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Sample records for operation iraqi freedom

  1. 77 FR 7243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0728] Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs...

  2. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment) Activity; Comment... Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments and...: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10-21091. OMB...

  3. 76 FR 58565 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet... solicits comments on information provided to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans... information technology. Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill...

  4. 76 FR 73022 - Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet... No. 2900-0720.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom... used VA Form 21-0773 as a checklist to ensure they provided Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation...

  5. Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-14

    Managemen 15.6.6 Results Related t 15.6.7 NCOs and Multiple-Deployments 15.6.8 Validated Trainin 15.6.9 Theater Suicide Prevention Program and Suicide...include mental health providers who have deployed to the IT0 and are experienced using AHLTA- T . As noted above, as the operational theater matures in...Mental Health Advisory Team (MHAT) V Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08 14 February 2008 Office of the Surgeon Multi-National Force-Iraq and Office

  6. Stability Operations: Learning from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clay, Troy A

    2007-01-01

    U.S. strategy in Iraq after the removal of Saddam Hussein was to promote a democratic style of government and to conduct reconstruction of essential Iraqi infrastructure for the political and economic redevelopment of Iraq...

  7. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dale, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was launched on March 20, 2003, with the immediate stated goal of removing Saddam Hussein's regime and destroying its ability to use weapons of mass destruction or to make them available to terrorists...

  8. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dale, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was launched on March 20,2003, with the immediate stated goal of removing Saddam Hussein's regime and destroying its ability to use weapons of mass destruction or to make them available to terrorists...

  9. Now and Then: Combat Casualty Care Policies for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom Compared With Those of Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cordts, Paul R; Brosch, Laura A; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    Between December 2004 and June 2007, 13 key Operation Iraqi Freedom/ Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualty care policies were published to inform medical practice in the combat theater of operations...

  10. Maintaining Discrimination in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    influenced and do not draw as much scrutiny from coalition  forces. Children are primarily being used by Iraqi insurgents to  plant  roadside bombs or  as...conduct must also mean that there needs to be a group to which these standards are  assigned—the soldier class.    Though there are  warts  to the

  11. Problems with veteran-family communication during operation enduring freedom/operation Iraqi freedom military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Högnäs, Robin S

    2012-02-01

    Twenty Reserve component (Army and Marines) and Army National Guard male veterans of Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom discuss their deployment and postdeployment family reintegration experiences. A Grounded Theory approach is used to highlight some of the ways in which family miscommunication during deployment can occur. Communication with civilian family members is affected by the needs of operational security, technical problems with communication tools, miscommunication between family members, or because veterans have "nothing new to say" to family back home. These communication difficulties may lead to an initial gulf of understanding between veterans and family members that can cause family strain during postdeployment family reintegration. We end with a discussion of veteran family reintegration difficulties.

  12. Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom: exploring wartime death and bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington Lamorie, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Military deaths are often sudden, unanticipated, traumatic, and/or violent in nature and involve the death of a young adult. More than 5,500 service members have died as a result of their service in the wars in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003) in combat- or non-combat- related incidences. As the death toll continues to rise, service members and their families struggle with the visible and invisible wounds of war. This article explores wartime death, trauma, and bereavement experienced by those survivors affected by service members who have died as a result of their military service in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). It recognizes the circumstantial and cultural factors of the death as well as the grief and trauma experiences of survivors. Resources and suggested interventions of support are highlighted.

  13. Challenges and Opportunities of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with Disabilities Transitioning into Learning and Workplace Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovary, Fariba; Dapprich, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article presents issues related to disabled military servicemen and women who are transitioning to civilian life. The emphasis is on the experience of veterans serving in the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) as they reintegrate into civilian workplace and learning environments. The authors begin with an…

  14. Gunshot Wounds in Military Working Dogs in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom: 29 cases (2003-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    oxygenmask held in proximity to the dog’s face or taped to a basket-style muzzle ) during evacuation to the VTF. None of the WIA dogs received IV crystalloid...military working dogs in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom: 29 cases (2003–2009) Janice L. Baker, DVM; Karyn A. Havas, DVM; Laura A...received on the battlefield, and ultimate outcome of U.S. military working dogs that incurred gunshot wound (GSW) injury in Operation Enduring Freedom

  15. A Medical Logistics Officer Training Needs Assessment Utilizing Feedback from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waddick, James L

    2004-01-01

    ... their missions during the initial Operation Iraqi Freedom deployment (OIF 1). Additionally, the study sought to identify the potential benefit of additional training on key medical logistics tasks and training events...

  16. Medical Logistics Lessons Observed During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning.

  17. Strategic Reflections: Operation Iraqi Freedom, July 2004-February 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    not pan out. We knew that our mission was ultimately to hand over security responsibility to the Iraqi government, but we had not yet developed a...were “ chicken -egg” discus- sions about whether the security situation had to improve before the political track could begin. I strongly argued that...2005 Lt Gen Nick Houghton (UK), October 2005–February 2006 Lt Gen Rob Fry (UK), March 2006–September 2006 Lt Gen Graham Lamb (UK), September 2006

  18. Using military friendships to optimize postdeployment reintegration for male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna

    2011-01-01

    Social relationships are important to health out comes. The postdeployment family reintegration literature focuses on the role of the civilian family in facilitating the transition from Active Duty military deployment to civilian society. The focus on the civilian family relationship may miss other important personal connections in veterans' lives. One such connection is the relationship many veterans have with former military unit members who served with them when deployed. Drawing on interviews with male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans conducted from 2008 to 2009, we argue that the members of a military unit, especially during armed conflict, should be considered a resource to help the "family" reintegration process rather than impede it. This research has implications for current reintegration policy and how best to assist veterans transitioning into civilian society.

  19. Validation of Scales from the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory in a Sample of Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogt, D. S; Proctor, S. P; King, D. W; King, L. A; Vasterling, J. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Although initial evidence for the reliability and validity of DRRI scales based on Gulf War veteran samples is encouraging, evidence with respect to a more contemporary cohort of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF...

  20. The Inspection Process of the Army Reset Program for Equipment for Units Returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this report directly applies to the work of DoD civilian and military personnel responsible for the reset of equipment provided to the warfighter deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom...

  1. Persistent pain and comorbidity among Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/operation New Dawn veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Diana M; Kerns, Robert D; Brandt, Cynthia A; Haskell, Sally G; Bathulapalli, Harini; Gilliam, Wesley; Goulet, Joseph L

    2014-05-01

    Chronic pain is a significant concern for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), with chronic pain conditions among those most frequently reported by Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)/Operation New Dawn (OND) veterans. The current study examined VHA electronic medical record data to examine variation in demographics and high prevalence and high impact medical and mental health conditions in order to characterize the differences between patients with persistent pain and no pain. A conservative operational definition of chronic or "persistent pain" based on multiple indicators of pain (i.e., pain intensity ratings, prescription opioids, pain clinic visits, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes) was employed. Analyses included the entire roster of longitudinal clinical data on OEF/OIF/OND veterans who used VHA care to compare those with persistent pain with those with no clinical evidence of pain. Results of logistic regression models suggest that sex, race, education, military variables, body mass index (BMI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and mental health conditions, but not age, reliably discriminate the two groups. Those with persistent pain were more likely to be Black, female, on active duty, enlisted, Army service members, have a high school education or less, and have diagnoses of mood disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, TBI, and have a BMI consistent with overweight and obesity. The operational definition of chronic pain used in this study may have research implications for examining predictors of incident and chronic pain. These data have important clinical implications in that addressing comorbid conditions of persistent pain may improve adaptive coping and functioning in these patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Occupation Iraqi Freedom: The Importance of Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caston, Christine J

    2007-01-01

    ... addressed by the Combatant and Joint Force Commanders. The lack of an occupation plan had a major impact on how the Combatant Commander carried out Phases IV and V of Operation Iraqi Freedom and provides relevant lessons for future operations.

  3. Iraqi Perspectives Project. A View of Operation Iraqi Freedom from Saddam’s Senior Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Pokemon ” really represented a subterfuge by international Zionism to undermine Iraq’s security. Supposedly, “ Pokemon ” meant “I am Jewish” in Hebrew. They...found the fact that the Pokemon character was “widely beloved by Iraqi youth” particularly alarming.22 Once secure in power Saddam Hussein saw...Report on a Cartoon Character Called ‘ Pokemon ’ from Direc- torate of General Security.” This Directorate of General Security report states that the name of

  4. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-02

    Joost Hiltermann characterized the operations as “a fairly transparent partisan effort by the Supreme Council [ISCI] dressed in government uniforms to... poultry debate” of 2008. In mid-2008, as part of the search for sustainable economic activity, some military and PRT officials proposed supporting the...development of domestic poultry and egg farming. Some argued that such a business required relatively low start- up costs, and would provide both

  5. On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    to retain operational context. Moreover, times noted in the text have been adjusted from Greenwich Mean Time (“ Zulu ”) to local Kuwait time (+ 3...TF 1-64 AR unit history is composed of short narratives for each subordinate unit. Most cite times in zulu . 34. Ibid. 35. Ibid. Numbers of enemy...places in the world. Inside the city cemetery is the Tomb of Ali, son-in-law and cousin to Mohammed and founder of the Shiite sect. Coalition leaders

  6. Visual symptomatology and referral patterns for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom veterans with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulson, Ryan; Jun, Weon; Hayes, John

    2012-01-01

    Advances in protective armor technology and changes in the "patterns of war" have created a population of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI) that provide a unique challenge to Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare practitioners. The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of symptomatic ocular and visual sequelae of TBI in OIF/OEF veterans at the Portland VA Medical Center, a Polytrauma Support Clinic Team site. A retrospective analysis of 100 OIF/OEF veterans with TBI was conducted to determine the prevalence of ocular and visual complaints. Referral patterns were also investigated. Visual symptoms were reported in approximately 50% of veterans with TBI. Loss of consciousness, but not number of deployments or number of blast exposures, was found to have a statistically significant association with severity of reported visual symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms included blurred vision (67%), photosensitivity (50%), and accommodative problems (40%). Visual symptoms of OIF/OEF veterans at the Portland VA Medical Center are reported at slightly lower rates than similar studies conducted at the Palo Alto and Edward Hines Jr VA facilities.

  7. Warrior Resilience Training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.

  8. Predictors of Help-Seeking Intentions in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans and Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcari, Carole; Koch, Ellen I; Rauch, Sheila A M; Hoodin, Flora; Ellison, Grant; McSweeney, Lauren

    2017-05-01

    Despite significant numbers of Afghanistan and Iraqi veterans and service members who report symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and substance abuse, the majority do not seek help for these problems. A better understanding of the help-seeking process might aid providers and administrators in outreach and provision of services for those who need them. Past research has shown several variables that influence an individual's help-seeking behavior: demographic variables, the nature and severity of a mental health problem, and psychological variables. The three goals of the study were to determine which variables predicted help-seeking intentions from various sources for a psychological problem, identify barriers to help seeking, and identify sources of help sought in the past year. All Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and service members registered with a Midwestern VA Healthcare System between 2001 and 2007 received a letter requesting participation in an Internet-based survey. Participants completed nine questionnaires regarding their current physical and psychological health, social support, self-efficacy, public and self-stigma, and barriers to seeking help for a psychological problem. In addition, patterns of help seeking from informal (i.e., partner/spouse, family, friends) and formal (i.e., physician, psychiatrist, or psychologist, either from Veterans Affairs [VA] or the private sector) sources of help were examined. Results from the linear regression model including all formal and informal sources of help indicated a significant model fit with attitudes toward psychotherapy, social support, and current mental health status as significant coefficients. Of note, attitudes toward psychotherapy were a significant coefficient in all help-seeking models; stigma was a significant coefficient with formal and VA sources, and social support was found to be a significant predictor with informal sources

  9. Self-reported infertility among male and female veterans serving during Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Jodie; Cypel, Yasmin; Raza, Mubashra; Zephyrin, Laurie; Reiber, Gayle; Yano, Elizabeth M; Barth, Shannon; Schneiderman, Aaron

    2014-02-01

    Infertility is associated with psychosocial distress and is a growing public health concern. Our objective was to report the prevalence of lifetime history of infertility among men and women Veterans. We used data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs National Health Study for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans, a nationally representative survey of Veterans serving during Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). The primary dependent variables were self-reported lifetime history of infertility among Veterans and their partners, defined as trying unsuccessfully to become pregnant for at least 12 months, and seeking medical help for infertility. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether gender was associated with lifetime history of infertility or seeking medical help for infertility, after adjusting for sociodemographic and military characteristics. All analyses were weighted to account for the complex survey design and nonresponse. Among the 20,370 Veterans (16,056 men; 4,314 women) in our final analytic sample, the prevalence of lifetime history of infertility was 15.8% for women and 13.8% for men. After adjusting for age, ever married, education, race/ethnicity, component, branch of service, and deployment to OEF/OIF, compared with men, women Veterans had similar odds of lifetime history of infertility (odds ratio [OR] 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94, 1.20), but increased odds of seeking medical help for infertility (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.06, 1.72). Women Veterans are more likely than their male counterparts to seek care for infertility, and given their increasing numbers, the demand for infertility evaluation and care within Veterans' Affairs may increase.

  10. Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08: Iraq. Operation Enduring Freedom 8: Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-14

    Optimizing Theater Assets 15.6.3 Addressing Reported Short 15.6.4 Leadership and R 15.6.5 Sleep Managemen 15.6.6 Results Related t 15.6.7 NCOs and...36.4% 32.0% 0.02 Continuous operations . 38.8% 33.3% 000 Long deployment length. 57.1% 57.1% 0.99 6.2.2 Top Concerns in MHA T V While the...IT0 and are experienced using AHLTA- T . As noted above, as the operational theater matures in Iraq, there is a clear push to use EMR reporting

  11. Combat surgical workload in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: The definitive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Caryn A; Stockinger, Zsolt T; Gurney, Jennifer M

    2017-07-01

    Relatively few publications exist on surgical workload in the deployed military setting. This study analyzes US military combat surgical workload in Iraq and Afghanistan to gain a more thorough understanding of surgical training gaps and personnel requirements. A retrospective analysis of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry was performed for all Role 2 (R2) and Role 3 (R3) military treatment facilities from January 2001 to May 2016. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes were grouped into 18 categories based on functional surgical skill sets. The 189,167 surgical procedures identified were stratified by role of care, month, and year. Percentiles were calculated for the number of procedures for each skill set. A literature search was performed for publications documenting combat surgical workload during the same period. A total of 23,548 surgical procedures were performed at R2 facilities, while 165,619 surgical procedures were performed at R3 facilities. The most common surgical procedures performed overall were soft tissue (37.5%), orthopedic (13.84%), abdominal (13.01%), and vascular (6.53%). The least common surgical procedures performed overall were cardiac (0.23%), peripheral nervous system (0.53%), and spine (0.34%).Mean surgical workload at any point in time clearly underrepresented those units in highly kinetic areas, at times by an order of magnitude or more. The published literature always demonstrated workloads well in excess of the 50th percentile for the relevant time period. The published literature on combat surgical workload represents the high end of the spectrum of deployed surgical experience. These trends in surgical workload provide vital information that can be used to determine the manpower needs of future conflicts in ever-changing operational tempo environments. Our findings provide surgical types and surgical workload requirements that will be useful in surgical training and

  12. Incidence of Mental Health Diagnoses in Veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, and New Dawn, 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Christine; Dziura, James; Justice, Amy C; Altalib, Hamada Hamid; Bathulapalli, Harini; Burg, Matthew; Decker, Suzanne; Driscoll, Mary; Goulet, Joseph; Haskell, Sally; Kulas, Joseph; Wang, Karen H; Mattocks, Kristen; Brandt, Cynthia

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate gender, age, and race/ethnicity as predictors of incident mental health diagnoses among Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom, and New Dawn veterans. We used US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic health records from 2001 to 2014 to examine incidence rates and sociodemographic risk factors for mental health diagnoses among 888 142 veterans. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the most frequently diagnosed mental health condition across gender and age groups. Incidence rates for all mental health diagnoses were highest at ages 18 to 29 years and declined thereafter, with the exceptions of major depressive disorder (MDD) in both genders, and PTSD among women. Risk of incident bipolar disorder and MDD diagnoses were greater among women; risk of incident schizophrenia, and alcohol- and drug-use disorders diagnoses were greater in men. Compared with Whites, risk incident PTSD, MDD, and alcohol-use disorder diagnoses were lower at ages 18 to 29 years and higher at ages 45 to 64 years for both Hispanics and African Americans. Differentiating high-risk demographic and gender groups can lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of mental health diagnoses among veterans and other high-risk groups.

  13. Management of colorectal injuries during operation iraqi freedom: patterns of stoma usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, James E; Corwin, Christian H; Sweeney, W Brian; Dunne, James R; Denobile, John W; Perdue, Philip W; Galarneau, Michael R; Pearl, Jonathan P

    2008-04-01

    Management of penetrating colorectal injuries in the civilian trauma population has evolved away from diversionary stoma into primary repair or resection and primary anastomosis. With this in mind, we evaluated how injuries to the colon and rectum were managed in the ongoing war in Iraq. The records of Operation Iraqi Freedom patients evacuated to National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) from March 2004 until November 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with colorectal injuries were identified and characterized by the following: (1) injury type; (2) mechanism; (3) associated injuries; (4) Injury Severity Score; (5) levels of medical care involved in patient treatment; (6) time interval(s) between levels of care; (7) management; and (8) outcomes. Twenty-three patients were identified as having either colon or rectal injury. The average ISS was 24.4 (range, 9-54; median 24). On average, patients were evaluated and treated at 2.5 levels of surgically capable medical care (range, 2-3; median 2) between time of injury and arrival at NNMC, with a median of 6 days from initial injury until presentation at NNMC (range, 3-11). Management of colorectal injuries included 7 primary repairs (30.4%), 3 resections with anastomoses (13.0%), and 13 colostomies (56.6%). There was one death (4.3%) and three anastomotic leaks (30%). Total complication rate was 48%. Based upon injury severity, the complex nature of triage and medical evacuation, and the multiple levels of care involved for injured military personnel, temporary stoma usage should play a greater role in military casualties than in the civilian environment for penetrating colorectal injuries.

  14. An examination of the roles of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder on emotion regulation strategies of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Lauren M; Roy, Alicia M; Southwick, Steven M; Fichtenholtz, Harlan M

    2016-09-01

    Theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicate emotional processes, including difficulties utilizing adaptive emotion regulation strategies, as critical to the etiology and maintenance of PTSD. Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OIF/OEF/OND) veterans report high levels of combat exposure and PTSD. We aimed to extend findings suggesting that emotion regulation difficulties are a function of PTSD, rather than combat trauma exposure or common comorbidities, to OIF/OEF/OND veterans, in order to inform models of PTSD risk and recovery that can be applied to returning veterans. We tested differences in emotion regulation, measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, among trauma-exposed veterans with (n = 24) or without PTSD (n = 22) and healthy civilian comparison participants (n = 27) using multivariate analyses of covariance, adjusting for major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and demographic variables (age, sex, and ethnicity). Veterans with PTSD reported more use of expressive suppression and more difficulties with emotion regulation than veterans without PTSD and healthy comparison participants. Groups did not differ on cognitive reappraisal. Findings suggest the key role of PTSD above and beyond trauma exposure, depression, and anxiety in specific aspects of emotion dysregulation among OIF/OEF/OND veterans. Interventions that help veterans expand and diversify their emotion regulation skills may serve as helpful adjunctive treatments for PTSD among OIF/OEF/OND veterans.

  15. Family support, family stress, and suicidal ideation in a combat-exposed sample of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Smith, Brian N; Vogt, Dawne

    2015-01-01

    Deployment-related risk factors for suicidal ideation among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans have received a great deal of attention. Studies show that mental health symptoms mediate the association between most deployment stressors and suicidal ideation; however, family-related factors during deployment are largely unexplored. We examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms as mediators of the associations between deployment family support and stress and post-deployment suicidal ideation in combat-exposed OEF/OIF veterans. National cross-sectional mail survey. 1046 veterans responded to the survey. The sample for this study was 978 veterans who experienced combat. Regression-based path analyses were conducted. Family support and stress had direct associations with suicidal ideation. When PTSD and depression symptoms were examined as mediators of these associations, results revealed significant indirect paths through these symptoms. This study contributes to the literature on suicidal ideation risk factors among OEF/OIF veterans. Deployment family support and family stress are associated with suicidal ideation; however these associations occur primarily through mental health symptomatology, consistent with findings observed for other deployment factors. This research supports ongoing efforts to treat mental health symptomatology as a means of suicide prevention.

  16. Effects-Based Targeting: Application in Operation Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansbarger, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... The United States military must be able to apply effects-based targeting to capitalize on improved capabilities in operational fires and application of national resources against a dynamic, adapting enemy...

  17. Contributions to Executive Dysfunction in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurick, Sarah M; Crocker, Laura D; Sanderson-Cimino, Mark; Keller, Amber V; Trenova, Liljana S; Boyd, Briana L; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Rodgers, Carie S; Schiehser, Dawn M; Aupperle, Robin L; Jak, Amy J

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and executive function (EF) difficulties are prevalent in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans. We evaluated the contributions of injury variables, lower-order cognitive component processes (processing speed/attention), and psychological symptoms to EF. OEF/OIF Veterans (N = 65) with PTSD and history of mTBI were administered neuropsychological tests of EF and self-report assessments of PTSD and depression. Those impaired on one or more EF measures had higher PTSD and depression symptoms and lower processing speed/attention performance than those with intact performance on all EF measures. Across participants, poorer attention/processing speed performance and higher psychological symptoms were associated with worse performance on specific aspects of EF (eg, inhibition and switching) even after accounting for injury variables. Although direct relationships between EF and injury variables were equivocal, there was an interaction between measures of injury burden and processing speed/attention such that those with greater injury burden exhibited significant and positive relationships between processing speed/attention and inhibition/switching, whereas those with lower injury burden did not. Psychological symptoms as well as lower-order component processes of EF (attention and processing speed) contribute significantly to executive dysfunction in OEF/OIF Veterans with PTSD and history of mTBI. However, there may be equivocal relationships between injury variables and EF that warrant further study. Results provide groundwork for more fully understanding cognitive symptoms in OEF/OIF Veterans with PTSD and history of mTBI that can inform psychological and cognitive interventions in this population.

  18. Stigma, career worry, and mental illness symptomatology: Factors influencing treatment-seeking for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom soldiers and veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas B; Bruce, Steven E

    2016-05-01

    Mental health related stigma, as well as mental illness symptomatology, have been shown to negatively impact treatment-seeking within military populations. However, few studies have delineated the 2 forms of stigma (self-stigma and public stigma), and none have differentiated between stigma and career-related consequences (career worry). The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of low treatment-seeking rates among soldiers and veterans by expanding upon previous measurements of the stigma construct and examining factors influencing willingness to seek treatment. The sample consisted of 276 Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) soldiers and veterans. Individual levels of self-stigma, public stigma, and career worry were measured, as were levels of willingness to seek treatment. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, and substance abuse were also evaluated to account for the influence of mental illness on treatment-seeking. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 3-factor model including self-stigma, public stigma, and career worry fit the data significantly better than a 1- or 2- factor model. A multiple regression analysis also revealed that these 3 factors, combined with mental illness symptomatology, significantly predicted individual levels of willingness to seek treatment. Career worry was the strongest predictor, particularly for individuals with no treatment history. This study confirmed that career worry is a factor independent of self-stigma and public stigma. Findings indicate that a fear of negatively affecting one's career is the most influential factor in determining willingness to seek mental health treatment for the military population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Critical Care Air Transport Team severe traumatic brain injury short-term outcomes during flight for Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, L Renee; Borawski, J; Lairet, J; Limkakeng, A T

    2017-10-01

    Our understanding of the expertise and equipment required to air transport injured soldiers with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) continue to evolve. We conducted a retrospective chart review of characteristics, interventions required and short-term outcomes of patients with severe TBI managed by the US Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATTs) deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom between 1 June 2007 and 31 August 2010. Patients were cared for based on guidelines given by the Brain Trauma Foundation and the Joint Theater Trauma System by non-neurosurgeon physicians with dedicated neurocritical care training. We report basic characteristics, injuries, interventions required and complications during transport. Intracranial haemorrhage was the most common diagnosis in this cohort. Most injuries were weapon related. During this study, there were no reported in-flight deaths. The majority of patients were mechanically ventilated. There were 45 patients who required at least one vasopressor to maintain adequate tissue perfusion, including four patients who required three or more. Some patients required intracranial pressure (ICP) management, treatment of diabetes insipidus and/or seizure prophylaxis medications. Air transport personnel must be prepared to provide standard critical care but also care specific to TBIs, including ICP control and management of diabetes insipidus. Although these patients and their potential complications are traditionally managed by neurosurgeons, those providers without neurosurgical backgrounds can be provided this training to help fill a wartime need. This study provides data for the future development of air transport guidelines for validating and clearing flight surgeons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Genitourinary Injuries Sustained by Female U.S. Service Members During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-07

    2. REPORT TYPE 10/07/2017 Presentation 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GENITOURINARY INJURIES SUSTAINED BY FEMALE U.S. SERVICE MEMBERS DURING OPERATION...for increased female GU injuries in future conflicts and the long-term sequelae from these injury patterns. Materials and Methods: The Department of

  1. Long-Term Neurobehavioral Symptoms and Return to Productivity in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans With and Without Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortera, Marianne H; Kinirons, Stacy A; Simantov, Jessie; Klingbeil, Heidi

    2018-02-01

    To describe Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who underwent the Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluation (CTBIE), differences between the traumatic brain injury (TBI) and non-TBI subgroups, and factors associated with return to productivity (RTP). Retrospective medical record review. Medical center. Medical records of OEF/OIF veterans (N=236) who underwent the CTBIE between 2009 and 2013. Not applicable. Demographic characteristics, injury history, clinical presentation, and factors associated with RTP. Veteran sample included 90.7% men, was 45.3% white and 34.7% black, with half of Hispanic origin, and had a mean age of 33 years. The mean time since injury was approximately 4 years. Reported symptoms were high, with >90% reporting anxiousness, irritability, sleep difficulty, forgetfulness, and headaches. TBI diagnosis was found in 163 veterans (69%). The TBI subgroup was younger (TBI: 32.5y vs non-TBI: 34.9y; P=.02), reported a greater number of injuries (P<.001), and had significantly higher rates of half of the reported symptoms. Greatest differences were noted with forgetfulness (TBI: 95.7% vs non-TBI: 79.5%; P<.001), poor concentration (TBI: 90.2% vs non-TBI: 76.7%; P=.007), and headaches (TBI: 93.9% vs non-TBI: 83.6%; P=.014). RTP was 60.6% for the total veteran population. Factors associated with RTP were race (white) (odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-3.55; P=.018), sensitivity to light (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.17-5.66; P=.018), and fatigue (OR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.51-8.95; P=.004). Veterans that did RTP were 3 times less likely to report depression (OR, .32; 95% CI, .12-.85; P=.022). Veterans reported a substantial number of lingering symptoms, with a higher prevalence in veterans with TBI. Veterans with reported depression were less likely to RTP. Future research should focus on the relation between depression and non-RTP and the effectiveness of Department of Veterans Affairs services. Copyright

  2. Effects of Escitalopram on Autonomic Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram; Selvaraj, Vithyalakshmi; Driscoll, David; Madabushi, Jayakrishna S; Bhatia, Subhash C; Yeragani, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a chronic, debilitating condition that has become a growing concern among combat veterans. Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder disrupts normal autonomic responding and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Measures of heart rate variability and QT interval variability have been used extensively to characterize sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on heart rate in a variety of psychiatric populations. The objective of this study was to better understand the effects of pharmacological treatment on autonomic reactivity in posttraumatic stress disorder. A 12-week, Phase IV, prospective, open-label trial of escitalopram in veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. An outpatient mental health clinic at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Eleven male veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. Autonomic reactivity was measured by examining heart rate variability and QT interval variability. Treatment safety and efficacy were also evaluated pre- and post-treatment. We observed a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms from pre- to post-treatment, and escitalopram was generally well tolerated in our sample. In addition, we observed a decrease in high frequency heart rate variability and an increase in QT variability, indicating a reduction in cardiac vagal function and heightened sympathetic activation. These findings suggest that escitalopram treatment in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression can trigger changes in autonomic reactivity that may adversely impact cardiovascular health.

  3. Monitoring mental health treatment acceptance and initial treatment adherence in veterans: veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom versus other veterans of other eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Steven; Cacciapaglia, Holly; Noronha, Delilah; Carlson, Eve; Schatzberg, Alan

    2010-10-01

    Identifying factors that influence mental health outcomes in veterans can aid in the redesign of programs to maximize the likelihood of early resolution of problems. To that end, we examined demographic and clinical process data from 2,684 veterans who scored positive on a mental health screen. We investigated this data set for patterns and possible predictors of mental health referral acceptance and attendance. The majority of patients had not received mental health treatment within the last two years (76%). Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) were more likely to accept a mental health referral for depression but were equally likely to attend a mental health visit as other era veterans. Decreased acceptance was associated with provider type and contact method, clinic location, depression only, and specific age ranges (65-74). Among those who accepted a referral, decreased attendance was associated with clinic location, depression only, and retirement. No variables predicted OEF/OIF acceptance/attendance. In conclusion, our findings illustrate the importance of close, continual monitoring of clinical process data to help reveal targets for improving mental health care for veterans. © 2010 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease.

  4. Field Artillery And Fire Support At The Operational Level: An Analysis Of Operation Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    assistance with editing and for supporting this endeavor, and to our two wonderful children , Olivia and Theodore. Our time here at Fort Leavenworth has been...Baathist regime. 7 Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, 3d ed...II, 165. 33 television several hours later, denouncing the strike as a “criminal act” and calling on the Iraqi people to draw their swords

  5. Sleep quality in treatment-seeking veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: the role of cognitive coping strategies and unit cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Morgan, Charles A; Southwick, Steven M

    2010-11-01

    Sleep difficulties are common in individuals exposed to stress or trauma, and maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, such as worry and fear of losing vigilance, as well as low social support, may further impair sleep quality. This study examined the severity and correlates of sleep difficulties in a sample of treatment-seeking veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF-OIF). A total of 167 OEF-OIF veterans seeking behavioral or primary care services completed a questionnaire containing measures of sleep quality, combat exposure, psychopathology, fear of loss of vigilance, cognitive coping strategies, and unit and postdeployment social support within 1 year of returning from deployment. Mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory scores in the full sample were indicative of severely impaired sleep. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with increased sleep difficulties, most notably sleep disturbances, daytime dysfunction, and sleep quality. Hierarchical regression analysis in the full sample revealed that PTSD symptoms and scores on measures of worry and fear of loss of vigilance were positively associated with sleep difficulties and that scores on a measure of unit member support were negatively associated with sleep difficulties. Among veterans with PTSD, fear of loss of vigilance was positively associated with sleep difficulties and cognitive distraction and unit member support were negatively associated with sleep difficulties. Treatment-seeking OEF-OIF veterans report severe sleep difficulties, with more pronounced impairment in veterans with PTSD. The results of this study suggest that interventions to mitigate worry and fear of loss of vigilance and to enhance perceived unit member support may be helpful in reducing sleep difficulties following return from deployment in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender differences in service utilization among Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn Veterans Affairs patients with severe mental illness and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Janelle M; Brignone, Emily; Gilmore, Amanda K; Lehavot, Keren; Fargo, Jamison; Suo, Ying; Simpson, Tracy; Carter, Marjorie E; Blais, Rebecca K; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2018-02-01

    Severe mental illness (SMI) and substance use disorders (SUD) are among the more chronic and costly mental health conditions treated in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Service use patterns of returning veterans with SMI and SUD have received little attention. We examined gender differences in the utilization of VA services among a national sample of Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) VA patients with SMI, SUD, and their comorbidity (SMI/SUD) in their first year of established VA care (N = 24,166). Outpatient services and acute-residential stays were modeled using negative binomial and logistic regression, respectively. Among all diagnostic categories, men used outpatient services less often than did women, including primary care (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] = .71, 95% confidence interval CI [.68, .74]), mental health (ARR = .85, 95% CI [.80, .91]), and addiction (ARR = .91, 95% CI [.83, .99]) services. For emergency department (ED) and psychiatric inpatient services, gender interacted significantly with diagnosis. The combination of SMI/SUD compared to either SMI or SUD conferred greater risk of ED utilization among men than women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.09, 95% CI [1.24, 3.51], and 1.95, 95% CI [1.17, 3.26], respectively). SMI versus SUD conferred greater risk of psychiatric inpatient utilization among men than women (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI [1.43, 2.34]). Our findings point to gender differences in outpatient and acute service utilization among OEF/OIF/OND VA patients with some of the more chronic and costly mental health conditions. Further investigation of health care utilization patterns is needed to understand factors driving these gender differences to ensure that veterans have appropriate access to the services they need. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Using the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism to Determine Objectives and End States for Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    If Iraq is the central front in the War on Terror and if, as Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz purports, "the single greatest threat to peace and freedom in our time is terrorism," then one...

