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Sample records for operation iraqi freedom

  1. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... facilities for returning Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans.... Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10...

  2. Concomitant cranial and ocular combat injuries during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Raymond I; Bakken, Hans E; Reynolds, Mark E; Schlifka, Brett A; Powers, David B

    2009-09-01

    Concomitant cranial and ocular injuries were frequently seen in combat casualties during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The incidence of these injuries is reported along with an interventional case series. A retrospective review was conducted of all surgical patients treated by U.S. Army neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists in Iraq from December 2005 to April 2006. Out of 104 patients with cranial trauma and 158 patients with ocular trauma, 34 had both cranial and ocular injuries (32.7 and 21.5% of patients with cranial and ocular injuries, respectively). Neurosurgical procedures included exploratory craniotomy, decompressive craniectomy, and frontal sinus surgery. Ophthalmologic surgical procedures included globe exploration, open globe repair, primary enucleation, orbital fracture repair, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis, and repair of lid and periocular lacerations. Patients with cranial trauma had a higher incidence of orbital fracture, orbital compartment syndrome, and multiple ocular injuries compared with patients without cranial trauma (odds ratio 6.4, 3.9, and 3.3, respectively). A strong association exists between cranial and ocular trauma in combat casualties treated during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Combat health support personnel should maintain a high level of suspicion for one of these injuries when the other is present. Co-locating neurosurgeons and ophthalmologists in support of combat operations facilitates the optimal treatment of patients with these combined injuries.

  3. AH-64 IHADSS aviator vision experiences in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harris, Eric S.; McGilberry, William H.

    2004-09-01

    Forty AH-64 Apache aviators representing a total of 8564 flight hours and 2260 combat hours during Operation Iraqi Freedom and its aftermath were surveyed for their visual experiences with the AH-64's monocular Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) helmet-mounted display in a combat environment. A major objective of this study was to determine if the frequencies of reports of visual complaints and illusions reported in the previous studies, addressing mostly benign training environments, differ in the more stressful combat environments. The most frequently reported visual complaints, both while and after flying, were visual discomfort and headache, which is consistent with previous studies. Frequencies of complaints after flying in the current study were numerically lower for all complaint types, but differences from previous studies are statistically significant only for visual discomfort and disorientation (vertigo). With the exception of "brownout/whiteout," reports of degraded visual cues in the current study were numerically lower for all types, but statistically significant only for impaired depth perception, decreased field of view, and inadvertent instrumental meteorological conditions. This study also found statistically lower reports of all static and dynamic illusions (with one exception, disorientation). This important finding is attributed to the generally flat and featureless geography present in a large portion of the Iraqi theater and to the shift in the way that the aviators use the two disparate visual inputs presented by the IHADSS monocular design (i.e., greater use of both eyes as opposed to concentrating primarily on display imagery).

  4. Problems with veteran-family communication during operation enduring freedom/operation Iraqi freedom military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Högnäs, Robin S

    2012-02-01

    Twenty Reserve component (Army and Marines) and Army National Guard male veterans of Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom discuss their deployment and postdeployment family reintegration experiences. A Grounded Theory approach is used to highlight some of the ways in which family miscommunication during deployment can occur. Communication with civilian family members is affected by the needs of operational security, technical problems with communication tools, miscommunication between family members, or because veterans have "nothing new to say" to family back home. These communication difficulties may lead to an initial gulf of understanding between veterans and family members that can cause family strain during postdeployment family reintegration. We end with a discussion of veteran family reintegration difficulties.

  5. Iraqi Perspectives Project. A View of Operation Iraqi Freedom from Saddam’s Senior Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    against him.15 Throughout the meeting Saddam watched silently, smoking Cuban cigars, as his henchmen announced the discovery of “a painful and...detailed technical, damage, and operational assesments of US airpower.15 The Iraqi Perspectives Project 168 Iraqi Air Force MIG-25 Foxbat being

  6. Penetrating trauma to the external genitalia in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, S; Beekley, A; Morey, A; Soderdahl, D

    2009-01-01

    This report details the incidence and description of trauma to the external genitalia experienced during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a United States Army Combat Support Hospital, and demonstrates that acceptable rates of testicular salvage are possible in the combat setting. The operating room logs and the Joint Theater Trauma Registry were used to conduct a retrospective review of the patients who sustained genitourinary (GU) injuries at an US Army Combat Support Hospital (CSH) in Iraq from 27 February 2007 to 14 August 2007. Of the 3595 battle trauma injuries seen at the CSH during the time period, 168 (4.7%) had one or more GU injuries for a total of 172 GU injuries. Of these patients, 115 (68%) with GU injuries had one or more injuries to the external genitalia for a total of 119 external GU injuries. Penetrating trauma to the penis and scrotum accounted for 59 of the injuries. In total, 43 testicles were injured in 34 patients (9 had bilateral injuries). In total, 32 testes were repaired primarily and 11 were removed. Injuries to the external genitalia continue to account for the vast majority of GU trauma in a combat setting. Of patients who presented with penetrating testicular trauma, there was a 74.4% salvage rate, which is higher than previous reports of combat external genitalia injuries. Treatment of penetrating trauma to the external genitalia in a combat setting requires attention to tissue preservation while coordinating associated surgical procedures.

  7. Medical Logistics Lessons Observed During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning.

  8. Posttraumatic growth among operation enduring freedom and operation Iraqi freedom amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetato, Bonnie B

    2011-12-01

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is a positive psychological change experienced as a result of struggle with highly challenging life circumstances. This study tested the PTG Model in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans following a major combat-related amputation. Specifically, the relationships among social support, rumination, length of time since amputation, and PTG among these veterans were examined. This was a descriptive correlational design using a mailed survey. Data were collected from OEF and OIF veterans with a major traumatic amputation (excluding digit-only loss). A nationwide postal survey was conducted in 2007 of veterans with a major combat-related traumatic amputation. 210 veterans registered at the Department of Veterans Affairs were sent a survey packet containing a letter of introduction, informed consent form, stamped return envelope, and four surveys: a study-specific demographic questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), Postdeployment Social Support scale, and a Rumination scale. The mean PTGI score among OEF and OIF amputees (N= 56) was 59.1 (SD= 23). Rumination showed the strongest correlation with PTG: r= .43, p= .001. There was a small positive relationship between postdeployment social support and PTG: r= .24, p= .039. No statistically significant correlation between PTG and time since amputation was found in this sample. As proposed in the PTG model, the findings of this study support the benefit of rumination or cognitive processing of the traumatic event and postdeployment social support in the process of developing PTG following a major combat-related amputation. Following a life-threatening war injury, the patient's worldview is dramatically altered or shattered. Old assumptions and belief systems are rebuilt in the acute phase, rehabilitation, and reintegration into the community. The struggle in the aftermath of the traumatic event that results in personal transformation is known as

  9. US Army Physical Therapist Roles and Contributions in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott W; Moore, Josef H

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a leading cause of health care utilization, medical evacuation, and disability. US Army physical therapists (PTs) have served as physician extenders for the management of nonsurgical neuromusculoskeletal injuries since the Vietnam conflict. The roles and evidence supporting US Army physical therapy continue to evolve. This article discusses the different levels of care and roles of US Army PTs, the contributions and evidence regarding US Army physical therapy, and physical therapy lessons learned during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Since 2001, US Army PTs and enlisted physical therapy technicians have provided care from Levels 1 to 5 and assignments have expanded to special operations and brigade combat teams. Evidence suggests US Army PTs serving both in referral and direct access roles provided safe and definitive care that maximized readiness while reducing evacuation. Key physical therapy lessons learned include: (1) a continued focus on a Soldier sports medicine forward care model, (2) a need for injury risk assessment, physical performance screenings, and reconditioning programs that optimize readiness, and (3) continued support for physical therapy structure, training, and research that maximizes Soldier readiness and health.

  10. Hired Guns: Views about Armed Contractors in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    reportedly cleared areas by throwing full water bottles at local civilians while driv- ing through ( Montagne and Temple-Raston, 2007). Retired U.S. Marine... Montagne and Temple-Raston, 2007). With regard specifi cally to the Nisour Square shooting, a National Public Radio report observed the following: Th e...because Iraqis don’t distinguish between the Blackwater employees and the American mili- tary more generally ( Montagne and Temple-Raston, 2007). When

  11. Postdeployment driving stress and related occupational limitations among veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eric J; Peyton, Claudia G; Kim, David K; Nakama-Sato, Kristine K; Noble, Amy E

    2014-01-01

    Difficulty in driving after deployment has emerged as an impediment for servicemembers returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF-OEF). This study explored postdeployment driving stress and related occupational limitations using two self-report instruments: the Driver's Stress Profile and the Driving and Occupational Limitations questionnaire. Data gathered from 103 OIF-OEF returnees confirmed that driving and related occupational issues occur postdeployment. Significant low to moderate correlations were found between postdeployment driving stress and limitations in community mobility, leisure, and social participation. The returnees who drove off base more frequently during deployment showed significantly higher levels of postdeployment driving stress than the returnees who drove off base less frequently. Moreover, the returnees who demonstrated higher levels of driving stress and occupational limitations required more time to resume normal driving postdeployment. Findings raise awareness about the need to design effective driver rehabilitation and community reintegration programs for this population.

  12. Using military friendships to optimize postdeployment reintegration for male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna

    2011-01-01

    Social relationships are important to health out comes. The postdeployment family reintegration literature focuses on the role of the civilian family in facilitating the transition from Active Duty military deployment to civilian society. The focus on the civilian family relationship may miss other important personal connections in veterans' lives. One such connection is the relationship many veterans have with former military unit members who served with them when deployed. Drawing on interviews with male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans conducted from 2008 to 2009, we argue that the members of a military unit, especially during armed conflict, should be considered a resource to help the "family" reintegration process rather than impede it. This research has implications for current reintegration policy and how best to assist veterans transitioning into civilian society.

  13. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Preliminary Observations on Iraqi Security Forces’ Logistics and Command and Control Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-28

    support at the lowest levels is expected to be the purview of Headquarters and Services Companies (HSC), which provide limited health, maintenance...supply, and transportation support to Iraqi Army battalions, brigades, and divisions, and Motorized Transport Regiments (MTR), which provide additional...including U.S. military 2.5- and 5-ton cargo trucks, as well as vehicles manufactured by AMC, Ashok Leyland (Indian), GAZ (Russian), Hyundai , Kamaz

  14. Civil-Military Relations: From Vietnam to Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    jaded towards their services best interest.60 The next revision, The Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, initiated during the Eisenhower...crisis with the military was the Bay of Pigs fiasco.97 The operation which had been approved for planning and preparation by the Eisenhower...WWII as a statistician, teaching them the benefits statistical analysis. Also, more recently, the Bay of Pigs had shaped his strategic outlook.131

  15. The Invisible Wound: Moral Injury and Its Impact on the Health of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Grace W

    2016-05-01

    Many veterans are now returning from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) deployments with physical and mental health problems. However, there are few studies that examine the impact of moral injury on both physical and mental well-being. This study examines the impact of moral injury on self-reported general physical health, general mental health, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depression symptoms. Cross-sectional data were collected at as part of a pilot study at the New Jersey Veteran Affairs. 100 OEF/OIF veterans recruited at the New Jersey Veteran Affairs completed the paper questionnaire. We found that moral injury and combat experiences positively predicted post-traumatic stress disorder scores. Seeing the aftermath of battle and moral injury were negatively associated with mental well-being and positively associated with depression. Physical health status was negatively associated with depression. Spirituality and moral injury were negatively associated with physical health, whereas age was positively associated with physical health. Moral injury plays an important role in both physical and mental health outcomes for OEF/OIF veterans, but it is often not addressed in health care. These results underline the need for an approach to veterans' health care that includes discussion of existential and moral issues since they may impact health outcomes for many service members.

  16. Physical activity in postdeployment Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine R. Buis, PhD

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Veteran activity levels may decrease between Active Duty and postdeployment. We examined attitudes and changes in self-reported activities between the two in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA services. We conducted an online cross-sectional survey (June-August 2008 of postdeployment OIF/OEF veterans registered with the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Descriptive statistics summarized demographic data and attitudes, while regression analyses compared physical activities during Active Duty with physical activities postdeployment. Participants (n = 319, 15.6% response rate reported that they believe staying physically fit is important, they worry about gaining weight, and they believe exercise will keep them healthy (77%, 72%, and 90% agree or strongly agree, respectively. Running (30.0%, Exercise with Gym Equipment (21.5%, Occupational Activities (14.9%, and Walking (13.0% were the most frequently reported Active Duty physical activities. The most frequently reported postdeployment physical activities included Walking (21.1%, Running (18.5%, and Exercise with Gym Equipment (17.9%. Health problems (39% and chronic pain (52% were common barriers to physical activity. Postdeployment OIF/OEF veterans using the VA believe physical activity is beneficial, yet many report health problems and/or chronic pain that makes exercise difficult. Physical activity promotes health, and strategies are needed to facilitate physical activity in this population.

  17. Warrior Resilience Training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.

  18. Dental emergency rates at two expeditionary medical support facilities supporting operations enduring and Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William J; Langsten, Robert E; Flores, Salvador; Fandell, Jay E

    2004-07-01

    This study reports dental emergency rates and distribution of causes of dental emergencies at two expeditionary medical support facilities supporting operations Enduring Freedom/ Iraqi Freedom. A retrospective cohort analysis of 9948 soldiers deployed to Prince Sultan Air Base, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and 1467 soldiers at Baghdad International Airport, Iraq, was accomplished from a phased deployment from January 2003 to September 2003. Procedures were divided into 11 categories: endodontic, extraction of teeth other than third molars, extraction of third molar teeth, restoration of teeth (caries), restoration of broken teeth (not caries), orthodontic bracket/wire problem, sensitive teeth, temperomandibular pain, periodontal, oral pathology, and prosthodontic. The dental emergency rates for Prince Sultan Air Base and Baghdad International Airport were 153 and 145 dental emergencies per 1000 soldiers per year, respectively. Most of the emergencies were because of dental caries. Pain from third molars was the second most common reason for visiting the dental clinic.

  19. Attitudes toward predeployment and experimental vaccinations among troops deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Mark S; Patel, Shimul S; Sanders, John W; Armstrong, Adam W; Putnam, Shannon D; Schlett, Carey D; Tribble, David R

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Defense is actively engaged in the research and development of vaccine(s) to mitigate the burden of disease associated with diarrhea among deployed troops. Soldiers' attitudes and beliefs toward predeployment vaccines and participation in experimental research with vaccines are unknown. To assess these attitudes, a survey was distributed among soldiers who had been and were currently deployed to Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. Sixty-one percent of soldiers believe that predeployment vaccines are important, and 21% are hesitant to receive these vaccinations. Fifteen percent of soldiers stated that they would be willing to enroll in a study evaluating experimental vaccines, and 14% stated that they would participate in military research for vaccine development. Both male and female soldiers agreed that predeployment vaccines were important (86 and 92%, respectively); however, compared to their male counterparts, females were more hesitant to receive routine vaccinations (45% vs 37%) and less likely to volunteer for an experimental vaccine study (12% vs 20%). Officers and Air Force personnel were less hesitant to receive routine vaccinations compared to enlisted and other service personnel, respectively. Furthermore, if a soldier experienced three or more episodes of diarrhea, he or she was more likely to try an experimental vaccine to prevent diarrhea (23% vs 13%, p belief that immunizations are important and the hesitancy to receive them. Future studies should be directed to understand this gap and emphasize the critical importance of vaccines for health of US personnel in garrison and on deployment.

  20. Perceived stress, heart rate, and blood pressure among adolescents with family members deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Vernon A; Davis, Harry; Treiber, Frank A

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the impact of the 2003 Operation Iraqi Freedom on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) and self-reported stress levels among three groups of self-categorized adolescents: (1) military dependents with family members deployed; (2) military dependents with no family members deployed; (3) civilian dependents. At the onset and end of the "major hostilities" of Operation Iraqi Freedom, 121 adolescents (mean age = 15.8 +/- 1.1 years) completed questionnaires evaluating the psychological impact of the war and were evaluated for HR and BP. The military deployed dependents exhibited significantly higher HR than other groups at both evaluations (both p < 0.04). Ethnicity by group interactions indicated that European American-deployed dependents had higher stress scores at both time points (p < 0.02). Military dependent European Americans exhibited higher systolic BP compared to the other groups on the second evaluation (p < 0.03).

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Hispanic Veterans-A Review Using the PRISMA Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Vanessa D; Rozelle, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-12

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an "alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force." TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA) identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI.

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF Hispanic Veterans—A Review Using the PRISMA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa D. Arriola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an “alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force.” TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI.

  3. Family support, family stress, and suicidal ideation in a combat-exposed sample of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Smith, Brian N; Vogt, Dawne

    2015-01-01

    Deployment-related risk factors for suicidal ideation among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans have received a great deal of attention. Studies show that mental health symptoms mediate the association between most deployment stressors and suicidal ideation; however, family-related factors during deployment are largely unexplored. We examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms as mediators of the associations between deployment family support and stress and post-deployment suicidal ideation in combat-exposed OEF/OIF veterans. National cross-sectional mail survey. 1046 veterans responded to the survey. The sample for this study was 978 veterans who experienced combat. Regression-based path analyses were conducted. Family support and stress had direct associations with suicidal ideation. When PTSD and depression symptoms were examined as mediators of these associations, results revealed significant indirect paths through these symptoms. This study contributes to the literature on suicidal ideation risk factors among OEF/OIF veterans. Deployment family support and family stress are associated with suicidal ideation; however these associations occur primarily through mental health symptomatology, consistent with findings observed for other deployment factors. This research supports ongoing efforts to treat mental health symptomatology as a means of suicide prevention.

  4. Expanding a professional dental care system: experiences of Task Force 261 Multifunctional Medical Battalion during Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Frank L; Smith, Gregory M; Cobb, James W; Patterson, Craig G; Smith, Mark A; Pollard, Jennifer A

    2008-01-01

    During Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09, Task Force 261 Multifunctional Medical Battalion managed an extensive dental care system stretching throughout the Iraq theater of operations. We illustrate several of the unique challenges faced by Task Force 261's headquarters and its dental and area support companies, and describe the remedies emplaced by the Task Force. Personnel structure, the evacuation chain, supply and facility management, dental civil-military operations, detainee care, information technology applications, and public health initiatives are discussed in detail.

  5. A review of the first 10 years of critical care aeromedical transport during operation iraqi freedom and operation enduring freedom: the importance of evacuation timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Nichole; Zonies, David; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Martin, Kathleen D; Iddins, Bart O; Carlton, Paul K; Hanseman, Dennis; Branson, Richard; Dorlac, Warren; Johannigman, Jay

    2014-08-01

    Advances in the care of the injured patient are perhaps the only benefit of military conflict. One of the unique aspects of the military medical care system that emerged during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom has been the opportunity to apply existing civilian trauma system standards to the provision of combat casualty care across an evolving theater of operations. To identify differences in mortality for soldiers undergoing early and rapid evacuation from the combat theater and to evaluate the capabilities of the Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) and Joint Theater Trauma Registry databases to provide adequate data to support future initiatives for improvement of performance. Retrospective review of CCATT records and the Joint Theater Trauma Registry from September 11, 2001, to December 31, 2010, for the in-theater military medicine health system, including centers in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Germany. Of 2899 CCATT transport records, those for 975 individuals had all the required data elements. Rapid evacuation by the CCATT. Survival as a function of time from injury to arrival at the role IV facility at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center. The patient cohort demonstrated a mean Injury Severity Score of 23.7 and an overall 30-day mortality of 2.1%. Mortality en route was less than 0.02%. Statistically significant differences between survivors and decedents with respect to the Injury Severity Score (mean [SD], 23.4 [12.4] vs 37.7 [16.5]; P < .001), cumulative volume of blood transfused among the patients in each group who received a transfusion (P < .001), worst base deficit (mean [SD], -3.4 [5.0] vs -7.8 [6.9]; P = .02), and worst international normalized ratio (median [interquartile range], 1.2 [1.0-1.4] vs 1.4 [1.1-2.2]; P = .03) were observed. We found no statistically significant difference between survivors and decedents with respect to time from injury to arrival at definitive care. Rapid movement of critically

  6. Arthritis, comorbidities, and care utilization in veterans of operations enduring and Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jessica C; Amuan, Megan E; Morris, Ruth M; Johnson, Anthony E; Pugh, Mary Jo

    2017-03-01

    Veteran populations are known to have frequencies of arthritis higher than civilian populations. The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of arthritis among a cohort of veterans from ongoing U.S. military operations. A retrospective cohort study using Veterans Administration data sources for service connected disability, comorbidities, clinic utilization, and pharmacy utilization was conducted including veterans who deployed in service to operations in Afghanistan or Iraq, comparing veterans with a diagnosis of arthritis, arthritis plus back pain, and veterans with no pain diagnoses. The frequency of arthritis was 11.8%. Veterans with arthritis and arthritis plus back pain had greater frequencies of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity compare to veterans with no pain diagnosis. Veterans with arthritis plus back pain had the highest pain clinic utilization and prescription use of opioids and anti-inflammatories. Veterans with no pain diagnosis had higher frequencies of diagnosis and clinic utilization for mental health disorders. Arthritis is prevalent among the latest generation of combat veterans and is associated with diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular comorbidities. The need for arthritis care and associated comorbidities is expected to increase as the Veterans Administration and the civilian health care sector assumes care of these veterans. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:682-687, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Genitourinary injuries and extremity amputation in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Early findings from the Trauma Outcomes and Urogenital Health (TOUGH) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamani, Nina S; Janak, Judson C; Hudak, Steven J; Rivera, Jessica C; Lewis, Eluned A; Soderdahl, Douglas W; Orman, Jean A

    2016-11-01

    In Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF), genitourinary (GU) wounds have occurred in unprecedented numbers. Severe concomitant injuries, including extremity amputations, are common. The epidemiology of GU injury and extremity amputation in OEF/OIF has not been described. The Department of Defense Trauma Registry was queried from October 2001 through August 2013 to identify all surviving US male service members with GU injuries sustained in OEF/OIF. Genitourinary injury was defined as sustaining one or more injuries to any organ or structure within the genitourinary and/or reproductive system(s) based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. Injury severity was quantified based on Abbreviated Injury Scale scores and overall Injury Severity Scores. The incidence, nature, and severity of GU injuries and extremity amputations are described. Of the 1,367 service members with GU injury included in this analysis, 433 (31.7%) had one or more extremity amputations. Most GU injuries were to the external genitalia [scrotum (55.6%), testes (33.0%), penis (31.0%), and urethra (9.1%)] vs. the kidneys (21.1%). Those with amputation(s) had greater GU injury severity (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3) than those without amputations (50.1% vs. 30.5%, respectively; p < 0.0001). Approximately 3.4% of male service members with GU injury had an upper extremity amputation only, 8.9% had both lower and upper extremity amputation(s), and 19.4% had lower extremity amputation(s) only. Of the 387 patients with GU injury and lower extremity amputations, 87 (22.5%) had amputations below the knee and 300 (77.5%) had amputation(s) at/above the knee. In OEF/OIF, concomitant GU injury and extremity amputation are common and have serious implications for health and quality of life. This wounding pattern presents new challenges to the military medical and research and development communities to prevent, mitigate

  8. Capability enhancement and amputee care in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The role of a rehabilitation and prosthetics assistance team in reconstruction operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Defining the role of the U.S. Army Rehabilitation and Prosthetic Assistance Team in reconstruction operations was a key component of this first of its kind Army Medical Department (AMEDD) mission in a combat theater of operations. In the tradition of civil-military operations, a five-man team trained 11 Iraqi rehabilitation and prosthetic providers on best clinical, technical, and business practices to manage the nation's growing amputee population. The team instructed, assisted, and supervised Iraqi clinicians in the delivery of prosthetic and rehabilitation services to 124 patients over 350 patient clinical visits. After a successful transition from Multi-National Force-Iraq oversight to the Iraqi Ministry of Defense (MoD), the premier prosthetics and rehabilitation clinic in Iraq now provides services to patients from current and past conflicts, including civilians and pediatric patients.

