}) that which ICRP derived in 1977. With the absolute model the risk is considerably less, about 0.5/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Analysis of radiation dose to operators involved in coronary angiography with radiation protection shields: a phantom study%床旁防护装置对冠状动脉造影术者辐射防护效果的体模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子满; 黄美萍; 罗纯; 黄斯凡; 谈文开; 刘勇东; 胡天宇

    2015-01-01

    目的 测量冠状动脉造影8个投照体位在有与无床旁防护装置防护下术者所受辐射剂量,为冠心病介入治疗中减少术者辐射暴露提供参考.方法 在第一及第二术者站位,距地面20至180 cm处,每隔20 cm放置一个实时剂量测量仪.采用冠状动脉造影8个体位投照,测量在有与无床旁防护装置防护下,术者在不同投照体位的不同高度接受辐射剂量情况.结果 在第一术者位,除1.2m高度仍可测到较高剂量(剂量率0.35 ~4.78 mSv/h,屏蔽率27.67% ~ 89.33%),其余各点屏蔽率均在91%以上.左前斜尾位、左前斜位、左前斜头位辐射剂量较高.第二术者位屏蔽率较第一术者位低,剂量峰值可出现在0.8、1.0及1.4m高度(剂量率0.27 ~ 1.86 mSv/h,屏蔽率30.34% ~92.13%).右前斜尾位、左前斜尾位、正头位、左前斜位辐射剂量较高.结论 床旁防护装置防护下,术者在左前斜尾位、左前斜位、左前斜头位、右前斜尾位的辐射暴露较高,应尽量少采用上述投照体位长时间曝光.同时应加强0.8~1.4m高度的辐射防护.%Objective To measure the dose to the primary operator and assistant operators by employing eight beam projections commonly used in coronary angiography with and without radiation protection shields in order to supply helpful guidance on radiation protection in cardiac intervention.Methods From 20 to 180 cm above the ground at the primary and assistant operators' locations,a DoseAware personal dose meter was placed in terms of an increment of 20 cm to measure radiation dose.Eight commonly used beam projections were performed,including LAO (left anterior oblique) 45°,RAO (right anterior oblique) 30°,CRAN (cranial)25°,cranial LAO (LAO45°/25°),caudal LAO(LAO45°/ 25°),CAUD (caudal) 25°,cranial RAO (RAO30°/25°),caudal RAO (caudal RAO30°/25°).Under the two different conditions,with or without radiation protection shields,the doses to the operators in

  19. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  20. The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering; Der Strahlenschutzbeauftragte in Medizin und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H.

    2006-08-15

    Subjects: Function and tasks of the radiation protection officers; Behaviour in radiation protection areas; Radiation protection in practice; Staff training and motivation; Measuring equipment; Radiation protection plans - structural, apparative and staff-related; Explanations of radiation protection legislation. This practical guide makes the many requirements on radiation protection easier and more transparent. (orig.)

  1. The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering; Der Strahlenschutzbeauftragte in Medizin und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-01

    Subjects: Function and tasks of the radiation protection officers; Behaviour in radiation protection areas; Radiation protection in practice; Staff training and motivation; Measuring equipment; Radiation protection plans - structural, apparative and staff-related; Explanations of radiation protection legislation. This practical guide makes the many requirements on radiation protection easier and more transparent. (orig.)

  2. Workstations studies and radiation protection; Etudes de postes et radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaye, T. [Direction des relations du travail, 75 - Paris (France); Donadille, L.; Rehel, J.L.; Paquet, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Beneli, C. [Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France); Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Vrigneaud, J.M. [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, 75 (France); Gauron, C. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, 75 - Paris (France); Petrequin, A.; Frison, D. [Association des Medecins du Travail des Salaries du Nucleaire (France); Jeannin, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Charles, D. [Polinorsud (France); Carballeda, G. [cabinet Indigo Ergonomie, 33 - Merignac (France); Crouail, P. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Valot, C. [IMASSA, 91 - Bretigny-sur-Orge (France)

    2006-07-01

    This day on the workstations studies for the workers follow-up, was organised by the research and health section. Devoted to the company doctors, for the competent persons in radiation protection, for the engineers of safety, it presented examples of methodologies and applications in the medical, industrial domain and the research, so contributing to a better understanding and an application of regulatory measures. The analysis of the workstation has to allow a reduction of the exposures and the risks and lead to the optimization of the medical follow-up. The agenda of this day included the different subjects as follow: evolution of the regulation in matter of demarcation of the regulated zones where the measures of workers protection are strengthened; presentation of the I.R.S.N. guide of help to the realization of a workstation study; implementation of a workstation study: case of radiology; the workstation studies in the research area; Is it necessary to impose the operational dosimetry in the services of radiodiagnostic? The experience feedback of a competent person in radiation protection (P.C.R.) in a hospital environment; radiation protection: elaboration of a good practices guide in medical field; the activities file in nuclear power plant: an evaluation tool of risks for the prevention. Methodological presentation and examples; insulated workstation study; the experience feedback of a provider; Contribution of the ergonomics to the determiners characterization in the ionizing radiation exposure situations;The workstations studies for the internal contamination in the fuel cycle facilities and the consideration of the results in the medical follow-up; R.E.L.I.R. necessity of workstation studies; the consideration of the human factor. (N.C.)

  3. Radiation Protection and Architecture Utilizing High Temperature Superconducting Magnets Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active radiation shielding concepts have been studied for many decades as a means to protect crew from deep space radiation environments. These studies yield...

  4. Introduction to radiation protection practical knowledge for handling radioactive sources

    CERN Document Server

    Grupen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The book presents an accessible account of the sources of ionising radiation and the methods of radiation protection. The basics of nuclear physics which are directly related to radiation protection are briefly discussed. The book describes the units of radiation protection, the measurement techniques, biological effects of radiation, environmental radiation, and many applications of radiation. For each chapter there is a problem section with full solutions. A detailed glossary and many useful information in appendixes complete the book. The author has addressed the issue of internationality to make sure that the text and, in particular, the complicated regulations can be easily interpreted not only in Europe and the United States but also in other countries. The subject of radiation protection requires a certain amount of mathematics. For those who have forgotten the basic rules of calculus a short refresher course in the form of a mathematical appendix is added.

  5. Protection of DNA damage by radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Oh, Tae Jung

    1998-12-01

    The SOS response of Escherichia coli is positively regulated by RecA. To examine the effects of polyamines on The SOS response of E. Coli, we investigated the expression of recA gene in polyamine-deficient mutant and wild type carrying recA'::lacZ fusion gene. As a result, recA expression by mitomycin C is higher in wild type than that of polyamine-deficient mutant, but recA expression by UV radiation is higher in wild type than of mutant. We also found that exogenous polyamines restored the recA expression in the polyamine-deficient mutant to the wild type level. These results proposed that polyamines play an important role in mechanism of intracellular DNA protection by DNA damaging agents.

  6. Project Radiation protection East. Status Report, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snihs, J.O.; Sundewall, H.; Grapengiesser, S. [STEGRA Consultants (Sweden); Bennerstedt, T. [TeknoTelje (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    Project Radiation Protection East is a Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994 radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in the project. This report presents a summary over some 140 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. 12 tabs.

  7. Radiation dose and protection in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Okano

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiographic examinations play an essential part of dental practice. Because a certain amount of radiation is inevitably delivered to patients, it should be as low as reasonably achievable. The purposes of this article are to review the definition of the dose, the concept of the radiation protection, the measurement of the dose in dental radiography, and means to reduce dose through effective selection of patients and the management of radiographic equipment. The effective dose from some dental radiographic examinations is high enough to warrant reconsideration of means to reduce patient exposure. By using digital sensors or F-speed film, instead of D-speed film, combined with rectangular collimation instead of round collimation, dentists can reduce patient's exposure by a factor of 10 for bitewing and full-mouth radiographs. Justification and optimization of a procedure along with dose limitations are essential in clinical practice. It is prudent to establish diagnostic reference levels for dental radiography in Japan. In addition, dentists should remain informed about safety updates and availability of new equipment, supplies and techniques that would further improve the diagnostic ability of radiographs and simultaneously decrease patient exposure.

  8. Novel Technology for Radiation Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation exposure to living tissue generates free radicals through ionizing reaction such as photoelectric effect, Compton and Auger effects.  Radiation...

  9. Multifaceted pathways protect human skin from UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Vivek T; Ganju, Parul; Ramkumar, Amrita; Grover, Ritika; Gokhale, Rajesh S

    2014-07-01

    The recurrent interaction of skin with sunlight is an intrinsic constituent of human life, and exhibits both beneficial and detrimental effects. The apparent robust architectural framework of skin conceals remarkable mechanisms that operate at the interface between the surface and environment. In this Review, we discuss three distinct protective mechanisms and response pathways that safeguard skin from deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The unique stratified epithelial architecture of human skin along with the antioxidant-response pathways constitutes the important defense mechanisms against UV radiation. The intricate pigmentary system and its intersection with the immune-system cytokine axis delicately balance tissue homeostasis. We discuss the relationship among these networks in the context of an unusual depigmenting disorder, vitiligo. The elaborate tunable mechanisms, elegant multilayered architecture and evolutionary selection pressures involved in skin and sunlight interaction makes this a compelling model to understand biological complexity.

  10. Computer Based Radiation Protection- A New Cd-Rom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, T.; Bammer, M.; Ablber, M.

    2004-07-01

    Within the next few years, there'll be a lot of new challenges required from radiation protection. According to EU regulation[1] and the new austrian radiation protection law [2] regular additional training are requested. Patients protection in diagnostic and therapeutic usage of ionising radiation gains also more and more importance.[3] Not really surprisingly, the general population is definitely highly aware of the risks coming with the usage of radionuclides and x-rays in medicine. Furthermore, the nuclear power plant in Temelin, near the austrian border initiated a lively discussion about risks, necessity and use of ionising radiation in medicine and industry. It turned out to be a really hard job handling these topics in public. A brilliant didactics based on independent information and viewpoints was required. ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, represented by the department of medical technical applications and the radiation protection academy, developed an interactive CD-ROM covering several applications: Basics on radiation protection for medical and technical personnel ; preparation for a radiation protection training. Repetition of the main topics for graduates of a radiation protection training. Basics on radiation protection and emergency management for medical staff as well as for the general public. (Author)

  11. Blended learning specialists in radiation protection; Formacion semipresencial de especialistas en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, P.; Campayo, J. M.; Verdu, G.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we present a blended learning Radiation Protection Technician through an approved degree from the Polytechnic University of Valencia, which covers the knowledge and skills of functions relating to operators and supervisors in various areas and skilled workers to be to perform their work in technical units or Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Services. The benefits of this work are those related to achieving quality training flexible and adapted to follow the check off the person conducting the course, adapted to internal and external training of the applicant companies.

  12. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  13. Molecular targets in cellular response to ionizing radiation and implications in space radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, M.; Tabocchini, M.A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Physics Lab.; Sapora, O. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Comparative Toxicology Lab.

    2002-12-01

    DNA repair systems and cell cycle checkpoints closely co-operate in the attempt of maintaining the genomic integrity of cells damaged by ionizing radiation. DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are considered as the most biologically important radiation-induced damage. Their spatial distribution and association with other types of damage depend on radiation quality. It is believed these features affect damage reparability, thus explaining the higher efficiency for cellular effects of densely ionizing radiation with respect to {gamma}-rays. DSB repair systems identified in mammalian cells are homologous recombination (HR), single-strand annealing (SSA) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Some enzymes may participate in more than one of these repair systems. DNA damage also triggers biochemical signals activating checkpoints responsible for delay in cell cycle progression that allows more time for repair. Those at G1/S and S phases prevent replication of damaged DNA and those at G2/M phase prevent segregation of changed chromosomes. Individuals with lack or alterations of genes involved in DNA DSB repair and cell cycle checkpoints exhibit syndromes characterized by genome instability and predisposition to cancer. Information reviewed in this paper on the basic mechanisms of cellular response to ionizing radiation indicates their importance for a number of issues relevant to protection of astronauts from space radiation. (author)

  14. Evolution of the radiation protection system; L'evolution du systeme de protection radiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.H. [International Commission on Radiological Protection, Stockholm (Sweden); Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Brechignac, F. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2003-07-01

    The evolution of the system of radiological protection: justification for new ICRP recommendations, thoughts of the SFRP work group about the evolution of the system of radiation protection proposed by the ICRP, protection of environment against ionizing radiations seen by the ICRP are the three parts of this chapter. (N.C.)

  15. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus Uche Eze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation.

  16. Second meeting of competent persons in radiation protection; Deuxiemes rencontres des personnes competentes en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This conference treats the subjects interesting the competent persons in radiation protection. It is divided in four sessions. The first one concerns the regulatory bases for the action of competent persons and includes three articles, the second one is about the operational dosimetry and includes six articles, the third session is devoted to the sources and waste management and represents two texts, the last and fourth session concerns the competent person in radiation protection and gives evidence. (N.C.)

  17. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  18. The importance of microdosimetry for radiation biology and radiation protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendsen, G.W.

    1967-01-01

    In this contribution several features will be discussed of relations between biological effects produced by ionizing radiations and the spatial distributions of energy deposition of these radiations. Effects produced by high-LET radiations are generally found to be less dependent on dose-rate, dose-

  19. The importance of microdosimetry for radiation biology and radiation protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendsen, G.W.

    1967-01-01

    In this contribution several features will be discussed of relations between biological effects produced by ionizing radiations and the spatial distributions of energy deposition of these radiations. Effects produced by high-LET radiations are generally found to be less dependent on dose-rate,

  20. Protecting geothermal operations with rupture disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.W.

    1983-02-01

    Potential rupture disk applications in geothermal operations are reviewed. Several wells manifolded together, to form the geothermal feed, cause erratic pressure. Rupture disks are used for relief. Flash tanks are equipped with rupture disks. Brine separators, heat exchanger shells, and turbine casings are protected by rupture disks. An analysis of geothermal steam will determine the rupture disk metal. Reverse Buckling disks are recommended over tension loaded disks for dealing with geothermal pressure cycling. Erratic temperature suggests that metals which retain tensile strength with temperature be used (Inconel is mentioned). In summary, geothermal projects represent an excellent rupture disk market.

  1. Evaluation of radiation protection principles observance in Iranian dental schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhazikhanlouSani K.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: In recent decades many guidelines has been conducted by radiation protection organizations about radiation protection in dentistry. This study was designed to evaluate the observance of these guidelines in educational clinics of all dental schools in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a questionnaire based on National Radiation Protection guidelines was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of questions about radiation protection principles in dental radiography that is needed for patients and personnel protection and quality control of radiological instruments. The questionnaires were completed by the responsible person of each radiology department of dental schools (18 schools. After gathering the data, the results were compared with radiation protection standards."nResults: There was proper condition in the case of the existence of radiation protection facilities, such as lead apron, thyroid shield and lead impacted walls. However, personnel rarely use these facilities. Usage of high speed films and existence of automatic processor in dental schools was an appreciable point. The main problem was related to the lack of regular quality control programs."nConclusion: The observance of radiation protection regulations in radiology departments of dental schools was proper. But majority of departments had no regular quality control programs; and the use of digital systems in dental radiography was not common.

  2. Radiation protection in Uruguay. The role of the Uruguayan radiation protection association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, D.E. [University of the Republic, Faculty of Law, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2000-05-01

    Uruguay has been conducted nuclear activities in medical uses for many years and as early as 1919 established the first law. In 1955 established a Regulatory body sources. But nowadays the Country has not the adequate structure in the use of nuclear technology in spite of the fact that these uses increased. The regulatory body depends on the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mining and also is in charge of promotion and development. The paper will consider the principal aspects of the problem: lack of information, lack of basic legislation, lack of adequate structure. Lack of information: The radiological risk perception in the public is very different of that perception in the authorities. Uruguayan public have not become aware of the benefits of the uses of nuclear technology and the authorities have not learnt from accidents as in Goiania, Ciudad Juarez and others in order to be able improve legislation and structure. Fortunately Uruguay had not important incidents but it is important to have adequate legal instruments in order to prevent them as an adequate structure. Lack of basic legislation: The development of this science of nuclear energy needs adequate regulations and structures following the international standards Uruguay has important legal documents as the one that created the Atomic Energy National Commission and then the Nuclear Energy National Direction and others as the decree No. 519, November 1984 and legal instruments that approved the International Conventions of WLO but it has not a radiation protection Act. Uruguay is also part of the Tlatelolco Treaty and the Non Proliferation Treaty and approved the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963, the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Lack of an adequate structure: The regulatory body depends on the Ministry of Industry Energy and Mining and is in charge of

  3. Performance of a radiation protection cabin during implantation of pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploux, Sylvain; Ritter, Philippe; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Clementy, Jacques; Bordachar, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Pacemaker implants are associated with a high cumulative exposure of the operators to radiation. Standard radiation protection with lead aprons is incomplete and the cause of spine disorders. A radiation protection cabin offers complete protection by surrounding the operator, without requiring a lead apron. We randomly and evenly assigned 60 patients undergoing implantations of permanent pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) with (a) a radiation protection cabin (cabin group, n = 30) versus (b) standard protection with a 0.5 mm lead-equivalent apron (control group, n = 30). Radiation exposure was measured using personal electronic dosimeters placed on the thorax, back, and head of the operator. The patient, procedural, and device characteristics of the 2 study groups were similar. All procedures in the cabin group were performed as planned without increase in duration or complication rate compared with the control group. The mean radiation dose to the head, normalized for fluoroscopy duration, was significantly lower in the cabin (0.040 +/- 0.032 microSv/min) than in the control (1.138 +/- 0.560 microSv/min) group (p < 0.0001). The radiation doses to the thorax (0.043 +/- 0.027 vs 0.041 +/- 0.040 microSv/min) and back (0.038 +/- 0.029 vs 0.033 +/- 0.018 microSv/min) in the cabin versus control group (under the apron) were similar. The use of a radiation protection cabin markedly decreased the exposure of the operator to radiation, and eliminated the need to wear a lead apron, without increasing the procedural time or complication rate during implantation of pacemaker and ICD.

  4. MGR COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE PACKAGE FOR RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION AND FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-02-01

    This Compliance Program Guidance Package identifies the regulatory guidance and industry codes and standards addressing radiation protection equipment, instrumentation, and support facilities considered to be appropriate for radiation protection at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Included are considerations relevant to radiation monitoring instruments, calibration, contamination control and decontamination, respiratory protection equipment, and general radiation protection facilities. The scope of this Guidance Package does not include design guidance relevant to criticality monitoring, area radiation monitoring, effluent monitoring, and airborne radioactivity monitoring systems since they are considered to be the topics of specific design and construction requirements (i.e., ''fixed'' or ''built-in'' systems). This Guidance Package does not address radiation protection design issues; it addresses the selection and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation to the extent that the guidance is relevant to the operational radiation protection program. Radon and radon progeny monitoring instrumentation is not included in the Guidance Package since such naturally occurring radioactive materials do not fall within the NRC's jurisdiction at the MGR.

  5. Evaluation of radiation protection in interventional radiology; Evaluation de la radioprotection en radiologie interventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pape, I.; Aget, H. [Centre Hospitalie Universitaire de Tours, 37 (France); Rondeau du Royer, C. [Inspection Regional du Travail de la region Centre (France)

    1998-07-01

    The interventional radiology, relatively to the conventional radiology exposes particularly to ionizing radiations, because of the time of utilisation of the radioscopy. It is important to optimize the risk according to the ALARA principle. The efforts must be made on the following fields: the radiation protection means, the periodic and systematic monitoring of material, a regular evaluation of operators irradiation, the training of non radiologist operators, the respect of the legislation on the maximum permissible dose equivalents. (N.C.)

  6. Determination of the need for solar UV radiation protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letić Milorad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin, the eyes and the immune system are well known. The need for UV radiation protection is popularized by the introduction of UV index. Uneven intensity of UV radiation in different regions in different periods of the year and in different times of the day requires that recommendations for UV radiation protection are given for possible UV index values in those regions. Objective. The aim of the study is to establish a simple and consistent method for the determination of the need for UV radiation protection in Serbia where UV radiation intensity can be approximated as uniform. Methods. Possible values of UV index during the year and the sun elevation during the day in periods throughout the year were used for the determination of maximal possible UV index values. These values were compared to UV index forecasts regarding UV radiation protection. Results. Maximal possible values for UV index were used for producing the colour graph. Colours on the graph indicate the need for UV radiation protection. Green - protection is not needed, yellow - protection is needed, red - protection is obligatory. Comparisons with the need for protection based on forecasts showed congruence in 97% of cases. Conclusion. The use of the graph for the determination of the need for UV radiation protection gives nearly the same results as recommendations based on UV index forecasts. The advantages of the graph are that it gives recommendations for the whole year, for the time intervals during the day in every period of the year and for the whole territory of Serbia.

  7. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05

  8. Plenary panel 1: The scientific bases of radiation protection. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomaa, S. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (L.N.T.) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (authors)

  9. Radiation protection textbook; Manuel pratique de radioprotection (3. Ed.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R

    2007-07-01

    This textbook of radiation protection presents the scientific bases, legal and statutory measures and technical means of implementation of the radioprotection in the medical and industrial sectors, research and nuclear installations. It collects the practical information (organization, analysis of post, prevention, evaluation and risks management, the controls, the training and the information) usually scattered and the theoretical knowledge allowing every person using ionizing radiation: To analyze jobs in controlled areas, to watch the respect for the current regulations, to participate in the training and in the information of the staffs exposed to intervene in accidental situation. This third edition is widely updated and enriched by the most recent scientific and legal data concerning, notably, the human exposure, the dosimetry, the optimization of the radiation protection and the epidemiological inquiries. The contents is as follows: physics of ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation: origin and interaction with matter, dosimetry and protection against ionizing radiation, detection and measurement of ionizing radiation, radiobiology, legal measures relative to radiation protection, human exposure of natural origin, human exposure of artificial origin, medical, dental and veterinarian radiology, radiotherapy, utilization of unsealed sources in medicine and research, electronuclear industry, non nuclear industrial and aeronautical activities exposing to ionizing radiation, accidental exposures. (N.C.)

  10. Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.

  11. Project Radiation Protection East. Swedish cooperation program for radiation protection in Eastern and Central Europe. Status Report, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snihs, J.O.; Johansson, Mai [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Grapengiesser, S. [STEGRA Consultants (Sweden); Bennerstedt, T. [Tekno Telje (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    Until now the Swedish program for radiation protection work in central and Eastern europe has been granted 55 MSEK by the Swedish government. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994, radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in Radiation Protection East. The government has granted 8 MSEK for this purpose. This report presents a summary over some 150 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. The presentation is updated up to March 1996. 7 figs.

  12. Radiation Protection Using Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Lu, Meng; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Doyle, Condell Dewayne; Kosynkin, Dimitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This invention is a means of radiation protection, or cellular oxidative stress mitigation, via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds, specifically single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their derivatives. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection by reducing the number of free radicals within, or nearby, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, or living organisms, thereby reducing the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components (i.e., RNA, mitochondria, membranes, etc.) that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including but not limited to cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. In addition, this innovation could be used as a prophylactic or antidote for accidental radiation exposure, during high-altitude or space travel where exposure to radiation is anticipated, or to protect from exposure from deliberate terrorist or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons.

  13. Technical qualification requirements and training programs for radiation protection personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Houser, B.S.; Butler, H.M. Jr.; Bogard, J.S.; Fair, M.F.; Haynes, C.E.; Parzyck, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    This document deals with the policies and practices of the Environmental and Occupational Safety Division (EOSD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in regard to the selection, training, qualification, and requalification of radiation protection staff assigned to reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities. Included are personnel at facilities that: (1) operate reactors or particle accelerators; (2) produce, process, or store radioactive liquid or solid waste; (3) conduct separations operations; (4) engage in research with radioactive materials and radiation sources; and (5) conduct irradiated materials inspection, fuel fabrication, deconamination, or recovery operations. The EOSD personnel also have environmental surveillance and operational and industrial safety responsibilities related to the total Laboratory.

  14. Delivering a radiation protection dividend: systemic capacity-building for the radiation safety profession in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hilton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many African countries planning to enter the nuclear energy “family” have little or no experience of meeting associated radiation safety demands, whether operational or regulatory. Uses of radiation in medicine in the continent, whether for diagnostic or clinical purposes, are rapidly growing while the costs of equipment, and hence of access to services, are falling fast. In consequence, many patients and healthcare workers are facing a wide array of unfamiliar challenges, both operational and ethical, without any formal regulatory or professional framework for managing them safely. This, combined with heighted awareness of safety issues post Fukushima, means the already intense pressure on radiation safety professionals in such domains as NORM industries and security threatens to reach breaking point. A systematic competency-based capacity-building programme for RP professionals in Africa is required (Resolution of the Third AFRIRPA13 Regional Conference, Nairobi, September 2010. The goal is to meet recruitment and HR needs in the rapidly emerging radiation safety sector, while also addressing stakeholder concerns in respect of promoting and meeting professional and ethical standards. The desired outcome is an RP “dividend” to society as a whole. A curriculum model is presented, aligned to safety procedures and best practices such as Safety Integrity Level and Layer of Protection analysis; it emphasizes proactive risk communication both with direct and indirect stakeholders; and it outlines disciplinary options and procedures for managers and responsible persons for dealing with unsafe or dangerous behavior at work. This paper reports on progress to date. It presents a five-tier development pathway starting from a generic foundation course, suitable for all RP professionals, accompanied by specialist courses by domain, activity or industry. Delivery options are discussed. Part of the content has already been developed and delivered as

  15. The workers radiation protection; La radioprotection des travailleurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godet, J.L.; Lachaume, J.L.; Vidal, J.P.; Aguilar, J.; Calpena, St.; Forner, S.; Pasquier, J.L.; Gauzelin; Combrexelle, J.D.; Haranger, D.; Garcier, Y.; Radecki, J.J.; Fracas, P.; Fraboulet, P.; Roussille, F.; Helfer, N.; Vibert, M.L.; Surribas, H.; Revol, J.P.; Gouerne, R.; Menechal, P; David, C.; Briand Champlong, J.; Biau, A.; Crescini, D.; Rannou, A.; Collingwood, I.R.; Gilvin, P.J.; Tattersall, P.J.; Taylor, J.; Grolleau, N.; Guzman, O.; Labarta, T.; Montesinos, J.J.; Rosales, L.; Munoz, J.; Amor Calvo, I

    2004-05-01

    This file gathers contributions and points of view from different actors of the workers radiation protection, included two foreign contributions making reference to Spanish and British practices. (N.C.)

  16. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  17. Viewpoint on proposed radiation-protection standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed revision of 10CFR20 is discussed from a personal perspective. A brief historical review of the development of radiation standards is presented, and arguments against the proposed de minimis level elaborated upon. (ACR)

  18. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  19. Radiation protection in medicine; Strahlenschutz in der Medizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, Peter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich ' Strahlenschutzdosimetrie'

    2013-06-15

    The author describes the radiation protection of the medical personnel, the patients, and persons who help the patients in the medical application of ionizing radiation. After a description of dose limits the exposition in therapy and diagnostics is described. Finally the safe handling of radioactive materials is considered. (HSI)

  20. Study of Neutron and Gamma Radiation Protective Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandar Asadi Amirabadi; Marzieh Salimi; Nima Ghal-Eh; Gholam Reza Etaati; Hossien Asadi

    2013-01-01

    Due to the development of nuclear technology and use of these technologies in various fields of industry, medicine, research and etc, protection against radioactive rays is one of the most important topics in this field .The purpose of this is to reduce the dose rate from radioactive sources. The sources in terms of components are emitted various types of nuclear radiation with different energies. These radiations are involving of alpha particles, beta, and neutron and gamma radiation. Given ...

  1. Radiation Protection in Medical Physics : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Radiation Protection in Medical Physics Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental aspects of Radiation Protection in Medical Physics and covers three main themes: General Radiation Protection Principles; Radiobiology Principles; Radiation Protection in Hospital Medical Physics. Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advances in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. calculation of patient dose as well as that of workers in hospital, optimisation of equipment used, shielding design of radiation facilities, radiation in oncology such as use of brachytherapy in gynecology or interventional procedures. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehensive introduction to the field as well as a reliable overview of the most recent developments.

  2. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    other things. Up-to-date and documented safety analyses must be prepared and actively be included in both the preventive safety work and in connection with plant modifications. The licensees have implemented design analysis projects for a long period of time and clarified and stringent regulations for safety analyses have entered into force in 2005. As a result, updated safety reports exist for many of the facilities and schedules exist for the supplementary work that remains to be done. SKI's reinforced supervision of Barsebaeck 2 continued until the closure of the reactor on May 31, 2005. In SKI's opinion, BKAB mainly handled the lengthy facility closure in a satisfactory manner. The handling of nuclear waste at the nuclear facilities has mainly functioned well. The same applies to the operation of the Repository for Low and Intermediate-level Operational Waste (SFR-1) and the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (CLAB). The overall evaluation of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is that radiation protection at Swedish nuclear power plants has functioned well in 2005. The total radiation dose to the personnel at Swedish nuclear power plants was 9.2 manSv, which agrees with the average value of the total radiation doses over the last five years (9 manSv). No-one received a radiation dose in excess of the established dose limits and the radiation levels in the facilities are largely unchanged compared with previous years. The radiation doses to the public from the Swedish nuclear power plants continue to be low. SSI considers that continuous work is also needed in the future at the facilities to further reduce radioactive releases by applying the best available technique (BAT) and other measures. The control measurements that SSI is conducting on environmental samples from around the nuclear power facilities as well as on radioactive releases to water show a good agreement with the licensees' own measurements.

  3. Countermeasure for Radiation Protection and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during long-duration space missions is expected to cause short-term illness and increase long-term risk of cancer for astronauts. Radiation-induced free radicals overload the antioxidant defense mechanisms and lead to cellular damage at the membrane, enzyme, and chromosome levels. A large number of radioprotective agents were screened, but most had significant side effects. But there is increasing evidence that significant radioprotective benefit is achieved by increasing the dietary intake of foods with high antioxidant potential. Early plant-growing systems for space missions will be limited in both size and volume to minimize power and mass requirements. These systems will be well suited to producing plants containing high concentrations of bioprotective antioxidants. This project explored whether the production of bioprotective compounds could be increased by altering the lighting system, without increasing the space or power requirements for production, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions (light quantity, light quality, and carbon dioxide [CO2] concentration) on the production of bioprotective compounds in lettuce, which provide a biological countermeasure for radiation exposure. The specific deliverables were to develop a database of bioprotectant compounds in plants that are suitable for use on longduration space missions, develop protocols for maintaining and increasing bioprotectant production under light emitting diodes (LEDs), recommend lighting requirements to produce dietary countermeasures of radiation, and publish results in the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.

  4. Shelter from the Storm: Protecting the Chandra X-ray Observatory from Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robert A.; Morris, David C.; Virani, Shanil N.; Wolk, Scott J.; Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; O'dell, Stephen L.

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched in July 1999, and the first images were recorded by the ACIS x-ray detector in August 1999. Shortly after first light, degradation of the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency in the ACIS CCD detectors was observed, and this was quickly attributed to cumulative particle radiation damage in the CCD's, in particular from 100 keV to 200 keV protons. Since the onset of this radiation damage to ACIS, several improvements have been made to autonomous Chandra operation and ground-based operations and mission planning, to limit the effects of radiation while preserving optimum observing efficiency for the Observatory. These changes include implementing an automatic science instrument radiation protection system on Chandra, implementing a real-time radiation monitoring and alert system by the Science Operations Team, and improving the radiation prediction models used in mission planning for the Observatory. These satellite- and ground-based systems provide protection for Chandra from passages through the Earth's trapped radiation belts and outer magnetosphere and from flares and coronal mass ejections from the Sun. We describe the design and performance of the automatic on-board radiation protection system on Chandra, and the ground-based software systems and data products for real-time radiation monitoring. We also describe the development and characterize the performance of the Chandra Radiation Model (CRM), which provides predictions of the solar wind and magnetospheric proton fluxes along Chandra's orbit, indexed by the geomagnetic activity index, Kp. We compare the observed and predicted damage rates to ACIS based on net mission proton fluence, and outline planned enhancements to the CRM.

  5. On the Radiation Protection of the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soberhart, L. J.; Clausse, A.; D' Amato, E.

    2004-07-01

    Over the last decade, substantial advances in what is know as legal protection of the environment, -as a different matter from human being protection- have been made. Some national legislations include serious penalties against environmental damage. It is becoming customary to consider a serious offence any excess in the prescribed limits of radioactive materials release to the environment. What these limits mean, however, is not completely clear nowadays. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) the standards of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk, although, occasionally, individual members of non human species might be harmed. However the use of limits of radioactive releases resulting from the direct application of ICRP recommend limits as legal references for the applicable offences in environmental protection is certainly a misconception. In this paper a conceptual framework for the calculation of legal limits for environmental radioprotection are presented. The approach is based on an ecosystem perspective, assessing the impact of radioactive releases on the ecosystem dynamics and equilibrium. The method is based on functional groups models -i.e. groups of species that are selected from a number of criteria such as play similar rules in the chain of nutrients or have the same radiosensitivity- providing the basis for prescribed limits of the radioactive material release to the environment. The methodology is applied to a system of three functional groups in equilibrium, with is affected by radioactive intrusion. Different impacts on the equilibrium can be identified, depending on the amount of radioactive material released to the environment. It is shown how the concept of equilibrium breakdown can be applied in order to assess the radiological impact. (Author) 8 refs.

  6. Encouraging the radiation protection practice; Incentivando a pratica da radioprotecao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natanael O.; Cunha, Paulo C.N., E-mail: natanfisio@hotmail.com, E-mail: paulo.cunha@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Ciencias da Saude de Alagoas (UNCISAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil); Junior, Jose N.S.; Silva, Jessyca B., E-mail: nobertsilva@hotmail.com, E-mail: Jessyca.bs@hotmail.com [Escola Tecnica de Saude de Santa Barbara, Arapiraca, AL (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radiological protection of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (X-ray diagnoses, Nuclear Medicine, Radiotherapy and Dental) is essential to minimize the appearance of radiation effects. The ways to reduce the potential for exposure of workers are: Time, Distance , and Shielding. The most important purpose of radiation protection is to provide safe conditions for activities involving ionizing radiation, basic safety conditions that must be observed in professional practice. The professional must have full knowledge of the subject and deepen in the revision of norms and guidelines related to radiation protection establish by the Vigilancia Sanitaria - ANVISA, and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Brazil. The study was conducted in a technical school for the Technical Training Course in Radiology, where the students are invited to think deeply about the radiation protection of themselves, the patients and the environment. Developed since July 2012, with the participation of 30 students, with a leading class -three teachers assisting in the development of the project . With this project there was an awareness of both students, as instructors stage accompanying the daily lives of students and their own colleagues. Following the same objective in 2013 the project continues with more adept at radioprotection.

  7. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  8. Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

  9. Potential radiation doses from 1994 Hanford Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J.K.; Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the potential radiation doses to the public from releases originating at the Hanford Site. Members of the public are potentially exposed to low-levels of radiation from these effluents through a variety of pathways. The potential radiation doses to the public were calculated for the hypothetical MEI and for the general public residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the Hanford Site.