  8. War Termination Planning for Operations Desert Storm and Iraqi Freedom: Failures to Set the Conditions for a Stable Peace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moylan, Christopher V

    2005-01-01

    .... During Operation DESERT STORM, the ambiguity of the objective "promote the safety and stability of the Persian Gulf" led to missed opportunities to influence the postwar settlement and possible...

  9. To Fight or Not to Fight? Organizational and Doctrinal Trends in Mounted Maneuver Reconnaissance from the Interwar Years to Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    320 xv Introduction Past as Prologue In 1999, the annual Armor Conference featured a typical lineup of guest speakers, technology demonstrations...map reading, aerial photograph interpretation, dismounted patrolling, navigation, armored vehicle identification , and the handling of prisoners...emphasis on wire clearance.87 However, the identification and clearance of mines proved a time-consuming business, much like stealthy operations. Too

  10. There Are No New Lessons Learned, Just Old Lessons Relearned: A Case Study of Operation Iraqi Freedom Through the Eyes of Maslow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    Abraham Maslow , a renowned American psychologist, prioritized human needs into four categories and his theory suggests that humans are motivated by...addressed through examination of other COIN and reconstruction operations. Endnotes 1 Abraham H. Maslow , Motivation and Personality, 3rd ed. (New...a basic understanding of Islam and provided a great contextual background for research. Maslow , Abraham H. Motivation and Personality, 3rd ed. New

  11. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Brain Response to Traumatic Reminders of Combat in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, James Douglas; Mishra, Sanskriti; Campanella, Carolina; Shah, Majid; Kasher, Nicole; Evans, Sarah; Fani, Negar; Shah, Amit Jasvant; Reiff, Collin; Davis, Lori L; Vaccarino, Viola; Carmody, James

    2017-01-01

    Brain imaging studies in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have implicated a circuitry of brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, parietal cortex, and insula. Pharmacological treatment studies have shown a reversal of medial prefrontal deficits in response to traumatic reminders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a promising non-pharmacologic approach to the treatment of anxiety and pain disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of MBSR on PTSD symptoms and brain response to traumatic reminders measured with positron-emission tomography (PET) in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combat veterans with PTSD. We hypothesized that MBSR would show increased prefrontal response to stress and improved PTSD symptoms in veterans with PTSD. Twenty-six OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD who had recently returned from a combat zone were block randomized to receive eight sessions of MBSR or present-centered group therapy (PCGT). PTSD patients underwent assessment of PTSD symptoms with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), mindfulness with the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and brain imaging using PET in conjunction with exposure to neutral and Iraq combat-related slides and sound before and after treatment. Nine patients in the MBSR group and 8 in the PCGT group completed all study procedures. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients treated with MBSR (but not PCGT) had an improvement in PTSD symptoms measured with the CAPS that persisted for 6 months after treatment. MBSR also resulted in an increase in mindfulness measured with the FFMQ. MBSR-treated patients had increased anterior cingulate and inferior parietal lobule and decreased insula and precuneus function in response to traumatic reminders compared to the PCGT group. This study shows that MBSR is a safe and effective treatment for PTSD. Furthermore, MBSR treatment is associated with

  12. A Pilot Study of the Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Brain Response to Traumatic Reminders of Combat in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Douglas Bremner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveBrain imaging studies in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD have implicated a circuitry of brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, parietal cortex, and insula. Pharmacological treatment studies have shown a reversal of medial prefrontal deficits in response to traumatic reminders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR is a promising non-pharmacologic approach to the treatment of anxiety and pain disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of MBSR on PTSD symptoms and brain response to traumatic reminders measured with positron-emission tomography (PET in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD. We hypothesized that MBSR would show increased prefrontal response to stress and improved PTSD symptoms in veterans with PTSD.MethodTwenty-six OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD who had recently returned from a combat zone were block randomized to receive eight sessions of MBSR or present-centered group therapy (PCGT. PTSD patients underwent assessment of PTSD symptoms with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS, mindfulness with the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ and brain imaging using PET in conjunction with exposure to neutral and Iraq combat-related slides and sound before and after treatment. Nine patients in the MBSR group and 8 in the PCGT group completed all study procedures.ResultsPost-traumatic stress disorder patients treated with MBSR (but not PCGT had an improvement in PTSD symptoms measured with the CAPS that persisted for 6 months after treatment. MBSR also resulted in an increase in mindfulness measured with the FFMQ. MBSR-treated patients had increased anterior cingulate and inferior parietal lobule and decreased insula and precuneus function in response to traumatic reminders compared to the PCGT group.ConclusionThis study shows that MBSR is a safe and effective treatment for PTSD

  13. Operation Iraqi Freedom - An Unjust War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-09

    the President. Clearly there is a separation of powers when it comes to the use of the military. This country’s history is founded on the separation ...country this separation of powers has been tested. It is necessary that this government with its separate branches of authority, struggles with, and... of powers , to prevent any one branch of the government from wielding too much power. The founding fathers feared too much power in one branch of the

  14. Consistency of Self-Reported Neurocognitive Symptoms, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Concussive Events From End of First Deployment to Veteran Health Administration Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluation by Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Arthur C; Fingerhut, Esther C

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the consistency of self-reported symptoms and concussive events in combat veterans who reported experiencing concussive events. One hundred and forty, single deployed, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn combat veterans with Veteran Health Administration (VHA) Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluations (CTBIE) and no post-deployment head injury were examined to assess consistency of self-reported (a) traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related symptoms, (b) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms, and (c) TBI-related concussive events from soon after deployment to time of VHA CTBIE. Compared to their self-report of symptoms and traumatic events at the time of their Post-Deployment Health Assessment, at the time of their comprehensive VHA evaluation, subjects reported significantly greater impairment in concentration, decision making, memory, headache, and sleep. In addition, although half the subjects denied any PTSD symptoms post-deployment, approximately three quarters reported experiencing all four PTSD screening symptoms near the time of the VHA CTBIEs. At the latter time, subjects also reported significantly more TBI-related concussive events, as well as more post-concussive sequelae such as loss of consciousness immediately following these concussive events. Finally, although 84% reported a level of impairment so severe as to render all but the simplest activity doable, the vast majority simultaneously reported working and/or attending college. These findings raise questions regarding the accuracy of veteran self-report of both near and distant traumatic events, and argue for the inclusion of contemporaneous Department of Defense (DOD) records in veteran assessment and treatment planning. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Network Centric Warfare Case Study: U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) During Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Operations (Mar-Apr 2003). Volume 3. Network Centric Warfare Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOPS), special information operations (IO), information assurance, physical security...nonlethal effects, such as operational 8 Network Centric Warfare Case Study security (OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOP...Support Operations Group ASR Alternate Supply Route; or, Ammunition Supply Rate ATACMS Army Tactical Missile System ATARS Advanced

  16. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

  17. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, Laura H; Ausink, John A; Campbell, Nancy F; Drew, John G; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    .... First, the contracting community did not have a comprehensive, detailed database of contingency purchases that would allow analyses of the types and amounts of goods and services purchased to support...

  18. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldwin, Laura H; Ausink, John A; Campbell, Nancy F; Drew, John G; Roll, Jr, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    ...) in an effort to determine the size and extent of contractor support, and how plans for and the organization and execution of contingency contracting activities might be improved so that Contingency...

  19. Infections in Combat Casualties During Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    bacteria other 39 112.1 Vulva/ vaginal candidiasis 1 381.4 Nonsuppurative otitis media 1 451.82 Superficial phlebitis arm 2 451.83 Deep phlebitis arm 1...Coding by Pathogen Pathogen Code Code Description Number Fungus 112.1 Vulva/ vaginal candidiasis 1 112.3 Candidiasis of skin/nails 1 112.5 Disseminated... candidiasis 3 112.89 Candidiasis site not available 6 112.9 Candidiasis site unspecified 13 117.3 Aspergillus 5 117.9 Mycoses 14 Gram-negative 003.8

  20. Decisionmaking in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Removing Saddam Hussein by Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    have been to abandon diplomacy, but British Prime Minister Tony Blair warned that without a second resolution (or, at least, a serious effort to... Robbins and Jeanne Cummings, “New Doctrine: How Bush Decided That Iraq’s Hussein Must Be Ousted,” Wall Street Journal, June 14, 2002. 58. National

  1. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    that could inform such strategic purchasing decisions. 14 We used the unique contract identification number to check for cross -organization...beds, mattresses, dressers , footlockers) Other (stools, rugs, seats, cabinets, tables, folding chairs, paintings) Generators Various power generators

  2. Evolution of Burn Resuscitation in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Kevin K; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Wolf, Steven E; White, Chrsitopher E; Renz, Evan M; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Holcomb, John B; Barillo, David J

    2006-01-01

    ... of the burn resuscitation. Critical advances in air evacuation of the war wounded, thorough prewar planning, and sustained burn care education of deployed personnel have proven vital in the optimal care of our injured soldiers...

  3. Evolution of Burn Resuscitation in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Kevin K; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Wolf, Steven E; White, Chrsitopher E; Renz, Evan M; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Holcomb, John B; Barillo, David J

    2006-01-01

    .... A unique set of challenges have emerged during the present conflict associated with global evacuation of burned soldiers, adding a new dimension to the already complex and often-controversial topic...

  4. Space Station Freedom operations costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accola, Anne L.; Williams, Gregory J.

    1988-01-01

    Measures to reduce the operation costs of the Space Station which can be implemented in the design and development stages are discussed. Operational functions are described in the context of an overall operations concept. The provisions for operations cost responsibilities among the partners in the Space Station program are presented. Cost estimating methodologies and the way in which operations costs affect the design and development process are examined.

  5. Ocular Surface Symptoms in Veterans Returning From Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, Yasha S.; Qurban, Qirat; Zlotcavitch, Leonid; Echeverri, Roberto J.; Feuer, William; Florez, Hermes; Galor, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Environmental exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with an increased risk of dry eye symptoms in veterans while overseas. On return, PTSD remained a significant risk factor for persistent symptoms.

  6. Corneal and Corneoscleral Injury in Combat Ocular Trauma from Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Anton; Ryan, Denise S; Ludlow, Spencer; Coggin, Andrew; Weichel, Eric D; Stutzman, Richard D; Bower, Kraig S; Colyer, Marcus H

    2017-03-01

    To examine the incidence and the etiology of corneal and corneoscleral injuries in the setting of combat ocular trauma, and to determine what effect these injuries have on overall visual impairment from combat ocular trauma. Retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series, analyzing U.S. service members who were evacuated to the former Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC). Primary outcome measures were types of corneal injuries, length of follow-up at WRAMC, globe survival, and anatomical causes of blindness. Secondary outcome measures included surgical procedures performed, use of eye protection, source of injury, and visual outcomes. Between 2001 and 2011, there were 184 eyes of 134 patients with corneal or corneoscleral injuries. The average age was 26 years (range, 18-50); 99.3% were male, 31.9% had documented use of eye protection. The average follow-up was 428.2 days (3-2,421). There were 98 right-eye and 86 left-eye injuries. There were 169 open-globe and 15 closed-globe injuries with corneal lacerations occurring in 73 eyes with injuries to Zone I. Most injuries were attributable to an intraocular foreign body (IOFB; 48%), followed by penetrating (19.6%) and perforating (16.3%) injuries. The most common presenting visual acuity was hand motion/light perception (45.7%), yet, at the end of the study, visual acuity improved to 20/40 or better (40.8%). The majority of injuries in eyes with visual acuity worse than 20/200 involved the cornea and retina (58%). Injuries solely to the cornea accounted for only 19% of all injuries sustained. Ocular injuries in military combat have led to significant damage to ocular structures with a wide range of visual outcomes. The authors describe corneal and corneoscleral injuries in combat ocular trauma by classifying injuries by the anatomical site involved and identifying the main source of decreased visual acuity. In combat ocular trauma, corneal or corneoscleral injuries are not the sole etiology for poor vision. A cohesive approach among multiple ophthalmic subspecialties is needed when treating combat ocular trauma. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Infections Complicating the Care of Combat Casualties During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    vaginal candidiasis 3 112.3 Candidiasis of skin/nails 2 112.5 Disseminated candidiasis 4 112.89 Candidiasis site nec 6 112.9 Candidiasis site unspec...OT 7 112.1 Vulva/ vaginal candidiasis 3 320.9 Bacterial meningitis nos 6 381.4 Nonsuppurative otitis media unspec 5 41.89 Infection bacteria OT 133...Lippincott Williams & WilkinsS66 TABLE 4. Infectious ICD-9 Coding by Pathogen Syndrome Code Code Description N Fungus 112 Candidiasis of mouth 7 112.1 Vulva

  8. Deployment Surveillance Summary, U.S. Army Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn/Operation Enduring Freedom, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    bases, and proper sliding technique education for softball and baseball sliding injuries. (31) (e) Mouthguard use in sports activities where there...95. 31. Pollack K, Canham-Chervak M, Gazal-Carvalho C, Jones B, Baker S. 2005. Interventions to prevent softball related injuries: a review of

  9. Detainee Medical Operations during Operation Iraqi Freedom: Determination of a Transition Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Additionally, a panel of physicians should provide consensual guidelines on resuscitative procedures and euthanasia . These topics do not have clear cut...International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) or another voluntary aid organization which is recognized and authorized by its

  10. Misfire: An Operational Critique of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Targeting Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, John D

    2005-01-01

    ...." However, while PGMs were instrumental in accomplishing the primary national-strategic objective of regime removal in OIF, targeting concentrated exclusively on leadership, command and control (C2...

  11. Sustainment of Army Forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Battlefield Logistics and Effects on Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peltz, Eric; Halliday, John M; Robbins, Marc L; Girardini, Kenneth J

    2005-01-01

    ..., with an emphasis on the period from the start of ground combat to the fall of Baghdad. The findings should be of interest throughout the Army as well as the broader Department of Defense supply chain, deployment planning, and force development communities...

  12. Sharing the Burden and Risk: An Operational Assessment of the Reserve Components in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Assessment, Joint Test and Evaluation, 1 June 2004. E-3 Commander Intent Met” field. Fields left blank or comments such as “UNK” and “ clouds obscured...Report of the Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization Commission: Final Report, 29 January 2015. Miller, Drew, Col USAFR, HQ USAF A8FX

  13. Insights for the Third Offset: Addressing Challenges of Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    54 Larry Lewis, Operation Iraqi Freedom: Ground-to-Air Fratricide (U). CNA Research Memorandum CRM D0008910.A4, July 2004, //Secret. (Portion cited...Operation Iraqi Freedom: Ground-to-Air Fratricide (U). CNA Research Memorandum CRM D0008910.A4. Secret. (Portions cited in the present report are

  14. To Integrate or to Deconlict, that is the Question: An Examination of Contemporary Challenges in Conventional and Special Operations Forces Command and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooling, Norman L

    2007-01-01

    .... Operations Restore Hope, Enduring Freedom, and Iraqi Freedom each reveal the dangers of attempting to integrate C2 between SOF and CF at the operational level, but failing to do so at the tactical level...

  15. Miniature Munitions: Is The US Military Prepared to Support Major Combat Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    offensive as the only weapon. The number of weapons, cost, and production rate are compared to the Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) air campaign. The SDB...two major conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. In 2003, US and coalition forces began Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) with an aerial bombardment campaign...were able to advance into the Iraqi capital city of Baghdad with relative ease thanks in part to the support from the air campaign. Nearly 30,000

  16. Injury Severity and Causes of Death from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: 2003-2004 Versus 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly, Joseph F; Ritenour, Amber E; McLaughlin, Daniel F; Bagg, Karen A; Apodaca, Amy N; Mallak, Craig T; Pearse, Lisa; Lawnick, Mary M; Champion, Howard R; Wade, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    .... The authors hypothesized that the severity of wounds has increased over time. In this study, they examined cause of death looking for opportunities to improve clinical research and training for the battlefield...

  17. Deployment Injury Surveillance Summary, U.S. Army Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom Calendar Year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    proper sliding technique education for softball sliding injuries.(32) (e) Mouthguard use in sport activities where there is significant risk of...Vehicle Injury among Active Duty Army Personnel. Am J Prev Med. Vol. 18 No.3S: 85-95. 32. USACHPPM. 2005. Interventions to prevent softball related

  18. Child maltreatment among U.S. Air Force parents deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Colasanti, Marie P

    2015-02-01

    This study examined child maltreatment perpetration among 99,697 active-duty U.S. Air Force parents who completed a combat deployment. Using the deploying parent as the unit of analysis, we analyzed whether child maltreatment rates increased postdeployement relative to predeployment. These analyses extend previous research that used aggregate data and extend our previous work that used data from the same period but used the victim as the unit of analysis and included only deploying parents who engaged in child maltreatment. In this study, 2% (n = 1,746) of deploying parents perpetrated child maltreatment during the study period. Although no overall differences were found in child maltreatment rates postdeployment compared to predeployment, several maltreatment-related characteristics qualified this finding. Rates for emotional abuse and mild maltreatment were lower following deployment, whereas child maltreatment rates for severe maltreatment were higher following deployment. The finding that rates of severe child maltreatment, including incidents involving alcohol use, were higher postdeployment suggests a need for additional support services for parents following their return from combat deployment, with a focus on returning parents who have an alcohol use problem. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Preparing the American Soldier in a Brigade Combat Team to Conduct Information Operations in the Contemporary Operational Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beckno, Brian T

    2006-01-01

    ...) to conduct Information Operations (IO) in the Contemporary Operational Environment (COE). First, an explanation of IO and its Army applicability is presented using current examples from military operations in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF...

  20. An Operational Commander's Guide to the Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCartney, Michael

    2005-01-01

    ... of the embedded reporter . The Operational Commander is wise to review media relations and the successes and pitfalls of past conflicts, and to examine closely the results of Operation Iraqi Freedom so as to...

  1. Panel 6 -- Contracting for Support of Military Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenfield, Victoria; Dunn, Richard L; Parsons, Jeffrey P

    2007-01-01

    .... The conflicts include the American Revolution, the Mexican-American war, the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Balkans, Operation Desert Storm, and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Dr...

  2. Operation Iraqi Freedom 04 - 06: Opportunities to Apply Quantitative Methods to Intelligence Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, Eric C

    2005-01-01

    .... Today's threat is nondoctrinal and asymmetric. The means used to counter this threat are based on standardized equipment and capabilities, and they rely on template-based analysis and network diagrams...

  3. There When You Need Them? Defining Reliability in Army Contracting for Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, Samuel S

    2006-01-01

    .... A chart showing the numbers of civilians/contractors versus military personnel who served in the Civil War, World War I, World War II, Korean War, Vietnam War, Persian Gulf War, the Balkans War...

  4. Operation Iraqi Freedom 04 - 06: Opportunities to Apply Quantitative Methods to Intelligence Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, Eric C

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to illustrate the need for a quantitative analytical capability within organizations and staffs that provide intelligence analysis to Army, Joint, and Coalition Force headquarters...

  5. Repeated Concussion Among U.S. Military Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Dougherty Rosemary H. Morrison Kimberly H. Quinn Michael R. Galarneau Report No. 10-33 The views expressed in this article are those of the...medicine/surgery, physical or occupational ther- apy, audiology , and other. Data Analysis All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version...Surgery 663 29.7 231 20.1 Physical or Occupational Therapy 563 25.2 160 13.9 Mental Health 229 10.2 251 21.9 Neurology 167 7.5 69 6.0 Audiology 129 5.8 51

  6. Depleted uranium internal contamination of US soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during operation Iraqi freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaf Durakovic; Isaac Zimmerman; Axel Gerdes

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the concentration and precise isotopic composition and ratios of four uranium isotopes ( 234 U, 235 U, 236 U, and 238 U) in the urine of United States soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during the second Gulf War. Methods: Seven active duty US soldiers deployed as military police unit 442 presenting with non-specific symptoms of intractable headaches, excessive fatigue, intermittent fevers, musculoskeletal pains, respiratory impairment, affect changes, urinary tract symptoms, and neurological alterations were clinically evaluated. Each soldier signed a consent form to participate in our study. The collection of 24-hour urine samples of each subject was performed under controlled conditions. The urine samples were personally carried to the laboratory of the Institute of Geochemistry, JW Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate by multicollector inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Control samples consisting of an internal urine standard were also analyzed by the same procedure. The analytical methodology included pre-concentration of the urine samples using evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, uranium purification by ion-exchange chromatography, and analysis by mass spectrometry. The final analysis of the specimens was performed by using a double-focusing Thermo Finnigan Neptune multicollector ICP-MS equipped with retarding potential quadrupole lens and a secondary electron multiplier for ion counting. Results: The mean concentration of total uranium was 3.6±1.3 ng/L. The average 238 U/ 235 U ratio was 146.2±10.2. The ratio of 238 U/ 235 U, being considered as the single most important parameter in determining the quantitative state of depletion of the natural uranium ratio, demonstrates a significant internal contamination with depleted uranium in four soldiers. The 234 U/ 238 U ratio was 6.5 x 10 -5 ±5.7 x 10 -6 . The 236 U/ 238 U ratio was l.7 x 10 -7 ±1.9 x 10 -7 with a detectable presence of 236 U in all seven samples. Conclusions: Our previous studies reported that over fifty percent of British, Canadian, and United States Gulf War I veterans had depleted uranium in their urine nine years previous to exposure. DU was also found in the lung and bone of a deceased Canadian veteran. The consistency of our current findings compared with our previous data confirms contamination of the biosphere with isotopes of uranium as a consequence of DU ordnance in the modern battlefield. While it has been established that DU internal contamination presents a potential neurological, endocrine, reproductive, kidney, and mutagenic alterations, current controversy over the possible relationship of uranium dust in the environment and its potential health hazards warrants a need for sustained inter disciplinary research of the assessment of the post-conflict environment. Our current studies of plutonium isotopes analysis are in progress for the additional evaluation of the potential presence of other actinides in radioactive warfare. (authors)

  7. Injuries Sustained in Noncombat Motor Vehicle Accidents During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    pneumothorax , lung contusion, flail chest ). This finding, and whether it relates in any way to vehicle type, protective equipment worn, or MVA... Trauma Registry. The EMED is a deployment health database maintained by Naval Health Research Center (NHRC), in San Diego, California, and contains...accounted for a majority of all serious injuries. Upon further examination of the 22 serious torso injuries, approximately 40% were chest injuries (e.g

  8. Epidemiological Study of Mild Tramautic Brain Injury Sequelae Cause by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Principal Investigator September, 2008 20 (see: VCU sub- award) David X. Cifu, MD Co-Investigator September, 2008 5 (VCU sub-award) Jessica...proven reliability: Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR, pre- morbid IQ estimate),(Mathias, Bowden, Bigler, & Rosenfeld, 2007) Conners Continuous...II (CVLT-II) (learning and working memory),(Vanderploeg et al., 2005) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III) items: Digit Symbol Coding

  9. Observations from Oversight Organizations Impacting Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom Beginning FY 2003 Through FY 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    the base budget.41 41 USAAA Report No. A-2009-0188- FFM . 22 Chapter 2. Actions Taken by...Report No. A-2009-0212-FFS, “Requirements for Mobilized Soldiers,” September 17, 2009 Army Audit Agency Report No. A-2009-0188- FFM , “Assessing... FFM , “Assessing Future Base Budget Requirements, Manning Program Evaluation Group (FOUO),” March 3, 2009 32 Army Audit Agency Report No. A-2009

  10. Epidemiological Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae Caused by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Distribution Interview diagnosis of mTBI after blast Page 12 of 30 low certainty using 90% or higher confidence as the anchor for high certainty...n = 32), ankle (n = 19), and hip (n = 16) regions. Full results of each of the preliminary hierarchical linear regressions are presented in Table 2

  11. Operations planning for Space Station Freedom - And beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stephen S.; Martin, Thomas E.; Durham, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of automated planning and electronic execution systems for enhancing operations on board Space Station Freedom (SSF) are discussed. To exploit this potential the Operations Planning and Scheduling Subsystem is being developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Such systems may also make valuable contributions to the operation of resource-constrained, long-duration space habitats of the future. Points that should be considered during the design of future long-duration manned space missions are discussed. Early development of a detailed operations concept as an end-to-end mission description offers a basis for iterative design evaluation, refinement, and option comparison, particularly when used with an advanced operations planning system capable of modeling the operations and resource constraints of the proposed designs.

  12. Maximum Flexibility: Enhancing the Operational Employment of High Speed Sealift

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulcahy, Francis S

    2004-01-01

    .... Already, the performance of the HSV-1X Joint Venture and similar ships during Operation Iraqi Freedom has made many stand up and take notice of the capabilities these vessels bring to the warfighter...

  13. Net-Centric Sustainment and Operational Reach on the Modern Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Halliday, Marc L. Robbins , and Kenneth J. Girardini. "Sustainment of Army Forces in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Battlefield Logistics and Effects on Operations... Robbins , Kenneth J. Girardini, Rick Eden, John M. Halliday, and Jeffrey Angers. "Operation Iraqi Freedom: Major Findings and Recommendations...Timothy P. Williams, Tony R. Sherrill, Amy R. McGrath, Morris G. Hayes, Antoniette C. McGrady, and John M. Sheckler. "Logistics Command and Control

  14. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  15. Testing and Demonstrating Speaker Verification Technology in Iraqi-Arabic as Part of the Iraqi Enrollment Via Voice Authentication Project (IEVAP) in Support of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Withee, Jeffrey W; Pena, Edwin D

    2007-01-01

    This thesis documents the findings of an Iraqi-Arabic language test and concept of operations for speaker verification technology as part of the Iraqi Banking System in support of the Iraqi Enrollment...

  16. Technical refolding of proteins: Do we have freedom to operate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiberle, Maria K; Jungbauer, Alois

    2010-06-01

    Expression as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli is a widely used method for the large-scale production of therapeutic proteins that do not require post-translational modifications. High expression yields and simple recovery steps of inclusion bodies from the host cells are attractive features industrially. However, the value of an inclusion body-based process is dominated by the solubilization and refolding technologies. Scale-invariant technologies that are economical and applicable for a wide range of proteins are requested by industry. The main challenge is to convert the denatured protein into its native conformation at high yields. Refolding competes with misfolding and aggregation. Thus, the yield of native monomer depends strongly on the initial protein concentrations in the refolding solution. Reasonable yields are attained at low concentrations (freedom to operate.

  17. Deployment Surveillance Summary, U.S. Army Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn/Operation Enduring Freedom, 2011. Injury Prevention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    d) Breakaway bases, recessed bases, and proper sliding technique education for softball and baseball sliding injuries.(31) (e...327. 31. Pollack K, Canham-Chervak M, Gazal-Carvalho C, Jones B, Baker S. 2005. Interventions to prevent softball related injuries: a review

  18. Operational Cost Analysis of Dental Emergencies for Deployed U.S. Army Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    D7903 09110 "’ t:>.. Totally Avulsed Tooth DO 140/00220 07270/09110 I ~ - Periodontal Abscess DO 140/00220/07 510 Tooth or Restoration in DO 140/09970...c:: Hyperocclusion 0 Periradicular Abscess DO 140/D0220 ::t. D0230D7510 ~ t"" -3 ;l>- ::e -< ~ ~ Periradicular Periodontitis DO 140/D0220...DOI40/D7510 Candidiasis DO 140/D91 10 Defective Restoration-No DO I40/D0220 Infection- Periodontal D9910 Caries 0991 0/02150 Anatomic Space 00140/07510

  19. Learning from Our Military History: The United States Army, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and the Potential for Operational Art and Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    relationships, etc. 63For a philosophical and academic argument against EBO/EBAO, see Tim Challans, “Tipping Sacred Cows: Moral Potential Through...Springer, Fort Bliss , TX, 3 March 2011; BC020, Interview; BG060, Battalion Commander, Interview by Mark Battjes, Fort Stewart, GA, 15 March 2011. A...Interview; BE060, Interview; BC020, Interview; BB020, Battalion Commander, Interview by Mark Battjes and Nathan Springer, Fort Bliss , TX, 2 March

  20. Increasing Marital Satisfaction as a Resilience Factor among Active Duty Members and Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Warren N.; Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Granvold, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Supportive relationships are protective against a number of prevalent health risks among military populations, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Increasing marital satisfaction and strengthening that relationship is an important avenue for maintaining health among returning service members and their families. The current study builds upon…

  1. United States Marine Corps Post-Cold War Evolutionary Efforts: Implications for a Post-Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Clausewitz, then Maneuver Warfare is John Boyd flavored with Sun Tzu for the Marine Corps. Maneuver is not simply movement but a two dimensional......colorful life.63 63 Krulak, First to Fight, 226. 44 Bibliography Bassford, Christopher

  2. Alterations in autobiographical memory for a blast event in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Daniela J; Kapson, Heather S; Lafleche, Ginette; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Marx, Brian P; Franz, Molly; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-07-01

    Although loss of consciousness associated with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is thought to interfere with encoding of the TBI event, little is known about the effects of mild TBI (mTBI), which typically involves only transient disruption in consciousness. Blast-exposed Afghanistan and Iraq War veterans were asked to recall the blast event. Participants were stratified based on whether the blast was associated with probable mTBI (n = 50) or not (n = 25). Narratives were scored for organizational structure (i.e., coherence) using the Narrative Coherence Coding Scheme (Reese et al., 2011) and episodic recollection using the Autobiographical Interview Coding Procedures (Levine et al., 2002). The mTBI group produced narratives that were less coherent but contained more episodic details than those of the no-TBI group. These results suggest that mTBI interferes with the organizational quality of memory in a manner that is independent of episodic detail generation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Ten-Year Analysis of Transfusion in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: Increased Plasma and Platelet Use Correlates with Improved Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Fahrenheit (-F), base deficit, hemoglobin, and PLT count. Subjects were only included in the analysis of vital signs or laboratory para- meters if...1,156 49 1,005 84 Burn 20 G1 11 G1 Service branch 2,430 1,202 Air Force, % 20 G1 31 3 Army, % 1,840 76 688 57 Marines, % 520 21 451 38 Navy, % 50 2 32 3

  4. High-intensity sports for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: feasibility study of ocean therapy with veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carly M; Mallinson, Trudy; Peppers, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a pretest-posttest investigation of a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention using surfing in an experiential, skills-based program to support veterans with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their transition to civilian life. The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the intervention for attendance rates and retention in the program provided in 5 sessions over 5 wk. Fourteen veterans from a specialty postdeployment clinic at a Veterans Affairs hospital were enrolled; 11 completed the study, and 10 attended ≥3 sessions. Participants reported clinically meaningful improvement in PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Checklist-Military Version, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.5, p = .01) and in depressive symptoms (Major Depression Inventory, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.05, p = .04). The results of this small, uncontrolled study suggest that a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention has potential as a feasible adjunct intervention for veterans seeking mental health treatment for symptoms of PTSD. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Estimation of the Joint Patient Condition Occurrence Frequencies from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Volume I: Development of Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    Chest PCOF Vol. 1: Development of Methodology 18 Supplemented BM To more accurately describe combat trauma , a slight modification was made to the BM... Pneumothorax without Open Wound into Thorax INTERNAL ORGAN CHEST 860.1 Traumatic Pneumothorax with open Wound into Thorax INTERNAL ORGAN CHEST ...with Open Wound into Thorax INTERNAL ORGAN CHEST PCOF Vol. 1: Development of Methodology 31 DMMPO ICD-9 codes Trauma category Anatomical location

  6. Manually operated pile driver for use in the south Iraqi Marshlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthropizations are necessary to implement the maintenance, recovery and utilization of wetlands. These interventions should be sustainable in every sense, in particular they should be marked by a low environmental impact. In general this aim can be achieved by using natural materials and carrying out procedures minimally invasive. In Developing Countries the latter point is often supported by the lack of equipment and energy availability, normally obtainable in Industrialized Countries. In practice, to build micro-infrastructures with the above said characteristics, it is normally necessary to drive poles, in our case in wood, in marshland’s soil. In order to accomplish this task a manually operated pile driver was designed and built. To operate in the water, a floating pier consisting of removable modular elements was also designed.