  9. Operational Cost Analysis of Dental Emergencies for Deployed U.S. Army Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Dollar Cost) DE Operational Costs, also called Total Dollar Cost ( TDC ), is defined as all measureable dollar ~osts, both fixed and variable, that are...hourly rates of a typical deployed soldier were $42.28 and $43.26, respectively. The following formula was used to calculate TDC of DEs for this...study: TDC = Fixed Dollar Cost (Treatment) + Variable Dollar Cost (Time). RESULTS We determined that 11,642 soldiers were seen for DEs between July 1

  10. The Saratoga WarHorse project: a case study of the treatment of psychological distress in a veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Robert; Finch, Sharon; Hickling, Edward J; Barnett, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    We theorized that ability to direct and control a horse will lead to a sense of empowerment, facilitate a relationship between horse and veteran, lead to a decrease in anxiety, and improve physical and social functioning. This case study utilizes the Connection methodology: nonverbal language of the horse in a predictable, sequential, and repeatable method. Psychological testing occurred immediately pre- and post-Connection with follow-up occurring at 2, 4, 6, and 12 wks post-Connection. Twice-deployed combat medic who served in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Saratoga Springs, New York. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II); Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C); the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale (RSES); the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI); and the Modified Social Support Survey (MSSS). The participant demonstrated significant improvement in measures of psychological functioning (eg, over 12 wks); both PCL-C and RSES scores decreased 58% and 44%, respectively. Participant further reported an increase in sleep quality. The results of this case study strongly support the potential for the intervention and indicate the need for a controlled, randomized study that might more stringently investigate the impact of the intervention.

  11. A Review of the First 10 Years of Critical Care Aeromedical Transport During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom The Importance of Evacuation Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-25

    person team(an intensive careunit [ ICU ] physician, ICU nurse, and respiratory therapist) with a self- carriedequipment set capableof supporting the...The care process en route begins at the point of wounding and continues through the delivery of the pa- tient to rehabilitation centers back in the...fa- cilities evolved along with limited ICU capabilities. Solutions were continually advanced and operational strategies modi- fied tomeet the

  12. Fatal and Non-Fatal Electrocution Injuries at U.S. Marine Corps Forward Medical Facilities During Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bradley; Deaton, Travis; Galarneau, Mike; Dye, Judy; Zieber, Tara; Auten, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Death from electrocution is rare and generally an accidental occurrence. In contrast to civilian patterns of electrocution injury, the military work environment suffers from a greater percentage of fatal high-voltage electrocutions. This study compared U.S. and international electrocution case fatality rates to rates among deployed military personnel presenting for care at expeditionary medical care facilities. We also sought to identify potential risk factors for fatal electrocution injury among deployed military personnel. A retrospective analysis was performed on electrocution injuries presenting to U.S. Marine Corps forward deployed medical facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan between January 2004 and December 2012. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study population and compare fatal and nonfatal electrocutions. Fatality rates were reported in cases per 1,000,000 people per year. A total of 38 patients were identified; all were males with a mean (SD) age of 25.3 (5.3) years. Most electrocutions occurred on base (68%), whereas a smaller number (21%) occurred while conducting operations outside of the base. A majority of fatal cases (80%) occurred while outside of base on foot or vehicle mounted patrol. The rate of fatal electrocutions among U.S. Marine Corps personnel during this period was 37 per 1,000,000 people per year, 7-fold higher than the international electrocution fatality rate of 5.4 per 1,000,000 people per year and nearly three-fold above the U.S. utility and construction worker's fatality rate of 14 per 1,000,000 people per year. Electrocution injuries occurring during foot or vehicle mounted patrols seem to account for findings of higher case fatality rates among deployed military personnel than those found in international or high risk civilian occupational settings. Basic life support training for medical and nonmedical military personnel is critical to optimizing care delivered at the scene of these injuries. Reprint & Copyright

  13. To Fight or Not to Fight? Organizational and Doctrinal Trends in Mounted Maneuver Reconnaissance from the Interwar Years to Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    slow. In Road Runner missions, tanks traveled along a route with the express purpose of discovering or detonating mines before other traffic used...improved both mounted and dismounted night capabilities. Road Runner operations after dark pro- vided clear demonstrations of the disruptive nature...sometimes separated during handling or when carried in the 222 Chapter 5 gun tube. Some M48s also carried a dozer blade mounted across the front of

  14. Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-14

    football team we are just now having a winning record." Another said, "I understand the surge and I believe the surge. I went into Fallujah three... cocaine ; 7.7% for marijuana; and 3.9% for amphetamines (Karch et al. 2006). 2. Effective clinical care for mental, physical, and substance abuse

  15. Maintaining Discrimination in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Lockheed Martin, Boeing, or Northrop  Grumman?  Can American troops  blend  in with and weather harsh climates without  specially  made uniforms?  Can...reality of war— unless soldiers fought in the middle of the desert or in the  Antarctic , fighting will always  be near to a civilian population.  The...distinct, fixed symbol, taking into  account insurgent forces that often  blend  in with the civilian population.  The  amendment does, however, still

  16. Defensive Operations in the Media Battlespace: Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    incident. The first photo showed a bride and groom exiting a car. The accompanying caption read: “TV Image shows the bride arriving for her wedding party...about the terror, the horror in the Bronx and Manhattan and Queens ” (Spinner 2006, 77). If gore serves the interest of media outlets, why wouldn’t

  17. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-22

    withdrawal plans will be shaped in part by several sets of practical constraints, including available ground and air transportation for withdrawing...Authority, issued on June 27, 2004. The document addressed issues including legal immunities, communications, transportation , customs, entry and...On December 21, 2007, Polish President Lech Kaczynski approved a plan to withdraw the remaining 900 Polish troops from Iraq by the end of October

  18. Decisionmaking in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The Strategic Shift of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    them and will exist after them, they are less consumed with leaving their personal mark on history than on being the steward of their Service. The...enemies and allies. Lesser powers, which play a smaller role in determining the rules of behavior for regional or global security systems, are less...the Surge,” Commentary, April 2008, p. 25. 17. Letter to President Bush signed by Harry Reid, Nancy Pelosi, Dick Durbin, Steny Hoyer , Carl Levin, Ike

  19. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-02

    suspected perpetrators of violence is an ethically ambiguous practice that, moreover, is unlikely to succeed because it depends for its success on...covering the part of Baghdad that includes the zoo included an epidemiologist. The PRT in Najaf, where a new commercial airport opened in 2008

  20. Joint Air Power, Transformation, and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    came from anxiety about establishing communications with the appropriate controlling agency. These difficulties in communication along a joint seam ... seam in connectivity was between the CAOC and sea-based aviation. Although force levels changed throughout the war, of the approximately 650 fighter...existed. As Admiral Cebrowski said of OIF, “the comfort level for all indirect fires is going up.”29 Yet the “ pucker factor” of most traditionally

  1. Decisionmaking in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Removing Saddam Hussein by Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    terrorist attacks of 9/11 changed the limits of American tolerance. 12. For example, Noam Chomsky , Iraq Under Siege: The Deadly Impact of Sanctions and... model and conceptual forebear. Hence, promoting democratization and market- based economic reform in the Islamic world became a key component of the...repayment; the Arab world was duped by Hussein’s propaganda about the human costs of sanctions (costs which he intentionally created and manipulated

  2. Strategic Reflections: Operation Iraqi Freedom, July 2004-February 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    only four of Iraq’s provinces (Anbar, Baghdad, Saladin , and Diyala) had averaged more than 10 reported attacks per day in the 6-month period from May...113 safe haven elimination Fallujah, 42 Najaf, 40 Saladin Province, 140 Samarra bombing, 89–96 Sanchez, Ricardo, LTG USA, 20, 22 Schoomaker, Peter J

  3. The Impact of Operation Iraqi Freedom on Building Future Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-11

    British Bulldog or Bush’s Poodle? Anglo-American Relations and the Iraq War.” Parameters. Carlisle Barracks:Winter 2003/2004. Vol. 33, Iss. 4, Pp...74. 31 Dombrowski, Pp. 118. 32 Wither, James. “British Bulldog or Bush’s Poodle? Anglo-American Relations and the Iraq War.” Parameters. Carlisle

  4. Analyzing Contingency Contracting Purchases for Operation Iraqi Freedom (Unrestricted Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    includes such industries as fruit stands and Christmas tree farms in addition to providers of bottled water. (See U.S. Census Bureau, 2002.) 3 Members...blood-alcohol detection meters, handcuffs) Fuel and fuel-related items (not jet fuel) Fuels (diesel, acetylene , propane) Fuel-storage equipment (fuel

  5. Infections in Combat Casualties During Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    2 996.66 Infection joint prosthesis 2 996.67 Infection orthopaedic device 12 Central nervous system 320.89 Meningitis other bacteria 1 320.9...Cellulitis arm 37 682.4 Cellulitis hand 16 682.5 Cellulitis/abscess buttock 1 682.6 Cellulitis leg 77 682.7 Cellulitis foot 30 682.9 Cellulitis/abscess...Abrasion hip/leg infected 3 916.3 Blister hip/leg infected 2 917.3 Blister foot and toes-infected 2 958.3 Post-trauma wound infection 35 997.62 Infection

  6. On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Captain Matthew Paul and Sergeant Jose Adorno , Task Force 2-7 IN mortar platoon, walked down the road the unit had used earlier to enter the airport...than 10 seconds later, the ground rumbled with the sound of approaching armor once again, and Captain Paul and Sergeant Adorno turned to move out of...road; Sergeant Adorno sprinted off to the right. Winding through the trees and bushes screening Four Corners, he was back with the mortar platoon in

  7. Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08: Iraq. Operation Enduring Freedom 8: Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-14

    many wondered why it couldn’t have been implemented earlier; one Soldier said, "If we were a football team we are just now having a winning record...committed suicide in 13 states, and 33.3% tested positive for alcohol; 16.4% for opiates; 9.4% for cocaine ; 7.7% for marijuana; and 3.9% for amphetamines...for opiates; 9.4% for cocaine ; 7.7% for marijuana; and 3.9% for amphetamines (Karch et al. 2006). 7. Easy access to a variety of clinical

  8. Characteristics of Genitourinary Injuries Associated With Pelvic Fractures During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and 15%.1–3 The mechanism of injury in these studies is most commonly blunt because of motor vehicle collisions ( MVCs ), falls, and pedestrian versus...Nonsurvivors Number (%) Survivors Number (%) IED 65 (71) 2 (20) Other Explosion 5 (5) 2 (20) Gunshot Wound 8 (9) 3 (30) MVC Without IED 4 (4) 2 (20...Combination 6 (6) Other 3 (3) l (10) Total 91 10 IED, improvised explosive device; EFP, explosively formed projectile.; MVC , motor vehicle collision

  9. Infections Complicating the Care of Combat Casualties During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    septicemia 2 38.49 Gram-negative septicemia nec 2 38.8 Septicemia OT 2 38.9 Septicemia nos 11 790.7 Bacteremia 85 Bone/joint 730.02 Acute osteomyelitis ...arm 1 730.05 Acute osteomyelitis pelvis 4 730.06 Acute osteomyelitis leg 8 730.07 Acute osteomyelitis ankle 2 730.16 Chronic osteomyelitis leg 3 730.22... Osteomyelitis unspec arm 3 730.23 Osteomyelitis unspec forearm 4 730.25 Osteomyelitis unspec pelvis 6 730.26 Osteomyelitis nos-L/leg 8 730.27

  10. Fasciotomy Rates in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Association with Injury Severity and Tourniquet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Elevation in compartment pressure following hypovolemic shock and fluid resuscitation: a canine model. Orthopedics. 2006;29:443–445. 16. Madigan MC, Kemp CD... treatment of open femur fractures. The case fatality rate of open femur fractures dropped precipitously from 80% to approximately 8% as a result and led to...the need for new 1000-bed specialty hospitals for the treatment of survivors.20,21 One of the unforeseen consequences of this lifesaving device was the

  11. Detainee Medical Operations during Operation Iraqi Freedom: Determination of a Transition Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    to all European governments, the United States of America, Brazil and Mexico . Sixteen States sent representation to the conference that met from 8 to...Additionally, a panel of physicians should provide consensual guidelines on resuscitative procedures and euthanasia . These topics do not have clear cut

  12. Sharing the Burden and Risk: An Operational Assessment of the Reserve Components in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    official Air Combat Command history reported “myriad difficulties ” in planning forces for OIF due to “the ever-shifting requirements of U.S. Air...and investigations professionals brought insight to counter-terrorism and debriefing missions. Linguists enabled a wide variety of missions in...challenges and there was " difficulty in the initial call-ups.蕅 As highlighted in previous chapters, some of the challenges stemmed from the decision

  13. Tympanic Membrane Perforation and Hearing Loss From Blast Overpressure in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Wounded

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Singh DS, Ahluwalia KJS. Blast injuries of the ear. J Laryngol Otol. 1968;82:1017–1028. 10. Kronenberg J, Ben-Shoshan J, Wolf M. Perforated tympanic...Action Casualty System. Br J Surg. 1989;75:1006–1010. 23. Kronenberg J, Ben-Shoshan J, Modan M, Leventon G. Blast injury and cholesteatoma. Am J Otol

  14. The Changing Face of Disability in the US Army: The Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    osteoarthritis Fibromyalgia Diagnosis of fibromyalgia in which fibromyalgia itself is an unfitting condition Knee Any condition causing pain in or loss of function...ability significantly increased for all orthopaedic conditions, with the ex- ception of amputation, fibromyalgia , other lower extremity conditions...n = 3,143) P Value Amputation 1 0.06 33 1.05 ɘ.0001 Back painb 376 22.47 1,348 42.89 ɘ.0001 Foot and ankle 54 3.23 324 10.31 ɘ.0001 Fibromyalgia

  15. Gunshot Wounds in Military Working Dogs in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom: 29 cases (2003-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    2008; 39(1):9–20. 22. Zengerink I, Brink PR, Laupland KB, et al. Needle thoracostomy in the treatment of a tension pneumothorax in trauma patients...what size needle? J Trauma 2008; 64(1):111–114. 23. Rathinam S, Beetman A, Steyn RS. Needle thoracostomy in treat- ment of tension pneumothorax in...trauma patients. J Trauma 2008; 65(4):964. 24. Eckstein M, Suyahara D. Needle thoracostomy in the prehospital setting. Prehosp Emerg Care 1998; 2(2):132

  16. Now and Then: Combat Casualty Care Policies for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom Compared With Those of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    from the Vietnam era.28 High Incidence of Hand Burns In December 2005, OTSG HP&S forwarded an ALAR - ACT entitled “High Incidence of Hand Burns”. The... ALAR - ACT identified a disproportionately high number of OIF/OEF soldiers returning with hand burns compared with burns of other body parts. This

  17. Child maltreatment among U.S. Air Force parents deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Colasanti, Marie P

    2015-02-01

    This study examined child maltreatment perpetration among 99,697 active-duty U.S. Air Force parents who completed a combat deployment. Using the deploying parent as the unit of analysis, we analyzed whether child maltreatment rates increased postdeployement relative to predeployment. These analyses extend previous research that used aggregate data and extend our previous work that used data from the same period but used the victim as the unit of analysis and included only deploying parents who engaged in child maltreatment. In this study, 2% (n = 1,746) of deploying parents perpetrated child maltreatment during the study period. Although no overall differences were found in child maltreatment rates postdeployment compared to predeployment, several maltreatment-related characteristics qualified this finding. Rates for emotional abuse and mild maltreatment were lower following deployment, whereas child maltreatment rates for severe maltreatment were higher following deployment. The finding that rates of severe child maltreatment, including incidents involving alcohol use, were higher postdeployment suggests a need for additional support services for parents following their return from combat deployment, with a focus on returning parents who have an alcohol use problem.

  18. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  19. Injuries Sustained in Noncombat Motor Vehicle Accidents During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    pneumothorax, lung contusion , flail chest). This finding, and whether it relates in any way to vehicle type, protective equipment worn, or MVA...the Barell matrix.18 Injury type was classified as fracture, dislocation, sprains/strains, internal, contusion /superficial, open wounds, amputation...analysis because autopsy information was not available for coding. The median ISS was 1 (range: 1–33). Overall, 48% of personnel sustained a contusion

  20. Combat Ocular Trauma Visual Outcomes during Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-12

    review/ ethics board-approved protocol. It also was approved for publication by the WRAMC’s Department of Clinical Investigation and Opera- 2235ISSN...of 523 eyes, traumatic glaucoma developed, with 7 (1.3%) of 523 eyes requir- ing a Baerveldt glaucoma implant (Pharmacia/Upjohn, Kalama- zoo , MI

  1. Repeated Concussion Among U.S. Military Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    dizziness, tinnitus , and sensitivity to noise or light), and affective ( depression , irritability, and anxiety), utilization of mental health and...concussion and risk of depression in retired professional football players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(6):903–9. [PMID: 17545878] http://dx.doi.org

  2. A Medical Logistics Officer Training Needs Assessment Utilizing Feedback from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    focused on honing and expanding the skill set of medical logistics officers to ensure they possess the most current tools required to accomplish their...Linkages). 60 1. Medical Chemical Defense Materiels ( MCDM ) and Weapons of Mass Destruction 2. Logistical Information Management ie. CAD, CALS, ECAT, LIDS

  3. The Retention of Recalled Navy Nurse Reservists following Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-30

    analysis. Quantitative analyses were performed using SPSS and Mplus Version 4. Qualitative analysis consisted of identifying significant concepts...modeling (SEM), and content analysis. Quantitative analyses were performed using SPSS and Mplus Version 4. Qualitative analysis consisted of...interpreted as causal. Missing Values Mplus (Version 4) provides features of missing value estimation with maximum likelihood methods, assuming

  4. Resourcing Movement Control Battalions during Operation Iraqi Freedom 07-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    MCT, sea port MCT, division support MCT, Movement Regulating Team ( MRT ), and Automated Cargo Documentation Team (ACDT). MCBs experienced a change in...provides junior leaders with the information and guidance to develop into critical and creative thinkers to lead the Army of tomorrow. The position

  5. Ten Years of War: A Characterization of Craniomaxillofacial Injuries Incurred During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    nerve injuries, vessel injuries, andVin particularVburns take up a smaller portion of the pie , they are more treatment intensive and may require longer...mask: observations on the management of severe maxillo-facial lesions over the last 160 years. J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1997;42:367 375. 15. Lew TA, Walker

  6. Epidemiological Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae Caused by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    features, medical and injury characteristics (e.g., TBI classification), psychosocial history (e.g., trauma exposure), and psychiatric variables. A...persistent postconcussive symptoms within a military sample with blast exposure. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2014 May 6. [Epub ahead of print] ∑ Walker, W...and it’s relation to post-concussion syndrome. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2013 Jan;28(1):68-76. b. In-Press publications (accepted in peer

  7. Observations from Oversight Organizations Impacting Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom Beginning FY 2003 Through FY 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    implementing entities was needed to jointly assess current information systems and develop the requirements for an integrated management information solution .27... Electrocution Deaths in Iraq: Part II - Seventeen Incidents Apart from Staff Sergeant Ryan D. Maseth, U.S. Army,” July 24, 2009 DoD OIG Report No...IE-2009-006, “Review of Electrocution Deaths in Iraq: Part I - Staff Sergeant Ryan D. Maseth, U.S. Army,” July 24, 2009 DoD OIG Report No. SPO

  8. Thoracic Injuries in US Combat Casualties: A 10-Year Review of Operation Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    explosive devices were the most common cause of injury (61.9%). Of 6,030 thoracic injuries identified, pneumothorax and pulmonary contusions were most...1,061 (51.8) Pulmonary contusion 1,028 (50.2) Rib fractures 717 (35) Hemothorax 615 (30) Other chest injury 494 (24.1) Open chest wound 264 (12.9...1890s and was used to treat pulmonary edema in combat ca- sualties during WWI.1 Transfusions with whole blood were also performed in combat hospitals

  9. Field Artillery And Fire Support At The Operational Level: An Analysis Of Operation Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    this context, revolutionary means tradition- shattering, deriving from the theory of Thomas S. Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3d ed...43 Bibliography ...Top Threats,” DoD News, Defense Media Activity, 19 February 2015, accessed 14 December 2016, http://www.defense.gov/News/ Article / Article /604134; Dan

  10. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  11. Project VALOR: design and methods of a longitudinal registry of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat-exposed veterans in the Afghanistan and Iraqi military theaters of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Raymond C; Marx, Brian P; Maserejian, Nancy N; Holowka, Darren W; Gates, Margaret A; Sleeper, Lynn A; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Kang, Han K; Keane, Terence M

    2012-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the natural history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Project VALOR (Veterans' After-discharge Longitudinal Registry) was designed as a longitudinal patient registry assessing the course of combat-related PTSD among 1600 male and female Veterans who served in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Aims of the study include investigating patterns and predictors of progression or remission of PTSD and treatment utilization. The study design was based on recommendations from the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research for longitudinal disease registries and used a pre-specified theoretical model to select the measurement domains for data collection and interpretation of forthcoming results. The registry will include 1200 male and female Veterans with a recent diagnosis of PTSD in the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) electronic medical record and a comparison group of 400 Veterans without a medical record-based PTSD diagnosis, to also allow for case-control analyses. Data are collected from administrative databases, electronic medical records, a self-administered questionnaire, and a semi-structured diagnostic telephone interview. Project VALOR is a unique and timely registry study that will evaluate the clinical course of PTSD, psychosocial correlates, and health outcomes in a carefully selected cohort of returning OEF/OIF Veterans.