  10. Importance of establishing radiation protection culture in Radiology Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agapi Ploussi; Efstathios P Efstathopoulos

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of ionization radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the rapid advances in computed tomography as well as the high radiation doses delivered by interventional procedures have raised serious safety and health concerns for both patients and medical staff and have necessitated the establishment of a radiation protection culture(RPC) in every Radiology Department. RPC is a newly introduced concept. The term culture describes the combination of attitudes, beliefs, practices and rules among the professionals, staff and patients regarding to radiation protection. Most of the time, the challenge is to improve rather than to build a RPC. The establishment of a RPC requires continuing education of the staff and professional, effective communication among stakeholders of all levels and implementation of quality assurance programs. The RPC creation is being driven from the highest level. Leadership, professionals and associate societies are recognized to play a vital role in the embedding and promotion of RPC in a Medical Unit. The establishment of a RPC enables the reduction of the radiation dose, enhances radiation risk awareness, minimizes unsafe practices, and improves the quality of a radiation protection program. The purpose of this review paper is to describe the role and highlight the importance of establishing a strong RPC in Radiology Departments with an emphasis on promoting RPC in the Interventional Radiology environment.

  11. Radiation protection in pediatric radiology. Strahlenschutz in der Kinderradiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendel, H.; Stieve, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Because of the high growth rate of cell systems in phases of radiation exposure radiological investigations on children should not be considered unless there is a strong indication. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has worked out recommendations on radiation protection which have been published as an NCRP report. This report is most important even outside the USA. The present translation is aimed to contribute to better understanding of the bases and aims of radiation protection during radiological investigations on children. It addresses not only those physicians who carry out radiological investigations on children themselves but also all physicians requiring such investigations. For these physicians, but also for parents who are worried about the radiation risk to their children the report should be a useful source of information and decision aid ensuring, on the one hand, that necessary radiological investigations are not shunned for unjustified fear of radiation and that, on the other hand, all unnecessary exposure of children to radiation is avoided. Thus, it is to be hoped, the quality of pediatric radiological diagnostics will be improved.

  12. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2014. It was held on Nov.19-21, 2014 in Jeju, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2014. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation measurement 1, Radiation environment and protection 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and protection 2.

  13. Radiation Protection Of Outside Workers: Implementation Of The EC Council Directive 90/641/EURATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannsens, A.; Schnuer, K.; Naegele, J. [European Commission, DG Energy and Transport B. EUROFORUM, 4455, L-2920 (Luxembourg); Lefaure, C.; Vaillant, L. [Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre (CEPN) Batiment Expansion 10000, 28 rue de la Redoute, 92263 Fontenay-aux- Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the beginning of the 1980's, the problem of radiological protection of workers belonging to contracted companies (undertakings) within nuclear facilities was raised. In most of the nuclear facilities, the so-called outside workers received 80% (and even more) of the collective dose, and quite often higher individual doses than workers permanently employed by the nuclear operators. Since the outside workers radiation protection issue was not explicitly taken into account by the 1980 European Basic Safety Standards Directive, there was a need for an additional piece of European radiation protection legislation. In this context, the European Union adopted in 1990 the Council Directive 90/641/EURATOM on the radiological protection of outside workers. This Directive shall ensure at European Union level that the radiological protection situation for the outside workers is equivalent to that offered to those workers permanently employed by the operators of nuclear facilities. Since the adoption of the Directive in 1990 the geographical situation of the European Union has changed significantly. At the same time, an evolution took place in the industrial structures of the nuclear industry followed by changes of employment conditions. Furthermore, new European radiation protection requirements were issued considering scientific and technical developments in the radiological protection field and laid down in the new radiation Protection Basic Safety Standards Directive 96/29/EURATOM. Taking into account these aspects the Radiation Protection Unit of the European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport decided to investigate the current situation and the future status of the Outside Workers Directive 90/641/EURATOM. The European Commission Radiation Protection Unit thus awarded the CEPN with a contract in order to evaluate through a survey the level of regulatory, administrative and operational implementation of Directive 90/641/EURATOM into Member

  14. Health protection: Toxic agent and radiation control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    It is estimated that of the four million chemical compounds which have been synthesized or isolated from natural materials, more than 55,000 are produced commercially. Approximately 1,000 new compounds are introduced annually; pesticide formulations alone contain about 1,500 active chemical ingredients. Diagnostic x-rays are used extensively in medicine and dentistry. Over 2,000 chemicals are suspected carcinogens in laboratory animals--epidemiologic evidence suggests that 26 of these chemicals and/or industrial processes are carcinogenic in humans. More than 20 agents are known to be associated with birth defects in humans; 47 atmospheric contaminants have been identified in animal studies as recognized carcinogens and 128 as mutagens; and, of the 765 contaminants identified in drinking water, 12 were recognized carcinogens, 31 suspected carcinogens, and 59 mutagens. Radiation has known carcinogenic and genetic effects at significant levels of exposure. Problems with toxic agents and radiation sources occur not only in industry, but also in medical and dental care (x-rays and drugs), agriculture (pesticides and herbicides), Government activities (biological and chemical agents), consumer products (incorrect use of consumer products which contain toxic substances), and natural sources (fungal products).

  15. Radiation-protective polymer-matrix nanostructured composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloshkin, S.D.; Tcherdyntsev, V.V. [College of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnologies, National University of Science and Technology ' MISiS' , Leninsky Prospect, 4 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gorshenkov, M.V., E-mail: mvg@misis.ru [College of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnologies, National University of Science and Technology ' MISiS' , Leninsky Prospect, 4 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gulbin, V.N. [College of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnologies, National University of Science and Technology ' MISiS' , Leninsky Prospect, 4 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, S.A. [Russian State Technological University ' MATI' , Orshanskaya 3, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation-protective composites were fabricated by solid state intermixing and thermal pressing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composites based on UHMWPE contain B{sub 4}S and W nanopowders as fillers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical and {gamma}-radiation protective properties of the polymer-matrix nanocomposites were determined experimentally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For composites containing 12% B{sub 4}C and 12% W the mechanical properties were studied prior to and after the irradiation with fast neutrons. - Abstract: UHMWPE-based nanostructured composites containing B{sub 4}C and W nanopowders were fabricated and studied. The mechanical and {gamma}-radiation protective properties of the polymer-matrix nanocomposites were determined experimentally. For selected composites the mechanical properties were studied prior to and after the irradiation.

  16. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  17. Heavy ion radiobiology for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco

    2004-12-01

    Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is needed for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions. Although the exposure conditions (e.g. high- vs. low-dose rate) and relevant endpoints (e.g. cell killing vs. neoplastic transformation) are different in the two fields, it is clear that a substantial overlap exists in several research topics. Three such topics are discussed in this short review: individual radiosensitivity, mixed radiation fields, and late stochastic effects of heavy ions. In addition, researchers involved either in experimental studies on space radiation protection or heavy-ion therapy will basically use the same accelerator facilities. It seems to be important that novel accelerator facilities planned (or under construction) for heavy-ion therapy reserve a substantial amount of beamtime to basic studies of heavy-ion radiobiology and its applications in space radiation research.

  18. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in intraoral radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Miguel; Frieda Saicla Barros; Anna Silvia Penteado Setti da Rocha; João Gilberto Tilly Junior; Cláudio Domingues de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The dental radiology represents about 20% of human exposure to radiation in radio diagnostic. Although the doses practiced in intraoral dentistry are considered low, they should not be ignored due to the volume of the performed procedures. This study presents the radiation protection conditions for intraoral radiology in Curitiba - PR. Methods Data was collected through a quantitative field research of a descriptive nature during the period between September of 2013 a...

  19. Radiation protection optimization; Optimizacion de la proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barea, P. J.

    2009-07-01

    The basic purpose of the optimization of radiation protection in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant is to succeed in keeping the individual doses received by plant workers and the collective dose received by all of them as low as reasonably achievable. Based on this goal, the work is planned so that the individual doses and the number of people exposed to ionizing radiation are kept as low as possible (Program ALARA) in a way compatible with job execution. (Author)

  20. Contribution to developing the environment radiation protection methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A. [Institute of Atomic Power Engineering NRNU MEPhI (Russian Federation); Alexakhin, R.; Dubynina, M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The environment sustainable development and biota protection, including the environment radiation protection are issues of nowadays interest in the society. An activity is ongoing on the development of a system of radiation protection for non-human biota. Anthropocentric and eco-centric principles are widely discussed. ICRP Publications 103, 108, 114 and many other reports and articles refer to the topic of environmental protection, reference animals and plants set, corresponding transfer parameters, dose models and derived consideration reference levels. There is still an open field for discussion of methods and approaches to get well-established procedure to assess environmental risks of radiation impacts to different organisms, populations and ecosystems. A huge work has been done by the ICRP and other organizations and research groups to develop and systematize approaches for this difficult subject. This activity, however, is not everywhere well-known and perceived, and more efforts are needed to bring ideas of eco-centric strategy in the environment radiation protection not only to public but to specialists in many countries as well. One of the main points of interest is an assessment of critical doses and doses rates for flora and fauna species. Some aspects of a possible procedure to find their estimates are studied in this work, including criteria for datasets of good quality, models of dose dependence, sensitivity of different umbrella endpoints and methods of original massive datasets treatment. Estimates are done based on information gathered in a database on radiation-induced effects in plants. Data on biological effects in plants (umbrella endpoints of reproductive potential, survival, morbidity, morphological, biochemical, and genetic effects) in dependence on dose and dose rates of ionizing radiation have been collected from reviewed publications and maintained in MS Access format. The database now contains about 7000 datasets and 25000 records

  1. Shielding and Radiation Protection in Ion Beam Therapy Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroe, Andrew J.; Rightnar, Steven

    Radiation protection is a key aspect of any radiotherapy (RT) department and is made even more complex in ion beam therapy (IBT) by the large facility size, secondary particle spectra and intricate installation of these centers. In IBT, large and complex radiation producing devices are used and made available to the public for treatment. It is thus the responsibility of the facility to put in place measures to protect not only the patient but also the general public, occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed personnel working within the facility, and electronics installed within the department to ensure maximum safety while delivering maximum up-time.

  2. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  3. Beam dumps design and local radiation protection at TERA synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, A; Campi, F; Agosteo, S

    2005-01-01

    The realisation of the National Center of Hadrontherapy was funded by the Italian Government in 2002. The Centre will be built in the area of Pavia (Italy). The synchrotron designed in the framework of this programme will accelerate protons and carbon ions up to 250 MeV and 400 MeV u(-1), respectively. Some of the main aspects which were taken into account in the design of the acceleration system are the patient's safety and the beam control. From this point of view an important role is played by the beam dumps in the synchrotron ring and upstream of the extraction system. In particular, an horizontal and a vertical beam dump will be installed in the synchrotron ring: the former will be used for lowering the beam intensity and the latter for beam abortion. The dump at the extraction will absorb the particles during the mounting and the falling ramps of the synchrotron magnetic cycle, thus extracting only the flat top of the ion spill. Beam dumps can produce intense fields of secondary radiation (neutrons, charged light-hadrons and photons) and high rates of induced activity, since they can absorb the beam completely. Usually they have to be shielded to protect the electronics during machine operation and to attenuate the radiation dose below the limits imposed by the law when the personnel access to the synchrotron hall. The part of the shielding design of the beam dumps concerning with the acceleration of protons was made using Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code. Both induced activity and secondary radiation were taken into account. The shields against secondary radiation produced by carbon ions were designed, referring only to secondary neutrons, taking double-differential distributions from the literature as sources for the FLUKA simulations. The induced activity from carbon ions interactions was estimated analytically, using the data generated by the EPAX 2 code. The dose-equivalent rates from the induced radionuclides were calculated at 1 m from the

  4. Setting standards for radiation protection: A time for change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, H.W.; Hickman, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1950, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended that ``certain radiation effects are irreversible and cumulative.`` Furthermore, the ICRP ``strongly recommended that every effort be made to reduce exposures to all types of ionizing radiations to the lowest possible level.`` Then in 1954, the ICRP published its assumption that human response to ionizing radiation was linear with dose, together with the recommendation that exposures be kept as low as practicable. These concepts are still the foundation of radiation protection policy today, even though, as Evans has stated, ``The linear non-threshold (LNT) model was adopted specifically on a basis of mathematical simplicity, not from radio-biological data.... Groups responsible for setting standards for radiation protection should be abreast of new developments and new data as they are published; however, this does not seem to be the case. For example, there have been many reports in scientific, peer-reviewed, and other publications during the last three decades that have shown the LNT model and the policy of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) to be invalid. However, none of these reports has been refuted or even discussed by standard-setting groups. We believe this mandates a change in the standard-setting process.

  5. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Ito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs. We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm2, and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation.

  6. Historical report of radiation protection at GEND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The information presented in this report was collected in response to a request by the GEND Plant Manager in November 1989. Included are a basic description of early operations, significant HP activities, unusual events, and a summary of environmental releases of radioactivity since plant start up in 1957. The bulk of this information was taken from microfilm records and personal recollection by John Holliday, GEND Health Physicist 1957 - 1985, under contract No. R-00162-X.

  7. Radiation protection education of executive authorities in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timal, Guenter [Federal Ministry of the Interior, Department for Civil Protection, Civil Protection School, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-05-01

    Legal basis and the self-protection of the own action forces are the reasons, why the executive authorities (Federal Police and Federal Gendarmerie) in Austria are engaged with radiation protection. The main task of education and training is delegated to the Civil Protection School, which belongs to the Department for Civil Protection in the Federal Ministry of the Interior. The possible missions range from control of transports with dangerous goods, accidents with radioactive materials, measurements after accidents in nuclear power plants, preventing illicit trafficking up to satellite crashes. The education is split in three sections, one week each, with two examinations. For preserving the standard of education and readiness for duty a regular further education and obligatory advanced training is a basic premise. The aim of the education is to educate autonomous and self dependent action-forces, which are under compliance of self-protection in a position, to detect radioactive sources or contamination, to measure them and to secure the dangerous zone. The programs of the education and training include theoretical instructions and practical exercises. The programs are currently evaluated and updated according to the latest standards to pedagogics, didactics and technology. This radiation protection education is offered in a modified form also to other action forces and authorities who were entrusted with tasks in radiation protection (e.g. fire brigade, red cross, telecommunications, customs, citizens of municipalities, provinces and ministries) to guarantee a most preferable basic training. The programs are supplemented by special courses, as for example radiation detection with helicopters supported with a GPS-airborne monitoring system or special instruction courses in connection with border protection monitors to prevent the illicit trafficking of radioactive sources or nuclear material. (author)

  8. Radiation in dental practice: awareness, protection and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, B N; Shubhasini, A R; Bhanushree, R; Sumsum, P S; Sushma, C N

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is the transmission of energy through space and matter. There are several forms of radiation, including ionizing and nonionizing. X-rays are the ionizing radiation used extensively in medical and dental practice. Even though they provide useful information and aid in diagnosis, they also have the potential to cause harmful effects. In dentistry, it is mainly used for diagnostic purposes and in a dental set-up usually the practicing dentist exposes, processes and interprets the radiograph. Even though such exposure is less, it is critical to reduce the exposure to the dental personnel and patients in order to prevent the harmful effects of radiation. Several radiation protection measures have been advocated to ameliorate these effects. A survey conducted in the Bengaluru among practicing dentists revealed that radiation protection awareness was very low and the necessary measures taken to reduce the exposure were not adequate. The aim of the article is to review important parameters that must be taken into consideration in the clinical set-up to reduce radiation exposure to patients and dental personnel.

  9. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  10. Analysis of Radiation Exposure for Naval Personnel at Operation SANDSTONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-15

    Operation SANDSTONE Dose Reconstruction Methodology I I 2-1 Enewetak Atoll Anchorage Areas 14 2-2 Destroyer Patrol Sector Chart for Operation SANDSTONE 18...2-3 Average Free-Field Radiation Intensity for Southern and Northern Anchorage Areas - Enewetak Atoll 24 2-4 Average Free-Field Radiation Intensity...Operation SANDSTONE was the second nuclear test series held in the Marshall 0 Islands. It consisted of three nuclear weapon tests at Enewetak * Atoll in

  11. Development of a quality-based radiation protection program for a new high grade uranium mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St-Pierre, S.; Huffman, D.M. [Cogema Resources Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchwan (Canada)

    2000-05-01

    COGEMA Resources Inc.'s (CRI's) operation at McClean Lake in northern Saskatchewan, Canada will process ores from the richest uranium ore deposits in the world. With the combination of high ore grades and stringent radiation requirements, new design features and a well documented quality-based radiation protection program are required for operating the uranium mill. The new McClean Lake uranium mill incorporates such features and program. The mill began operation in June 1999 and is currently licensed for an initial production capacity of six pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} annually. The ore grades will vary up to 30% uranium. The mill design ensures that workers are separated from radioactive ore being processed through the use of a slurry handling and processing system that maximizes containment, with state-of-the-art shielding and ventilation features that protect workers against external gamma radiation, and airborne radioactive particles (radon progeny and radioactive dusts). The radiation protection program for the McClean Lake mill consists of a Radiation Protection Quality Assurance Program Manual (RPQAPM) and a series of supporting manuals, which altogether cover the 'key elements of successful health and safety management' identified in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP, 1997), Publication 75: i.e., policy and organization, planning and implementation, measuring and reviewing performance'. As lead document, the PRQAPM outlines the quality assurance administration for the program: e.g., policy statement; management review; organization and authority; staff qualifications and training; change management and non-conformities; classification of radiation areas and nuclear energy worker designation; program information; and compliance. The RPQAPM also outlines the key program elements: i.e., monitoring worker radiation doses and workplace radiological levels, monitoring ventilation, equipment protocols, management

  12. Radiation protection by disulfiram: protection of membrane and DNA in vitro and in vivo against gamma-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nitin Motilal; Gopalaswamy, Usulumarty Venu; Nair, Cherupally rishnan K

    2003-09-01

    Disufiram (a drug used for the treatment of alcoholism) protected microsomal membranes and plasmid DNA against damages induced by gamma-radiation. The peroxidation of membrane lipids increased linearly with the radiation dose up to 600 Gy, and the presence of disulfiram inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation as assayed by the presence of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. The reduction of the quantity of the supercoiled (ccc) form of plasmid pBR322 DNA is directly related to the radiation-induced damage, particularly to DNA strand breaks. There was a complete protection of plasmid DNA when exposed to gamma-radiation in the presence of disufiram (0.1 mM) at 300 Gy. This drug also protected deoxyribose against damages caused by hydroxyl radicals produced by the Fenton reaction. The administration of DSF to mice prior to whole-body radiation exposure (4 Gy) resulted in a reduction of peroxidation of membrane lipids in mice liver as well as a decrease in radiation-induced damage to cellular DNA, as assayed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The results thus suggest the possible use of DSF as a radioprotector.

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 2: Radiation Protection I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  14. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  15. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, W.K.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of presentations and discussions which took place at the US Department of Energy/Commission of European Communities (DOE/CEC) workshop on ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection,'' held at San Diego, California, January 21-22, 1987, is provided. The Department has traditionally supported fundamental research on interactions of ionizing radiation with different biological systems and at all levels of biological organization. The aim of this workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection.

  16. Looking into future: challenges in radiation protection in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, M M

    2015-07-01

    Radiation protection in medicine is becoming more and more important with increasing wider use of X-rays, documentation of effects besides the potential for long-term carcinogenic effects. With computed tomography (CT) likely to become sub-mSv in coming years, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and some of the nuclear medical examination will become focus of attraction as high-dose examinations, even though they are less-frequent ones. Clarity will be needed on radiation effects at levels of radiation doses encountered in a couple of CT scans and if effects are really cumulative. There is challenge to develop radiation metrics that can be used as easily as units of temperature and length and avoidance of multiple meaning of a single dose metric. Other challenges include development of biological indicators of radiation dose, transition from dose to a representative phantom to dose to individual patient, system for tracking of radiation exposure history of patient, avoidance of radiation-induced skin injury in patients and radiation cataract in staff, cutting down inappropriate referrals for radiological examinations, confidence building in patient and patient safety in radiotherapy.

  17. Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, A.J.; Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, IPEN/CNEN/SP, University City, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

  18. Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport; Etude des programmes de radioprotection pour les transports de matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Sert, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 (France); Lange, F.; Schwarz, G.; Feet, H.J.; Christ, R. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS, mbH, Cologne (Germany); Shaw, K.B.; Hughes, J.S.; Gelder, R. [National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), Oxon, OX (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

  19. Influence of Current Transformer Saturation on Operation of Current Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniouk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the influence of instrument current transformer errors on operation of current protection of power supply diagram elements has been carried out in the paper. The paper shows the influence of an aperiodic component of transient current and secondary load on current  transformer errors.Peculiar operational features of measuring elements of electromechanical and microprocessor current protection with their joint operation with electromagnetic current transformers have been analyzed in the paper.

  20. Twelve years of cooperation in the field of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grapengiesser, Sten; Bennerstedt, Torkel

    2005-06-01

    SSI has pursued an international cooperation program since 1992 within the field of radiation protection and emergency preparedness for radiation accidents with the three Baltic countries as main beneficiaries. As the Baltic countries are members of the EU since May 2004, this bilateral support will now be phased out and replaced with other forms of cooperation. During the years passed, a large number of activities have been launched with a total budget of some 14 million ECU. The Baltic radiation protection authorities have played a big role in the cooperation and Baltic ministries, universities, nuclear technology installations and other industries using radiation have also been engaged in the projects. SKI, SKB, Studsvik and the Swedish nuclear power plants should be mentioned as major cooperation partners on the Swedish side. During autumn 2004 when such a large coordinated work program was coming to an end, SSI decided to hold a seminar with the purpose to follow up experiences from the work and discuss coming forms of cooperation. The seminar took place on the 18 of November 2004 and gathered some 80 participants, 29 of which from the Baltic countries. It was opened by Lars-Erik Holm, the SSI Director General, and the three Baltic countries then presented their views and impressions from the passed years of cooperation. The seminar was concluded with a panel discussion on 'How to proceed from today's situation'. The result was that SSI invited to a new coordination meeting during autumn 2005 to follow up and discuss coordination of radiation protection around the Baltic Sea together with the other Nordic radiation protection authorities.

  1. Organization of central database for implementation of ionizing radiation protection in the Republic of Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubelka, D.; Svilicic, N. [Croatian Radiation Protection Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2000-05-01

    The paper is intended to give an overview of the situation in the Republic of Croatia resulting from passing of the new ionizing radiation protection law. Data collecting organization and records keeping structure will be highlighted in particular, as well as data exchange between individual services involved in ionizing radiation protection. The Radiation Protection Act has been prepared in compliance with the international standards and Croatian regulations governing the ionizing radiation protection field. Its enforcement shall probably commence in October 1999, when the necessary bylaws regulating in detail numerous specific and technical issues of particular importance for ionizing radiation protection implementation are expected to be adopted. Within the Croatian Government, the Ministry of Health is charge of ionizing radiation protection. Such competence is traditional in our country and common throughout the world. This Ministry has authorized three institutions to carry out technical tasks related to the radiation protection, such as radiation sources inspections and personal dosimetry. Such distribution of work demands coordination of all involved institutions, control of their work and records keeping. The Croatian Radiation Protection Institute has been entrusted to coordinate work of these institutions, control their activities, and set up the central national registry of radiation sources and workers, as well as doses received by the staff during their work. Since the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute is a newly established institution, we could freely determine our operational framework. Due to its publicly accessible source code and wide base of users and developers, the best prospective for stability and long-term accessibility is offered by the Linux operating system. For the database development, Oracle RDBMS was used, partly because it is a leading manufacturer of database management systems, and partly because our staff is very familiar

  2. Radiation Protection in Educational Institutions. Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, DC.

    The problems involved when radiation-producing devices of our contemporary technology are used in the teaching of science at the high school and undergraduate college level are discussed. Information is provided on the hazards involved in the use of radiation-producing equipment or radioactive materials in science demonstrations and experiments…

  3. Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D. E.; Hooker, C. D.; Herrington, W. N.; Gilchrist, R. L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

  4. Protecting geothermal operations with rupture disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.W.

    1983-02-01

    All geothermal operations begin similarly in that oil field type drilling methods are used to produce a geothermal well that will produce naturally occurring steam or hot water. In some cases, parallel wells are drilled for the purpose of injecting water into one of the 2 to provide additional water that can be heated and returned from the remaining bore, thus enhancing the output. All geothermal operations also conclude similarly, with the heat-spent condensate (brine) being re-injected into the ground, if for no other purpose than disposal. In steam operations (vs. hot water), a condensing unit is required to convert any remaining steam into brine before re-injection. The potential rupture disk applications are outlined.

  5. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, CP 04510 (Mexico); Ruby, Espejo Fonseca [Instituto de Enfermedades de la Mama FUCAM-AC, CP 04980 (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  6. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)- presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  7. High Operating Temperature, Radiation-Hard MIM Thermophotovoltaic Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spire Corporation proposes to investigate InGaAs thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells optimized for high temperature operation (~150C) and radiation hardness against the...

  8. EFFICACY OF AN ADDITIONAL MOBILE LEADED SHIELD ON OPERATOR RADIATION DURING PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luçon, Adrien; Ghrairi, Ayoub; Lecoq, Guillaume; Idali, Moussa; Huret, Bruno; Richard, Pascal; Morelle, Jean-François

    2017-04-15

    Operator radiation protection during percutaneous coronary angiography (CA) is a growing concern in the catheterisation laboratory (cath lab). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an additional mobile leaded shield on operator radiation exposure during diagnostic CA. The study involved two operators from the same cath lab and patients scheduled for diagnostic coronary catheterisation over a period of 2 months. Procedures were performed with standard radiation equipment during the first month. An additional mobile lead shield was added during the second month. Radiation exposure was measured by three dosimeters positioned on the operator's left hand, on their chest under the lead apron and on lead glasses. The intra-operator results were compared. Ninety-nine per cent of the procedures were carried out by radial access. For Operators 1 and 2, the mobile shield, respectively, decreased the radiation dose to the eyes by 43 and 33 % and to the hands by 61 and 83 %. Thorax dose was less than the minimum measurable dose (leaded shield, combined with standard preventive measures, seems to be an effective additional option to reduce the radiation exposure during diagnostic CA. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The study of the radiation protection of propolis to the radiation effects in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Y.H.; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Hasegawa, Takeo; Muto, H. [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Mie (Japan); Yanagisawa, Takaharu; Iwasa, Toshihiro; Bamen, K.

    2000-05-01

    The profit which radiation brought to the Homo sapiens is very big. But, radiation has even harmful parameter for the human besides one case. After effect on man to the radiation is thought about, the individual of which sensibility is the highest is a fetus. Therefore, even an effects to this fetus is grasped precisely, and protection criterion and resource are decided from the viewpoint of the protection of radiation as well. If it does so, a child and maturitas aren't so difficult as in the protection of radiation and the managerial side. It was examined about control group, propolis administration chisels for medical use group, 1.5 Gy independent exposure group and propolis pluse 1.5 Gy group in this study. It was examined about the protection of radiation of propolis which to malformation, fetal death, arrested development, and so on in the organogenesis (8 days post conception) being done when sensibility is the highest against the teratogenesis. Preimplantation death rate was compared with the control group and the sham control group, and statistical significant difference wasn't recognized by a 1.5 Gy radiation independent exposure group, propolis administration 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group. As for the embryonic death rate, propolis was administered, and obviously embryonic death rate was poorer than the 1.5 Gy independent exposure group, and significant difference was recognized by a 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group (p<0.001). It has a 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group made clear by this research fetal death rate propolis administer more only 1.5 Gy exposure fetal death rate development low (p<0.001). Fetal death rate wasn't recognized by propolis administration group (Sham control). As for the teratogenesis rate, propolis was administered, and the teratogenesis rate of the 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group was higher than the 1.5 Gy radiation independent exposure group. But, this is thought anamorphosis appear by propolis administration so

  10. Isolation, characterization, and radiation protection of Sipunculus nudus L. polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Shen, Xianrong; Liu, Yuming; Zhang, Junling; He, Ying; Liu, Qiong; Jiang, Dingwen; Zong, Jie; Li, Jiamei; Hou, Dengyong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Qingrong; Luo, Qun; Li, Kexian

    2016-02-01

    Sipunculus nudus Linnaeus polysaccharide (SNP) was purified from S. nudus L. via NaOH extraction, trichloroacetic acid deproteination, DEAE-cellulose 52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. The monosaccharide analysis and molecular weight was detected with HPLC. FT-IR, 1H spectrum and 13C NMR spectrum were performed to detect the chemical characteristics. The antioxidant activity was assayed in vitro. The radiation protection effects were detected on mice. The results showed that SNP was composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, arabinose and fucose, and the average molecular weight was 680 kDa. Above the concentration of 10 mg/mL, SNP showed powerful scavenging activity on hydroxyl radical. In the animals irradiated with a 7.5 Gy γ-rays, the 90 mg/kg and the 270 mg/kg SNP groups survived significantly longer than the radiation control group. In the animals irradiated with a 4.0 Gy γ-rays, SNP showed significant protection effect. The contents of DNA in bone marrow cells were significantly increased by SNP treatment, and the micronucleus rates of 30 mg/kg and 270 mg/kg SNP groups were decrease significantly compared to the radiation control group. These findings suggest that SNP possesses marked antioxidant and bone marrow damage protection capacity which play important roles in the prevention of radiation damage.

  11. Job satisfaction and its relationship to Radiation Protection Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (RPKAP) of Iranian radiation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S S; Dabbagh, S T; Abbasi, M; Mehrdad, R

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to find the association between job satisfaction and radiation protection knowledge, attitude and practice of medical radiation workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In this crosssectional study, 530 radiation workers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences completed a knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on protecting themselves against radiation and Job Descriptive Index as a job satisfaction measure during May to November 2014. Opportunities for promotion (84.2%) and payment (91.5%) were the most important factors for dissatisfaction. Radiation workers who were married, had more positive attitudes toward protecting themselves against radiation, and had higher level of education accounted for 15.8% of the total variance in predicting job satisfaction. In conclusion, medical radiation workers with a more positive attitude toward self-protection against radiation were more satisfied with their jobs. In radiation environments, improving staff attitudes toward their safety may be considered as a key strategy to increase job satisfaction.

  12. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2015. It was held on Apr. 22-24, 2015 in Yeosu, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2014. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation Measurement 1, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 2.

  13. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-10-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2015. It was held on Oct.23, 2015 Mayfield Hotel in Seoul, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2015. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation Measurement 1, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 2.

  14. Evaluation on radiation protective effect of mobile C-arm X-ray equipment reconstruction project in operation room in a hospital%某医院手术室移动C臂X线机改建项目的放射防护效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴松; 李有军; 杨勇

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate the radiation protective effect of mobile C-arm X-ray equipment reconstruction project in operation room in a hospital,ensure the radiological protection facilities meet the national relevant requirements,and protect the safety of medical staff and patients.[Methods] The field investigation and detection were applied in the comprehensive evaluation for the reconstruction project.The x-ray radiation levels of surgical position and surrounding environment (including observation window,operating board,room door,walls and adjacent rooms) were tested.[Results] X-ray radiation dose of surgical position and surrounding environment was 400 μSv/h and 0.07-0.15 μSv/h respectively,which met the Requirements for radiological protection in medical X-ray diagnosis (GBZ 130-2013).[Conclusion] The protective facilities against radiation hazard in this construction project meet the requirements of relevant laws and regulations.%目的 对某医院移动C臂X线机手术室改建项目放射防护效果进行评价,以确保放射防护设施符合国家有关要求,从而保护医护人员和患者的安全.方法 采用现场调查和检测等方法对改建项目进行综合评价.对手术操作位置和观察窗、操作台、机房门、四周墙体、相邻房间等周围环境X线辐射水平进行检测.结果 手术操作位置X射线辐射剂量<400 μSv/h,周围环境辐射剂量范围为0.07~0.15 μSv/h,其结果符合GBZ 130-2013《医用X射线诊断放射防护要求标准》的规定.结论 该建设项目放射危害的防护设施符合相关法律、法规的要求.

  15. The international radiation protection: the international actors; La radioprotection internationale: les acteurs internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Bourguignon, M.; Mercier, J.P.; Wambersie, A.; Flury-Herard, A.; Sugier, A.; Amaral, E.; Mrabit, K.; Lazo, T.; Shengli, Niu; Zhanat, Carr; Hanson, G.; Borras, C.; Perrin, M.L.; Audebert, P.; Janssens, A.; Herzeele, M.; Barre, B.; Piechowski, J.; Godet, J.L.; Lochard, J.; Lefaure, Ch.; Crouail, P.; Lacronique, J.F

    2005-12-15

    The International commission on radiation units and measurements, (ICRU) and UNSCEAR represent the basic knowledge from science. For the international recommendations in radiation protection we find ICRP, the radiological safety standards of IAEA, the Committee of radiation protection and public health of the nuclear energy agency (Nea), the role and recent activities of the ilo concerning the radiation protection of workers and the Who role in radiation protection. About the regulation elaboration for the international standardization in radiation protection we have the international standard organisation (ISO), the alimentarius Codex and the radiation protection, at the European level, the European commission and the directives lay down the basic standards in radiation protection, the scientific and technical committee of the EURATOM treaty (S.T.C.). How to use the regulation is explained trough the international radiation protection association (IRPA), the European ALARA network (E.A.N.) the international cooperation on N.R.B.C. malevolent risk. (N.C.)

  16. Evaluation of Spacecraft Shielding Effectiveness for Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    The potential for serious health risks from solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a critical issue in the NASA strategic plan for the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS). The excess cost to protect against the GCR and SPE due to current uncertainties in radiation transmission properties and cancer biology could be exceedingly large based on the excess launch costs to shield against uncertainties. The development of advanced shielding concepts is an important risk mitigation area with the potential to significantly reduce risk below conventional mission designs. A key issue in spacecraft material selection is the understanding of nuclear reactions on the transmission properties of materials. High-energy nuclear particles undergo nuclear reactions in passing through materials and tissue altering their composition and producing new radiation types. Spacecraft and planetary habitat designers can utilize radiation transport codes to identify optimal materials for lowering exposures and to optimize spacecraft design to reduce astronaut exposures. To reach these objectives will require providing design engineers with accurate data bases and computationally efficient software for describing the transmission properties of space radiation in materials. Our program will reduce the uncertainty in the transmission properties of space radiation by improving the theoretical description of nuclear reactions and radiation transport, and provide accurate physical descriptions of the track structure of microscopic energy deposition.

  17. Evaluation of additional lead shielding in protecting the physician from radiation during cardiac interventional procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Koichi; Morishima, Yoshiaki; Katahira, Yoshiaki; Chiba, Hiroo; Zuguchi, Masayuki

    2005-12-20

    Since cardiac interventional procedures deliver high doses of radiation to the physician, radiation protection for the physician in cardiac catheterization laboratories is very important. One of the most important means of protecting the physician from scatter radiation is to use additional lead shielding devices, such as tableside lead drapes and ceiling-mounted lead acrylic protection. During cardiac interventional procedures (cardiac IVR), however, it is not clear how much lead shielding reduces the physician dose. This study compared the physician dose [effective dose equivalent (EDE) and dose equivalent (DE)] with and without additional shielding during cardiac IVR. Fluoroscopy scatter radiation was measured using a human phantom, with an ionization chamber survey meter, with and without additional shielding. With the additional shielding, fluoroscopy scatter radiation measured with the human phantom was reduced by up to 98%, as compared with that without. The mean EDE (whole body, mean+/-SD) dose to the operator, determined using a Luxel badge, was 2.55+/-1.65 and 4.65+/-1.21 mSv/year with and without the additional shielding, respectively (p=0.086). Similarly, the mean DE (lens of the eye) to the operator was 15.0+/-9.3 and 25.73+/-5.28 mSv/year, respectively (p=0.092). In conclusion, although tableside drapes and lead acrylic shields suspended from the ceiling provided extra protection to the physician during cardiac IVR, the reduction in the estimated physician dose (EDE and DE) during cardiac catheterization with additional shielding was lower than we expected. Therefore, there is a need to develop more ergonomically useful protection devices for cardiac IVR.