  7. Air Force Military Personnel Entitlement Pay in Support of Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    Report No. A-2006-0067- FFM , “Military Pay for Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Active Components,” April 5, 2006 U.S. Army Audit...Agency Report No. A-2006-0079- FFM , “Material Weakness Closeout on Line of Duty and Incapacitation Pay,” March 8, 2006 22B22BAir Force Air Force

  8. The US Army in Kirkuk: Governance Operations on the Fault Lines of Iraqi Society, 2003-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    point 16 repeatedly to the Baathist regime’s de-Kurdification of Kirkuk as prima facie justification for returning control of the city to the Kurds...Americans had a quid pro quo obligation to help them get their land back from the 10,000 squatting Arabs.23 Patrick Clawson of the Middle East Quarterly...beginning of the campaign, US Soldiers were gradu- ally passing these obligations to Iraqi government officials to manage their own internal and external

  9. Reliability Analysis and Modeling of the U.S. Marine Corps Medium Tactical Wheeled Vehicle in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reuter, Matthew B

    2007-01-01

    .... Analysis and modeling of this repairable system's failure modes are conducted at the MTVR variant, major unit, armored status, and subsystem levels to develop an understanding of the vehicle's usage...

  10. Managing Transitions: Examining the Institutional Army’s Transformation Following the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    glance at the Middle East, especially the security of Israel and the access routes to the Persian Gulf oil .57...Anti-Air Defense (PVO-S) consisted of crudely developed aircraft, and minimally-trained pilots. Their aircraft consisted of Su-9, Su-15 and...doing so, the Army distilled the 2008 version of FM 3-0 into five simple rules. Army forces would win on the offense, initiate

  11. Redefining Projections of Disease and Nonbattle Injury Patient Condition Code Distributions with Casualty Data from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-30

    2.48% 3.12% 198 Inguinal hernia complicated direct or indirect sliding incarceration of bowel 1.40% 1.76% 199 Inguinal hernia uncomplicated direct...1.10% 0.00% 293 Pelvic inflammatory disease all cases 1.63% 0.00% 294 Cervicitis endocervicitis with symptomatic leukorrhea 11.21% 0.00% 295

  12. Strategic Calculation in Estonia’s Decision to Enter the Coalition of the Willing for Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    bandwagon , that is, ally with the state that poses the major threat in order to protect their own security. If balancing, then states are more secure...because aggressors face combined opposition. If bandwagoning , then security is scarce because aggression is rewarded.4 Balance of power theorists...Transformed: Complexity Theory and European Security (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2001), 6. 10 establish an effective Baltic

  13. Using the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism to Determine Objectives and End States for Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, the debate in the government and especially inside the administration indicates that there is little agreement upon the relationship between the conflict in Iraq and the War on Terror...

  14. The Role of Media Coverage in Meeting Operational Objectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell-Musumarra, Mary

    2003-01-01

    ...: Operation Desert Storm, Operation Restore Hope (Somalia) and Operation Iraqi Freedom. It describes some of the motivations and concerns of the news media, and examines doctrine from the perspective of the media's requirements for information. Finally, recommendations are made to improve future media coverage of operations.

  15. Evaluating the operations capability of Freedom's Data Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowizral, Henry A.

    1990-01-01

    Three areas of Data Management System (DMS) performance are examined: raw processor speed, the subjective speed of the Lynx OS X-Window system, and the operational capacity of the Runtime Object Database (RODB). It is concluded that the proposed processor will operate at its specified rate of speed and that the X-Window system operates within users' subjective needs. It is also concluded that the RODB cannot provide the required level of service, even with a two-order of magnitude (100 fold) improvement in speed.

  16. Occupation Iraqi Freedom: The Importance of Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caston, Christine J

    2007-01-01

    ... [could] freely determine their own political future. Despite the lack of an effective occupation plan to integrate the national instruments of power required to accomplish the objective, these new responsibilities would have to be...

  17. Space Station Freedom assembly and operation at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, Patrick A.; Brewer, Laura M.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the implications of assembling and operating Space Station Freedom at a 51.6 degree inclination orbit utilizing an enhanced lift Space Shuttle. Freedom assembly is currently baselined at a 220 nautical mile high, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. Some of the reasons for increasing the orbital inclination are (1) increased ground coverage for Earth observations, (2) greater accessibility from Russian and other international launch sites, and (3) increased number of Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) landing sites. Previous studies have looked at assembling Freedom at a higher inclination using both medium and heavy lift expendable launch vehicles (such as Shuttle-C and Energia). The study assumes that the shuttle is used exclusively for delivering the station to orbit and that it can gain additional payload capability from design changes such as a lighter external tank that somewhat offsets the performance decrease that occurs when the shuttle is launched to a 51.6 degree inclination orbit.

  18. CUTTING THE CORD: SUSTAINING UNTETHERED AIR SUPERIORITY OPERATIONS IN THE PACIFIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CUTTING THE CORD: SUSTAINING UNTETHERED AIR SUPERIORITY OPERATIONS IN THE PACIFIC...advanced their weapons systems may be. Since the end of the Cold War, the USAF has generated sorties from main operating bases ( MOB ) in support of...Operations Desert Storm, Allied Force, Enduring Freedom, and Iraqi Freedom. MOBs in rear sanctuaries allow aircraft to operate safely from enemy attack

  19. Dynamics of Interagency Cooperation Process at Provincial Reconstruction Team in Operations ISAF and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    products to review what is known already about the interagency cooperation process at PRT level in operations Enduring Freedom and ISAF. The...Patricia Thomson, A Framework for Success: International Intervention in Societies Emerging from Conflict, Leashing the Dogs of War U.S. Institute...in detail in Chapter 4, the authors reported the experiences of PRTs manned by Canada, Germany, Italy, Lithuania , UK and USA. Four sections cover the

  20. Procurement Integrity in Contingency Operations: A Case Study of Army Contracting Officer Corruption in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom Utilizing Occupational Fraud Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Army CCOs (Majors Momon, Murray, and Pressley), while another (Major Davis) committed suicide after confessing to an Army investigator that she had...result was an Army contracting workforce that was “understaffed, overworked , under-trained, under-supported, and … most importantly, under-valued...Congress, noted that the fraud which occurred in OIF and OEF was in large part due to “the lack of oversight and being overworked , a small office with

  1. Operation Iraqi Freedom: DOD Should Apply Lessons Learned Concerning the Need for Security over Conventional Munitions Storage Sites to Future Operations Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Davi M

    2007-01-01

    The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is releasing a report today on lessons learned concerning the need for security over conventional munitions storage sites that provides the basis for this testimony...

  2. Aproach study of freedom to operate for transgenic line rice in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a genetically modified variety (GM is a scientific and legal challenge, by genetic engineering techniques used and the intellectual property rights (IPR involved. Approximate analysis of freedom of operation for a GM line derived from a Colombian rice variety, express an optimized version of the cry1Ac gene; in order to pursue their commercial release in Colombia was made. To do this, a deconstruction of innovation, which potentially protectable elements DPI on which patent searches and patent applications were made in the national and international context, databases were determined public access was performed. 59 patents and patent applications were found in the international arena. The Superintendency of Industry and Trade of Colombia (SIC three applications for patents that may affect the freedom of operation for this innovation were found. It is concluded that the higher the possibility of developing a GM rice line expressing cry1Ac gene without affecting the interest of third parties , as long as it is done in the country to commercialize.

  3. Freedom-to-operate analysis of a transgenic multivitamin corn variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanga, Daniela; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul; Thangaraj, Harry

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we explore the intellectual property (IP) landscape relevant to the production and commercialization of Carolight(™) , a transgenic multivitamin corn variety created on humanitarian grounds to address micronutrient deficiencies in low-and-middle-income countries. The successful production of this variety requires IP rights risk management because there is a strong protection on inventions and processes via patent portfolios in both developing and industrialized countries. The IP framework is complex, and specialist patent lawyers are usually employed to perform such analysis, but the costs cannot always be met by small, publicly funded projects. We report an alternative strategy, a do-it-yourself patent analysis, to produce a review with limited legal value that can nevertheless lay the foundations for a subsequent more in-depth professional freedom-to-operate opinion. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Autonomous rendezvous and docking operations of unmanned expendable cargo transfer vehicles (e.g. Centaur) with Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet, Brian R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the feasibility study using Centaur or other CTV's to deliver payloads to the Space Station Freedom (SSF). During this study was examined the requirements upon unmanned cargo transfer stages (including Centaur) for phasing, rendezvous, proximity operations and docking/berthing (capture).

  5. Aviator's night vision system (ANVIS) in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF): user acceptability survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Trollman, Christopher J.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2010-04-01

    In 1973, the U.S. Army adopted night vision devices for use in the aviation environment. These devices are based on the principle of image intensification (I2) and have become the mainstay for the aviator's capability to operate during periods of low illumination, i.e., at night. In the nearly four decades that have followed, a number of engineering advancements have significantly improved the performance of these devices. The current version, using 3rd generation I2 technology is known as the Aviator's Night Vision Imaging System (ANVIS). While considerable experience with performance has been gained during training and peacetime operations, no previous studies have looked at user acceptability and performance issues in a combat environment. This study was designed to compare Army Aircrew experiences in a combat environment to currently available information in the published literature (all peacetime laboratory and field training studies) and to determine if the latter is valid. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess aircrew satisfaction with the ANVIS and any visual performance issues or problems relating to its use in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). The study consisted of an anonymous survey (based on previous validated surveys used in the laboratory and training environments) of 86 Aircrew members (64% Rated and 36% Non-rated) of an Aviation Task Force approximately 6 months into their OEF deployment. This group represents an aggregate of >94,000 flight hours of which ~22,000 are ANVIS and ~16,000 during this deployment. Overall user acceptability of ANVIS in a combat environment will be discussed.

  6. What pre-deployment and early post-deployment factors predict health function after combat deployment?: a prospective longitudinal study of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Lisa M; D'Andrea, Elizabeth; Lu, Shou-En; Abbi, Bhavna; Yan, Grace W; Engel, Charles; Quigley, Karen S

    2013-04-30

    Physical and mental function are strong indicators of disability and mortality. OEF/OIF Veterans returning from deployment have been found to have poorer function than soldiers who have not deployed; however the reasons for this are unknown. A prospective cohort of 790 soldiers was assessed both pre- and immediately after deployment to determine predictors of physical and mental function after war. On average, OEF/OIF Veterans showed significant declines in both physical (t=6.65, pfunction (t=7.11, pdeployment function, poorer physical function after deployment was associated with older age, more physical symptoms, blunted systolic blood pressure reactivity and being injured. After controlling for pre-deployment function, poorer mental function after deployment was associated with younger age, lower social desirability, lower social support, greater physical symptoms and greater PTSD symptoms. Combat deployment was associated with an immediate decline in both mental and physical function. The relationship of combat deployment to function is complex and influenced by demographic, psychosocial, physiological and experiential factors. Social support and physical symptoms emerged as potentially modifiable factors.

  7. IRAQI BUFFALO NOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kh. ALsaedy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloes in Iraq represent the most productive animal since its domestication in Mesopotamia about pre-historic era recently, domesticated buffaloes all over country go through drastic factors from (1980_2006, such as (gulf wars, marsh drainage, rinder pest plaque, economic blockade which are attributed to widely changes in animal environment ,geographical sites, and dangerous decline in buffalo population accompanied by reduced fertility and feed shortage, resulted in switch of buffalo raising and started to work on another easy jobs .lastly American war in 2003 lead to marsh return and finally ethnic-fighting release, so thousands of buffalo breeders (Madan started a big mass moving from hot-spot area around Baghdad countryside villages nearer to conflicting sectors in Anbar and sallah aldin provinces towards southern marshes (natural habitats before along time. This new theater encouraged Iraqi government represented by Ministry of agriculture through three involved companies to put strategic plane for buffalo development in future.

  8. Live from the Battlefield: An Examination of Embedded War Correspondents’ Reporting during Operation Iraqi Freedom (21 March-14 April 2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    correspondent best remembered for the Spanish American War, James Creelman . (Knightley, 1975) Creelman , who worked for the Journal, actually led a...important responsibility in the matter of psychological warfare.” (Knightley, 1975) The voluntary code of war reporting caused confusion among the...away with a clear understanding of the physical, emotional, and psychological demands that war will have on the military. I think the military walks

  9. The Fight for the High Ground: The U.S. Army and Interrogation during Operation Iraqi Freedom I, May 2003-April 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Captain Wood has stated that she " plagiarized " the interrogation policy of TF 121 (according to news reporting, the name of this SMU task force at...the time of her plagiarization ) to create a draft interrogation policy for her own interrogators at Abu Ghraib. 85 She then submitted this draft...29 Ibid. 30 Lieutenant Colonel Dean Bland, The Abu Ghraib Scandal: Impact on the Army Profession and the Intelligence Process, Academic Research

  10. American Military Barrier War Paint, Camp Buehring, Kuwait: A Discovery of Troop Identity, Values, and Warfighting Attributes as They Deployed into Combat for Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-21

    some basic elements common to knowledgeable experts in the field. Dr. Terry Barrett teaches art education at the University of North Texas, is...such as “King Size,” “Cream of the Crop,” “Over Exposed.”34 However, comic -strip characters such as Sad Sac and Lonesome Polecat were also widely...author is not an art historian or curator, nor does he have formal art education . Further, the author does not consider himself to be a proficient

  11. Fresh whole blood transfusions in coalition military, foreign national, and enemy combatant patients during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a U.S. combat support hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Philip C; Perkins, Jeremy G; Grathwohl, Kurt W; Repine, Thomas; Beekley, Alec C; Sebesta, James; Jenkins, Donald; Azarow, Kenneth; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    United States military doctrine permits the use of fresh whole blood (FWB), donated by U.S. military personnel on site, for casualties with life-threatening injuries at combat support hospitals. U.S. Military Medical Department policy dictates that all patients treated at military facilities during combat (coalition military personnel, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants) are to be treated equally. The objectives of this study were to describe admission vital signs and laboratory values and injury location for patients transfused with FWB, and to determine if FWB was employed equally among all patient personnel categories at a combat support hospital. This retrospective cohort study evaluated admission vital signs and laboratory values, injury location, and personnel category for all patients receiving FWB at a U.S. Army combat support hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, between January and December 2004. Eighty-seven patients received 545 units of FWB. Upon admission, the average (+/-S.D.) heart rate was 144 bpm (+/-25); systolic blood pressure, 106 mmHg (+/-33); base deficit, 9 (+/-6.5); hemoglobin, 9.0 g/dl (+/-2.6); platelet concentration, 81.9 x 10(3)/mm(3) (+/-81); international normalized ratio (INR), 2.0 (+/-1.1); and temperature 95.7 degrees F (+/-2.6). The percentages of intensive care patients who received FWB by personnel category were as follows: coalition soldiers, 51/592 (8.6%); foreign nationals, 25/347 (7.2%); and enemy combatants, 11/128 (8.5% (p = 0.38). The amount of FWB transfused by personnel category was as follows: coalition soldier, 4 units (1-35); foreign national, 4 units (1-36); and enemy combatant, 4 units (1-11) (p = 0.9). Fresh whole blood was used for anemic, acidemic, hypothermic, coagulopathic patients with life-threatening traumatic injuries in hemorrhagic shock, and it was transfused in equal percentages and amounts for coalition soldiers, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants.

  12. Asymptotic freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.

    1978-01-01

    After having established the renormalization group equations and the possibilities of fixed points for the effective coupling constants the non abelian gauge theories are shown to have the property of asymptotic freedom. These results are applied to the colour gauge group of the strong interactions of quarks and gluons. The behavior of the moments of the structure functions of the deep inelastic scattering of leptons on nucleons (scaling and its logarithmic violations) is then deduced with using the Wilson's operator product expansion [fr

  13. Operant conditioning of a multiple degree-of-freedom brain-machine interface in a primate model of amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Southerland, Joshua; Vaidya, Mukta; Qian, Kai; Eleryan, Ahmed; Fagg, Andrew H; Sluzky, Marc; Oweiss, Karim; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Operant conditioning with biofeedback has been shown to be an effective method to modify neural activity to generate goal-directed actions in a brain-machine interface. It is particularly useful when neural activity cannot be mathematically mapped to motor actions of the actual body such as in the case of amputation. Here, we implement an operant conditioning approach with visual feedback in which an amputated monkey is trained to control a multiple degree-of-freedom robot to perform a reach-to-grasp behavior. A key innovation is that each controlled dimension represents a behaviorally relevant synergy among a set of joint degrees-of-freedom. We present a number of behavioral metrics by which to assess improvements in BMI control with exposure to the system. The use of non-human primates with chronic amputation is arguably the most clinically-relevant model of human amputation that could have direct implications for developing a neural prosthesis to treat humans with missing upper limbs.

  14. The EU should help Iraqi refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Carlsson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available There are strong humanitarian reasons and close ties that underpin a Swedish commitment to Iraq. More than 100,000 Iraqis are living in Sweden and the numbers are rising. Europe could do more to provide humanitarian assistance and assist Iraqi refugees.

  15. 31 CFR 575.311 - Iraqi origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iraqi origin. 575.311 Section 575.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Government of Iraq, or of a business entity located in Iraq. Services of Iraqi origin are not imported into...

  16. Department of Defense Environmental Policy in Afghanistan During Operation Enduring Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loertscher, Steven G

    2008-01-01

    Since the September 11, 2001 terror attacks on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center, the United States has conducted military operations in Afghanistan, a nation whose environment has been ravaged...

  17. Marine Corps Interwar Period Innovation and Implications for the Upcoming Post Operation Enduring Freedom Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    performance of the Pacific force’s landing operations became clear. African, Sicilian, and Italian landings suffered from hitches and delays stemming...December 2012, 10-15. Hawkins, Brian. "Amphibious Renaissance ." Marine Corps Gazette, February 2013, 64-68. Heinl, Robert Debs. Soldiers of the Sea

  18. Iraqi Refugees in Jordan: Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    OLWAN, Mohamed Y.

    2009-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Jordan has traditionally been one of the regions most welcoming countries toward Iraqis. The country received several flows of Iraqis during the last four decades, but most of Iraqis residing in Jordan fled the precarious situation prevailing in Iraq following the U.S. –led invasion of Iraq in March 2003. Jordan is not a party to the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refuges or the 1967 Protocol on Refugee...

  19. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 1 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M; Lacey, James

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  20. Network Centric Warfare Case Study: U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) During Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Operations (Mar-Apr 2003). Volume 2: Command, Control, Communications and Computer Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cogan, Kevin J; De Lucio, Ray

    2003-01-01

    ...), which hypothesizes that a robustly networked force improves information sharing, collaboration, quality of information, and shared situational awareness resulting in significantly increased mission effectiveness...

  1. Network Centric Warfare Case Study: U.S. V Corps and 3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) During Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Operations (Mar-Apr 2003). Volume 3. Network Centric Warfare Insights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tisserand, III, John B

    2003-01-01

    ...), which hypothesizes that a robustly networked force improves information sharing, collaboration, quality of information, and shared situational awareness resulting in significantly increased mission effectiveness...

  2. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  3. The Iraqi civil registration system and the test of political upheaval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Bah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An in-depth situation analysis was carried out on the Iraqi civil registration system in 2011, years after the end of the military operation of 2003. The study was done using a combination of methods, including interviews with key role players in the Iraqi civil registration system, observation, study of documents, triangulation, and gap analysis. The study found the civil registration system in Iraq to be largely intact and functional, in spite of the wars experienced in Iraq over the past three decades. Given that civil registration systems generally get destroyed through wars, the paper discusses the reasons for the resilience in the Iraqi civil registration system and draws lessons from them.

  4. Complex Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Pecnjak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We have a very strong intuition and a very strong feeling that we, as human beings, generally have freedom of the will and freedom of the action. It seems that in most situations we can do this or that; namely, we can do action A or we can refrain from doing action A under the same conditions. The view which argues that this is not an illusion and that we have genuine freedom is the libertarian view. I would like to examine could that view be plausible under scientific understanding of the world. It seems that physical sciences strongly support determinism. Chaos theory and indeterminism in quantum mechanics could not save freedom because chaos is a deterministic theory and indeterminate events in quantum mechanics happen by pure chance. Pure chance is not something we want as freedom. But, perhaps, we can have freedom reconciled (although maybe in a restricted form if actions or decisions can be described by equations which allow more than one solution and if these solutions can be interpreted as refering to different contents of the will or to different actions.

  5. Quality Assurance for Iraqi Bottled Water Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May George Kassir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are

  6. Declaration of Academic Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÇETİNSAYA

    2014-04-01

    , despised or labeled by academics and other students due to their own opinions, stances, attitudes and differences. No student should be subjected to discrimination due to his or her worldviews. Assessment and evaluation of the students must be based solely on the content and the subject of the lectures. Students have the right to object if they think the evaluations or assessments are unfair. 8. Every person in the university has academic freedom. Just as academics and students, guests invited to the university also possess the right of freedom of expression. The guests who visit the university for academic, cultural and sportive events or activities should be welcomed appropriately, should not be deprived of their freedom of expression due to their political thoughts or identities, and should not be prevented by the academics or students because of their different views. The freedom of expression is also valid for the people with opposite views. People with opposite views can express themselves in various ways as long as they do not violate the guests' rights to express themselves and others' rights to listen to them. 9. Both students and academics have the right to criticize and protest when there is a subject they disapprove or reject. However, this right cannot interrupt the operation of academic activities and the organization of the university. Any action, occupying and protesting that restricts the students' freedom of learning, academics' freedom of teaching, and freedom of expressing an opinion in the university setting is a violation of academic freedom. Freedom of expression is a necessary condition of pluralism, tolerance, and open-mindness as well as of democratic society; but it is not absolute. Any discourse ignoring the individual rights and freedoms; including insult, slander, contempt or abuse and prompting rebellion and pointing the individuals and groups as a target in order to harm them overtly due to their difference can never comply with the freedom

  7. Iraqi architecture in mogul period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Shatha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi architecture have many periods passed through it until now, each on from these periods have it is architectural style, also through time these styles interacted among us, to creating kind of space forming, space relationships, and architectural elements (detailed treatments, the research problem being from the multi interacted architectural styles causing some of confused of general characteristic to every style, that we could distinguish by it. Research tries to study architecture style through Mogul Conquest to Baghdad. Aim of research follow main characteristic for this architectural style in the Mogul periods on the level of form, elements, and treatments. Research depending on descriptive and analytical all buildings belong to this period, so from analyzing there style by, general form for building, architectural elements, and it architectural treatment, therefore; repeating this procedures to every building we get some similarities, from these similarities we can making conclusion about pure characteristic of the style of these period. Other side, we also discover some Dissimilar in the building periods, these will lead research to make what interacting among styles in this period, after all that we can drew clearly main characteristic of Architectural Style for Mogul Conquest in Baghdad

  8. National E-Learning Strategy to Enhance and Enrich the Iraqi Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elameer, Amer Saleem; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the HE (higher education) sector of Iraq has suffered severe disruption and mass destruction due to the war and, in general, only 10% of its remaining operational sectors are in the acceptable conditions. This research is an attempt to plan a PS (proposed strategy) for the Iraqi HE sector that can be executed easily in Iraq as a part of…

  9. Semiotic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2008-01-01

    ), but stress also their necessity in the study of any given biological and cognitive system. I draw a distinction between horizontal and vertical emergence in order to arrive at a notion of ‘second order emergence' that affords us a more viable definition of semiotic freedom. I will then attempt to show......The emergence of organic, metabolic, cognitive and cultural codes points us to the need for a new kind of explanatory causality, and a different kind of bio-logic - one dependent on, but different from, the deterministic logic derived from mechanical causality, and one which can account...... for the increase in semiotic freedom which is evident in the biological hierarchy. Building upon previous work (Bruni 2003), in this article I provide a stipulative definition of semiotic freedom and its relation to causality in biological and cognitive systems. To do so, I will first discuss the close relation...

  10. Intellectual Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  11. Iraqi Refugee High School Students' Academic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Many Iraqi refugee students in the United States suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as acculturation stresses. These stresses often create challenges for their integration into U.S. schools. The project explored risk factors such as the length of educational gaps in transit, PTSD, and separation and marginalization…

  12. Homogeneity in Social Groups of Iraqis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresham, J.; Saleh, F.; Majid, S.

    With appreciation to the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies for initiating the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, this paper summarizes findings on homogeneity in community-level social groups derived from inter-ethnic research conducted during 2005 among Iraqi Arabs and Kurds

  13. Iraqi Navy: Capability Requirements and Force Structure Recommendations for 2015 and Beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawlor, Alison C; Thompson, Eric V

    2008-01-01

    .... The goal of this study is two-fold: to provide Iraqi and Coalition personnel with a common assessment of capability requirements and force structure recommendations for the Iraqi Navy, and to provide the Iraqi Navy leadership...

  14. 'Jail break' made by Iraqi oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of Iran's policy turn-about of allowing ships smuggling Iraqi crude oil to sail through its coastal waters, out of reach of UN and US ships patrolling the Persian Gulf, are discussed. It is suspected that the change in Iranian policy may be due to the fact that an infusion of Iraqi oil on the international markets would suit Iran's purposes by reducing the need for OPEC to raise production quotas. Iran is known to be opposed to an increase of production by OPEC members. At the same time, developments in US-Iranian relations and in the international oil market also have to be considered as factors influencing the Iranian position on this issue

  15. Skin Colour Analysis of Iraqi Kurdish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Zardawi, Faraedon M; Xiao, Kaida; Yates, Julian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skin colour measurement and analysis was performed for Iraqi Kurdish population in sulaimani city. The purpose of this study was to produce a dedicated skin shade guide for precise colour reproduction and colour matching of maxillofacial prostheses with the patient’s original skin colour. Methodology: A skin colour measurement was undertaken for 140 subjects (73 female and 67 male). A method of capturing their (L* a* b*) colour values from nine body parts was performed using a Mi...

  16. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 2 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  17. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 5 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  18. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 3 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  19. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 4 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  20. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2007-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately 2 million Iraqis who have been displaced within Iraq itself...

  1. Neurosurgery in Iraqi Kurdistan: An Example of International Neurosurgery Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossani, Rimal Hanif; Carr, Steven; Bolles, Gene; Balata, Razvan; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2016-08-01

    The medical infrastructure of Iraqi Kurdistan, a semiautonomous region in the northern part of Iraq, lags disproportionately behind relative to the otherwise booming industrial advances of the region. Although neurosurgical training is available, the local population lacks trust in its own neurosurgeons. Medical facilities suffer from a lack of basic resources, such as high-speed drills, intracranial pressure monitoring, and stereotaxy to care for neurosurgical patients. Since 2012, American volunteer neurosurgeons have delivered lectures and mentored local neurosurgeons in performing neurosurgical procedures. Over the last 4 years, the visiting neurosurgical team has seen hundreds of patients in consultation and performed more than 50 complex cranial and spinal operations jointly with local neurosurgeons. This article discusses our experience as volunteer neurosurgeons in building neurosurgical capacity in Iraqi Kurdistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecosystem-based management of a Mediterranean urban wastewater system: a sensitivity analysis of the operational degrees of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Lluís; Neumann, Marc B

    2014-10-01

    Urban wastewater systems discharge organic matter, nutrients and other pollutants (including toxic substances) to receiving waters, even after removing more than 90% of incoming pollutants from human activities. Understanding their interactions with the receiving water bodies is essential for the implementation of ecosystem-based management strategies. Using mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis we quantified how 19 operational variables of an urban wastewater system affect river water quality. The mathematical model of the Congost system (in the Besòs catchment, Spain) characterizes the dynamic interactions between sewers, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants and the river. The sensitivity analysis shows that the use of storage tanks for peak shaving and the use of a connection between two neighboring wastewater treatment plants are the most important factors influencing river water quality. We study how the sensitivity of the water quality variables towards changes in the operational variables varies along the river due to discharge locations and river self-purification processes. We demonstrate how to use the approach to identify interactions and how to discard non-influential operational variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Iraqi oil industry slowly returning to normal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Iraq is making progress in putting its battered petroleum industry back together 1 1/2 years after the Persian Gulf war ended. OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported the finish of reconstruction of Iraq's Mina al-Bakr oil terminal on the northern tip of the Persian Gulf, using Iraqi know-how and engineering personnel. The terminal, heavily damaged during the gulf conflict, has been restored to its prewar loading capacity of 1.6 million b/d at a cost of $16 million. Ninety per cent of the port had been damaged

  4. Some wholesomeness studies on irradiated Iraqi dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Rawi, A.M.; Hamoudi, H.I.

    1981-01-01

    Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Khestawi) were irradiated at different dose levels (0 to 1500 krad) to extend their shelf-lives. Samples irradiated at 150 krad showed no change in the behaviour studies of tested Swiss albino mice. Fungi were found to have a constant rate of growth on the syrup irradiated dates. Chemical products such as malondialdehyde, deoxy sugars, acids and reducing sugars were quantified. In conclusion, 150 krad is a convenient dose to extend the shelf-lives of the tested dates and is therefore recommended. (author)

  5. Iraqi violence, Saudi attack and further bombings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-03-15

    Iraq moved closer to all-out civil war following an attack on the Imam Ali al-Hadi mosque in Samarra, one of Shi'i Islam's holiest shrines, on 22nd February. In the days that followed, several hundred Iraqis died in inter-communal violence. Attacks on installations close to the Basrah Oil Terminal were reported. Earlier in the month, the main oil storage facility in Kirkuk was bombed, forcing the Northern Oil Company to shut-in the 0.3 mn bpd field. Oil and electricity supplies in southern Iraq were cut by attacks on installations some 40 miles south of Baghdad. Turkey agreed to resume product exports to Iraq after a deal was agreed on repaying Iraqi debts of $1 bn to Turkish suppliers. An official Australian inquiry into illegal payments made under the UN's oil-for-food programme is to investigate allegations involving two Australian-controlled oil firms. (author)

  6. Academic Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Argues that school systems are so centralized that they waste money on bureaucratic operations and lack the capacity to respond rapidly to changing circumstances. A study of nine school systems that vary dramatically in their degree of decentralization demonstrates that true decentralization yields benefits in both efficiency and performance. (MLF)

  7. Family stress and posttraumatic stress: the impact of military operations on military health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Barnett, Scott D; Hickling, Edward J

    2012-08-01

    This study uses data from the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel to examine relationships between family stress and posttraumatic stress symptoms across 4 subgroups of Operation Iraqi Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Iraq) or Operation Enduring Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Afghanistan) active-duty military service members. Results suggest the following: (a) the greatest positive correlation of family stressors with posttraumatic stress symptoms was found within the military health care officer group, and (b) these military health care officers differed in family stressors mediating posttraumatic stress with divorce and financial problems accounting for significant and unique portions of the variance. Implications for care of service members and their families are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Education, Learning and Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point Kant's analysis of freedom in the Critique of Pure Reason. From this analysis, two different types of freedom are discerned, formative and instrumental freedom. The paper suggests that much of what passes for the pedagogy of learning in UK universities takes the form of an instrumental freedom. This, however,…

  9. The Meaning of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is pretended to prepare the conceptual field for the correct use of the attribution of freedom. It is defended the importance to consider the complementarity of freedom of action and freedom of the will and it is argued for a non-metaphysical conception of adscription of freedom. The adequate use of the attribution of freedom is social and normative. This means additionally that the freedom is not a presupposition of the moral responsibility and the authorship, but on the contrary the moral responsibility and the authorship are presuppositions of the attribution of freedom.