  12. Ground controlled robotic assembly operations for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    A number of dextrous robotic systems and associated positioning and transportation devices are available on Space Station Freedom (SSF) to perform assembly tasks that would otherwise need to be performed by extravehicular activity (EVA) crewmembers. The currently planned operating mode for these robotic systems during the assembly phase is teleoperation by intravehicular activity (IVA) crewmembers. While this operating mode is less hazardous and expensive than manned EVA operations, and has insignificant control loop time delays, the amount of IVA time available to support telerobotic operations is much less than the anticipated requirements. Some alternative is needed to allow the robotic systems to perform useful tasks without exhausting the available IVA resources; ground control is one such alternative. The issues associated with ground control of SSF robotic systems to alleviate onboard crew time availability constraints are investigated. Key technical issues include the effect of communication time delays, the need for safe, reliable execution of remote operations, and required modifications to the SSF ground and flight system architecture. Time delay compensation techniques such as predictive displays and world model-based force reflection are addressed and collision detection and avoidance strategies to ensure the safety of the on-orbit crew, Orbiter, and SSF are described. Although more time consuming and difficult than IVA controlled teleoperations or manned EVA, ground controlled telerobotic operations offer significant benefits during the SSF assembly phase, and should be considered in assembly planning activities.

  13. Deployment Surveillance Summary, U.S. Army Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn/Operation Enduring Freedom, 2011. Injury Prevention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    system /sensory Muskuloskeletal Genitourinary Digestives Ill-defined Disease Mental Health Battle injury Non-Battle injury Percent Injury Prevention Report...35 40 45 Unknown Other Neoplasms Endocrine Nervous system /sensory Infectious and parasitic Skin Respiratory Genitourinary Circulatory Muskuloskeletal...Respiratory Neoplasms Circulatory Nervous system /sensory Battle injury Muskuloskeletal Genitourinary Digestive Ill-defined conditions Mental

  14. Learning from Our Military History: The United States Army, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and the Potential for Operational Art and Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    problem is to teach it as a perfectly normal phase of war. Thus, aspects relevant to cadet schools such as Sandhurst, and aspects relevant to staff...training officers ought to receive when attending army schools, from cadet schools to senior staff colleges. The instruction of campaign 167Ibid...increased militarization of the Sunni insurgency and rejectionist movements, manifested in strength in the city of Fallujah. US Army forces, particularly

  15. Coast Guard Patrol Boat Operations in the Arabian Gulf: The Way Forward in the Post-Operation Iraqi Freedom Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    and additional qualifiers separated by commas, e.g. Smith, Richard, Jr. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES). Self -explanatory. 8...security classification regulations , e.g. U, C, S, etc. If this form contains classified information, stamp classification level on the top and...Finally, and most importantly, I am forever indebted to my wife Sharon, who put up with my procrastination and prolonged grumpiness during my

  16. Applying the Art of Systems and Organizational Architecting in Order to Implement Operational Design into Marine Corps Planning Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Making Process OEF Operation Enduring Freedom OIF Operational Iraqi Freedom OPORDS Operational Orders RSE Rapid Systems Engineering TTPs Tactics...and Complexity, A Platform for Designing Business Architecture and elements of Rapid Systems Engineering ( RSE ) as applied by Professor Gary Langford...planning process combines elements of business design (Gharajedaghi, 2006) and RSE (Langford, 2006) to create a more robust design-planning continuum

  17. Manually operated pile driver for use in the south Iraqi Marshlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthropizations are necessary to implement the maintenance, recovery and utilization of wetlands. These interventions should be sustainable in every sense, in particular they should be marked by a low environmental impact. In general this aim can be achieved by using natural materials and carrying out procedures minimally invasive. In Developing Countries the latter point is often supported by the lack of equipment and energy availability, normally obtainable in Industrialized Countries. In practice, to build micro-infrastructures with the above said characteristics, it is normally necessary to drive poles, in our case in wood, in marshland’s soil. In order to accomplish this task a manually operated pile driver was designed and built. To operate in the water, a floating pier consisting of removable modular elements was also designed.

  18. Diagnoses and Factors Associated With Medical Evacuation and Return to Duty for Service Members Participating in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-23

    in 2004; n=698, 8% in 2005). In 2006, the most common reasons for evacuation were musculo - skeletal and connective tissue disorders (n=1582, 23... musculo - skeletal disorders, with mental illness ranking eighth.19 The increasing and disproportionate consumption of resources by non-battle...studies have revealed an association between PTSD and physical health, including cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, musculo - skeletal, respiratory

  19. High-intensity sports for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: feasibility study of ocean therapy with veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carly M; Mallinson, Trudy; Peppers, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a pretest-posttest investigation of a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention using surfing in an experiential, skills-based program to support veterans with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their transition to civilian life. The purpose of this feasibility study was to evaluate the intervention for attendance rates and retention in the program provided in 5 sessions over 5 wk. Fourteen veterans from a specialty postdeployment clinic at a Veterans Affairs hospital were enrolled; 11 completed the study, and 10 attended ≥3 sessions. Participants reported clinically meaningful improvement in PTSD symptom severity (PTSD Checklist-Military Version, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.5, p = .01) and in depressive symptoms (Major Depression Inventory, Wilcoxon signed rank Z = 2.05, p = .04). The results of this small, uncontrolled study suggest that a sports-oriented occupational therapy intervention has potential as a feasible adjunct intervention for veterans seeking mental health treatment for symptoms of PTSD.

  20. Ten-Year Analysis of Transfusion in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: Increased Plasma and Platelet Use Correlates with Improved Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Fahrenheit (-F), base deficit, hemoglobin, and PLT count. Subjects were only included in the analysis of vital signs or laboratory para- meters if...1,156 49 1,005 84 Burn 20 G1 11 G1 Service branch 2,430 1,202 Air Force, % 20 G1 31 3 Army, % 1,840 76 688 57 Marines, % 520 21 451 38 Navy, % 50 2 32 3

  1. United States Marine Corps Post-Cold War Evolutionary Efforts: Implications for a Post-Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    organization would inform and coordinate with one of the six US Army Training and Doctrine Command Battle Laboratories in Fort Monroe, Virginia developing ...variety of Marine Corps training and education commands into an all-inclusive cohort of doctrinal focused professional development organization . He

  2. Increasing Marital Satisfaction as a Resilience Factor among Active Duty Members and Veterans of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Warren N.; Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Granvold, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    Supportive relationships are protective against a number of prevalent health risks among military populations, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Increasing marital satisfaction and strengthening that relationship is an important avenue for maintaining health among returning service members and their families. The current study builds upon…

  3. Estimation of the Joint Patient Condition Occurrence Frequencies from Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Volume I: Development of Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    of Other Facial Bones FRAC CL FACE 805 Closed Fracture of Cervical Vertebra without Spinal Cord Injury FRAC CL CERVICAL VCI 806.2 Closed Fracture... Cervical Vertebra with Spinal Cord Injury FRAC OP CERVICAL SCI 806.3 Open Fracture of Dorsal Vertebra with Spinal Cord Injury FRAC OP THORACIC... Vertebra DISLOCATION CERVICAL VCIc 840.4 Rotator Cuff Sprain SPRAINS & STRAINS SHOULDER & UPPER ARM PCOF Vol. 1: Development of Methodology 30 DMMPO ICD

  4. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) military mental health issues. Information on the wars' signature wounds: posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Diane; Hursey, Melodee; Delgado, Deborah

    2010-09-01

    This topic can be related to the nursing profession and the need to be better educated on military mental health. Since mood disorder, suicide, alcohol abuse, PTSD and TBI are evident in actively serving and returning service members, it is imperative to educate nurses and healthcare providers about these conditions, the available evidence-based treatments and referrals to programs for these signature OEF/OIF wounds. The authors encourage nurse educators to consider ways to include military mental health and other service-related health issues into nursing curricula and to use Veterans Administration and veterans-related healthcare facilities for clinical courses. As the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq continue into the foreseeable future, many veterans will be seen not only in VA facilities, but they will self-refer to academic and community hospitals, and psychiatric and rehabilitation centers. It is important for all nurses to be aware of the effects of PTSD, depression, suicide, substance abuse and TBI on our patients and to be effective advocates for quality care of veterans in all settings. Nurses need to advocate for screening and provision of mental health services in primary care settings. When such services are offered in primary care settings, it normalizes the care and the service member will more likely allow themselves to receive the care (Jones, 2004). All nurses must understand the price of war experienced by U.S. service members and their families, and in particular, the invisible wounds of war.

  5. Microvascular Reconstructive Surgery in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom: the US Military Experience Performing Free Flaps in a Combat Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Tripler Army Medical Center (C.K., J.C.S.), Honolulu, Hawaii; Ochsner Medical Center (B.M.), New Orleans, Louisiana; Institute for Surgical Research...Christopher Klem, MD, Tripler Army Medical Center, ATTN: MCHK-DSH, 100 Jarrett White Rd, Honolulu, HI 96859; email: christopher.klem@us.army.mil. DOI

  6. Injury and Illness Casualty Distributions Among U.S. Army and Marine Corps Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    parasitic diseases and diseases of the musculoskeletal, digestive, and nervous systems were more common. Branch of Service Marines sustained proportionally...neoplasms, mental disorders, diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, respiratory, and genitourinary systems were more common among women than... system Circulatory Respiratory Digestive Genitourinary Pregnancy Skin Musculoskeletal Congenital Ill-defined Injury Supplementary Total OIF-I No.

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury During Operation Iraqi Freedom: Findings from The United States Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    system disease 2 1 2 infections/ parasitic disease 1...1 2 skin disease 1 ,1 2 circulatory system disease ,1 ,1 ,1 respiratory system disease ,1 ,1 ,1 genitourinary system disease ,1 ,1 ,1 endocrine...influencing health signs/contact w/ health services 30 33 28 injury & poisoning 19 17 20 nervous system disease 13 14 13 musculoskeletal system 12 12

  8. Strategic Calculation in Estonia’s Decision to Enter the Coalition of the Willing for Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Fall, 2003), 385. 3 Hans J. Morgenthau , Politics among Nations. The Struggle for Power and Peace (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1968), 282. 4...The Baltic States: Years of Dependence, 1940-1990. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Morgenthau , Hans J. Politics among Nations: The

  9. Redefining Projections of Disease and Nonbattle Injury Patient Condition Code Distributions with Casualty Data from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-30

    63706N.M0095.60511. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the...symptoms 0.04% 0.09% 245 Diarrheal disease severe 0.14% 0.34% 246 Diarrheal disease moderate 0.80% 1.88% 248 Gastritis acute all cases 1.69% 4.00

  10. Managing Transitions: Examining the Institutional Army’s Transformation Following the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    collaborative approach with senior military leaders and the appointed civilians within the Department of Defense (DOD).5 In addition to the CMR literature , the... literature .37 To do this, General Depuy, the first TRADOC Commander, decentralized the combat development responsibilities to the branch-school...On War: Lessons to be Learned.” Survival Magazine, Vol 50, no 1(April 2008): 12-18. Miller, William I. The Mystery of Courage. Cambridge: Harvard

  11. 75 FR 1120 - Agency Information Collection (Health-Care Use Survey for Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ...-0478)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records...-7485, fax (202) 273-0443 or e-mail denise.mclamb@mail.va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900...: Denise McLamb, Program Analyst, Enterprise Records Service. [FR Doc. 2010-123 Filed 1-7-10; 8:45...

  12. Distribution Synergy in Multi-National Division-Baghdad during Operation Iraqi Freedom Rotation 07-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    involved using survey results to either corroborate or contradict the initial case study findings. The case study model presented in this thesis will...from Oct 07 to Jan 08 Rating (1 = low, 5 = high) LOGCAP contract for TTM LOGCAP contract for CLS Other: 3. What aspects

  13. Tactical Surgical Intervention with Temporary Shunting of Peripheral Vascular Trauma Sustained during Operation Iraqi Freedom: One Unit’s Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    sufficient recovery and communication with the receiving facility, casualties underwent MEDEVAC accom- panied by an en-route care nurse who continued...failure requiring 1 month of dialysis Acalculous cholecystitis Wound infections (abdominal wall and disarticulation sites) Pneumonia Line sepsis 16

  14. Managing Transitions: Examining the Institutional Army’s Transformation Following the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    making Process at the Civil-Military Nexus (Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2008),1. For a description on the normative theory of objective...Reprinted in Congressional Record, Vol. 116, 9 September 1970.) 51 Frederic Brown, US Army in Transition (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1973...development of doctrine. According to General Frederic Brown, “the conclusions drawn in the early 1970s were that the American capacity to repel or

  15. Expendable launch vehicles in Space Station Freedom logistics resupply operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. Steven; Courtney, Roy L.; Brunt, Peter

    The projected Space Station Freedom (SSF) annual logistics resupply requirements were predicted to exceed the 1988 baseline Shuttle resupply system capability. This paper examines the implications of employing a 'mixed fleet' of Shuttles and ELVs to provide postassembly, steady-state logistics resupply. The study concluded that ELVs supported by the OMV could provide the additional required resupply capability with one to three launches per annum. However, the study determined that such a capability would require significant programmatic commitments, including baseline SSF OMV accommodations, on-orbit OMV monoprop replenishment capability, and substantial economics investments. The study also found the need for a half-size pressurized logistics module for the increase in the efficiency of logistics manifesting on the Shuttle as well as ELVs.

  16. Barriers to Electronic Records Management (ERM): An Exploratory Case Study Investigating ERM in the Deployed Environment During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Patterson, G., & Sprehe, J. T. (2002). Principal challenges facing electronic records management in federal agencies today. Government Information Quarterly , 19...factors in managing U.S. federal recordkeeping. Government Information Quarterly , 19(3), 289-305. Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study

  17. Frequency and Causes of Nonbattle Injuries Air Evacuated from Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, U.S. Army, 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    fghanistan. Three fourths of the injuries involved the pper and lower extremities. The kneewas the largest sub- ategory of the lower extremity and...overall, while the rist/hand/fıngers was the largest subcategory of the pper extremity and the second largest of all ubcategories. Tables 5 and 6 are

  18. Air Medical Evacuations of Soldiers for Oral-facial Disease and Injuries, Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom, January-December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    of-injury coding in US military hospitals: NATO STANAG 2050. American Journal ofPreventive Medicine. l8(3S): 174-187.) 3. RESULTS. The study found...the Amoroso et al. article in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine(6).) (7) For those cases for which there was only an external cause of injury... Orthodontic Services 3 13.0 210.5 Benign Neoplasms of Tonsil 2 8.7 351.0 Bell’s Palsy 2 8.7 V52.3 V Code- Dental Prosthetic Device 1 4.3 196.0 Secondary

  19. Evaluating the operations capability of Freedom's Data Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowizral, Henry A.

    1990-01-01

    Three areas of Data Management System (DMS) performance are examined: raw processor speed, the subjective speed of the Lynx OS X-Window system, and the operational capacity of the Runtime Object Database (RODB). It is concluded that the proposed processor will operate at its specified rate of speed and that the X-Window system operates within users' subjective needs. It is also concluded that the RODB cannot provide the required level of service, even with a two-order of magnitude (100 fold) improvement in speed.

  20. Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    CENTER FOR ARMY ANALYSIS 6001 GOETHALS ROAD FORT BELVOIR, VA 22060-5230 CAA-2015098 IRAQI POPULATION DISPLACEMENT ANALYSIS NOVEMBER 2016...designated by other official documentation. Comments or suggestions should be addressed to: Director Center for Army Analysis ATTN: CSCA-OA...CONTRACT NUMBER Iraqi Population Displacement Analysis PDMC 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ms

  1. Department of Defense Environmental Policy in Afghanistan During Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-31

    Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties in U.S. Treaty Interpretation, 44 VA. J. INT’L. L. 431 (2004)(citing Secretary of State Rogers ’ Report to the...in OEF. 286 28 See id. at 5.b(4). 282 See Robert J. Chartier , Environmental Issues Associated with Operation Enduring Freedom, ENGINEER: THE

  2. Determining the Requisite Components of Visual Threat Detection to Improve Operational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Officer NVG Night Vision Goggles OE Operational Environment OEF Operation Enduring Freedom OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom OIL...to see things even though we have [night vision goggles] NVGs ; we still have less chance of seeing what’s going on around us than during the day...the telephone pole. Couple of days later, another unit sees the same thing. Same place, same type of marker. So we flew around it, maybe helicopter

  3. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    seizures in rats with brain injured at different developmental stages. Epilepsy Res. 2004;61:63–72. 29. Tikka T, Fiebich BL, Goldsteins G, Keinanen R...intrahippocampal transplantation of adult neural stem cells and intraventricular erythropoietin-infusion ameliorates spontaneous recurrent seizures by...brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbid-ity and mortality in Operation Iraqi Freedom largely due to the emergence of blast-injury from

  4. Pain management in the wilderness and operational setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedmore, Ian S; Johnson, Troy; Czarnik, Jim; Hendrix, Steve

    2005-05-01

    The wilderness and operational setting places unique constraints on one's ability to treat pain. In this article we will discuss methods for treating pain both in the wilderness and operational setting. By operational we mean the austere deployed military setting, to include both noncombat and combat operations. The authors combined experience with wartime trauma pain management consists of experience in Operation "Just Cause" (Panama Invasion), Operation "Desert Storm" (Persian Gulf War), Operation "Uphold Democracy" (Haiti liberation), Operation "Enduring Freedom" (Afghanistan conflict), and Operation "Iraqi Freedom" (Iraq conflict).

  5. Procurement Integrity in Contingency Operations: A Case Study of Army Contracting Officer Corruption in Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom Utilizing Occupational Fraud Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    personnel incorrectly have been characterized as “ shoppers ,” by some both inside and outside of the Army (and, consequently, reduced in both quantity and...Publication 4-10). Retrieved from DTIC Online website: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp4_10.pdf Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq

  6. Capability Enhancement and Amputee Care in Operation Iraqi Freedom: The Role of a Rehabilitation and Prosthetics Assistance Team in Reconstruction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    prosthetic devices were delivered (21% of patients seen) with the remainder of patients either BK (36% Multiple (1%) Bilateral Upper (1% Partial Foot (2% KD...femoral limb loss KO- knee disarticulation Seines- ankle disarticulation P;u1ial Foot - Carpal-in et a carpal amputation Bilateral lower extremity limb loss...prosthetic limb lypi- cally marked the transition in rehabilitation goals to functional outcomes such as using an upper extremity prosthesis to per

  7. Iraqi Military Academies

    OpenAIRE

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operat...

  8. The US Army in Kirkuk: Governance Operations on the Fault Lines of Iraqi Society, 2003-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Group Report, published in 2006 by the US Government, described ethnic hostilities in Kirkuk as an explosive powder keg and made the recommendation...of displaced Kurds. Arab and Turkmen resentment toward Kurd actions led Coalition authorities to view Kirkuk as a potential “ powder keg or...troop movement was nicknamed Operation UGLY BABY . The two 10th Special Forces Group battalions along with one company from the 3d Special Forces Group

  9. Sensitivity study of Space Station Freedom operations cost and selected user resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accola, Anne; Fincannon, H. J.; Williams, Gregory J.; Meier, R. Timothy

    1990-01-01

    The results of sensitivity studies performed to estimate probable ranges for four key Space Station parameters using the Space Station Freedom's Model for Estimating Space Station Operations Cost (MESSOC) are discussed. The variables examined are grouped into five main categories: logistics, crew, design, space transportation system, and training. The modification of these variables implies programmatic decisions in areas such as orbital replacement unit (ORU) design, investment in repair capabilities, and crew operations policies. The model utilizes a wide range of algorithms and an extensive trial logistics data base to represent Space Station operations. The trial logistics data base consists largely of a collection of the ORUs that comprise the mature station, and their characteristics based on current engineering understanding of the Space Station. A nondimensional approach is used to examine the relative importance of variables on parameters.

  10. The Impacts of Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief Operations on the Mental Health of Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    tragedy, trauma or disaster has been prevalent in the world of psychology for hundreds of years. Following the end of the Civil War , soldiers returning...Freedom OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom PTSD Post-traumatic Stress Disorder SADR Standard Ambulatory Data Record SIDR Standard Inpatient Data Record...of continuous armed conflict since the Vietnam War . From the point when the United States entered Afghanistan in October 2001 and Iraq in 2003, more

  11. Operations with the special purpose dextrous manipulator on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B.; Brown, D.; Hiltz, M.

    1991-01-01

    SPAR Canada is actively participating in the Space Station Freedom Program by contributing the Mobile Servicing System (MSS) which will be involved in assembly, maintenance and servicing of both the Space Station and the MSS itself. Part of the MSS is the Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a two armed dextrous robot with advanced vision and manipulative capabilities. In addition to Space Station and payload servicing activities the SPDM will be designed to perform self maintenance on the MSS itself. The majority of Space Station equipment will be on orbit for the anticipated 30 year lifespan and the maintenance philosophy will be to repair by the exchange of Orbit Replacement Units or ORUs. The present concept, configuration, and operation of the SPDM and the detailed simulations associated with the maintenance of part of the MSS are described. The Design Reference Mission is the replacement of a Joint Drive Module on the Canadian large payload manipulator, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System. Other Design Reference Missions that were investigated are briefly described, and future operations activity to support the definition of SPDM requirements are discussed.