  18. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. (Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing (China))

    1990-08-01

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

  19. RADIATION ENVIRONMENT, ORGANIZATION AND PROVIDING OF POPULATION RADIATION PROTECTION CONTROL IN ST. PETBURG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Rakitin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of radiation environment and work experience of Rospotrebnadzor Administration in St. Petersburg in the field of organizing of population radiation protection control and interaction with the local government executive bodies. It shows the level and structure of the city population collective doses from the main dose forming ionizing irradiation sources. It emphasizes the integrated method of solving the population exposure limitation issues based on the results of radiation-hygienic passport system and on the data from Uniform State System for Doses Control and Registration. The evaluation of the work being carried out is given.

  20. Radiation protection of PFMA-1, a plasma focus for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, A; Frignani, M; Mannucci, S; Mostacci, D; Rocchi, F; Sumini, M; Teodori, F; Angeli, E; Tartari, A; Cucchi, G

    2007-12-01

    A plasma focus is being developed for breeding short-lived radionuclides. The different radiation protection issues and concerns posed by the machine once in operation are analysed and discussed. Activation is shown to be totally negligible and likewise neutron emission is found to pose no concern at all. The only source of radiation risk is found to rest in the radionuclides produced, 18F and 15 O, generating a peak exposure of 1.114 Sv y(-1) at the distance of closest approach of 2.5 m. Shielding to protect against this hazard is calculated to be 5 cm Pb or 54 cm concrete for the operation area and 5.5 cm Pb for the transportation flask.

  1. Calibration for Radiation Protection Equipment for the Measuring Airborne Tritium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi-lin; SHEN; En-wei; WEI; Ke-xin; WANG; Kong-zhao; LI; Hou-wen; GE; Jian-an; LV; Xiao-xia

    2012-01-01

    <正>Monitoring airborne tritium is an important routine work in heavy water reactor nuclear power stations and the units related with tritium. Nowadays direct measuring instruments like hand carrying tritium monitors are more often used in routine workshop environment check. Need for calibrating such monitors was suggested. A trial work about the calibration for radiation protection equipment for measuring airborne tritium was carried out with a domestic standard EJ/T 1077-1998 equivalent that of IEC 710.

  2. Software for radiation protection; Software fuer den Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graffunder, H. [Ingenieurbuero Graffunder, Stutensee (Germany)

    2002-03-01

    The software products presented are universally usable programs for radiation protection. The systems were designed in order to establish a comprehensive database specific to radiation protection and, on this basis, model in programs subjects of radiation protection. Development initially focused on the creation of the database. Each software product was to access the same nuclide-specific data; input errors and differences in spelling were to be excluded from the outset. This makes the products more compatible with each other and able to exchange data among each other. The software products are modular in design. Functions recurring in radiation protection are always treated the same way in different programs, and also represented the same way on the program surface. The recognition effect makes it easy for users to familiarize with the products quickly. All software products are written in German and are tailored to the administrative needs and codes and regulations in Germany and in Switzerland. (orig.) [German] Die hier vorgestellten Softwareprodukte sind universell einsetzbare Programme fuer den Strahlenschutz. Die Systeme wurden mit dem Ziel erstellt, eine umfangreiche strahlenschutz-spezifische Datenbasis zu erschaffen und darauf basierend Themen des Strahlenschutzes programmtechnisch abzubilden. Der Schwerpunkt der Entwicklungen lag zunaechst bei der Schaffung der Datenbasis. Jedes Softwareprodukt sollte auf dieselben nuklidspezifischen Daten zurueckgreifen, Eingabefehler und unterschiedliche Schreibweisen sollten von vorneherein ausgeschlossen werden. Die Produkte selbst wurden damit kompatibel zueinander und koennen Daten untereinander austauschen. Die Softwareprodukte sind modular aufgebaut. Im Strahlenschutz wiederkehrende Funktionen werden in verschiedenen Programmen immer gleich behandelt und auf der Programmoberflaeche auch gleich dargestellt. Der Wiedererkennungseffekt vereinfacht es den Anwendern, sich schnell mit den Produkten anzufreunden. Alle

  3. A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W., E-mail: rwl@ornl.gov

    2012-03-15

    The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and endogenous excretion of zinc have been derived as fits to data for specific study groups. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and the model for zinc currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection yield reasonably similar estimates of total-body retention and effective dose for internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but much different systemic distributions of activity and much different dose estimates for some individual tissues, particularly the liver. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc is an essential trace element with numerous functions in the human body. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several biokinetic models for zinc have been developed from tracer studies on humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed in radiation protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biokinetic data for zinc are reviewed and a new biokinetic model is proposed for radiation protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed model

  4. Protection Strategy of Sensitive Body Organs in Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfath, Ramin M.; Papiez, Lech

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate protection strategies of sensitive body anatomy against the irradiation to the cancerous moving tumors in intensity modulated radiation therapy. Inspired by optimization techniques developed in statistical physics and dynamical systems, we deploy a method based on variational principles and formulate an efficient genetic algorithm which enable us to search for global minima in a complex landscape of irradiation dose delivered to the radiosensitive organs at risk....

  5. Development of Functional Foods for Body Protection Using Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, S. K.; Jung, U. H.; Park, H. R.

    2007-07-15

    We have previously developed two herbal compositions(HemoHIM, HemoTonic) that protects immune/hematopoietic system and self-renewal tissues against radiation and enhances immune/hematopoietic functions. In this study, we tried to expand its usability by verifying its protective activity against various harmful stimuli as well as radiation. HemoHIM was shown to be highly effective in reducing immune/hematopoietic damage, particularly, normalizing the Th1/Th2 imbalance, which seemed to be a result of increased production of IL-12p70 by APC and enhanced NK cell activity. Also HemoHIM was shown to have protective activities against UV-induced skin damage, immune system damage by an anticancer drug (CP), immune depression by old age and stress, and inflammation. Finally it was confirmed in a human study that HemoHIM improves the immune cell functions and cytokine production. Based on these results, HemoHIM has been approved as a health functional food for immunomodulation by Korea FDA and succeeded in its industrialization. Meanwhile, to develop functional foods for the reduction of chronic radiation damage (carcinogenesis), we have screened natural products for inhibitory activities against carcinogenesis-related factors, and developed two anti-carcinogenic compositions. Also 6 single compounds were isolated and identified from radioprotective natural products and elucidated some synergistic protection by several single compounds and established a basis for the development of advanced technology for radioprotection. Also, to obtain the applicability of radiation technology for the safe sanitatation and distribution of functional food materials, we verified the toxicological safety, stability of activity and active components of irradiated medicinal herbs

  6. Protection Strategy of Sensitive Body Organs in Radiation Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Abolfath, Ramin M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate protection strategies of sensitive body anatomy against the irradiation to the cancerous moving tumors in intensity modulated radiation therapy. Inspired by optimization techniques developed in statistical physics and dynamical systems, we deploy a method based on variational principles and formulate an efficient genetic algorithm which enable us to search for global minima in a complex landscape of irradiation dose delivered to the radiosensitive organs at risk. We take advantage of the internal motion of body anatomy during radiation therapy to reduce the unintentional delivery of the radiation to sensitive organs. We show that the accurate optimization of the control parameters, compare to the conventional IMRT and widely used delivery based on static anatomy assumption, leads to a significant reduction of the dose delivered to the organs at risk.

  7. Novel Radiation Protection System Enabled by Hydrogen Enhanced Nano Fibers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for radiation protection in humans is critical to the success of the nation's continued presence in space. A new radiation protection system will be...

  8. Radiation Protection of Medical Personnel%医护人员的放射防护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冠石

    2013-01-01

    医院放射防护项目是为了降低患者和医护人员受到的放射性辐射,保护他们的健康和权益.医院放射防护项目的指导思想是放射防护最优化(As Low as Reasonably Achievable,ALARA)方案,其主旨是根据具体操作和照射部位来调整并优化放射诊疗方案.%The purpose of radiation safety programs in hospitals is to lower the radiation dose received by patients and medical personnel,and to protect their health.The guideline for radiation safety programs is ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) law,which is intended to adjust diagnostic and therapeutic techniques according to specific radiation operation and the photographed part of the body.

  9. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  10. Radiation protection research projects. Status report 2007; Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Goedde, Ralph; Hachenberger, Claudia; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie

    2009-01-15

    In Behalf of the German Federal Environment Ministry (BMU) the BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) assigns research contracts concerning radiation protection topics. The results of these research projects are supposed to provide decision support for the development of radiation protection regulations and other specific radiation protection tasks of the BMU. The BfS is basically charged for the planning, the technical and administrative prearrangements, the assignment, the expert monitoring and the technical evaluation of the results. The report is the compiled information on the results or intermediate results (status reports) of these research projects for the year 2007. [German] Das Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) vergibt im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU) Forschungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet des Strahlenschutzes. Die Ergebnisse dieser Vorhaben dienen als Entscheidungshilfen bei der Erarbeitung von Strahlenschutzvorschriften und bei der Erfuellung sonstiger Fachaufgaben des BMU im Bereich Strahlenschutz. Die Planung, fachliche und administrative Vorbereitung, Vergabe, Begleitung sowie die fachliche Bewertung der Ergebnisse der Untersuchungsvorhaben ist grundsaetzlich Aufgabe des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz. Der vorliegende Bericht informiert ueber die Ergebnisse bzw. Zwischenergebnisse (in Form von Statusberichten) von Strahlenschutzvorhaben des BMU-Ressortforschungsprogramms im Jahr 2007. (orig.)

  11. Improving standards of radiation protection in medical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginjaume, M.; Ortega, X. [Institute of Energy Technology, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya - UPC (Spain); Carinou, E. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission - GAEC (Greece); Vanhavere, F. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN (Belgium); Clairand, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Gualdrini, G. [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e l' Ambiente - ENEA (Italy); Sans-Merce, M. [University Hospital Center Vaudois - CHUV (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation has led to major improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. However, new developments in medical technology and the increased complexity of medical radiation techniques can produce high doses to medical personnel. In particular, interventional radiology and cardiology and nuclear medicine have been identified as fields where medical staff can receive potentially high doses. Within this framework, the ORAMED project, a collaborative project funded by the EU FP7, proposes new methodologies to improve standards of protection for medical staff. The main studied topics presented in this paper include extremity and eye-lens protection in interventional radiology and cardiology, extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine, especially in therapy and positron emission tomography, and the evaluation and the improvement of active personal dosemeters used in pulsed medical radiation fields. An extensive dose measurement campaign of doses received in extremities and eye-lenses in more than 60 hospitals from 9 European countries has been undertaken. The analysis of the results highlights the most critical procedures and the effectiveness of the protection measures. (authors)

  12. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  13. Radiation safety and protection in U.S. dental hygiene programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, A G; Hunter, N; Grammer, S

    1986-07-01

    A survey of radiation safety and protection measures used by programs teaching dental hygiene indicated some areas for concern. No barriers or radiation shieldings were used between operator and patient in four programs. Radiation monitoring devices were not worn by faculty operators in 16% of the programs. Fewer than half of the programs used thyroid shields for patients on a routine basis. Insufficient filtration for the kilovolt peak employed was used by 14% of the programs, and for 19% more the filtration was unknown or unspecified. Three programs used closed cones. Rectangular collimation was not used at all by 63% of the programs, and only 20% used E speed film routinely. Quality assurance for equipment maintenance and for film processing were in place at only 54% and 49% of the programs, respectively.

  14. Radiation Protection Study for the Shielding Design of the LINAC4 Beam Dump at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine an optimal shielding of the LINAC4 beam dump fulfilling the radiation protection requirements. Therefore a detailed Monte-Carlo calculation using FLUKA particle transport and interaction code has been performed and the relevant physics quantities, such as particle fluences, neutron energy spectra, residual and prompt dose rates, air and water activation have been evaluated for different LINAC4 operation phases.

  15. Integration using invariant operators Conformally flat radiation metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Edgar, S B

    1999-01-01

    A new method is presented for obtaining the general conformally flat radiation metric by using the differential operators of Machado Ramos and Vickers (a generalisation of the GHP operators) which are invariant under null rotations and spin and boosts. The solution is found by constructing involutive tables of these derivatives applied to the quantities which arise in the Karlhede classification of metrics.

  16. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005; Congres National de Radioprotection - SFRP 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagroye, I. [Bordeaux Univ., Lab. de Bioelectromagnetisme de l' EPHE, Lab. PIOM, ENSCPB, 33 (France); Gonzague, A. [EDF, Centre d' appui du parc en exploitation, Groupe prevention des risques environnement, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Ammerich, M. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la radioprotection (DGSNR), 75 - Paris (France); Blanc, D.; Lecomte, J.F.; Boucher, D.; Boucher, D.; Averbeck, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Barbey, P.; Bourguignon, M.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Radecki, J.J.; Schieber, C.; Cosset, J.M.; Lecomte, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Metivier, H.; Sugier, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Aurengo, A.; Lamartine, J.; Martin, M.; Mallard, C.; Malfoy, B.; Ugolin, N.; Chevillard, S.; Schlumberger, M.; Laurier, D.; White-Koning, M.L.; Hemon, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Jougla, E.; Clavel, J.; Miccoli, L.; Barber, R.; Angulo, J.F.; Dubrova, Y.E.; Le Gall, B.; Phan, G.; Grillon, G.; Rouit, E.; Benech, H.; Fattal, E.; Deverre, J.R.; Legros, A.; Beuter, A.; Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Schmitt, P.; Roth, P.; Nadi, M.; Joly, L.; Chapel, C.; Burgain, A.; Marliot, F.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D.; Elabbassi, E.B.; Seze, R. de

    2005-07-01

    particular contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of

  17. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  18. Application of virtual reality procedures in radiation protection and dose estimation for workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunck, C.; Becker, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Research; Urban, M. [WAK GmbH Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe, Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    When people need to work in an environment where radiation fields are present, one has to think about the operation procedure in respect of radiation protection. This is valid for routine as well as for special work situations where radiation protection precautions are necessary. In order to give an advice about the safest way of operation and adequate shielding measures, it is necessary to analyse the radiation field and possible dose exposures at relevant positions in the working area. Since the field can be very inhomogeneous, extensive measurements could be needed for this purpose. In addition it is possible, that the field is not present before the time of work and a measurement could be troublesome or not possible at all. In this case, a simulation of the specific scenario could be an efficient way to analyse the radiation fields and determine possible exposures at different places. If an adequate phantom is used, it is even possible to determine personal doses like H{sub p}(10) or H{sub p}(0.07). However in most work situations, exposure is not a static scenario. The radiation field varies if the source or its surrounding objects change place. Furthermore people or parts of their bodies are usually in motion. Hence simulations of movements in inhomogeneous time and space variant radiation fields are desirable for dose assessment. In such a ''virtual reality'' working procedures could be trained or analysed without any exposure. We present an approach of simulating hand movements in inhomogeneous beta and photon radiation fields by means of an articulated hand phantom. As an example application, the hand phantom is used to simulate the handling of a Y-90 source. (orig.)

  19. Protective effect of corticosteroids on radiation pneumonitis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, N.J.; Narine, K.R.; Wade, R.

    1988-01-01

    We explored the protective effect of corticosteroids on the mortality of mice that received thoracic irradiation. Methylprednisolone, 100 mg/kg/week, given from 11 weeks after gamma irradiation of the thorax resulted in an increase in the LD50 (11-26 weeks) from 14.3 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SE) Gy to 17.6 +/- 0.4 Gy, P less than 0.001, a protection factor of 1.2. Withdrawal of steroids at various times during the period of radiation pneumonitis resulted in accelerated mortality in the next 2-4 weeks, so that the cumulative mortality caught up with that of control animals by 4 weeks after steroid withdrawal. However, after the end of the usual period of pneumonitis withdrawal of steroids did not result in accelerated mortality, suggesting that the time when steroids are protective corresponds to the duration of pneumonitis. A smaller dose of steroids, 25 mg/kg/week, was found to be as protective as the larger dose used in the above experiments. The possibility that corticosteroids reduce mortality, even when given many weeks after radiation, may have important practical and theoretical implications.

  20. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  1. Radiation protection. The past and the future; Strahlenschutz. Vergangenheit und Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Rolf

    2016-11-01

    After a short summary of the history of radiation protection and its scientific basis a survey is given on the actual state of radiation protection, thereby entering into open questions like risk perception and communication with the general public. Finally, the future tasks of radiation protection are described.

  2. 78 FR 19148 - Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for Dry Storage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 72 Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and...-ISG-26A), Revision 0, ``Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for... to NRC staff when reviewing the shielding and radiation protection portions of applications...

  3. Radiation protection: Radiation dose units and fundamentals. Correct use of radiation dose units, measurements, risk assessment; Dosisbegriffe und Grundlagen im Strahlenschutz. Dosisbegriffe richtig anwenden, Messgroessen bestimmen, Risiken bewerten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkerts, K.H.; Wolf, H.

    2005-07-01

    Radiation protection intends to prevent radiation damage by appropriate staff-related and technical measures in accordance with the specifications of the German X-Ray Ordinance (RoV) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) and in agreement with the ICRLP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). They require that radiation use must be justified, exposure conditions must be optimised, and exposure times must be limited to the shortest time necessary. In practical use, this requires considerable practical and theoretical knowledge from the user concerning the physical properties of radiation sources, interactions with tissue and matter of different types of radiation, and biological effects of radiation. National and international organizations and committees have specified the knowledge which a user must have as follows: Physical fundamentals of radiation protection; Measuring quantities and specified standard units; Organisational and constructional radiation protection; Legal knowledge. (orig.)

  4. Seventh meeting of radiation protection skilled persons; Septiemes rencontres des personnes competentes en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhel, Th.; Briandchamplong, J.; Gambini, D.J.; Ammerich, M.; Aubert, B.; Barbey, P.; Biau, A.; Bruchet, H.; Capelle, M.H.; Flon, E.; Gauron, Ch.; Gravelotte, D.; Guerin, Ch.; Le Denmat, D.; Lemoine, Th.; Lombard, J.; Lucas, St.; Menechal, Ph.; Mignien, S.; Million, M.; Mozziconacci, J.G.; Prevot, S.; Radecki, J.J.; Rigaud, S.; Taillandier, P.; Timbert, M.; Vidal, J.P.; Bardelay, Ch.; Lahaye, Th.; Balduyck, S.; Chasson, E.; Rehel, J.L.; Chatellier, Ch.; Barret, Ch.; Guersen, J.; Degrange, J.P.; Sevestre, B.; Lahaye, Th.; Rodde, S.; Marchal, C.; Lefaure, Ch.; Bouk' il, H.; Gneiting, M.; Auboiroux, B.; Riedel, A.; Feuardent, J.; Scanff, P.; Bof, M.; Lochard, J.; Godet, J.L.

    2011-07-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during these conference days. Twenty-three presentations out of 25 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of workers' international protection rules against ionizing radiation risks (C. Bardelay); 2 - presentation of the report of the working group on radiation protection (P. Barbey); 3 - position of the French nuclear safety authority and of the labor general direction about the position of permanent expert groups in radiation protection concerning the expected evolutions in the occupation and training of radioprotection skilled persons (RSP), (T. Lahaye); 4 - experience feedback: RSP in surgery operating theater - a sometimes delicate intervention (S. Balduyck); 5 - workplace analysis in dental surgery: constraints and specificities (D. Le Denmat); 6 - workplace analysis: tritium atmospheric contamination (S. Rigaud); 7 - revision of the NFC 15-160 standard relative to radiology facilities (J.L. Rehel); 8 - example of area tele-dosimetry usage - the Pitie Salpetriere hospital experiment (C. Chatellier and C. Barret); 9 - contribution of radio-attenuation lead gloves in interventional radiology (J. Guersen); 10 - zoning in the medical domain: encountered problems typology and evaluation of possible solutions (Degrange, J.P.); 11 - management of used sealed sources distributed by the CEA and CISBIO (B. Sevestre); 12 - how to perform a measurement in radiation protection - how about measurement uncertainty (M. Ammerich); 13 - national campaign of control about the application of workers radiation protection rules (T. Lahaye); 14 - transparency and inspection approach in local nuclear applications: gamma-graphy, research, nuclear medicine, interventional radiography and radiotherapy (S. Rodde and C. Marchal); 15 - local/regional networks of RSPs and radiation protection actors: 2008 audit results and recent evolutions (C. Lefaure); 16 - role and missions of the external

  5. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  6. LIPAc personnel protection system for realizing radiation licensing conditions on injector commissioning with deuteron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroki, E-mail: takahashi.hiroki@jaea.go.jp [IFMIF/EVEDA Accelerator Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Narita, Takahiro; Kasugai, Atsushi [IFMIF/EVEDA Accelerator Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Kojima, Toshiyuki [Gitec Co. Ltd., Hachinohe, Aomori (Japan); Marqueta, Alvaro; Nishiyama, Koichi [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sakaki, Hironao [Quantum Beam Science Center, JAEA, Kizu, Kyoto (Japan); Gobin, Raphael [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, Gif/Yvette (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Personnel Protection System (PPS) is developed to adapt the radiation licensing. • PPS achieves the target performance to secure the personnel safety. • Pulse Duty Management System (PDMS) is developed to manage the beam-operation-time. • Satisfying performance of PDMS is confirmed by injector operation with H+ beam. • By the result of PPS and PDMS tests, the radiation license was successfully obtained. - Abstract: The performance validation of the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc), up to the energy of 9 MeV deuteron beam with 125 mA continuous wave (CW), is planned in Rokkasho, Japan. There are three main phases of LIPAc performance validation: Injector commissioning, RFQ commissioning and LIPAc commissioning. Injector commissioning was started by H{sup +} and D{sup +} beam. To apply the radiation licensing for the Injector commissioning, the entering/leaving to/from accelerator vault should be under control, and access to the accelerator vault has to be prohibited for any person during the beam operation. The Personnel Protection System (PPS) was developed to adapt the radiation licensing conditions. The licensing requests that PPS must manage the accumulated D{sup +} current. So, to manage the overall D{sup +} beam time during injector operation, Pulse Duty Management System (PDMS) was developed as a configurable subsystem as part of the PPS. The PDMS was tested during H{sup +} beam (as simulated D{sup +}) operation, to confirm that it can handle the beam inhibit from Injector before the beam accumulation is above the threshold value specified in the radiation licensing condition. In this paper, the design and configuration of these systems and the result of the tests are presented.

  7. Studies on Radiation Protection Effect of the Beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jong Gi; Ha, Tae Young; Hwang, Chul; Hyan; Lee, Young Hwa [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Busan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    In this study, it was investigated whether commercially produced beer is able to prevent a lymphocyte from radiation induced apoptosis. Whole blood samples were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers (male, 26-38 years old) and the lymphocyte were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte were investigated by 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy irradiation. In some experiments, the donor drunk beer and then blood samples were collected. In other experiments, melatonin or glycine betain was added to lymphocyte culture medium. Treated or untreated lymphocytes were cultured for 60 hours and radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte was analyzed by annexin-V staining through flow cytometery. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the untreated lymphocytes is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.38{+-}1.0, 1.47{+-}1.1, 1.50{+-}1.2 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes is isolated from beer drunken donors is 0.971.0, 0.991.0, 1.11{+-}0.9, 1.29{+-}1.1, 1.15{+-}1.1 by radiation doses respectively which are reduced 21.5% compared with untreated lymphocyte. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the lymphocytes is isolated from non-alcohol beer drunken donors is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.17{+-}1.1, 1.13{+-}1.3, 1.38{+-}1.2, 1.32{+-}1.1 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively which are reduced 10.8% compared with the untreated lymphocyte. As a result, it is suggested that beer may protect the lymphocyte from radiation damage and inhibit apoptosis.

  8. Meeting the Needs for Radiation Protection: Diagnostic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frush, Donald P

    2017-02-01

    Radiation and potential risk during medical imaging is one of the foremost issues for the imaging community. Because of this, there are growing demands for accountability, including appropriate use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic and image-guided procedures. Factors contributing to this include increasing use of medical imaging; increased scrutiny (from awareness to alarm) by patients/caregivers and the public over radiation risk; and mounting calls for accountability from regulatory, accrediting, healthcare coverage (e.g., Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services), and advisory agencies and organizations as well as industry (e.g., NEMA XR-29, Standard Attributes on CT Equipment Related to Dose Optimization and Management). Current challenges include debates over uncertainty with risks with low-level radiation; lack of fully developed and targeted products for diagnostic imaging and radiation dose monitoring; lack of resources for and clarity surrounding dose monitoring programs; inconsistencies across and between practices for design, implementation and audit of dose monitoring programs; lack of interdisciplinary programs for radiation protection of patients; potential shortages in personnel for these and other consensus efforts; and training concerns as well as inconsistencies for competencies throughout medical providers' careers for radiation protection of patients. Medical care providers are currently in a purgatory between quality- and value-based imaging paradigms, a state that has yet to mature to reward this move to quality-based performance. There are also deficits in radiation expertise personnel in medicine. For example, health physics academic programs and graduates have recently declined, and medical physics residency openings are currently at a third of the number of graduates. However, leveraging solutions to the medical needs will require money and resources, beyond personnel alone. Energy and capital will need to be directed to

  9. Stakeholders and Radiation Protection in Today's World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Jones, C. [Retired US DOE (United States); Lochard, J. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Lazo, T. [OECD/NEA - Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    In looking forward the C.R.P.P.H.(Nea 's Committee on radiation protection and public health) identified three influences that will condition the way we address emerging issues, and will alter how we address ongoing issues. These are the involvement of stakeholders in decision making processes, the evolution of radiological protection science and its changing place in risk assessment and management, and the experience gained in implementing the current system of radiological protection. First among there is the growing importance of stakeholder involvement in radiation protection decision making. This has affected the way that the principles of justification, optimization and limitation are viewed, the way the role of the radiation protection professional in risk assessment and management is viewed, and the relative importance of case specific circumstances in relation to harmonized, internationally accepted criteria. In the wake of this change, the international system of radiological protection is being updated by the ICRP, and discussions of the most appropriate direction to take are nearing their end. Second, radiological protection science continues to identify specific aspects that do not fit the conventional linear non threshold model, and which us to consider that, at the very least, the risks from different exposures and exposure situations may not be as simply and universally comparable assumed. This will affect the way that risks are managed, and all relevant stakeholder involvement processes. In addition, decisions relating to public, worker and environmental health and safety are increasingly seen as judgement social choices. Although such choices must be guided by an understanding of state-of-the-art scientific and its uncertainties, the final, choice will generally be made by society, not scientists. Third, since the issuance of ICRP Publication 60 in 1990, and the International Basic Safety Standards in 1996, extensive experience has been

  10. Are the urology operating room personnel aware about the ionizing radiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Tok

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: We assessed and evaluated attitudes and knowledge regarding ionizing radiation of urology surgery room staff. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent by e-mail to urology surgery room personnel in Turkey, between June and August 2013. The questionnaire included demographic questions and questions regarding radiation exposure and protection. Results: In total, 127 questionnaires were answered. Of them, 62 (48.8% were nurses, 51 (40.2% were other personnel, and 14 (11% were radiological technicians. In total, 113 (89% participants had some knowledge of radiation, but only 56 (44.1% had received specific education or training regarding the harmful effects of radiation. In total, 92 (72.4% participants indicated that they used a lead apron and a thyroid shield. In the subgroup that had received education about the harmful effects of radiation, the use ratio for all protective procedures was 21.4% (n=12; this ratio was only 2.8% (n=2 for those with no specific training; the difference was statistically significant (p=0.004. Regarding dosimeters, the use rates were 100% for radiology technicians, 46.8% for nurses, and 31.4% for other hospital personnel; these differences were statistically significant (p<0.001. No significant relationship between working period in the surgery room, number of daily fluoroscopy procedures, education, task, and use of radiation protection measures was found. Conclusions: It is clear that operating room-allied health personnel exposed to radiation do not have sufficient knowledge of ionizing radiation and they do not take sufficient protective measures.

  11. Radiation protection in brachytherapic treatment of prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannino, G.; Bona, R.; Occhipinti, A. [Catania Univ. Hospital, ' Vittorio Emanuele, Ferrarotto e Santo Bambino' (Italy); Testagrossa, B.; Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G. [Messina Univ., Dept. of Protezionistica Ambientale, Sanitaria, Sociale ed Industriale (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate absorbed doses for medical staff and general public deriving from prostate brachytherapy with I-125 seeds. Methods And Materials: Radiation exposure measurements were made for staff and on a subset of 64 patients of the 100 trans perineal I-125 implanted seeds implants at the Vittorio Emanuele, Ferrarotto e Santo Bambino Universitary Hospital. Results: Absorbed doses for operators are very low when using radiation safety devices. The exposure rate at the anterior skin surface due to I-125 implanted seeds ranged from 32 to 120 {mu}Sv/hour. Conclusions: The evaluation of dose measurements shows that radiation risk associated to this practice is very low, both for staff that for critical group of population, if they follow the specific radioprotection statements supplied by health physicists. (authors)

  12. Radiation protection program for declared pregnant workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J Margo

    2003-05-01

    This article presents an overview of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Fetal Radiation Protection Program (FRP) that satisfies the requirements set forth in 10 CFR 835 and LANL's Radiation Protection Program. At LANL, the FRP is one of three components of the larger Reproductive Health Hazards Program, which also includes Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene. Although pregnant employees usually enter the program through Occupational Medicine, coordination with all three groups is achieved. The most important part of the FRP Program is performance of the workplace evaluation at the pregnant worker's workplace. At the meeting between the health physicist and the pregnant employee, the following topics are reviewed: risks to the embryo/fetus of working around sources of ionizing radiation; LANL's requirements and 10 CFR 835 regulations; her dose history; basic methods of radiation protection; and a detailed discussion of the work assignments/locations that enables the health physicist to complete an evaluation of the level of radiological hazards. Interface with her supervisor and the Operational Health Physics health physicist in charge of her work areas is essential in acquiring additional information. All of these data, including the radiation dose history and recommendations for possible work modifications or reassignment, are summarized in the workplace evaluation memo, which becomes part of the pregnant employee's medical file. Using input from LANL's legal staff, the author developed a document titled "Guidance to the Supervisors Regarding Fetal Radiation Protection and Reproductive Health Hazards," which instructs supervisors regarding the requirements and regulations, contact names for workplace evaluations, and, very importantly, how to avoid discriminatory behavior against pregnant employees.

  13. Radiation exposure of personnel during intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT): radiation protection aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigari, L; Soriani, A; Landoni, V; Teodoli, S; Bruzzaniti, V; Benassi, M

    2004-09-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a multidisciplinary procedure which combines two conventional methods of cancer treatment surgery and radiation therapy. The purpose is to deliver a large single dose to the surgically exposed tumor bed while minimizing doses to normal tissues. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is a technique which allows irradiating the patient directly after the surgical operation using a linear accelerator that can be situated in the operating room. For medical accelerators with energy over 10MeV the need to characterize the neutron spectra for this particular situation arises from the fact that, when neutron spectra is not fully known, it becomes necessary to be more cautious introducing a weight factor wR of 20 (maximum value). This leads to overesteem the equivalent dose due to neutrons and it indicates to introduce additional (mobile) shields for photon and neutrons radiation not easily achievable in an operating room.

  14. A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and loss of systemic zinc in excreta have been developed from the derived data. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and current radiation protection model for zinc yield broadly similar estimates of effective dose from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but substantially different dose estimates for several individual tissues, particularly the liver.

  15. A training syllabus for radiation protection in dental radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, A; Dowling, A; Renehan, J; Clarke, D; Malone, J F

    2008-01-01

    The EU Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM (MED) states that Member States shall ensure that adequate theoretical and practical training is provided for dental practitioners working with ionising radiation; this also includes the provision of continuing education and training programmes, post-qualification. The area of dental radiology is specifically mentioned in this legally binding document. The Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James's Hospital, Dublin, is particularly interested in the area of radiation protection training and routinely provides educational courses both at national and international levels. A recent review of their dental radiation protection course was undertaken in conjunction with a number of Principal Dental Surgeons within the Health Service Executive in Ireland. The revised course was delivered to over 200 dental staff members at two separate meetings during 2006. The response from attendees was very positive. It is proposed to extend this course to other dental professionals, working both in the Irish private and public health sectors in the future.

  16. Radiation Protection Studies for LCLS Tune Up Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana-Leitner, M.; Fass, A.; Mao, S.; Nuhn, H.D.; /SLAC; Roesler, S.; /CERN; Rokni, S.; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a pioneer fourth generation hard x-ray free electron laser that shall start to deliver laser pulses in 2009. Among other components of LCLS that present radiation protection concerns, the tune up dump (tdund) is of special interest because it also constitutes an issue for machine protection, as it is placed close to radiation sensitive components, like electronic devices and permanent magnets in the undulators. This paper first introduces the stopper of tdund looking at the heat load, and then it describes the shielding around the dump necessary to maintain the prompt and residual dose within design values. Next, preliminary comparisons of the magnetization loss in a dedicated on-site magnet irradiation experiment with FLUKA simulations serve to characterize the magnetic response to radiation of magnets like those of LCLS. The previous knowledge, together with the limit for the allowed demagnetization, are used to estimate the lifetime of the undulator. Further simulations provide guidelines on which lifetime can be expected for an electronic device placed at a given distance of tdund.

  17. Radiation protection optimisation techniques and their application in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C

    1996-12-31

    Since the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendation 60, the optimisation principle appears to be the core of the radiation protection system. In practice applying it, means implementing an approach both predictive and evolutionary - that relies essentially on a prudent and responsible state of mind. the formal expression of this process, called optimization procedure, implies and indispensable tool for its implementation: the system of monetary values for the unit of collective dose. During the last few years, feed ALARA principle means that a global work management approach must be adopted, considering together all factors contributing to radiation dose. In the nuclear field, the ALARA approach appears to be more successful when implemented in the framework of a managerial approach through structure ALARA programmes. Outside the nuclear industry it is necessary to clearly define priorities through generic optimisation studies and ALARA audits. At the international level much efforts remain to be done to expand efficiently the ALARA process to internal exposure as well as to public exposure. (author) 2 graphs, 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Highly Catalytic Nanodots with Renal Clearance for Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Junying; Yang, Jiang; Chen, Jie; Shen, Xiu; Deng, Jiao; Deng, Dehui; Long, Wei; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Changlong; Li, Meixian

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (gamma and x-ray) is widely used in industry and medicine, but it can also pose a significant hazardous effect on health and induce cancer, physical deformity and even death, due to DNA damages and invasion of free radicals. There is therefore an urgent unmet demand in designing highly efficient radioprotectants with synergetic integration of effective renal clearance and low toxicity. In this study, we designed ultrasmall (sub-5 nm) highly catalytically active and cysteine-protected MoS2 dots as radioprotectants and investigated their application in protection against ionizing radiation. In vivo preclinical studies showed that the surviving fraction of MoS2-treated mice can appreciably increase to up to 79 % when they were exposed to high-energy ionizing radiation. Furthermore, MoS2 dots can contribute in cleaning up the accumulated free radicals within the body, repairing DNA damages and recovering all vital chemical and biochemical indicators, suggesting their unique role as free radical...