  10. An Argument for Documenting Casualties: Violence Against Iraqi Civilians 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Katharine; Stahl, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The problem of measuring the number of civilian fatalities in Iraq gained widespread media coverage when the Lancet published a study in October 2004 claiming that more than 100,000 Iraqi civilians...

  11. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2007-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  12. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2008-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  13. Development and Reform of the Iraqi Police Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfaff, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This paper will seek to show how social, political, cultural, and environmental factors have combined to impede Iraqi police development in ways that are predictable, understandable, and, with external help, resolvable...

  14. Development and Reform of the Iraqi Police Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfaff, Tony

    2008-01-01

    .... The corruption and abuse found in the Iraqi police services cannot simply be explained by poor leadership, the actions of a few corrupt individuals, or even the competing agendas of the various...

  15. Contextual freedom: absoluteness versus relativity of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh; Amirrezvani, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Our commentary is focused on the idea that "freedom" takes on its full significance whenever its relativistic nature, in the short- and long terms, is taken into account. Given the transformations brought about by "globalization," application of a general model of freedom based on ecological-economic factors clearly seems to be rather untimely. We examine this idea through egocentric and ethnocentric views of the social and environmental analyses of "freedom."

  16. Reporting Iraqi civilian fatalities in a time of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olander William E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In February, 2007, the Associated Press (AP conducted a poll of 1,002 adults in the United States about their attitudes towards the war in Iraq. Respondents were remarkably accurate estimating the current death toll of US soldiers, yet were grossly inaccurate in estimating the current death toll of Iraqi civilians. We conducted a search of newspapers reports to determine the extent of the discrepancy between reporting Coalition and Iraqi civilian deaths, hypothesizing that there would be an over-representation of Coalition deaths compared to Iraqi civilian deaths. Methods We examined 11 U.S. newspapers and 5 non-U.S. newspapers using electronic databases or newspaper web-archives, to record any reports between March 2003 and March 2008 of Coalition and Iraqi deaths that included a numeric indicator. Reports were described as "events" where they described a specific occurrence involving fatalities and "tallies" when they mentioned the number of deaths over a period of time. We recorded the number of events and tallies related to Coalition deaths, Iraqi civilian deaths, and Iraqi combatant deaths Results U.S. newspapers report more events and tallies related to Coalition deaths than Iraqi civilian deaths, although there are substantially different proportions amongst the different U.S. newspapers. In four of the five non-US newspapers, the pattern was reversed. Conclusion This difference in reporting trends may partly explain the discrepancy in how well people are informed about U.S. and Iraqi civilian fatalities in Iraq. Furthermore, this calls into question the role of the media in reporting and sustaining armed conflict, and the extent to which newspaper and other media reports can be used as data to assess fatalities or trends in the time of war.

  17. Grammar Errors in the Writing of Iraqi English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bdaiwi Jasim Al-Shujairi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to investigate the grammatical errors of Iraqi postgraduates and undergraduates in their academic writing. However, few studies have focused on the writing challenges that Iraqi pre-university students face. This research aims at examining the written discourse of Iraqi high school students and the common grammatical errors they make in their writing. The study had a mixed methods design. Through convenience sampling method, 112 compositions were collected from Iraqi pre-university students. For purpose of triangulation, an interview was conducted. The data was analyzed using Corder’s (1967 error analysis model and James’ (1998 framework of grammatical errors. Furthermore, Brown’s (2000 taxonomy was adopted to classify the types of errors. The result showed that Iraqi high school students have serious problems with the usage of verb tenses, articles, and prepositions. Moreover, the most frequent types of errors were Omission and Addition. Furthermore, it was found that intralanguage was the dominant source of errors. These findings may enlighten Iraqi students on the importance of correct grammar use for writing efficacy.

  18. Greening Existing Buildings in Contemporary Iraqi Urban Reality/ Virtual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Jabar Neama Al-Khafaji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The approach of greening existing buildings, is an urgent necessity, because the greening operation provides the speed and optimal efficiency in the environmental performance, as well as keeping up with the global green architecture revolution. Therefore, greening existing buildings in Iraq is important for trends towards renewable energies, because of what the country went through economic conditions and crises and wars which kept the country away from what took place globally in this issue. The research problem is: insufficient knowledge about the importance and the mechanism of the greening of existing buildings, including its environmental and economic dimensions, by rationalization of energy consumption and preserving the environment. The research objective is: clarifying the importance of greening existing buildings environmentally and economically, providing a virtual experience for greening the presidency building of Baghdad University, through advanced computer program. The main conclusions is: there is difference representing by reducing the disbursed thermal loads amount for cooling in summer and heating in winter through the use of computerized program (DesignBuilder and that after the implementation of greening operations on the building envelope, which confirms its effectiveness in raising the energy performance efficiency inside the building. Hence, the importance of the application of greening existing buildings approach in Iraq, to bring back Iraqi architecture to environmental and local track proper.

  19. The Text of the Agreement between Iraq and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Exchange of Letters between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Republic of Iraq Supplementary to the Franco-Iraqi Co-Operation Agreement for the Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy Signed on 18 November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    The text of the exchange of letters of 11 September 1976 between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Republic of Iraq supplementary to the Franco-Iraqi cooperation agreement for the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy of 18 November 1975 is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members by agreement with the French and Iraqi Governments

  20. The Text of the Agreement between Iraq and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An Exchange of Letters between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Republic of Iraq Supplementary to the Franco-Iraqi Co-Operation Agreement for the Peaceful Utilization of Nuclear Energy Signed on 18 November 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-09-15

    The text of the exchange of letters of 11 September 1976 between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Republic of Iraq supplementary to the Franco-Iraqi cooperation agreement for the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy of 18 November 1975 is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members by agreement with the French and Iraqi Governments.

  1. Freedom, structure, and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, Eric; Reiter-Palmon, Roni; Kaufman, James

    2018-01-01

    Creativity is commonly thought to depend on freedom and a lack of constraints. While this is true to a large extent, it neglects the creative potential of structure and constraints. In this chapter, I will address the relation between freedom, structure, and creativity. I will explain that freedom,

  2. A Study of Apology Strategies Used by Iraqi EFL University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugla, Raed Latif; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring apology strategies of English used by Iraqi EFL students, apology strategies in Iraqi Arabic and the pragmatic strategies of Iraqi EFL students in relation to the use of apology as a speech act. The data analyzed in this study were collected in Al-Yarmouk University College and University of Diyala. The study was…

  3. Analysing the Improper Pronunciation of Diphthongs by Iraqi EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhalad Malik Almutalabi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims at analysing the improper pronunciation of Iraqi EFL learners concerning the pronunciation of diphthongs in words of various syllables. It describes and identifies thoroughly the mispronunciations of such important sounds in English language. The study attempts at analysing such mispronunciations by clarifying and assigning the phonetic deviations of Iraqi EFL learners when they pronounce diphthongs. So the main objective of the study is to analyse the errors committed by Iraqi learners in the pronunciation of diphthongs grouping each error into its specific category. To verify the objective of the paper, 25 Iraqi EFL learners from the department of English at Cihan University/ Slemani are chosen to be the main participants of the study. The test which was conducted in the laboratory of the Department of English contained 10 words comprising various diphthongs. The results clearly revealed that mispronouncing English diphthongs by Iraqi EFL were mostly observed by replacing the required diphthong with another improper one and they also tended to use simple vowels instead of the correct required diphthongs.

  4. Invisible Wounds of War: Recommendations for Addressing Psychological and Cognitive Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanielian, Terri

    2008-01-01

    My testimony will briefly discuss several recommendations for addressing the psychological and cognitive injuries among servicemembers returning from deployments to Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Dr...

  5. Invisible Wounds of War: Quantifying the Societal Costs of Psychological and Cognitive Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eibner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    My testimony will discuss the costs and consequences of PTSD, depression, and TBI among servicemembers returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, as well as several recommendations...

  6. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  7. Geothermal gradients in Iraqi Kurdistan deduced from bottom hole temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzger A. Abdula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bottom hole temperature (BHT data from 12 oil wells in Iraqi Kurdistan were used to obtain the thermal trend of Iraqi Kurdistan. Due to differences in thermal conductivity of rocks and groundwater movement, variations in geothermal gradients were observed. The highest geothermal gradient (29.2 °C/km was found for well Taq Taq-8 in the Low Folded Zone (central part of the area. The lowest geothermal gradients (14.9 °C/km were observed for well Bekhme-1 in the High Folded Zone (northern and northeastern parts of the area. The average regional geothermal gradient for Iraqi Kurdistan is 21 °C/km.

  8. Geothermal gradients in Iraqi Kurdistan deduced from bottom hole temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdula, Rzger A.

    2016-01-01

    Bottom hole temperature (BHT) data from 12 oil wells in Iraqi Kurdistan were used to obtain the thermal trend of Iraqi Kurdistan. Due to differences in thermal conductivity of rocks and groundwater movement, variations in geothermal gradients were observed. The highest geothermal gradient (29.2 °C/km) was found for well Taq Taq-8 in the Low Folded Zone (central part of the area). The lowest geothermal gradients (14.9 °C/km) were observed for well Bekhme-1 in the High Folded Zone (northern and...

  9. EMC effect: asymptotic freedom with nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    General features of the EMC effect are discussed within the framework of quantum chromodynamics as expressed via the operator product expansion and asymptotic freedom. These techniques are reviewed with emphasis on the target dependence. 22 references

  10. Enactivism and Freedom Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue, grounded on empirical evidence, that enactivism is a promising philosophical stance with great potential to address challenges brought by our rapidly changing world. We then propose Freedom Education, a new form of teaching and learning founded on the enactivist theory. After discussing what constitutes Freedom Education and what it is not, we recommend several principles to establish a learning world of free-dom education.

  11. The Stalled Recovery of the Iraqi Marshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. Becker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iraqi (Mesopotamian Marshes, an extensive wetlands system in Iraq, has been heavily impacted by both human and climate forces over the past decades. In the period leading up to the Second Gulf War in 2002, the marshlands were shrinking due to both a policy of draining and water diversion in Iraq and construction of dams upstream on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Following the war through 2006, this trend was reversed as the diversions were removed and active draining stopped. A combination of MODIS and GRACE datasets were used to determine the change in surface water area (SWA in the marshes, marshland extent and change in mass both upriver in the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds and in the marshlands. Results suggest that the post war dam removal and decreased pumping in 2003 provided only temporary respite for the marshlands (2003–2006 SWA: 1,477 km2 increase (600%, water equivalent depth (WED: +2.0 cm/yr.; 2006–2009: −860 km2 (−41% WED: −3.9 cm/yr.. Unlike in the period 2003–2006, from 2006 forward the mass variations in the marshes are highly correlated with those in the upper and middle watershed (R = 0.86 and 0.92 respectively, suggesting that any recovery due to that removal is complete, and that all future changes are tied more strongly to any climate changes that will affect recharge in the upper Tigris-Euphrates system. Precipitation changes in the watershed show a reduction of an average of 15% below the 15 yr mean in 2007–2011 This corresponds with published ensemble predictions for the 2071–2099 time period, that suggested similar marshland shrinkage should be expected in that time period.

  12. Investigating the Speech Act of Correction in Iraqi EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Abbas Deygan; Mehdi, Wafaa Sahib

    2016-01-01

    The present paper investigates the performance of the Iraqi students for the speech act of correction and how it is realized with status unequal. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) Setting out the felicity conditions for the speech act of correction in terms of Searle conditions; (2) Identifying the semantic formulas that realize the…

  13. Analysis of 49 autosomal SNPs in an Iraqi population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Mas, Carmen; Diez, Isabel E; Moncada, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    (ST) values were statistically significant when pairwise comparisons were performed between the 18 populations. The Iraqi population did not show significant difference from the population in Turkey and it grouped together with other Middle-Eastern populations when a multidimensional scaling plot was drawn...

  14. Women and Learning in the Iraqi War Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangana, Haifa

    2008-01-01

    Having accumulated, throughout the twentieth century, historical achievements in education and standards of living higher than in most Arab and "third world" countries, Iraqi women were hit hard by two wars, the US-imposed economic sanctions of the 1990s, and then set back by the 2003 Anglo-American imperial occupation. Physical survival…

  15. Image of Iraqis in The Cinema of Sacred Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Givian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Regarding representational function of media, the current dissertation intends to examine the changes in the representation of the image of the Iraqis in the Sacred Defense Cinema. Iraqies have been pictured as the "Others" during last three decades. Due to the importance and role of sacred defense and its cinematic representations of "Self" and "Other" and thereby its contribution in the process of reconstruction of Iranian national identity this research is aimed at studying represented images of Iraqies and its changes during last three decades. To reach this objective I first examined the concept and theories of representation as stated by Richard Dyer and Stuart Hall. Then to complement Hall’s theories I referred to other thinkers in the field of identity theory, ‘self’ and ‘the other’ as stated. In the chapter on methodology I’ve benefited from a combination of the patterns presented by Kate Selbi, Ran Kallory and Rolan Bart to analyze the texts.The findings of this thesis demonstrates that in order to depict the Iraqis in the sixties verbal codes were primarily used whereas in the seventies and the eighties social and technical codes were most used respectively.In the first decade Iraqis were portrayed as those people who are imagined to be cruel, inhuman, in which the emphasis was laid on the impact of the Iraqi’s invasion. In the second decade we see Iraqi’s depicted as dumb and fat people having thick moustaches and rough voices and in the third we see this portrayal to be transformed where Iraqi’s are shown to be our Muslim brothers who have been forced to fight in the war. Having observed, examined and analyzed the films, we found out that when facing ‘the other’, i.e. the Iraqis, the metaphor of the boundary or border was used. This border is seen between ‘self’ and ‘the other’, i.e. the Iranians and the Iraqis in all the chosen movies on the Sacred Defense. In the first decade there was an objective

  16. Epistemic Freedom and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey

    2018-01-01

    First of all, I define the concept of epistemic freedom in the light of the changing nature of educational practice that prioritise over-prescriptive conceptions of learning. I defend the 'reality' of this freedom against possible determinist-related criticisms. I do this by stressing the concept of agency as characterised by 'becoming'. I also…

  17. Freedom & Self-Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ometto, D.L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Freedom of the will is a never-ending source of puzzlement for academic philosophers. At the same time, it is something deeply familiar to everyone. For the relevant concept of freedom underlies much, if not all, of our ordinary discourse and thinking about ourselves and others. However, our attempt

  18. Myths About Press Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarle Nordenstreng

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to rectify three popular beliefs related to press freedom: (1 that the idea of a free marketplace of ideas with a self-righting truth belongs to original liberalism, (2 that UNESCO’s primary mission is to promote freedom of information, and (3 that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides legal safeguards for the media. These beliefs are shown, on the basis of the legacy of liberalism and documents of the international community, to be misleading myths. Instead of accurate readings of the idea of freedom, they serve as ideological positions which are harmful to democracy. The Millennium Declaration provides further proof that the international community has a much more balanced view of freedom of information than that typically held by media professionals. Therefore it is important to liberate the concept of press freedom from its ideological baggage.

  19. Reforming Iraqi Journalism and Mass Communication Higher Education: Adapting the UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education to Iraqi Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.

    2012-01-01

    Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…

  20. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  1. Personal Freedom beyond Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Sellés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we distinguish between freedom in the human manifestations (intelligence, will,actions and personal freedom in the personal intimacy. This second is beyond the freedom reached bythe classic and modern thought, since it takes root in the personnel act of being. Because of it, it is not possible to characterize this freedom like the classic description as ‘domain over the own acts’, becauseit is a description of ‘categorial’ order; neither like present day ‘autonomy’ or ‘independence’, becausethe existence of one person alone is impossible, since ‘person’ means relation, personal free openingto other persons, description of the ‘transcendental’ order and, therefore, to the margin of limits.

  2. Freedom in mundane mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marie V.; Cohen, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Freedom is a widely discussed and highly elusive concept, and has long been represented in exoticised, masculinised and individualised discourses. Freedom is often exemplified through the image of a solitary male explorer leaving the female space of home and familiarity and going to remote places...... of the world. Through in-situ interviews with families caravanning in Denmark, the primary aim of this study is to challenge existing dominant discourses surrounding the subject of freedom within leisure and tourism studies. Second, we shed further light on an under-researched medium of mobility......, that of domestic caravanning. This serves to not only disrupt representations of freedom as occurring through exoticised, masculinised and individualised practices, but to give attention to the domestic, banal contexts where the everyday and tourism intersect, which are often overlooked. This novel repositioning...

  3. Human freedom and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja

    2014-02-01

    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.

  4. Asymptotic freedom without guilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1979-01-01

    The notion of asymptotic freedom in quantum chromodynamics is explained on general physical grounds, without invoking the formal arguments of renormalizable quantum field theory. The related concept of quark confinement is also discussed along the same line. 5 references

  5. Living with the Choice: A Grounded Theory of Iraqi Refugee Resettlement to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lisa A

    2017-04-01

    Though the United States has become a place of increasing resettlement for refugees, particularly Iraqi refugees who have been forced to flee their homeland due to violence, persecution and civil unrest, little is known about Iraqi refugee resettlement in the United States, or the way in which resettlement impacts health and adjustment. A grounded theory study was conducted to develop a substantive theory of Iraqi refugee resettlement. Participants in the qualitative study included 29 Iraqi refugees and 2 community partners who participated in face-to face interviews. Data analysis and interpretation revealed fundamental concepts related to Iraqi refugee resettlement. Results of analysis showed that for Iraqis choosing to resettle here, the outcome is dichotomous: satisfaction or regret. The outcome is influenced by contextual factors as well as facilitating and hindering intervening conditions during the basic social process of resettlement transition. Each refugee's story is unique, yet all share common threads. This study allowed Iraqi refugees the opportunity to voice their personal experiences of resettling in America, and revealed life stories that inspire and illuminate a process that can guide health care delivery as they cope with the stresses of their journey. As a result, an in-depth storyline was established to explain the process of resettlement for Iraqi refugees. The development of this resettlement theory, grounded in Iraqi refugee experience, has the potential to guide nursing education, enhance the efficacy of practice, inform policy development and form the basis for research.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Strains, Iraqi Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Herish M.; Coulter, J. Brian S.; Nakagomi, Osamu; Zaki, Jamal M.; Al-Rabaty, Abas A.; Dove, Winifred; Cunliffe, Nigel A.

    2006-01-01

    Of 260 children with acute diarrhea in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan, 96 (37%) were infected with rotavirus. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction identified G1, G4, G2, G9, P[8], P[6], and P[4] as the most common genotypes. Eight G/P combinations were found, but P[8]G1 and P[4]G2 accounted for >50% of the strains. PMID:16704845

  7. Iraqi children's rights: building a system under fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlObaidi, Abdul Kareem; Jeffrey, Linda R; Scarth, Leslie; Albadawi, Ghazwan

    2009-01-01

    War violates every human right of children. In recent years, the lives of Iraqi children and the livelihoods of their families have become precarious. Conflict has split the communities where they live and taken the lives of hundreds of their friends and family members. The literature focuses on the negative effects of armed conflict on Iraqi children, and the steps that need to be taken to ameliorate their condition by adapting evidence based but culturally sensitive measures. A comprehensive solution to child protection problems clearly will take time. The primary need for the protection of Iraqi children is an end to conflict. Family and educational order and social stability are central to efforts to achieve progress in child protection. Solutions to armed conflict and its aftermath work best when they are responsive to local cultural practices and beliefs, and are drawn from an understanding of child development. Child safety, security and well-being should be in the forefront of the national agenda to ensure a more positive future both economically and socially to achieve a healthier Iraq.

  8. [Drug addiction and freedom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, M A

    1982-03-01

    The author, in a historical and philosophical approach, analyses the concept of freedom as opposed to slavery. He also refers to the legal and social restrictions and studies the determinism and free will as the causes of human behaviour. Quoting Spinoza, the author states that man accepts the idea of freedom because he realizes the "how" of his options but ignores "why". Without the hypothesis of causality and determinism, there seems to have no science. Without freedom, there seems to be no anthropos man (Jimeno Valdez). The principles of anticausality, of nonreproducibility and of differentiation characterize the human freedom, but are contrary to the way science works. According to the social and political point of view, it was established that the State has the right to oblige and to violently limit freedom. Practically speaking, though, the State is violent just for being the State; the dominant groups are the government because they are and they have been violent. There is a need to limit and to discipline this right of the State of being violent within the dilemma of safety and freedom. By working, the slave avoided the whip. And by doing this, he encouraged the behaviour of the one who whipped him. The non-aversive attitudes limit the freedom in the modern world more and more for they also enchain our will, a rebellion becoming impossible. One is not granted the freedom; it shall be conquered and kept. Freedom, either as a concept or a phenomenon, is always relative. The concept of toxicomania or pharmacodependance is analysed according to the same perspective. The conclusion is that this is always more a problem of the society than of the individual, and this is how it has to be understood and treated. The present world is described as a millenial human culture specifically characterized by eight groups of phenomena: 1. Transport increased human mobility, reduced the relative dimensions of the earth, mixed peoples, compared cultures and created

  9. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 4 (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    destroy the residence of the US Ambassador in Jakarta, Japanese Embassy and American Airlines in Philippines 2 CMPC-2003-000 17015 2 Production and...used to seek a number oftargets like (The Iraqi Communist Party Headquarters, assassinating some ofP.K.K members, blowing up Dilshad Cinema ) where...Sulaymaniyyah like Dilshad Cinema , a Casino in (Illegible) Subdivision and a media whole. 4- They issued the first declaration threatening the Secularism

  10. Evaluation of Inhibitors Blends Used in Iraqi Markets for Automobile Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watheq Naser Hussein

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection the behavior of some metals ( carbon steel and copper that are widely used in automobiles cooling system in tap water and a cooling mixture for radiators was held. The purpose of this work is to check the performance of two types of mixtures that available in Iraqi markets, viz the Kuwait mixture and the Germany one and what are known as blue water by an electrochemical technique. The experiments were held at two values of temperatures of 17 and 80 ˚C-where these values of temperature almost represent the cases of idle and operating engine. The obtained results showed that the two types of mixtures have given good inhibition efficiency for the case of steel especially in presence of Germany mixture.

  11. The Volterra's integral equation theory for accelerator single-freedom nonlinear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Sheng; Xie Xi

    1996-01-01

    The Volterra's integral equation equivalent to the dynamic equation of accelerator single-freedom nonlinear components is given, starting from which the transport operator of accelerator single-freedom nonlinear components and its inverse transport operator are obtained. Therefore, another algorithm for the expert system of the beam transport operator of accelerator single-freedom nonlinear components is developed

  12. Freedom of Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Canela

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The freedoms of expression and of the press are basic pillars of the western democracies. The contemporary theoretical framework which gives support to these rights was generated in the wake of the liberal revolutions which took place in Western Europe and in North America starting from the second half of the 1600s. Our purpose in this text is to present the current scene regarding this topic, focusing whenever pertinent on the Brazilian case, and seeking to question the unconditional defense of the freedoms of expression and of the press made by the thinkers who founded these principles vis-á-vis contemporary issues of the communicational universe. Going beyond theoretical-conceptual refl ections, we present and analyze the results of a content analysis showing how 53 Brazilian newspapers and 4 magazines with nationwide circulation report (or not topics relating to freedom of expression and of the press.

  13. Combating Insurgency: Can Lessons from the Huk Rebellion Apply to Iraq?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phares, Matthew H

    2008-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom can be won using a strategy that utilizes all instruments of American and Iraqi national power to eliminate the root causes that drive the populace to support the insurgents...

  14. Why Won't You Drop, Damn YouZ? An Examination of the Targeting Process in Operation Enduring Freedom and its Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kindley, David

    2004-01-01

    ...?. This paper will examine the decision making process for rapid targeting in OEF from the strike fighter pilot through the watch officer in the Combined Air Operations Center at Prince Sultan Air Base...

  15. Key and Essential Elements of a U.S. Government Interagency Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Locke, Jr, Donald C

    2008-01-01

    .... Government Interagency Plan for reconstruction and stabilization. The elements were derived from study of World War II and Operation Iraqi Freedom post conflict reconstruction and stabilization operations...

  16. Thinking Academic Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  17. Nursing and human freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risjord, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Debates over how to conceptualize the nursing role were prominent in the nursing literature during the latter part of the twentieth century. There were, broadly, two schools of thought. Writers like Henderson and Orem used the idea of a self-care deficit to understand the nurse as doing for the patient what he or she could not do alone. Later writers found this paternalistic and emphasized the importance of the patient's free will. This essay uses the ideas of positive and negative freedom to explore the differing conceptions of autonomy which are implicit in this debate. The notion of positive freedom has often been criticized as paternalistic, and the criticisms of self-care in the nursing literature echo criticisms from political philosophy. Recent work on relational autonomy and on the relationship between autonomy and identity are used to address these objections. This essay argues for a more nuanced conception of the obligation to support autonomy that includes both positive (freedom to) and negative (freedom from) dimensions. This conception of autonomy provides a moral foundation for conceptualizing nursing in something like Henderson's terms: as involving the duty to expand the patient's capacities. The essay concludes by generalizing the lesson. Respect for autonomy on the part of any health care provider requires both respect for the patient's choices and a commitment to expand the patient's ability to actualize their choices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Doxastic and Epistemic Freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn

    This paper offers a new view of doxastic voluntarism, epistemic agency and doxastic responsibility. It assumes the perspective of political freedom and uses the stit-theoretic framework from modal logic to investigate the obstacles that other individuals could place in the way of the adoption of

  19. Freedom of Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents an activity which uses hypothetical situations to explore the proper boundaries of freedom of expression and the role of the U.S. Supreme Court in interpreting its limits. Appropriate for grades 4-12, the lesson includes such topics as the "clear and present danger" clause, student expression, obscenity, and defamation. (GEA)

  20. Your True Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena Rausch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Your True Freedom is about my journey teaching inmates the fundamental truths of self worth, self acceptance and self love--through writing, mindfulness meditation and emotional healing. It is a journey that continues to enlighten me and to heal and free the inmates with whom I work.

  1. Intellectual Freedom and Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Interracial Books for Children Bulletin" contains a special section focusing on the film called, "The Speaker". This film purports to deal with an assault on the First Amendment and with the necessity for eternal vigilance in defense of U.S. Constitutional freedom. The setting is an integrated high school…

  2. Academic and Artistic Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strossen, Nadine

    1992-01-01

    Issues and recent events concerning censorship of the arts in the United States are examined, and the threat to artistic freedom posed by recent Supreme Court decisions is examined. Focus is on erosion of the actual or imminent harm requirement of the law and on the court's class-based approach to free speech. (MSE)

  3. Speech freedom and press freedom in human security in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Niyonzima, Oswald

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Màster Universitari Internacional en Estudis de Pau, Conflictes i Desenvolupament. Codi: SAA074. Curs: 2013/2014 Freedom of speech and press freedom are key foundations of all human rights as stipulated in human rights declaration of 1948. Denying people the right to free speech is keeping them away from what is happening in this world, thus, hindering them from participating in decision making. While speech freedom and press freedom are key tools to measure if a country ...

  4. Iraqi Civil Defense Headquarters Baghdad, Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Angelina; O'Connor, Kevin; Rawal, Yogin

    2007-01-01

    .... The assessment team included two engineers/inspectors and three auditors/inspectors. The overall objective of the project was to fully renovate the Civil Defense Headquarters and other buildings on the site to become a fully operational and usable facility.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on sugars from Iraqi dates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaddou, H; Al-Hakim, M; Mhaisen, M D [Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using gamma-irradiation for date preservation had been considered as an alternative method to fumigation. Two varieties of Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Sayer) had been used in the study, and three doses of 50, 100 and 150 krads. A combination of treatments of heat plus irradiation were also applied and tests were conducted at three maturation stages. Gas chromatographic analysis was used to fractionate sugars from dates after converting to their TMS - ether derivatives. No qualitative or quantitative changes were observed in sugar components in either Zahdi or Sayer dates within the doses used in the experiments.

  6. Freedom and the Collective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straume, Ingerid S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Isaiah Berlin’s epitomizing Cold War-essay, "Two Concepts of Liberty, " thinkers who emphasize collective concepts of social life have carried the burden of proof against charges of totalitarian tendencies. The background is a ground figure in contemporary political thought that sets notions of collectivity against individual freedom, in a zero sum game: Either one is in favour of the individual, or one is in favour of the collective, and hence, so the bias has it, willing to sacrifice the rights and liberties of individuals. Since it is impossible to favour the latter position and remain liberal, in the wide sense of the term, this dichotomy serves to rob contemporary political thought of both its classical and revolutionary connotations, leaving only individual initiatives like lobbying and voting. Cornelius Castoriadis offers a way around this – arguably false – dichotomy, by regarding individual and collective freedom as two sides of the same coin.

  7. Bioethics and academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.

  8. Knowledge Yearning for Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.

  9. Intellectual Freedom: 2000 and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, Terri L.; Rader, Hannelore B.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on intellectual freedom, discussing the role of libraries, the Berlin Wall and banned books as attempts to restrict intellectual freedom, and controversies surrounding filtering software. Contains an annotated bibliography of intellectual freedom resources, presented in five categories: general; government and legal issues; access and…

  10. Towards an ethics of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2018-01-01

    Based upon the work of Arendt’s notion of action as freedom and Butler’s rework of this notion into a collective, embodied and material performance, this paper proposes an ethics of freedom, which is discussed as a politics of storytelling in organizations. Freedom, it is argued, is closely related...

  11. Intellectual Workers and Essential Freedoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edley, Christopher Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Journalists and college professors deserve certain privileges, including freedom of speech and academic freedom, but they must adapt their work to increasingly diverse populations. They must confront public mistrust, convince people that these freedoms are worthwhile, and protect essential public rights through what they study and teach and to…

  12. Academic Freedom Requires Constant Vigilance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…

  13. Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.

  14. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaji Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Results: During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile. Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile. During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24% were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8% were male and 142 (44.2% were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded ar-eas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The pres-ence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile at-tacks are necessary. Key words: Mortality; War; Mass casualty incidents; Wounds and injuries

  15. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  16. Slavery, antislavery, freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Brereton

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Empire and Antislavery: Spain, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, 1833-1874. CHRISTOPHER SCHMIDT-NOWARA. Pittsburgh PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999. xv + 239 pp. (Cloth US$ 50.00, Paper US$ 22.95 Beyond Slavery: Explorations of Race, Labor, and Citizenship in Postemancipation Societies. FREDERICK COOPER, THOMAS C. HOLT & REBECCA J. SCOTT. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. xiii + 198 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.95, Paper US$ 15.95 From Slavery to Freedom: Comparative Studies in the Rise andFall of Atlantic Slavery. SEYMOUR DRESCHER. New York: New York University Press, 1999. xxv + 454 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor. STANLEY L. ENGERMAN (ed.. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1999. vi + 350 pp. (Cloth US$ 55.00 These four books explore antislavery movements in the Atlantic world, and consider some of the consequences of abolition in postemancipation societies. They are immensely rich studies which engage one of the liveliest areas of enquiry in modern historiography - the transition from slavery to freedom in New World societies - and which represent U.S. historical scholarship at its finest. Each falls into a different category of academic publication.