  12. What Pre-Deployment and Early Post-Deployment Factors Predict Health Function after Combat Deployment?: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    current cancer, high blood pressure, or pregnancy . Deployments typically lasted 12–13 months. Four hundred twenty-two soldiers were able to be tracked...Predicting mortality and healthcare utilization with a single question. Health Serv Res 2005, 40:1234–1246. 10. Seal KH, Bertenthal D, Miner CR, Sen S, Marmar

  13. Head, Face, and Neck Injuries During Operation Iraqi Freedom II: Results From the US Navy and Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-12

    injuries at Navy–Marine Corps military medical treatment facilities (MTFs). Examples of Navy–Marine Corps MTFs include battalion aids stations (ie...incident details, injuries , treatment , and outcomes is collected by the patient’s medical provider(s) in the form of a clinical record. Clinical...and mouth; and neck injuries included trauma to cervical area and cervical spine. Head, Face, and Neck Injuries During OIF-II 7 Descriptive

  14. The Fight for the High Ground: The U.S. Army and Interrogation during Operation Iraqi Freedom I, May 2003-April 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    understand differently. The resulting scandal is today as much a part of America’s historical vernacular as "My Lai" and " Watergate ." Commonly referred to...as simply "Abu Ghraib," this scandal has proven an invaluable recruitment and propaganda tool for America’s enemies across the world, to include...34 21 The scandal also contributed to a significant loss of American political will to continue the fight in Iraq. "We now spend ninety percent of our

  15. American Military Barrier War Paint, Camp Buehring, Kuwait: A Discovery of Troop Identity, Values, and Warfighting Attributes as They Deployed into Combat for Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-21

    Las Vegas is a rowdy vacation destination where for many the popular saying, “what happens in Vegas, stays in Vegas,” is applicable. In addition......final 200 photographs were chosen based on artistic merit and unit type . It was important to diversify the study by selecting photographs from

  16. Apache Aviator Evaluation of Dual-Technology Night Vision Systems in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Urban Combat (Master’s Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    symbology viewed through a monocle (beamsplitter) in daytime or symbology overlaying the FLIR video feed from the PNVS sensor (night or day, when...corrected vision (or absence of) and eye preference prior to initiation into right monocle IHADSS use. Time since last helmet fitting, IHADSS field of

  17. Live from the Battlefield: An Examination of Embedded War Correspondents’ Reporting during Operation Iraqi Freedom (21 March-14 April 2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    to a public which had been carefully protected from contact with the crazy , hysterical mess. (Steinbeck, 1959) 29 Others became disillusioned with...AREAS IN THE CENTCOM AOR, THE CDC RECOMMENDS TAKING PRESCRIPTION ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS. ANTHRAX AND SMALLPOX VACCINES WILL BE PROVIDED TO THE MEDIA AT

  18. Dental emergency rates at an expeditionary medical support facility supporting Operation Enduring Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William Jackson

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the dental emergency rate and the distribution of cause of dental emergencies at an Expeditionary Medical Support +25 medical facility during a 6-month deployment in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. A retrospective cohort analysis of 1,972 soldiers stationed at Seeb Air Base, Sultanate of Oman, was accomplished from a phased deployment from March to September 2002. Procedures were divided into 11 categories: endodontic, extraction of teeth other than third molars, extraction of third molar teeth, restoration of teeth (caries), restoration of broken teeth (not caries), orthodontic bracket/wire problem, sensitive teeth, temperomandibular pain, periodontal, oral pathology, and prosthodontic. One hundred thirty-five dental emergency visits were recorded, corresponding to a rate of 137 dental emergencies per 1,000 soldiers per year. Most of the emergencies (34.8%) were due to caries. Pain from third molars was the second most common reason for visiting the dental clinic (19.3%).

  19. Maintenance and resupply in the unpressurized environment - Design and operational concepts for the Space Station Freedom logistics carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creps, Gary M.; Ernst, Steven A.; Crawford, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    A significant percentage of the maintenance tasks for Space Station Freedom are anticipated to be conducted in the unpressurized environment. The maintenance concept for this environment essentially involves the removal and replacement of relatively large orbital replacement units (ORUs). Major constraints will be the on-orbit availability of both crew time and spare ORUs. The challenge presented to the program will be the performance of unpressurized cargo resupply that provides maximum cargo-carrying capability (mass and volume) and flexibility (type and quantity), while minimizing the impact to maintenance task times. The design of the logistics carriers is a critical component for successful resupply and maintenance operations, and to the success of Space Station Freedom.

  20. 75 FR 55462 - Iraqi Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ..., 1990). Executive Order 12722 prohibited the importation of any goods or services of Iraqi origin into..., Blocking of assets, Exports, Foreign trade, Imports, Iraq, Oil imports, Penalties, Petroleum,...

  1. If You Love Information, Set It Free! Promoting Freedom of Expression by Expanding Cyberspace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    married to a wonderful woman and they are both blessed with two beautiful children. iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis would not have been...Col Suzanne Buono for directing our cyberspace course and for her perceptive critique of this work. To my fellow students in Class XXI , all I can...embraced freedom since the first colonies appeared along the east coast of America in the 17th century . This belief in a free society was formally

  2. Joint Operational Fires in the Offense: The Southwest Pacific Campaign to Isolate Rabaul

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    machine gun, the rifle, tommy-gun, grenade and knife are the weapons carried by men who fly to war, jump in parachutes , are carried in gliders and who...Operation Iraqi Freedom PIR Parachute Infantry Regiment POA Pacific Ocean Areas PT Patrol Torpedo (Boat) RAAF Royal Australian Air Force RCT Regimental...peninsula would require two Australian divisions and the American 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment (PIR). The 503rd would parachute directly onto

  3. Organizing to Understand: How to Operate Effectively in the Human Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    study of ethno- cultural dynamics. Instead of culture-specific training, intercultural learning seeks to develop the skills at bridging communication ...national security community and military practitioners. To deal with the increasingly important human aspects, the US military has proposed the...studies of the early years of Operation Iraqi Freedom provide sufficient material with which to analyze how the security community has approached issues

  4. 31 CFR 575.311 - Iraqi origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iraqi origin. 575.311 Section 575.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Government of Iraq, or of a business entity located in Iraq. Services of Iraqi origin are not imported...

  5. Operant conditioning of a multiple degree-of-freedom brain-machine interface in a primate model of amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan; Southerland, Joshua; Vaidya, Mukta; Qian, Kai; Eleryan, Ahmed; Fagg, Andrew H; Sluzky, Marc; Oweiss, Karim; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Operant conditioning with biofeedback has been shown to be an effective method to modify neural activity to generate goal-directed actions in a brain-machine interface. It is particularly useful when neural activity cannot be mathematically mapped to motor actions of the actual body such as in the case of amputation. Here, we implement an operant conditioning approach with visual feedback in which an amputated monkey is trained to control a multiple degree-of-freedom robot to perform a reach-to-grasp behavior. A key innovation is that each controlled dimension represents a behaviorally relevant synergy among a set of joint degrees-of-freedom. We present a number of behavioral metrics by which to assess improvements in BMI control with exposure to the system. The use of non-human primates with chronic amputation is arguably the most clinically-relevant model of human amputation that could have direct implications for developing a neural prosthesis to treat humans with missing upper limbs.

  6. Pre-deployment training recommendations for Special Forces Medical Sergeants based on recent Operation Enduring Freedom experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John; Hughes, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of patient records from two 1st Battalion, 7th Special Forces Group combat rotations in Operation Enduring Freedom reveals a high volume of medical activity over a wide range of medical issues managed by Special Forces Medical Sergeants (MOS 18Ds). The initial training curriculum for 18Ds has been modified to provide graduating 18Ds with a refresher course and updated credentialing before reporting to their first unit. However, due to the high operational tempo, subsequent biannual refresher training has proven difficult for at least one Special Forces unit. Units must plan ahead between deployments to balance medic recredentialing with unit pre-mission training and individual non-medical training.

  7. Air Power Against Terror: America’s Conduct of Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air Force Generals Charles Wald and T. Michael Moseley, for can- didly sharing with me their recollections of what mattered most in that operation...Martin, Moseley, and Wald ; General Charles Horner, USAF (Ret.), CFACC during Opera- tion Desert Storm; then–Lieutenant General Ronald Keys, USAF...of Defense Paul Wolfowitz when he commented: “It’s not just simply a matter of capturing people and holding them account- able, but removing the

  8. Dynamics of Interagency Cooperation Process at Provincial Reconstruction Team in Operations ISAF and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    recently visited three PRTs in Afghanistan: Panshir (US led), Bamiyan (New Zealand defense forces) and Mazar e Sharif (Sweden). She says that each PRT has...opportunity to visit and work with PRTs Bamiyan (led by New Zealand Defense Forces), Mazar e Sharif (Swedish Forces) and Herat (Italian Forces). During...relationships and the deficiencies at PRT level were really based, she says, upon the different environments in which the PRTs operated. She did find Bamiyan

  9. Iraqi refugees in Syria: causing a spillover of the Iraqi conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the implications of the Iraqi refugee crisis for Syria, which is believed to host up to 1.5 million Iraqi refugees. Many policy makers, activists and analysts, sometimes inspired by the conflict repercussions of refugee crises witnessed elsewhere, have warned against the

  10. National E-Learning Strategy to Enhance and Enrich the Iraqi Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elameer, Amer Saleem; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the HE (higher education) sector of Iraq has suffered severe disruption and mass destruction due to the war and, in general, only 10% of its remaining operational sectors are in the acceptable conditions. This research is an attempt to plan a PS (proposed strategy) for the Iraqi HE sector that can be executed easily in Iraq as a part of…

  11. In-flight transfusion of packed red blood cells on a combat search and rescue mission: a case report from operation enduring freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brad C; Bentley, Richard; Place, Ronald J

    2004-03-01

    Injuries on the battlefield can occur far from the nearest medical treatment facility. This is especially likely for downed pilots and special operations personnel. Some of these injuries lead to significant blood loss requiring transfusion. We present two cases of injured coalition force members during Operation Enduring Freedom that illustrate the potential need for a transfusion capability at the site of injury to prevent death. Consideration should be given to augmenting transfusion capabilities in military environments with predictably long evacuation times.

  12. Acquisition and extinction of operant pain-related avoidance behavior using a 3 degrees-of-freedom robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulders, Ann; Franssen, Mathijs; Fonteyne, Riet; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2016-05-01

    Ample empirical evidence endorses the role of associative learning in pain-related fear acquisition. Nevertheless, research typically focused on self-reported and psychophysiological measures of fear. Avoidance, which is overt behavior preventing the occurrence of an aversive (painful) stimulus, has been largely neglected so far. Therefore, we aimed to fill this gap and developed an operant conditioning procedure for pain-related avoidance behavior. Participants moved their arm to a target location using the HapticMaster (FCS Robotics; Moog Inc, East Aurora, New York), a 3 degrees-of-freedom, force-controlled robotic arm. Three movement trajectories led to the target location. If participants in the Experimental Group took the shortest/easiest trajectory, they always received a painful stimulus (T1 = 100% reinforcement; no resistance). If they deviated from this trajectory, the painful stimulus could be partly or totally prevented (T2 = 50% reinforcement; T3 = 0% reinforcement), but more effort was needed (T2 = moderate resistance and deviation; T3 = strongest resistance and largest deviation). The Yoked Group received the same reinforcement schedule irrespective of their own behavior. During the subsequent extinction phase, no painful stimuli were delivered. Self-reported pain-expectancy and pain-related fear were assessed, and avoidance behavior was operationalized as the maximal distance from the shortest trajectory. During acquisition, the Experimental Group reported more pain-related fear and pain-expectancy to T1 vs T2 vs T3 and deviated more from the shortest trajectory than the Yoked Group. During subsequent extinction, avoidance behavior, self-reported fear, and pain-expectancy decreased significantly, but conditioned differences persisted despite the absence of painful stimuli. To conclude, this operant learning task might provide a valid paradigm to study pain-related avoidance behavior in future studies.

  13. Closed-form inverse kinematics for intra-operative mobile C-arm positioning with six degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lejing; Zou, Rui; Weidert, Simon; Landes, Juergen; Euler, Ekkehard; Burschka, Darius; Navab, Nassir

    2011-03-01

    For trauma and orthopedic surgery, maneuvering a mobile C-arm X-ray device into a desired position in order to acquire the right picture is a routine task. The precision and ease of use of the C-arm positioning becomes even more important for more advanced imaging techniques as parallax-free X-ray image stitching, for example. Standard mobile C-arms have only five degrees of freedom (DOF), which definitely restricts their motions that have six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. We have proposed a method to model the kinematics of the mobile Carm and operating table as an integrated 6DOF C-arm X-ray imaging system.1 This enables mobile C-arms to be positioned relative to the patient's table with six DOF in 3D Cartesian space. Moving mobile C-arms to a desired position and orientation requires finding the necessary joint values, which is an inverse kinematics problem. In this paper, we present closed-form solutions, i.e. analytic expressions, obtained in an algebraic way for the inverse kinematics problem of the 6DOF C-arm model. In addition, we implement a 6DOF C-arm system for interactively radiation-free C-arm positioning based on a continuous guidance from C-arm pose estimation. For this we employ a visual marker pattern attached under the operating table and a mobile C-arm system augmented by a video camera and mirror construction. In our experiment, repositioning C-arm to a pre-defined pose in a phantom study demonstrates the practicality and accuracy of our developed 6DOF C-arm system.

  14. Iraqi Refugee High School Students' Academic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Many Iraqi refugee students in the United States suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as acculturation stresses. These stresses often create challenges for their integration into U.S. schools. The project explored risk factors such as the length of educational gaps in transit, PTSD, and separation and marginalization…

  15. Homogeneity in Social Groups of Iraqis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresham, J.; Saleh, F.; Majid, S.

    With appreciation to the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies for initiating the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, this paper summarizes findings on homogeneity in community-level social groups derived from inter-ethnic research conducted during 2005 among Iraqi Arabs and Kurds

  16. Homogeneity in Social Groups of Iraqis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresham, J.; Saleh, F.; Majid, S.

    2006-01-01

    With appreciation to the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies for initiating the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, this paper summarizes findings on homogeneity in community-level social groups derived from inter-ethnic research conducted during 2005 among Iraqi Arabs and Kurds li

  17. U.S. Army Operation Enduring Freedom Deployment Injury Surveillance Summary 1 January-31 December 2013 PHR No. S.0047240-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    air-evacuated NBIs were sports / physical training , falls/jumps, crushing/blunt trauma, and land transport. Operation Enduring Freedom Injury...0047240-16 12  The leading causes of sports -related NBIs were weightlifting (32%), physical training (20%), basketball (16%), and...identified the top three causes of air-evacuated NBI in 2013 as sports / physical training , falls/jumps, and crushing/blunt trauma. The top three

  18. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  19. Semiotic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2008-01-01

    for the increase in semiotic freedom which is evident in the biological hierarchy. Building upon previous work (Bruni 2003), in this article I provide a stipulative definition of semiotic freedom and its relation to causality in biological and cognitive systems. To do so, I will first discuss the close relation...... that triadic causality and semiotic freedom have to the notions of teleology and emergence, and how the latter two are interrelated in living systems. I pinpoint some of the reservations that these notions have encountered in the history of science (including evolutionary biology and cognitive science......), but stress also their necessity in the study of any given biological and cognitive system. I draw a distinction between horizontal and vertical emergence in order to arrive at a notion of ‘second order emergence' that affords us a more viable definition of semiotic freedom. I will then attempt to show...

  20. freedom stationery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UKZN

    PROCUREMENT ADJUDICATION AND THE RIGHTS OF CHILDREN: FREEDOM. STATIONERY (PTY) ..... Fose v Minister of Safety and Security 1997 7 BCLR 851 (CC) para 19. 60. Section 38(1) .... Register of internet sources. Committee on ...

  1. Embodied freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Geertsema

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explore the relationship between freedom and embodiment. Firstly I argue that freedom is an essential part of our being human, whatever science might say, and should be understood as the possibility to be ourselves. I propose an understanding that starts from the perspective of the second person. In the second part I analyse the writing of a scientific article as a case study of the experience of freedom in a concrete practice. I show how normative elements are a necessary part of such a practice. In the third part I argue that the “free agent” is in fact the concrete person who acts and thinks. I also discuss the place of causation. In the final part I elaborate on the view of the person, as understood from a second person perspective, and on the meaning of freedom, taking my starting point in the biblical understanding.

  2. Leaving tissue associated with infrequent intracranial EEG seizure onsets is compatible with post-operative seizure freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cyrus; Eric D Marsh; Ziskind, Daniela M.; Celix, Juanita M.; Peltzer, Bradley; Brown, Merritt W.; Storm, Phillip B.; Litt, Brian; Porter, Brenda E.

    2012-01-01

    Identify seizure onset electrodes that need to be resected for seizure freedom in children undergoing intracranial electroencephalography recording for treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. All children undergoing intracranial electroencephalography subdural grid electrode placement at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia from 2002-2008 were asked to enroll. We utilized intraoperative pictures to determine the location of the electrodes and define the resection cavity. A total of 15 ...

  3. Empirical Analysis of Operation Iraqi Freedom Combat Mortality Using the Navy-Marine Corps Combat Trauma Registry Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database for Applications to Tactical Medical Logistics Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Methods to more accurately forecast medical needs and effectively meet those needs are constantly being developed to support service-related modeling and...Self Non-Accident Sports/Recreation Training Unknown Other: N/A Glasgow Coma Scale (Circle each) Eye Opening Verbal...Methods to more accurately forecast medical needs, for example by tactical medical logistics modeling and simulation, are constantly being developed

  4. Intellectual Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  5. Neurosurgery in Iraqi Kurdistan: An Example of International Neurosurgery Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossani, Rimal Hanif; Carr, Steven; Bolles, Gene; Balata, Razvan; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2016-08-01

    The medical infrastructure of Iraqi Kurdistan, a semiautonomous region in the northern part of Iraq, lags disproportionately behind relative to the otherwise booming industrial advances of the region. Although neurosurgical training is available, the local population lacks trust in its own neurosurgeons. Medical facilities suffer from a lack of basic resources, such as high-speed drills, intracranial pressure monitoring, and stereotaxy to care for neurosurgical patients. Since 2012, American volunteer neurosurgeons have delivered lectures and mentored local neurosurgeons in performing neurosurgical procedures. Over the last 4 years, the visiting neurosurgical team has seen hundreds of patients in consultation and performed more than 50 complex cranial and spinal operations jointly with local neurosurgeons. This article discusses our experience as volunteer neurosurgeons in building neurosurgical capacity in Iraqi Kurdistan.

  6. Coordinating medical civil military operations in Multinational Division-North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrski, John A; Rainey, McKinley; Roach, Shane; Stevens, Mark; Hernandez, Gloria; Vargo, Ruth

    2010-11-01

    Medical civil military operations (MCMO) are part of military civil capacity-building efforts within the full spectrum of military operations, from war to military operations other than war. In 2008-2009 during Operation Iraqi Freedom, the Division Surgeon's Section (DSS) of the 25th Infantry Division (25ID) and Multinational Division-North developed an innovative MCMO program in northern Iraq. The program centered on understanding and mapping key relationships, empowering brigade-level programs, and leveraging technology to identify and share best practices. The DSS mapped the critical relationships within and between the three entities affecting MCMO: the government of Iraq (GOI), Department of State (DOS), and the Department of Defense (DOD). A division MCMO working group was then created along with processes to facilitate MCMO project execution and program management. The structure and organization of the 25ID MCMO program lend themselves to other operational environments requiring synchronization of medical capacity-building efforts.

  7. Semiotic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of organic, metabolic, cognitive and cultural codes points us to the need for a new kind of explanatory causality, and a different kind of bio-logic - one dependent on, but different from, the deterministic logic derived from mechanical causality, and one which can account for the i......The emergence of organic, metabolic, cognitive and cultural codes points us to the need for a new kind of explanatory causality, and a different kind of bio-logic - one dependent on, but different from, the deterministic logic derived from mechanical causality, and one which can account...... for the increase in semiotic freedom which is evident in the biological hierarchy. Building upon previous work (Bruni 2003), in this article I provide a stipulative definition of semiotic freedom and its relation to causality in biological and cognitive systems. To do so, I will first discuss the close relation......), but stress also their necessity in the study of any given biological and cognitive system. I draw a distinction between horizontal and vertical emergence in order to arrive at a notion of ‘second order emergence' that affords us a more viable definition of semiotic freedom. I will then attempt to show...

  8. Domestic violence among Iraqi refugees in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappis, Hannah; Biermann, Elizabeth; Glass, Nancy; Tileva, Margarita; Doocy, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    A domestic violence questionnaire was administered to 701 adult females in a sample of 813 Iraqi households in Syria; unmarried women and women whose husbands were away were excluded, yielding a final sample of 486. Lifetime physical, verbal, or emotional abuse was reported by 30%, and approximately 20% experienced abuse within the past year. Non-Damascus residence, children Syria were associated with increased risk of domestic violence within the past year. Support services are inadequate and should be expanded; and longer-term prevention measures also should be implemented.

  9. Manipulator Design and Operation for a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Handheld Tremor-Canceling Microsurgical Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungwook; MacLachlan, Robert A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the design and actuation of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) manipulator for a handheld instrument, known as "Micron," which performs active tremor compensation during microsurgery. The design incorporates a Gough-Stewart platform based on piezoelectric linear motor, with a specified minimum workspace of a cylinder 4 mm long and 4 mm in diameter at the end-effector. Given the stall force of the motors and the loading typically encountered in vitreoretinal microsurgery, the dimensions of the manipulator are optimized to tolerate a transverse load of 0.2 N on a remote center of motion near the midpoint of the tool shaft. The optimization yields a base diameter of 23 mm and a height of 37 mm. The fully handheld instrument includes a custom-built optical tracking system for control feedback, and an ergonomic housing to serve as a handle. The manipulation performance was investigated in both clamped and handheld conditions. In positioning experiments with varying side loads, the manipulator tolerates side load up to 0.25 N while tracking a sinusoidal target trajectory with less than 20 μm error. Physiological hand tremor is reduced by about 90% in a pointing task, and error less than 25 μm is achieved in handheld circle-tracing.

  10. An algebraic function operator expectation value based eigenstate determinations for quantum systems with one degree of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin [İstanbul Technical University, Informatics Institute, Maslak, 34469, İstanbul (Turkey)

    2015-12-31

    This proceedings paper aims to show the efficiency of an expectation value identity for a given algebraic function operator which is assumed to be depending pn only position operator. We show that this expectation value formula becomes enabled to determine the eigenstates of the quantum system Hamiltonian as long as it is autonomous and an appropriate basis set in position operator is used. This approach produces a denumerable infinite recursion which may be considered as revisited but at the same time generalized form of the recursions over the natural number powers of the position operator. The content of this short paper is devoted not only to the formulation of the new method but also to show that this novel approach is capable of catching the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for Hydrogen-like systems, beyond that, it can give a hand to us to reveal the wavefunction structure. So it has also somehow a confirmative nature.