  19. A training syllabus for radiation protection in dental radiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, A

    2008-01-01

    The EU Council Directive 97\\/43\\/EURATOM (MED) states that Member States shall ensure that adequate theoretical and practical training is provided for dental practitioners working with ionising radiation; this also includes the provision of continuing education and training programmes, post-qualification. The area of dental radiology is specifically mentioned in this legally binding document. The Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James\\'s Hospital, Dublin, is particularly interested in the area of radiation protection training and routinely provides educational courses both at national and international levels. A recent review of their dental radiation protection course was undertaken in conjunction with a number of Principal Dental Surgeons within the Health Service Executive in Ireland. The revised course was delivered to over 200 dental staff members at two separate meetings during 2006. The response from attendees was very positive. It is proposed to extend this course to other dental professionals, working both in the Irish private and public health sectors in the future.

  20. Radiation protection in interventional radiology; Strahlenschutz in der interventionellen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamus, R.; Loose, R.; Galster, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg Nord, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Nuernberg (Germany); Wucherer, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg Nord, Institut fuer Medizinische Physik, Nuernberg (Germany); Uder, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Radiologie, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x-ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X-ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses. (orig.) [German] Die Anwendung ionisierender Strahlung in der Medizin scheint sowohl fuer Patienten als auch fuer beruflich exponierte Personen sicher zu sein. Die interventionellen Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre mit sehr durchleuchtungs- und dosisintensiven Eingriffen erfordern allerdings eine Intensivierung des Strahlenschutzes. Es empfiehlt sich, die zur Verfuegung stehenden Moeglichkeiten auszuschoepfen. Neben den Geraeteoptionen muss der Strahlenschutz am Eingriffstisch durch Bleilamellenaufstecker und montiertes Bleiglas intensiv betrieben werden. Besonderen Fokus muss auf den Schutz der Augen zur Kataraktvermeidung gelegt werden. Da dessen Ausbildung nach neuen Erkenntnissen moeglicherweise nicht mehr deterministisch zu sehen ist, hat die Internationale Strahlenschutzkommission (IRCP) den Grenzwert von 150 auf 20 Mikrosievert (mSv)/Jahr erniedrigt. Messungen belegen, dass unter Einhaltung aller Strahlenschutzmassnahmen plus Bleiglasbrille dieser einzuhalten ist. (orig.)

  1. CT equipment and performance issues: radiation protection 162.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edyvean, S

    2013-02-01

    Since the development of the CT scanner in the early 1970s, CT scanner technology has continuously developed through technical advancement, faster computer processing, superior detectors and helical and multi-detector scanning modes. As a result, the scope of clinical examinations has broadened considerably, and in parallel, this has been achieved with improvement in image quality and radiation dose efficiency. Despite this, and perhaps because image quality can always be improved at the expense of increased radiation dose, CT examinations are among the highest-dose procedures encountered routinely in medical imaging. The qualitative criteria for acceptability in RP 162 address some functional and operational issues, and the quantitative criteria, in the form of suspension levels, focus primarily around hardware aspects of the CT scanner, though consideration is also given to software, operator aspects and selection of scan protocols. Some of the specific aspects and challenges in modern CT systems, in particular multi-slice and wide beams are also addressed.

  2. [Fetus radiation doses from nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures. Potential risks and radiation protection instructions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Pavlos

    2007-01-01

    Although in pregnancy it is strongly recommended to avoid diagnostic nuclear medicine and radiology procedures, in cases of clinical necessity or when pregnancy is not known to the physician, these diagnostic procedures are to be applied. In such cases, counseling based on accurate information and comprehensive discussion about the risks of radiation exposure to the fetus should follow. In this article, estimations of the absorbed radiation doses due to nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures during the pregnancy and their possible risk effects to the fetus are examined and then discussed. Stochastic and detrimental effects are evaluated with respect to other risk factors and related to the fetus absorbed radiation dose and to the post-conception age. The possible termination of a pregnancy, due to radiation exposure is discussed. Special radiation protection instructions are given for radiation exposures in cases of possible, confirmed or unknown pregnancies. It is concluded that nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures, if not repeated during the pregnancy, are rarely an indication for the termination of pregnancy, because the dose received by the fetus is expected to be less than 100 mSv, which indicates the threshold dose for having deterministic effects. Therefore, the risk for the fetus due to these diagnostic procedures is low. However, stochastic effects are still possible but will be minimized if the radiation absorbed dose to the fetus is kept as low as possible.

  3. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2014. It was held on Apr.23-25, 2014 Grand Hotel in Busan, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2014. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Medical treatment and Biology 1, Measurement and Analysis 1, Measurement and Analysis 2, Radiation protection 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Measurement and Analysis 3, Radiation protection 3.

  4. Research on Dependable Ionizing Radiation Protection based on Model i*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Hai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The software’s unreliability mostly attributes to an erroneous analysis on the requirements done at the beginning. In this paper, we apply the tool of i* frame requirement modeling and build early requirement model against ionizing radiation. After finding out possible risks and corresponding solutions during the process of modeling analysis, we propose reasoning models against ionizing radiation. The radiation protection system  with  the  above models  can  figure out  the  purpose  of agents  related  to radiant source and provide normal service even when the environment software system is being interfered. It can serve the ecological and economical society with stability and development.  The model is divided into several sections. Section 1 gives the outline of the dependant software. Section 2 illustrates the  i* frame  technology. Section 3, 4 and 5 cover the topic of dependant security requirement analysis, SD&SR model on ionizing radiation respectively. Section 6 gives the conclusion.

  5. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    transparent basis for making decisions in safety matters. During the year it has however become apparent that further improvement measures are necessary. The plant has had a relatively large number of operational disturbances during 2007 which have been analysed in order to implement suitable measures. Modernisation projects follow the time schedules which were decided earlier for implementation in order to comply with the regulations. Some measures are already completed, others are underway, and the programme will continue until 2013. SKI is supervising the progress of the modernisation and the improvements to the physical protection of the plants. Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB has applied for permission to increase the thermal power in reactors Forsmark 1-3. The government hasn't yet granted permission for these power increases. SKI has approved trial operation for Ringhals 1 and Ringhals 3 at the increased power levels during the year. For Ringhals 3 this is the first stage of the planned power increases. Ringhals has also applied to increase the thermal power in Ringhals 4. The government has granted permission for the thermal power increase in Oskarshamn 3. SKI is currently performing a safety review of this application. Oskarshamn have made an application to increase the thermal power in Oskarshamn 2. During 2007 SKI has performed inspections to control how nuclear safeguards are managed by the nuclear power stations. In all 80 inspections have been carried out. Nothing has been found during these inspections to indicate that there are any deficiencies in the nuclear safeguard activities. No serious incidents or accidents have occurred resulting in abnormal radiation exposure of personnel. Radioactive releases from the plants have resulted in calculated doses to the most exposed person in the critical group that are well below the environmental impact goal of 10 microsievert. Forsmark, which in recent years has had recurrent problems with the measurement of airborne

  6. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy conducts a broad multidisciplinary research program which includes basic biophysics, biophysical chemistry, molecular and cellular biology as well as experimental animal studies and opportunistic human studies. This research is directed at understanding how low levels of radiation of various qualities produce the spectrum of biological effects that are seen for such exposures. This workshop was entitled ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection.'' It ws jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Commission of European Communities. The aim of the workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection. The overview of research provided by this multidisciplinary group will be helpful to the Office in program planning. This report includes a summary of the presentations, extended abstracts, the meeting agenda, research recommendations, and a list of participants. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  7. Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety (consequential amendments) Bill 1998. Explanatory memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this Bill is to make consequential changes to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act 1987 (the ANSTO Act) and to provide for transitional arrangements to cover the operation of controlled facilities and the handling of radiation sources while applications for licences to cover these facilities and activities are being made under the proposed Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 (the ARPANS Act) For this purpose, the Bill: (a) repeals Parts VI and VII A of the ANSTO Act under which, respectively, the Safety Review Committee and the Nuclear Safety Bureau are established, as the functions of the Committee and Bureau will be transferred to the CEO of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, established under the ARPANS Act; (b) makes transitional arrangements for the transfer of the assets and liabilities of the Nuclear Safety Bureau to the Commonwealth, and confers on the CEO of ARPANSA the powers of the Director of the Nuclear Safety Bureau in relation to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation during the transitional period before the offenses provisions commence to operate under the ARPANS Act; (c) repeals the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act 1978. That Act provides for the development and endorsement of Codes of Practice which will be undertaken under the auspices of ARPANSA; (d) provides that Commonwealth entities have a transition period of 6 months after the ARPANS Act commences to apply for a licence to authorize specified activities under that Act

  8. ON STANDARDIZATION OF RADIATION PROTECTION INDEXES OF NATURAL MINERAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues connected with the standardization of radiation protection indexes of natural mineral waters are considered in the article. It is shown that classification of natural mineral waters according to their intended use which is accepted in GOST R 54316-2011 is close to their classification in the EU countries. Justification is given of the approaches to standardization of natural radionuclides content in natural mineral waters. It is shown that it is more acceptable to use the values of interventional levels for individual radionuclides given in Radiation Safety Standard-99/2009 for this purpose in comparing with the values given in WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.

  9. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korać, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.

  10. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radava R Korać

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.

  11. New concept of IEC standards for radiation protection dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R

    2008-01-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) develops new standards for radiation protection dosemeters which follow a new concept. They are much more flexible in detail, but still ensure the same measurement quality. They are, for example, no longer specific for the detector type, but rather specific for the measurement task, e.g. for individual monitoring with active direct-reading instruments. Another example is that they are flexible with respect to the ranges of influence quantities. The conceptual changes are described in this paper, together with the advantages this new concept provides for manufacturers, users and legislators.

  12. Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

  13. Public information and education on radiation safety and protection in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djaloeis, Azhar [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jalan KH Abdul Rohim, Mampang Prapatan, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of public information and education concerning nuclear science and technology in general and radiation safety and protection in particular in Indonesia from the perspective of promoting the development and utilization of nuclear science and technology in the country. The role of nuclear science and technology in Indonesia is first introduced, followed by an overview of the nuclear activities in the country. Basic considerations, major objectives of the public information and education program on radiation safety and protection as well as basic and operational strategies to achieve those objectives are then presented. Major programs including highlights of the past and present activities as well as prospect on future course of actions are discussed. (author)

  14. Chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Takata

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA is organized three-dimensionally in the nucleus, and is thought to form compact chromatin domains. Although chromatin compaction is known to be essential for mitosis, whether it confers other advantages, particularly in interphase cells, remains unknown. Here, we report that chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage. Using a newly developed solid-phase system, we found that the frequency of double-strand breaks (DSBs in compact chromatin after ionizing irradiation was 5-50-fold lower than in decondensed chromatin. Since radical scavengers inhibited DSB induction in decondensed chromatin, condensed chromatin had a lower level of reactive radical generation after ionizing irradiation. We also found that chromatin compaction protects DNA from attack by chemical agents. Our findings suggest that genomic DNA compaction plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity.

  15. Radiation protection: protection of patients undergoing cone beam computed tomography examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drage, Nicholas; Carmichael, Fiona; Brown, Jackie

    2010-10-01

    Cone beam computed tomography is becoming a popular imaging modality in dentistry. The effective dose from these examinations is generally higher than conventional plain film radiography. This article outlines the ways of protecting patients from the harmful effects of radiation. Cone beam computed tomography is an emerging imaging modality. The effective doses are generally higher than conventional radiography and it is therefore important that anyone requesting or performing these investigations understands how to keep the doses to patients as low as reasonably practicable.

  16. Operational Prototype Development of a Global Aircraft Radiation Exposure Nowcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher; Kress, Brian; Wiltberger, Michael; Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, Dave

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP) are the primary sources of human exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in the atmosphere. High-LET radiation is effective at directly breaking DNA strands in biological tissue, or producing chemically active radicals in tissue that alter the cell function, both of which can lead to cancer or other adverse health effects. A prototype operational nowcast model of air-crew radiation exposure is currently under development and funded by NASA. The model predicts air-crew radiation exposure levels from both GCR and SEP that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time exposure predictions of biologically harmful radiation at aviation altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP Global Forecast System), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations characterize the overhead mass shielding and the ground-and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry calculations. Radiation exposure rates are calculated using the NASA physics-based HZETRN (High Charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) code. An overview of the NAIRAS model is given: the concept, design, prototype implementation status, data access, and example results. Issues encountered thus far and known and/or anticipated hurdles to research to operations transition are also discussed.

  17. Development of Logistics for Building Radiation Storm Shelters and Their Operational Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three years NASA has been studying the operational effectiveness and astronaut protection efficacy of numerous radiation protection shelters for use in space exploration activities outside of earth's magnetosphere. The work presented was part of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) RadWorks Storm Shelter project. This paper is a summary of the concept development activities of this third year. Fabricated items were integrated into mock up deep space habitat vehicle sections for operational evaluations. Two full scale human-in-loop simulations were designed, fabricated, and implemented through an Institutional Review Board approved solicited participant assessment process. Fabricated items are described, along with usage scenarios of two protection approaches. Existing ISS type logistics along with proposed variations of those logistics were used. Preliminary Discrete Event Simulation (DES) work is noted to be useful in quantifying and documenting operational performance measures for the two primary shelter methods, including some characterization of radiation dose accumulation over a mission timeline. The project also performed correlation analyses between effective radiation dose and the Risk of Exposure Induced Death (REID) to show that concept level work may be able to include such a performance metric in early stages of mission scenario habitat design trade space investigation.

  18. Investigation of Radiation Protection Methodologies for Radiation Therapy Shielding Using Monte Carlo Simulation and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, Sean

    The advent of high-energy linear accelerators for dedicated medical use in the 1950's by Henry Kaplan and the Stanford University physics department began a revolution in radiation oncology. Today, linear accelerators are the standard of care for modern radiation therapy and can generate high-energy beams that can produce tens of Gy per minute at isocenter. This creates a need for a large amount of shielding material to properly protect members of the public and hospital staff. Standardized vault designs and guidance on shielding properties of various materials are provided by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Report 151. However, physicists are seeking ways to minimize the footprint and volume of shielding material needed which leads to the use of non-standard vault configurations and less-studied materials, such as high-density concrete. The University of Toledo Dana Cancer Center has utilized both of these methods to minimize the cost and spatial footprint of the requisite radiation shielding. To ensure a safe work environment, computer simulations were performed to verify the attenuation properties and shielding workloads produced by a variety of situations where standard recommendations and guidance documents were insufficient. This project studies two areas of concern that are not addressed by NCRP 151, the radiation shielding workload for the vault door with a non-standard design, and the attenuation properties of high-density concrete for both photon and neutron radiation. Simulations have been performed using a Monte-Carlo code produced by the Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), Monte Carlo Neutrons, Photons 5 (MCNP5). Measurements have been performed using a shielding test port designed into the maze of the Varian Edge treatment vault.

  19. Overview of novel techniques for radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.agosteo@polimi.i [Politecnico of Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Sezione di Ingegneria Nucleare - CeSNEF, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Generally, the main approaches for assessing the radiation protection (RP) quantities in neutron fields are: i) the use of an instrument with a response to the protection quantity quasi-independent of energy; ii) neutron spectrometry; iii) microdosimetry. The techniques based on the first approach include rem-meters, superheated emulsions and the electronic personal dosemeters. Passive rem-meters have recently been developed for assessing the ambient dose equivalent in pulsed neutron fields around particle accelerators for hadrontherapy and research. Most of these instruments are characterised by a response extended to high-energies (up to a few GeV). An example is given by the GSI-ball, which employs a pair of LiF TLDs as a thermal neutron detector. It is likely that passive instruments will play a fundamental role also for monitoring the neutron fields generated by ultra-high intensity lasers, where the duration of a single pulse is of the order of hundreds femtoseconds. Arrays of tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) of a millimetric/sub-millimetric physical size have been developed both for assessing the quality of therapeutic radiation beams and for estimating the RP quantities in low-intensity fields, which may limit the use of conventional microdosemeters. Very satisfactory results were obtained with GEM-based TEPCs and gas microstrip detectors (GMDs). Moreover, mini-TEPCs have been constructed and tested for measuring the quality of hadrontherapy beams (BNCT included). Silicon microdosemeters have also been demonstrated to be very promising for characterizing proton and ion beams for radiation therapy and for estimating the occurrence of single event effects in space applications.

  20. Evolution of radiation protection training programmes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monica, Rodriguez Suarez; Elvira, Hernando Velasco; Javier, Menarguez; Javier, Fernandez; Susana, Falcon; Mirian, Bravo [CIEMAT - Radiation Protection Training Unit ( IEE), Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Education and training are an important tool to promote safety culture and to upgrade competence. In this sense, Radiation Protection (R.P.) training programmes are a major challenge in order to achieve occupational, public and environmental radiation protection in all applied fields of ionising radiation.The Spanish R.P. Education and Training system provides a solid and integrated educational model. The needs for a specialized training on R.P. for exposed workers appears into the Spanish regulation in 1964. Since then, a wide variety of R.P. initial, continuous and on the job training courses has been carried out, taking into account the diverse applied fields, the different levels of responsibilities, the technological and methodological advances, as well as the international trends. C.I.E.M.A.T., through the R.P. training Unit, has been organizing and developing most of the R.P. training in Spain since 1964, becoming a reference centre. The educational programmes are being continuously updating and improving in order to complete and adapt all R.P. training levels. Initial training, long-life training, updating or upgrading training, as well as other innovative courses related with R.P. are being offered by C.I.E.M.A.T. each year. Another important aspect of R.P. is the information and training to stake holders. C.I.E.M.A. T. is also working in this sense. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the evolution of R.P. training processes since 1964 in Spain, in order to conclude which are the future trends and the changes required to adapt the Spanish R.P. Education and Training system to the current needs and upcoming scene. (authors)

  1. Radiation protection in medical centers : teletherapy service; Proteccion radiologica en centros hospitalarios : servicio de teleterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resendiz G, G.; Perez P, M.; Figueroa M, E. [Clinica Medica Sur, Servicio de Radioterapia, Puente de Piedra No. 150, Col. Toriello Guerra, Mexico 14050 D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    The General Regulation of Radiation Safety, it clearly provides the classification, requirements and obligations of the various figures relating to a radiation protection system, i.e., the occupationally exposed personnel, the radiation safety responsible, the legal representative, the type of installation, etc. For new installations, the shieldings calculation should be contained in the analytical report with due consideration of factors, such as those surrounding the areas classification based on the occupation type, the work load of the equipment and others. The operation license involves requirements such as the Report and the Radiation Safety Handbook, the Emergencies Plan, the establishment of register levels, investigation and intervention, the way it is carried out medical surveillance of the occupationally exposed personnel, and the description of the protection mechanisms and detection instrumentation and radiation measurement. Deserves mention the case when high readings are recorded in the personal dosimeters, which must submit to an interrogation to the employee, you must determine if it is an incorrect reading to the service provider, you must perform a medical exam blood cell count with relevant to the dose determination, may eventually can lead to a cytogenetic study and the determination to do if confirmed an unexpectedly high dose. Moreover, the technology evolution also implies the development of adaptation measures. For example, the Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy, which is an advanced high-precision radiotherapy that uses X-ray accelerators for computer-controlled radiation doses precisely to a malignant tumor or specific areas within the tumor, taking into account requires regard to equipment, and space and shielding, time and staff hours for treatment, personnel training, materials for making images (such as two-dimensional arrangements of integrated circuits or diodes, films or portal images), the attention given by the engineers of

  2. General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belooussov, Andrei V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-08

    This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.

  3. Radiation Protection Training frame in Virgen del Rocio University Hospital; Formacion en proteccion radiologica en los Hospitales Universitarios Virgen del Rocio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrador, M.; Baeza, M.; Luis-Simon, J.; Carbajo, J.; Gomez-Puerto, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Mateos; Haro, G.; Gomez, M.

    2003-07-01

    The International Community has established a dose limitation system to control the risks due to the ionizing radiation pacific use. The education and training of the occupational exposed workers is necessary to achieve the objectives of this dose limitation system.The second largest contribution to exposures of the individuals worldwide after natural background radiation, comes from medical radiation procedures. For this reason, the radiation protection training of medical workers is essential. In the particular autonomous region of Andalusia, most medical radiation procedures comes from the Public Health Service. Therefore, Andalusia Healthy Service maintains a radiation protection training plan for their occupational exposed workers. This training plan includes: training of the radioactive facilities supervisors and operators in both nuclear medicine and radiotherapy areas; training for medical radiodiagnosis facility management; quality assurance in medical diagnosis and therapy; and update on radiation protection. The training plan is performed with theoretical and practical course homologated by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council. These courses cover four basic fields related to radiation: Physics, Radiobiology, Radiation Protection and Legislation. These courses have been organised by the Andalusia Healthy System since 1993. A total of 722 medical workers have been trained for radiation protection. Therefore, optimum conditions for the safe and correct use of ionizing radiation have been provided to these workers. The supervisor or operator's license of the radioactive facility can be also obtained by these courses. (Author) 17 refs.

  4. Development of Radiation protection and measurement technology - Evaluation of monetory values of radiation dose for implementation of ALARA in radiation protection practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon; Lee, Choon Sik; Won, In Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Chung Woo [Korean Association for Radiation Protection, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Approaches for estimation of the monetory values of radiation dose were reviewed to establish an appropriate model for evaluation of .alpha. values for quantitative optimization in radiation protection in Korea. Relevant socio-economical factors such as human capital, willingness to pay for saving a life, GNP, medicare cost for a cancer patient, were estimated as input data for the calculation. Base case alpha values were evaluated for low doses of different exposure situations; occupational exposure, exposure of member of the public, medical exposure of adults and children, exposure to natural radiation, and potential exposure. The estimated generic alpha value per sievert for base case was approximately the same as the GNP per caput. The alpha value at high doses were calculated by escalating the base case values with appropriate exponential risk aversion factor. Special values of alpha, $100000/Sv for base for example, were assigned for radiation protection in nuclear power plants for which contribution of non-quantifiable factors is much larger. Quantitative optimization procedures were explained with numerical illustrations using the protection options and related factors provided in ICRP 55 for a uranium mine. 34 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs. (author)

  5. Assessment of secondary radiation and radiation protection in laser-driven proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faby, Sebastian; Wilkens, Jan J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Physik-Dept.

    2015-09-01

    This work is a feasibility study of a radiation treatment unit with laser-driven protons based on a state-of-the-art energy selection system employing four dipole magnets in a compact shielded beamline. The secondary radiation emitted from the beamline and its energy selection system and the resulting effective dose to the patient are assessed. Further, it is evaluated whether or not such a compact system could be operated in a conventional treatment vault for clinical linear accelerators under the constraint of not exceeding the effective dose limit of 1 mSv per year to the general public outside the treatment room. The Monte Carlo code Geant4 is employed to simulate the secondary radiation generated while irradiating a hypothetical tumor. The secondary radiation inevitably generated inside the patient is taken into account as well, serving as a lower limit. The results show that the secondary radiation emanating from the shielded compact therapy system would pose a serious secondary dose contamination to the patient. This is due to the broad energy spectrum and in particular the angular distribution of the laser-driven protons, which make the investigated beamline together with the employed energy selection system quite inefficient. The secondary radiation also cannot be sufficiently absorbed in a conventional linear accelerator treatment vault to enable a clinical operation. A promising result, however, is the fact that the secondary radiation generated in the patient alone could be very well shielded by a regular treatment vault, allowing the application of more than 100 fractions of 2 Gy per day with protons. It is thus theoretically possible to treat patients with protons in such treatment vaults. Nevertheless, the results show that there is a clear need for alternative more efficient energy selection solutions for laser-driven protons.

  6. Radiation rescue: mesenchymal stromal cells protect from lethal irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful treatment of acute radiation syndromes relies on immediate supportive care. In patients with limited hematopoietic recovery potential, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Because of time consuming donor search and uncertain outcome we propose MSC treatment as an alternative treatment for severely radiation-affected individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs were expanded from bone marrow, retrovirally labeled with eGFP (bulk cultures and cloned. Bulk and five selected clonal mMSCs populations were characterized in vitro for their multilineage differentiation potential and phenotype showing no contamination with hematopoietic cells. Lethally irradiated recipients were i.v. transplanted with bulk or clonal mMSCs. We found a long-term survival of recipients with fast hematopoietic recovery after the transplantation of MSCs exclusively without support by HSCs. Quantitative PCR based chimerism analysis detected eGFP-positive donor cells in peripheral blood immediately after injection and in lungs within 24 hours. However, no donor cells in any investigated tissue remained long-term. Despite the rapidly disappearing donor cells, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis in the bone marrow of MSC-transplanted animals displayed enhanced regenerative features characterized by (i decreased proinflammatory, ECM formation and adhesion properties and (ii boosted anti-inflammation, detoxification, cell cycle and anti-oxidative stress control as compared to HSC-transplanted animals. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that systemically administered MSCs provoke a protective mechanism counteracting the inflammatory events and also supporting detoxification and stress management after radiation exposure. Further our results suggest that MSCs, their release of trophic factors and their HSC-niche modulating activity rescue endogenous hematopoiesis

  7. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisko Salomaa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (author)

  8. Prototype Operational Advances for Atmospheric Radiation Dose Rate Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Bouwer, D.; Bailey, J. J.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H. B.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R. W.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Crowley, G.; Reynolds, A.; Azeem, I.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Wiley, S.; Bacon, S.; Teets, E.; Sim, A.; Dominik, L.

    2014-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. The coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has developed innovative, new space weather observations that will become part of the toolset that is transitioned into operational use. One prototype operational system for providing timely information about the effects of space weather is SET's Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system. ARMAS will provide the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Through several dozen flights the ARMAS project has successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time via Iridium satellites, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. We are extending the dose measurement domain above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere with a collaborative project organized by NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) called Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX). In USEWX we will be flying on the ER-2 high altitude aircraft a micro dosimeter for

  9. Radiation and annealing effects on integrated bipolar Operational Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, J.

    2017-02-01

    Integrated bipolar Operational Amplifier (op-amp) type μA 741 was irradiated with neutrons and gamma rays. The radiation on gain factors, slew rate, and power supply current have been evaluated. The experimental results show a decrease of these parameter values after exposing to the radiation. The advantage of the increase of the voltage power supplies and the thermal annealing treatment on the damaged parameters was also explored. The relationship among different frequency response parameters is also studied leading to an analytical formula for the above degraded parameters.

  10. Evaluation of exposure to ionizing radiation among gamma camera operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Anna Domańska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protection of nuclear medicine unit employees from hazards of the ionizing radiation is a crucial issue of radiation protection services. We aimed to assess the severity of the occupational radiation exposure of technicians performing scintigraphic examinations at the Nuclear Medicine Department, Central Teaching Hospital of Medical University in Łódź, where thousands of different diagnostic procedures are performed yearly. Materials and Methods: In 2013 the studied diagnostic unit has employed 10 technicians, whose exposure is permanently monitored by individual dosimetry. We analyzed retrospective data of quarterly doses in terms of Hp(10 dose equivalents over the years 2001-2010. Also annual and five-year doses were determined to relate the results to current regulations. Moreover, for a selected period of one year, we collected data on the total activity of radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostics, to analyze potential relationship with doses recorded in technicians performing the examinations. Results: In a 10-year period under study, the highest annual dose recorded in a technician was 2 mSv, which represented 10% of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. The highest total dose for a 5-year period was 7.1 mSv, less than 10% of a 5-year dose limit for occupational exposure. Positive linear correlation was observed between total activity of radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostics in the period of three months and respective quarterly doses received by technicians performing examinations. Conclusions: Doses received by nuclear medicine technicians performing diagnostic procedures in compliance with principles of radiation protection are low, which is confirmed by recognizing the technicians of this unit as B category employees. Med Pr 2013;64(4:503–506

  11. Radiation terrorism: what society needs from the radiobiology-radiation protection and radiation oncology communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C Norman [Office of Preparedness and Emergency Response, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC (United States); Parker, Gerald W [Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Society's and individuals' concerns about the adverse effects from radiation are logically amplified many times when radiological terrorism is considered. The spectrum of events include industrial sabotage, the use of an explosive or non-explosive radiological dispersal device, the placement of a radiological exposure device in a public facility and the use of an improvised nuclear device. The consequences of an event relate to the physical and medical damage of the event itself, the financial impact, and the acute and long-term medical consequences, including fear of radiation-induced cancer. The magnitude of a state-sponsored nuclear event is so great that limited detailed response planning had been done in the past, as compared to the work now ongoing. Planning is done on the basis of scenario modelling. Medical response planning includes medical triage, distribution of victims to care by experienced physicians, developing medical countermeasures to mitigate or treat radiation injury, counselling and appropriately following exposed or potentially exposed people, and helping the local community develop confidence in their own response plan. Optimal response must be based on the best available science. This requires scientists who can define, prioritise and address the gaps in knowledge with the range of expertise from basic physics to biology to translational research to systems expertise to response planning to healthcare policy to communications. Not only are there unique needs and career opportunities, but there is also the opportunity for individuals to serve their communities and country with education regarding radiation effects and by formulating scientifically based government policy.

  12. Usefulness of non-lead aprons in radiation protection for physicians performing interventional procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuguchi, Masayuki; Chida, Koichi; Taura, Masaaki; Inaba, Yohei; Ebata, Ayako; Yamada, Shogo

    2008-01-01

    At present, interventional radiology (IVR) tends to involve long procedures (long radiation duration), and physicians are near to the source of scattered radiation. Hence, shielding is critical in protecting physicians from radiation. Protective aprons and additional lead-shielding devices, such as tableside lead drapes, are important means of protecting the physician from scattered radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether non-lead aprons are effective in protecting physicians from radiation during IVR procedures. In this study, the radiation protection effects of commercially available protective lead and non-lead aprons, when exposed to diagnostic X rays, are compared. The performance of these non-lead and lead aprons was similar for scattered X rays at tube voltages of 60-120 kV. Properly designed non-lead aprons are thus more suitable for physicians because they weigh approximately 20% less than the lead aprons, and are non-toxic.

  13. Obligations and responsibilities in radiation protection in the medical field; Obligations et responsabilites en radioprotection dans le domaine medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document briefly presents the various obligations and responsibilities of the various actors involved in or concerned by radiation protection in the medical field: the hospital administration (with respect to workers and patients), the physician (authorization and declaration, justification, optimization), the medical electro-radiology operator, the person with expertise in medical radio-physics (PSRPM), the radio-pharmacist (he is required in nuclear medicine with internal use of pharmaceutical product), the personnel with expertise in radiation protection (PCR), and other health professionals

  14. [Scrap metal and ionizing radiation hazard: prevention and protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugni, U

    2012-01-01

    The numerous accidents occurred in companies that melt scrap metals have shown that the hazard caused by the presence of radioactive materials--or 'orphan sources'--may have serious consequences on standard production, with great economic and social damage. Italian Legislative Decree No. 100/11 establishes the skills required for the safe management of scrap metals in the whole production cycle, thus requiring the involvement of experts in radiation protection. The paper details the procedures that shall be implemented in the companies that melt scrap metals. Said procedures involve several professional roles: managers, department heads and occupational physicians. The paper describes the general characteristics of the instruments used, staff training programs and the experience gained in 15 years of activity.

  15. Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Napoli, M. [INFN - Sezione di Catania (Italy); Agodi, C.; Blancato, A. A.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Battistoni, G. [INFN - Sezione di Milano (Italy); Bondi, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Nicolosi, D.; Raciti, G.; Tropea, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); Giacoppo, F. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Morone, M. C. [Dipartimento di Biopatologia e Diagnostica per Immagini, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Pandola, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Rapisarda, E. [Nuclear and Radiation Physics Section, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Celestijnenlaan Heverlee (Belgium); Romano, F. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy) and Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi Roma (Italy); and others

    2013-04-19

    Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the {sup 12}C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

  16. Carbon Fragmentation Cross Sections for Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation reactions represent a serious complication in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection. In order to predict their effects, both reliable Monte Carlo codes and experimental data are needed. The shortage of precise measurements, especially of double differential cross sections, has triggered many dedicated experiments at relativistic energies. Aiming to explore the Fermi energy regime, as well, where different reaction mechanisms are involved, we measured the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a 12C and a 197Au target. A high granularity Si-CsI hodoscope allowed to identify the charge and the mass of detected fragments and measure their energy and emission angle. In this work we report the double differential cross sections for the production of different fragments as a function of the emission angle. Experimental results are compared with the GEANT-4 Monte Carlo predictions performed using two reaction models, the Quantum Molecular Dynamic and the Binary Light Ion Cascade.

  17. Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Battistoni, G.; Blancato, A. A.; Bondı, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Giacoppo, F.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Sfienti, C.; Tropea, S.

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

  18. Virtual-reality education and training system for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Miyatake, H.; Kawakami, T. [Radioisotope Research Center, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    In order to break the mannerism in the education and training method for radiation protection introduction of virtual reality system to the chalkface has been discussed in addition to the usual lecture and video system in the subcommittee established in JRIAS (Japan Radioisotope Association), and the leading model has been installed in Osaka University. It consists of a main server and 3 clients with a software for virtual reality. With this system the trainee could go into the virtual laboratory and handle the radioisotope. In that case he could also experience various accidents such as trivial failure in the experiments, serious hazard, fire, earthquake, etc., which are difficult to suffer in the real laboratory. Hence those who have experienced such a training could come to act rapidly up against any sudden accidents and also the virtual reality system would result decrease in unnecessary radioactive wastes.

  19. HSP25 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae June; Lee, Yoon Jin; Kwon, Hee Choong; Lee, Su Jae; Bae, Sang Woo; Lee, Yun Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Irradiation (IR) is a central treatment modality administered for head and neck malignancies. A significant consequence of this IR treatment is irreversible damage to salivary gland in the IR field. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) induced radioresistance in vitro. HSP25 interferes negatively with apoptosis through several pathways which involve its direct interaction with cytochrome c, protein kinase c delta or Akt. And localized gene transfer to salivary glands has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP25 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

  20. Some aspects of radiation protection near high-energy proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Tuyn, Jan Willem Nicolaas

    1977-01-01

    The CERN site near Geneva borders Satigny and Meyrin in Switzerland and Saint-Genis-Pouilly and Prevention in France. The 600 MeV proton synchrocyclotron (SC) has been in operation since 1957, the 28 GeV proton synchrotron (PS) since 1960, and the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) since 1971. A fourth large accelerator, the 400 GeV super proton synchrotron (SPS), will soon be in service. The internal and external radiation protection problems caused by these machines, together with the solutions, are reviewed in the light of experience. (5 refs).

  1. The Radiation Tolerant Electronics for the LHC Cryogenic Controls: Basic Design and First Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Casas-Cubillos, J; Rodríguez-Ruiz, M A

    2008-01-01

    The LHC optics is based in the extensive use of superconducting magnets covering 23 km inside the tunnel. The associated cryogenic system for keeping the magnets in nominal conditions is hence distributed all around the 27 km LHC tunnel and the cryogenic instrumentation submitted to the LHC radiation environment is composed of about 18’000 sensors and actuators. Radiation Tolerant (RadTol) electronics was designed and procured in order to keep the signals integrity against electromagnetic interference and to reduce cabling costs required in case of sending the analog signals into the 30 radiation protected areas. This paper presents the basic design, the qualification of the main RadTol components and the first operational results.