  17. The Iraqi Security Forces: The Challenge of Sectarian and Ethnic Influences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M

    2007-01-01

    .... According to the December 2006 Iraq Study Group Report, Significant questions remain about the ethnic composition and loyalties of some Iraqi units specifically, whether they will carry out missions...

  18. Iraqi nuclear weapons development program. Final report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is an abstract of the final report focusing on the collection, collation, analysis, and recording of information pertaining to Iraqi nuclear weapons development and on the long term monitoring of Iraq

  19. In Defense of the Iraqi Media: Between Fueling Conflict and Healthy Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Wollenberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the occupation and ensuing war, Iraq has experienced the emergence of a truly pluralistic media landscape after the fall of the Baath regime in 2003. Today, media coverage of domestic affairs is characterized not only by pluralism but also by bias and partiality reflecting strong ties between political actors and media outlets. Accordingly, the Iraqi media are often accused of fueling conflict and deepening the ethno-sectarian divide in society. Based on a qualitative frame analysis of Iraqi news bulletins, this study reveals that Iraqi media outlets provide indeed contesting frames on even the most divisive issues. Only the coverage of the armed war against IS is characterized by a non-pluralistic conformity among Iraqi channels that unequivocally focus on military successes against IS and jointly refrain from any criticism against the varied forces fighting IS in Iraq.

  20. Healthcare Access for Iraqi Refugee Children in Texas: Persistent Barriers, Potential Solutions, and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermette, David; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Al Zuheiri, Haidar; Flores, Glenn

    2015-10-01

    To identify access barriers to healthcare and potential interventions to improve access for Iraqi refugee children. Four focus groups were conducted using consecutive sampling of Iraqi refugee parents residing in the US for 8 months to 5 years. Eight key-informant interviews also were conducted with employees of organizations serving Iraqi refugee families, recruited using snowball sampling. Focus groups and interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and grounded theory. Iraqi refugees identified provider availability, Medicaid maintenance and renewal, language issues, and inadequate recognition of post-traumatic stress disorder as barriers to care for their children. Interviewees cited loss of case-management services and difficulties in understanding the Medicaid renewal process as barriers. Potential interventions to improve access include community-oriented efforts to educate parents on Medicaid renewal, obtaining services, and accessing specialists. Given the enduring nature of language and Medicaid renewal barriers, policies addressing eligibility alone are insufficient.

  1. Why the Iraqi Resistance to the Coalition Invasion Was so Weak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosmer, Stephen T

    2007-01-01

    .... Drawing upon information derived primarily from interviews with former senior Iraqi civilian and military officials, this monograph focuses on two questions relating to the rapidity and ease of that victory: (1...

  2. Unwanted Guests: The Impact of Iraqi Refugees on Jordan’s Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    The International Crisis Group, a non-governmental organization, interviewed Iraqi refugees in 2007 and reported a number of instances of harassment ...process: Before they can be legally employed, Iraqi refugees must obtain a work permit from the Ministry of Labour . To be eligible for a work permit...Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Labour , respectively. Jordanian law also requires potential employers to provide a litany of documents and

  3. The stakes of iraqi petroleum: what is the role of France ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, N.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with some socio-economic and political aspects about the stakes of iraqi petroleum for France. After having described the history of iraqi petroleum, the author gives the estimation of the actual petroleum reserves, the production objective, the petroleum and gaseous projects and the exporting way. Then is given the economic and political role played by France: the increase of importation uses, the economic interests and the political responsibility. (O.L.). 10 tabs

  4. Testing Template and Testing Concept of Operations for Speaker Authentication Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sipko, Marek M

    2006-01-01

    This thesis documents the findings of developing a generic testing template and supporting concept of operations for speaker verification technology as part of the Iraqi Enrollment via Voice Authentication Project (IEVAP...

  5. Academic Freedom as Fundamental Right

    OpenAIRE

    Cippitani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The paper aims at defining in particular the concept of academic freedom within the context of the European legal sources. Even though the idea of a special corporative status for professors was born during the Middle Ages, it was only during the second half of the twentieth century that the Constitutions recognised academic freedom as an individual’s legal right.. Such an individual right is regulated within the category of the freedom of expression, even if it is characteri...

  6. Burden of typhoid fever in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jonathan; Saeed, Rebeen; Mykhan, Hawar; Kanan, Shwan; Farhad, Dlawer; Ali, Kocher Omer; Abdulwahab, Runak Hama Kareem; Palardy, John; Neill, Marguerite A

    2014-10-01

    Typhoid fever imposes a high disease burden worldwide, but resource limitations mean that the burden of typhoid fever in many countries is poorly understood. The authors conducted a prospective surveillance study at the adult and pediatric teaching hospitals in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan. All patients presenting with an undifferentiated febrile illness consistent with typhoid were eligible for enrollment. Enrolled patients had blood cultures and Brucella serologies performed. Incidence was calculated with reference to census data. Both typhoid fever and brucellosis were common, and the incidence of typhoid fever was 21 cases/100 000 patient-years. Classic disease symptoms were uncommonly observed. Cost-effective surveillance projects to calculate disease burden of typhoid fever are practical and replicable. Typhoid has successfully adapted to the healthcare environment in Sulaimania. Additional work in the region should focus on antibiotic resistance and other enteric pathogens such as Brucella spp. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of Coping Strategies Employed by Iraqi Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala; Alzoubi, Fatmeh Ahmad; Slater, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by Iraqi refugees in Jordan based on their demographic details. A cross-sectional design was used. A representative sample of 333 refugees living in Jordan participated in the study. The Cope inventory and the demographic details were compiled to produce and collate the relevant data. Being older, female, educated, single, and living with more than three family members was associated with greater use of the problem solving coping strategy. Being female, educated, and unemployed was associated with greater use of the active emotional coping strategy. In addition, being older, male, illiterate, unemployed, and living with less than three family members was associated with greater use of the avoidant emotional coping strategy. This study recommends a multidisciplinary approach intervention as being the best method of addressing and fulfilling the health and socioeconomic needs of older, male, illiterate, unemployed people.

  8. Regionalizing Immigration, Health and Inequality: Iraqi Refugees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Manderson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.

  9. History of the Iraqi Nuclear Center of Tuwaitha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Silvio

    2009-01-01

    The Tuwaitha site, 20 km south of Baghdad, was chosen at the beginning of the sixties to be the Center for Research and Development of the Iraqi Nuclear Program. The israeli air attack to the Osirak reactor in 1981, the clandestine activities for nuclear weapons production and the inspections carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify such activities are parts of the history of that nuclear complex. Its installations were extensively damaged in 1991 during the so called Golf War and finally destroyed by air bombardment during the invasion by the Coalition Forces in 2003. The IAEA and other several countries have elaborated an international assistance program for the future activities of installations dismantling and site remediation. (author) [es

  10. Night-Time Light Dynamics during the Iraqi Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the night-time light dynamics in Iraq over the period 2012–2017 by using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS monthly composites. The data quality of VIIRS images was improved by repairing the missing data, and the Night-time Light Ratio Indices (NLRIs, derived from urban extent map and night-time light images, were calculated for different provinces and cities. We found that when the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS attacked or occupied a region, the region lost its light rapidly, with the provinces of Al-Anbar, At-Ta’min, Ninawa, and Sala Ad-din losing 63%, 73%, 88%, and 56%, of their night-time light, respectively, between December 2013 and December 2014. Moreover, the light returned after the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF recaptured the region. In addition, we also found that the night-time light in the Kurdish Autonomous Region showed a steady decline after 2014, with the Arbil, Dihok, and As-Sulaymaniyah provinces losing 47%, 18%, and 31% of their night-time light between December 2013 and December 2016 as a result of the economic crisis in the region. The night-time light in Southern Iraq, the region controlled by Iraqi central government, has grown continuously; for example, the night-time light in Al Basrah increased by 75% between December 2013 and December 2017. Regions formerly controlled by ISIS experienced a return of night-time light during 2017 as the ISF retook almost all this territory in 2017. This indicates that as reconstruction began, electricity was re-supplied in these regions. Our analysis shows the night-time light in Iraq is directly linked to the socioeconomic dynamics of Iraq, and demonstrates that the VIIRS monthly night-time light images are an effective data source for tracking humanitarian disasters in that country.

  11. Disaggregating Corporate Freedom of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates arguments for the idea in recent American Supreme Court jurisprudence that freedom of religion should not simply be understood as an ordinary legal right within the framework of liberal constitutionalism but as an expression of deference by the state and its legal system...... to religion as a separate and independent jurisdiction with its own system of law over which religious groups are sovereign. I discuss the relationship between, on the one hand, ordinary rights of freedom of association and freedom of religion and, on the other hand, this idea of corporate freedom of religion...

  12. Which Freedom of the Press?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2010-01-01

    The article surveys the historical and current meaning of "Freedom of the Press" in constitutional and human rights law. Two different conceptions exist, the narrow one defining freedom of the press as the freedom of every one to publish without prior restraint, the broader one defining it as a...... privileged freedom of the organised press to gather and report on information of public interest. These two conceptions have very different answers to the question of whether the press should enjoy some privilege to be exempt from ordinary legislation when such legislation restricts the access of the press to inform...

  13. The Impacts of Liquidity on Profitability in Banking Sectors of Iraq: A Case of Iraqi Commercial Banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Sardar Shaker Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of liquidity on the profitability of Iraqi commercial banks. Five banks based in Iraq namely: North bank, Iraqi Islamic bank, Sumer bank, Dar Es-Salam bank and Babylon bank randomly selected and analyzed for the current study over the period 2005 to 2013. Moreover,  annual reports of these banks have studied and the main ratios of profitability and liquidity were calculated. These reports are available at Iraqi Stock Exchange site. The variables that were ide...

  14. Complete freedom; Voellig losgeloest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baun, R.

    2000-10-01

    The first two places in the list of technology trends went to engine technology - while the bronze medal was won by X-by-wire systems. The possibility of accelerating, braking, steering and gear shifting without mechanical links or connections creates new degrees of packaging freedom and allows for more comfort and safety. Some systems - for example the electronic accelerator - are already state-of-the-art technology. Steering and braking systems, however, still have a number of bureaucratic - and other - hurdles to overcome. (orig.) [German] Die beiden ersten Plaetze bei den Techniktrends gingen an die Motorentechnik - die Bronze-Medaille konnten sich die X-by-Wire-Systeme erobern. Beschleunigen, bremsen, lenken und schalten ohne mechanische Gestaenge oder Verbindungen schaffen neue Freiheitsgrade beim Package und ermoeglichen mehr Komfort und Sicherheit. Einige Systeme - etwa E-Gas - sind schon Stand der Technik. Bei den Lenk- und Bremssystemen stehen - unter anderem - noch buerokratische Sicherheitshuerden im Weg. (orig.)

  15. Subnucleon freedom degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-03-01

    The nucleon is nothing but the fundamental state of a complex object, the Baryon. It has a great number of excited states which are significative of its quark structure. The aim of nuclear physics today is to understand the interaction dynamics in nuclei of particles whose existence is known by high energy physics. This lecture aims at defining the frontier of current comprehension in this field by some examples. First quarks and gluons are presented. Proofs of existence of pinpoint particles inside the nucleus are given. Then a direct proof of the concept validity of the nucleon orbit in the nucleus is given. Mesonic freedom degrees are also studied. Some experience examples in which meson exchange exist clearly are shown. At last, the role of subnucleonic effects in the nuclear reactions is shown [fr

  16. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  17. Intellectual Freedom Manual. Eighth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALA Editions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Updated for the first time since 2005, this indispensable volume includes revised interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights along with key intellectual freedom guidelines and policies, including: (1) A new chapter, "Interactivity and the Internet," and other fresh material on intellectual freedom and privacy in online social…

  18. Freedom as Satisfaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    2004-01-01

    with harmony in one's entire volitional system, Frankfurt may solve the infi nite regress objection but he does so at the cost of ending up with a description of freedom, which comes very close to being identical to his own description of the wanton. Frankfurt's account leaves open the question of whether......This article is a critical assessment of Harry Frankfurt's hierarchical theory of freedom. It spells out and distinguishes several different and irreconcilable conceptions of freedom present in Frankfurt's work. I argue that Frankfurt is ambiguous in his early formulation as to what conception...... of freedom of the will the hierarchical theory builds on, an avoidability or a satisfaction conception. This ambiguity causes problems in his later attempts to respond to the objections of wantonness of second-order desires and of infi nite regress. With his more recent idea of freedom as being satisfi ed...

  19. Let Freedom Ring! Let Peace Reign!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino

    2012-01-01

    True freedom and true peace are cousins, but they can only work together if the freedom of one people is seen in relation to the freedom of another. Struggles for freedom and peace can only enhance each other if the peace people seek is a robust harmony in which conflict is embraced and people are encouraged to imagine a far stronger freedom and…

  20. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  1. The Military Use of Children by the Syrian-Iraqi Salafi-Jihadist Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-state armed groups are the main threats to states’ national security in the 21st century, to defend against which, states require useful methods. Recently, use of children by these groups, especially in the Middle East, has turned into one of the most important discussable issues that need to be evaluated in the context of the law of armed conflict. This study aims to discuss legal regime of the military use of children in armed conflict. The main purpose of the study is to analyze the use of child soldiers by the Syrian-Iraqi Salafi-Jihadist Group in its combat operations. In this respect, initially, the legal definition of child soldiers and the role of them in armed conflicts will be discussed. Based on this, different forms of the child soldiers’ involvement in armed conflicts and the international criminal responsibility for their war crimes will be examined as an applicable law in the context of international criminal law.

  2. An Analysis of Military Use of Commercial Satellite Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forest, Benjamin D

    2008-01-01

    Since the Gulf War of 1991, United States military satellite communication (SATCOM) bandwidth demand has increased dramatically, as evidenced by recent usage rates in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom...

  3. Adaptability: Components of the Adaptive Competency for U.S. Army Direct and Organizational Level Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wyszynski, Joseph L

    2005-01-01

    U.S. Army direct and organizational level leaders faced challenges in Operation ENDURING FREEDOM and Operation IRAQI FREEDOM, which combined to create an environment permeated by ambiguity and replete with uncertainty...

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury Registry (TBI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As the number of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients has grown, so has the need to track and monitor...

  5. Tactical Decision Making under Categorical Uncertainty with Applications to Modeling and Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kemmerer, Kacey E

    2008-01-01

    ...) and individual differences affect response time in decision-making tasks. The researchers elicited real-world tactical scenarios from veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom in which uncertainty was present...

  6. Global War on Terrorism: Reported Obligations for the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pickup, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Section 1221 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 20066 requires us to submit quarterly updates to Congress on the costs of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom...

  7. Global War on Terrorism: Reported Obligations for the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pickup, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Section 1221 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 requires us to submit quarterly updates to Congress on the costs of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom...

  8. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S.; Chilmeran, Saba K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C 130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C 5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)

  9. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S [Dept. of Chemical Pathology, Royal Hospital, Muscat (Oman); Chilmeran, Saba K [Dept. of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Univ. of Mosul (Iraq)

    2007-07-01

    Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C<40mg/dl (1.04mmol/L) and non-HDL-C>130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C<45mg/dl (1.15mmol/L), TC: HDL-C>5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)

  10. The College Student's Freedom of Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Annette

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of means to ensure freedom of expression by college students. Areas of expression noted are student newspapers, lectures by off-campus speakers, freedom to assemble peaceably and freedom to associate. (EK)

  11. Brief narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress in Iraqi refugees: a preliminary randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Lumley, Mark A; Ziadni, Maisa S; Haddad, Luay; Rapport, Lisa J; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-06-01

    Many Iraqi refugees suffer from posttraumatic stress. Efficient, culturally sensitive interventions are needed, and so we adapted narrative exposure therapy into a brief version (brief NET) and tested its effects in a sample of traumatized Iraqi refugees. Iraqi refugees in the United States reporting elevated posttraumatic stress (N = 63) were randomized to brief NET or waitlist control conditions in a 2:1 ratio; brief NET was 3 sessions, conducted individually, in Arabic. Positive indicators (posttraumatic growth and well-being) and symptoms (posttraumatic stress, depressive, and somatic) were assessed at baseline and 2- and 4-month follow-up. Treatment participation (95.1% completion) and study retention (98.4% provided follow-up data) were very high. Significant condition by time interactions showed that those receiving brief NET had greater posttraumatic growth (d = 0.83) and well-being (d = 0.54) through 4 months than controls. Brief NET reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress (d = -0.48) and depression (d = -0.46) more, but only at 2 months; symptoms of controls also decreased from 2 to 4 months, eliminating condition differences at 4 months. Three sessions of brief NET increased growth and well-being and led to symptom reduction in highly traumatized Iraqi refugees. This preliminary study suggests that brief NET is both acceptable and potentially efficacious in traumatized Iraqi refugees. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  12. Analysis and Assessment for Iraqi Communication Technology Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Al-Khalidy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The communications in Iraq has been fluctuated for decades. In fact, this fluctuation constitutes a reality that the country has been facing such as the security issues, the economic blockade imposed on the previous regime, and all the exceptional circumstances. This paper illustrates the nature and reality of communication in Iraq after 2003. While the sophisticated technology works very well all around the world, Iraq still does not keep the work up to improve its communications. This paper tackles the most importantcommunication problems in Iraq after 2003, and the possibility to process good services to customers, either by developing the governmental combinations, or/and by enforcing telecommunication companies to provide their best services to their customers. This paper answers the following the questions: Are the telecom/communication companies serve good qualities to the customers? If not, why? Who is the responsible? Are these companies at least doing their best to serve good qualities? Or are they just profitable companies? Why have these companies not started using the optical fiber cables instead of the copper one? Is the government seeking to compel such companies to serve good services? Whether the Iraqi government plans to develop the landlines services so it would compete with the telecom companies? What is the role of the Communication and Media Commission (CMC?

  13. Bulk Electric Load Cost Calculation Methods: Iraqi Network Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais M. Alias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is vital in any industry to regain the spent capitals plus running costs and a margin of profits for the industry to flourish. The electricity industry is an everyday life touching industry which follows the same finance-economic strategy. Cost allocation is a major issue in all sectors of the electric industry, viz, generation, transmission and distribution. Generation and distribution service costing’s well documented in the literature, while the transmission share is still of need for research. In this work, the cost of supplying a bulk electric load connected to the EHV system is calculated. A sample basic lump-average method is used to provide a rough costing guide. Also, two transmission pricing methods are employed, namely, the postage-stamp and the load-flow based MW-distance methods to calculate transmission share in the total cost of each individual bulk load. The three costing methods results are then analyzed and compared for the 400kV Iraqi power grid considered for a case study.

  14. Eghterab’ in Iraqi Emigrants\\' Poetry: The Case of Ahmad Matar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سید عدنان اشکوری

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Eghterab’ in Iraqi Emigrants' Poetry: The Case of Ahmad Matar    Jafar Delshad *  Seyyed Adnan Eshkewaree **    Abstract  The word ‘eghterab’ in human sciences has different concepts which could be classified into three groups: 1 Westernization and tending to western culture or being alien with eastern authenticity 2 nostalgia and homesickness caused by being away from his/her motherhood land and hometown. Most of this group of poets are emigrants or are in exile and 3 having the sense of nostalgia but being in home country. It means that this group of poets have very high ideals which no one in their homeland can take and bare these ideals. The poet perceives that ideals which are essential for him/her are higher than the society in which he/she lives can grasp. This essay makes an attempt to study the various concepts of ‘eghterab’ by focusing on Ahmad Matar as a prominent poet with regard to the third concept and deal with the third concept of Eghterab from three points of view: political, social and spiritual. This article examines some samples of these three parts in Ahmad Matar's poetry.    Key words: nostalgia, poetry, emigration, Ahmad Matar, Iraq   * Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of IsfahanE-mail: delshad@fgn.ui.ir  ** Assistant Professor, University for Teacher Training, E-mail: eshkewaree@yahoo.com.

  15. Mobile recommender application for promoting electricity saving among Iraqis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Manhal Isam; Hussain, Azham

    2017-10-01

    Mobile utilization has rapidly expanded due to its feasibility in executing different applications that can be used in solving everyday problems. Common issues in daily life include electricity saving. In Iraq, the Ministry of Power seriously faces such issue. This is because most households have lack access to information regarding to sufficient power consumption, as well as applications that educate about such saving. Therefore, this study aims at developing a mobile application for Iraqi to help them understand the basis for reducing electricity consumption based on the meter data supplied by the users for square meter along with the active devices and period of usage. The proposed mobile application was evaluated by 50 households from the perspective of ease of use, usefulness, ease of learning, and satisfaction. The obtained result showed that majority of the participants found the application to be ease to use, useful, easy to learn, and were satisfied with its functionalities. The study findings provide some insights about the importance of using mobile application for promoting households in Iraq to manage their power consumption behavior.

  16. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Elisa

    2000-03-01

    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  17. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Anxiety, stress, and quality of life among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. DefenseLink Special: Sgt. 1st Class Paul R. Smith, Medal of Honor Recipient

    Science.gov (United States)

    awarded for service in Operation Iraqi Freedom and the global war on terror. Story | Photos See caption Ray Smith, was mortally wounded saving his platoon in Operation Iraqi Freedom and is the first soldier / Links * U.S. Army Special Page * President Bush Speech See caption below. WHITE HOUSE CEREMONY - David

  20. 75 FR 3843 - Religious Freedom Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... protect our freedom of religion, including the freedom to practice none at all. Many faiths are now..., declaring freedom of religion as the natural right of all humanity--not a privilege for any government to... Religious Freedom Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Long before our...

  1. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  2. The Response of Iraqi buffaloes to standardized diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Khlef

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This Experiment was conducted in the Newashi village of Thiqar province in the south of Iraq from 15 October till 31 December 2006. A sample of 50 milking buffaloes in 1st to 7th lactation were randomly choosed in three nearby herds , then divided into two equal groups for the treatment and the control. After 10 days of adaptation, the treated group was fed the standardized diet which was consisted of: Alfa Alfa hay ,12 kg/day, concentrates, 8 kg/day. The concentrate consists of barley grains 37%, maize grain 15%, wheat bran 40%, rice bran 5%,calcium carbonate 2% and food salt 1% .The control group was fed -as it is usual in the region –reed roughages , rice straws, dray bred and some wheat bran. Daily milk yield for the whole sample, cream( ghiamer and fat percent rom randomly choosed individuals from each group were measured . Simple linear model was used to detect the effect of the lactation, herd, calf sex and milking time on the traits . Duncan test was used to compare the differences between means . The results obtained showed that the lactation , herd, sex of calf and milking time had significant effect on the traits (p< 0.001. The diet had significantly affected daily milk yield , cream and fat percent ( 8.40 ± 1.75 vis 5.67 ± 1.41,21± 6.6 vis 9.79 3.24, and 12.4.11 vis 5.88±1.95 for the treated group vis. the control group (p<0.001.Accordingly, it can be assumed that the Iraqi buffaloes have good potential to produce more milk and fat under standardized feed condition.

  3. Induction New Suitable Soybean Genotypes for Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudhair, H.; Jaim, A.; Nassralla, A.; Suhail, A.; Abass, H.; Hassan, A.; Hussain, A.; Mahmood, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mutation breeding programme was conducted to improve soybean (Glycine max. L. merrill) yield and oil Seeds were irradiation with 0,100,200,300 Gray of gamma ray Co 60 Selection of genetic variants started from M2 and continued to M8. Eight variants were selected in M8 generation that were characterized with high yield and desirable morphological characters. Preliminary comparison experiments of M9 and M10 with check variety (Lee74) were conducted at two locations (Twaitha and Lattifya). Three promising variants were selected for high yield and low percentage of seed shrinkage as compared with the check variety (Lee74) and other mutants. The same selected variants were planted in large scale comparison experiments with check variety (LEE 74) and two introduced varieties (Coker335 and Gasoy17) in two locations (Twaitha and lattifya) for two seasons (1998,1999). Variants H134 and H39 were superior in their yield components and earliness in maturity compared with the variant H226 and the other check varieties . The average yield and oil percentage in the two seasons(1998,1999) was 3195, 3115kg/ha and 18.2%, 19.3% respectively for the variants H134 and H39 compared with the yield and the percentage of oil for the check variety (Lee74) that was 2794 kg/ha and 18.3% respectively. These two variants were also superior in their protein percentage. According to these promising results of the variants H134 and H39 they were submitted for registration. They were registered under the names TAKA1 and TAKA-2 as suitable varieties for Iraqi environmental conditions. (authors) 13 refs., 5 tabs

  4. [On freedom of scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkers, G

    2013-07-01

    Debates about science and, more specifically, about scientific research quickly bring up the question about its freedom. Science is readily blamed for technological disasters or criticized for nursing fantasies of omnipotence and commercial gain. This prompts the call for a restriction of its freedom. At the same time, society's demands on science are enormous, to the effect that science and technology have acquired the status of a deus-ex-machina: they are expected to furnish short-term, affordable, and convenient solutions to a wide range of problems, including issues of health, transportation, food and, more generally, a comfortable life. What kind of freedom is required to meet these expectations? Who is in a position to grant it? What does freedom for science mean and how is it linked to responsibility? The paper examines the current situation of freedom in scientific research and of its restrictions, many of which are mentally or economically conditioned. It calls for the involvement of an informed, self-confident bourgeoisie in research decisions and for the educational measures this necessitates. Finally, it demands a greater appreciation of education (rather than training) as the basis of social trust, and the recognition of continuous education as a productive investment of time and a crucial element in the employment of social goods.

  5. America's Mercenaries: War by Proxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Kevin G

    2006-01-01

    Although the government's reliance on contractors to support military forces is not a new phenomenon, the degree to which contractors are involved in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OIF...

  6. A Policy Analysis of Strategies to Manage Medical Holdovers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Tammie M

    2005-01-01

    This study is a policy analysis of the Community Based Health Care Initiative (CBHCI) implemented to address the problems for Soldiers mobilized and deployed in support of Operations Noble Eagle, Enduring Freedom, and Iraqi Freedom...

  7. Academic Freedom in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokay GEDİKOĞLU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concept ‘academic freedom’ is discussed, its implications and value for the academics, institutions of higher education, and the society are focused, and a few suggestions for the Turkish higher education are made. Academic freedom is defined as the freedom of the academic staff to look for and to find the truth in their scientific field, to publish the findings, and to teach these findings to their students without any external intervention. The concept has gained a further definition with inclusion of research activities into academic freedom as part of the reform attempts started in the German higher education in the 19th century. Therefore, academic freedom is at the very core of the missions of the institutions of higher education; that is, teaching-learning and research. On the point of academic staff and their academic activities of the academic freedom, the subjects such as the aim of the course, choosing the teaching materials and textbooks, the lecturer, and the criteria for the measurement and evaluation of the course take place. And he point of research covers the aim of the study, academicians can’t be imposed the involve in an academic and artistic studies that conflict their values and beliefs; researchers should comply with codes of ethical principles and practices during the process of researching; and research outputs should be reported accurately and honestly without any misleading manipulation. Academic freedom does not provide any exemption from accountability in academic activities of the faculty, nor does it provide any right to act against the well-being of the society, current laws and regulations, and codes of ethical principles and practices.

  8. New threats to academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Space Station Freedom food management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  10. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    OpenAIRE

    Reel, Jordan; Block, Walter E.

    2013-01-01

    Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figu...

  11. The Socioemotional Development of Orphans in Orphanages and Traditional Foster Care in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; Mohamad, Kirmanj

    1996-01-01

    A one-year follow-up study of children who had lost both parents and were placed in orphanages (n=19) or foster homes (n=18) in Iraqi Kurdistan investigated the orphans' situation and development. The children in orphanages were found to have higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder than the foster care children. (Author/CR)

  12. History Education in Schools in Iraqi Kurdistan: Representing Values of Peace and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweish, Marwan; Mohammed, Maamoon Abdulsamad

    2018-01-01

    The Kurdistan Regional Government has implemented a wide range of reforms in Iraqi Kurdistan's education system since its establishment in 2003. This qualitative study utilises critical discourse analysis to investigate the content of History Education (HE) textbooks (grades five to eight) and to assess how far peace education values and…

  13. Three Secondary School Teachers Implementing Student-Centred Learning in Iraqi Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, Tony; Madsen, Janne; Zako, Nadia; Ismail, Adham

    2017-01-01

    In Iraqi Kurdistan, the educational system is going through significant changes. The educational system influences the students' attitudes, and one wants the educational system to support the young democracy. In this study, student-centred learning (SCL) is seen as a first step to learning, but also to participation and engagement as a citizen.…

  14. Refugee warriors or war refugees? Iraqi refugees' predicament in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and

  15. Jesuit Contributions to the Iraqi Education System in the 1930s and Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This article will consider the significant role which the Society of Jesus had played in the Iraqi secondary and higher education systems in the period 1932-1968. The Jesuits' Baghdad-based school and university formed a part of the substantial Jesuit educational network established across the Middle East from the nineteenth century and this…

  16. Pragmatic Difficulties in the Production of the Speech Act of Apology by Iraqi EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghazalli, Mehdi Falih; Al-Shammary, Mohanad A. Amert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic difficulties encountered by Iraqi EFL university students in producing the speech act of apology. Although the act of apology is easy to recognize or use by native speakers of English, non-native speakers generally encounter difficulties in discriminating one speech act from another. The…

  17. Awareness of antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in the Iraqi community in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Dana A; Abdelmalek, Suzanne; Abu Dayyih, Wael; Hamadi, Salim

    2014-05-14

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious global health concern. It has considerable implications on societies' health and resources. In Jordan, there is a large Iraqi community due to the ongoing turmoil in Iraq. Unfortunately, health awareness and practices of this community are under-investigated due to scarcity of research. This paper assesses the awareness of antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in the Iraqi community residing in Amman, Jordan. Their level of interaction with health care professionals regarding antibiotics and differences in their antibiotic use between Iraq and Jordan are also discussed. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey involving randomly selected Iraqis residing in Amman, Jordan was conducted. The study involved 508 participants. Sixty-two percent of participants agreed with buying antibiotics without a prescription, 29% agreed with obtaining antibiotics from friends or relatives, and 46% agreed with keeping leftover antibiotics for future use. Furthermore, 60% disagreed with not completing an antibiotic course and almost 90% of the sample listed viral diseases as an indication for antibiotics. Forty-four percent of participants abided by physicians' instructions on antibiotic use. Half of the participants believed that pharmacists provided instructions on antibiotics all the time, whereas physicians were perceived to do so by 29% of participants. Gaps exist in knowledge of antibiotic use and reasons for antimicrobial resistance among Iraqis residing in Jordan. These gaps should serve in planning educational campaigns to raise the community's awareness of responsible antibiotic use. Law enforcement to restrict access to antibiotics is also pivotal to tackle their misuse.

  18. Out of Crisis: Reflections of an Iraqi and an American on Advocacy for Andragogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.

    2010-01-01

    Mahdi is an Iraqi doctoral candidate in adult and higher education and Bright is her doctoral advisor. The two have been involved in intensive dialogue about how they see their cultures, how they perceive the conflict in the Middle East, and how andragogical theory offers hope for changing learning and teaching approaches that can influence…

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade agreements... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7022 Trade agreements certificate—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements...