  11. Reintegration of the Iraqi Military in Post-Conflict Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited REINTEGRATION OF THE IRAQI MILITARY IN POST...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Reintegration of the Iraqi Military in Post-Conflict Era. 6. AUTHOR(S) Ertürk, Sait 5...process of the United States led coalition is to be successful . The fulcrum of power in Iraq has always been the internecine ethnic, religious, and

  12. Ecosystem-based management of a Mediterranean urban wastewater system: a sensitivity analysis of the operational degrees of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Lluís; Neumann, Marc B

    2014-10-01

    Urban wastewater systems discharge organic matter, nutrients and other pollutants (including toxic substances) to receiving waters, even after removing more than 90% of incoming pollutants from human activities. Understanding their interactions with the receiving water bodies is essential for the implementation of ecosystem-based management strategies. Using mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis we quantified how 19 operational variables of an urban wastewater system affect river water quality. The mathematical model of the Congost system (in the Besòs catchment, Spain) characterizes the dynamic interactions between sewers, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants and the river. The sensitivity analysis shows that the use of storage tanks for peak shaving and the use of a connection between two neighboring wastewater treatment plants are the most important factors influencing river water quality. We study how the sensitivity of the water quality variables towards changes in the operational variables varies along the river due to discharge locations and river self-purification processes. We demonstrate how to use the approach to identify interactions and how to discard non-influential operational variables.

  13. Design and Implementation of Iraqi Virtual Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal B. Raouf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, individual students and researchers are not able to afford the high price of the subscription to the international publishers, like JSTOR, ELSEVIER,…; therefore the governments and/or universities of those countries aim to purchase one global subscription to the international publishers to provide their educational resources at a cheaper price, or even freely, to all students and researchers of those institutions. For realizing this concept, we must build a system that sits between the publishers and the users (students or researchers and act as a gatekeeper and a director of information: this system must register its users and must have an adequate security to ensure that only the affiliated students are able to access its services. It also needs to have security and trust mechanisms built-in for commercial partners to accept their connections. This paper describes the work done on the design and implementation of the IVL (Iraqi Virtual Library.

  14. Kant, Freedom as Independence, and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    While the influence of Kant’s practical philosophy on contemporary political theory has been profound, it has its source in Kant’s autonomy-based moral philosophy rather than in his freedom-based philosophy of Right. Kant scholars have increasingly turned their attention to Kant’s Rechtslehre......, but they have largely ignored its potential contribution to discussions of democracy. However, Kant’s approach to political philosophy can supply unique insights to the latter. His notion that freedom and the public legal order are co-constitutive can be developed into a freedom argument for constitutional...... democracy. This freedom argument goes beyond freedom as moral autonomy and a libertarian idea of freedom as non-interference to a notion of freedom as a form of standing constituted by the public legal order. The trouble with other attempts to connect freedom and democracy is that they have operated...

  15. Iranian Operational Decision Making: Case Studies from the Iran-Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    intentions, they began a disinformation campaign, feeding false intelligence to the Iraqi high command through double agents.90 Because of these measures...planned a very large disinformation operation in which the Americans, the Soviets, and the Iraqis were deceived. This operation...featured the use of decoys, feints, and a disinformation campaign that success- fully fooled not only the Iraqis, but also their American allies

  16. Two-level positioning technology for freedom field operation%自由变域作业的两级定位技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨幸芳; 严凯; 卢健; 马丽萍

    2015-01-01

    针对自由变域作业中轮式行走变域装置相对大地定位精度较低,而自由变域作业机相对加工作业对象定位精度要求又较高的问题,提出了一种自由变域作业的两级定位方法,即先利用超声波传感器完成轮式行走变域装置相对作业台的第一级定位,然后再利用视觉传感器完成作业机相对作业对象间的第二级定位。实验表明,基于超声波传感器的第一级定位有效提高了轮式行走变域装置的定位精度,而基于视觉传感器的第二级定位对基于超声波传感器的第一级定位精度进一步进行了补偿,两级定位能够有效满足作业机相对作业对象精确定位的作业要求。%In view of the problem that the relative positioning accuracy of the w heeled mobile free variable domain device related to the ground is relatively low ,and that the positioning ac‐curacy of free field operating machine for processing operation is relatively high ,a two‐level po‐sitioning method of freedom field machine is presented ,which uses ultrasonic sensors to com‐plete the first level positioning between the wheeled walking device and the operating table , then uses the vision sensors to complete the second level positioning between the operating ma‐chine and the operated object .The experimental results show that the first step based on the ultrasonic sensor can effectively improve the positioning accuracy of the w heeled mobile varia‐ble domain device ,and the second level positioning based on the visual sensor is further com‐pensated for the first stage positioning accuracy based on the ultrasonic sensor ,so two‐level po‐sitioning can effectively meet the requirements of accurate positioning of the operating machine related to the operated object .

  17. A Study of Apology Strategies Used by Iraqi EFL University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugla, Raed Latif; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring apology strategies of English used by Iraqi EFL students, apology strategies in Iraqi Arabic and the pragmatic strategies of Iraqi EFL students in relation to the use of apology as a speech act. The data analyzed in this study were collected in Al-Yarmouk University College and University of Diyala. The study was…

  18. A six degree of freedom, plume-fuel optimal trajectory planner for spacecraft proximity operations using an A* node search. M.S. Thesis - MIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark Charles

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft proximity operations are complicated by the fact that exhaust plume impingement from the reaction control jets of space vehicles can cause structural damage, contamination of sensitive arrays and instruments, or attitude misalignment during docking. The occurrence and effect of jet plume impingement can be reduced by planning approach trajectories with plume effects considered. An A* node search is used to find plume-fuel optimal trajectories through a discretized six dimensional attitude-translation space. A plume cost function which approximates jet plume isopressure envelopes is presented. The function is then applied to find relative costs for predictable 'trajectory altering' firings and unpredictable 'deadbanding' firings. Trajectory altering firings are calculated by running the spacecraft jet selection algorithm and summing the cost contribution from each jet fired. A 'deadbanding effects' function is defined and integrated to determine the potential for deadbanding impingement along candidate trajectories. Plume costs are weighed against fuel costs in finding the optimal solution. A* convergence speed is improved by solving approach trajectory problems in reverse time. Results are obtained on a high fidelity space shuttle/space station simulation. Trajectory following is accomplished by a six degree of freedom autopilot. Trajectories planned with, and without, plume costs are compared in terms of force applied to the target structure.

  19. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  20. Education, Learning and Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point Kant's analysis of freedom in the Critique of Pure Reason. From this analysis, two different types of freedom are discerned, formative and instrumental freedom. The paper suggests that much of what passes for the pedagogy of learning in UK universities takes the form of an instrumental freedom. This, however,…

  1. The Meaning of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is pretended to prepare the conceptual field for the correct use of the attribution of freedom. It is defended the importance to consider the complementarity of freedom of action and freedom of the will and it is argued for a non-metaphysical conception of adscription of freedom. The adequate use of the attribution of freedom is social and normative. This means additionally that the freedom is not a presupposition of the moral responsibility and the authorship, but on the contrary the moral responsibility and the authorship are presuppositions of the attribution of freedom.

  2. Zinc deficiency (hypozincemia in local Iraqi cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Alsaad,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, hematological, pathological and some biochemical parameters have been studied in local cattle and calves affected naturally with hypozincemia in Mosul, Iraq. The study was conducted on 78 local Iraqi cattle and calves, among these animals, 30 calves were less than six months of age and 38 animals were more than three years old. Ten clinical healthy cattle of different ages were used as control. Affected cattle showed signs of alopecia in different body regions (73.6%, abnormal skin (rough, thickened, wrinkled, cracked and with dandruff (73.6%, paleness of mucous membranes (47.3%, intermittent diarrhoea (39.4%, decreased milk production (31.5% and loss of appetite (26.3%, whereas affected calves showed alopecia in various body regions (90%, abnormal skin (83.3%, decreased growth rate (53.3%, swelling of joints and stiff gait (43.3% and pica (36.6%. No significant difference has been detected in body temperature, whereas respiratory and heart rates were significantly increased in affected animals in comparison with control. Statistical analysis showed significant decrease in the total erythrocytes (TRBCs, hemoglobin (HB and packed cell volume (PCV in diseased cattle and calves and macrocytic normochromic type of anemia was found. The results also indicated significant decrease in lymphocytes and platelets counts, however significant increase was encountered in platelets volume, platelets distribution width, prothrombine time and activated partial thromboplastine time in diseased animals. The biochemical results revealed significant decrease in serum zinc and fibrinogen and haptoglobin level was higher in diseased cattle and calves. Microscopic lesions of the skin of zinc deficient cattle and calves were in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and the formation of thickened adherent scale.

  3. The Stalled Recovery of the Iraqi Marshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. Becker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iraqi (Mesopotamian Marshes, an extensive wetlands system in Iraq, has been heavily impacted by both human and climate forces over the past decades. In the period leading up to the Second Gulf War in 2002, the marshlands were shrinking due to both a policy of draining and water diversion in Iraq and construction of dams upstream on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Following the war through 2006, this trend was reversed as the diversions were removed and active draining stopped. A combination of MODIS and GRACE datasets were used to determine the change in surface water area (SWA in the marshes, marshland extent and change in mass both upriver in the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds and in the marshlands. Results suggest that the post war dam removal and decreased pumping in 2003 provided only temporary respite for the marshlands (2003–2006 SWA: 1,477 km2 increase (600%, water equivalent depth (WED: +2.0 cm/yr.; 2006–2009: −860 km2 (−41% WED: −3.9 cm/yr.. Unlike in the period 2003–2006, from 2006 forward the mass variations in the marshes are highly correlated with those in the upper and middle watershed (R = 0.86 and 0.92 respectively, suggesting that any recovery due to that removal is complete, and that all future changes are tied more strongly to any climate changes that will affect recharge in the upper Tigris-Euphrates system. Precipitation changes in the watershed show a reduction of an average of 15% below the 15 yr mean in 2007–2011 This corresponds with published ensemble predictions for the 2071–2099 time period, that suggested similar marshland shrinkage should be expected in that time period.

  4. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 3 (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    kilometers) ... 2) For your guidance, ( Hola ) has some people he knows over there (Ali Khalaf AI-Shahri), Iraqi origin. 3) Rented Assi brother’s car (Lakhy or...or480-47 Abou Ahmad). b) The Meditator: Hola Maaiji Jabbar Al-Zalimi (Iraqi). 11.) Pressure Agency Type: a) Volunteering personally for Feda’ay work b...named ( Hola Mou’ji Al- Dhalemi) was sent to Al-Hafr area the night of 26th ,2ih ofNovember, Maiibi Al-Zalimi) to use his vehicle under commando (Fedayee

  5. Bacterial contaminations of Iraqi Currencies collected from Duhok City, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham Noori Jafer

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Study revealed that Iraqi currencies circulating in Duhok city was contaminated with different pathogenic and potential pathogenic bacteria including multi drug resistant strains. So the need to improve health consciousness among people while handling currency is an urgent issue. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1712-1716

  6. Investigating the Speech Act of Correction in Iraqi EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Abbas Deygan; Mehdi, Wafaa Sahib

    2016-01-01

    The present paper investigates the performance of the Iraqi students for the speech act of correction and how it is realized with status unequal. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) Setting out the felicity conditions for the speech act of correction in terms of Searle conditions; (2) Identifying the semantic formulas that realize the…

  7. Why They Hate Us: Disaggregating the Iraqi Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    purpose of my thesis I will differentiate between religiously motivated indigenous Iraqis and "jihadists". I will classify jihadists 4 Sidney Tarrow ...Available from http://apnews.myway.com/article/20050211/D886HE780.html. Accessed 4 March 2005. Tarrow , Sidney . "Power in Movement: Collective Action, Social

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Ketamine and Morphine on the Performance of Representative Military Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    malformation • Epilepsy or seizure disorder (other than simple febrile seizures ) • Active gallbladder disease or gastrointestinal disorder (e.g...with respect to study demographics, of military personnel serving in Operation Iraqi Freedom /Operation Enduring Freedom , 11% are female (IOM, 2010...Surgical Research (ISR) noted that up to 17% of returning Operation Iraqi Freedom /Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans report symptoms

  9. The Guarantees of Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Rafael La; Lopez-de-Silane, Florencio; Pop-Eleches, Cristian; Shleifer, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    Hayek (1960) distinguishes the institutions of English freedom, which guarantee the independence of judges from political interference in the administration of justice, from those of American freedom, which allow judges to restrain law-making powers of the sovereign through constitutional review. We create a data base of constitutional rules in 71 countries that reflect these institutions of English and American freedom, and ask whether these rules predict economic and political freedom in a ...

  10. Reforming Iraqi Journalism and Mass Communication Higher Education: Adapting the UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education to Iraqi Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.

    2012-01-01

    Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…

  11. Reforming Iraqi Journalism and Mass Communication Higher Education: Adapting the UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education to Iraqi Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.

    2012-01-01

    Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…

  12. Freedom and Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFreedom in nations can affect the happiness of citizens both positively and negatively. This study takes stock of the balance of effects. It considers 1) whether there is a positive net-effect at all, 2) which freedom variants contribute most to happiness 3) in what conditions. Freedom

  13. Employment Satisfaction and Health Outcomes among Professional Iraqi refugees as compared to Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hikmet; Aldhalimi, Abir; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates employment and health outcomes in Iraqi refugees compared to Iraqi immigrants. We surveyed 148 Iraqi professional refugees and 111 Iraqi professional immigrants residing in the U.S. We hypothesized that Iraqi refugees would report lower employment and worse self-rated health as compared to Iraqi immigrants. Logistic Regression was used to test various models. Results showed that more immigrants were employed, as well as employed in their original profession as compared to refugees. Regardless of immigration status, participants' age and the way they rated their job played a larger role in health. The study is the first to demonstrate that, controlling for professional, ethnic and cultural background, there are unknown mechanisms resulting in lower employment and skilled employment in refugees as compared to matched immigrant controls. Furthermore, satisfaction with the new work appears more important than employment per se. PMID:24683383

  14. INTERNET: MONITORED FREEDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuschnaroff Contreras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is a phenomenal research and information tool. It has entered the lives of people in an extremely fast way, offering a sense of freedom, and discoveries. This study presents the Internet usage in organizations, along with the use of equipment and information systems supplied by the employer and personal Internet usage at work. The subjects of the present research are businesspeople chosen among employees with a university degree in companies in the City of Curitiba, in the State of Paraná, with leading, managerial or operational occupations, with access to the Internet in their offices as well as at home. The study proposal consists of a critical analysis on the theme.

  15. Health related quality of life among Iraqi immigrants settled in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Daher Thaaer M; Ibrahim Hisham S; Daher Aqil M; Anbori Ali

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Migrants everywhere face several demands for health and maintaining good health and quality of life could be challenging. Iraqis are the second largest refugee group that has sought refuge in the recent years, yet little is known about their health related quality of life (HRQOL). The study aims at assessing the HRQOL among Iraqis living in Malaysia. Methods A self-administered Arabic version of Sf-36 questionnaire was distributed among 300 Iraqi migrants in Malaysia. The ...

  16. Arrowhead Ripper: Adaptive Leadership in Full Spectrum Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    received his commission as an infantry officer from Wofford College in Spartanburg, South Carolina, in 1985. Colonel Johnson’s first assignment was as...DESERT STORM, JOINT ENDEAVOR in Bosnia, and IRAQI FREEDOM. Colonel Johnson holds a B.A. in Sociology and Government from Wofford College, Spartanburg

  17. Combating Terrorism via the Womb: Empowering Iraqi Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Database (September 2006). The Iraqi government’s new constitution and labor law grants women equal rights to an education and employment to include...education, and employment. Iraq’s constitution and labor law guarantees the right of work of every citizen regardless of sex.”102 Initiatives to Support...law, labor law , and social insurance; (2) public investments to lower the costs of girls’ education and women’s employment; and (3) proactive 22 AU

  18. Mission Accomplished Rebuilding the Iraqi and Afghan Armies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    above national unity and stability.124 According to the Corruption Perceptions Index , which measures perceived levels of corruption in 180 countries...228 Ibid. 57 Politicization and corruption of the Iraqi Army under the Shi’a-dominated Maliki government would play a crucial role in the perception ...tribal, and central governments; and pervasive corruption . A major problem within Afghanistan that has resulted from the U.S. invasion and subsequent

  19. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-15

    who is unable or unwilling to return because of persecution or well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion , nationality, membership...and minority groups from both Sunni and Shi’a areas. These include Iraqi Christians, Sabean-Mandeans, Shi’a Turkmen, the Roma , Baghdad and Basra...population represents a number of ethnic groups and religions . In general throughout Iraq, patterns have shown that Shiites have moved from the

  20. Iraqi children's rights: building a system under fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlObaidi, Abdul Kareem; Jeffrey, Linda R; Scarth, Leslie; Albadawi, Ghazwan

    2009-01-01

    War violates every human right of children. In recent years, the lives of Iraqi children and the livelihoods of their families have become precarious. Conflict has split the communities where they live and taken the lives of hundreds of their friends and family members. The literature focuses on the negative effects of armed conflict on Iraqi children, and the steps that need to be taken to ameliorate their condition by adapting evidence based but culturally sensitive measures. A comprehensive solution to child protection problems clearly will take time. The primary need for the protection of Iraqi children is an end to conflict. Family and educational order and social stability are central to efforts to achieve progress in child protection. Solutions to armed conflict and its aftermath work best when they are responsive to local cultural practices and beliefs, and are drawn from an understanding of child development. Child safety, security and well-being should be in the forefront of the national agenda to ensure a more positive future both economically and socially to achieve a healthier Iraq.

  1. Simulation Modeling of the Motion Control of a Two Degree of Freedom, Tendon Based, Parallel Manipulator in Operational Space Using MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jiu; HILLER Manfred; FANG Shi-qing

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a dynamical model of a two degree of freedom, tendon based, parallel manipulator (TBPM) system is proposed. The motion control methods of the TBPM system were designed. Using MATLAB, the motion control simulation of this model TBPM system was implemented in preparation for actual experiments. The results of the simulation demonstrated that the response time of the system was in a reasonable range, the motion behavior of the platform was stable and the tension forces acting on the tendons were in a safe range and acceptable. Furthermore, the parameters of the controllers were optimized using MATLAB and better results for the time response were obtained.

  2. The Effect of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder on Military Leadership: An Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Progress in the Time of Controversy,” Clinical Psychology Review 29...Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Operating Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Progress in a Time of Controversy.” Clinical Psychology Review 29

  3. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104j Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities. (a) Restriction. Importation of archaeological or...

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... products: (Country of Origin) (Line Item Number) (End of provision) ... Certificate—Inclusion of Iraqi End Products (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. Designated country end product, Iraqi end product, nondesignated country end product, qualifying country end product, and U.S.-made...

  5. The Usefulness of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) Eyespeak Software in Improving Iraqi EFL Students' Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidgi, Lina Fathi Sidig; Shaari, Ahmad Jelani

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on determining whether automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology is reliable for improving English pronunciation to Iraqi EFL students. Non-native learners of English are generally concerned about improving their pronunciation skills, and Iraqi students face difficulties in pronouncing English sounds that are not…

  6. Freedom & Self-Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ometto, D.L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Freedom of the will is a never-ending source of puzzlement for academic philosophers. At the same time, it is something deeply familiar to everyone. For the relevant concept of freedom underlies much, if not all, of our ordinary discourse and thinking about ourselves and others. However, our attempt

  7. (Neoliberal freedom: what freedom is that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Scheeffer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Important theme in political theory is the freedom. With a wide range of meanings, in its negative sense, understood as non-interference, it get practical reflections clearly distinguishable in the field of political action. In this view, the (neoliberal ideology appropriates this concept for in the promoting of freedom, regarded as the supreme good, defend less state. In this sense, this article has the intention to question this premise that underpins the (neoliberal thought. What freedom is achieved mainly by lower classes, before the shrinking of the state? Given the small list of options that the poor end up with and that hinders the exercise of citizenship, seems to be a fallacy that in the notion that "race" toward success everyone has equal opportunities. In this perspective, this very present belief that poverty can be explained by lack of effort on a clear possibility of rise of all competitors in the market is merely an illusion, as well as the thesis that no state interference guarantees as longed individual freedom. This thought seems much more a way of favoring a small fraction of the population and cover a mode of production exclusive and unjust.

  8. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  9. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  10. Freedom, liberalism, multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković-Pejnović Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author proves connection between liberalism and multiculturalism in individual‘s political freedom. Individual freedom connected with political participation, in multicultural contexts, can be shown as means to achieve group recognition demands. Liberal conception of liberty in multicultural context shows that a major interest of multicultural groups through political participation necessary respect individual’s liberty. Multiculturalism follows liberal demand for freedom of choice and participation as preconditions for self determination determined by the reason, but through politics of difference, because for multiculturalism is not acceptable liberal thesis of cultural homogenous society.

  11. Analysis of 49 autosomal SNPs in an Iraqi population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Mas, Carmen; Diez, Isabel E; Moncada, Enrique;

    2013-01-01

    Forty-nine of the 52 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SNPforID 52plex were typed in 101 unrelated Iraqis living in Denmark. No significant deviation from HWE was found in all but one of the 49 SNP systems and no significant pairwise linkage disequilibrium was observed for any...... SNP pair. When 18 worldwide populations were compared (including populations in Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Pakistan, India, China, Taiwan, Japan, Siberia, Algeria, Somalia, Uganda, Mozambique, Angola, Nigeria, Denmark, Portugal, Spain), a significant global F(ST) value was obtained. All but six F...

  12. Homophobia and academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David

    2002-10-01

    SUMMARY Addressing homophobia and heterosexism as a teacher raises issues of respect for the intellectual freedom of your students. The central thesis of this article is that these issues are best addressed on the basis of general principles of academic freedom-that is, intellectual freedom in educational and research contexts. Three cases are analyzed on the basis of principles developed by the Academic Freedom Coalition of Nebraska (AFCON). These principles permit advocacy, rather than requiring neutrality, but do not permit indoctrination. That is, instructors may express and justify their own ideas relevant to the curriculum and try to convince students to adopt those ideas and/or abandon alternatives, but must not coerce or require belief, censor or punish students who remain unconvinced, or restrict access to alternative views.