  2. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  3. Protective Chafing Gear for Salvage Operations - Field Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    INFORMATION -’ This project began as a result of a two-week Naval Reserve Active Duty in Enewetak Atoll during July 1978 by R. L. Seiple, the Commanding...ubr During the Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Operation the need for protective gear for divers and salvage pe~rsonnel has been dramatically demonstrated...RECOMMENDATIONS ..... 12 "FCOMMENDED SUIT MODIFICATIONS ..... 12 ILLUSTRATIONS 1. Debrig at Enewetak Atoll ..... 3 2. Personnel working on debris at

  4. EEG operational radiation surveillance of the WIPP Project during 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Donald H. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ballard, Sally C. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Channell, James K. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2002-12-31

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has measured the levels of 241Am, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 137Cs, and 90Sr in samples of air and water collected at and in the vicinity of the U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 2001. The WIPP received the first shipment of waste in March 1999 and became operational at that time. The EEG has compared these levels to those measured in the preoperational phase, prior to receipt of waste, as well as to the results of other monitoring organizations and to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) dose standards established for the WIPP at 40 CFR 191, Subpart A, and, by an agreement between the DOE and the EPA, at 40 CFR 61, Subpart H. Based on these analyses and applying a t test for significant differences for normally-distributed data (Taylor 1987), or analysis of variance (ANOVA) for non-normal data, the EEG concludes that: 1. Three measurements of radionuclides in the environment around WIPP during 2001 were different from the preoperational baseline levels. Only two of these – 241Am in both the Loving and WIPP3 low volume air sampler (LVAS) samples, first quarter and second quarter, respectively – exceeded the minimum detectable activity (MDA). These measurements were carefully investigated, but no clearly assignable cause was discovered. No measurements of 241Am in effluent air from the WIPP underground exceeded the action level, and converting the highest LVAS measured concentration to radiation dose yielded a committed dose of much less than 1% of the limit allowable under the EPA standard. 2. Comparison of the EEG’s 2001 results with those of other monitoring organizations revealed two sets of measurements which did not agree. One set – 241Am in surface water – was found to be in agreement with the corresponding EEG baseline. The other – 90Sr in groundwater – was

  5. 中核运行二厂大修辐射防护管理经验%The Radiation Protection Management Experience for Refueling Outage of NPP 2, CNNC Nuclear Power Operations Management Limited Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪伟; 陈高飞; 刘杰; 稂其良

    2013-01-01

    Since commercial operation in 2002, the NPP 2 of CNNO has been safe in operation for twelve years,and finished RP control successfuly in the 22 refueling outages. During the twelve years'operation, the RP management system was established and developed constantly, it also made good achievements in RP supervision and management. The author summarized the relevant RP management experience of refueling outages of CNNO Qinshan NPP 2, introduced the RP control actions for each stage of refueling outage, and discussed the key points and difficulty of RP control in refueling outage.%中核核电运行管理有限公司二厂(简称中核运行二厂)自2002年商业运行以来,已安全运行12个年头,顺利完成了22次换料大修的辐射安全控制,在12年的生产实践中,建立并不断完善了大修辐射管理体系,在历次大修中较好的发挥了辐射安全监督与管理的职能。本文总结了中核运行二厂大修辐射防护管理经验,系统地介绍了大修各阶段辐射防护控制所采取的行动,并对大修辐射防护管理的重点及难点进行探讨。

  6. Basic concepts on environmental radiation protection; Conceitos basicos de protecao radiologica ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Amaral, Eliana C.S

    2007-07-01

    This chapter makes an overview on basic concepts of environmental radiation protection, approaching the system of protection for practices, evaluation oc the environmental radiologic impact, environmental monitoring, models and exposures pathways.

  7. Knowledge of Radiation Hazards, Radiation Protection Practices and Clinical Profile of Health Workers in a Teaching Hospital in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosan, K J; Ibrahim, Mto; Saidu, S A; Ma'aji, S M; Danfulani, M; Yunusa, E U; Ikhuenbor, D B; Ige, T A

    2016-08-01

    Use of ionizing radiation in medical imaging for diagnostic and interventional purposes has risen dramatically in recent years with a concomitant increase in exposure of patients and health workers to radiation hazards. To assess the knowledge of radiation hazards, radiation protection practices and clinical profile of health workers in UDUTH, Sokoto, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 Radiology, Radiotherapy and Dentistry staff selected by universal sampling technique. The study comprised of administration of standardized semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire (to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of radiation hazards, and radiation protection practices of participants), clinical assessment (comprising of chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound and laboratory investigation on hematological parameters), and evaluation of radiation exposure of participants (extracted from existing hospital records on their radiation exposure status). The participants were aged 20 to 65 years (mean = 34.04 ± 8.83), most of them were males (67.3%) and married (65.7%). Sixty five (59.1%) had good knowledge of radiation hazards, 58 (52.7%) had good knowledge of Personal Protective Devices (PPDs), less than a third, 30 (27.3%) consistently wore dosimeter, and very few (10.9% and below) consistently wore the various PPDs at work. The average annual radiation exposure over a 4 year period ranged from 0.0475mSv to 1.8725mSv. Only 1 (1.2%) of 86 participants had abnormal chest X-ray findings, 8 (9.4%) of 85 participants had abnormal abdominal ultrasound findings; while 17 (15.5%) and 11 (10.0%) of 110 participants had anemia and leucopenia respectively. This study demonstrated poor radiation protection practices despite good knowledge of radiation hazards among the participants, but radiation exposure and prevalence of abnormal clinical conditions were found to be low. Periodic in-service training and monitoring on radiation safety was

  8. 40 CFR 190.10 - Standards for normal operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS Environmental Standards for the Uranium Fuel Cycle § 190.10 Standards for normal operations. Operations covered by...

  9. [Nuclear energy and public health, the mission of OPRI (Office of Protection from Ionizing Radiation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, M R

    1995-03-15

    In the domain of the use of ionising radiation for medical purposes and in the nuclear industry, the protection of man and his environment is primordial. Such protection is defined in European Community countries by the Directives of the Euratom Council, applied as national law. In France, the "Office de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants" oversees the application of laws and rules relating to protection from radiation and determines the inspections and analyses required to ensure the protection of the population against ionising radiation.

  10. Intercalated and Hydrogenated Carbon Nanofibers for Multifunctional Radiation Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improvements in radiation shielding materials are needed to support NASA's human and robotic exploration programs. Shielding for both electromagnetic radiation...

  11. Radiation protection performance for the dismantling of the WWR-M primary cooling circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, Yu N; Luferenko, E D; Shevel, V N

    2014-12-01

    The WWR-M is a light-water-cooled and moderated heterogonous research reactor with a thermal output of 10 MW. The reactor has been in operation for >50 y and has had an excellent safety record. A non-hermeticity of the inlet line of the primary cooling circuit (PCC) was found, and the only reasonable technical solution was the complete replacement of the PCC inlet and outlet pipe lines. Such a replacement was a challenging technical task due to the necessity to handle large size components with complex geometries under conditions of high-level radiation fields, and therefore, it required detailed planning aiming to reduce staff exposure. This paper describes the dismantling and removal of the PCC components focusing on radiation protection issues.

  12. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J.; Cederlund, T.; Drake, P.; Finne, I.E.; Glansholm, A.; Jaworska, A.; Paile, W.; Rahola, T. (eds.)

    2005-09-01

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries.

  13. General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Kyung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, ...

  14. Novel protective lead shield and pulse fluoroscopy can reduce radiation exposure during the ERCP procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Toshio; Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Itokawa, Fumihide; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Ishii, Kentaro; Tsuji, Shujiro; Ikeuchi, Nobuhito; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2012-05-01

    ERCP-related procedures involve radiation exposure of patients and medical staff. We developed a novel protective lead shield which is attached around the fluoroscopy generator. Here we examine levels of radiation exposure to patients, endoscopists and assistants, and evaluate the usefulness of the newly designed protective shield. Four-hundred and seventy-one ERCP procedures were performed from April 2006 to April 2007. At first, we compared the radiation dose of consecutive fluoroscopy conditions with pulse fluoroscopy of 15 per second and then the radiation dose with and without the protective shield. Next, we measured the radiation exposure of endoscopists and assistants in the clinical setting monitored by digital dosimeter during ERCP procedure. The radiation dose was the most at the 45° direction. Using pulse fluoroscopy of 15 per second the radiation dose of patients and endoscopists decreased by about half. Using both pulse fluoroscopy of 15 per second and the protective shield, the radiation dose at the endoscopist's position was reduced up to 97%. The total fluoroscopy time was 5851 minutes in the 471 ERCP cases. Using pulse 15 and the protective lead shield, the radiation exposure dose of one endoscopist and two assistants were 2430.8, 2673.9 and 1375.0µSv, respectively. Novel protective lead shield in combination with pulse fluoroscopy can significantly reduce the radiation exposure leading to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure to patients and medical staff.

  15. Reduction of operator radiation dose by a pelvic lead shield during cardiac catheterization by radial access: comparison with femoral access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Helmut W; von Boetticher, Heiner

    2012-04-01

    This study sought to determine the efficacy of patient pelvic lead shielding for the reduction of operator radiation exposure during cardiac catheterization via the radial access in comparison with the femoral access. Cardiac catheterization via the radial access is associated with significantly increased radiation dose to the patient and the operator. Improvements in radiation protection are needed to minimize this drawback. Pelvic lead shielding has the potential to reduce operator radiation dose. We randomly assigned 210 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography by the same operator to a radial and femoral access with and without pelvic lead shielding of the patient. Operator radiation dose was measured by a radiation dosimeter attached to the outside breast pocket of the lead apron. For radial access, operator dose decreased from 20.9 ± 13.8 μSv to 9.0 ± 5.4 μSv, p lead shielding. For femoral access, it decreased from 15.3 ± 10.4 μSv to 2.9 ± 2.7 μSv, p lead shielding significantly decreased the dose-area product-normalized operator dose (operator dose divided by the dose-area product) by the same amount for radial and femoral access (0.94 ± 0.28 to 0.39 ± 0.19 μSv × Gy(-1) × cm(-2) and 0.70 ± 0.26 to 0.16 ± 0.13 μSv × Gy(-1) × cm(-2), respectively). Pelvic lead shielding is highly effective in reducing operator radiation exposure for radial as well as femoral procedures. However, despite its use, radial access remains associated with a higher operator radiation dose. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation protection system at the RIKEN RI beam factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwamino, Y; Fujita, S; Sakamoto, H; Ito, S; Fukunishi, N; Yabutani, T; Yamano, T; Fukumura, A

    2005-01-01

    The RIKEN RI (radioactive isotope) Beam Factory is scheduled to commence operations in 2006, and its maximum energy will be 400 MeV u(-1) for ions lighter than Ar and 350 MeV u(-1) for uranium. The beam intensity will be 1 pmicroA (6 x 10(12) particles s(-1)) for any element at the goal. For the hands-on-maintenance and the rational shield thickness of the building, the beam loss must be controlled with several kinds of monitors. Three types of radiation monitors will be installed. The first one consists of a neutron dose equivalent monitor and an ionisation chamber, which are commercially available area monitors. The second one is a conventional hand-held dose equivalent monitor wherein the logarithmic signal is read by a programmable logic controller based on the radiation safety interlock system (HIS). The third one is a simple plastic scintillator called a beam loss monitor. All the monitors have threshold levels for alarm and beam stop, and HIS reads all these signals.

  17. Radiation protection system installation for the accelerator production of tritium/low energy demonstration accelerator project (APT/LEDA)

    CERN Document Server

    Wilmarth, J E; Tomei, T L

    2000-01-01

    The APT/LEDA personnel radiation protection system installation was accomplished using a flexible, modular proven system which satisfied regulatory orders, project design criteria, operational modes, and facility requirements. The goal of providing exclusion and safe access of personnel to areas where prompt radiation in the LEDA facility is produced was achieved with the installation of a DOE-approved Personnel Access Control System (PACS). To satisfy the facility configuration design, the PACS, a major component of the overall radiation safety system, conveniently provided five independent areas of personnel access control. Because of its flexibility and adaptability the Los-Alamos Neutron- Science-Center-(LANSCE)-designed Radiation Security System (RSS) was efficiently configured to provide the desired operational modes and satisfy the APT/LEDA project design criteria. The Backbone Beam Enable (BBE) system based on the LANSCE RSS provided the accelerator beam control functions with redundant, hardwired, ta...

  18. Simulated versus realistic intra operative radiation therapy (I.O.R.T.) treatment in operating room: from knowledge of stray radiation to action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreoli, S.; Moretti, R. [USC Fisica Sanitaria - Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Italy); Catalano, M.; Locatelli, F. [Degli Studi di Milano Univ., Scuola di Specializzazione in Fisica Sanitaria (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy (I.O.R.T.) is carried out with electron beams produced by a Linac (Linear Accelerator) generally used for conventional radiotherapy with external beam, or by dedicated accelerators that can be employed directly into an operating room. I.O.R.T. refers to the application of radiation during a surgical intervention, after the removal of a neoplastic mass. I.O.R.T. uses on the tumour area a direct irradiation, for the possible localisation of sub-clinic illness or macroscopic residue in the case of non-radical resection. Intra-Operative Radiotherapy foresees a single session only, generally preceded or followed by radiotherapy with external beam. It allows the achievement of a selective radiation boost on the tumour volume. In some cases, it can also be used as a one-time/stand alone treatment in initial cancer of small volume, or in unresectable malignancies for palliative purpose. The technical advantages of I.O.R.T. consist in the direct visual control of the target volume, and in the possibility to protect the healthy tissues by moving them away from the path of the radiation beam. The use of electron beams allows the administration of a homogeneous dose to a selected layer of tissues surrounding the tumour. The following professional staff forms the Operative Group: radiation oncologist, surgeon, anaesthetist, medical physicist, radiation technologist, nurse.The choice of a simulation geometry very similar to the clinical situation allows to evaluate radioprotection data very close to the real situation. For a fixed layout, an anthropomorphic phantom was positioned on the operating bed and a breast I.O.R.T. treatment was simulated positioning all the accessories of the operating room in their typical positions. A detailed dose mapping was performed with a Victoreen 450P ionisation chamber and with environment film-dosimeter on the walls of the operating room during the simulation of the clinical treatment. The simulation appears

  19. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Island Resettlement Support (1998-2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-05-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the U.S. Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LNLL) using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  20. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Island Resettlement Support (May-December 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Hickman, D; Conrado, C; Brown, T; Brunk, J; Marchetti, A; Cox, C; Martinelli, R; Kehl, S; Johannes, K; Henry, D; Bell, R T; Petersen, G

    2002-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former US test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection programs for resettled and resettling populations. Using pooled resources of the US Department of Energy and local atoll governments, individual radiation protection programs have been developed in whole-body counting and plutonium urinalysis to assess potential intakes of radionuclides from residual fallout contamination. The whole-body counting systems are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians. Samples of urine are collected from resettlement workers and island residents under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using advanced accelerator based measurement technologies. This web site provides an overview of the methodologies, a full disclosure of the measurement data, and a yearly assessment of estimated radiation doses to resettlement workers and island residents.

  1. The creation of IRSN Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety; La creation de l'IRSN Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The creation of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) answers to the government will to modify the organisation of safety and radiation protection, in order to separate the functions of expert, monitor and operator. The I.R.S.N. has for missions to realize expertise by giving to the government advice on nuclear risks; to conduct researches in order to improve the knowledge; to work towards radiation monitoring of environment and workers as well as exposure sources to radiations. (N.C.)

  2. Influence of Planetary Protection Guidelines on Waste Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John A.; Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Race, Margaret S.; Stabekis, Perry D.; Rummel, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Newly outlined missions in the Space Exploration Initiative include extended human habitation on Mars. During these missions, large amounts of waste materials will be generated in solid, liquid and gaseous form. Returning these wastes to Earth will be extremely costly, and will therefore likely remain on Mars. Untreated, these wastes are a reservoir of live/dead organisms and molecules considered to be "biomarkers" i.e., indicators of life). If released to the planetary surface, these materials can potentially confound exobiology experiments and disrupt Martian ecology indefinitely (if existent). Waste management systems must therefore be specifically designed to control release of problematic materials both during the active phase of the mission, and for any specified post-mission duration. To effectively develop waste management requirements for Mars missions, planetary protection guidelines must first be established. While previous policies for Apollo lunar missions exist, it is anticipated that the increased probability of finding evidence of life on Mars, as well as the lengthy mission durations will initially lead to more conservative planetary protection measures. To facilitate the development of overall requirements for both waste management and planetary protection for future missions, a workshop was conducted to identify how these two areas interface, and to establish a preliminary set of planetary protection guidelines that address waste management operations. This paper provides background regarding past and current planetary protection and waste management issues, and their interactions. A summary of the recommended planetary protection guidelines, anticipated ramifications and research needs for waste management system design for both forward (Mars) and backward (Earth) contamination is also provided.

  3. Radiation protection in medical applications; La proteccion radiologica en las aplicaciones medicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado M, H. [Sociedad Mexicana de Seguridad Radiologica A. C., Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    The justification of the practices is the fundamental principle on which rests the peaceful use of ionizing radiations. They actually contain as aspirations to improve the quality of people's lives, contributing to sustainable development through environmental protection, so that the sources security and the individuals protection will be conditions which are not and should can not be operated. For medical applications is a highly illustrative example of this, since both for the diagnosis and therapy, the goal is to achieve what is sought for the white tissue, secured the least possible damage to the neighboring tissues so that in turn reduce the negative effects for the patient. As a basis for achieving the above, it is essential to have qualified personnel in all areas incidents, for example users, workers, officials and staff members. There are a variety of specialists in the field of medical applications as, nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, medical physics, radiation physics and others. Among the human resource in the country must make up the majority are medical radiologists, highlighting gaps in the number of radiotherapy and nuclear medicine but specially in the medical physics, who is in some way from a special viewpoint of the formal school, new to the country. This is true for the number of facilities which are in the country. The radiation protection responsibilities in medical applications focus primarily on two figures: the radiology safety manager, who is primarily dedicated to the protection of occupationally exposed personnel and the public, and the medical physicist whose functions are geared towards the radiological protection of the patient. The principal legislation in the medical applications area has been enacted and is monitored by the Health Secretary and National Commission on Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, entities that have reached agreements to avoid overlap and over-regulation. Medical applications in

  4. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  5. 40 CFR 280.31 - Operation and maintenance of corrosion protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protection. All owners and operators of steel UST systems with corrosion protection must comply with the... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation and maintenance of corrosion... is used to store regulated substances: (a) All corrosion protection systems must be operated...

  6. 6. national congress of radiation protection S.F.R.P. 2007; 6. congres national de radioprotection S.F.R.P. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This congress tackles the following subjects: individual dosimetry for external irradiation, update of arrangements in the public health code relative to the radiation protection, implementation of zoning decree, regulation, radiation protection in professional area, radiation protection in ITER, non ionizing radiation, radiation protection in accident situation, biological radiation effects, radiation protection for patients, dosimetry, environmental exposure, radiation protection and radioactive waste management. (N.C.)

  7. 4. European forum of radiation protection sciences. Proceedings; 4e Forum Europeen de radioprotectique. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    This 4. European forum of radiation protection sciences was the occasion for nuclear professionals to share their experience and to present the tools and techniques implemented in dismantling operations in the respect of radiation protection rules. This document brings together the abstracts and the available presentations given at this forum: 1 - Dismantling organisation and management - regulations: dismantling environment (A. Gay, Areva NC); Dismantling at the CEA (Ph. Guiberteau, DEN-Saclay); Optimisation of future dismantlement at the design and operation stage of facilities (P. Poncet, Areva); Action of the labour Ministry for workers radiation protection (T. Lahaye, DGT); 2 - Dismantling experience feedbacks 1: Radiation protection and dismantlement at Marcoule (J. Chardin, Areva NC); INB 106 dismantling (N. Pauwels, UDIL); Dismantling wastes management and valorisation of ALS and Saturne accelerators at Saclay (C. Salmon, CEA-Saclay); Chooz power plant deconstruction (L. Bardou, EDF); 3-4 - Dismantling projects: Phenix power plant dismantling (C. Beretti, CEA-Marcoule); Radiological characterization impact on the DGB project (H.C. Turbatte, F. Lemperiere, DGB Eurodif); Contribution of scientific calculations to reactor dismantling studies (A. Van Lauwe, CEA-Saclay); Acceptance committee of radiological cleansing companies (S. Faure, DPSN); Externalizing of the radiation protection skilled person (J.P. Piferrer, ATSR); International network of radiation protection professionals (G. Abela, EDF); 5 - Dismantling experience feedback 2: gloveboxes dismounting at La Hague plant (R. Choquet, P. Mougnard, Areva NC); Nuclear submarines dismantling in Russia (C. Deregel, Topp-Decide); Radioactive waste management of CERN accelerators (Y. Algoet, CERN); Nuclear facilities decommissioning (M. Berton, CEA, B. Marc, DRIM Sogeris); Asbestos removal in radiological environment (R. Blanc, Areva NC); 6-7-8 - Tools and methods: Aspilaser, decontamination by laser ablation (F

  8. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Porter, S.W. Jr. [Porter Consultants, Inc., Ardmore, PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

  9. Establishment of Testing Device for Shielding Performance of X and Gamma Ray Radiation Protection Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Ming-zhe; WEI; Ke-xin; HOU; Jin-bing; WANG; Hong-yu; GAO; Fei; NI; Ning

    2015-01-01

    X and gamma ray radiation protective material shielding performance testing device was built based on the international standard IEC61331.1-2014.The device can be used to test attenuation ratio,attenuation equivalent and lead equivalent of radiation protective material in"narrow beam condition","broad beam condition"and"inverse

  10. Space toxicology: protecting human health during space operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T; Tyl, Rochelle; Lam, Chiu-wing

    2011-02-01

    Space toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation, and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons, and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures while in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation, continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion and other purposes. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies, in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  11. Nanosatellites in LEO and beyond: Advanced Radiation protection techniques for COTS-based spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selčan, David; Kirbiš, Gregor; Kramberger, Iztok

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an approach for implementing radiation protection FDIR (Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery) techniques designed especially for nanosatellites, capable of ensuring reliable operation in harsh orbits using COTS (Commercial off the Shelf) components. The radiation environment, as encountered by nanosatellites utilizing Flash-based FPGAs in orbits higher than Low Earth Orbit, is analyzed, primarily focusing on SEE (Single Event Effects). In order to assure reliable operation, the FDIR policy is split into two levels: the Low Level FDIR which ensures that no permanent damage occurs to the satellite's electronics, which then allows the use of a High Level FDIR tasked with maintaining high availability. A hierarchical approach, consisting of three types of current limiters in combination with watchdog timers and fault tolerant logic implemented inside a flash-based FPGA is proposed for the Low Level FDIR. The impacts of various radiation-induced faults are analyzed with respect to how the FDIR techniques mitigate them. The proposed current limiters and watchdog timers have been implemented and evaluated for suitability of use with the hierarchical FDIR policy. In order to decrease the impacts on the size and weight footprints, the current limiters were implemented as stacked 3D modules.

  12. Approaches to promotion and implementation of action on Radiation Protection for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goske, Marilyn J; Applegate, Kimberly E; Bulas, Dorothy; Butler, Priscilla F; Callahan, Michael J; Coley, Brian D; Don, Steven; Farley, Shawn; Frush, Donald P; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kaste, Sue C; Morrison, Gregory; Sidhu, Manrita; Strauss, Keith J; Treves, S Ted

    2011-09-01

    The Radiation Protection in Medicine conference, reviewed in this journal supplement, outlined nine strategies to promote radiation protection for patients. The Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging has focused its work on three of those areas: creating awareness of the need and opportunities for radiation protection for children; developing open-source educational materials for medical professionals and parents on this critical topic for improved patient safety and communication; and lastly, advocating on behalf of children with industry, government and regulatory bodies to improve equipment design and safety features, standardisation of nomenclature and displays of dose reports across vendor platforms that reflect the special considerations of children.

  13. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005; Congres National de Radioprotection - SFRP 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagroye, I. [Bordeaux Univ., Lab. de Bioelectromagnetisme de l' EPHE, Lab. PIOM, ENSCPB, 33 (France); Gonzague, A. [EDF, Centre d' appui du parc en exploitation, Groupe prevention des risques environnement, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Ammerich, M. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la radioprotection (DGSNR), 75 - Paris (France); Blanc, D.; Lecomte, J.F.; Boucher, D.; Boucher, D.; Averbeck, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Barbey, P.; Bourguignon, M.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Radecki, J.J.; Schieber, C.; Cosset, J.M.; Lecomte, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Metivier, H.; Sugier, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Aurengo, A.; Lamartine, J.; Martin, M.; Mallard, C.; Malfoy, B.; Ugolin, N.; Chevillard, S.; Schlumberger, M.; Laurier, D.; White-Koning, M.L.; Hemon, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Jougla, E.; Clavel, J.; Miccoli, L.; Barber, R.; Angulo, J.F.; Dubrova, Y.E.; Le Gall, B.; Phan, G.; Grillon, G.; Rouit, E.; Benech, H.; Fattal, E.; Deverre, J.R.; Legros, A.; Beuter, A.; Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Schmitt, P.; Roth, P.; Nadi, M.; Joly, L.; Chapel, C.; Burgain, A.; Marliot, F.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D.; Elabbassi, E.B.; Seze, R. de

    2005-07-01

    particular contamination; C.H.A.V.I.R., an interactive simulator for radiation protection; an ALARA engineering commune to the operating reactors; evolution of the radiological zoning and monitoring rules associated on the Cogema la Hague facility; an ambitious project for the nuclear park of EDF power plants : the purification project and its implementation for the Chinon B2 reactor - 2004); the eighth session concerns the environmental exposures and their consequences with the following presentations ( the concept of radioecological sensitivity and its interest in the risk management; phenomenal and analytical interpretation of the rain-deposit relationship used for the building of cesium 137 deposits in France consecutively to the Chernobyl accident; study of radioactivity source terms and transfer from medical origin in the purification network of the town of Toulouse; natural and artificial radioactivity in some marine species in manche. Case of polonium and plutonium alpha emitters. Synthesis of data acquired in the north Cotentin since 1990. elements of comparison; the role of local commissions of information (C.L.I.) in the follow up of release and monitoring of nuclear facilities); the ninth session concerns the dosimetry; the tenth session is divided in two parts radiation protection in accidental situations and radiation protection in post accidental situations with their respective presentations as follow ( evaluation of the dispersion of an aero contaminant in a ventilated area in field near an accidental source of emissions; study of the containment efficiency by gloveboxes in functioning accidental situations; the radiation protection and health; study by R.P.E. of the response of different materials in mixed field ( gamma, neutrons), application to the dosimetry reconstruction of an accident; nuclear or radiological events: organisation of medical intervention; and rehabilitation of life conditions in the contaminated territories: the contribution of

  14. The LNT Debate in Radiation Protection: Science vs. Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in revisiting LNT theory as the basis for the system of radiation protection in the US and worldwide. Arguing the scientific merits of policy options is not likely to be fruitful because the science is not robust enough to support one theory to the exclusion of others. Current science cannot determine the existence of a dose threshold, a key piece to resolving the matter scientifically. The nature of the scientific evidence is such that risk assessment at small effective doses (defined as scientifically defensible. This paper argues for an alternative approach by looking at the LNT debate as a policy question and analyzes the problem from a social and economic perspective. In other words, risk assessment and a strictly scientific perspective are insufficiently broad enough to resolve the issue completely. A wider perspective encompassing social and economic impacts in a risk management context is necessary, but moving the debate to the policy and risk management arena necessarily marginalizes the role of scientists.

  15. Modern new nuclear fuel characteristics and radiation protection aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Ian R

    2005-01-01

    The glut of fissile material from reprocessing plants and from the conclusion of the cold war has provided the opportunity to design new fuel types to beneficially dispose of such stocks by generating useful power. Thus, in addition to the normal reactor core complement of enriched uranium fuel assemblies, two other types are available on the world market. These are the ERU (enriched recycled uranium) and the MOX (mixed oxide) fuel assemblies. Framatome ANP produces ERU fuel assemblies by taking feed material from reprocessing facilities and blending this with highly enriched uranium from other sources. MOX fuel assemblies contain plutonium isotopes, thus exploiting the higher neutron yield of the plutonium fission process. This paper describes and evaluates the gamma, spontaneous and alpha reaction neutron source terms of these non-irradiated fuel assembly types by defining their nuclear characteristics. The dose rates which arise from these terms are provided along with an overview of radiation protection aspects for consideration in transporting and delivering such fuel assemblies to power generating utilities.

  16. Reducing operating costs while protecting safety and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, R. [Transocean Drilling ASA, (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper deals with the change process by reducing the operating costs in the petroleum industry while protecting safety and the environment. The author`s intention is to examine some of these cost reduction initiatives and see if they have affected the HSE (Health, Safety and Environment) parameters and subsequently how HSE has been managed during the change process. The examination will be from a contractor`s point of view. Topics are: organisational change; safety, environment and change; reduction of profit margins; changing contract strategy; restructuring of the drilling industry; technological development; environment

  17. Perspectives for environmental radiation protection in EU radiation protection legislation; Perspectivas para la proteccion del Medio Ambiente en la legislacion de Proteccion Radiologica de la UE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, A.

    2000-07-01

    The basis of EU radiation protection legislation is the EURATOM Trealy. It is discussed whether the Treaty offers a legal basis for the protection of the natural environment. The incorporation of provisions pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle or to radioactive substances in general environmental legislation is explained, as well as the possible implications of international conventions subscribed by the European Union. The European Commission is in the process of developing an overall approach to risk analysis for the protection of health, consumer interests, and the environment. It is examined to what extent the consideration of the impact of radiation on the natural environment fits in the overall framework and whether the principles underlying classical radiation protection are applicable to biota. Specific attention is given to situations where high levels of environmental radioactivity would require intervention. (Author)

  18. Radiation exposure and radiological protection in interventional radiological procedures with special attention to neurointerventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Kouichirou; Sakai, Kunio [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yoshimura, Shutaro; Oka, Tetsuya; Ito, Jusuke

    2000-11-01

    It is necessary to interventional radiologists to understand the system of radiological protection recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection: justification, optimization, and individual dose and risk limits. Estimation and measurements of the radiation exposure to patients and personnel are important for radiological protection to avoid radiation injuries, such as temporal epilation and cataract. The practical principle of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) should be kept in any interventional radiological procedure. (author)

  19. Radiation protection challenges in the management of radioactive waste from high-energy accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrici, Luisa; Algoet, Yvon; Bruno, Luca; Magistris, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) has operated high-energy accelerators for fundamental physics research for nearly 60 y. The side-product of this activity is the radioactive waste, which is mainly generated as a result of preventive and corrective maintenance, upgrading activities and the dismantling of experiments or accelerator facilities. Prior to treatment and disposal, it is common practice to temporarily store radioactive waste on CERN's premises and it is a legal requirement that these storage facilities are safe and secure. Waste treatment typically includes sorting, segregation, volume and size reduction and packaging, which will depend on the type of component, its chemical composition, residual activity and possible surface contamination. At CERN, these activities are performed in a dedicated waste treatment centre under the supervision of the Radiation Protection Group. This paper gives an overview of the radiation protection challenges in the conception of a temporary storage and treatment centre for radioactive waste in an accelerator facility, based on the experience gained at CERN. The CERN approach consists of the classification of waste items into 'families' with similar radiological and physical-chemical properties. This classification allows the use of specific, family-dependent techniques for radiological characterisation and treatment, which are simultaneously efficient and compliant with best practices in radiation protection. The storage was planned on the basis of radiological and other possible hazards such as toxicity, pollution and fire load. Examples are given of technical choices for the treatment and radiological characterisation of selected waste families, which could be of interest to other accelerator facilities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Optimal Protection Coordination for Microgrid under Different Operating Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ta Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant consequences result when a microgrid is connected to a distribution system. This study discusses the impacts of bolted three-phase faults and bolted single line-to-ground faults on the protection coordination of a distribution system connected by a microgrid which operates in utility-only mode or in grid-connected mode. The power system simulation software is used to build the test system. The linear programming method is applied to optimize the coordination of relays, and the relays coordination simulation software is used to verify if the coordination time intervals (CTIs of the primary/backup relay pairs are adequate. In addition, this study also proposes a relays protection coordination strategy when the microgrid operates in islanding mode during a utility power outage. Because conventional CO/LCO relays are not capable of detecting high impedance fault, intelligent electrical device (IED combined with wavelet transformer and neural network is proposed to accurately detect high impedance fault and identify the fault phase.

  1. Trade Study of System Level Ranked Radiation Protection Concepts for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    A strategic focus area for NASA is to pursue the development of technologies which support exploration in space beyond the current inhabited region of low earth orbit. An unresolved issue for crewed deep space exploration involves limiting crew radiation exposure to below acceptable levels, considering both solar particle events and galactic cosmic ray contributions to dosage. Galactic cosmic ray mitigation is not addressed in this paper, but by addressing credible, easily implemented, and mass efficient solutions for the possibility of solar particle events, additional margin is provided that can be used for cosmic ray dose accumulation. As a result, NASA s Advanced Engineering Systems project office initiated this Radiation Storm Shelter design activity. This paper reports on the first year results of an expected 3 year Storm Shelter study effort which will mature concepts and operational scenarios that protect exploration astronauts from solar particle radiation events. Large trade space definition, candidate concept ranking, and a planned demonstration comprised the majority of FY12 activities. A system key performance parameter is minimization of the required increase in mass needed to provide a safe environment. Total system mass along with operational assessments and other defined protection system metrics provide the guiding metrics to proceed with concept developments. After a downselect to four primary methods, the concepts were analyzed for dosage severity and the amount of shielding mass necessary to bring dosage to acceptable values. Besides analytical assessments, subscale models of several concepts and one full scale concept demonstrator were created. FY12 work terminated with a plan to demonstrate test articles of two selected approaches. The process of arriving at these selections and their current envisioned implementation are presented in this paper.

  2. Radiation protection for the illegal governmental use of radiation sources. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.

    2000-07-01

    Probably for the first time, illegal governmental uses of radiation sources, including the administrative infrastructure such as special radiation protection regulation, an advisory body etc., have been documented by the evaluation of the documents of the Ministry of State Security in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Over a thousand persons, but also documents, money bills etc. were marked with a wide variety of radionuclides and traced with specially developed detectors. Among the many different nuclides provided regularly from the Rossendorf Research Center near Dresden, in particular {sup 46}Sc was popular. (orig.) [German] 'Regierungskriminalitaet' kann man auch im deutschen Strahlenschutz finden. Anhand neuer Dokumentationen der so genannten Gauckbehoerden, ueber die auch schon fluechtig in der Presse berichtet und spekuliert wurde, lassen sich Einzelheiten ueber die Vorgehensweisen einfallsreicher Stasi-Mitarbeiter, die Stasi-eigene Strahlenschutzverordnung und Strahlenschutz-Kommission usw. rekonstruieren. Ueber 1.000 Personen, aber auch Gegenstaende, Dokumente, Geldscheine etc. wurden markiert, wobei unter einer Vielzahl der regelmaessig aus Rossendorf gelieferten Nukliden {sup 46}Sc besonders gern eingesetzt sowie in Dresden spezielle Nachweisgeraete entwickelt wurden. (orig.)

  3. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, Immanuel K H

    2014-08-01

    Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus.