  20. The Specific Value of Freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Freedom is among the most important values in political life, yet there has always been a great deal of disagreement about what this value demands from us. Libertarians argue that it requires that we protect each person's right to own and exchange private property. Liberals argue that it requires

  1. Academic Freedom: A Lawyer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Academic freedom is central to ideas of higher education, yet in the United Kingdom it is facing challenges from changing managerial approaches within some universities and changing governmental expectations. Universities are increasingly expected to focus upon knowledge which can be shown to have value and to exploit the results of academic…

  2. On Procedural Freedom of Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlegi, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous works in the last decade have analyzed the question of how to compare opportunity sets as a way to measure and evaluate individual freedom of choice.This paper defends that, in many contexts, external procedural aspects that are associated to an opportunity set should be taken into account

  3. No School like Freedom School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Lisa Ann

    2013-01-01

    "You are the hope of the future." That's the message Marian Wright Edelman, executive director of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), gave more than 1,500 excited college students and recent graduates as they began a week-long training for the CDF's Freedom Schools. She was preparing them for a daunting task--that of transforming the…

  4. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting…

  5. Renormalization group and asymptotic freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Several field theoretic models are presented which allow exact expressions of the renormalization constants and renormalized coupling constants. These models are analyzed as to their content of asymptotic free field behavior through the use of the Callan-Symanzik renormalization group equation. It is found that none of these models possesses asymptotic freedom in four dimensions

  6. Tenure, Academic Freedom, and Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Tenure itself is not the central issue in the debate over faculty tenure; honest faculty evaluation, adequate faculty development, and termination when appropriate are the real issues as are fears that abandonment of the tenure principle would amount to abandonment of the principles of academic freedom and shared governance. (MSE)

  7. Access, Intellectual Freedom and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Richard L.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)

  8. The Constitution and Academic Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Eric R.

    During the past 150 years U.S. courts have demonstrated a special protectiveness toward academics and academic institutions. Academic freedom was not a concern when the U.S. Constitution and the First Amendment were drafted and is not mentioned in the "Federalist Papers." However, decisions by a series of Supreme Court justices led to…

  9. Neurological disorders in Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Al-Saedy, Huda; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Burnham, Gilbert

    2012-04-01

    The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes 43.7 million forcibly displaced persons and asylum seekers due to conflict and persecution worldwide. Neurological disorders have rarely been described in displaced persons but likely pose a significant burden of disease. We describe the disease spectrum and health service utilization of Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers with neurological disorders using an information system developed by the UNHCR. Neurological disorders were actively monitored among the 7,642 UNHCR-registered Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers who received health and humanitarian assistance using a pilot, centralized, database called the Refugee Assistance Information System (RAIS) in the Kingdom of Jordan in 2010. There were 122 neurological diagnoses reported in 1,328 refugees (mean age 41 years, 49% female, 10% disabled, 43% with pending resettlement applications) in 2,659 health visits, accounting for 17% of all refugees who sought health assistance in RAIS. Referral to a neurologist occurred in 178 cases (13.4%). The most frequent ICD-10 neurological diagnoses were dorsalgia (back pain) (29.7% of individuals with neurological disorders), headache (13.1%), and epilepsy (12.6%). Approximately 1 in 20 Iraqi refugees with a neurological diagnosis self-reported a history of torture, which was higher than Iraqi refugees without a history of torture [66/1,328 versus 196/6,314, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.18]. Neurological disease affects a high proportion of Iraqi refugees, including victims of torture and the disabled. Refugees require dedicated care for treatment of neurological disease with a focus on pain disorders and epilepsy.

  10. Analysis of Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan (2003-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Latifi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Israel's Foreign Policy is one of the important issues concerned by the researchers of the international and regional affairs. Israel's Foreign Policy in years 2003-2015 has witnessed a lot of events. In these years, transformation of the Iraq's internal structures including the fall of the Baath Regime in Iraq and appearance of the terroristic group of Dashi (ISIS in this country has provided new opportunities and challenges for the Israel's Foreign Policy. In this regard, establishment of a republic system in Iraq and the reinforcement of the Kurdish streams, specially during the current transformations and the increasing desires for the independence in Iraqi's Kurdistan, have paved the way for Israel to intensify its activities in the region. In this regard, the current study has approach the issue of Israel's Foreign Policy concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan during the years 2003-2015 with a descriptive analytic method. The achieved results show that the political reasons (alliance of the periphery and development of the strategic depth in closeness to Iran, economic (accessing the energy and mineral resources in Iraqi's Kurdistan, the importance of the Kurdistan's hydro-politic resources for Israel and the Israel's economical influence from the Nile to the Euphrates, military-security (presence in the strategic environment of Iran and the external threats in the Middle East, creation of an environmental crisis un the Kurdish region of the Middle East, weakening the Iraqi's central government and disintegration of this country, Israel's security-intelligence expansion, acquiring a strategic territory and getting out of isolation and the resolving the its legitimacy crisis, controlling the currents of thought in this region, all have been influential in thein Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan.

  11. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  12. Freedom in electroweak symmetry breaking and mass matrix of fermions in dimensional deconstruction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Sugamoto, Akio

    2004-01-01

    There exists a freedom in a class of four-dimensional electroweak theories proposed by Arkani-Hamed et al. relying on deconstruction and Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. The freedom comes from the winding modes of the link variable (Wilson operator) connecting non-nearest neighbours in the discrete fifth dimension. Using this freedom, dynamical breaking of SU(2) gauge symmetry, mass hierarchy patterns of fermions and Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix may be obtained

  13. Interim Analysis of Iraqi Security Force Information Provided by the Department of Defense Report, "Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Tinh; Thompson, Charles; Williams, Roger M

    2008-01-01

    .... One indicator being reported is information on the number of Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) authorized (required), assigned (on-the-payroll), and trained. The Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction...

  14. Old Dilemmas Renewed: Fear of Freedom vs. Freedom from Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Gruszczyk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary societies are currently subjected to very rapid and radical social changes and, as a consequence, struggle with their outcomes. The results range from the unforeseen repercussions of globally shifting political powers, through rising nationalisms, to prolonged economic, environmental, political and humanitarian crises. Critical analysis of the theories focused on the phenomena of authoritarianism, escapism, political myth, and conformity allows for outlining a comprehensive picture of the universally recognized opposition between freedom and security. From the distinction between the positive and negative freedom to the ambiguity surrounding the concept of “freedom from fear”, the fundamental dilemma is viewed from a historical perspective and illustrated with modern examples, emphasizing its current validity, insightfulness and potential in analyzing contemporary global problems. This approach allows for in-depth analyses of diversified social and political issues, such as the North African-European refugee crisis, rising nationalisms in the Western world, or a marked shift in political and social perspectives worldwide, from modern escapism to the birth of new myths of state.

  15. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) will support the operation of the many payloads that may be located within the pressurized modules or on external attachment points. The transaction management (TM) approach presented provides a set of overlapping features that will assure the effective and safe operation of the SSFMB and provide a schedule that makes potentially hazardous operations safe, allocates resources within the capability of the resource providers, and maintains an environment conducive to the operations planned. This approach provides for targets of opportunity and schedule adjustments that give the operators the flexibility to conduct a vast majority of their operations with no conscious involvement with the TM function.

  16. Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While much attention has been devoted to analyzing how the institutional framework and entrepreneurship impact growth, how economic policy and institutional design affect entrepreneurship appears to be much less analyzed. We try to explain cross-country differences in the level of entrepreneurship...... by differences in economic policy and institutional design. Specifically, we use the measures of economic freedom to ask which elements of economic policy making and the institutional framework that are responsible for the supply of entrepreneurship (our data on entrepreneurship are derived from the Global...... Entrepreneurship Monitor). The combination of these two datasets is unique in the literature. We find that the size of government is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial activity but that sound money is positively correlated with entrepreneurial activity. Other measures of economic freedom...

  17. Economic Growth, Economic Freedom, and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard; Ekstrom, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the impact of various forms of economic freedom and various dimensions of governance, as well as a number of economic factors, on economic growth among OECD nations. Empirical estimation finds that the natural log of per capita purchasing-power-parity adjusted real GDP in OECD nations is positively impacted by business freedom, monetary freedom, trade freedom, and property rights security. Economic growth is found to be negatively affected by perceived governme...

  18. Asymptotic freedom and Zweig's rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, Th.

    1977-01-01

    Some theoretical aspects of applying short distance physics (asymptotic freedom) are discussed to prove the correctness of the quantum chromodynamics. Properties of new particles that depend only on short distance physics can be dealt with perturbatively. The new mesons are assumed to be CantiC bound states, where C is a new heavy quark. With this in mind some comments are made on the calculation of total widths for the direct decay of different CantiC states into ordinary hadrons

  19. Statistical Study to Check the Conformity of Aggregate in Kirkuk City to Requirement of Iraqi Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Saleem Khazaal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews a statistical study to check the conformity of aggregates (Coarse and Fine was used in Kirkuk city to the requirements of the Iraqi specifications. The data of sieve analysis (215 samples of aggregates being obtained from of National Central Construction Laboratory and Technical College Construction Laboratory in Kirkuk city have analyzed using the statistical program SAS. The results showed that 5%, 17%, and 18% of fine aggregate samples are passing sieve sizes 10 mm, 4.75 mm, and 2.36 mm, respectively, which were less than the minimum limit allowed by the Iraqi specifications for each sieve. The percentages passing sieve sizes 1.18mm, 600micrometers, and 300micrometers were more than the upper limit of specification by 5%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The samples were passing sieve sizes 1.18mm, and 600micrometers less than the minimum limit of specification by 17%, and 4%, respectively. The results showed that the deviation in a sieve size of 150 micrometers for the upper limit of the specification performs 2% of the total number of samples. For Coarse aggregate, the samples passing sieves size 37.5mm and 20mm were comforting the Iraqi specifications by 100% and 83% respectively, it has found that the samples were passing sieve sizes 10 mm was 5% was more than the higher limit of Iraqi specifications, and 27% of these samples were less than the minimum limit, whereas sample passing sieve size 5mm was 1% which is more than the upper limit of the Iraqi specification. As a result of statistical analysis of data for fine aggregate, it has found that the samples were passing sieve sizes 10 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm and 150micrometers conforming from statistical point of view the Iraqi specifications, whereas the samples were passing sieve sizes 4.75 mm, 600micrometers and 300 micrometers didn’t conform. Statistical analysis of the results of the coarse aggregates also showed that conforming to sieve sizes of 37.5 mm and 20 mm and

  20. Development as Freedom - And As What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to

  1. Development as Freedom : And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, I.P. van; Gasper, D.

    2007-01-01

    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At

  2. Development as Freedom. And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van

    2005-01-01

    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At

  3. Development as Freedom. And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van

    2006-01-01

    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At

  4. Individual Freedom and Institutional Frameworks in Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore Amartya Sen's contention that individual freedom represents both the objective of development and the means through which development is to take place. Examining the conceptualisation of freedom central to Sen's capability approach, I distinguish between two notions of freedom, autonomy and agency, where the former…

  5. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  6. Polar Bears in the Desert: A Case Study of the Operational and Strategic Impacts of the Iraq Surge on Tactical Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    COP Combat Outpost FM Field Manual FOB Forward Operating Base HHC Headquarters and Headquarters Company IED Improvised Explosive Device IP Iraqi...responsibility for security. Casey may have felt that the US troop presence incited violence but it was clear that Iraqis alone could not take care of...Second, Casey felt that sectarian violence was largely contained in all but four provinces allowing his command to start the process of transitioning

  7. Pre- and Post-displacement Stressors and Body Weight Development in Iraqi Refugees in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, K-L Catherine; Zhou, Kequan; Arnetz, Bengt; Jamil, Hikmet

    2015-10-01

    Refugees have typically experienced stress and trauma before entering the US. Stressors and mental health disorders may contribute to obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the body mass index (BMI) in Iraqi refugees settled in Michigan in relationship to pre- and post-migration stressors and mental health. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected from 290 Iraqi refugees immediately after they arrived in Michigan and one year after settlement. Significant increases were observed in BMI (+0.46 ± 0.09 kg/m(2), p refugees suffering from hypertension (from 9.6 to 13.1%, p migration trauma and social support, were also observed. Linear regression analyses failed to link stressors, well-being, and mental health to changes in BMI. It is likely that acculturation to a new lifestyle, including dietary patterns and physical activity levels, may have contributed to these changes.

  8. The Description of Health Among Iraqi Refugee Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Khlood F; Resick, Lenore K

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the description of health among Iraqi women refugees, their health status, and health experiences during resettlement in the United States. Twelve women, ages 21-67 years old, who resettled in the United States during or after 2003 where interviewed. The women described health as a gift determined by God, the ability to function, the absence of physical symptoms, and the need to feel safe and secure in the context of resettlement. Although the Iraqi women valued health, during the resettlement process, seeking safety and feeling secure were the foremost priorities. Findings revealed that this is a vulnerable population which has experienced the violence of war and, as a result, have unique physical, mental, economic, and social concerns related to health. Implications are for a multidisciplinary approach to best meet the unique individual health needs of this vulnerable population.

  9. Iraqi adolescents: self-regard, self-derogation, and perceived threat in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Ender, Morten G; Tabatabai, Ahoo

    2008-02-01

    A year into the 2003 US-Iraq war, how were adolescents in Baghdad faring? Conflict-related events typically lower psychological well-being; in contrast, investment in and protection of threatened identities should lead to self-esteem striving and, presumably, better well-being. How threatened do Iraqi adolescents feel? Is their self-esteem related to their sense of threat? Do age, religion, ethnicity, and gender alter the link between perceived threat and self-esteem? We use data from 1000 randomly selected adolescents living in Baghdad during July 2004. Iraqi adolescents reported high levels of threat; those feeling more threatened reported higher levels of self-esteem. Social background correlates with both self-esteem and perceived threat, but controlling for social background does not eliminate the relationship between self-esteem and perceived threat. We interpret our results in light of theory and research concerning social identity, mortality threats, and war trauma.

  10. Genetic Diversity of Iraqi Date Palm (Phoenix ‎dactylifera L.) by using RAPD Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Muhanned Abdul Hasan Kareem; Ali Hmood Al-Saadi ‎; Hassan Fadhil Naji

    2018-01-01

    In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592) bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2),...

  11. Genetic Diversity of Iraqi Date Palm (Phoenix ‎dactylifera L.) by using RAPD Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Muhanned Abdul Hasan; Ali ‎ Hmood Al-Saadi; Hassan Fadhil Naji

    2017-01-01

    In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592) bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2),...

  12. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Contract formation in cyberspace: a comparative study of Australian, American and Iraqi laws

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi, Iman Majeed

    2017-01-01

    Electronic commerce is an increasingly vital part of national economies and the global economy. The promotion of electronic commerce requires clear and effective laws. As electronic contracts are the building blocks for electronic commerce, it is essential for national laws, especially in developing countries, to be sufficiently certain and appropriately adapted to promote electronic commerce. This thesis formulates recommendations for reforming Iraqi contract law in order to promote the a...

  14. Neuropsychiatric disorders among Syrian and Iraqi refugees in Jordan: a retrospective cohort study 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica D; Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J

    2015-01-01

    The burden of neuropsychiatric disorders in refugees is likely high, but little has been reported on the neuropsychiatric disorders that affect Syrian and Iraqi refugees in a country of first asylum. This analysis aimed to study the cost and burden of neuropsychiatric disorders among refugees from Syria and Iraq requiring exceptional, United Nations-funded care in a country of first asylum. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees works with multi-disciplinary, in-country exceptional care committees to review refugees' applications for emergency or exceptional medical care. Neuropsychiatric diagnoses among refugee applicants were identified through a retrospective review of applications to the Jordanian Exceptional Care Committee (2012-2013). Diagnoses were made using International Classification of Disease-10(th) edition codes rendered by treating physicians. Neuropsychiatric applications accounted for 11% (264/2526) of all Exceptional Care Committee applications, representing 223 refugees (40% female; median age 35 years; 57% Syrian, 36% Iraqi, 7% other countries of origin). Two-thirds of neuropsychiatric cases were for emergency care. The total amount requested for neuropsychiatric disorders was 925,674 USD. Syrian refugees were significantly more likely to request neurotrauma care than Iraqis (18/128 vs. 3/80, p = 0.03). The most expensive care per person was for brain tumor (7,905 USD), multiple sclerosis (7,502 USD), and nervous system trauma (6,466 USD), although stroke was the most frequent diagnosis. Schizophrenia was the most costly and frequent diagnosis among the psychiatric disorders (2,269 USD per person, 27,226 USD total). Neuropsychiatric disorders, including those traditionally considered outside the purview of refugee health, are an important burden to health among Iraqi and Syrian refugees. Possible interventions could include stroke risk factor reduction and targeted medication donations for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and

  15. Pragmatic Difficulties in the Production of the Speech Act of Apology by Iraqi EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Falih Al-Ghazalli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic difficulties encountered by Iraqi EFL university students in producing the speech act of apology. Although the act of apology is easy to recognize or use by native speakers of English, non-native speakers generally encounter difficulties in discriminating one speech act from another. The problem can be attributed to two factors: pragma-linguistic and socio-pragmatic knowledge. The aim of this study is(1to evaluate the socio-pragmatic level of interpreting apologies as understood and used by Iraqi EFL university learners, (2 find out the level of difficulty they experience in producing apologies and(3 detect the reasons behind such misinterpretations and misuses. It is hypothesized that the socio-pragmatic interpretation of apology tends to play a crucial role in comprehending what is intended by the speaker. However, cultural gaps can be the main reason behind the EFL learners' inaccurate production of the act of apology. To verify the aforementioned hypotheses, a test has been constructed and administered to a sample of 70 fourth-year Iraqi EFL university learners, morning classes. The subjects' responses have been collected and linguistically analyzed in the light of an eclectic model based on Deutschmann (2003 and Lazare (2004. It has been concluded that the misinterpretation or difficulty Iraqi EFL students have faced is mainly attributed to their lack of socio-pragmatic knowledge. The interference of the learnersʹ first language culture has led to non-native productions of speech act of apology.

  16. Statistical Study to Check the Conformity of Aggregate in Kirkuk City to Requirement of Iraqi Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Saleem Khazaal; Nizar N Ismeel; Abdel fattah K. Hussein

    2018-01-01

    This research reviews a statistical study to check the conformity of aggregates (Coarse and Fine) was used in Kirkuk city to the requirements of the Iraqi specifications. The data of sieve analysis (215 samples) of aggregates being obtained from of National Central Construction Laboratory and Technical College Construction Laboratory in Kirkuk city have analyzed using the statistical program SAS. The results showed that 5%, 17%, and 18% of fine aggregate samples are passing sieve sizes 10 mm,...

  17. Negotiations of believing and belonging among Iraqi and Egyptian Christians in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen

    This presentation explores negotiations of belonging among Christian immigrants of Iraqi and Egyptian background in Denmark. Based on transnational and diaspora studies, experiences and practices of belonging are explored as multi-directional and situational springing from everyday encounters...... and personal life trajectory, political events in both the region of origin and in the receiving country (Denmark), as well as opportunity structures empowering Middle Eastern Christians as collective and individual actors....

  18. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  19. Asymptomatic freedom in renormalisable gravity and supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates that renormalizable supergravity, which is a superextension of renormalizable quantum gravity, can be the basis for a natural ''induced supergravity'' theory. A perturbatively operational unified theory is needed for a description of the early stages of the Universe, and renormalizable quantum gravity is well suited for unification with the renormalizable Grand Unified Models of matter. Topics considered include one-loop counter-terms and renormalization group (RG) equations for pure renormalizable gravity; the consequences of asymptotic freedom; the inclusion of matter; conformal supergravities; and renormalizable supergravity models. It is concluded that the presented lagrangian, which contains a locally superconformal extension of the Yang-Mills and massless spinor lagrangians and the conformal supergravity term, shows that conformal supergravity may play an important role in a fundamental theory

  20. A cross-cultural study of request speech act: Iraqi and Malay students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farnia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that the range and linguistics expressions of external modifiers available in one language differ from those available in another language. The present study aims to investigate the cross-cultural differences and similarities with regards to the realization of request external modifications. To this end, 30 Iraqi and 30 Malay university students are selected as the participants of this study. Spencer-Oatey's (2008 rapport management theoretical framework is used to examine how face rapport is managed through the use of external modifications. The corpus consists of responses to a Discourse Completion Test (DCT consisting of eight situations. The questionnaires, adopted from Rose (1994, were distributed among Iraqi students and Malaysian Malay students studying at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. The corpus were then analyzed based on Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper (1989 classification of external modifiers. The primary objective of this paper is to compare the effect of situational factors on the realization patterns of request modification between Iraqi and Malay university students .The findings are hoped to have implications for comparative cross-cultural and intercultural communication studies.

  1. Important considerations when providing mental health first aid to Iraqi refugees in Australia: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe Guajardo, Maria Gabriela; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Santalucia, Yvonne; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2016-01-01

    Refugees are one of the most vulnerable groups in Australian society, presenting high levels of exposure to traumatic events and consequently high levels of severe psychological distress. While there is a need for professional help, only a small percentage will receive appropriate care for their mental health concerns. This study aimed to determine cultural considerations required when providing mental health first aid to Iraqi refugees experiencing mental health problems or crises. Using a Delphi method, 16 experts were presented with statements about possible culturally-appropriate first aid actions via questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the questionnaire content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥90 % of panellists as 'Essential' or 'Important'. From a total of 65 statements, 38 were endorsed (17 for cultural awareness, 12 for cross-cultural communication, 7 for stigma associated with mental health problems, and 2 for barriers to seeking professional help). Experts were able to reach consensus about how to provide culturally-appropriate first aid for mental health problems to Iraqi refugees, demonstrating the suitability of this methodology in developing cultural considerations guidelines. This specific refugee study provided potentially valuable cultural knowledge required to better equip members of the Australian public on how to respond to and assist Iraqi refugees experiencing mental health problems or crises.

  2. Medical conditions among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Methods Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1January to 31December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. Findings There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Conclusion Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases. PMID:22690034

  3. Medical conditions among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E

    2012-06-01

    To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1 January to 31 December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus and breast cancer: Epidemiological and Molecular study on Egyptian and Iraqi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, A.N.; Mohamed, W.S.; Hafez, M.M.; Hassan, Z.K.; Bahnassy, A.A.; El-Kassem, F.A.; El-Khalidi, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast carcinogenesis is still controversial. Unraveling this relationship is potentially important for better understanding of breast cancer etiology, early detection and possibly prevention of breast cancer. The aim of the current study is to unravel the association between EBV and primary invasive breast cancer (PIBC) in two different Arab populations (Egyptian and Iraqi women). Patients and Methods: The study was done on paraffin-embedded tissues of 40 Egyptian and 50 Iraqi patients with PIBC in addition to 20 normal breast tissues as controls for each group. Both controls and neoplastic tissues were assessed for the expression of EBV genes and proteins (EBNA-1, LMP-1, and EBER) as well as CD21 marker by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH) and PCR techniques. Results: Our gold standard for EBV reactivity in breast cancer cases was positivity of both EBNA1 by PCR and EBER by in situ hybridization. EBV was detected in 18/40 (45%) and 14/50 (28%) of Egyptian and Iraqi women; respectively where p = 0.073, compared to 0/20 (0%) of their control groups (p < 0.05). Regarding the association between EBV positivity and tumor grade, there was not any statistical significant difference between EBV presence and tumor grade in both populations

  5. Developing Accounting Information System Course Content for Iraqi Higher Education Institution: An Instrument Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Yousif Hanna Lallo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In ensuring that competent graduates are produced in the universities, the course used embedding knowledge in the students, mindsets needs to be effective. However, the unusual circumstances that happened in Iraq were affected on a universities course. The revolution in information technology (IT affects most of our activations. As a result, it is important to consider the impact of IT on accounting careers. Developing accenting information system course content can generate an accountant who is armed with the knowledge and skills before entering accounting job. Also the development process required instructors have characteristics that make the integrating process of IT knowledge components in AIS course content more smoothly. Iraq is the country facing many difficulties that makes its higher education institutions (HEIs suffered from un updated learning environment and technological backwardness. This causes a low level of accounting graduates’ knowledge and in turn leads to led to consider the Iraqi accountant incapable of working with international organizations and companies or conducting was it professionally. The aim of this paper is to explain the role of IT knowledge elements in developing AIS course content in Iraqi HEIs with considering the moderate effect of the instructors’ characteristics. Furthermore, this paper discusses the development and validation of the quantitative instrument (questionnaire for IT knowledge elements in Iraqi HEIs. Moreover, the reliability of the constructs is also discussed.

  6. Transceiver for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, M.; Bruno, R.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes the design of the Laser Communication Transceiver (LCT) system which was planned to be flight tested as an attached payload on Space Station Freedom. The objective in building and flight-testing the LCT is to perform a broad class of tests addressing the critical aspects of space-based optical communications systems, providing a base of experience for applying laser communications technology toward future communications needs. The LCT's functional and performance requirements and capabilities with respect to acquisition, spatial tracking and pointing, communications, and attitude determination are discussed.

  7. Hydrodesulfurization of Iraqi Atmospheric Gasoil by Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 Prepared Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Halim Abdul Karim Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the improvement of Iraqi atmospheric gas oil characteristics which contains 1.402 wt. % sulfur content and 16.88 wt. % aromatic content supplied from Al-Dura Refinery by using hydrodesulfurization (HDS process using Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst in order to achieve low sulfur and aromatic saturation gas oil. Hydrodearomatization (HDA occurs simultaneously with hydrodesulfurization (HDS process. The effect of titanium on the conventional catalyst Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 was investigated by physical adsorption and catalytic activity test.Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared under vacuum impregnation condition to ensure efficient precipitation of metals within the carrier γ-Al2O3. The loading percentage of metals as oxide; titanium oxide 3 wt. %, nickel oxide 5 wt. % and molybdenum oxide 12 wt. %. The performance of the synthesized catalyst for removing sulfur and aromatic saturation were tested at various temperatures 275 to 350°C, LHSV 1 to 4h-1, constant pressure 40 bar and H2/HC ratio 500 ml/ml.Results showed that the sulfur and aromatic content were reduced at all operating conditions. Maximum sulfur removal was 75.52 wt. % in gas oil on Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 at temperature 350˚C, LHSV 1h-1, while minimum aromatic content achieved was 15.6 wt. % at the same conditions.

  8. Freedom: Toward an Integration of the Counseling Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Fred J.

    2011-01-01

    Freedom is presented as an overarching paradigm that may align and bring together the counseling profession's diverse counseling theories and open a doorway to a new generation of counseling techniques. Freedom is defined and discussed in terms of its 4 modalities: freedom from, freedom to, freedom with, and freedom for. The long-standing problem…

  9. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1989-01-01

    An approach to managing the operations of the Space Station Freedom based on their external effects is described. It is assumed that there is a conflict-free schedule that, if followed, will allow only appropriate operations to occur. The problem is then reduced to that of ensuring that the operations initiated are within the limits allowed by the schedule, or that the external effects of such operations are within those allowed by the schedule. The main features of the currently adopted transaction management approach are discussed.

  10. Mental health literacy among refugee communities: differences between the Australian lay public and the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Samantha; Rapee, Ronald M; Coello, Mariano; Momartin, Shakeh; Aroche, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated differences in mental health knowledge and beliefs between participants from the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities, and Australian-born individuals, in Sydney, Australia. Ninety-seven participants were given vignettes of characters describing symptoms of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress. They were required to identify psychological symptoms as disorders, rate beliefs about the causes of and helpful treatments for these disorders, and rate attitude statements regarding the two characters. Australian participants recognized the presented symptoms as specific mental disorders significantly more than Iraqi and Sudanese participants did, and reported causal and treatment beliefs which were more congruent with expert beliefs as per the western medical model of mental disorder. The Sudanese group endorsed supernatural and religious causal beliefs regarding depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms most often; but both Sudanese and Iraqi participants strongly supported options from the supernatural and religious treatment items. However, evidence for pluralistic belief systems was also found. Although sampling was non-random, suggesting caution in the interpretation of results, it appears that the mental health literacy of lay Australians may be more aligned with the western medical model of mental disorder than that of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities. Mental health literacy support needs of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities resettled in western countries such as Australia might include education about specific symptoms and causes of mental disorder and the effectiveness of psychiatric treatments. These findings provide useful directions for the promotion of optimal service utilization among such communities.

  11. Message from Mr. R.A. Al-Kital, Commissioner of the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, received by the Director General on 23 October 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The document reproduces the message from Mr. R.A. Al-Kital, Commissioner of the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission received by the Director General of the IAEA on 23 October 1985 related to the Israeli attack against the Iraqi nuclear installations

  12. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the re-ligion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describ-ing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  13. BBG 2009 Freedom of Information Act Repot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  14. BBG 2008 Freedom of Information Act Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  15. The American Dilemma: Freedoms or Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gentner, Judith

    1997-01-01

    .... Can a law-abiding nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to individual freedoms, effectively protect itself and its citizens against terrorism without infringing on these fundamental principles...

  16. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l inge.vestergaard@aarch.dk Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performed expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have in Denmark been focusing a more sustainable and low energy building technique, which also include...... to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...

  17. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  18. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  19. [Manpower migrations and Arab unity: the challenges of the Iraqi model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussillon, A

    1985-01-01

    Iraq occupies a unique position in the system of manpower exchanges between Middle Eastern states brought about by the rise in petroleum incomes of the 1970s. Iraq was among the most important oil exporters until the war with Iran, but its economy is predominantly agricultural, it is a rich country in terms of available financial resources, and it is both an importer and exporter of labor, traits which place it squarely between the nonoil-producing states which are poor and overpopulated and the oil exporters which are rich and underpopulated. Its migration policy, which radically distinguishes between Arab and non-Arab manpower, is also unique. Data on migration to Iraq are very sparse despite the fact that the nation has a good data-gathering capacity. Estimates of migration to Iraq and employment patterns of migrants have varied widely and have contradicted each other in crucial respects. The most unusual aspect of Iraqi immigration policy, the free access offered to Egyptians and other Arabs, has hampered attempts to estimate the volume of migration, as workers come and go for relatively short periods, seeking their own employment in Iraq and working in jobs for which they may be overqualified. Official formulations of Iraqi migration policy insist that migration should not only be beneficial to individual importing and exporting countries in terms of development and social cohesion, but should also reinforce the solidarity and regional complementarity of the Arab world as a whole. Iraqi migration policy is presented as expressing the most fundamental choices of the "Arab revolution" in the socialist dimension of Arab unitary ideology rather than in terms of immediate national economic interest. Iraqi legislation grants non-Iraqi Arabs the same labor, residence, investment, and ultimately naturalization rights as those enjoyed by nationals, but severely restricts access to employment and other rights of non-Arab foreigners. Denunciation of the dangers posed by

  20. Academic Freedom: A Global Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Academic freedom is best understood not as an abstract universal principle or an ideal state of being but as concrete university practices nested in specific relational environments. As such, practices of academic freedom vary across the world, according to variations in political cultures, educational cultures and state-university relations. The…

  1. Exemplary Teachers: Teaching for Intellectual Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual freedom has long been a desirable ideal and a foundational value for supporting democratic governance. Since 1948, it has been a universal human right. Given the unique nature of education in democratic societies, schools serve as a crucible for helping children understand and practise the rudiments of intellectual freedom. Drawing on…

  2. Negative freedom and the liberal paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    In their game-theoretic formulations, the liberal paradoxes of Amartya Sm and Alan Gibbard show a tension between freedom on the one hand, and Pareto optimality and stability on the other. This article examines what happens to the liberal paradoxes if a negative conception of freedom is used. Given

  3. Freedom of Conscience and Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, J. K.; Gereluk, D.; Patterson, P.; Brandon, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper's purpose is to extensively review the historical understanding of conscience and the current juridical interpretation of freedom of conscience under section 2(a) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982). It then briefly notes that given the challenge faced by Ontario's Catholic schools in providing for inclusionary…

  4. Escape from Freedom: Towards the Political Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the author contends that the ability to create a political realm is dependent upon one's state of freedom. She questions what it means to be free and whether assumptions of the definitions of this concept are always good or beneficial. After discussing some of the known theories about freedom, she states that schools are some…

  5. Group Freedom : A Social Mechanism Account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Many existing defenses of group rights seem to rely on the notion of group freedom. To date, however, no adequate analysis of this notion has been offered. Group freedom is best understood in terms of processes of social categorization that are embedded in social mechanisms. Such processes often

  6. Freedom and Restrictions in Language Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Roy C.

    Since freedom of thought and expression is essential in a democracy, censorship of language is rightly regarded as a threat to all other freedoms. Still, it is inevitable that certain restrictions will occasionally be imposed on language in America and in other societies. Restrictions on language date back to the Ten Commandments, which condemned…

  7. Do We Still Need Academic Freedom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shils, Edward

    1993-01-01

    This review of academic freedom in U.S. universities focuses on the role of the American Association of University Professors, which originally linked academic freedom and tenure but now views equality of genders, races, and cultures and the normality of homosexuality as the only real values, whereas truth is seen as illusory, even exploitative.…

  8. Freedom of Speech Newsletter, September, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.

    The Freedom of Speech Newsletter is the communication medium for the Freedom of Speech Interest Group of the Western Speech Communication Association. The newsletter contains such features as a statement of concern by the National Ad Hoc Committee Against Censorship; Reticence and Free Speech, an article by James F. Vickrey discussing the subtle…

  9. Theoretical Value in Teaching Freedom of Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, John J., Jr.

    The exercise of freedom of speech within our nation has deteriorated. A practical value in teaching free speech is the possibility of restoring a commitment to its principles by educators. What must be taught is why freedom of speech is important, why it has been compromised, and the extent to which it has been compromised. Every technological…

  10. Reading Educational Philosophies in "Freedom Writers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Ah

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 film "Freedom Writers" portrays the real-life experiences of Erin Gruwell, a teacher at an inner-city high school in Long Beach, California. This article discusses the educational theories underpinning Gruwell's pedagogical practice, as seen in "Freedom Writers", and identifies four themes--rewriting curriculum,…

  11. Academic Freedom in Europe: Reviewing UNESCO's "Recommendation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, Terence

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the compliance of universities in the European Union with the UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel, which deals primarily with protection for academic freedom. The paper briefly surveys the European genesis of the modern research university and academic freedom, before evaluating…

  12. Meson degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of the successes and shortcomings of the theory of meson degrees of freedom in nuclei with special emphasis on recent progress and on the necessity to bridge the gap with the degrees of freedom of QCD theory. (orig.)