  13. Academic Freedom under Siege?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexandra Salas

    2006-01-01

    .... "I'm just trying to report what is going on in the classroom," [Mal Kline] adds. "If you prize your academic freedom so much, then why are you trying to keep it such a secret?" Notes [Greg Lukianoff...

  14. Scientific Freedom and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretsos, James M.

    1976-01-01

    Recommends that the American Society for Information Science become involved and cooperate with the American Association for the Advancement of Science in the issue of scientific freedom and responsibility. (Author/PF)

  15. Personal Freedom beyond Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Sellés

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we distinguish between freedom in the human manifestations (intelligence, will,actions and personal freedom in the personal intimacy. This second is beyond the freedom reached bythe classic and modern thought, since it takes root in the personnel act of being. Because of it, it is not possible to characterize this freedom like the classic description as ‘domain over the own acts’, becauseit is a description of ‘categorial’ order; neither like present day ‘autonomy’ or ‘independence’, becausethe existence of one person alone is impossible, since ‘person’ means relation, personal free openingto other persons, description of the ‘transcendental’ order and, therefore, to the margin of limits.

  16. Freedom in mundane mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marie V.; Cohen, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Freedom is a widely discussed and highly elusive concept, and has long been represented in exoticised, masculinised and individualised discourses. Freedom is often exemplified through the image of a solitary male explorer leaving the female space of home and familiarity and going to remote places...... of the world. Through in-situ interviews with families caravanning in Denmark, the primary aim of this study is to challenge existing dominant discourses surrounding the subject of freedom within leisure and tourism studies. Second, we shed further light on an under-researched medium of mobility......, that of domestic caravanning. This serves to not only disrupt representations of freedom as occurring through exoticised, masculinised and individualised practices, but to give attention to the domestic, banal contexts where the everyday and tourism intersect, which are often overlooked. This novel repositioning...

  17. FREEDOM AND DIGNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan VLĂDUȚESCU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on a synthesis book on human freedom and dignity. Contributors are reputed specialists in theology, philosophy and law. The issue is centered on freedom, dignity and the model created by the sacrifice of Martir Constantin Brancoveanu, but it has inductions and in related areas such as education, human value in theology, cultural policies. The research methodology that is largely used is inter-, multi- and transdisciplinary; the perspectives of the approach are varied

  18. Iraqi Nurses’ Perspectives on Safety Issues in Maternity Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Piro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Studies introduce maternal and neonatal safety phenomena as important challenges to the public health, particularly in low-income countries. However, few researches are conducted on the identification of safety issues in maternity hospitals in Iraq. It was the first study on nurses’ perspectives on safety issues in Kurdistan, Iraq. Objectives The current study aimed to describe nurses’ perspectives on what constitutes a safe maternity service in Kurdistan, Iraq. Patients and Methods A qualitative design, based on a content analysis approach, was used. Ten Kurdish nurses who worked in the delivery room of Kurdistan, Iraq maternity hospital were recruited through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were performed to collect data. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Sampling continued to the level of data saturation. Data analysis was performed based on the steps suggested by Graneheim and Lundman. Results Thematic analysis led to the identification of six main categories including stressful job, lack of schedule and job description, providing care with limited resources, professional unaccountability, regional sociopolitical factors, and inadequate training. Conclusions Iraqi nurses identified factors such as limited health resources, lack of job description, and professional unaccountability as major safety issues in maternity services. These findings alarm the need to ensure the provision of females and neonates with appropriate care. This, however, would require coordination between Iraqi Kurdistan health authorities to provide midwifery care facilities, high-quality and relevant staff training, and an effective healthcare system in the maternity units.

  19. Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.

  20. [Drug addiction and freedom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, M A

    1982-03-01

    The author, in a historical and philosophical approach, analyses the concept of freedom as opposed to slavery. He also refers to the legal and social restrictions and studies the determinism and free will as the causes of human behaviour. Quoting Spinoza, the author states that man accepts the idea of freedom because he realizes the "how" of his options but ignores "why". Without the hypothesis of causality and determinism, there seems to have no science. Without freedom, there seems to be no anthropos man (Jimeno Valdez). The principles of anticausality, of nonreproducibility and of differentiation characterize the human freedom, but are contrary to the way science works. According to the social and political point of view, it was established that the State has the right to oblige and to violently limit freedom. Practically speaking, though, the State is violent just for being the State; the dominant groups are the government because they are and they have been violent. There is a need to limit and to discipline this right of the State of being violent within the dilemma of safety and freedom. By working, the slave avoided the whip. And by doing this, he encouraged the behaviour of the one who whipped him. The non-aversive attitudes limit the freedom in the modern world more and more for they also enchain our will, a rebellion becoming impossible. One is not granted the freedom; it shall be conquered and kept. Freedom, either as a concept or a phenomenon, is always relative. The concept of toxicomania or pharmacodependance is analysed according to the same perspective. The conclusion is that this is always more a problem of the society than of the individual, and this is how it has to be understood and treated. The present world is described as a millenial human culture specifically characterized by eight groups of phenomena: 1. Transport increased human mobility, reduced the relative dimensions of the earth, mixed peoples, compared cultures and created

  1. Freedom and forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavell, Marcia

    2003-06-01

    In the history of philosophy and political thought freedom has meant a number of different things. The author considers several of these meanings and their relevance to psychoanalytic theory. The general argument against freedom that has been mounted in the history of thought, and echoed by Freud, is the thesis of causal determinism; but it is urged here that this in itself is no threat to freedom in the sense of the word required for moral agency: a free choice is one that is caused to some extent by reasons and that is relatively unconstrained both by 'external' and 'internal' forces. Yet because agents are embedded in a causal nexus that includes both the physical world and other people, agency and freedom can be compromised in innumerable ways. Neither freedom nor agency is a condition which we absolutely have or lack, but a matter of degree. Psychoanalytic therapy works toward expanding the capacity for agency and diminishing the constraints of certain internal forces. In the sense defined here, objectivity is an attitude that accepts our embeddedness in the world. With objectivity may come both forgiveness and self-forgiveness, which in turn promote agency.

  2. Introduction to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard

    NASA field centers and contractors are organized to develop 'work packages' for Space Station Freedom. Marshall Space Flight Center and Boeing are building the U.S. laboratory and habitation modules, nodes, and environmental control and life support system; Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas are responsible for truss structure, data management, propulsion systems, thermal control, and communications and guidance; Lewis Research Center and Rocketdyne are developing the power system. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is contributing a Mobile Servicing Center, Special Dextrous Manipulator, and Mobile Servicing Center Maintenance Depot. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is contributing a Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which includes a pressurized module, logistics module, and exposed experiment facility. The European Space Agency (ESA) is contributing the Columbus laboratory module. NASA ground facilities, now in various stages of development to support Space Station Freedom, include: Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center and Payload Training Complex (Alabama), Johnson Space Center's Space Station Control Center and Space Station Training Facility (Texas), Lewis Research Center's Power System Facility (Ohio), and Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (Florida). Budget appropriations impact the development of the Space Station. In Fiscal Year 1988, Congress appropriated only half of the funds that NASA requested for the space station program ($393 million vs. $767 million). In FY 89, NASA sought $967 million for the program, and Congress appropriated $900 million. NASA's FY 90 request was $2.05 billion compared to an appropriation of $1.75 billion; the FY 91 request was $2.45 billion, and the appropriation was $1.9 billion. After NASA restructured the Space Station Freedom program in response to directions from Congress, the agency's full budget request of $2.029 billion for Space Station

  3. Thoughts on freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallingby, L

    1981-11-01

    The tradition of personal freedom as Americans know it is not known in China. In America, people are free to choose their own lifestyle but they cannot walk the streets in safety for fear of crime and violence. In a sense, they are not free. In China, one is not free to choose an occupation and a place to live and work, but people are free to walk the streets in safety. Perhaps the true difference between the U.S. and China is not the presence or absence of freedom, but rather the nature of the freedom involved. There are certain underlying assumptions which explain why personal freedom is not very important in China: 1) everyone belongs to a series of larger units, the family, the neighborhood commune, and society; and 2) the effect of an individual's actions on the larger unit is more important than the immediate effect on the individual. Thus, the Chinese do not have the freedom to engage in self-defeating and self-destructive behavior that Americans tend to engage in. In the U.S., people have the right to become alcoholics, to become drug addicts and to have as many babies at as young an age as their bodies will allow. The negative effects of these types of behavior are less important to Americans as the individual's right to free choice. Sexual pleasures and sexual freedom are not paramount concerns in China, but there is 1 basic lifestyle which everyone is expected to follow: marriage, parenting of 1 child, living with the parents of 1 spouse or the other, and caring for one's parents in their old age. The Chinese are not free to choose to cohabitate without being married, to remain single, to remain childless, or to be single parents. These lifestyles and sexual practices find their roots in the fact that China is a monolithic society where everyone thinks and behaves in the same way, and also in the fact that sexual taboos are motivated by practical or economic, rather than religious and moral concerns. Although women are encouraged to have an abortion if

  4. Perspectives on preventive health care and barriers to breast cancer screening among Iraqi women refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Altaf; Bond, Barbara; Percac-Lima, Sanja

    2012-08-01

    Since the Iraq war began in 2003, over 4 million Iraqis have been displaced. Little is known about preventive cancer care in this population, but stark disparities have been documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the perspectives of Iraqi women refugees on preventive care and perceived barriers to breast cancer screening. Interviews were conducted in Arabic with twenty Iraqi refugee women by a bilingual (English/Arabic) medical student, transcribed, translated and coded according to established qualitative content and thematic analysis procedures. Psychosocial barriers, culturally mediated beliefs, and health consequences of war were identified as major themes, ultimately showing what factors, alone and collectively, have impeded Iraqi refugee women's ability and motivation to obtain breast cancer screening. To improve cancer prevention and decrease disparities in care in this most vulnerable population, culturally appropriate health education and outreach programs, as well as further community-level targeted studies, are needed.

  5. Iraqi public opinion on the Web: An exploratory study of opinions on invasion and election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar Moukdad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an exploratory study of a selection of user contributions to a news feedback forum on the Web provided by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC World Service to its Arab listeners. Contributions representing Iraqi public opinion on a variety of topics covering Iraq under occupation were categorized and analyzed to provide a glimpse of how access to the Web has allowed Iraqis to freely express their opinions, and of how Iraqi public opinion manifests itself throughout these contributions. The results provided insights into the feelings of Iraqis towards the invasion and occupation of their country, and they highlighted the role played by the Web as a vital communication vehicle for public opinion and political debates.

  6. Susceptibility of Iraqi fresh water snails to infection with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni Egyptian strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdi, N A; Hussain, W I; El-Hawary, M F

    1979-01-01

    A great number of Egyptian workers and farmers are seeking settlement in Iraq and some of them proved to have either Schistosoma Haematobium (S.h.) or Schistosoma mansoni (S.m) or even mixed infection. Besides, there is the possibility that some of the Iraqi fresh water snails may prove to be susceptible to infection by one or both of the Schistosoma Egyptian strains. The present study deals with investigations on the susceptibility of Iraqi B. truncatus, Gyranaulus ehrenbergi, Physa c.f. fontinalis, Lymnea lagetis, Melanoides tuberculata and Melanopsis nodes by these parasites. Egyptian S. haematobium but not Egyptian S. mansoni infect Iraqi B. truncatus and both proved to be unable to infect any of the other snails included in the study. Yet, the number of cercariae shedded by B. truncatus snails infected with the Egyptian S. haematobium strain, was much less that the number of cercariae shedded by these snails when infected with the Iraqi S. Haematobium strain.

  7. Viewpoint of Fakhruddin Iraqi, the seventh century mystic poet of Iran about love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bakhtyar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is tried to consider fakhruldin Iraqi's particular viewpoint on love. Fakhuldin Iraqi is a fourteenth century lover and mystic poet. Sheikh Fakhruldin's Lamaat could be regarded as formal declaration of divine love custom and his fiery words indicate Sheikh Ahmad Ghazzalli's rousing words heat. He referred love based upon absolute truth and regarded love position as the existence, by itself, which should be discovered. Iraqi showed love as existence basis and core and presented creature entirely resulting from love and manifestation of beauty and the love emarginated by him is of another type. Iraqi's love is a fire which burns all the things it finds when heart busted into flames so that disappeared the lover's face from the heart as well.

  8. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety among Iraqi Students and its Relation With Gender and Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Taha Talib Ali; Wong Fook Fei

    2016-01-01

    Language anxiety is always seen as debilitative factor that deters learners from successfully learning a foreign language. Although many studies have been reported on foreign language learners’ anxieties, little research, if any, has been undertaken on Iraqi postgraduate EFL learners. The objective of the present study is threefold: a) to investigate the factors contributing to foreign language classroom anxiety among Iraqi postgraduate EFL students, b) to investigate the difference between b...

  9. High School Press Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Diana J.

    This report focuses on controversial articles written by the high school press, decisions made by the courts regarding students' press freedoms, and reactions to the articles and rulings. Particular attention is given to two rulings concerning censorship of articles about students' sexual atttiudes and activities, the issue of prior restraint of…

  10. Your True Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena Rausch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Your True Freedom is about my journey teaching inmates the fundamental truths of self worth, self acceptance and self love--through writing, mindfulness meditation and emotional healing. It is a journey that continues to enlighten me and to heal and free the inmates with whom I work.

  11. Intellectual Freedom and Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1977

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Interracial Books for Children Bulletin" contains a special section focusing on the film called, "The Speaker". This film purports to deal with an assault on the First Amendment and with the necessity for eternal vigilance in defense of U.S. Constitutional freedom. The setting is an integrated high school…

  12. Freedom in Nature

    CERN Document Server

    Hajicek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    The structure of scientific laws is studied with the aim to show that they allow for a considerable freedom of choice. Newton mechanics admits the choice of system and initial state. Quantum mechanics adds laws of statistical character. General relativity can be reinterpreted to become compatible with both choices and accidents. A concept of causality as it emerges from physics is described. The importance of Hume's Principle of Causality is stressed and his Principle of Causation is weakened. The crucial notions of relevant conditions, range of options and the associated concept of relative freedom are introduced. Turning to biology, all living organisms are shown to be more flexible, in a well-defined sense, than automata. The origin of their flexibility is the freedom of choice from the basic ranges of options: mutations, motions and neural connections. The free will is defined as a kind of relative freedom. Such a notion is not metaphysical and can be dealt with as a subject of biology. Finally a comparis...

  13. Doxastic and Epistemic Freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn

    This paper offers a new view of doxastic voluntarism, epistemic agency and doxastic responsibility. It assumes the perspective of political freedom and uses the stit-theoretic framework from modal logic to investigate the obstacles that other individuals could place in the way of the adoption of

  14. Doxastic and Epistemic Freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a new view of doxastic voluntarism, epistemic agency and doxastic responsibility. It assumes the perspective of political freedom and uses the stit-theoretic framework from modal logic to investigate the obstacles that other individuals could place in the way of the adoption of bel

  15. Burden of typhoid fever in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jonathan; Saeed, Rebeen; Mykhan, Hawar; Kanan, Shwan; Farhad, Dlawer; Ali, Kocher Omer; Abdulwahab, Runak Hama Kareem; Palardy, John; Neill, Marguerite A

    2014-10-01

    Typhoid fever imposes a high disease burden worldwide, but resource limitations mean that the burden of typhoid fever in many countries is poorly understood. The authors conducted a prospective surveillance study at the adult and pediatric teaching hospitals in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan. All patients presenting with an undifferentiated febrile illness consistent with typhoid were eligible for enrollment. Enrolled patients had blood cultures and Brucella serologies performed. Incidence was calculated with reference to census data. Both typhoid fever and brucellosis were common, and the incidence of typhoid fever was 21 cases/100 000 patient-years. Classic disease symptoms were uncommonly observed. Cost-effective surveillance projects to calculate disease burden of typhoid fever are practical and replicable. Typhoid has successfully adapted to the healthcare environment in Sulaimania. Additional work in the region should focus on antibiotic resistance and other enteric pathogens such as Brucella spp. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Regionalizing Immigration, Health and Inequality: Iraqi Refugees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Manderson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.

  17. Knowledge Yearning for Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.

  18. Freedom and the Collective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straume, Ingerid S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Isaiah Berlin’s epitomizing Cold War-essay, "Two Concepts of Liberty, " thinkers who emphasize collective concepts of social life have carried the burden of proof against charges of totalitarian tendencies. The background is a ground figure in contemporary political thought that sets notions of collectivity against individual freedom, in a zero sum game: Either one is in favour of the individual, or one is in favour of the collective, and hence, so the bias has it, willing to sacrifice the rights and liberties of individuals. Since it is impossible to favour the latter position and remain liberal, in the wide sense of the term, this dichotomy serves to rob contemporary political thought of both its classical and revolutionary connotations, leaving only individual initiatives like lobbying and voting. Cornelius Castoriadis offers a way around this – arguably false – dichotomy, by regarding individual and collective freedom as two sides of the same coin.

  19. Bioethics and academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.

  20. Academic Freedom: The Ethical Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author takes his cue for discussions of academic freedom from Simone de Beauvoir as found in her classic text, "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Like other existentialists, de Beauvoir emphasizes that freedom and responsibility are intimately linked. Academic freedom is an ethical responsibility that compels the author to teach and…

  1. Disaggregating Corporate Freedom of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    to religion as a separate and independent jurisdiction with its own system of law over which religious groups are sovereign. I discuss the relationship between, on the one hand, ordinary rights of freedom of association and freedom of religion and, on the other hand, this idea of corporate freedom of religion...

  2. Academic Freedom: The Ethical Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author takes his cue for discussions of academic freedom from Simone de Beauvoir as found in her classic text, "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Like other existentialists, de Beauvoir emphasizes that freedom and responsibility are intimately linked. Academic freedom is an ethical responsibility that compels the author to teach and…

  3. Academic Freedom Requires Constant Vigilance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…

  4. Intellectual Freedom: 2000 and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, Terri L.; Rader, Hannelore B.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on intellectual freedom, discussing the role of libraries, the Berlin Wall and banned books as attempts to restrict intellectual freedom, and controversies surrounding filtering software. Contains an annotated bibliography of intellectual freedom resources, presented in five categories: general; government and legal issues; access and…

  5. Freedom of Divorce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    MS. Zhang and her husband came to realize they were not right for each other after three years of marriage. According to the Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China, citizens have freedom of marriage and divorce so the couple sought to end their unhappiness and begin new lives separately. As they had no children, and were in agreement on the divorce, the only

  6. Freedom, responsibility, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, J P; Stansfeld, S; Potter, J

    Freedom and responsibility, how much of each and how they are balanced, have profound implications for our personal lives and for our work. The health of a population and its achievement in the workplace are enhanced when individuals have some freedom and some responsibility, but not too much of either, and when civil associations of individuals rather than individuals acting alone are the essential social units. The consistent association of social contacts with health and productivity provides strong support for the premise that intimate relationships are the focus around which people's lives revolve. Membership of a "social network" may be merely conforming to a reigning social norm, and this could mean having to pay an important price in the loss of creativity associated with individualism. But social conformity should not prevent individuals from going their own way, and it should be possible to combine the luxury of individuality with an active life in civic affairs. Less than complete freedom may fall short of existential utopia, but it may be best for our health and wellbeing.

  7. The Military Use of Children by the Syrian-Iraqi Salafi-Jihadist Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bagheri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-state armed groups are the main threats to states’ national security in the 21st century, to defend against which, states require useful methods. Recently, use of children by these groups, especially in the Middle East, has turned into one of the most important discussable issues that need to be evaluated in the context of the law of armed conflict. This study aims to discuss legal regime of the military use of children in armed conflict. The main purpose of the study is to analyze the use of child soldiers by the Syrian-Iraqi Salafi-Jihadist Group in its combat operations. In this respect, initially, the legal definition of child soldiers and the role of them in armed conflicts will be discussed. Based on this, different forms of the child soldiers’ involvement in armed conflicts and the international criminal responsibility for their war crimes will be examined as an applicable law in the context of international criminal law.

  8. The Importance of Data Warehousing for Community Development Organisations: The Impact on Iraqi Victims of the Explosive Remnants of War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how important data warehousing is for development organisations. Data warehousing is a great asset for organisations to plan and prioritise their interventions for helping victims of war remnants. The article shows how information should be of high quality and accounted for. Information extracted from data warehouses can be used to show the impact of intervention on beneficiaries. It also enables more effective stakeholder interaction. Data warehousing assists organisations to gain a competitive advantage by providing good services to beneficiaries and, will, consequently, help organisations to attract donor funds. The example given from Iraq shows how Iraqi Health and Social Care Organisation used a data warehouse to identify needs, plan projects and raise funds for survivors of explosive remnants of war. This concept can be used by other development and aid organisations operating in countries affected by explosive remnants of war and health related development fields.

  9. Preventing psychological disorders in service members and their families: an assessment of programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denning, Laura Aiuppa; Meisnere, Marc; Warner, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    .... It is well documented in the literature that there are high rates of psychological disorders among military personnel serving in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom...

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury Registry (TBI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As the number of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients has grown, so has the need to track and monitor...

  11. Brief narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress in Iraqi refugees: a preliminary randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Lumley, Mark A; Ziadni, Maisa S; Haddad, Luay; Rapport, Lisa J; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-06-01

    Many Iraqi refugees suffer from posttraumatic stress. Efficient, culturally sensitive interventions are needed, and so we adapted narrative exposure therapy into a brief version (brief NET) and tested its effects in a sample of traumatized Iraqi refugees. Iraqi refugees in the United States reporting elevated posttraumatic stress (N = 63) were randomized to brief NET or waitlist control conditions in a 2:1 ratio; brief NET was 3 sessions, conducted individually, in Arabic. Positive indicators (posttraumatic growth and well-being) and symptoms (posttraumatic stress, depressive, and somatic) were assessed at baseline and 2- and 4-month follow-up. Treatment participation (95.1% completion) and study retention (98.4% provided follow-up data) were very high. Significant condition by time interactions showed that those receiving brief NET had greater posttraumatic growth (d = 0.83) and well-being (d = 0.54) through 4 months than controls. Brief NET reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress (d = -0.48) and depression (d = -0.46) more, but only at 2 months; symptoms of controls also decreased from 2 to 4 months, eliminating condition differences at 4 months. Three sessions of brief NET increased growth and well-being and led to symptom reduction in highly traumatized Iraqi refugees. This preliminary study suggests that brief NET is both acceptable and potentially efficacious in traumatized Iraqi refugees.