  4. Multi-national findings on radiation protection of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehani, Madan M. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    This article reviews issues of radiation protection in children in 52 low-resource countries. Extensive information was obtained through a survey by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); wide-ranging information was available from 40 countries and data from the other countries pertained to frequency of pediatric CT examinations. Of note is that multi-detector CT (MDCT) was available in 77% of responses to the survey, typically nodal centers in these countries. Nearly 75% of these scanners were reported to have dose displays. The pediatric CT usage was lower in European facilities as compared to Asian and African facilities, where usage was twice as high. The most frequently scanned body part was the head. Frequent use of 120 kVp was reported in children. The ratio of maximum to minimum CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}) values varied between 15 for abdomen CT in the age group 5-10 years and 100 for chest CT in the age group <1 year. In 8% of the CT systems, CTDI values for pediatric patients were higher than those for adults in at least one age group and for one type of examination. Use of adult protocols for children was associated with CTDI{sub w} or CTDI{sub vol} values in children that were double those of adults for head and chest examination and 50% higher for abdomen examination. Patient dose records were kept in nearly half of the facilities, with the highest frequency in Europe (55% of participating facilities), and in 49% of Asian, 36% of Latin American and 14% of African facilities. The analysis of the first-choice examinations in seven clinical conditions showed that practice was in accordance with guidelines for only three of seven specified clinical conditions. (orig.)

  5. Replanning Criteria and Timing Definition for Parotid Protection-Based Adaptive Radiation Therapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Rong Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate real-time volumetric and dosimetric changes of the parotid gland so as to determine replanning criteria and timing for parotid protection-based adaptive radiation therapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Fifty NPC patients were treated with helical tomotherapy; volumetric and dosimetric (Dmean, V1, and D50 changes of the parotid gland at the 1st, 6th, 11th, 16th, 21st, 26th, 31st, and 33rd fractions were evaluated. The clinical parameters affecting these changes were studied by analyses of variance methods for repeated measures. Factors influencing the actual parotid dose were analyzed by a multivariate logistic regression model. The cut-off values predicting parotid overdose were developed from receiver operating characteristic curves and judged by combining them with a diagnostic test consistency check. The median absolute value and percentage of parotid volume reduction were 19.51 cm3 and 35%, respectively. The interweekly parotid volume varied significantly (p<0.05. The parotid Dmean, V1, and D50 increased by 22.13%, 39.42%, and 48.45%, respectively. The actual parotid dose increased by an average of 11.38% at the end of radiation therapy. Initial parotid volume, initial parotid Dmean, and weight loss rate are valuable indicators for parotid protection-based replanning.

  6. Evaluation of the implementation of radiation protection measures for aircrew in EU member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierfeldt, S; Haider, C; Hans, P; Kaleve, M; Neuenfeldt, F

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the implementation of radiation protection measures for aircrew in EU Member States has recently been performed in a study sponsored by the European Commission. A comprehensive database has been gathered using questionnaires for civil aviation authorities, aircraft operators and radiation protection authorities in each country. The study has revealed the following results: all countries within the scope of this study where aircrew might receive annual doses >1 mSv have implemented appropriate legislation. The treatment of limits or constraints (action levels) for annual doses of 1, 6, 20 mSv could be an area where clear guidance by the European Commission might be needed. The way in which doses are determined might also be treated in a more harmonized way in the EU, including the transfer of dose data of freelancers or crew members working for other airlines. The establishment of the European Aviation Safety Agency leads to a gradual shift in responsibilities from the national civil aviation authorities towards this centralised European agency. Currently, however, tracking of doses for aircrew still lies with national bodies.

  7. Maintenance of radiation protection at a drawing board stage of the "Shelter" Object transformation into environmentally safe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, S Yu

    2015-12-01

    Special aspects of radiation protection maintenance at a drawing board stage of the "Shelter" Object transforma tion into environmentally safe system are shaped in the article. Information is provided on the basis of analysis of design plans and specifications both with project paperwork from activities at the ShO in 2002 2015 on accordance to requirements of the Ukrainian health legislation in the field of radiation hygiene regulations. Specific features of radiation factors at the ShO were identified accounting their emergency origination. Relevancy of assessment of a range of activity types and technologies impact on radiation situation in the operation environment was reviewed and substantiated. General characteristics of radiation exposure and resulting doses in personnel under the activi ty execution are provided followed by the requirements to estimates of anticipated radiation doses. Features and peculiarities of application of the Ukrainian health legislation in a field of radiation hygienic regulations are reviewed in a view of meeting the requirements of NRBU 97, NRBU 97/D 2000, OSPU 2005, SPORO 85, SP AES 88 and other health legislative regulatory documents under conditions of work at the ShO. By the virtue of analysis of radi ation hygienic factors at the ShO the special aspects of choice of individual and collective radiological protection arrangements for personnel were identified, namely the individual protective gear and respiratory protection equip ment, shielding, decontamination, dust suppression, ventilation, sanitary pass control, sanitary barriers, scope and types of radiological control, setting the design levels of radiological environment parameters, criteria for the most safe options (technologies) of work execution.

  8. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jaial [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  9. Radiation protection of the environment: anthropocentric and eco-centric principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexakhin, R.M.; Fesenko, S.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, RAAS, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    The second half of the 20. century was dominated in the field of radiation protection by the anthropocentric concept stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). According to this concept 'if radiation standards protect man then biota are also adequately protected from ionizing radiation'. At the end of the 20. beginning of the 21. centuries in the area of radiation protection of nature an eco-centric strategy is beginning to develop where emphasis has swung to the protection of biota in their environment. Inadequacy of ICRP's anthropocentric concept is reported. Issues are discussed such as ecological dosimetry, non-equi-dose irradiation of man and biota, criteria for estimating radiation induced changes in biota and man, as well as the need to harmonize permissible exposure doses to man and biota. An urgent need is stressed to develop a single (synthetic) concept of radiation protection which simultaneously ensures protection of human health and biota well-being in their environment. This concept is to be based on the recognition of the integrity of socio-natural ecosystems where man and biota are considered as a unity. (author)

  10. Radiation protection after interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirraco, R.; Pereira, A.; Cavaco, A. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil - Centro R egional de Oncologia do Porto, SA, Porto (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In this study we measure patients radiation exposure dose after interstitial {sup 125}I permanent prostate Brachytherapy implants, and correlate it with dose limits for public, total activity implanted, patient preoperative weight(1), distance between prostate walls and anterior skin surface. Methods and Material: We analyse 20 patients who were implanted with {sup 125}I seeds. The instrument used to measure radiation is a calibrated Berthold Umo LB 123 aco-plated to a LB 1236-H10 detector. Three measurements were taken: at the perineal and anterior pelvic zones on contact with the skin and at 1 m from the patient. The maximum value was taken for all measurements. The dose at a distance of one meter is obtained at anterior pelvic zone, perpendicular to the skin, according to the recommendations of A.A.P.M.(1). The distance between prostate walls was determined using post -operative CT images. Results: The doses at the perineal zone have determined an average of 186 {mu}Sv/h (range: 110 340 {mu}Sv/h) and at surface pelvic zone of 41 {mu}Sv/h (range: 15 103 {mu}Sv/h). The dose at a distance of 1 meter has an average value of 0.4 {mu}Sv/h (range: 0.2 1.0 {mu}Sv/h). The average total activity implanted was 25 mCi (range: 17 38 mCi). The distance between prostate walls and skin pelvic surface of the patients has an average value of 8.9 cm (range: 6.6 -11.5 cm). At a distance of 1 meter from the pelvic zone the dose measured is very low and below dose limits imposed by the European Directive EURATOM 2 and the Portuguese law. For general public to reach annual dose limit (EURATOM - 1 mSv/year) when contacting the pelvic zone, we extrapolate that 4 days (range: 1.6 11.1 days) would be needed, assuming a daily contact period of 6 hours. Conclusion: We established a correlation between the distance of prostate walls to the skin perineal surface and the total dose, but we find no correlation between measured doses, total activity implanted

  11. Radiation protection concepts review with an adapted quiz commercial game; Relembrando os conceitos de radioprotecao por meio de um jogo comercial adaptado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo [Empresa Brasileira de Radiacoes Ltda. (EMBRARAD), Cotia, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: aryarj@ig.com.br

    2002-07-01

    Before a new employee starts working at EMBRARAD under a large irradiation operator supervision, he has to attend the first radiation protection training. After that all radiation protection subjects are revised every six months. In that half-yearly training the employees are chosen randomly to explain radiation protection subjects to other participants under an instructor supervision. After some years attending the same training, employees do not have motivation to participate in this kind of periodic event due to the same issues covered. Therefore something should be made to revival their interest and motivation to take part in this periodic training. The way chose was adapted a commercial game to revised radiation protection subjects and included it in the periodic training. The game was well accepted by the employees, it caused a competition among them because everybody wanted to win the game and consequently stimulated them to study. (author)

  12. Solid state nuclear track detectors in hadrontherapy and radiation protection in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scampoli, Paola, E-mail: paola.scampoli@na.infn.i [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, Napoli (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The recent widespread of carbon-therapy for cancer treatment and the long duration manned exploration planned by NASA require the knowledge of nuclear data both for assessing the correct dose distribution in the target volume and surrounding healthy tissue (radiation therapy), and for a better knowledge of the mixed radiation field to which astronauts will be exposed (radiation protection in space). Nuclear fragmentation taking place in traversed material, even human body itself, is indeed responsible for a beam quality change whose biological effects have to be evaluated. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) provide accurate measurements of fluence and fragmentation of heavy ions needed for hadrontherapy and space radiation-protection purposes.

  13. Special Operations of CERES for Radiation Experiment Tests (SOCRATES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Z. Peter

    The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System project flew a scanning radiometer (PFM) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission TRMM satellite, and two each aboard the Terra (FM1 FM2) and Aqua spacecraft (FM3 FM4). The primary objectives of the pairs of in-struments were for one to scan cross-track to map the geographical distribution of reflected solar radiation and Earth-emitted radiation and for the other to scan in azimuth as well as in elevation angle to provide data from which to develop models to describe the directionally-dependent dis-tribution of reflected solar radiance and Earth-emitted radiance. The Programmable Azimuth Plane Scan (PAPS) feature of the CERES instrument is a variant of the latter, and enables a scanner to target ground stations, or to match other satellite instruments viewing geometry to generate data sets for various scientific investigations. This paper presents special operations of CERES using the PAPS mode with the objective to collect data for comparison at the radiance level with other Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) instruments, and also shows numerical results of such comparisons. The following campaigns are covered in the paper: (i) In 1998, the CERES instrument (PFM) was rotated in azimuth so its scan plane coincided with the cross-track scan plane of the ScaRAB-2 instrument when the orbits of their spacecraft intersected. In this data set, both instruments viewed the same scenes from the same directions within a few minutes of each other, so the radiance measured by both instruments could be compared. (ii) In March of 2000, the scan plane of CERES Terra (FM1 and FM2) was rotated to coincide with the cross-track scan of the PFM aboard TRMM satellite. Data collected over up to 10 orbital crossings per day are used to compare radiance measurements of PFM and FM1 or FM2. (iii) In July of 2002, radiance measurements of scanners on Terra and Aqua satellites are compared. Since both satellites are in a polar orbit, the scan planes

  14. Study of four cases of radiation colitis needed operation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Takesue, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Takashi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1996-09-01

    On the 4 cases of operation for the late radiation effect, the process and notes for radiation colitis were described. Case 1; a female of 57 y with cervical carcinoma (IIIb) received 59.8 Gy of external irradiation and 24.0 Gy of intracervical irradiation. About 8 months after the radiotherapy, anemia due to gut bleeding was observed and hemorrhage was seen in the colon with the colon fiber. One year later, colostomy was performed. Case 2; a female of 79 y with cervical carcinoma (IIb) received 50.0 Gy of external irradiation and 18.0 Gy of intracervical irradiation. About 8 months after the therapy, gut bleeding and ileac symptom were observed and ulcer and stenosis in the sigmoid colon were seen. Sigmoidectomy was performed. Case 3; a female of 75 y with cervical carcinoma (IIIb) received external 49.8 Gy irradiation and intracervical 23.0 Gy irradiation. About 4 months after the therapy, anemia and ulcer with hemorrhage in the sigmoidal colon were recognized. Sigmoidectomy and colostomy were performed. Case 4; a female of 68 y with cervical carcinoma (IIb) and chronic renal failure received 50.4 Gy of external irradiation post hysterectomy. About 5 months later, iliac symptom was observed. She received ileectomy and then colostomy but died of MOF due to renal failure. (K.H.)

  15. Operation of a tokamak reactor in the radiative improved mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, D. Kh.; Mavrin, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The operation of a nuclear fusion reactor has been simulated within a model based on experimental results obtained at the TEXTOR-94 tokamak and other facilities in which quasistationary regimes were achieved with long confinement times, high densities, and absence of the edge-localized mode. The radiative improved mode of confinement studied in detail at the TEXTOR-94 tokamak is the most interesting such regime. One of the most important problems of modern tokamaks is the problem of a very high thermal load on a divertor (or a limiter). This problem is quite easily solved in the radiative improved mode. Since a significant fraction of the thermal energy is reemitted by an impurity, the thermal loading is significantly reduced. As the energy confinement time τ E at high densities in the indicated mode is significantly larger than the time predicted by the scaling of ITERH-98P(y, 2), ignition can be achieved in a facility much smaller than the ITER facility at plasma temperatures below 20 keV. The revealed decrease in the degradation of the confinement time τ E with an increase in the introduced power has been analyzed.

  16. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: construction, operation, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adler, Clemens; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Antonczyk, Dariusz; Arend, Andreas; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartos, D; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Antonio; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Bratrud, Lars; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Bucher, Damian; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Caragheorgheopol, G; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, V; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chandra, Sinjini; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chernenko, S; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Chowdhury, Tasnuva; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Ciobanu, M; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Concas, Matteo; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Costanza, Susanna; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; Daues, Heinz; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Franz Degenhardt, Hermann; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Deplano, Caterina; Devismes, A; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Van Doremalen, Lennart Vincent; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Duggal, Ashpreet Kaur; Dupieux, Pascal; Duta, V; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Esumi, Shinichi; Eulisse, Giulio; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabbietti, Laura; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fateev, O; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fleck, M; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Freuen, S; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gatz, Henriette; Gauger, Erin Frances; De Leone Gay, Maria Beatriz; Germain, Marie; Ghosh, Jhuma; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giolu, G; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-dziadus, Ewa; Glasow, Richard; Glassel, Peter; Gremmler, Svenja; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Gottschalk, Dirk; Gottschlag, Holger; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grajcarek, Robert; Greiner, Leo Clifford; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grimm, Helge; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosa, Fabrizio; Grosse-oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Gruber, Lukas; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutfleisch, M; Bautista Guzman, Irais; Haake, Rudiger; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Haque, Md Rihan; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hassan, Hadi; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hehner, Joerg; Heide, Markus; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hills, Christopher; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hohlweger, Bernhard; Horak, David; Hornung, Sebastian; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huber, Sebastian; Hughes, Charles; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Iga Buitron, Sergio Arturo; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Islam, Md Samsul; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jaelani, Syaefudin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jercic, Marko; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karczmarczyk, Przemyslaw; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khabanova, Zhanna; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Khuntia, Arvind; Kielbowicz, Miroslaw Marek; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Byungchul; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kislov, E; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-boesing, Christian; "Klein-Boesing", Melanie; Kliemant, Michael; Klingenmeyer, Hannah; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohn, Martin; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Konno, Masahiro; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krawutschke, Tobias; Kreis, Lukas; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krumbhorn, Dirk; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kundu, Sourav; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lai, Yue Shi; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lavicka, Roman; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehmann, T; Lehner, Jorg; Lehner, Sebastian; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Lesser, F; Levai, Peter; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lim, Bong-hwi; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lindsay, Scott William; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Litichevskyi, Vladyslav; Llope, William; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lohner, Daniel; Lonne, Per-ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Loncar, Petra; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Lu, XianGuo; Ludolphs, W; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Luhder, Jens Robert; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Magureanu, C; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmoud, T; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Lucio Martinez, Jose Antonio; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Masson, Erwann; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Mathis, Andreas Michael; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzilli, Marianna; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mihaylov, Dimitar Lubomirov; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morino, Yuhei; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Myers, Corey James; Myrcha, Julian Wojciech; Mycke, Jan Felix; Nag, Dipanjan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Narayan, Amrendra; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Neher, Michael; Nellen, Lukas; Nesbo, Simon Voigt; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pacik, Vojtech; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Panebratsev, Yu; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Panebianco, Stefano; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Jonghan; Park, WooJin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Pathak, Surya Prakash; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petris, M; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Peretti Pezzi, Rafael; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pliquett, Fabian; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pozdniakov, Valeriy; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Radomski, Sylwester; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Rana, Dhan Bahadur; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Ratza, Viktor; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Reischl, A; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Rokita, Przemyslaw Stefan; Ronchetti, Federico; Dominguez Rosas, Edgar; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Rotondi, Alberto; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Vazquez Rueda, Omar; Rui, Rinaldo; Rumyantsev, Boris; Rusanov, Ivan; Rustamov, Anar; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Saha, Sumit Kumar; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dousatsu; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandoval, Andres; Sann, H; Sano, Masato; Santo, Rainer; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Sas, Mike Henry Petrus; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schaefer, Brennan; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Scheid, Horst Sebastian; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Marten Ole; Schmidt, Martin; Schmidt, Nicolas Vincent; Schmiederer, Stefan; Schneider, R; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulze, R; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sedykh, S; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sett, Priyanka; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shaikh, Wadut; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Anjali; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimansky, S; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Shukla, P; Sibiryak, Yury; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silaeva, Svetlana; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simon, Reinhard S; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Smykov, L; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Solveit, Hans Kristian; Sommer, Wolfgang; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stelzer, Herbert; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Stiller, Johannes; Stocco, Diego; Stockmeyer, MR; Storetvedt, Maksim Melnik; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Suzuki, Ken; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thakur, Sanchari; Thomas, Deepa; Thoresen, Freja; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Tilsner, Heinz; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Rojas Torres, Solangel; Tripathy, Sushanta; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Tropp, Lukas; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Trzeciak, Barbara Antonina; Tsiledakis, Georgios; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Umaka, Ejiro Naomi; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vargas, H; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Vertesi, Robert; Vickovic, Linda; Vigolo, Sonia; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Voscek, Dominik; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, Boris; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kengo; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wegerle, Dominik; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wenzel, Sandro Christian; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael; Witt, William Edward; Xu, C; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yurevich, Vladimir; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zanevski, Yuri; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmer, Stefan; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) was designed and built to enhance the capabilities of the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While aimed at providing electron identification and triggering, the TRD also contributes significantly to the track reconstruction and calibration in the central barrel of ALICE. In this paper the design, construction, operation, and performance of this detector are discussed. A pion rejection factor of up to 410 is achieved at a momentum of 1 GeV/c in p-Pb collisions and the resolution at high transverse momentum improves by about 40% when including the TRD information in track reconstruction. The triggering capability is demonstrated both for jet and for electron selection.

  17. Strategies for Navigating Common Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Operational Radiation Safety Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert J; Rios, Janelle

    2016-02-01

    Because operational radiation safety professionals can encounter ethical dilemmas in the course of their work, codes of ethics and professional standards of conduct are maintained by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American Academy of Health Physics (AAHP). While these works provide valuable guidance, they do not operationalize the types of ethical dilemmas radiation safety practitioners might encounter. For example, consider the ethical conundrum of “dual loyalty,” defined as the situation in which an individual holds simultaneous obligations to two or more parties. In the case of radiation safety, practicing professionals hold obligations to the workers being protected and to the leaders of the organization. If these obligations are in conflict, serious difficulties can arise. The conundrum of dual loyalty is described and a strategy for reducing its effect is discussed. Two other common ethical issues; “confidentiality” and “organizational dissent” are similarly presented. A foundation from which to launch an ongoing dialogue about ethical issues within the radiation safety profession is also proposed.

  18. Strategies for Navigating Common Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Operational Radiation Safety Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, RJ; Rios, J

    2017-01-01

    Because operational radiation safety professionals can encounter ethical dilemmas in the course of their work, codes of ethics and professional standards of conduct are maintained by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American Academy of Health Physics (AAHP). While these works provide valuable guidance, they do not operationalize the types of ethical dilemmas radiation safety practitioners might encounter. For example, consider the ethical conundrum of “dual loyalty”, defined as the situation in which an individual holds simultaneous obligations to two or more parties. In the case of radiation safety, practicing professionals hold obligations to the workers being protected and to the leaders of the organization. If these obligations are in conflict, serious difficulties can arise. The conundrum of dual loyalty is described and a strategy for reducing its effect is discussed. Two other common ethical issues; “confidentiality” and “organizational dissent” are similarly presented. A foundation from which to launch an ongoing dialogue about ethical issues within the radiation safety profession is also proposed. PMID:26710164

  19. Radiation Protection in Radiology Departments of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouladi Dehaghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Application of ionizing radiation in many fields especially in medicine is growing, and can cause adverse health effects. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the radiation protection principles in radiology departments, based on national standards. Materials and Methods The current study was conducted in all radiology departments of the teaching hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran, and their radiation protection status was investigated using Audit technique. For this purpose Audit checklist was prepared and essential information gathered by observation, interview with radiology department managers, and documentary surveying. At the end, standard situations were classified in three levels: poor (˂ 50%, medium (50 - 75%,s and good (75 - 100%. Results The mean of radiation protection in the studied radiology departments was 70.53%. The highest and lowest levels of radiation protection were in quality control and suitable ventilation, respectively. Radiation protection was evaluated as medium in 71.4% and good in 28.6% of the studied radiology departments. Conclusions The state of observed radiation protection principles was relatively in the weak level in the studied radiology departments especially in facilities such as ventilation system, radiography entrance, and darkroom situation. More important reason was usage changing of sections as radiology billet from related organizations.

  20. MagRad: A code to optimize the operation of superconducting magnets in a radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeaw, Christopher T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A powerful computational tool, called MagRad, has been developed which optimizes magnet design for operation in radiation fields. Specifically, MagRad has been used for the analysis and design modification of the cable-in-conduit conductors of the TF magnet systems in fusion reactor designs. Since the TF magnets must operate in a radiation environment which damages the material components of the conductor and degrades their performance, the optimization of conductor design must account not only for start-up magnet performance, but also shut-down performance. The degradation in performance consists primarily of three effects: reduced stability margin of the conductor; a transition out of the well-cooled operating regime; and an increased maximum quench temperature attained in the conductor. Full analysis of the magnet performance over the lifetime of the reactor includes: radiation damage to the conductor, stability, protection, steady state heat removal, shielding effectiveness, optimal annealing schedules, and finally costing of the magnet and reactor. Free variables include primary and secondary conductor geometric and compositional parameters, as well as fusion reactor parameters. A means of dealing with the radiation damage to the conductor, namely high temperature superconductor anneals, is proposed, examined, and demonstrated to be both technically feasible and cost effective. Additionally, two relevant reactor designs (ITER CDA and ARIES-II/IV) have been analyzed. Upon addition of pure copper strands to the cable, the ITER CDA TF magnet design was found to be marginally acceptable, although much room for both performance improvement and cost reduction exists. A cost reduction of 10-15% of the capital cost of the reactor can be achieved by adopting a suitable superconductor annealing schedule. In both of these reactor analyses, the performance predictive capability of MagRad and its associated costing techniques have been demonstrated.

  1. Screening of new substances for radiation protection and technology development of efficacy improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Sun; Park, Sun Young; Jang, Eun Jung [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of candidate compounds, we examined the effects of selenium compounds, melatonin, and propolis on the colony forming efficiency (CFE) of gamma-irradiated CHO cells. - Protective effects of selenium compounds against radiation-induced cytotoxicity Sodium selenite showed protective effects at low concentrations against radiation-induced toxicity in CHO cells, whereas its effects were weak at higher concentrations. Selenomethionine also reduced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Both of these compounds showed highest protective effects at the concentration of 1 uM. - Protective effects of melatonin against radiation-induced cytotoxicity Melatonin showed the protective effects against radiation-induced cytotoxicity, and the protection was highest at 1 mM concentration. - Protective effects of selenium compounds against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity Propolis showed dose-dependent inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. In particular, the highest inhibition was observed when propolis were treated at 0.3 and 1 ng/ml 24h prior to the hydrogen peroxide treatment. The protective effects of propolis was observed only when it was pretreated at least 8 hours before hydrogen peroxide treatment.

  2. Radiation protection planning for the international FAIR project; Strahlenschutzplanung fuer das internationale FAIR-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbacher, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); FAIR - Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Belousov, A.; Conrad, I. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-07-01

    FAIR (=Facility for AntiProton and Ion Research) is an international accelerator facility which will be built near the GSI site in Darmstadt, where protons and heavy ion beams can be accelerated in a synchrotron to energies up to 30 GeV/nucleon with intensities partially up to 1E13/sec. The accelerated particles will be used for experiments in atomic, nuclear and plasma physics as well as for radiation biology and medicine and materials research. The radiation protection planning focuses on the estimation of radiation fields produced by heavy ions and its shielding. As examples, the radiation protection planning for the heavy ion synchrotron SIS100 as well as for two experiment caves are presented. Moreover, further important topics in this radiation protection planning are the estimation of the distribution and production of radionuclides in media and the handling before disposal.

  3. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection standard and the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection published in 2007; Comparacao entre a norma brasileira de radioprotecao e a recomendacao da International Commission on Radiological Protection - ICRP, publicadas em 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Itatiaia, RJ (Brazil). Fabrica do Combustivel Nuclear. Servico de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, J.R.S. [Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Direito

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the differences between the CNEN's standard and the publication of ICRP-103, analyzing the philosophy for radiation protection, dose limits and other relevant aspects of radiation protection.

  4. Abilities for radiological protection supervisor in the ionizing radiation for industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordi, G.M., E-mail: adelia@atomo.com.b [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear S/C Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sahyun, A., E-mail: gian@atomo.b [ABENDI - Associacao Brasileira de Ensaios Nao Destrutivos e Inspecao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andreucci, R., E-mail: zzricardo.zzandreucci@Voith.co [Voith Hydro Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, P.G. [Multiend Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The authors of this paper, has introduced an industrial training program for the R.P.E - Radiation Protection Expert to comply with contents of CNEN Standard NN 3.01 'Basic Guideline of Radiation Protection'. The 'training program' has been divided in four steps, based on: professional R.P.E work, knowledge level to perform his activities, education program and detailed basic bibliography. In the last congress we have presented a paper about the content of radiation protection training program. In this paper we will discuss the abilities that the supervisor need to obtain to perform the radiation protection report. We discuss the number of abilities for each one of the disciplines mentioned in the last paper and we provide some particular abilities. (author)

  5. Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröde, P.; Kuklane, K.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Griefahn, B.; Holmér, I.; Meinander, H.; Nocker, W.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.

    2010-01-01

    The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were

  6. Application to an Internet site in radiation protection; Application d`un site Internet en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambini, D.J.; Baum, T.P.; Spector, M.; Elgard, M.C.; Mechaly, Y.; Grainer, R.; Barritault, L. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Laennec, Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    Training specialists in medical radiation protection is ensured by the Continuous Training Center of University Rene Descartes since 1990. The necessity of updating knowledge has urged us to develop an Internet site (http://www.citi2.fr/RADIO). Besides the mandatory functions of the educational management (secretariat, information on the stages, registrations, etc.) this site provides: 1. Practical information (addresses of administrative and technical organisms, presentation of radiation protection programs); 2. Scientific information (bibliographic bulletin of the EDF service of radiation protection, updated every two months, description of recent radiation protection works); 3. Institutional documentation (analysis of recent basic texts, ICRP publications, European directives). The interrogation of general interest asked via e-mail and forum allowing communication between experts, graduated students and the education faculty will be available on the site. The communication will be augmented by tele-formation modules for continuous distant training

  7. Multilayer Polymeric Shielding to Protect Humans from Galactic Cosmic Radiation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Sub-topic X4.01, NASA has identified a need for advanced radiation-shielding materials and structures to protect humans from the hazards of galactic cosmic...

  8. Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection; Aptitud mas Actitud en Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, G. R.; Sanchez, G. D.

    2003-07-01

    Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs.

  9. Role of experience, leadership and individual protection in cath lab. A multicenter questionnaire and workshop on radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuon, E. [Klinik Fraenkische Schweiz, Ebermannstadt (Germany). Div. of Cardiology; Weitmann, K.; Hoffmann, W. [University Medicine, Greifswald (Germany). Inst. for Community Medicine; Doerr, M.; Hummel, A.; Busch, M.C.; Felix, S.B.; Empen, K. [University Medicine, Greifswald (Germany). Div. of Internal Medicine

    2015-10-15

    Radiation exposure in invasive cardiology remains considerable. We evaluated the acceptance of radiation protective devices and the role of operator experience, team leadership, and technical equipment in radiation safety efforts in the clinical routine. Cardiologists (115 from 27 centers) answered a questionnaire and documented radiation parameters for 10 coronary angiographies (CA), before and 3.1 months after a 90-min. mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques. Mini-course participants achieved significant median decreases in patient dose area products (DAP: from 26.6 to 13.0 Gy x cm{sup 2}), number of radiographic frames (- 29 %) and runs (- 18 %), radiographic DAP/frame (- 32 %), fluoroscopic DAP/s (- 39 %), and fluoroscopy time (- 16 %). Multilevel analysis revealed lower DAPs with decreasing body mass index (- 1.4 Gy x cm{sup 2} per kg/m2), age (- 1.2 Gy x cm{sup 2}/decade), female sex (- 5.9 Gy x cm{sup 2}), participation of the team leader (- 9.4 Gy x cm{sup 2}), the mini-course itself (- 16.1 Gy x cm{sup 2}), experience (- 0.7 Gy x cm{sup 2}/1000 CAs throughout the interventionalist's professional life), and use of older catheterization systems (- 6.6 Gy x cm{sup 2}). Lead protection included apron (100 %), glass sheet (95 %), lengthwise (94 %) and crosswise (69 %) undercouch sheet, collar (89 %), glasses (28 %), cover around the patients' thighs (19 %), foot switch shield (7 %), gloves (3 %), and cap (1 %). Radiation-protection devices are employed less than optimally in the clinical routine. Cardiologists with a great variety of interventional experience profited from our radiation safety workshop - to an even greater extent if the interventional team leader also participated.

  10. Measurement quantities in radiation protection; Messgroessen im Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, Peter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich ' Strahlenschutzdosimetrie' ; Hupe, Oliver [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Photonendosimetrie' ; Kramer, H.M.

    2013-06-15

    After an introduction of the dose equivalent different types of dose equivalents are presented. In this connection stochastic and deterministic radiation effects are considered. Then stationary dose and personnel dose are discussed. Finally the different weighting factors are considered. (HSI)

  11. Advanced Structural Nanomaterials for Astronaut Radiation Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zyvex in cooperation with Prairie View A&M (CARR) and Boeing will develop a space radiation shielding multi-functional material that will provide high energy...

  12. Advanced Radiation Protection (ARP): Thick GCR Shield Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Radiation Project to date has focused on SEP events.  For long duration missions outside Earth’s geomagnetic field, the galactic cosmic ray...

  13. Deficiencies of active electronic radiation protection dosimeters in pulsed fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerhold, U; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays nearly all radiation fields used for X-ray diagnostics are pulsed. These fields are characterised by a high dose rate during the pulse and a short pulse duration in the range of a few milliseconds. The use of active electronic dosimeters has increased in the past few years, but these types of dosimeters might possibly not measure reliably in pulsed radiation fields. Not only personal dosimeters but also area dosimeters that are used mainly for dose rate measurements are concerned. These cannot be substituted by using passive dosimeter types. The characteristics of active electronic dosimeters determined in a continuous radiation field cannot be transferred to those in pulsed fields. Some provisional measurements with typical electronic dosimeters in pulsed radiation fields are presented to reveal this basic problem.

  14. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James; Blaha, Jan; Cimeno, Maranda; Mao, Stan; Nicolas, Ludovic; Rokni, Sayed; Santana, Mario; Tran, Henry

    2017-09-01

    The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points) and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells) were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc.) captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  15. 40 CFR 190.11 - Variances for unusual operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS Environmental Standards for the Uranium Fuel Cycle § 190.11 Variances for unusual operations. The standards specified...

  16. A summary of recommendations for occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Ariel; Hian, Sim Kui; Miller, Donald L; Le Heron, John; Padovani, Renato; Vano, Eliseo

    2013-02-01

    The radiation dose received by cardiologists during percutaneous coronary interventions, electrophysiology procedures, and other interventional cardiology procedures can vary by more than an order of magnitude for the same type of procedure and for similar patient doses. There is particular concern regarding occupational dose to the lens of the eye. This document provides recommendations for occupational radiation protection for physicians and other staff in the interventional suite. Simple methods for reducing or minimizing occupational radiation dose include minimizing fluoroscopy time and the number of acquired images; using available patient dose reduction technologies; using good imaging-chain geometry; collimating; avoiding high-scatter areas; using protective shielding; using imaging equipment whose performance is controlled through a quality assurance program; and wearing personal dosimeters so that you know your dose. Effective use of these methods requires both appropriate education and training in radiation protection for all interventional cardiology personnel, and the availability of appropriate protective tools and equipment. Regular review and investigation of personnel monitoring results, accompanied as appropriate by changes in how procedures are performed and equipment used, will ensure continual improvement in the practice of radiation protection in the interventional suite. These recommendations for occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology and electrophysiology have been endorsed by the Asian Pacific Society of Interventional Cardiology, the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions, the Latin American Society of Interventional Cardiology, and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions.

  17. Information strategy and information products in radiation protection. A Norwegian RISKPERCOM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Waldahl, R. [Avdeling for media og kommunikasjon, Oslo Univ., Oslo (Norway)

    1998-02-01

    A short description of the national background for the radiation issue is presented together with a presentation of information strategy and analysis of the information products of the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. This is part of an international study. 35 refs.

  18. Controversial issues confronting the BEIR III committee: implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art for conducting risk assessment studies, especially known and unknown factors relative to radioinduced cancer or other diseases, sources of scientific and epidemiological data, dose-response models used, and uncertainties which limit precision of estimation of excess radiation risks. These are related to decision making for radiation protection policy. (PSB)

  19. Some considerations on radiation protection. A questionnaire report from the nursing department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Toshiyuki; Koyama, Masanori; Saito, Masato; Ikai, Takeshi; Nakajima, Fujio; Matsui, Masayuki; Kadono, Koji; Miura, Teruo; Igimi, Yutaka [Saiseikai Shiga Hospital (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Authors conducted the questionnairing on the radiation protection in cooperation with nurses. And on the basis of the results, we reported here what is now important for the radiation protection and what we can do as the team medical activities, including the discussion with other documents. On November 1996, the questionnairing was conducted in 165 nurses of Saiseikai Shiga Hospital and replies were received from 78% of them. Nurses from 1 year to <3 years in experience were 44% and these from 3 to <5 years in experience 19%. The questionaire was designed to elicit the interest, the sense and the understanding on the medical radiation protection, and to obtain what kinds of the interest they have and what they want to know. On the understanding of the radiation, many nurses had much interest in the radiation exposure to patients and nurses own, which occupied 33% of the respondents. One hundred thirteen nurses (68%) had some questions on the radiation protection, in which the most was on the potable radiation apparatus. Among patients` questions about the radiation, the most numerous was on the physical and genetic effects and many nurses could not respond the suitably. On the basis of these results nurses were given the training. (K.H.)

  20. BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-03-01

    A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed. (ACR)

  1. Numerical calculation of radiation protective clothing efficiency by using Monte Carlo method

    OpenAIRE

    Моргунов, Владимир Викторович; Диденко, Наталья Викторовна; Трищ, Роман Михайлович

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of numerical experiments on modeling of absorption of gamma-radiation with/without using the proposed radiation-protective suit and radiation-shielding material (lead glass in the form of microspheres). The proposed method numerical experiments leads to the reduction of human, time and financial resources. When conducting numerical experiments we used the software package GEANT4. When conducting numerical experiments, we used a phantom of the human body (total...