  13. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  14. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship in the Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…

  15. Lens positioner with five degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobierecki, M.W.; Rienecker, F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components

  16. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Cyberwar: Are Civilians Back on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    reason for believing that Iraqi soldiers would also surrender during Operation Iraqi Freedom.12 Thus, when considering the mistreatment of POWs at Abu ... Ghraib the harm was not only the immediate harm to the POWs but also the long-term harm to the US military operations. As eloquently stated in a

  18. Sociological Discourse(s) on Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    The concept of freedom is often thought of as antithetical to sociology. The discipline is more prone to detect and unveil forms of unfreedom, as Zygmunt Bauman (1988) has pointed out. The question remains if any academic discipline, however, including sociology can do away with the concept...... of freedom al together! In matters of science, the problem of determinism vs. chance and spontaneity is essential. Hence, freedom, in one sense or the other, is necessarily at bottom also of sociological discourse. This text is an attempt to map the predominant forms of freedom found in sociological...... discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...

  19. Iraqi health system in kurdistan region: medical professionals' perspectives on challenges and priorities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Tahir, Rebaz; Shwani, Falah H; Saleh, Abubakir M; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S

    2010-11-30

    The views of medical professionals on efficiency of health system and needs for any changes are very critical and constitute a cornerstone for any health system improvement. This is particularly relevant to Iraqi Kurdistan case as the events of the last few decades have significantly devastated the national Iraqi health system while the necessity for adopting a new health care system is increasingly recognized since 2004. This study aims to examine the regional health system in Iraqi Kurdistan from medical professionals' perspectives and try to define its problems and priorities for improvement. A survey questionnaire was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 250 medical professionals in Erbil governorate. The questionnaire included four items; rating of the quality of services and availability of resources in the health institutions, view on different aspects of the health system, the perceived priority needs for health system improvement and gender and professional characteristics of the respondents. The response rate to the survey was 83.6%. A high proportion of respondents rated the different aspects of services and resources in the health institutions as weak or very weak including the availability of the required quantity and quality of medicines (68.7%), the availability of sufficient medical equipment and investigation tools (68.7%), and the quality of offered services (65.3%). Around 72% of respondents had a rather negative view on the overall health system. The weak role of medical research, the weak role of professional associations in controlling the system and the inefficient health education were identified as important problems in the current health system (87.9%, 87.1% and 84.9%, respectively). The priority needs of health system improvement included adoption of social insurance for medical care of the poor (82%), enhancing the role of family medicine (77.2%), adopting health insurance system (76.1%) and periodic scientific

  20. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, a new subterranean loach from Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir; Ararat, Korsh; Ibrahim, Hamad; Geiger, Matthias F

    2016-10-04

    Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.

  1. Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus from the Tigris drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir

    2017-03-02

    Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males.

  2. Job satisfaction and turnover intention among Iraqi doctors--a descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Jadoo, Saad Ahmed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Dastan, Ilker; Tawfeeq, Ruqiya Subhi; Mustafa, Mustafa Ali; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; AlDubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2015-04-19

    During the last two decades, the Iraqi human resources for health was exposed to an unprecedented turnover of trained and experienced medical professionals. This study aimed to explore prominent factors affecting turnover intentions among Iraqi doctors. A descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study was carried out among 576 doctors across 20 hospitals in Iraq using multistage sampling technique. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included socio-demographic information, work characteristics, the 10-item Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale, and one question on turnover intention. Descriptive and bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify significant factors affecting turnover intentions. More than one half of Iraqi doctors (55.2%) were actively seeking alternative employment. Factors associated with turnover intentions among doctors were low job satisfaction score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 0.99), aged 40 years old or less (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.74, 4.75), being male (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.54, 7.03), being single (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 2.61, 9.75), being threatened (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.80, 6.69), internally displaced (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.43, 6.57), having a perception of unsafe medical practice (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.86, 9.21), working more than 40 h per week, (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.27, 4.03), disagreement with the way manager handles staff (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 4.03), being non-specialist, (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.08, 7.13), and being employed in the government sector only (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.82). The high-turnover intention among Iraqi doctors is significantly associated with working and security conditions. An urgent and effective strategy is required to prevent doctors' exodus.

  3. Space Station Freedom - What if...?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Jerry

    1992-10-01

    The use of novel structural designs and the Energia launch system of the Commonwealth of Independent States for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program is evaluated by means of a concept analysis. The analysis assumes that: (1) Energia is used for all cargo and logistics resupply missions; (2) the shuttles are launched from the U.S.; and (3) an eight-person assured crew return vehicle is available. This launch/supply scenario reduces the deployment risk from 30 launches to a total of only eight launches reducing the cost by about 15 billion U.S. dollars. The scenario also significantly increases the expected habitable and storage volumes and decreases the deployment time by three years over previous scenarios. The specific payloads are given for Energia launches emphasizing a proposed design for the common module cluster that incorporates direct structural attachment to the truss at midspan. The design is shown to facilitate the accommodation of additional service hangars and to provide a more efficient program for spacecraft habitable space.

  4. Functional Freedom: A Psychological Model of Freedom in Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette

    2017-07-05

    The freedom of a decision is not yet sufficiently described as a psychological variable. We present a model of functional decision freedom that aims to fill that role. The model conceptualizes functional freedom as a capacity of people that varies depending on certain conditions of a decision episode. It denotes an inner capability to consciously shape complex decisions according to one's own values and needs. Functional freedom depends on three compensatory dimensions: it is greatest when the decision-maker is highly rational, when the structure of the decision is highly underdetermined, and when the decision process is strongly based on conscious thought and reflection. We outline possible research questions, argue for psychological benefits of functional decision freedom, and explicate the model's implications on current knowledge and research. In conclusion, we show that functional freedom is a scientific variable, permitting an additional psychological foothold in research on freedom, and that is compatible with a deterministic worldview.

  5. Functional Freedom: A Psychological Model of Freedom in Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The freedom of a decision is not yet sufficiently described as a psychological variable. We present a model of functional decision freedom that aims to fill that role. The model conceptualizes functional freedom as a capacity of people that varies depending on certain conditions of a decision episode. It denotes an inner capability to consciously shape complex decisions according to one’s own values and needs. Functional freedom depends on three compensatory dimensions: it is greatest when the decision-maker is highly rational, when the structure of the decision is highly underdetermined, and when the decision process is strongly based on conscious thought and reflection. We outline possible research questions, argue for psychological benefits of functional decision freedom, and explicate the model’s implications on current knowledge and research. In conclusion, we show that functional freedom is a scientific variable, permitting an additional psychological foothold in research on freedom, and that is compatible with a deterministic worldview. PMID:28678165

  6. Kant, Freedom as Independence, and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    While the influence of Kant’s practical philosophy on contemporary political theory has been profound, it has its source in Kant’s autonomy-based moral philosophy rather than in his freedom-based philosophy of Right. Kant scholars have increasingly turned their attention to Kant’s Rechtslehre......, but they have largely ignored its potential contribution to discussions of democracy. However, Kant’s approach to political philosophy can supply unique insights to the latter. His notion that freedom and the public legal order are co-constitutive can be developed into a freedom argument for constitutional...

  7. Response to Haskell's "Academic Freedom ... & Student Evaluation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Stake

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Haskell (1997 argued that the administrative practice of student evaluation of faculty is a threat to academic freedom. However, before that claim can be substantiated, several prior questions must be addressed: To whom does academic freedom belong? Individual faculty? The academy? Whose actions can violate the right? Can any lines be drawn based on whether the substance or form of classroom behavior is influenced? And still another crucial point is whether a body can violate academic freedom without any intent to interfere with or control the substance of what is said to students.

  8. Freedom of Speech: The M Word

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Timothy; Olsen, Kristina; Andersen, Christopher; Reichhardt, Line

    2015-01-01

    The first objective of the project is to show how freedom of speech and democracy are dependent on one another in Denmark. The project’s next focal point is to look at how freedom of speech was framed in relation to the Mohammed publications in 2005. To do this, it identifies how freedom of speech was used by many Danish and European newspapers to justify the publications. Arguments against the publications by both the Danish media and the Muslim community (within Denmark and abroad) are also...

  9. Perception of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) by Iraqi dental academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Aghareed; Morgan, Michael; Mariño, Rodrigo; Manton, David; Bailey, Denise

    2011-07-01

    The understanding and detection of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is linked to its recognition by clinicians. No study has investigated dental clinicians' level of perception regarding MIH in the Middle East region including Iraq. To determine the perception of Iraqi academic clinicians about MIH prevalence, severity and aetiological factors. A questionnaire, based on previous European and Australian/New Zealand studies was administered to the academic dental staff of Mosul University. A response rate of 77.7% was reported. General dental practitioners represented 30.8% of the total respondents, whilst 65.1% were dentists with post-graduate qualification. The majority of the respondents (81.2%) encountered MIH in their clinical activities and 37.3% of them identified that the prevalence appeared to have increased in recent years. Fewer than half of the respondents observed MIH affected teeth on a monthly basis. The condition was less commonly seen in primary second molars than the first permanent molars. A variation in views was recorded about MIH specific aetiological factor/s. Respondents advocated the need for clinical training regarding MIH-aetiological and therapeutic fields. Molar-incisor hypomineralisation is a condition commonly diagnosed by Iraqi dental academics. No apparent consensus existed between the general and specialist dentists regarding the anticipated prevalence, severity and aetiology of this condition. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Characterization of Some Iraqi Archaeological Samples Using IBA, Analytical X-ray and Other Complementary Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sarraj, Ziyad Shihab; Damboos, Hassan I; Roumie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the compositions and microstructures of some archaeological samples which dated back to various periods of the ancient Iraqi civilizations using PIXE, XRF, XRD, and SEM techniques. The models selected for the study (ceramics, glaze, etc.) were diverse in size and nature, therefore a limited number of samples were then butted from them by a small diamond wheel. Conventional powder metallurgy method was then used to prepare the samples. Dried samples were then coated with a thin layer of carbon, and analyzed using the ion beam accelerator of the LAEC. Three other groups of samples were also prepared for the purpose of analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analysis results of the chemical composition showed good agreement between the various techniques as well as for phases, while the fine structure analysis obtained by optical and scanning microscopy exhibited features of a structure where it got an intensified densification in the final stage of sintering and accompanied by quasi-homogeneous distribution of the closed pores. This will lead to the conclusion that the temperature used for sintering by ancient Iraqi was sufficient and it may fall in the range between 950-1200°C, also the mixes and the forming methods used by them, were both suitable to obtain good sintered bodies with even distribution of pores. A ring-shaped trace noticed in SEM micrographs need more work and study to explain what it is?

  11. Dentoskeletal Overjet Measurements of Iraqi Adult Sample with Different Skeletal Jaw Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaa A Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many attempts were done to develop a method that actually reflects the sagittal jaw discrepancies without depending on cranial landmarks or dental occlusion. This study aimed to use one of these methods (dentoskeletal overjet for assessing the sagittal jaw relationships of Iraqi adult sample with different skeletal jaw relationship. Materials and method: The sample consisted of 90 digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs of Iraqi individuals with no previous orthodontic treatment. Cephalometric analysis of skeletal sagittal jaw relationship -ANB angle, beta angle and Wits appraisal- will perform for everyone to divide the sample into three groups (skeletal class I, II, III for which the dentoskeletal overjet will be measured. All cephalometric measurements will be done using AutoCAD. Results: Descriptive statistics of all variables with different skeletal jaw relationship showed that mean values of dentoskeletal overjet were (1.15, 3.91 and –2.01 mm for skeletal class I, class II and class III jaw relationship respectively. Accurate reproducibility of dentoskeletal overjet in assessment of jaw skeletal relationship showed that the lowest value was for assessment of skeletal class III jaw relationship (73% and the value for assessment of both skeletal class I and class II was higher (93%. Conclusions: Dentoskeletal overjet could be utilized in accurate representation of skeletal jaw relationship.

  12. The Usefulness of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR Eyespeak Software in Improving Iraqi EFL Students’ Pronunciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Fathi Sidig Sidgi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on determining whether automatic speech recognition (ASR technology is reliable for improving English pronunciation to Iraqi EFL students. Non-native learners of English are generally concerned about improving their pronunciation skills, and Iraqi students face difficulties in pronouncing English sounds that are not found in their native language (Arabic. This study is concerned with ASR and its effectiveness in overcoming this difficulty. The data were obtained from twenty participants randomly selected from first-year college students at Al-Turath University College from the Department of English in Baghdad-Iraq. The students had participated in a two month pronunciation instruction course using ASR Eyespeak software. At the end of the pronunciation instruction course using ASR Eyespeak software, the students completed a questionnaire to get their opinions about the usefulness of the ASR Eyespeak in improving their pronunciation. The findings of the study revealed that the students found ASR Eyespeak software very useful in improving their pronunciation and helping them realise their pronunciation mistakes. They also reported that learning pronunciation with ASR Eyespeak enjoyable.

  13. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Thanoon Dawood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%, impotence in male smokers (52.6%, premature ageing (64%, and stroke (66.3%. In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking.

  14. FREEDOM IN THE SENSE OF THE HEIDELBERG CATECHISM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It instructs us that we have to understand the word not as a freedom ... Produced by SUN MeDIA Bloemfontein .... mouth of the governor of Alabama, George Wallace, who fought resolutely ..... The right freedom is essentially a social freedom.

  15. Between Home and Exile: A Reading of the Exilic Experience of the Iraqi Poet Adnan Al-Sayegh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghena, Hana Khlaif

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the exilic experience of the Iraqi poet, Adnan Al-Sayegh whose involuntarily departure from his homeland, Iraq, in the early 1990s made him suffer a strong sense of estrangement, nostalgia, self-fragmentation and disconnection. The paper is divided into three sections and a conclusion. Section one sheds light on the…

  16. In the long term, the United States will have a relatively little influence on the Iraqi petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2003-01-01

    The author examines the US policy in the petroleum domain, the US intentions concerning the Iraqi petroleum, the Opec coherence facing the come back of the Iraq and the increase power of Russian and the demand increase (77 mb/d today for 115 mb/d in 2030). (A.L.B.)

  17. Self-rated health and social capital in Iraqi immigrants to Sweden: The MEDIM population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Louise; Lindström, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Poor self-rated health is an estimator of quality of life and a predictor of mortality seldom studied in immigrant populations. This work aimed to study self-rated health in relation to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and comorbidity in immigrants from Iraq - one of the largest non-European immigrant group in Sweden today - and to compare it with the self-rated health of native Swedes. The study was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2012 among citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30-65 years and born in Iraq or Sweden. All participants underwent a health examination and answered questionnaires on self-rated health, social capital, comorbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. In total, 1348 Iraqis and 677 Swedes participated. Poor self-rated health was identified in 43.9% of Iraqis and 21.9% of native Swedes ( psocial capital was highly prevalent in the immigrants. Female gender showed higher odds of poor self-rated health in Iraqis than in Swedes (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.5, p interaction =0.024), independent of other risk factors connected to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle or comorbidity. Although public health initiatives promoting social capital, socioeconomic status and comorbidity in immigrants are crucial, the excess risk of poor self-rated health in Iraqi women is not fully attributed to known risk factors for self-rated health, but remains to be further explored.

  18. The expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor gene in ovaries and uterus cells of Iraqi and Damascus goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa kamil Abdulla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi goats have a major economic role in production of meat, milk and leather as well as it considered a financial source for owners as reproduce twice a year, yet the Damascus goats have great importance than Iraqi goats owing to the number of twin births. The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH and its receptors have great importance in the reproduction and eugenics. To make a comparison between the Iraqi and Damascus goats in terms of this receptor gene expression in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells, the study was performed, in which used the (∆Ct Using a Reference Gene method by quintitive -real time PCR technique. Results were found a significant difference (p<0.05, as the gene expression of (GnRH-R higher in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells in Damascus goats compared with the Iraqi goats. In conclusion; the multiple pregnancies of twins in Damascus goats may be due to an increase gene expression of (GnRH-R in the ovaries and uterus tissue

  19. The Impacts of Liquidity on Profitability in Banking Sectors of Iraq: A Case of Iraqi Commercial Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardar Shaker Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of liquidity on the profitability of Iraqi commercial banks. Five banks based in Iraq namely: North bank, Iraqi Islamic bank, Sumer bank, Dar Es-Salam bank and Babylon bank randomly selected and analyzed for the current study over the period 2005 to 2013. Moreover,  annual reports of these banks have studied and the main ratios of profitability and liquidity were calculated. These reports are available at Iraqi Stock Exchange site. The variables that were identified as independent for liquidity were, loan deposit ratio, deposit asset ratio and cash deposit ratio, while return on assets as dependent variable for profitability. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS model used to examine the impact of liquidity on profitability. The study observes that any increase in liquidity ratios as above mentioned will lead return on asset to increase as well. Depending on this study it could be better for Iraqi banks to keep a balance between liquidity and profitability.

  20. Evaluation of Maintenance Management in Iraqi Governmental Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Mohammed Doos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Impact of buildings in Iraq and other countries on the environment is obvious; this problem began to take scientific and humanitarian dimensions in order to reduce and eliminate this problem. This impact can be seen through the energy, water and raw materials consumed for the establishment, operation and maintenance of these buildings, as well as the emissions of hazardous gases and generations of solid wastes. This work was conducted to assess the current maintenance managerial practice for the governmental buildings to stand on the main obstacle and extrapolation of measures by means of interviews with experts to determine the effective factors and closed questionnaire to state the features and the need for new building maintenance management system which may assist for modeling new building maintenance management system which may help to reduce the deterioration levels of governmental buildings and the emission of hazardous gases and solid waste with cost efficient approach.

  1. 76 FR 3815 - Religious Freedom Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Statute for Religious Freedom, in which Thomas Jefferson wrote that ``all men shall be free to profess... country that is tolerant, just, and strong. My Administration continues to defend the cause of religious...

  2. Subnuclear degrees of freedom in the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewald, S.

    1985-03-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to study the possible influence of subnuclear degrees of freedom as the Δ 33 -resonance and relativistic effects on the structure of nuclear excited states. (orig./HSI) [de

  3. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, L.

    1994-01-01

    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author)

  4. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Inst. of Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-10-01

    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author). 7 refs.

  5. 77 FR 2907 - Religious Freedom Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... centuries, men and women have immigrated to America's shores in pursuit of religious freedom. Hailing from... discrimination because of their beliefs. My Administration continues to stand with all who are denied the ability...

  6. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Executive Order (E.O.) 13,392 mandates that each federal agency shall have a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) working plan with established goals and time frames to...

  7. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Tracking system which allows for the input of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request date, compiles the due date, information pertaining to the request, name...

  8. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This policy establishes EPA requirements for complying with the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) as amended, EPA FOIA regulations, and guidance issued by the U. S. Department of Justice and the National Archives and Records Administration.

  9. The Virtue of Freedom in Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machan, Tibor R.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the sort of liberty associated with a capitalist economic system is of particular value because it ensures moral self-responsibility. Two conceptions of freedom are developed and related to private property and public virtue. (Author/JDH)

  10. 85 SECULARISM, SECULAR STATE AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    finds that, although more feasible within secular states, religious freedom and human rights are possibilities ... and values, nor uses its powers and offices to persecute religion.” According to ... Secularism is in fact an expression of humanism.

  11. Freedom of the Press – two concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1644 the debate for freedom of expression started in modern times thanks to John Milton’s Areopagitica, where he still argued about God in order to justify his quest for freedom. With the enlightenment God lost his unifying role for society and could no longer serve as justification. Two arguments were brought then forward to justify freedom of the press: One by the continental movement of the enlightenment; the other from within the movement of utilitarianism, and most influentially by John Stuart Mill. Both underlined the importance of truth; however, they differed in their understanding on what truth was good for. This difference in their arguments had a lasting impact on the debate on the limits of freedom of the press.

  12. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 3 (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Jakarta, Japanese Embassy and American Airlines in Philippines 2 CMPC-2003-00017015 2 Production and execution of a bomb within the (lIS) 3 CMPC-2003...Supporter Fallujah (near the old cinema ) A1-kubaysi Ibrahim Halub Mutar A1- ’a1wani 1982 Backer Fallulah1AI-luIan district Akram ’Abd-al-Hadi Lafta A1...towards Iraq especially during the first Gulf war when his organization conducted several military operations as follows: -Burning of the Japanese

  13. PRESS FREEDOM IN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA: DEFAMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Kate Chapman

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protecti...

  14. Hegel's concept of freedom and law

    OpenAIRE

    Slović, Srđan Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Hegel's philosophy of state and law is based on ethical principles. Pursuant to these principles, the man realises himself through activity. The activity is not to be the category coming from outside, but it is immanent to human nature. By explaining human activity, Hegel ignores particularism and completely pleads for universalism, by which he is tracking the road to human freedom. Freedom is for Hegel only possible while acting as a rational being. The subject of our activity should be in a...

  15. The fragility of freedom of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackel, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental liberty that imposes a stringent duty of tolerance. Tolerance is limited by direct incitements to violence. False notions and bad laws on speech have obscured our view of this freedom. Hence, perhaps, the self-righteous intolerance, incitements and threats in response to Giubilini and Minerva. Those who disagree have the right to argue back but their attempts to shut us up are morally wrong.

  16. Still more records, Iraqi violence and Caspian exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    Oil prices set further records at the start of May before falling back. December WTI hit an all-time high of $78.00/bbl on Nymex on 3rd May. IPE November Brent went up to a record $76.45/bbl. Both contracts eventually settled lower and prices in general weakened before staging a minor rally at the end of the month. Other price records were broken early in the month. In Asia, the Indonesian marker grade, Minas, was recorded at $74.04/bbl on 2nd May, whilst Malaysia's Tapis went above $76.70/bbl. Strong Asian demand also boosted the prices of West African crudes. The markets appeared to be reacting to growing tensions in Iraq, Iran and Nigeria. These considerations returned to haunt the markets later in the month. All crude oil loadings at Iraq's Persian Gulf marine terminal were suspended following a fire, though the main Gulf terminal at Basrah continued to operate. The Ceyhan terminal remained out of action. Tensions between the US and Iran over the latter's nuclear programme gave rise to fears of an embargo on Iranian oil exports. Several foreign oil workers were kidnapped following an armed attack on oil installations in Nigeria. OPEC ministers kept their production ceiling unchanged at 28 mn bpd at a meeting in Caracas. (author)

  17. Iraq: Impediments to Democracy and the Role of Coalition Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McChesney, Warren

    2004-01-01

    As USCENTCOM commander General Tommy Franks suspected might be the case when he urged planners to anticipate the possibility of catastrophic victory, the military outcome of Operation Iraqi Freedom was never in doubt...

  18. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains violent and unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, as well as growing sectarian violence...

  19. Reporting from the Sandstorm: An Appraisal of Embedding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLane, Brendan R

    2004-01-01

    ... of what was happening in the war. In an age of the continuous media cycle and information transparency, Operation Iraqi Freedom marked the first time so many reporters were provided so much relatively unrestricted front-line access...

  20. Post-War Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M; Blanchard, Christopher M

    2007-01-01

    .... policymakers since the launch of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. This report tracks important changes in financial and personnel pledges from foreign governments since the August 19, 2003 bombing of the U.N...

  1. Post-War Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M; Blanchard, Christopher M

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers since the launch of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. This report tracks important changes in financial and personnel pledges from foreign governments since the August 19, 2003 bombing of the U.N...

  2. Post-War Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M; Blanchard, Christopher M

    2005-01-01

    .... policymakers since the launch of Operation Iraqi Freedom in March 2003. This report tracks important changes in financial and personnel pledges from foreign governments since the August 19, 2003 bombing of the U.N...

  3. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom overthrew Saddam Hussein's regime, but during 2004-2007 much of Iraq was wracked by violence caused by Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, resulting Sunni-Shiite...

  4. Transparent Armor Cost Benefit Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prokurat Franks, Lisa; Holm, David; Barnak, Rick

    2006-01-01

    ...; the increase in demand for transparent gun shields in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and early versions of jerry-rigged shields used in OIF, including Pope glass and Transparent Armored Gun Shields (TAGS...

  5. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Willingness to Adopt Telemedicine in Major Iraqi Hospitals: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khanapi Abd Ghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iraqi healthcare services are struggling to regain their lost momentum. Many physicians and nurses left Iraq because of the current situation in the country. Despite plans of calling back the skilled health workforce, they are still worried by the disadvantages of their return. Hence, technology plays a central role in taking advantage of their profession through the use of telemedicine. Studying the factors that affect the implementation of telemedicine is necessary. Telemedicine covers network services, policy makers, and patient understanding. A framework that includes the influencing factors in adopting telemedicine in Iraq was developed in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among physicians in Baghdad Medical City to examine the hypothesis on each factor. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was utilized to verify the reliability of the questionnaire and Cronbach’s alpha test shows that the factors have values more than 0.7, which are standard.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on the sugar and protein composition of Iraqi dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auda, H.; Khalaf, Z.; Mirjan, J.

    1978-01-01

    Completely ripened date fruits of several Iraqi varieties were irradiated with 30, 70, 100, 270 and 500krad of gamma irradiation and stored at a temperature of 25-35 0 C in wooden boxes or in plastic bags. At various intervals samples were taken and analysed by paper-chromatography, gas-chromatography and spectrophotometry for quantitative and qualitative changes in carbohydrates. The results showed no effect of gamma irradiation on reducing sugar and major carbohydrate components. The formation of malonaldehyde under gamma irradiation of dates and solid standard sugars was also studied up to 500krad. The results showed no formation of malonaldehyde in irradiated date samples as well as standard sugars. Gamma irradiation showed no effect on the protein content of dates. However, storage showed some reduction in the protein content of both unirradiated and irradiated samples. (author)

  8. Specific trauma subtypes improve the predictive validity of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire in Iraqi refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Bengt B; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Talia, Yousif Rofa; Arnetz, Judith E

    2014-12-01

    Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12 and 10%, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7 and 3%, respectively). Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations.

  9. Concentration of uranium in human cancerous tissues of Southern Iraqi patients using fission track analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamzawi, A.A.; Al-Qadisiyah University, Qadisiyah; Jaafar, M.S.; Tawfiq, N.F.

    2015-01-01

    The technique of nuclear fission track analysis with solid state nuclear track detectors CR-39 has been applied to determine concentrations of uranium in cancerous samples of human tissues that excised from patients in the three key southern Iraqi governorates namely, Basrah, Dhi-Qar, and Muthanna. These provinces were the sites of intensive military events during the Gulf Wars in 1991 and 2003. The investigation was based on the study of 24 abnormal samples and 12 normal samples for comparing the results. These samples include four types of soft tissues (kidney, breast, stomach and uterus). The results show that uranium concentrations in the normal tissues ranged between (1.42-4.76 μg kg -1 ), whereas in the cancerous tissues ranged between (3.37-7.22 μg kg -1 ). The uranium concentrations in the normal tissues were significantly lower than in the abnormal tissues (P < 0.001). (author)

  10. Kidnapping and Mental Health in Iraqi Refugees: The Role of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A Michelle; Talia, Yousif R; Aldhalimi, Abir; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Bengt B; Arnetz, Judith E

    2017-02-01

    Although kidnapping is common in war-torn countries, there is little research examining its psychological effects. Iraqi refugees (N = 298) were assessed upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year later. At arrival, refugees were asked about prior trauma exposure, including kidnapping. One year later refugees were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression disorder (MDD) using the SCID-I. Individual resilience and narratives of the kidnapping were also assessed. Twenty-six refugees (9 %) reported being kidnapped. Compared to those not kidnapped, those who were had a higher prevalence of PTSD, but not MDD, diagnoses. Analyses examining kidnapping victims revealed that higher resilience was associated with lower rates of PTSD. Narratives of the kidnapping were also discussed. This study suggests kidnapping is associated with PTSD, but not MDD. Additionally, kidnapping victims without PTSD reported higher individual resilience. Future studies should further elucidate risk and resilience mechanisms.

  11. The health profile and chronic diseases comorbidities of US-bound Iraqi refugees screened by the International Organization for Migration in Jordan: 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Emad A; Naoum, Marwan; Odeh, Nedal; Han, Pauline; Coleman, Margaret; Burke, Heather

    2013-02-01

    More than 63,000 Iraqi refugees were resettled in the United States from 1994 to 2010. We analyzed data for all US-bound Iraqi refugees screened in International Organization for Migration clinics in Jordan during June 2007-September 2009 (n = 18,990), to describe their health profile before arrival in the United States. Of 14,077 US-bound Iraqi refugees ≥ 15 years of age, one had active TB, 251 had latent TB infection, and 14 had syphilis. No HIV infections were reported. Chronic diseases comorbidities accounted for a large burden of disease in this population: 35% (n = 4,105) of screened Iraqi refugees had at least one of three chronic medical conditions; hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or obesity. State health departments and clinicians who screen refugees need to be aware of the high prevalence of chronic diseases among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States. These results will help public health specialists develop policies to reduce morbidity and mortality among US-bound Iraqi refugees.