  12. Case Study: Operation Enduring Freedom Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    del Norte on Mindanao. Much of the Armed Forces of the Philippines action on Basilan was curtailed to pursue the ASG leader, Abu Sabaya, who was...importance of space, and governed space, and ungoverned space. What we’ve seen in the Southern Philippines we’ve seen in places like the Horn of Africa

  13. Adsorption of Some Drugs onto Surface of Iraqi Kaolin Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. A. Hassan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Drugs overdose poses a serious threat on human health and may be occur with (ciprofloxacin, chloroquin, piperazine, phyllocontin, digoxin and diazepam.The objective of this study was to examine the adsorption of these drugs onto the Iraqi kaolin clay surface,which used for the temporary treatment of these drugs overdose when this occur.In this work a UV-Visible spectrophotometer has been used to determine the adsorption isotherms which were of type (S3,S4 according to Giles classification and these isotherms were analyzed by the Freundlich and Langmuir equations using linearized correlation coefficient,the characteristic parameters for each isotherm have been determined.The effect of temperature, acid function and initial drug concentration were chosen as an experimental parameters. The results showed that the adsorption process attained equilibrium within seventy minutes. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH, ΔG and ΔS were calculated.The adsorption process was found to be exothermic and non-spontaneous for (ciprofloxacin, chloroquin, piperazine, phyllocontin and diazepam while for digoxin was endothermic and non-spontaneous.

  14. Confinement versus asymptotic freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, A Yu

    2002-01-01

    I put forward the low-energy confining asymptote of the solution $$ (valid for large macroscopic contours C of the size $>>1/\\Lambda_{QCD}$) to the large N Loop equation in the D=4 U(N) Yang-Mills theory with the asymptotic freedom in the ultraviolet domain. Adapting the multiscale decomposition characteristic of the Wilsonean renormgroup, the proposed Ansatz for the loop-average is composed in order to sew, along the lines of the bootstrap approach, the large N weak-coupling series for high-momentum modes with the $N\\to{\\infty}$ limit of the recently suggested stringy representation of the 1/N strong-coupling expansion Dub4 applied to low-momentum excitations. The resulting low-energy stringy theory can be described through such superrenormalizable deformation of the noncritical Liouville string that, being devoid of ultraviolet divergences, does not possess propagating degrees of freedom at short-distance scales $<<1/{\\sqrt{\\sigma_{ph}}}$, where $\\sigma_{ph}\\sim{(\\Lambda_{QCD})^{2}}$ is the physical s...

  15. Quality of Health Services Provided to Iraqis at Jordan Red Crescent Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghrid S. Suifan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Quality of services measurement has been the concern of many scholars who have tried to develop scales for it. The most popular scale used was SERVQUAL. Hence the aim of this study is to discover the quality of health services provided to Iraqis at Jordan Red Crescent Health Centers in Amman. Approach: A sample study was derived from (1652 male and female patients from five health centers: Ashrafieh Health Center; Al-Hashemi Health Center; Marka Health Center; Al-Taj Health Center and AL-Hussein Health Center. Means, Standard Deviation, Independent Sample T-Test, simple regression and the Scheffe Test were used to answer the study's main questions. Results: It was found that the quality of health services provided to the Iraqis at Jordan Red Crescent health centers was high in all dimensions, the highest quality dimensions displayed among the health service available at Jordan Red Crescent health centers were tangibles and assurance, whereas the lowest quality dimensions were empathy and responsiveness, there was a significant difference in the quality of health services provided to Iraqis at Jordan Red Crescent Health Centers (Ashrafieh Health Center, Al-Hashemi Health Center, Marka Health Center, Al-Taj Health Center and AL-Hussein Health Center from one center to another and there was a significant difference in the quality of health services provided to Iraqis at Jordan Red Crescent health centers based on the number of visits the Iraqis made to the center. Conclusion: The main recommendation presented in this study is that there is a need to expand the health services in cooperation with international humanitarian organizations in order to accommodate the rising number of Iraqis frequenting the centers.

  16. Contractual Freedom and its Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Uta

    2010-01-01

    Parties’ freedom of will is expressed through the following three principles: 1. contractual freedom; 2. the binding power of the contract; and 3. the relativity of the contract’s effects. The parties are free to contract or not, to choose the other contracting party and to determine the content of the contractual clauses. The principle of mutual consent appears as a corollary of the freedom of will principle. According to this principle, the parties’ simple manifestation of will is sufficien...

  17. Iraqi American refugee youths' exposure to violence: relationship to attitudes and peers' perpetration of dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chiodo, Lisa M; Weisz, Arlene N; Elias-Lambert, Nada; Kernsmith, Poco D; Yoon, Jina S; Lewandowski, Linda A

    2013-02-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, home and dating relationships among Iraqi American youth. As Iraqi American youth are traditionally not allowed to date, dating violence measures focused on attitudes about and perceptions of abuse occurring in the relationships of friends. The number of friends known who were secretly dating was the most significant predictor of acceptability of dating violence and perceived prevalence of abuse. Youth who experienced child abuse perceived higher rates of dating violence among their peers. Findings highlight the complexities of prevention and intervention of teen dating violence within secretive relationships.

  18. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    of cochlear implantations among Danish users in order to shed more light on their social and political implications. We situate cochlear implantation in a framework of new life science advances, politics, and user experiences. Analytically, we draw upon the notion of social imaginary and explore the social...... dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  19. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal (October-December 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    headaches, migraines, concussions, seizures , syncope, epilepsy , nonsurgical neck or back pain, chronic pain syndromes, and vague neuropsychiatric...Medical Information Program 65 During Operation Iraqi Freedom IV MAJ Mark L. Higdon, MC, USA Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, Maryland. 20 Army Medical Department Journal INTRODUCTION Operation Iraqi Freedom has

  20. Freedom and european military conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Archimandryta Andrzej (Borkowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period of globalization, numerous armed conflicts and wars we often appeal to freedom and human rights. When we talk of freedom in the time we live in we usually mean it to be a possibility of free choice among various things. In contemporary common understanding freedom means choice. Such a definition is far insufficient to an Orthodox Christian. Freedom is something more than a simple difference between obviousness and indecision. Our spiritual attention needs to be directed towards something much more deeper. It should be directed to a struggle in order to overcome results of our fallen nature. According to contemporary understanding freedom is identified also with a possibility to do what is pleasing to ourselves. But such understanding is equally faulty. From theological point of view the term of true freedom denotes God’s grace and therefore human freedom is connected with and dependent on the absolute freedom of God. We do believe that God is the only giver of freedom and justice and He even exceeds them. God does not determine Himself. God simply exists. In such a way God has introduced Himself to Mores in the burning bush: „Εγώ ειμί ο Ών” (I am that I am. Ultimately all the contemporary crisises have their source in an absolute external freedom, freedom of flesh – having lost the notion of sin it transforms into a merciless, tyrannical lawlessness. Distinct manifestation of it are incessant armed conflicts in Europe.

  1. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  2. The Erosion of Academic Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Michael W.; Marshall, Thomas; McHenry, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    This article originated from a single question: do the restrictions that various accrediting agencies place on teacher educators limit, or entirely eliminate, academic freedom? Considering that question makes it apparent the problem is much broader than academic freedom. The issue has two foci: personal identity and the impact of market…

  3. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  4. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  5. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  6. Linking Organizational Structure, Technological Support and Process Innovation: the Mediating Role of Knowledge Sharing in the Iraqi Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mamoori Amal Ghalib Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationships among organizational structure, technological support, knowledge sharing and process innovation and whether knowledge sharing has a mediating effect on these relationships. Based on the survey among employees in the Iraqi textile industry, the results revealed that organizational structure and technological support positively and significantly influence knowledge sharing. Knowledge sharing was also found to be an important mediator between organizational structure, support technology and process innovation. The findings bear implications to the Iraqi government’s call for innovation in the Iraqi textile industry.

  7. Pragmatic Difficulties in the Production of the Speech Act of Apology by Iraqi EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghazalli, Mehdi Falih; Al-Shammary, Mohanad A. Amert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic difficulties encountered by Iraqi EFL university students in producing the speech act of apology. Although the act of apology is easy to recognize or use by native speakers of English, non-native speakers generally encounter difficulties in discriminating one speech act from another. The…

  8. 'Defending our honour': Authenticity and the framing of resistance in the Iraqi Sunni town of Falluja

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.

    2004-01-01

    In April 2004 a revolt broke out against the American occupation in the Iraqi Sunni town of Falluja. Besides a military confrontation, it was also a war of words how to conceptualise the clash of interests and values of the indigenous population in opposition to those of the American occupation. At

  9. “Speaking Truth to Power?” Intellectuals in Iraqi Baathist Cultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Tramontini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available How free can intellectuals (writers, poets, and artists continue to exist in a political system that exercises a huge amount of pressure, control, and censorship, forcing them to conform to its heavily skewed ideological and historical perspectives? The core question of a dispute among Iraqi intellectuals since 2003 has been: Who has the right to speak for Iraq? This question underlines the need to delve deeper; it touches upon the urgency of re-examining the political and cultural dynamics of Baathist rule, the cultural institutions of which provided a restrictive framework within an overall atmosphere of intimidation, control, and surveillance. During this time, Iraqi intellectuals took on various attitudes, varying from compliance and collaboration, to resistance to the system or outright exile. The rift between Iraqi intellectuals is mostly between those on the “inside” and those on the “outside.” This paper discusses the relationship between intellectuals and power and the peculiarities of Iraqi cultural production in Baathist times, and then analyses the role of intellectuals through two case studies, debating the strategies of survival and complicity.

  10. Out of Crisis: Reflections of an Iraqi and an American on Advocacy for Andragogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.

    2010-01-01

    Mahdi is an Iraqi doctoral candidate in adult and higher education and Bright is her doctoral advisor. The two have been involved in intensive dialogue about how they see their cultures, how they perceive the conflict in the Middle East, and how andragogical theory offers hope for changing learning and teaching approaches that can influence…

  11. The Socioemotional Development of Orphans in Orphanages and Traditional Foster Care in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; Mohamad, Kirmanj

    1996-01-01

    A one-year follow-up study of children who had lost both parents and were placed in orphanages (n=19) or foster homes (n=18) in Iraqi Kurdistan investigated the orphans' situation and development. The children in orphanages were found to have higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder than the foster care children. (Author/CR)

  12. Refugee warriors or war refugees? Iraqi refugees' predicament in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and

  13. 31 CFR 575.412 - Release of Iraqi goods from bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... warehouse or foreign trade zone. 575.412 Section 575.412 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 575.412 Release of Iraqi goods from bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone. Section 575.204 does not prohibit the release from a bonded warehouse or a foreign...

  14. Three Secondary School Teachers Implementing Student-Centred Learning in Iraqi Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, Tony; Madsen, Janne; Zako, Nadia; Ismail, Adham

    2017-01-01

    In Iraqi Kurdistan, the educational system is going through significant changes. The educational system influences the students' attitudes, and one wants the educational system to support the young democracy. In this study, student-centred learning (SCL) is seen as a first step to learning, but also to participation and engagement as a citizen.…

  15. Iraqi Adolescents: Self-Regard, Self-Derogation, and Perceived Threat in War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Ender, Morten G.; Tabatabai, Ahoo

    2008-01-01

    A year into the 2003 US-Iraq war, how were adolescents in Baghdad faring? Conflict-related events typically lower psychological well-being; in contrast, investment in and protection of threatened identities should lead to self-esteem striving and, presumably, better well-being. How threatened do Iraqi adolescents feel? Is their self-esteem related…

  16. Gender Differences and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety of High School Learners in an Iraqi EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulateef Sabti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades Investigation of foreign language anxiety generally has progressively caught the attention of numerous investigators in the area of foreign language. Yet, anxiety variable that affects the students’ acquisition of particular language skills for instance, reading specifically have actually seldom been investigated in the context of EFL Arab learners in particular with Iraqi students. So, the study aimed to investigate the influence of anxiety variable towards reading comprehension of Iraqi high school learners. This study also sought to examine the gender differences towards reading language anxiety. Quantitative approach was applied in this research, which involved 20 Iraqi students of a high school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The respondents comprised 10 males and 10 females with ages between 16 years and 18 years. This study made use of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS. The results of the study showed that both male and female participants had a high level of anxiety towards the reading comprehension. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that gender played a slight role in the results of the study. Female students showed a slightly higher level of anxiety towards the reading comprehension than their male counterparts. Iraqi learners need to be exposed to the four skills of English language generally and the reading skill in particular. This exposure makes the learners aware of the four skills (Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking that need to be acquired and also to decrease the rate of anxiety variable in addition to its influence on their performance.

  17. Freedoms Collide: Freedom of Expression and Freedom of Religion in Russia in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Kuznetsov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade ethnic and religious contradictions became a matter of growing concern and the issue of preserving the balance between the rights and interests of different groups of people comes to the forefront. There are many examples when freedom of expression is in opposition to freedom of religion. Two recent cases, the cartoons in the Danish newspaper and the recent parody of the Prophet Mohammed, show the importance of this issue. However, the notion of manifestation of religious beliefs, which in the paper is considered primary as a part of freedom of expression, is also very problematic. The paper considers models of coexistence of both freedoms adopted at the international level, in Europe and in Russia. The first chapter considers general approaches towards balancing of fundamental rights, including approaches of the Human Rights Committee and the European Court. The second chapter concentrates on the regulation of both freedoms in Russia, relevant international and domestic cases.

  18. Neurological disorders in Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Al-Saedy, Huda; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Burnham, Gilbert

    2012-04-01

    The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes 43.7 million forcibly displaced persons and asylum seekers due to conflict and persecution worldwide. Neurological disorders have rarely been described in displaced persons but likely pose a significant burden of disease. We describe the disease spectrum and health service utilization of Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers with neurological disorders using an information system developed by the UNHCR. Neurological disorders were actively monitored among the 7,642 UNHCR-registered Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers who received health and humanitarian assistance using a pilot, centralized, database called the Refugee Assistance Information System (RAIS) in the Kingdom of Jordan in 2010. There were 122 neurological diagnoses reported in 1,328 refugees (mean age 41 years, 49% female, 10% disabled, 43% with pending resettlement applications) in 2,659 health visits, accounting for 17% of all refugees who sought health assistance in RAIS. Referral to a neurologist occurred in 178 cases (13.4%). The most frequent ICD-10 neurological diagnoses were dorsalgia (back pain) (29.7% of individuals with neurological disorders), headache (13.1%), and epilepsy (12.6%). Approximately 1 in 20 Iraqi refugees with a neurological diagnosis self-reported a history of torture, which was higher than Iraqi refugees without a history of torture [66/1,328 versus 196/6,314, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.18]. Neurological disease affects a high proportion of Iraqi refugees, including victims of torture and the disabled. Refugees require dedicated care for treatment of neurological disease with a focus on pain disorders and epilepsy.

  19. The College Student's Freedom of Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Annette

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of means to ensure freedom of expression by college students. Areas of expression noted are student newspapers, lectures by off-campus speakers, freedom to assemble peaceably and freedom to associate. (EK)

  20. Media Freedom, Political Knowledge, and Participation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter T. Leeson

    2008-01-01

    .... To explore these connections, I first examine media freedom and citizens' political knowledge in thirteen central and eastern European countries with data from Freedom House's Freedom of the Press...

  1. Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    by differences in economic policy and institutional design. Specifically, we use the measures of economic freedom to ask which elements of economic policy making and the institutional framework that are responsible for the supply of entrepreneurship (our data on entrepreneurship are derived from the Global...... Entrepreneurship Monitor). The combination of these two datasets is unique in the literature. We find that the size of government is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial activity but that sound money is positively correlated with entrepreneurial activity. Other measures of economic freedom...... are not significantly correlated with entrepreneurship.JEL CODE: M13, O31, O50KEYWORDS: Economic freedom, entrepreneurship, cross-country variation....

  2. Involuntary antipsychotic medication and freedom of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Stenlund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I clarify the relationship between the use of involuntary antipsychotic medication and a delusionalperson’s freedom of thought in the light of three different views of freedom, namely, freedom as negative freedom,freedom as having an autonomous mind and freedom as capability. It is not clear how freedom of thought as a psychoticperson’s human right should be understood and protected in practice. Therefore, further discussion is needed. Thesedifferent ways of understanding a patient’s freedom of thought also encourages to consider individual situations, hearthe patient’s voice and work both multiprofessionally and across disciplines.

  3. Freedom of Expression at Yale

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAUP Bulletin, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A report of the Committee on Freedom of Expression at Yale appointed by the president to examine the condition of free expression, peaceful dissent, mutual respect and tolerance at Yale and to draft recommendations for maintenance of those principles. (JT)

  4. Freedom in responsibility: a response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brent

    2005-08-01

    This paper is a critical response to Elisabeth Gräb-Schmidt's article "Freedom in responsibility: On the relevance of 'sin' as hermeneutic guiding principle in bioethical decision making." Gräb-Schmidt's chief contention is that ethics begins with anthropology, and that moral responsibility is thereby grounded within a set of given limits. Freedom is distorted into sin when these limits are transgressed. My principal complaint is that her account of the relationship between freedom and sin is grounded in a tragic ontology. Alternatively, I contend that anthropology is grounded in Christology in which freedom is a gift of the Spirit. Consequently, sin is not so much tragic as it marks a refusal of humans to accept their divine election. The issues of human cloning and embryonic stem-cell research are used to exemplify what difference these respective differences might make in a process of moral deliberation.

  5. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  6. No freedom of action without emotional energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul

    Bauman’s theory of freedom shows how freedom should be understood as a differential capacity of social positions. Consequently, Bauman treats freedom (of action) and power as two sides of the same coin implying that the freedom of one actor will often restrict the possibilities of action of other...

  7. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  8. The Application of Multi-Agent Technology on Transient Stability Assessment of Iraqi Super Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaneen A. Abood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is improving the Iraqi control center's capabilities for monitoring and controlling the electrical network by adopting the properties of multi-agent technology to enhance power system transient stability. The idea was demonstrated by two agent's strategy, the first agent is a prediction one that will predict power system instability by a transient stability program using the PEBS method, the second strategy agent is a control agent which use the methodology of increasing power transfer through the healthy portion of network during disturbances by a load flow program using fast decoupled method. The proposed strategies are applied to a realistic power system, the Iraqi supper Grid electrical network. Results show that the proposed technique is very powerful for power system instability prediction and control.

  9. Pre- and Post-displacement Stressors and Body Weight Development in Iraqi Refugees in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, K-L Catherine; Zhou, Kequan; Arnetz, Bengt; Jamil, Hikmet

    2015-10-01

    Refugees have typically experienced stress and trauma before entering the US. Stressors and mental health disorders may contribute to obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the body mass index (BMI) in Iraqi refugees settled in Michigan in relationship to pre- and post-migration stressors and mental health. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected from 290 Iraqi refugees immediately after they arrived in Michigan and one year after settlement. Significant increases were observed in BMI (+0.46 ± 0.09 kg/m(2), p refugees suffering from hypertension (from 9.6 to 13.1%, p stress, depression and acculturation, as well as decreases in post-migration trauma and social support, were also observed. Linear regression analyses failed to link stressors, well-being, and mental health to changes in BMI. It is likely that acculturation to a new lifestyle, including dietary patterns and physical activity levels, may have contributed to these changes.

  10. INCIDENCE OF JAK2 V617F MUTATION IN IRAQI PATIENTS WITH PHILADELPHIA POSITIVE CML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Marwah Hasan Abd Ali AL- Kaabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the occurrence of JAK2 V617F mutation in CML Iraqi patients. Methods: In this study 89 blood samples were collected from Iraqi CML patients who receiving imatinib mesylate or nilotinib as a treatment at National Center of Hematology during the period January 2013-June 2013, then DNA were extracted and ARMS-PCR technique was performed to detect the JAK2V617f mutation. Results: Out of 89 patients, JAK2V617F mutation was detected in only one patient (1.1%, a 52 year-old woman who was on Imatinib mesylate therapy for five years. Conclusion: Such rare patients with co-existingBCR-ABL translocation and JAK2V617F mutation must be identified in view of the possibility of targeted therapies.

  11. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability.

  12. An Analysis of U.S. Policy Concerning the Disposition of Iraqi Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    webfeatures_viewpoints_debt>; Internet; accessed 9 October 2003. 38 David Malin Roodman , “Still Waiting for the Jubilee: Pragmatic Solutions for the Third...Case for Ad Hoc Machinery. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institute, 2003. Roodman , David Malin. “Still Waiting for the Jubilee: Pragmatic Solutions...accessed 9 October 2003. 2 David Mulford and Michael Monderer. “Iraqi Debt, Like War, Divides the West,” The Financial Times, UK, 22 June 2003

  13. Pragmatic Difficulties in the Production of the Speech Act of Apology by Iraqi EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Falih Al-Ghazalli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic difficulties encountered by Iraqi EFL university students in producing the speech act of apology. Although the act of apology is easy to recognize or use by native speakers of English, non-native speakers generally encounter difficulties in discriminating one speech act from another. The problem can be attributed to two factors: pragma-linguistic and socio-pragmatic knowledge. The aim of this study is(1to evaluate the socio-pragmatic level of interpreting apologies as understood and used by Iraqi EFL university learners, (2 find out the level of difficulty they experience in producing apologies and(3 detect the reasons behind such misinterpretations and misuses. It is hypothesized that the socio-pragmatic interpretation of apology tends to play a crucial role in comprehending what is intended by the speaker. However, cultural gaps can be the main reason behind the EFL learners' inaccurate production of the act of apology. To verify the aforementioned hypotheses, a test has been constructed and administered to a sample of 70 fourth-year Iraqi EFL university learners, morning classes. The subjects' responses have been collected and linguistically analyzed in the light of an eclectic model based on Deutschmann (2003 and Lazare (2004. It has been concluded that the misinterpretation or difficulty Iraqi EFL students have faced is mainly attributed to their lack of socio-pragmatic knowledge. The interference of the learnersʹ first language culture has led to non-native productions of speech act of apology.