  2. Radiation protection and communication. Sociology and communication impact in radiation protection; Radioprotection et Communication. Sociologie et impact de la communication en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berne, G. [CEA/Cadarache, Service de Protection contre les Rayonnements, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bicheron, G.; Franco, P. [CEA/Fontenay aux Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    Communication about nuclear energy was the subject of this conference. Different examples of communications are detailed in fields as different as impact of iodine 131 release in waste waters or public information about radiation protection, the north Cotentin radioecology group or what information to give to the patients in nuclear medicine. (N.C.)

  3. Mechanisms of alteration of the immune system by ionizing radiations: a basis for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, M. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Perez, M.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carosella, E. [CEA, Service de Recherches en Hemato -Immunologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Alterations of the immune system appear in relationship with exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) in different situations, e.g., accidents, radiation therapy of cancer, prenatal irradiation, some human diseases with hypersensitivity to IR and aging. Thus, the comprehension of the mechanisms of the alterations of the immune system by IR is necessary to elaborate strategies of protection and to pave the way for future possible therapies. At least 9 mechanisms of alterations can be identified: 1- Apoptosis. Apoptosis is a key mechanism of the natural regulation of the immune system and plays also a key role in the response to IR: lymphocytes die rapidly by apoptosis after exposure. Different pathways of induction of apoptosis have been identified, and include p53 dependent and mitochondria mediated pathways, as well as CD95 and ROS initiation; 2- TCR mutations. The T cell antigen receptor is responsible to discriminate between self and non self. Mutations of the TCR may result from exposure to IR; 3- Modification of the Th1-Th2 balance. T helper cells may express 2 distinct secretion patterns: Th1 cytokines promote cell-mediated immunity while Th2 cytokines favor humoral immunity. Although the effects of IR on the Th1/Th2 balance remains controversial, an imbalance towards a Th2 profile is likely and patients with cancer and systemic auto-immune disease often present a switch from Th1 to Th2; 4- Bystander effects and genetic instability. Stimulatory effect or genomic instability have been observed in haematopoietic cells exposed to IR and related to a bystander mechanism. 5- Shift toward an inflammatory profile. Ionizing radiation may induce a persistent inflammatory profile as a result of dis-regulation of cytokine production; such a status of persistent inflammation has been observed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. 6- Modification of antigen presentation. Antigen presentation by dendritic cells is an essential function preceding

  4. Evaluation on radiation protection aspect and radiological risk at Mukim Belanja repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmi, Siti Nur Aisyah, E-mail: nuclear.aisyahazmi@gmail.com; Kenoh, Hamiza; Majid, Amran Ab. [Nuclear Technology Research Centre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Asian Rare Earth (ARE) is a locally incorporated company that operated a mineral processing operation to extract rare earth element. ARE has received much attention from the public since the beginning of their operation until the work of decommissioning and decontamination of the plant. Due to the existence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in the residue, the decommissioning and disposal was done by the company in collaboration with the Perak State Government and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). The main objective of this study is to review the level of compliance of the existing Radiation Protection Regulations enforced by AELB particularly in the achievement of allowed exposure dose limit. The next objective was to study the impact of the construction of the Mukim Belanja Repository to workers and public. This study was conducted by analyzing documents that were issued and conducting the area monitoring using a Geiger Muller detector (GM) and Sodium Iodide (NaI(Tl)) survey meters. The measurements were made at 5 cm and 1 m from the ground surface at 27 measurement stations. The external doses measured were within the background levels of the surrounding area. The annual effective dose using the highest reading at 5 cm and 1 m from ground surface by GM detector was calculated to be 1.36 mSv/year and 1.21 mSv/year respectively. Whereas the annual effective dose using the highest reading at 5 cm and 1 m from ground surface by using NaI(Tl) detector was calculated to be 3.31 mSv/year and 2.83 mSv/year respectively. The calculated cancer risks from the study showed that the risk is small compared with the risks derived from natural radiation based on global annual radiation dose to humans. This study therefore indicated that the repository is able to constrain the dose exposure from the disposed NORM waste. The study also revealed that the construction of the repository has complied with all the rules and regulations subjected to

  5. Evaluation on radiation protection aspect and radiological risk at Mukim Belanja repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Siti Nur Aisyah; Kenoh, Hamiza; Majid, Amran Ab.

    2016-01-01

    Asian Rare Earth (ARE) is a locally incorporated company that operated a mineral processing operation to extract rare earth element. ARE has received much attention from the public since the beginning of their operation until the work of decommissioning and decontamination of the plant. Due to the existence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in the residue, the decommissioning and disposal was done by the company in collaboration with the Perak State Government and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). The main objective of this study is to review the level of compliance of the existing Radiation Protection Regulations enforced by AELB particularly in the achievement of allowed exposure dose limit. The next objective was to study the impact of the construction of the Mukim Belanja Repository to workers and public. This study was conducted by analyzing documents that were issued and conducting the area monitoring using a Geiger Muller detector (GM) and Sodium Iodide (NaI(Tl)) survey meters. The measurements were made at 5 cm and 1 m from the ground surface at 27 measurement stations. The external doses measured were within the background levels of the surrounding area. The annual effective dose using the highest reading at 5 cm and 1 m from ground surface by GM detector was calculated to be 1.36 mSv/year and 1.21 mSv/year respectively. Whereas the annual effective dose using the highest reading at 5 cm and 1 m from ground surface by using NaI(Tl) detector was calculated to be 3.31 mSv/year and 2.83 mSv/year respectively. The calculated cancer risks from the study showed that the risk is small compared with the risks derived from natural radiation based on global annual radiation dose to humans. This study therefore indicated that the repository is able to constrain the dose exposure from the disposed NORM waste. The study also revealed that the construction of the repository has complied with all the rules and regulations subjected to it. The

  6. Assessment of Radiographers’ Awareness about Radiation Protection Principles in Hospitals of Bandar Abbas, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfaneh Kargar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study was conducted to evaluate the radiographers’ awareness of radiation protection principles in the radiology centers of the hospitals of Bandar Abbas, Iran. Materials and Methods This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 radiographers of three hospitals affiliated with Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. The data were collected using a two-part questionnaire. The first part was related to the demographic information of the radiographers(i.e. age, gender, work experience, workplace, and passing related training courses. The second part consisted of questions related to the radiographers’ awareness in three fields of radiology physics, radiation protection, and hazards of radiation. Results According to the results of the present study, the mean total scores of the radiographers’ awareness about the radiology physics, radiation protection, and hazards of radiation was 18.41±1.14 out of 22. However, the radiographers’ awareness of the three investigated fields had no statistically significant relationships with the work experience (P=0.244 and gender (P=0.386. However, there was a significant relationship between the radiographers’ awareness about the radiation protection and their education level (P=0.034. Moreover, a significant association was found between the radiographers’ awareness and their workplace (P=0.009. Additionally, the participation in the radiation training courses was significantly correlated with the radiographers’ awareness regarding the radiation hazards (P=0.022. Conclusion According to the findings of the present study, the awareness level of the radiographers about the radiation protection principles was relatively good. However, it seems that the education level of the staff should be enhanced through holding regular short-term radiation training courses.

  7. Radioadaptive response for protection against radiation-induced teratogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2005-03-01

    To clarify the characteristics of the radioadaptive response in mice, we compared the incidence of radiation-induced malformations in ICR mice. Pregnant ICR mice were exposed to a priming dose of 2 cGy (667 muGy/min) on day 9.5 of gestation and to a challenging dose of 2 Gy (1.04 Gy/min) 4 h later and were killed on day 18.5 of gestation. The incidence of malformations and prenatal death and fetal body weights were studied. The incidence of external malformations was significantly lower (by approximately 10%) in the primed (2 cGy + 2 Gy) mice compared to the unprimed (2 Gy alone) mice. However, there were no differences in the incidence of prenatal death or the skeletal malformations or the body weights between primed and unprimed mice. These results suggest that primary conditioning with low doses of radiation suppresses radiation-induced teratogenesis.

  8. [Radiation protection of the environment: anthropocentric and eco-centric principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksakhin, R M; Fesenko, S V

    2004-01-01

    The second half of the XX century was dominated in the field of radiation protection of the environment by the anthropocentric concept stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). According to this concept "if man is adequately protected by radiological standards then biota are also adequately protected". At the end of the XX--beginning of the XXI centuries in the area of area of radiation protection of nature an ecocentric strategy is beginning to develop where emphasis has swung to the protection of biota in their environment. Inadequacy of ICRP's anthroposentric concept is reported. Issues are discussed such as ecological dosimetry, nonequidosal irradiation of man and biota, criteria for estimating radiation induced changes in biota and man, as well as the need to harmonize permissible exposure doses to man and biota. An urgent need is stressed to develop a single (synthetic) concept of radiation protection which simultaneously ensures protection of human health and biota well-being in their environment. This concept is to be based on the recognition of the integrity of socio-natural ecosystems where man and biota are considered as a unity.

  9. The radiation protection and the radioactive wastes management; La radioprotection et la gestion des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servais, F. [CHR Hopital de Warquignies, Service de Medecine Nucleaire (Belgium); Woiche, Ch. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service Interne et de Prevention et Protection (Belgium); Hunin, Ch. [Agence Federale de Controle Nucleaire, Service Controle Etablissements Classes, Brexelles (Belgium)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    This chapter concerns the radiation protection in relation with the radioactive waste management. Three articles make the matter of this file, the management of radioactive medical waste into hospitals, a new concept of waste storage on site, the protection devices on the long term with some lessons for the radioactive waste management. (N.C.)

  10. Protective Efficacy of Plasmodium vivax Radiation-Attenuated Sporozoites in Colombian Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Vásquez-Jiménez, Juan M; Lopez-Perez, Mary;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunizing human volunteers by mosquito bite with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (RAS) results in high-level protection against infection. Only two volunteers have been similarly immunized with P. vivax (Pv) RAS, and both were protected. A phase 2 controlled cl...

  11. RADIATION ACCIDENTS: EXPERIENCE OF MEDICAL PROTECTION AND MODERN STRATEGY OF PHARMACOLOGICAL MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Grebenyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of medical protection at radiation accidents is analyzed. It is shown, that medicines that have been in the arsenal of medical service during the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident satisfied their predestination in a whole and were rather effective for radiation protection. The modern strategy of pharmacological maintenance based on use of means and methods, allowing to keeping a life, health and professional serviceability of people in conditions of amazing action of a complex of factors of radiation accidents, is submitted.

  12. Radiation protection protocol observed amongst dentist population in the union territory of Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sitra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk involved with dental radiography is certainly small in comparison with many other risks that are a common part of everyday life. However, there is no basis to assume that it is zero. Though the radiation dose levels in dental practice are relatively low, one should consider the cumulative effect of repeated exposures. There should be a striving for implementation of radiation protection measures and selection criteria for radiography in private dental offices. This article presents the results of the survey conducted in the private dental offices in the Union territory of Puducherry to gain insight into the knowledge and attitude of the Puducherry dentists towards radiation protection.

  13. Radiation Protection Challenges for a Human Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, C. J.; Hassler, D.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Schwadron, N.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    A human mission to Mars presents many challenges, not least of which is the radiation exposure that crew members will certainly receive in all phases of the journey, but most critically during the transits to and from Mars. Measurements from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) aboard the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, made both in flight and on the surface of Mars, confirm previous estimates that crew members under reasonable shielding would receive a dose equivalent of about 1 Sievert on a 1000-day mission. In standard radiation biology, an acute exposure to 1 Sievert would be expected to increase lifetime fatal cancer risk by about 5%. This is well beyond the currently allowed 3% risk increase limit used by NASA and JAXA. Perhaps more significantly, the nature of exposure in space differs greatly from the terrestrial exposures that lead to the 5% estimate -- in space, the exposure is received at a very low dose rate, and includes a significant component from heavy ions in the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs). Acute exposures to Solar Energetic Particles are also possible, but the generally lower energies of SEPs (kinetic energies typically below 100 MeV/nuc) mean that modest amounts of shielding are effective against them. Thus the greater concern for long-duration deep-space missions is the GCR exposure. In this presentation, I will briefly review the MSL-RAD data and discuss current approaches to radiation risk estimation, including the NASA limit of 3% at the 95% confidence level. Recent results from the NASA radiation biology program indicate that cancer may not be the only risk that needs to be considered, with emerging concerns about cardiovascular and central nervous system health. These health effects are not accounted for in the current methodology and could potentially be threatening to mission success if they manifest in the course of the mission, rather than appearing many years after the exposure as radiation-induced cancer typically does.

  14. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) and {sup 147}Pm (518 MBq)); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentacion de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte IV. Estudio de la respuesta angular de instrumentos empleados en proteccion radiologica en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq y 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) y {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-02-15

    Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H' (0.07; {alpha}). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H' operative unit (0.07; {alpha}) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

  15. Operator Radiation and the Efficacy of Ceiling-Suspended Lead Screen Shielding during Coronary Angiography: An Anthropomorphic Phantom Study Using Real-Time Dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianjun; Chen, Ziman; Jiang, Xianxian; Zhao, Zhenjun; Huang, Meiping; Li, Jiahua; Zhuang, Jian; Liu, Xiaoqing; Hu, Tianyu; Liang, Wensheng

    2017-02-01

    Operator radiation and the radiation protection efficacy of a ceiling-suspended lead screen were assessed during coronary angiography (CA) in a catheterization laboratory. An anthropomorphic phantom was placed under the X-ray beam to simulate patient attenuation in eight CA projections. Using real-time dosimeters, radiation dose rates were measured on models mimicking a primary operator (PO) and an assistant. Subsequently, a ceiling-suspended lead screen was placed in three commonly used positions to compare the radiation protection efficacy. The radiation exposure to the PO was 2.3 to 227.9 (mean: 67.2 ± 49.0) μSv/min, with the left anterior oblique (LAO) 45°/cranial 25° and cranial 25° projections causing the highest and the lowest dose rates, respectively. The assistant experienced significantly less radiation overall (mean: 20.1 ± 19.6 μSv/min, P shielding, the ceiling-suspended lead screen reduced the radiation to the PO by 76.8%, 81.9% and 93.5% when placed close to the patient phantom, at the left side and close to the PO, respectively, and reduced the radiation to the assistant by 70.3%, 76.7% and 90.0%, respectively. When placed close to the PO, a ceiling-suspended lead screen provides substantial radiation protection during CA.

  16. Radiation protection in medical and biomedical research; Proteccion radiologica en la investigacion medica y biomedica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente Puch, A.E. de la, E-mail: andres@orasen.co.cuES [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-11-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation in the context of medical and biomedical research raises specific ethical challenges whose resolution approaches should be based on scientific, legal and procedural matters. Joint Resolution MINSAP CITMA-Regulation 'Basic Standards of Radiation Safety' of 30 November 2001 (hereafter NBS) provides for the first time in Cuba legislation specifically designed to protect patients and healthy people who participate in research programs medical and biomedical and exposed to radiation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to develop specific requirements for radiation protection in medical and biomedical research, as well as to identify all the institutions involved in this in order to establish the necessary cooperation to ensure the protection of persons participating in the investigation.

  17. Status of technical radiation protection units; Situacion de las Unidades Tecnicas de Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguelles Sanchez, R.; Rodriguez Marti, M.; Sierra Perler, I. C.; Villarroel Gonzalez-Elipe, R.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this report is to analyse the current situation of Radiological Protection technical Units until December 2008 and to carry out an evaluation on the quality the services provided to clients in terms of nuclear safety and radiation protection at nuclear facilities and radioactive and medical radiodiagnostics facilities in accordance with the function assigned to them by the CSN. these are set forth in the Rules of Health Protection against ionising radiation and the RD 1976/1999 on quality criteria applied to radiodiagnostics. (Author)

  18. Radiation protection for the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kanter, AY; Arends, PPAM; Eggermont, AMM; Wiggers, T

    2003-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of our study was to determine the radiation dose for those who are involved in the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer patients and testing of a theoretical model. Methods: We studied 12 consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing breast surgery, and a sentinel node dissecti

  19. Environmental protection in the frame of radiation protection. Recommendation of the Commission on radiological protection including justification and explanation; Schutz der Umwelt im Strahlenschutz. Empfehlung der Strahlenschutzkommission mit Begruendung und Erlaeuterung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-01-15

    The environmental protection is part of the radiation protection but without defined regulations concerning the protection of non-human species and the ecological systems. In 2008 the SSK (Strahlenschutzkommission) was asked to elaborate measures for environmental radiation protection. Part of the recommendation was the application of sustainability concepts on radioactive materials.

  20. Prevention of γ-radiation induced cellular genotoxicity by tempol: protection of hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Lakshmy; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan

    2012-09-01

    Tempol (TPL) under in vitro conditions reduced the extent of gamma radiation induced membrane lipid peroxidation and disappearance of covalently closed circular form of plasmid pBR322. TPL protected cellular DNA from radiation-induced damage in various tissues under ex vivo and in vivo conditions as evidenced by comet assay. TPL also prevented radiation induced micronuclei formation (in peripheral blood leucocytes) and chromosomal aberrations (in bone marrow cells) in whole body irradiated mice. TPL enhanced the rate of repair of cellular DNA (blood leucocytes and bone marrow cells) damage when administered immediately after radiation exposure as revealed from the increased Cellular DNA Repair Index (CRI). The studies thus provided compelling evidence to reveal the effectiveness of TPL to protect hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

  1. Application of virtual reality technique to a radiation protection training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, Brian K. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Kang, Ki Doo [KOrea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yoo Jin [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yon Sik [Kunsan National Univ., Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Using an Internet Virtual Reality (IVR) technique, a 3-dimensional (3-D) model for the radiation controlled area in a nuclear power plant was developed, and a feasibility study to develop a computational program to estimate radiation dose was performed. For this purpose, a pilot model with a dynamic function and bi-directional communication was developed. This model was enhanced from the existing 3-D single-directional communication. In this pilot model, a plant visitor needs to first pass a series of security checks. If the visitor enters the controlled area and approaches a radiation hazard area, alarms with a warning lamp will be initiated automatically. Throughout the test to connect this model from both domestic and international sites in various time zones, it has proven to perform well. Therefore, this model can be applied to broad fields as radiation protection procedures or radiation protection training with photographic data, and on-line dose assessment programs.

  2. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection norm and ICRP recommendations published in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Servico de Radioprotecao. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Pereira, Juliana R. de S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Campus Pocos de Caldas; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (GETA/LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Mortagua, Valter, E-mail: Valter@inb.gov.br [Usina de lnterlagos (USIN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Coordenacao

    2013-07-01

    In the year 2007, ICRP published a set of recommendations (The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Publication 103), which changed some important concepts. This work aims to compare the Brazilian radiation protection basic norm with the new ICRP recommendations, by checking the existing differences. The main difference between ICRP publication 60 and ICRP publication 103 is the changing of the concept of protection based on process, by using the concepts of practice and intervention, to the protection based in the exposition situation, by using the concepts of planned exposure, emergency and existing situation. Other important difference lies in the values of the radiation and tissue weighting factors, in the quantities equivalent and effective dose, and updating the radiation detriment based on the latest available scientific information of the biology and physics of radiation exposure. At last, the demonstration of the environment radiation protection must be clear, and this concept is not found in Brazilian nuclear legislation. Also some similarities were found. The fundamental principles of the Brazilian norms are the same as that of ICRP 103, which are the justification principle, the optimization principle and the application of dose limits. The individual effective dose limit of Brazilian norm is the same of the ICRP 103, established as 20 mSv per year. In order to adequate the Brazilian norm it is necessary to change its concept of protection and the values of radiation and tissue weighting, and updating the radiation detriment, besides making clear the concept of protection of the environment. It is important to notice that although the Brazilian norm is not in complete agreement with all international recommendations, it must be completely followed as the norm which is in use in the country. (author)

  3. Efficiency of lead aprons in blocking radiation − how protective are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jae Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Interpretation: The 0.5 mm lead aprons blocked just over one third of the radiation scattered towards the surgeon. Use of robotic-guidance in a minimally invasive approach provided for a reduction of 62.5% of the overall radiation the surgeon was exposed to during open conventional approach. We conclude that reduced radiation use (e.g. by using robotic guidance is a more effective strategy for minimizing exposure to radiation than reliance on protection by lead aprons, and recommend utilization of practices and technologies that reduce the surgical team’s routine exposure to X-rays.

  4. Guideline for radiation protection in veterinary medicine. Guideline relating to the Ordinance for Protection Against Damage Through Ionising Radiation (Radiation Protection Ordinance - StrlSchV) and the Ordinance for Protection Against X-Ray Radiation (X-Ray Ordinance - RoeV); Richtlinie Strahlenschutz in der Tierheilkunde. Richtlinie zur Verordnung ueber den Schutz vor Schaeden durch ionisierende Strahlen (Strahlenschutzverordnung - StrlSchV) und zur Verordnung ueber den Schutz vor Roentgenstrahlen (Roentgenverordnung - RoeV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalczak, H.

    2005-05-15

    The Guideline on ''Radiation Protection in Veterinary Medicine'' primarily addresses the supreme Land authorities that are responsible for radiation protection. Its purpose is to harmonise the radiation protection procedures employed by the Laender, thus establishing a nationwide uniform system for monitoring the handling of radioactive substances and ionising radiation applications in veterinary medicine on the basis of the legal regulations in force. In addition the guideline is intended to serve veterinary staff as a source of practical information which explains the radiation protection requirements stipulated by the legal regulations and technical rules. This concerns in particular the rules for the acquisition of the necessary radiation protection skills or the necessary knowledge of radiation protection by the veterinary surgeon performing the application or the staff cooperation in the application.

  5. Radiation protection effect by the combination of propolis and agaricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Yamada, Katsunori; Ukawa, Yuuichi [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    The aims of the radioprotection are a human and the safety keeping of the environment. The leukocyte that much research is to do in the animals, and relations between the lymphocyte and the radiation are being made distinct until now. It paid attention to it in this determination stage, and lymphocyte toward the radiation was observed by using the ICR mice used for the lymphocyte simulation abundantly in this research. And, it was examined about the fetal effect toward the radiation. So, an excuse as a radioprotective agent of the effect on the fetus toward the radiation was examined experimentally by using the propolis and agaricus by this research. Therefore, it is a purpose to obtain information as a medicament of the radioprotection. ICR mice were used for the experiment. The pregnant mice were placed in plastic cages for radiation exposure, and were treated with a single whole-body X -radiation at 1 Gy and 2Gy with a dose rate of 35 cGy/min on 8 days after the conception. 100 mg/kg of propolis and agaricus. The total number of irradiated dams observed in this study was 40, a total of 38 non-irradiated control and sham control dams was also prepared, and 659 non-irradiated live fetuses served as controls. Statistical significant difference was recognized between the lymphocyte of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + propolis and agaricus extracts of water solution administrated group toward the lymphocyte and embryonic death of control group and sham control group (p<0.01). But, when it was compared with the lymphocyte and embryonic death rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group, the lymphocyte rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group was decrease. And, if propolis and agaricus was administered, the embryo beyond the haploid number that did implantation was found out in the exposure beyond 1.0Gy or 2.0Gy.

  6. MYRRHA, a Pb-Bi experimental ADS: specific approach to radiation protection aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, H Aït; Aoust, Th; Malambu, E; Sobolev, V; Van Tichelen, K; De Bruyn, D; Maes, D; Haeck, W; Van den Eynde, G

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, SCK*CEN, in partnership with IBA s.a. and many European research laboratories, is designing a multipurpose accelerator driven system (ADS) for Research and Development (R&D) applications-MYRRHA-and is conducting an associated R&D support programme. MYRRHA is an ADS under development at Mol in Belgium and is aiming to serve as a basis for the European experimental ADS to provide protons and neutrons for various R&D applications. It consists of a proton accelerator delivering a 350 MeV x 5 mA proton beam to a liquid Pb-Bi spallation target that in turn couples to a Pb-Bi cooled, subcritical fast core. In the first stage, the project focuses mainly on demonstration of the ADS concept, safety research on sub-critical systems and nuclear waste transmutation studies. In a later stage, the device will also be dedicated to research on structural materials, nuclear fuel, liquid metal technology and associated aspects, and on sub-critical reactor physics. Subsequently, it will be used for research on applications such as radioisotope production. A first preliminary conceptual design file of MYRRHA was completed by the end of 2001 and has been reviewed by an International Technical Guidance Committee, which concluded that there are no show stoppers in the project and even though some topics such as the safety studies and the fuel qualification need to be addressed more deeply before concluding it. In this paper, we are reporting on the state-of-the art of the MYRRHA project at the beginning of 2004 and in particular on the radiation shielding assessment and the radiation protection particular aspects through a remote handling operation approach in order to minimise the personnel exposure to radiation.

  7. Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture on radiation protection and measurements: what makes particle radiation so effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Eleanor A

    2012-11-01

    The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle radiation so effective, and what competing processes define dose dependences? Recent studies have shown that individual genotypes control radiation-regulated genes and pathways in response to radiations of varying ionization density. The fact that densely ionizing radiations can affect different gene families than sparsely ionizing radiations, and that the effects are dose- and time-dependent, has opened up new areas of future research. The complex microenvironment of the stroma and the significant contributions of the immune response have added to our understanding of tissue-specific differences across the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. The importance of targeted versus nontargeted effects remains a thorny but elusive and important contributor to chronic low dose radiation effects of variable LET that still needs further research. The induction of cancer is also LET-dependent, suggesting different mechanisms of action across the gradient of ionization density. The focus of this 35th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle the step-by-step acquisition of experimental clues that have refined our understanding of what makes particle radiation so effective, with emphasis on the example of radiation effects on the crystalline lens of the human eye.

  8. Low cost CCD camera protection against neutron radiation damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J G M

    2005-01-01

    At a radiotherapy department cancer patients are treated with high energy electron and photon beams. These beams are produced by a linear accelerator. A closed circuit television system is used to monitor patients during treatment. Although CCD cameras are rather resistant to stray radiation, they are damaged by the low flux of neutrons which are produced by the linac as a side effect. PVC can be used to reduce damage to CCD cameras induced by neutron radiation. A box with 6 cm thick walls will extend the life of the camera at least by a factor of two. A PVC neutron shield is inexpensive. PVC is easy to obtain and the box is simple to construct. A similar box made out of PE will not reduce neutron damage to a CCD camera. Although PE is a good medium to moderate faster neutrons, thereby reducing some of the bulk defects, it will not capture thermal neutrons which induce surface damage.

  9. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  10. COHERENT INFORMATION ON THERMAL RADIATION NOISE CHANNEL: AN APPROACH OF INTEGRAL WITHIN ORDERED PRODUCT OF OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小余; 仇佩亮

    2001-01-01

    An analytical expression is given to the coherent information of the thermal radiation signal transmitted over the thermal radiation noise channel, one of the most essential quantum Gaussian channels. Focusing on the single normal mode of the thermal radiation signal and noise, we resolve the entangled state density operator, which characterizes quantum information transmission, into a direct product of two parts, with each part being a thermal radiation density operator. The calculation is aided by the technique known as "integral within ordered product of operators".

  11. Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of Radiographers about the Principles of Radiation Protection and Following Protective Standards in Medical Imaging Centers of Hospitals in Fasa in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Alipoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Although ionizing radiation is effective in the diagnosis of illnesses, it is dangerous from the perspective of protection for patients and radiographers working in radiology sections. Therefore, knowledge, understanding, and application of radiation protection can play an important role. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the radiation protection principles in radiation workers in medical imaging centers and hospitals in Fasa, Fars, Iran. Materials & Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional one among all 50 radiation workers employed in radiology departments of this city. A questionnaire was the means of evaluation which contained demographic information and questions about the knowledge, attitude, and practice of radiology staff regarding the radiation protection. All of the completed questionnaires were analyzed, using SPSS19 software. Results: Radiographers’ participation rate was 100%, and the mean score of knowledge, attitude, and practice of radiation workers in the field of radiation protection was 42.36, 62.4, and 48.54, respectively. Depending on the degree of their knowledge, there was no statistically significant difference between the radiographers’ age, gender, and work experience, and the relationship between the following factors was not substantial. Conclusion: The results showed that by increasing the level of education, the awareness of radiation workers increases, too. To raise awareness of radiation protection for radiation workers, it is better to hold training courses.

  12. Education in radiation protection in the National Customs of Paraguay; Educacion en proteccion radiologica en la Direccion Nacional de Aduanas del Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordon, Oscar, E-mail: obordon@aduana.gov.py, E-mail: obordon@yahoo.com [Direccion Nacional de Aduanas, Departamento de Seguridad Radiologica, Administracion de Aduana de Gical, Mariano Roque Alonso (Paraguay)

    2013-07-01

    According to the IAEA-TECDOC-1312, as it is required by international agreements, the displacement of radioactive material within and among States should be subject to strict regulatory, administrative, safety and technical controls to ensure conditions of technological and physical safety. The Customs Office is one of the institutions responsible for monitoring shipments crossing international borders. Increasing illicit trafficking of radioactive materials, the use of ionizing radiation generating equipment for checking loads, and trade in radioactive substances have informed the need for education in radiation protection of customs officials. Thus, based on a course on radiation protection for Customs officials, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, in March 2008 was initiated a course of radiation protection, of 30 hours Carrera Tecnica del Centro de Formacion y Capacitacion Aduanera de Paraguay, which highlights the basic chapters and for transporting, nomenclature, new equipment emitting ionizing radiation and smuggling. Since then, to date, at least 10 groups have completed the training. Within the training program for customs officials, was incorporated a course for radiation protection of operators of baggage scanners with a four-hour program. Finally, since from 2011 and periodically, at various country customs, a workshop on Illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials is performed. The results of these courses have been very positive, as well as know the proper procedures for dealing with ionizing radiation has increased the safety culture within the institution.

  13. Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Sherin T.; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola, E-mail: ola.hammarsten@clinchem.gu.se

    2014-05-01

    Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. - Highlights: • Repeated treatment with sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation • Repeated sulforaphane treatment attenuates radiation induced ROS and DNA damage • Sulforaphane mediated protection is Nrf2 dependent.

  14. DNA Protection Protein, a Novel Mechanism of Radiation Tolerance: Lessons from Tardigrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Hashimoto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA stores all genetic information and is indispensable for maintenance of normal cellular activity and propagation. Radiation causes severe DNA lesions, including double-strand breaks, and leads to genome instability and even lethality. Regardless of the toxicity of radiation, some organisms exhibit extraordinary tolerance against radiation. These organisms are supposed to possess special mechanisms to mitigate radiation-induced DNA damages. Extensive study using radiotolerant bacteria suggested that effective protection of proteins and enhanced DNA repair system play important roles in tolerability against high-dose radiation. Recent studies using an extremotolerant animal, the tardigrade, provides new evidence that a tardigrade-unique DNA-associating protein, termed Dsup, suppresses the occurrence of DNA breaks by radiation in human-cultured cells. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the current knowledge on extremely radiotolerant animals, and present novel insights from the tardigrade research, which expand our understanding on molecular mechanism of exceptional radio-tolerability.

  15. DNA Protection Protein, a Novel Mechanism of Radiation Tolerance: Lessons from Tardigrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takuma; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2017-01-01

    Genomic DNA stores all genetic information and is indispensable for maintenance of normal cellular activity and propagation. Radiation causes severe DNA lesions, including double-strand breaks, and leads to genome instability and even lethality. Regardless of the toxicity of radiation, some organisms exhibit extraordinary tolerance against radiation. These organisms are supposed to possess special mechanisms to mitigate radiation-induced DNA damages. Extensive study using radiotolerant bacteria suggested that effective protection of proteins and enhanced DNA repair system play important roles in tolerability against high-dose radiation. Recent studies using an extremotolerant animal, the tardigrade, provides new evidence that a tardigrade-unique DNA-associating protein, termed Dsup, suppresses the occurrence of DNA breaks by radiation in human-cultured cells. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the current knowledge on extremely radiotolerant animals, and present novel insights from the tardigrade research, which expand our understanding on molecular mechanism of exceptional radio-tolerability. PMID:28617314

  16. Radiation protection and the safe use of X-ray equipment: Laws, regulations and responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Petrus Herbst

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, South Africa’s regulatory framework for electromagnetic medical devices has come under considerable pressure. In this article the legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure are scrutinized, by looking at how the legislature has given form to protective measures against ionizing radiation. Although the Hazardous Substances Act provides for effective protection against radiation, poor administration led to insufficient staffing levels, uncertainty about Regulations and licensing conditions and therefore undermines a sound radiation protection infrastructure. The legal basis of enforcing licensing conditions through a website without proper consultation with interested and affected parties is questionable and ineffective in controlling radiation levels. Effective and legal radiation control is possible by activating the National Advisory Committee on Electronic Products provided for in Regulation R326 published in 1979, but never implemented. The possible impact of annual quality assurance tests currently enforced through licensing conditions on the radiation dose of the population is not cost effective as new training and accreditation structures had to be created. The fact that generally more than 80% of overexposures are caused by human error is a clear indication that training of the daily users of X-ray equipment should be emphasized and not the training and accreditation of the technicians responsible for a single quality assurance test per year. Constructive engagement with the professional bodies involved in the medical use of X-rays through a National Advisory Committee on Electronic Products may be a cost effective solution for lowering radiation dose to the population.

  17. The enhancemeny of anti-tumor effects, immuno-activity and radiation protection after injection of EF2001(Lactic bacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Morkkazu; Hasegawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Tohru [Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    EF2001 was made from Enterococcus Faecalis, and it has radiation protection effects by protection of the intestinal mucosa in the absorption function of the carcinogenesis materials. We used animals were C3H mice bearing SCC-VIII tumor. The results of this study confirmed, EF2001 has effect of radiation protection and EF2001 can absorption of carcinogenesis materials selectively.

  18. Sweden's Co-operation with Eastern Europe in Radiation Safety 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Andersson, Sarmite; Bejarano, Gabriela; Chirman, Inessa; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; Karlberg, Olof; Klasen, Haakan; Olsson, Kjell; Sandberg, Viviana; Stenberg, Tor; Turner, Roland; Wickman, Barbro

    2012-11-01

    In 2011, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority implemented co-operation projects in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania and Moldova, based on instructions from the Swedish Government and agreements with the European Union and the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency, SIDA. The projects aim at achieving a net contribution to radiation safety (including nuclear safety, nuclear security, waste management, nonproliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness) for the benefit of the host countries and the international community as well as Sweden. This report gives an overview of all the projects implemented in 2011. The project managers from SSM are the cornerstones of our successful work, but all the efforts and dedication by staff members of the facilities and authorities in the mentioned countries are indispensable for the long-term positive outcomes. This report is meant to serve as a detailed account regarding SSM's efforts as part of the Swedish international activities, on which Sweden will report to the Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul. The parties to the G-8 Global Partnership have in June 2011 extended the Global Partnership for ten more years, till 2022. Other international frameworks, such as the UNSC Resolution 1540, remain a vibrant instrument by which UN Member States can exchange information on security concerns and request assistance from each other. The projects that SSM implements in Moldova and Georgia have a reference to the aims and purposes of the UNSC Resolution 1540. Much work has been done in the fields of nuclear security and safety, but there are still lots of issues that need to be taken care of. As such, SSM will continue to do its part for nuclear safety and security at the international level, along the lines and priorities set by our Government.