  12. Strategy-Policy Mismatch: How the U.S. Army Can Help Close Gaps in Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and Colonel Todd Key (G-35), MG John Rossi and Mr. Tim Muchmore (G-8/QDRO), Colonel Brad Gericke (Chief of Staff Coordina- tion Group), and LTG (ret...2006; and UNMOVIC, 2007. 2 32d AAMDC, Operation Iraqi Freedom Theater Air and Missile Defense History, Fort Bliss , Texas, September 2003. 3 T...Operation Iraqi Freedom Theater Air and Missile Defense History, Fort Bliss , Texas, September 2003. Abdelaziz, Salma, and Jim Sciutto, “OPCW: Only 11% of

  13. Smart Power: The United States, Iran, and a Nuclear Deal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    87Katzman, The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA), 1. 88Robert J. Einhorn, “Solving the Iranian Nuclear Puzzle,” Arms Control Association briefing, Carnegie ...114Catherine Dale , Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issue for Congress (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service...fire-on-u-s-drone/ (accessed on September 28, 2013). Dale , Catherine. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issue for

  14. Tuberculosis in Sulaimaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan: A Detailed Analysis of Cases Registered in Treatment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadakhy, Kamaran; Othman, Nasih; Ibrahimm, Faredun; Saeed, Akam Ali; Amin, Ari Abdul-Adheem Hama

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem especially in low and middle-income countries. The current study was undertaken to estimate the incidence of the disease and describe its epidemiological characteristics in Iraqi Kurdistan. A retrospective study was carried out on cases registered in the directly observed treatment-short course (DOTS) centers in Sulaimaniyah province. Information was collected from the summary reports of all cases registered in 2010 and detailed information was obtained from 307 cases in the main center. During 2010, a total of 530 new and relapsed cases were registered in the DOTS centers amounting to an annual incidence of 31 per 100,000. Over 73% of cases were pulmonary TB and 45% of all cases had positive smear. Most common symptoms were cough (58%), sweating (49%) and fever (48). Almost 43% of patients were diagnosed by direct swab examination, 30% by biopsy and 23% through clinical and radiologic examination. In relation to outcome, 89% of patients were treated successfully, 7% died and 3% defaulted. Mortality rate was 8% in pulmonary infection and 4% in extrapulmonary infection. Old age (65 years and over) was significantly associated with higher odds of death compared to people aged 34 years and younger (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3-36.1, P=0.03). The incidence of TB is still high in the Iraqi Kurdistan. The DOTS has been successful in treating the majority of cases but there are areas needing improvement especially record-keeping and patient follow-up during and after treatment.

  15. Evaluation of instruments to assess health literacy in Arabic language among Iraqis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jumaili, Ali Azeez; Al-Rekabi, Mohammed Dakhil; Sorofman, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Low health literacy is associated with lack of medical information, less use of preventive measures, low medication adherence rates, high health care costs and high risk of hospitalization. The aims were to compare the results of the three health literacy tests, to measure for the first time the health literacy level of Iraqis, to describe the use of standardized health literacy tests, to evaluate reliability and validity of the Arabic versions of these tests, and to investigate whether there is relationship between the participant characteristics and the health literacy level. A convenience sample of 95 subjects was studied in five community pharmacies in Al-Najaf and Babylon governorates, Iraq. Three health literacy tests, the Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS), the New Vital Sign (NVS) and the Short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), were translated in the Arabic language and administered to the pharmacy customers. There were no statistically significant associations between age, gender, education and current education status and NVS score, but there were significant positive associations between the level of education and each one of SILS, New SILS, and S-TOFHLA scores. SILS has one subjective, possibly culturally biased question. Since Iraqis are generally not exposed to reading product labels, the NVS test might be not an accurate measure for them. S-TOFHLA was the most comprehensive test and gave equitable results. The Arabic version of S-TOFHLA can be used to measure health literacy in 22 Arabic speaking countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  17. Integrable systems for particles with internal degrees of freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Minahan, J A; Minahan, Joseph A.; Polychronakos, Alexios P.

    1993-01-01

    We show that a class of models for particles with internal degrees of freedom are integrable. These systems are basically generalizations of the models of Calogero and Sutherland. The proofs of integrability are based on a recently developed exchange operator formalism. We calculate the wave-functions for the Calogero-like models and find the ground-state wave-function for a Calogero-like model in a position dependent magnetic field. This last model might have some relevance for matrix models of open strings.

  18. Balancing Modularity and Solution Space Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vos, Maren A.; Raassens, Néomie; Van der Borgh, Michel

    2018-01-01

    that modularity reflects knowledge specialisation and solution space freedom reflects knowledge variety. Both of these dimensions affect organisational learning and, in turn, sustainable innovation. Second, we argue that the relationship between customisation and organisational learning is affected by supplier...... theory to provide insights into how TI firms can achieve ‘win-win’ situations where sustainable innovation is increased through customisation. First, we argue that customisation should be viewed two-dimensionally and identify both modularity and solution space freedom as important dimensions. We argue...... characteristics, specifically supplier sophistication. Survey data from 166 managers were used to empirically test the conceptual model and hypotheses. Polynomial response surface analysis confirms that customising by balancing high degrees of both modularity and solution space freedom results in superior...

  19. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  20. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  1. Assessing Freedom of Movement for Counterinsurgency Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    basic elements of life,” while an official NATO documentary video on the contribution of Afghan security forces to FoM declared, “Freedom of...narrowly—some people walk or use donkeys , horse-drawn carts, bicycles, and other conveyances to travel. 27 Locals who are intent on selling such equipment...Organization, “NATO in Afghanistan—Freedom of Movement,” video , November 12, 2008. As of September 16, 2011: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v

  2. No freedom of action without emotional energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul

    . The paper further develops such a social and relational approach by arguing that freedom is also based on emotional energy and not merely on priveleges and power (cf. Bauman). Agency cannot be taken for granted as a generic feature of humans beings (cf. Layder, Bauman, Campbell) founded in consciousnes...... and intentionality (Fuchs). In a differential and generative sense freedom/agency is based on emotional energy. For example, to act personally, cooperately with others or on behalf on institutions individuals need feeling self-confidence, trust or loyalty (Barbalet). Such emotions are resources inmplicated...

  3. The Economic Freedom Index : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ruperto P. Alonzo

    2002-01-01

    The economic freedom index (EFI) is one of several cross-country yardsticks that incorporate dimensions of progress and well-being that go beyond what conventional economic indicators tell us. It is a composite of 21 indicators that include “personal choice, protection of private property, and freedom of exchange.” It is one of the few measures where the Philippines ranks higher than most of its neighbors; the Philippines was in fact 29th among 123 countries rated for 1999, while neighboring ...

  4. Single-center experience using the Freedom SOLO aortic bioprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios C; Deveja, Aris Rezar; Androutsopoulou, Vasiliki; Filias, Vasilios; Kastelanos, Eleftherios; Satratzemis, Vasilios; Khalpey, Zain; Koudoumas, Dimitrios

    2013-07-01

    This study reviews a single institution experience with the Freedom SOLO (Sorin Group, Saluggia, Italy) aortic bioprosthesis. Between October 2006 and February 2010, 128 patients (64 men, 64 women; mean age, 75.8 ± 5.1 years) underwent aortic valve replacement using the Freedom SOLO stentless aortic valve. The follow-up time was 36.7 ± 1.2 months and 100% complete. Concomitant procedures were performed in 77 patients (60%). The mean standard European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation was 9 ± 2.7. Grade 3 aortic stenosis was present in 73% of patients, mixed aortic stenosis and regurgitation were present in 40% of patients, and mitral regurgitation was present in 46% of patients. The mean crossclamp time was 53 ± 12 minutes for isolated Freedom SOLO aortic valve implantation and 80 ± 28 minutes for concomitant procedures, and the mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 103 ± 31 minutes. The mean implanted valve size was 22.6 ± 1.4 mm. The mean intensive care unit and hospital stays were 2.4 ± 1.1 days and 8.8 ± 2.6 days, respectively. Three patients underwent reoperation for bleeding. The 15-day, 30-day, and perioperative mortality were all 4.6%. The 36-month survival was 95.4% ± 1.6% for the cohort with a low European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (9). Echocardiographic data preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively showed peak transvalvular gradients of 75 ± 23, 17 ± 6, 18 ± 6.5, 16 ± 6, and 16 ± 9 mm Hg, respectively (P SOLO stentless aortic valve has excellent early and intermediate-term results. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  5. The long flow to freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharony, Ofer; Razamat, Shlomo S.; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional field theories do not have a moduli space of vacua. Instead, it is common that their low-energy behavior is a sigma model with a target space. When this target space is compact its renormalization group flow is standard. When it is non-compact the continuous spectrum of operators can change the qualitative behavior. Here we discuss two-dimensional gauge theories with N=(2,2) supersymmetry. We focus on two specific theories, for which we argue that they flow to free chiral multiplets at low energies: the U(1) gauge theory with one flavor (two chiral superfields with charges plus and minus one) and a non-zero Fayet-Iliopoulos term, and pure SU(N) gauge theories. We argue that the renormalization group flow of these theories has an interesting order of limits issue. Holding the position on the target space fixed, the space flattens out under the renormalization group. On the other hand, if we first go to infinity on the target space and then perform the renormalization group, we always have a non-trivial space, e.g. a cone with a deficit angle. We explain how to interpret low-energy dualities between theories with non-compact target spaces. We expect a similar qualitative behavior also for other non-compact sigma models, even when they do not flow to free theories.

  6. Lessons of the Iraqi De-Ba’athification Program for Iraq’s Future and the Arab Revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    with some of the Arab Spring militaries and has a particu- larly strong relationship with the Egyptian military. These bonds of trust, cooperation...suitable tomb for the co-founder of Ba’athism. Saddam was not a military man, and as a youth was rejected for entry into the Iraqi military academy due...Egypt. While parallels between Saddam Hussein’s Iraq and 64 these countries exist, differences vastly outnumber similarities. The Tunisian and Egyptian

  7. Reproductive and Productive Performance of Iraqi Buffaloes as Influenced by Pre-Mating and Pre-Calving Concentrate Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Anwer Abdulkareem*, Sawsan Ali Al-Sharifi, Sajeda Mahdi Eidan and R.G. Sasser1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of pre-mating and pre-calving concentrate supplementation of Iraqi buffaloes on some of the reproductive (estrus, mating, pregnancy and calving rates and productive (daily milk yield and calves birth weight traits. This study was carried out in 4 Iraqi South-central governorates using 596 pre-mating and 628 pregnant buffaloes (during the last two months of gestation. Pre-mating buffaloes were divided randomly into 496 concentrate-supplemented buffaloes (Flushing and 100 control ones. Additionally, pregnant buffaloes were also divided into 528 concentrate- supplemented buffaloes (Steaming up and 100 controls. Each buffalo within the flushing and steaming up groups were fed daily on 7 Kg of concentrate diet (13% crude protein and 1.70 Mcal of net energy for 60 days. The control buffaloes were nourished only on low-quality roughages of the area and wheat bran. Higher estrus (+15%, P<0.01, pregnancy (+23.8%, P<0.05 and calving rates (+30.8%, P<0.01 were observed in concentrate-supplemented buffaloes as compared with controls. An obvious increase in (P<0.05 calving rate (+14.7%, daily milk yield (+44.8% and calf birth weight (+25.6% were noted in steaming up buffaloes in comparison with control buffaloes. Results indicated that improvement in feeding schedule of Iraqi buffaloes during pre-mating and late gestation periods enhanced the reproductive performance and increased milk production of subsequent lactation and calf birth weight. These improvements increased owner income ($174=209,000 Iraqi dinar /buffalo from the sale of meat and milk.

  8. Space Station Freedom - Configuration management approach to supporting concurrent engineering and total quality management. [for NASA Space Station Freedom Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    1990-01-01

    Some experiences of NASA configuration management in providing concurrent engineering support to the Space Station Freedom program for the achievement of life cycle benefits and total quality are discussed. Three change decision experiences involving tracing requirements and automated information systems of the electrical power system are described. The potential benefits of concurrent engineering and total quality management include improved operational effectiveness, reduced logistics and support requirements, prevention of schedule slippages, and life cycle cost savings. It is shown how configuration management can influence the benefits attained through disciplined approaches and innovations that compel consideration of all the technical elements of engineering and quality factors that apply to the program development, transition to operations and in operations. Configuration management experiences involving the Space Station program's tiered management structure, the work package contractors, international partners, and the participating NASA centers are discussed.

  9. The Chains Around Academic Freedom in Teaching-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Barbara Backer

    2017-04-01

    Freedom as a concept has been much debated. Is freedom an innate part of being, or does freedom even truly exists? These are questions that have gleaned countless hours of discourse over the years. Two components of freedom that can influence nurse higher education are freedom of speech, in the form of media, and academic freedom. The author of this column first introduces three views of freedom to demonstrate the differences surrounding it. A discussion of the media's use or misuse of freedom of speech and its influence on nursing education is then presented, followed by an examination of current threats to academic freedom in today's institutes of higher learning and specifically in the nursing education arena. The author concludes with suggestions on being a nurse educator through living as a humanbecoming professional while navigating issues surrounding nursing education.

  10. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  11. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age ( p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12-13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products ( p food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants' intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted.

  12. Exploring Electronic Communication Modes Between Iraqi Faculty and Students of Pharmacy Schools Using the Technology Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jumaili, Ali Azeez; Al-Rekabi, Mohammed D; Alsawad, Oday S; Allela, Omer Q B; Carnahan, Ryan; Saaed, Hiwa; Naqishbandi, Alaadin; Kadhim, Dheyaa J; Sorofman, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    Objective. To explore for the first time the extent to which Iraqi pharmacy students and faculty use Facebook and university email for academic communications, and to examine factors influencing utilization within the framework of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Methods. An electronic survey was administered to convenience samples of students and faculty of six Iraqi public schools and colleges of pharmacy in 2015. Results. Responses included 489 student and 128 faculty usable surveys. Both students and faculty use Facebook more than university email for academic communications. Less than a third of the faculty used university email. Students used Facebook for academic purposes twice as much as faculty. Conclusion. Absence of university email in Iraqi schools and colleges of pharmacy makes Facebook essential for faculty-student communications. The majority (71.1% to 82%) of respondents perceived that Facebook was easy to use. Three TAM variables (intention to use, attitude toward use and perceived usefulness) had significant positive associations with actual use of both Facebook messaging and university email.

  13. "Seeing the Life": Redefining self-worth and family roles among Iraqi refugee families resettled in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew; Hess, Julia Meredith; Isakson, Brian; Goodkind, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    Social and geographic displacement is a global phenomenon that precipitates novel stressors and disruptions that intersect with longstanding familial and social roles. Among the displaced are war-torn Iraqi refugee families, who must address these new obstacles in unconventional ways. This study explores how such disruptions have influenced associations between gender and apparent self-worth experienced by Iraqi refugee families upon relocation to the United States. Further, the psychosocial mechanisms requisite of any novel approach to a new social construct are explored and reveal that production in the family is at the core of instability and shifting power dynamics during resettlement, preventing family members from "seeing the life" in the United States that they had envisioned prior to immigration. Over 200 semi-structured qualitative interviews with Iraqi participants and mental health providers were conducted over the course of the study, and demonstrate a plasticity among social roles in the family and community that transcends the notion of a simple role reversal, and illustrate the complex positionalities that families under stress must approximate during such physical and social displacement.

  14. 75 FR 69571 - World Freedom Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... A Proclamation The Berlin Wall once stood as a painful barrier between family and friends, a dark... exercise their universal human rights. The 21st anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall is an occasion..., Germans from both sides of the wall joined to tear down the hated blockade. World Freedom Day commemorates...

  15. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up…

  16. Freedom of Religion and the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary Louise

    1991-01-01

    Presents activities for teaching high school students about the freedom of religion. Includes student handouts that explain basic constitutional principles and summarize leading U.S. Supreme Court cases concerning religious liberty. Encourages teachers to invite students to speculate on the future relationship of religion and public education. (SG)

  17. Quark degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, I.

    1986-03-01

    Experimental facts which can not be interpreted in terms of nucleonic degrees of freedom are reviewed. Attempts to explain these observations by the help of the notions of quark physics are indicated. Some predicted exotic states are enumerated. The most promising models of the nucleon-nucleon interactions in terms of quarks are briefly discussed. (author)

  18. Renormalization and asymptotic freedom in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomboulis, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The article reviews some recent attempts to construct satisfactory theories of quantum gravity within the framework of local, continuum field theory. Quantum gravity; the renormalization group and its fixed points; fixed points and dimensional continuation in gravity; and quantum gravity at d=4-the 1/N expansion-asymptotic freedom; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Academic Freedom: Problems in Conceptualization and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Academic freedom is of central importance to higher education and it affects all aspects of work at universities. It symbolizes academics' acceptance of the need for openness and flexibility (Balyer, 2011) and it protects the conditions leading to the creation of good teaching and learning, sound research, and scholarship (Atkinson, 2004).…

  20. 78 FR 4293 - Religious Freedom Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... brighter horizons; protesters who fought for abolition, women's suffrage, and civil rights. Each generation... America A Proclamation Foremost among the rights Americans hold sacred is the freedom to worship as we choose. Today, we celebrate one of our Nation's first laws to protect that right-- the Virginia Statute...

  1. Page STATUTORY LIMITATIONS TO TESTAMENTARY FREEDOM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    possible, give effect to the desires of the deceased testator as stated in his will. .... personality in ways which may not have been possible in life. ... Testamentary Freedom to Testamentary Duty: Finding the Balance,” The ...... would work hardship on such family member or dependant, such person should be reasonably.

  2. Happiness and economic freedom: Are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the linkage between economic freedom and happiness (subjective well-being. We attempt to understand which economic institutions (rule of law, limited government, regulatory efficiency, open markets have influence on subjective well-being. For this purpose we use a panel dataset and analyze the effect of economic freedom on subjective well-being while using various control variables such as government expenditures as percentage of GDP, human development, social support, freedom of choice and generosity. Our pooled FGLS estimations indicate that all pillars of economic freedom have a strong influence on the average subjective well-being in society. Three of these pillars, namely rule of law, regulatory efficiency and open markets, positively affect subjective well-being. To our surprise we have found a negative relationship between limited government and subjective wellbeing. This might be due to the situation that reducing the size of government possibly leads to lower government expenditures and higher unemployment, which in turn results in lower subjective well-being.

  3. Histories and Freedom of the Present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vucina, Naja; Drejer, Claus Munch; Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the ways in which Michel Foucault and Quentin Skinner’s historical analyses seek to unsettle the limits on present forms of freedom. We do so by comparing their ways of analyzing discourse, rationality and agency. The two authors differ significantly in the ways they deal...

  4. Freedom of Expression in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    Uses question and answer format to discuss scope of elementary students' First Amendment freedom of expression rights. For example, does the First Amendment prevent the disciplining of a sixth grader for writing a sexually inappropriate remark in another student's notebook? Answer: No. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)

  5. Sponsored Research & the Freedom of Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packham, David

    This paper examines conflicts and collaboration between industry and universities regarding sponsored research and freedom of publication, particularly in the United Kingdom. An opening section notes that the values of the market and the university are in fundamental conflict which presents problems for institutions attempting to work in…

  6. 'Freedom from all forms of violence'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA CRIME QUARTERLY NO. 50 • DECEMBER 2014. 'Freedom from all forms of violence'. Using Zimbabwe's new. Constitution to encourage rape law reform ... Zimbabwean law that present potential obstacles to achieving justice for rape survivors: the definition of the crime of ...... compiled by Fungayi Jessie Majome MP.

  7. Freedom and privacy in ambient intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes ethical aspects of the new paradigm of Ambient Intelligence, which is a combination of Ubiquitous Computing and Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI’s). After an introduction to the approach, two key ethical dimensions will be analyzed: freedom and privacy. It is argued that Ambient

  8. Learners' right to freedom of written expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Learners' right to freedom of written expression. W.J. van Vollenhoven. Department of Education Management and Policy Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 South Africa wvvollen@postino.up.ac.za. Charles I. Glenn. Training and Policy Studies of the University Professors' Program, University of Boston. Although ...

  9. Freedom of Information, Records Management and Good ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Governments around the world are often praised for good or rebuked for bad governance. This paper argues that good governance is predicated on the adoption of functional records management and the enactment of Freedom of Information (FOI) legislation by governments. Records that are accumulated and used by ...

  10. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom...

  11. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  12. Freedom and security: a sometimes delicate balance

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Like any academic institution, CERN celebrates freedom: freedom of expression, freedom of thought and freedom of movement. Occasionally, however, circumstances beyond our control oblige us to impose certain restrictions.   Friday, 26 June was just such an occasion. On that day, terrorists chose to commit unfathomable atrocities in France, near Lyon, as well as in Kuwait and Tunisia. The brutality exhibited in all three attacks is beyond comprehension, and I am sure that we all feel for the victims and all those touched by these hideous acts. At times such as this, and on the basis of information that I receive from external agencies, it is my responsibility as Director-General to decide whether measures are needed at CERN, and to apply them at an appropriate level if I deem it necessary. On Friday, based on the information I had at my disposal, I decided that the situation merited extra vigilance at the entrances to CERN for the sake of ensuring the safety and security of everyone on site. I...

  13. Education for sustainability through academic freedom | Ekwueme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past researches are of the opinion that education for sustainable development and academic freedom could assist in solving these ethical menaces. Education for sustainable development allows every human being to acquire knowledge, skills, attitudes and values necessary to shape a sustainable future to make ...

  14. Hannah Arendt and the "Freedom" to Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the Western tradition of political philosophy, Arendt maintained a tension between the political, which she associates primarily with the freedom to act, and the philosophical, which she associates principally with the activity of thinking, throughout her works. Whilst Arendt's work is underpinned by a focus on political action,…

  15. Milton's "Areopagitica" Freedom of Speech on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel F.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the content in John Milton's "Areopagitica: A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the Parliament of England" (1985) and provides parallelism to censorship practiced in higher education. Originally published in 1644, "Areopagitica" makes a powerful--and precocious--argument for freedom of speech…

  16. Freedom of Speech Newsletter, May 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.

    This issue of the "Freedom of Speech Newsletter" contains three articles. "Big Brother, 1976--Judges and the Gag Order" by Miles Clark examines constitutional censorship of the media and government secrecy. "Democratic Rights: A Socialist View" by Kipp Dawson argues that "the rulers of the United States have never granted the American people any…

  17. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION IN ETHIOPIA: THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    freedom of expression as provided under the FDRE Constitution. Then, some ... M (CEU); Addis Ababa University School of Law, Currently on .... The other line of reasoning that is adopted to justify the protection of speech is one that makes ...

  18. On the Nonlinear Structural Analysis of Wind Turbine Blades using Reduced Degree-of-Freedom Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Jørgensen, Kristian; Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2008-01-01

    , modelling geometrical and inertial nonlinear couplings in the fundamental flap and edge direction. The purpose of this article is to examine the applicability of such a reduced-degree-of-freedom model in predicting the nonlinear response and stability of a blade by comparison to a full model based...... on a nonlinear co-rotating FE formulation. By use of the reduced-degree-of-freedom model it is shown that under strong resonance excitation of the fundamental flap or edge modes, significant energy is transferred to higher modes due to parametric or nonlinear coupling terms, which influence the response...... of the small number of included modes. The qualitative erratic response and stability prediction of the reduced order models take place at frequencies slightly above normal operation. However, for normal operation of the wind turbine without resonance excitation 4 modes in the reduced-degree-of-freedom model...

  19. Religious Freedoms In Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaj-Stojanova Albana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.

  20. EFFECTS OF THE ECONOMIC FREEDOMS ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE EU AND COMCEC COUNTRIES (1996-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALİL İBRAHİM AYDIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of the economic freedoms on the economic growth for EU and COMCEC countries at different development/income level are econometrically analyzed via panel data analysis for the period of 1996- 2014 by being considered the improvement of economic growth theories for the key determinants of economic growth. From this aspect, it is aimed at this research that to evaluate the effects of the economic freedoms on the long termed economic growth performances and income level differences of EU and COMCEC countries which have different statuses in terms of economic freedoms and income level indicators. It is determined at the end of the study that the economic freedoms have a positive and statistically significant effect on the economic growth of EU countries in investigation period, on the other hand, these freedoms have not any effect on the economic growth of COMCEC countries. Moreover, the existence of a one-way causality relation operates from economic freedoms to the economic growth in EU countries is specified while there is any causality link found between these freedoms and the economic growth for the countries in COMCEC group. All these results indicate that also the economic freedoms besides the physical human capital accumulation, in other words, whether the EU and COMCEC countries have a market economy adopts outward-oriented liberal fiscal policies plays a major role in differentiating the income levels or the economic growth performances.

  1. Negative freedom and death in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Leland K; Subramanian, S V

    2010-11-01

    Personal freedoms have been characterized as "positive" (freedom to pursue opportunities) and "negative" (freedom from external constraints on decision making). An ecological analysis of US data revealed a strong positive association (r = 0.41; P = .003) between state-level negative personal freedom (defined in terms of regulation of personal behavior) and state-level age-adjusted rates of unintentional injury. A conceptual emphasis on positive freedom construed as freedom to pursue a life without risk of unintentional injury could help motivate a conversation to improve public health.

  2. Sustainment in the Army 2020: Using the Army’s Sustainment Principles to Identify and Mitigate Risks Associated with Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    2003. Accessed February 2, 2015. http://articles.latimes.com/ 2003/jul/24/world/fg-troops24. Silverman , David . Interpreting Qualitative Data: A Guide...IraqiFreedomText.pdf. 127 Gregory Fontenot, E. J. Degen, and David Tohn, On Point–The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom (Fort...ground forces in OIF I and shows the axis of advance for both the 1st MEF and V Corps. Source: Gregory Fontenot, E. J. Degen, and David Tohn, On

  3. Physician Acceptance of Pharmacist Recommendations about Medication Prescribing Errors in Iraqi Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI AZEEZ ALI AL-JUMAILI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to measure the incidence and types of medication prescribing errors (MPEs in Iraqi hospitals, to calculate for the first time the percentage of physician agreement with pharmacist medication regimen review (MRR recommendations regarding MPEs, and to identify the factors influencing the physician agreement rate with these recommendations. Methods: Fourteen pharmacists (10 females and 4 males reviewed each hand-written physician order for 1506 patients who were admitted to two public hospitals in Al-Najaf, Iraq during August 2015. The pharmacists identified medication prescribing errors using the Medscape WebMD, LCC phone application as a reference. The pharmacists contacted the physicians (2 females and 34 males in-person to address MPEs that were identified. Results: The pharmacists identified 78 physician orders containing 99 MPEs with an incidence of 6.57 percent of all the physician orders reviewed. The patients with MPEs were taking 4.8 medications on average. The MPEs included drug-drug interactions (65.7%, incorrect doses (16.2%, unnecessary medications (8.1%, contra-indications (7.1%, incorrect drug duration (2%, and untreated conditions (1%. The physicians implemented 37 (37.4% pharmacist recommendations. Three factors were significantly related to physician acceptance of pharmacist recommendations. These were physician specialty, pharmacist gender, and patient gender. Pediatricians were less likely (OR= 0.1 to accept pharmacist recommendations compared to internal medicine physicians. Male pharmacists received more positive responses from physicians (OR=7.11 than female pharmacists. Lastly, the recommendations were significantly more likely to be accepted (OR= 3.72 when the patients were females. Conclusions: The incidence of MPEs is higher in Iraqi hospitalized patients than in the U.S. and U.K, but lower than in Brazil, Ethiopia, India, and Croatia. Drug-drug interactions were the most common type of

  4. Spiritual Politics, Political Religion, and Religious Freedom in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravers, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...

  5. The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Anders-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Kort introduktion til et europæisk forskningsprojekt "The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilisation'......Kort introduktion til et europæisk forskningsprojekt "The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilisation'...

  6. Religious freedom and political correctness in United Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Artur Aleksiejuk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We live in times that are particularly sensitive to issues such as freedom and are differentiated by strong aspirations for personal and societal freedom. One speaks of political-societal freedom, freedom of religion, artistic freedom and freedom to choose one’s own lifestyle. It would be possible to make a long list of the various kinds or manifestations of freedom, which modern individuals indentify in their lives. My essay considers the ways the law functions in regards to religious freedom in the context of the currently prevailing and implemented political visions in United Europe. Strictly speaking, this paper concerns the definition of place, which was assigned for religious convictions of citizens of the European Union and their role in shaping their personal and societal lives.

  7. Record management in the Nigerian public sector and freedom of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Record management in the Nigerian public sector and freedom of ... government relies upon policy documents, budget papers, procurement records, property ... play in administrative efficiency and success of Freedom of Information Act 2011.

  8. Perceptions of the Dilemma--Order versus Freedom at Managing Faculty: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaferye, Figen; Agaoglu, Esmahan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the perceptions of the middle management (deans and heads of departments) and academicians on the dilemma order versus freedom at faculty management. It discusses how this dilemma is seen at an operational level and how it can be managed at university where both parties--with a managerial role or not--are…

  9. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. D.; ŚwiaŢecki, W. J.

    1998-12-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Süssmann width b.

  10. Effective hadron degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses several topics. The first one is the importance of a consistent treatment of extended nucleons and the subsequent requirement of accounting for quark antisymmetrization. It will probably be possible to account for these effects through quark exchange currents in much of the same way as meson exchange currents at lower values of Q 2 . In order to obtain more definite answers on intrinsic properties of nucleons and other hadronic degrees of freedom in nuclei it is important to establish to which extent hadronic degrees of freedom behaving like quasi-free nuclear constituents can be used to describe the nuclear response in inclusive and semi-inclusive electron scattering at intermediate energies

  11. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  13. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural......The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, I argue that citizens cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation. Moreover, to be successful deliberation must foster some degree of personal autonomy, at least the ability to distinguish what...

  14. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  15. PRESS FREEDOM IN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA: DEFAMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kate Chapman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protection from large media corporations and their political alignments. This report will assess the bias of reporting and news media publication that exists in Malaysia and Singapore due to legislative and regulatory constraints as opposed to bias that exist in the western liberal democratic nations of the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA due to Media Organisation control.

  16. Educative Non-Privative Measures of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zau Raul-Teodor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Infractionality or criminality in minor rank, even if it is a component of a general infractional phenomenon, it shows some particularities determined by biological, psychological and social characteristics of minor persons which Romanian legislature had in mind when it had foreseen their criminal liability. For this, The New riminal Code, stipulates some regulations on the educational measures regarding non privacy of freedom - three conditions from the file - Recommandations R nr. 16/1992 of the European Committee. Measures regarding the non privacy of freedom are sanctions applied by the court and the young defendant is still in the society with some obligations on his side or institution which was bound by the court in the name of the law. The issue of this measure is to educate and reeducate the minor person who commited a crime, to ensure a change in his conscience to respect social values.

  17. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Suessmann width b. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  18. Isobar degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muether, H.

    1979-01-01

    A report is given on some recent investigations of the influence of isobar degrees of freedom on the ground state properties of finite nuclei like e.g. 16 O. The nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is constructed in the freamework of an extended one-boson-exchange (OBE) model using non-covariant, time-dependent perturbation theory. The explicit consideration of fourth-order iterative diagrams involving NΔ and ΔΔ intermediate states gives an effective NN interaction in the nuclear many-body system which is less attractive than those which are obtained treating these terms phenomenologically. Therefore the binding energy calculated in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation is smaller if these effects of isobar degrees of freedom are taken into account. This repulsive effect of isobar configurations is partly counterbalanced by the attraction obtained for three-nucleon terms with intermediate NNΔ states. (Auth.)

  19. The physical gravitational degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E; Barbour, J; Foster, B Z; Kelleher, B; Murchadha, N O

    2005-01-01

    When constructing general relativity (GR), Einstein required 4D general covariance. In contrast, we derive GR (in the compact, without boundary case) as a theory of evolving three-dimensional conformal Riemannian geometries obtained by imposing two general principles: (1) time is derived from change; (2) motion and size are relative. We write down an explicit action based on them. We obtain not only GR in the CMC gauge, in its Hamiltonian 3 + 1 reformulation, but also all the equations used in York's conformal technique for solving the initial-value problem. This shows that the independent gravitational degrees of freedom obtained by York do not arise from a gauge fixing but from hitherto unrecognized fundamental symmetry principles. They can therefore be identified as the long-sought Hamiltonian physical gravitational degrees of freedom

  20. A Legitimate Freedom Approach to Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabtree, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Although the capability approach has had a tremendous impact on the development debate, it has had little to say about sustainable development. As several Human Development Reports have maintained, the last twenty years' gains in human development are not sustainable. The failure to include...... Index should be combined with the Ecological Footprint to reflect sustainability, and that the Human Development Reports should give way to Sustainable Development Reports...... an integrate sustainability into the Human Development Index would thus give the wrong policy message. Drawing on the works of Amartya Sen and Thomas Scanlon, this article argues that sustainable development can be seen as a process of increasing legitimate freedoms, the freedoms that others cannot reasonably...