  19. NOVEL NON-CALCEMIC SECOSTEROIDS THAT ARE PRODUCED BY HUMAN EPIDERMAL KERATINOCYTES PROTECT AGAINST SOLAR RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Janjetovic, Zorica; Kim, Tae-Kang; Wasilewski, Piotr; Rosas, Sofia; Hanna, Sherie; Sayre, Robert M.; Dowdy, John C.; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    CYP11A1 hydroxylates the side chain of vitamin D3 (D3) in a sequential fashion [D3→20S(OH)D3→20,23(OH)2D3→ 17,20,23(OH)3D3], in an alternative to the classical pathway of activation [D3→25(OH)D3→1,25(OH)2D3]. The products/intermediates of the pathway can be further modified by the action of CYP27B1. The CYP11A1-derived products are biologically active with functions determined by the lineage of the target cells. This pathway can operate in epidermal keratinocytes. To further define the role of these novel secosteroids we tested them for protective effects against UVB-induced damage in human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and HaCaT keratinocytes, cultured in vitro. The secosteroids attenuated ROS, H2O2 and NO production by UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and melanocytes, with an efficacy similar to 1,25(OH)2D3, while 25(OH)D3 had lower efficacy. These attenuations were also seen to some extent for the 20(OH)D3 precursor, 20S-hydroxy-7-dehydrocholesterol. These effects were accompanied by upregulation of genes encoding enzymes responsible for defence against oxidative stress. Using immunofluorescent staining we observed that the secosteroids reduced the generation cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in response to UVB and enhanced expression of p53 phosphorylated at Ser-15, but not at Ser-46. Additional evidence for protection against DNA damage in cells exposed to UVB and treated with secosteroids was provided by the Comet assay where DNA fragmentation was markedly reduced by 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3. In conclusion, novel secosteroids that can be produced by the action of CYP11A1 in epidermal keratinocytes have protective effects against UVB radiation. PMID:25617667

  20. Radiation protective effect of an extract from Chelidonium majus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie-Young; Yang, Hyun-Ok; Shim, Ji-Young; Ji-Yeon-Ahn; Han, Young-Soo; Jung, In-Sung; Yun, Yeon-Sook

    2003-10-01

    We earlier reported that CM-AIa isolated from Chelidonium majus had mitogenic activity, generated lymphokine-activated killer cells, and increased the number of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells (GM-CFC). In an extended effort to search for other immunostimulatory effects, we evaluated the protective effects of in vivo injected CM-AIa against irradiation. CM-AIa was found to increase the number of bone marrow cells, spleen cells, GM-CFC, and platelets in irradiated mice. In addition, this agent induced endogenous production of cytokines such as interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which are required for hematopoietic recovery. We also demonstrated that CM-AIa treatment 24 hours before irradiation protected mice with 80% survival at lethal dose 100/15. These findings indicate that CM-AIa may be a useful agent for reducing the time needed for reconstitution of hematopoietic cells after irradiation treatment.

  1. [Health promotion and computer science in radiation protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennarola, R; Porzio, G; Cavaliere, L

    2007-01-01

    An automatic system of clinical-diagnostic information has been applied to workers exposed to ionising radiation at the University of Naples Federico II with reference to the last 5 years. For every person exposed a computerized case sheet was elaborated recording clinical, biological, dosimetric and other preventive data. In the localized risk, capillaroscopic monitoring was used. This research has highlighted the role of medical surveillance in developing health promotion criteria and the planning of the interventions with the complete control of all data in real time.

  2. Radiation protection Group (SC/RP) desperately seeking...

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Hervé, Y. Donjoux / SC

    2006-01-01

    We are trying to trace two transit permits (passavants), which constitute the customs clearance documentation for two 'AD6'portable radiation detectors. The two permits (No. 1308 and No. 1309) were sent in the same internal mail envelope towards the middle of March 2006 but never reached their final destination. After weeks of searching in vain, we are now appealing for your help. If you have these two permits in your possession, please get in touch with us. Many thanks in advance. A.HERVE - SC/RP- ( 163168 / 70927) Y.DONJOUX - SC/RP - (160105 / 73171)

  3. Oral PEG 15-20 protects the intestine against radiation : role of lipid rafts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valuckaite, V.; Zaborina, O.; Long, J.; Hauer-Jensen, M.; Wang, J.; Holbrook, C.; Zaborin, A.; Drabik, K.; Katdare, M.; Mauceri, H.; Weichselbaum, R.; Firestone, M. A.; Lee, K. Y.; Chang, E. B.; Matthews, J.; Alverdy, J. C.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Arkansas

    2009-12-01

    Intestinal injury following abdominal radiation therapy or accidental exposure remains a significant clinical problem that can result in varying degrees of mucosal destruction such as ulceration, vascular sclerosis, intestinal wall fibrosis, loss of barrier function, and even lethal gut-derived sepsis. We determined the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol-based copolymer, PEG 15-20, to protect the intestine against the early and late effects of radiation in mice and rats and to determine its mechanism of action by examining cultured rat intestinal epithelia. Rats were exposed to fractionated radiation in an established model of intestinal injury, whereby an intestinal segment is surgically placed into the scrotum and radiated daily. Radiation injury score was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in rats gavaged with 0.5 or 2.0 g/kg per day of PEG 15-20 (n = 9-13/group, P < 0.005). Complementary studies were performed in a novel mouse model of abdominal radiation followed by intestinal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), a common pathogen that causes lethal gut-derived sepsis following radiation. Mice mortality was decreased by 40% in mice drinking 1% PEG 15-20 (n = 10/group, P < 0.001). Parallel studies were performed in cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells treated with PEG 15-20 before radiation. Results demonstrated that PEG 15-20 prevented radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats, prevented apoptosis and lethal sepsis attributable to P. aeruginosa in mice, and protected cultured intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and microbial adherence and possible invasion. PEG 15-20 appeared to exert its protective effect via its binding to lipid rafts by preventing their coalescence, a hallmark feature in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to radiation.

  4. Protection of DNA From Ionizing Radiation-Induced Lesions by Asiaticoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jisha; Alarifi, Saud; Alsuhaibani, Entissar; Nair, Cherupally K Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether asiaticoside, a triterpene glycoside, can afford protection to DNA from alterations induced by gamma radiation under in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo conditions. In vitro studies were done on plasmid pBR322 DNA, ex vivo studies were done on cellular DNA of human peripheral blood leukocytes, and in vivo investigations were conducted on cellular DNA of spleen and bone marrow cells of mice exposed to whole-body gamma radiation. The supercoiled form of the plasmid pBR322 DNA upon exposure to the radiation was converted into relaxed open circular form due to induction of strand breaks. Presence of asiaticoside along with the DNA during irradiation prevented the relaxation of the supercoiled form to the open circular form. When human peripheral blood leukocytes were exposed to gamma radiation, the cellular DNA suffered strand breaks as evidenced by the increased comet parameters in an alkaline comet assay. Asiaticoside, when present along with blood during irradiation ex vivo, prevented the strand breaks and the comet parameters were closer to that of the controls. Whole-body exposure of mice to gamma radiation resulted in a significant increase in comet parameters of DNA of bone marrow and spleen cells of mice as a result of radiation-induced strand breaks in DNA. Administration of asiaticoside prior to whole-body radiation exposure of the mice prevented this increase in radiation-induced increase in comet parameters, which could be the result of protection to DNA under in vivo conditions of radiation exposure. Thus, it can be concluded from the results that asiaticoside can offer protection to DNA from radiation-induced alterations under in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo conditions.

  5. Los Alamos Science: Number 23, 1995. Radiation protection and the human radiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, N.G. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    There are a variety of myths and misconceptions about the ionizing radiation that surrounds and penetrates us all. Dispel a few of these by taking a leisurely tour of radiation and its properties, of the natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation, and of the way doses are calculated. By damaging DNA and inducing genetic mutations, ionizing radiation can potentially initiate a cell on the road to cancer. The authors review what is currently known about regulation of cellular reproduction, DNA damage and repair, cellular defense mechanisms, and the specific cancer-causing genes that are susceptible to ionizing radiation. A rapid survey of the data on radiation effects in humans shows that high radiation doses increase the risk of cancer, whereas the effects of low doses are very difficult to detect. The hypothetical risks at low doses, which are estimated from the atomic-bomb survivors, are compared to the low-dose data so that the reader can assess the present level of uncertainty. As part of the openness initiative, ten individuals who have worked with plutonium during various periods in the Laboratory`s history were asked to share their experiences including their accidental intakes. The history and prognosis of people who have had plutonium exposures is discussed by the Laboratory`s leading epidemiologist.

  6. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caresana, M., E-mail: marco.caresana@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, CESNEF, Dipartimento di Energia, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Denker, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Esposito, A. [IFNF-LNF, FISMEL, via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Ferrarini, M. [CNAO, Via Privata Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Golnik, N. [Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Sw. A. Boboli 8, 02-525 Warsaw (Poland); Hohmann, E. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Radiation Metrology Section, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Leuschner, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Luszik-Bhadra, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Manessi, G. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, L69 7ZE Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mayer, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Radiation Metrology Section, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ott, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, BESSYII, Albert-Einstein-Str.15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Röhrich, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Trompier, F. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, F-92262 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-02-11

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

  7. Sestrin2 protects the myocardium against radiation-induced damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yue-Can; Chi, Feng; Xing, Rui; Gao, Song; Chen, Jia-Jia; Duan, Qiong-Yu; Sun, Yu-Nan; Niu, Nan; Tang, Mei-Yue; Wu, Rong [Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center, Shenyang (China); Zeng, Jing [University of Washington School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seattle, WA (United States); Wang, Hong-Mei [Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Sestrin2 in response to radiation-induced injury to the heart and on the cardiomyopathy development in the mouse. Mice with genetic deletion of the Sestrin2 (Sestrin2 knockout mice [Sestrin2 KO]) and treatment with irradiation (22 or 15 Gy) were used as independent approaches to determine the role of Sestrin2. Echocardiography (before and after isoproterenol challenge) and left ventricular (LV) catheterization were performed to evaluate changes in LV dimensions and function. Masson's trichrome was used to assess myocardial fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect the capillary density. After 22 or 15 Gy irradiation, the LV ejection fraction (EF) was impaired in wt mice at 1 week and 4 months after irradiation when compared with sham irradiation. Compared to wt mice, Sestrin2 KO mice had significant reduction in reduced LVEF at 1 week and 4 months after irradiation. A significant increase in LV end-diastolic pressure and myocardial fibrosis and a significant decrease in capillary density were observed in irradiation-wt mice, as well as in irradiation-Sestrin2 KO mice. Sestrin2 involved in the regulation of cardiomyopathy (such as myocardial fibrosis) after irradiation. Overexpression of Sestrin2 might be useful in limiting radiation-induced myocardial injury. (orig.)

  8. CONCERT-'European Joint Programme for the Integration at Radiation Protection Research'; CONCERT-''European Joint Programme for the Integration at Radiation Protection Research''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birschwilks, Mandy; Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Internationale und Nationale Zusammenarbeit im Strahlenschutz; Jung, Thomas [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit

    2016-08-01

    In 2009 the High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on low dose research recommended the development of a scientific platform for low dose radiation research. The foundation of MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative) occurred in 2010. In 2015 a new project on radiation protection research was established: CONCERT (European Joint Programme for the Integration at Radiation Protection Research). The aim is the coordination of the already existing scientific platforms MELODI (radiation effects and interactions), ALLIANCE (radioecology), NERIS (nuclear and radiological emergency protection) and EURADOS (radiation dosimetry). With CONCERT an efficient use of this infrastructure for research cooperation and transparency is intended.

  9. Modification of silicone sealant to improve gamma radiation resistance, by addition of protective agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Giovanni; Burillo, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sealant (SS) was modified with the addition of different protective compounds to conserve its physical-chemical properties during gamma irradiation. 2-Vinyl naphthalene (2-VN), bisphenol-A (BPA) and poly (vinyl carbazole) (PVK) were used to evaluate radiation protection through the crosslinking effect of radiation. The samples were irradiated with doses from 100 kGy to 500 kGy at room temperature in air, with a 60Co gamma source, and the changes in molecular weight, thermal behavior, elastic properties and infrared spectra (FTIR-ATR) absorbance analysis were determined. The molecular weight of unmodified silicone sealant increases with the absorbed dose because of crosslinking as predominant effect. However, the crosslinking effect was inhibited with the addition of protective agent due to the aromatic compounds present. Modified silicone sealant films present better radiation resistance than unmodified system.

  10. Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

  11. Rule concerning sanitary protection against ionizing radiations: novelties; Reglamento de Proteccion Sanitaria contra Radiaciones Ionizantes aspectos novedosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercedo, A.; Carmena, P.; Prieto, J. A.; Rubio, G.; Sollet, E.; Sustacha, D.

    2002-07-01

    Last July the a new legal Rule concerning Sanitary Protection against Ionising Radiation was published, as a transposition of the EU Directive about the Basic Norms related to the sanitary protection of workers and population against the risks resultant of the ionising radiation. The origin of this legislation goes back to the revision of the protection doctrine by the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) en the year 1990. El scope of the revised Rule is the regulation of the protection of population and workers against ionising radiation, the establishment of the national protection system with its exposition and dose limits and the correspondent penalty regime. It also modifies the maximum radiation dose limits and reinforces the application of the optimisation principle in the use of ionising radiation. In this article, the novelties introduced by the new Rule are commented in detail, ordered by the Titles I to IX in which the Rule is divided. (Author)

  12. Prepare to protect: Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herseth, Andrew; Goldsmith-Grinspoon, Jennifer; Scott, Pataya

    2017-06-01

    Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room can be critical to the effective continuity of business operations because a firm's most valuable asset is its people. This paper describes aspects of operations and maintenance (O&M) for existing tornado safe rooms as well as a few planning and design aspects that affect the ultimate operation of a safe room for situations where a safe room is planned, but not yet constructed. The information is based on several Federal Emergency Management Agency safe room publications that provide guidance on emergency management and operations, as well as the design and construction of tornado safe rooms.

  13. Radiation doses of employees of a Nuclear Medicine Department after implementation of more rigorous radiation protection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Supinska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Maria H; Zorga, Piotr; Birkenfeld, Bozena

    2013-11-01

    The appropriate radiation protection measures applied in departments of nuclear medicine should lead to a reduction in doses received by the employees. During 1991-2007, at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Pomeranian Medical University (Szczecin, Poland), nurses received on average two-times higher (4.6 mSv) annual doses to the whole body than those received by radiopharmacy technicians. The purpose of this work was to examine whether implementation of changes in the radiation protection protocol will considerably influence the reduction in whole-body doses received by the staff that are the most exposed. A reduction in nurses' exposure by ~63 % took place in 2008-11, whereas the exposure of radiopharmacy technicians grew by no more than 22 % in comparison with that in the period 1991-2007. Proper reorganisation of the work in departments of nuclear medicine can considerably affect dose reduction and bring about equal distribution of the exposure.

  14. To what extent can human and non-human radiation protection frameworks be integrated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, C.; Stark, Karolina [Stockholm University (Sweden); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN (France); Beresford, Nicholas A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH (United Kingdom); Brown, Justin; Dowdall, Mark; Hosseini, Ali; Liland, Astrid [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Oughton, Deborah [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB (Norway); Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Sweeck, Lieve; Vives I Batlle, Jordi [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The first radiation protection frameworks were initiated in the early 20. century and focused on the protection of humans. Protection frameworks for non-human species were developed later, based on the human protection system as well as that used to protect the environment from adverse effects of chemicals. These two radiation protection frameworks have to some degree developed quite separately from each other over the last few decades, and it is a source of debate as to what extent the integration of the two is possible. This presentation critically reviews some of the key aspects of integrating human and non-human assessment frameworks, including both conceptual and practical issues, and focuses on five main topics: 1) the conceptual consideration of humans as part of ecosystems, rather than a separate entity; 2) the consistency and potential harmonisation of underlying data and transfer model parameters; 3) consideration of different life stages and life histories in radiation protection and the implications for exposure, dose and effects; 4) calculation of doses, including modelling approaches, spatial and temporal variability and biokinetic modelling; and 5) benchmarks and screening values. Similarities and differences between the two existing frameworks are highlighted and the feasibility of integrating the two discussed. Our recommendations on how to further integrate, where achievable and warranted, are given. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. The mechanisms of protection of antioxidants on Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. H.

    UV radiation is one of space harmful factor for earth organisms in space exploration In the present work we studied on the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides K u tz Cyanobacteria and the effects of exogenous antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation It was found that UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacterium but promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II PSII and exogenous antioxidant sodium nitroprusside SNP N-acetylcysteine NAC had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation The activity of SOD Superoxide Dismutase EC 1 15 1 1 CAT Catalase EC 1 11 1 6 POD Peroxidase EC 1 11 1 7 and content of MDA and ASC were improved by 0 5mM and 1mM SNP but 0 1mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxide system Exogenous NAC addition decreased the activity of SOD POD CAT and the content MDA and ASC but exogenous NAC addition increased the content of GSH The results suggested that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms in which SNP maybe play double roles as sources of reactive free radicals or ROS scavengers in formation of algae s protection of PSII under UV-B radiation while NAC does function as antioxidant reagent or precursor of glutathione which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation Keyword antioxidant system exogenous or endogenous antioxidant Nostoc sphaeroides photosynthesis UV-B radiation

  16. A History of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repacholi, M H

    2017-10-01

    Concern about health risks from exposure to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) commenced in the 1950s after tracking radars were first introduced during the Second World War. Soon after, research on possible biological effects of microwave radiation in the former Soviet Union and the U.S. led to public and worker exposure limits being much lower in Eastern European than in Western countries, mainly because of different protection philosophies. As public concern increased, national authorities began introducing legislation to limit NIR exposures from domestic microwave ovens and workplace devices such as visual display units. The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) was formed in 1966 to represent national radiation protection societies. To address NIR protection issues, IRPA established a Working Group in 1974, then a Study Group in 1975, and finally the International NIR Committee (INIRC) in 1977. INIRC's publications quickly became accepted worldwide, and it was logical that it should become an independent commission. IRPA finally established the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), chartering its remit in 1992, and defining NIR as electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, visible, infrared), electromagnetic waves and fields, and infra- and ultrasound. ICNIRP's guidelines have been incorporated into legislation or adopted as standards in many countries. While ICNIRP has been subjected to criticism and close scrutiny by the public, media, and activists, it has continued to issue well-received, independent, science-based protection advice. This paper summarizes events leading to the formation of ICNIRP, its key activities up to 2017, ICNIRP's 25th anniversary year, and its future challenges.

  17. Enhanced hematopoietic protection from radiation by the combination of genistein and captopril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R M; Davis, T A; Barshishat-Kupper, M; McCart, E A; Tipton, A J; Landauer, M R

    2013-02-01

    The hematopoietic system is sensitive to radiation injury, and mortality can occur due to blood cell deficiency and stem cell loss. Genistein and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril are two agents shown to protect the hematopoietic system from radiation injury. In this study we examined the combination of genistein with captopril for reduction of radiation-induced mortality from hematopoietic damage and the mechanisms of radiation protection. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 8.25Gy (60)Co total body irradiation (TBI) to evaluate the effects of genistein and captopril alone and in combination on survival, blood cell recovery, hematopoietic progenitor cell recovery, DNA damage, and erythropoietin production. 8.25Gy TBI resulted in 0% survival after 30days in untreated mice. A single subcutaneous injection of genistein administered 24h before TBI resulted in 72% survival. Administration of captopril in the drinking water, from 1h through 30days postirradiation, increased survival to 55%. Genistein plus captopril increased survival to 95%. Enhanced survival was reflected in a reduction of radiation-induced anemia, improved recovery of nucleated bone marrow cells, splenocytes and circulating red blood cells. The drug combination enhanced early recovery of marrow progenitors: erythroid (CFU-E and BFU-E), and myeloid (CFU-GEMM, CFU-GM and CFU-M). Genistein alone and genistein plus captopril protected hematopoietic progenitor cells from radiation-induced micronuclei, while captopril had no effect. Captopril alone and genistein plus captopril, but not genistein alone, suppressed radiation-induced erythropoietin production. These data suggest that genistein and captopril protect the hematopoietic system from radiation injury via independent mechanisms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Radiation protection protocol observed amongst dentist population in the union territory of Puducherry

    OpenAIRE

    G Sitra; M Jonathan Daniel; S V Srinivasan; Prashad, Karthikshree V.

    2008-01-01

    The risk involved with dental radiography is certainly small in comparison with many other risks that are a common part of everyday life. However, there is no basis to assume that it is zero. Though the radiation dose levels in dental practice are relatively low, one should consider the cumulative effect of repeated exposures. There should be a striving for implementation of radiation protection measures and selection criteria for radiography in private dental offices. This article presents t...

  19. Radiation protection during dismantling. An overview; Strahlenschutz beim Rueckbau. Ein Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagels, Sven [TUEV Rheinland Industrie Service GmbH, Koeln (Germany). Geschaeftsfeld Strahlenschutz

    2013-08-01

    During dismantling of nuclear facilities the upmost aim is the radiation protection of the public and the personnel within and outside the facility. Specific requirements concerning the selection of cutting, dismantling and decontamination techniques and the ventilation devices are reviewed. The contribution covers special technologies for remote handling the reduction of external radiation exposure, the prevention of contamination spreading, release of buildings with respect to contamination, separate filtering devices with suction blowers, regular training with practical exercise, and experiences from other facilities.

  20. Missions of the French Defense Radiation Protection Service Concerning The Medical Management of Radio-contaminated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagna, G; Pégorié, A; Entine, F; Michel, X; Dondey, M; Amabile, J-C

    2016-08-01

    The French Defense Radiation Protection Service (SPRA) is an institution of the French Armed Forces (SSA) that provides technical support in radiation protection matters for French military units. It provides services for the armed forces and when necessary for the national public health system. The aim of this note is to describe the variety of services provided by the SPRA in France and abroad, not only in a military context but also in the broader field of radiation protection.

  1. Status of radiation protection in interventional radiology. Assessment of inspections in 2009 by the ASN; Etat de la radioprotection en radiologie interventionnelle. Bilan des inspections 2009 par l'ASN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report first describes the organization of inspections performed in health institutions, indicates the inspected establishments, the types of fixed installations in interventional radiology, the use of imagery in the operating theatre, and discusses the regulatory arrangements applicable to interventional radiology (in the Public Health Code, in the Labour Code). Then, the report discusses the results of inspections regarding radiation protection in interventional radiology: application of public health code arrangements (justification, patient training in radiation protection, radiological procedures and protocols, patient dosimetry monitoring), application of Labour Code arrangements (designation of the person with expertise in radiation protection, risk assessment and delimitation of monitored and controlled areas, workstation analysis, workers' training in radiation protection, individual protection equipment, workers' dosimetric monitoring, workers' medical monitoring, radiation protection technical controls), significant events, radiation protection in operating theatre. Propositions are stated regarding the differences noticed within or between the health establishments, the methodological and organisational difficulties faced by persons with expertise in radiation protection (PCR), the need of an interdisciplinary team

  2. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herst, Patries M [Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Otago, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2014-06-15

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin.

  3. Expert knowledge as defined by the X-Ray Ordinance. Directive on competence and expert knowledge in radiation protection, required for operators of X-ray equipment in medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine, as defined by the X-Ray Ordinance of January 8, 1987. Fachkunde nach Roentgenverordnung. Richtlinie Fachkunde und Kenntnisse im Strahlenschutz fuer den Betrieb von Roentgeneinrichtungen in der Medizin, Zahnmedizin und Tiermedizin nach der Roentgenverordnung vom 8. Januar 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The radiation protection officer or any person responsible for radiation safety have to give proof of their expert knowledge in accordance with sections 3, 4 of the X-Ray Ordinance. Proof of expert knowledge has to be furnished within the procedure of appointment (sec. 13, sub-sec. (3) X-Ray Ordinance). The directive defines the scope of the expert knowledge required, and the scope of expert knowledge persons must have, or acquire, who are responsible for radiation protection within the preview of sec. 23, no. 2, 4 and sec. 29, sub-sec. 1, no. 3 of the X-Ray Ordinance.

  4. Protection of DNA strand breakage by radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won

    1997-12-01

    Human ceruloplasmin, the plasma copper containing protein, is thought to play an essential role in iron metabolism, but it also has antioxidant properties. Ceruloplasmin directly scavenged hydroxyl radicals (.OH) generated in dithiothreitol/FeCl{sub 3} system besides inhibitory function of hydroxyl radical formation and lipid peroxidation. Polyamines, spermidine and spermine, significantly protected the supercoiled DNA strand breakage by hydroxyl radicals and DNA strand breakage by UV was highly protected by all four polyamines used in this study. In polyamine deficient mutant KL527. It was shown that cell survivability following UV irradiation was slightly increased by exogenous polyamines putrescine and spermidine supplement. However the cell survivability of wild type (MG 1655) was not influenced by polyamine supplement. In {gamma}-irradiated cells, cell survivability of polyamine-deficient mutant strain KL527 was significantly increased by exogenous putrescine supplement and that of wild type strain MG1655 was similar irrespective of polyamine supplement. These results implicate the possibility that polyamines play a potent role in radioprotection of cell and DNA level. (author). 32 refs., 8 figs

  5. A database of neutron spectra, instrument response functions, and dosimetric conversion factors for radiation protection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, O.F. [National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom); Siebert, B.R.L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    One of the major problems encountered in dose assessment for neutron radiation protection derives from the imperfect dose equivalent response of the devices used for monitoring. To investigate the performance of such devices in realistic neutron fields and to optimise calibration procedures, knowledge of both the prevalent spectral fluences and the energy response of the dosemeters is required. To facilitate this and similar studies, a database has been developed comprising a catalogue of neutron spectra and energy-dependent response functions together with a software package to manipulate the data in the catalogue. The range of data, features of the programs, and examples for radiation protection applications are described. (author).

  6. Commercial Nuclear Power Industry: Assessing and Meeting the Radiation Protection Workforce Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Jerry W

    2017-02-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the process used by the commercial nuclear power industry in assessing the status of existing industry staffing and projecting future supply demand needs. The most recent Nuclear Energy Institute-developed "Pipeline Survey Results" will be reviewed with specific emphasis on the radiation protection specialty. Both radiation protection technician and health physicist specialties will be discussed. The industry-initiated Nuclear Uniform Curriculum Program will be reviewed as an example of how the industry has addressed the need for developing additional resources. Furthermore, the reality of challenges encountered in maintaining the needed number of health physicists will also be discussed.

  7. Modeling of ultrasonic and terahertz radiations in defective tiles for condition monitoring of thermal protection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri Rahani, Ehsan

    Condition based monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) is necessary for safe operations of space shuttles when quick turn-around time is desired. In the current research Terahertz radiation (T-ray) has been used to detect mechanical and heat induced damages in TPS tiles. Voids and cracks inside the foam tile are denoted as mechanical damage while property changes due to long and short term exposures of tiles to high heat are denoted as heat induced damage. Ultrasonic waves cannot detect cracks and voids inside the tile because the tile material (silica foam) has high attenuation for ultrasonic energy. Instead, electromagnetic terahertz radiation can easily penetrate into the foam material and detect the internal voids although this electromagnetic radiation finds it difficult to detect delaminations between the foam tile and the substrate plate. Thus these two technologies are complementary to each other for TPS inspection. Ultrasonic and T-ray field modeling in free and mounted tiles with different types of mechanical and thermal damages has been the focus of this research. Shortcomings and limitations of FEM method in modeling 3D problems especially at high-frequencies has been discussed and a newly developed semi-analytical technique called Distributed Point Source Method (DPSM) has been used for this purpose. A FORTRAN code called DPSM3D has been developed to model both ultrasonic and electromagnetic problems using the conventional DPSM method. This code is designed in a general form capable of modeling a variety of geometries. DPSM has been extended from ultrasonic applications to electromagnetic to model THz Gaussian beams, multilayered dielectrics and Gaussian beam-scatterer interaction problems. Since the conventional DPSM has some drawbacks, to overcome it two modification methods called G-DPSM and ESM have been proposed. The conventional DPSM in the past was only capable of solving time harmonic (frequency domain) problems. Time history was

  8. Limiting value definition in radiation protection physics, legislation and toxicology. Fundamentals, contrasts, perspectives; Grenzwertbildung im Strahlenschutz. Physik, Recht, Toxikologie. Grundlagen, Kontraste, Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeddinck, Ulrich; Koenig, Claudia (eds.)

    2016-07-01

    The volume is the documentation of an ENTRIA workshop discussion on limiting value definition in radiation protection including the following contributions: Introduction in radiation protection -fundamentals concepts of limiting values, heterogeneity; evaluation standards for dose in radiation protection in the context of final repository search; definition of limiting values in toxicology; public participation to limiting value definition - a perspective for the radiation protection regulation; actual developments in radiation protection.

  9. General report on legal problems in radiation protection. Working group 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The legal implications and especially how some of the less definite concepts of the ICRP recommendations in Publication 60, issued in 1991, are given regulatory form are analysed. The preparation of the new EC directive on radiation protection and the attempt by IAEA and NEA to integrate the ICRP radiological protection principles with the nuclear safety principles are also examined. A special paragraph deals with long-debated question of exemptions. The report then analyses the right to be informed and the obligation to inform, in the field of radiation protection of the public, highlighting the different approaches in the regulatory systems developed during the past years at Community level and in the US. The problems of coordination between the provisions of the EC and the EURATOM treaties on environmental protection and radiation protection respectively, are then considered, partly with a view to the possible merging of these provisions into a single Treaty. Lastly, some considerations are developed concerning the different possible approaches to compensation for potentially radiation-induced diseases. 27 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Summary of Building Protection Factor Studies for External Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Radiation dose assessments are used to help inform decisions to minimize health risks in the event of an atmospheric release of radioactivity including, for example, from a Radiological Dispersal Device, an Improvised Nuclear Device detonation, or a Nuclear Power Plant accident. During these incidents, radiation dose assessments for both indoor and outdoor populations are needed to make informed decisions. These dose assessments inform emergency plans and decisions including, for example, identifying areas in which people should be sheltered and determining when controlled population evacuations should be made. US dose assessment methodologies allow consideration of the protection, and therefore dose reduction, that buildings provide their occupants. However, these methodologies require an understanding of the protection provided by various building types that is currently lacking. To help address this need, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was tasked with (a) identifying prior building protection studies, (b) extracting results relevant to US building construction, and (c) summarizing building protection by building type. This report focuses primarily on the protection against radiation from outdoor fallout particles (external gamma radiation).

  11. External radiation protection audit in National Health Service hospitals. Radiation protecgtion advisors (RPA) of the Nottingham City Hospital NHS Trust and the Oxford Radcliffe Hospital NHS Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A T; Crawley, M T; Dixon-Brown, A; Dudley, N J; Nicholas, D; Pearson, D; Przeslak, A; Weatherburn, H

    1996-11-01

    Radiation protection advisers are accustomed to carrying out internal audit in organizations for which they provide services but, traditionally, external audit has not been a part of the radiation protection adviser function. To provide an external audit function, two teams of radiation protection advisers undertook external radiation protection audits of their respective organizations, including the radiation protection adviser function itself. These audits were more representative of audits or inspections carried out by government agencies, for example the Health and Safety Executive and the former Inspectorate of Pollution, now the Environment Agency. Subsequently, reports, including recommendations for remedial action, were prepared for each management by the external auditors. The process of setting up and carrying out the external audits is described. Guidelines are suggested for those seeking to carry out an external audit.

  12. Chapter 1: A little bit of radiation physics and radiation protection; Capitulo 1: Um pouco de fisica das radiacoes e de radioprotecao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-01

    The chapter 1 talks about: 1.1) Quantities and units of radiation physics: the electron volt (eV), exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, activity, half-life and radioactive decay; 1.2) Radiation protection: irradiation and radioactive contamination, irradiation, contamination, background radiation, dose limit for individual occupationally exposure (IOE) and for the public.

  13. Pharmacologically blocking p53-dependent apoptosis protects intestinal stem cells and mice from radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwei; Wei, Liang; Cramer, Julie M; Leibowitz, Brian J; Judge, Colleen; Epperly, Michael; Greenberger, Joel; Wang, Fengchao; Li, Linheng; Stelzner, Matthias G; Dunn, James C Y; Martin, Martin G; Lagasse, Eric; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2015-04-10

    Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) leads to debilitating and dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Using three-dimensional mouse crypt culture, we demonstrated that p53 target PUMA mediates radiation-induced apoptosis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism, and identified the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 as a potent radioprotector. CHIR99021 treatment improved Lgr5+ cell survival and crypt regeneration after radiation in culture and mice. CHIR99021 treatment specifically blocked apoptosis and PUMA induction and K120 acetylation of p53 mediated by acetyl-transferase Tip60, while it had no effect on p53 stabilization, phosphorylation or p21 induction. CHIR99021 also protected human intestinal cultures from radiation by PUMA but not p21 suppression. These results demonstrate that p53 posttranslational modifications play a key role in the pathological and apoptotic response of the intestinal stem cells to radiation and can be targeted pharmacologically.

  14. Protective effects of melatonin on the ionizing radiation induced DNA damage in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undeger, Ulko; Giray, Belma; Zorlu, A Faruk; Oge, Kamil; Baçaran, Nurçen

    2004-03-01

    Melatonin is an endogenously produced antioxidant with radioprotective actions while ionizing radiation is a well-known cytotoxic and mutagenic agent of which the biological results are attributable to its free radical producing effects. The effect of melatonin on the DNA strand breakage and lipid peroxidation induced by ionizing radiation in the rat brain were investigated in order to clarify its radioprotective ability. The DNA strand breakage in rat brain exposed to 1000 cGy ionizing radiation was assessed by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis and the lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations. A significant increase in DNA damage (p radiation treated rat brain. Pre-treatment of rats with intraperitoneal doses of 100 mg/kg melatonin provided a significant decrease in the DNA strand breakage and lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that melatonin can protect brain cells from oxidative damage induced by ionizing radiation.

  15. Insights into the state of radiation protection among a subpopulation of Indian dental practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Binnal, Almas; rajesh, gururaghavendran; Denny, Ceena; Ahmed, Junaid; Nayak, Vijayendra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Radiographs is an integral part of patient management in dentistry, despite their detrimental effects. As the literature pertaining to radiation protection among Indian dental practitioners is sparse, exploring such protection is needed. Materials and Methods All private dental practitioners in Mangalore, India were included in the study. A structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was employed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices, previous training, perceptions...

  16. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental

  17. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance

  18. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    CERN Document Server

    Caresana, M; Esposito, A; Ferrarini, M; Golnik, N; Hohmann, E; Leuschner, A; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Manessi, G; Mayer, S; Ott, K; Röhrich, J; Silari, M; Trompier, F; Volnhals, M; Wielunski, M

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instru...

  19. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet

  20. Investigation of the behavior of protection elements against field radiated line coupled UWB-pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krzikalla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect electronic systems against electromagnetic interferences in general nonlinear protection circuits are used. These protection circuits are optimized mostly against special transient interferences such as lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP or electromagnetic pulses caused by nuclear explosions (NEMP. Previous investigations have shown that these protection elements could be undermined by so-called ultra wideband (UWB pulses. Thereby a direct charge of the UWB-pulse to the elements has been assumed. This assumption was a worst case approximation because in practice UWB-pulses only get into systems by coupling effects. In this investigation the behavior of typical nonlinear protection elements has been tested with field radiated line coupled UWB-pulses. For that line coupled UWB-pulses have been defined depending on the coupling behavior of typical electronic systems and a possibility of generation of this kind of pulses is presented. After it typical nonlinear protection elements such as spark gaps, varistors and