  14. Physical and mental health status of Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eboni M; Yanni, Emad A; Pezzi, Clelia; Guterbock, Michael; Rothney, Erin; Harton, Elizabeth; Montour, Jessica; Elias, Collin; Burke, Heather

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a survey among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States to assess their physical and mental health status and healthcare access and utilization following the initial 8-month, post-arrival period. We randomly selected Iraqi refugees: ≥18 years of age; living in the United States for 8–36 months; and residents of Michigan, California, Texas and Idaho. Participants completed a household questionnaire and mental health assessment. We distributed 366 surveys. Seventy-five percent of participants had health insurance at the time of the survey; 43 % reported delaying or not seeking care for a medical problem in the past year. Sixty percent of participants reported one chronic condition; 37 % reported ≥2 conditions. The prevalence of emotional distress, anxiety, and depression was approximately 50 % of participants; 31 % were at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. Iraqi refugees in this evaluation reported a high prevalence of chronic conditions and mental health symptoms despite relatively high access to healthcare. It is important for resettlement partners to be aware of the distinctive health concerns of this population to best address needs within this community.

  15. Medical conditions among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Methods Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1January to 31December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. Findings There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Conclusion Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases. PMID:22690034

  16. Common variation of the CYP17 gene in Iraqi women with endometriosis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubae'i, Salwa H N; Naji, Tamara Sami; Turki, Kisma M

    2017-03-01

    Common variants among genes coding for enzymes in sex steroid biosynthetic pathways may influence the risk of endometriosis in Iraqi women patients in the last years. Cytochrome P450c17a1 (CYP17), a gene that codes for a key enzyme (cytochrome P450c17a1) in a rate-limiting step of estrogen biosynthesis has attracted considerable attention as an important gene for endometriosis. To evaluate the relationship between common genetic variations in CYP17 and endometriosis risk and determine the main effects of those variations on the gene expression. A women-based case control study of Iraqi women aged range (23-46), the associations between selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP17 gene and endometriosis diagnosis in fifty women and thirty disease-free controls were evaluated. The study found a significant association (P ≤ 0.01)between endometriosis and selected SNPs of CYP17 gene, with the homozygous genotype conferring decreased risk. A highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01) in CYP17 gene expression from women with versus without endometriosis and increased by 1.56-fold in women with endometriosis. These findings suggest that variation in or around CYP17 may be associated with endometriosis development in the Iraqi women.

  17. Common variation of the CYP17 gene in Iraqi women with endometriosis disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa H.N. Al-Rubae'i

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Common variants among genes coding for enzymes in sex steroid biosynthetic pathways may influence the risk of endometriosis in Iraqi women patients in the last years. Cytochrome P450c17a1 (CYP17, a gene that codes for a key enzyme (cytochrome P450c17a1 in a rate-limiting step of estrogen biosynthesis has attracted considerable attention as an important gene for endometriosis. To evaluate the relationship between common genetic variations in CYP17 and endometriosis risk and determine the main effects of those variations on the gene expression. A women-based case control study of Iraqi women aged range (23–46, the associations between selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the CYP17 gene and endometriosis diagnosis in fifty women and thirty disease-free controls were evaluated. The study found a significant association (P ≤ 0.01between endometriosis and selected SNPs of CYP17 gene, with the homozygous genotype conferring decreased risk. A highly significant difference (P ≤ 0.01 in CYP17 gene expression from women with versus without endometriosis and increased by 1.56-fold in women with endometriosis. These findings suggest that variation in or around CYP17 may be associated with endometriosis development in the Iraqi women.

  18. [Knowledge and practices of women in Iraqi universities on breast self examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, N; Al Attar, W; Eliessa, R; Al-Madfaie, Z; Nedal, F

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), among a sample of educated Iraqi women. The study sample comprised 858 women aged 18-62 years affiliated to 6 major Iraqi universities, categorized according to occupation as teaching staff (11.5%), administrative staff (18.0%) and students (70.5%). Data were collected by a self-completed questionnaire. In all, 93.9% of the women had heard about BSE, the main source of information was television (39.9%), doctors (18.4%) and the awareness campaign of the Iraqi National Breast Cancer Research Programme (11.6%). Only 53.9% of the women practised BSE; the most common excuses by those that did not were lack of knowledge of the significance of BSE (42.0%) and lack of confidence in their ability to perform BSE (39.5%). Just over 38% did not seek medical advice if they experienced signs/symptoms of breast disease, attributing that to reasons of timidity, lack of time or fear of discovering cancer. The majority (88%) of the women were willing to instruct others in BSE (aftertraining), 40% of whom were interested in collaborating with the National Breast Cancer Awareness Programme in Iraq.

  19. Academic Freedom in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokay GEDİKOĞLU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concept ‘academic freedom’ is discussed, its implications and value for the academics, institutions of higher education, and the society are focused, and a few suggestions for the Turkish higher education are made. Academic freedom is defined as the freedom of the academic staff to look for and to find the truth in their scientific field, to publish the findings, and to teach these findings to their students without any external intervention. The concept has gained a further definition with inclusion of research activities into academic freedom as part of the reform attempts started in the German higher education in the 19th century. Therefore, academic freedom is at the very core of the missions of the institutions of higher education; that is, teaching-learning and research. On the point of academic staff and their academic activities of the academic freedom, the subjects such as the aim of the course, choosing the teaching materials and textbooks, the lecturer, and the criteria for the measurement and evaluation of the course take place. And he point of research covers the aim of the study, academicians can’t be imposed the involve in an academic and artistic studies that conflict their values and beliefs; researchers should comply with codes of ethical principles and practices during the process of researching; and research outputs should be reported accurately and honestly without any misleading manipulation. Academic freedom does not provide any exemption from accountability in academic activities of the faculty, nor does it provide any right to act against the well-being of the society, current laws and regulations, and codes of ethical principles and practices.

  20. The Predisposition of Iraqi Rice Husk to Remove Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions and Capitalized from Waste Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nsaif

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is deal with study the potential of Iraqi Rice Husk (IRH on the removal of three heavy metals pollutant which were (Mg, Mn and Mo ions from industrial wastewater using different design parameters by adsorption process. Results show that the removal efficiency were (93.95, 97.18 and 95.26 % for heavy metal (Mg, Mn and Mo respectively from aquatic solution decreased with increasing of initial concentration and flow rate while the removal efficiency increased with increasing absorbance material bed height, pH and feeding temperature. Statistical model is achieved to find an expression relates the overall operating parameters with the removal efficiency for each metal ions used in this investigation in a general equation (each one alone. The samples of (IRH remaining after using it in the removal of (Mg, Mn and Mo heavy metal ions above from Simulated Synthetic Aqueous Solutions (SSAS to investigate the capitalized of it in different methods. Different benefits possess which are: remove the three toxic heavy metals ions contaminated the water, get rid of agricultural waste (IRH, in the same time, produce light and more benefit hydrocarbons from n-heptane isomerization using a type Y-zeolite catalyst synthesis from remaining (IRH and prepare a cheap and active rodenticide.

  1. Violent deaths of Iraqi civilians, 2003-2008: analysis by perpetrator, weapon, time, and location.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate; and by victim demographics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396, Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516, and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954. We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq's governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event. In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child "Dirty War Index" (DWI, measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79 and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54 and from

  2. Violent Deaths of Iraqi Civilians, 2003–2008: Analysis by Perpetrator, Weapon, Time, and Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Guerrero Serdán, Gabriela; Bagnall, Peter M.; Sloboda, John A.; Spagat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate); and by victim demographics. Methods and Findings We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396), Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516), and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954). We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq's governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event) and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event). In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child “Dirty War Index” (DWI), measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79) and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54) and from Coalition air

  3. Violent deaths of Iraqi civilians, 2003-2008: analysis by perpetrator, weapon, time, and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Guerrero Serdán, Gabriela; Bagnall, Peter M; Sloboda, John A; Spagat, Michael

    2011-02-15

    Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate); and by victim demographics. We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396), Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516), and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954). We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq's governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event) and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event). In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child "Dirty War Index" (DWI), measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79) and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54) and from Coalition air attacks (DWI  = 69). Coalition

  4. Freedom of Expression? It's Academic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Louis

    1999-01-01

    Examines the educational environment in Japan since World War II. Assesses both elementary and secondary levels of education, and evaluates the psychology of dependence as a factor in the lack of freedom of expression in academic settings. Delves into the external and internal structure of Japanese cultural society. (CCM)

  5. Freedom as Satisfaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    2004-01-01

    with harmony in one's entire volitional system, Frankfurt may solve the infi nite regress objection but he does so at the cost of ending up with a description of freedom, which comes very close to being identical to his own description of the wanton. Frankfurt's account leaves open the question of whether...

  6. Leisure, Freedom, and Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    At present liberal education is generally understood and justified as the acquisition of critical thinking skills and individual autonomy. Traditionally, however, the ultimate purpose of liberal education has been leisure. Freedom, it was thought, was not simply the result of critical thinking but also required the cultivation of leisure that…

  7. Disaggregating Corporate Freedom of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates arguments for the idea in recent American Supreme Court jurisprudence that freedom of religion should not simply be understood as an ordinary legal right within the framework of liberal constitutionalism but as an expression of deference by the state and its legal system...

  8. Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The concluding statement by participants in the 1990 Wolf Trap Conference on Academic Freedom and Artistic Expression (Virginia, April 29-May 1) proposes policies to assist institutions in responding to issues of accountability, audience, and public funding arising from presentation of artistic works to the public in a manner that preserves…

  9. Access, Intellectual Freedom and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Richard L.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)

  10. Students and Freedom of Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemley, Charles R.

    1982-01-01

    The United States Constitution guarantees freedom of speech to all citizen students. However, this right is not absolute. There is a point at which the right to free expression must be curtailed in the interest of providing the most effective teaching and learning environment. (Author/RC)

  11. Of Stone Books and Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Norcia, Vincent

    1986-01-01

    Studies two examples of Harold Innis' social theory to show that he had a sophisticated ecological understanding of the many forces at work in social dynamics. Argues that Innis' concept of monopolies of knowledge involved freedom both in elite control of a dominant technology and popular resistance to this dominance. (JD)

  12. Space Station Freedom electrical performance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Green, Robert D.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Mckissock, David B.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.

    1993-01-01

    The baseline Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) employs photovoltaic (PV) arrays and nickel hydrogen (NiH2) batteries to supply power to housekeeping and user electrical loads via a direct current (dc) distribution system. The EPS was originally designed for an operating life of 30 years through orbital replacement of components. As the design and development of the EPS continues, accurate EPS performance predictions are needed to assess design options, operating scenarios, and resource allocations. To meet these needs, NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has, over a 10 year period, developed SPACE (Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation), a computer code designed to predict EPS performance. This paper describes SPACE, its functionality, and its capabilities.

  13. Asymptotic freedom of gluons in the Fock space

    CERN Document Server

    Głazek, Stanisław D

    2015-01-01

    Asymptotic freedom of gluons is described in terms of a family of scale-dependent renormalized Hamiltonian operators acting in the Fock space. The Hamiltonians are obtained by applying the renormalization group procedure for effective particles to quantum Yang-Mills theory.

  14. Research on common issues for relationship between mechanism degree of freedom, driving link and executive link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG AiLun

    2009-01-01

    During engineering practice and theoretical research, the mechanism degree of freedom is sometimes unequal to the number of the driving link, which is unable to be explained according to the classic theory of the mechanism degree of freedom. To solve this problem, the duality description for operating laws of mechanism is introduced based on the concepts of duality. The Junction-Structure Equation is established for the port descriptions of general ideal mechanism and the functional description for the mechanism degree of freedom is described by utilization of bond graph theory. The force-transfer degree of freedom, i.e. the antithesis concept of movement-transfer degree of freedom, is introduced and defined based on the analysis of energy transfer as well as the analysis of signal causality. By utilization of structural description, functional description and duality description for the equation of degree of freedom, the relationship between the movement-transfer degree of freedom and force-transfer degree of freedom is further explored and analyzed. Thus, the relationship between the mechanism degree of freedom upon the driving link and the executive link is described generally. Finally, some typical relationships between the mechanism degree of freedom, the driving link and the executive link are analyzed.

  15. Council of Europe. Committee of Ministers: Continued Attention for Online Freedom of Expression, Assembly and Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. McGonagle

    2012-01-01

    On 7 December 2011, the Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers (CM) adopted a Declaration on the protection of freedom of expression and freedom of assembly and association with regard to privately operated Internet platforms and online service providers. This follows the CM’s adoption in Septem

  16. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  17. Old Dilemmas Renewed: Fear of Freedom vs. Freedom from Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Gruszczyk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary societies are currently subjected to very rapid and radical social changes and, as a consequence, struggle with their outcomes. The results range from the unforeseen repercussions of globally shifting political powers, through rising nationalisms, to prolonged economic, environmental, political and humanitarian crises. Critical analysis of the theories focused on the phenomena of authoritarianism, escapism, political myth, and conformity allows for outlining a comprehensive picture of the universally recognized opposition between freedom and security. From the distinction between the positive and negative freedom to the ambiguity surrounding the concept of “freedom from fear”, the fundamental dilemma is viewed from a historical perspective and illustrated with modern examples, emphasizing its current validity, insightfulness and potential in analyzing contemporary global problems. This approach allows for in-depth analyses of diversified social and political issues, such as the North African-European refugee crisis, rising nationalisms in the Western world, or a marked shift in political and social perspectives worldwide, from modern escapism to the birth of new myths of state.

  18. Trends in Terrorist Activity and Dynamics in Diyala province, Iraq, during the Iraqi Governmental Transition, 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron L. Greenwald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive study explores the evolution of the Iraqi insurgency in the dynamic strategic environment between 2004 and 2006. In these three years, insurgents in Iraq sought to exploit terrorism as a tactic to induce fear and advance their regional and political agenda in the volatile Iraqi province of Diyala. Their geopolitical agenda was primarily aimed towards derailing the interim political process and reconciliation efforts throughout Iraq. This article draws its analytical conclusions from quantitative data of terroristic incidents, focusing on insurgents' tactics, targeting of victims, and areas of activity. It examines trends of insurgent activity between 2004 and 2006 as well as the evolution of their strategy against the Iraqi Government and its people.

  19. Freedom, Time Constraints and Progressive Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Screpanti

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I present a measure of freedom for opportunity sets which are bounded by both budget and time constraints. Then I show that, in a society in which income is distributed more unequally than leisure time, a government aiming at leaving freedom distribution unaltered should apply progressive taxation. Since incomes bind freedom only partially when time constraints bind, taxing the rich reduces his freedom proportionally less than taxing the poor reduces his. Moreover, when incomes ...

  20. Economic Growth, Economic Freedom, and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the impact of various forms of economic freedom and various dimensions of governance, as well as a number of economic factors, on economic growth among OECD nations. Empirical estimation finds that the natural log of per capita purchasing-power-parity adjusted real GDP in OECD nations is positively impacted by business freedom, monetary freedom, trade freedom, and property rights security. Economic growth is found to be negatively affected by perceived governme...

  1. The Investigation Of Utilizing Rapeseed Flowers Oil As A Reliable Feedstock To Produce Biofuel And To Be Applied In Iraqi Kurdistan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribwar K. Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world demand for energy in recent decade has been dramatic. Indeed, several hydrocarbons reservoirs are depleted around the world. Moreover, the using of fossil fuels for example, natural gas and coal is emitted high quantities of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to the environment that contributed in global worming phenomenon. Hence, many researchers and energy companies are attended and investigated to find out a new and reliable renewable energy source for example, biogas and biodiesel. Indeed, biodiesel can consider a reliable fuel due to many advantages for instance, reduce the global worming phenomenon, reduces carbon dioxide emissions and sustainable energy source. In fact, biodiesel can be produced from several resources for example, vegetable oil and animal fats. Rapeseed oil may consider a quite reliable and cheap source to produce biodiesel. Indeed, it has been observed that during the spring session in Iraqi Kurdistan region, wild rapeseed flowers are growing naturally in many cities of Iraqi Kurdistan for example, Sulaymaniyah, Ranya and Koya. The observed wild rapeseed flowers are produced considerable amounts of rape seed that can be invested to produced rapeseed oil and biodiesel. Therefore, this study is aimed to produce a reliable biodiesel from rapeseed flower oil by adopting transesterification reaction. Furthermore, this study has also applied process production parameters to find out the optimum operating conditions to produce biodiesel form the rapeseed oil for instance, amount of catalyst 1.25 % KOH and amount of methanol on biodiesel production yield about 7:1.Moreover, several laboratory tests for example, density, cloud point, pour point and cetane value have been applied for the produced biodiesel.

  2. Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    by differences in economic policy and institutional design. Specifically, we use the measures of economic freedom to ask which elements of economic policy making and the institutional framework that are responsible for the supply of entrepreneurship (our data on entrepreneurship are derived from the Global......While much attention has been devoted to analyzing how the institutional framework and entrepreneurship impact growth, how economic policy and institutional design affect entrepreneurship appears to be much less analyzed. We try to explain cross-country differences in the level of entrepreneurship...... Entrepreneurship Monitor). The combination of these two datasets is unique in the literature. We find that the size of government is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial activity but that sound money is positively correlated with entrepreneurial activity. Other measures of economic freedom...

  3. Development as Freedom - And As What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze

  4. Development as Freedom : And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, I.P. van; Gasper, D.

    2007-01-01

    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At th

  5. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  6. Development as Freedom. And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van

    2006-01-01

    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At th

  7. Development as Freedom : And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, I.P. van; Gasper, D.

    2007-01-01

    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At th

  8. Individual Freedom and Institutional Frameworks in Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore Amartya Sen's contention that individual freedom represents both the objective of development and the means through which development is to take place. Examining the conceptualisation of freedom central to Sen's capability approach, I distinguish between two notions of freedom, autonomy and agency, where the former…

  9. Development as Freedom. And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van

    2005-01-01

    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At th

  10. Academic Freedom Should Be Redefined: Point and Counterpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Tonja M; Acosta, W Renee'; Chung, Eunice P; Cox, Arthur G; Garcia, George A; Klucken, Jamie Ridley; Chisholm-Burns, Marie

    2016-11-25

    As part of the 2014-15 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, the cohort teams presented debates on topics relevant to academic pharmacy at a public forum during the 2015 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Interim Meeting. The topic of one of the debates was "Academic Freedom Should Be Redefined." The "point" of the debate focused on important issues such as the fundamental definition of academic freedom as it was written in the 1940 American Association of University Professors' Statement and the need for redefinition as a consequence of many misunderstandings and misinterpretations that have arisen over time. The "counterpoint" received the greatest support, and it asserted that redefinition is not necessary, but rather the need is to clearly articulate the intended meaning of academic freedom through education, discussion, and by not supporting inappropriate behaviors in the name of "academic freedom." Reinforced clarity and operational guidance from the academy and academic institutions may add further clarification and may be the best approach to address the concerns related to academic freedom.

  11. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement.

  12. Comparison Among Commonly Available Infant Formula Milks in the Iraqi Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Mudher Mikhael MClinPharm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast-feeding is the best method of feeding infants. In some cases, formula milk can be a suitable alternative, so this study aimed to compare the safety and nutritional adequacy of commonly available formula milks in the Iraqi market. An observational study for the commonly available formula milks was conducted in the largest supermarkets of Baghdad, Iraq, during January-March 2015. The macronutrient and micronutrient contents as presented in the label of each type of formula milk was compared with the standard requirement of formula milk according to the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN guidelines. Dielac formula milk is the commonest formula milk in the Iraqi market, with the lowest price when compared with other formula milks. All infant formula milks (Similac, Guigoz, and S-26 Gold except Dielac have the mandatory contents within the specified ranges, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. Dielac lacks more than 1 of the major mandatory contents besides lacking all optional contents in its formula. Guigoz formula milk lacks the optional ingredients arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and nucleotides. Similac milk was supplemented with a higher-than-specified level of nucleotides, and its l-carnitine contents were not declared. Only S26 Gold formula milk contained all mandatory and optional ingredients within the specified range, according to the ESPGHAN guidelines. In conclusion, no formula milk can resemble breast milk; however, S26 Gold formula milk is the most acceptable formula, and Dielac formula milk is the worst. Therefore, it is recommended that Dielac be withdrawn from the Iraqi market.

  13. Freedom Of Worship: Problems In Concepts Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey O. Kuznecov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, author discusses problem of specifying the concepts of "freedom of conscience" and "freedom of religion", and the question of their relations definable borders. Author, points to the need to divide these concepts, explores the process of securing the corresponding terms in the text of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Author notes that in all previously existing communities the religion was considered as the basis, on which was formed worldview that is the core of Western culture as a whole. Even relations, no direct religious influence, however, been included in the religious sense structure. In modern society, the situation is different. Despite the fact that freedom of religion is a self-sufficient legal institution and has its own specific content, constitutional rule through a combination of formal independent concepts fixes it inside another structural formation - Institute for freedom of conscience. In view of this, in practice, the concept of "freedom of religion" and "freedom of conscience" is often identified because of the "blurring" of insufficient specificity of the latter. The correction of this situation possibly based on more detailed and full prescribing powers in the areas of freedom of conscience and freedom of religion. In conclusion, author notes, that religious freedom acts as an element of freedom of conscience, as to the latter, in the political and legal importance of this category relates, in addition to the freedom of choice of religion and freedom to participate in religious practices, and even the right to share or not to share (to have, receive conviction of another kind. From our point of view, the qualitative change of the Institute of freedom of conscience is possible only on the basis of conscious differentiation of the concepts and their concretization, consisting in a more detailed and complete prescribing powers in the areas of freedom of conscience and freedom of religion.

  14. Why the Iraqi Resistance to the Coalition Invasion Was So Weak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    p. xxii. 64 Duelfer (2004), p. 62. 65 Duelfer (2004), p. 66. 66 Paul Martin, “Iraqi Defense Chief Argued with Saddam,” The Washington Times...executed. See Catherine Philp , “Secrets of Saddam’s Family at War,” Timesonline, June 25, 2003. A slightly different account of why Saddam immediately...A variant of this enclave strategy had been suggested by Paul Wolfowitz and others during the 1990s as a means of bringing about regime change in

  15. Iraqi health system in kurdistan region: medical professionals' perspectives on challenges and priorities for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Abubakir M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The views of medical professionals on efficiency of health system and needs for any changes are very critical and constitute a cornerstone for any health system improvement. This is particularly relevant to Iraqi Kurdistan case as the events of the last few decades have significantly devastated the national Iraqi health system while the necessity for adopting a new health care system is increasingly recognized since 2004. This study aims to examine the regional health system in Iraqi Kurdistan from medical professionals' perspectives and try to define its problems and priorities for improvement. Methods A survey questionnaire was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 250 medical professionals in Erbil governorate. The questionnaire included four items; rating of the quality of services and availability of resources in the health institutions, view on different aspects of the health system, the perceived priority needs for health system improvement and gender and professional characteristics of the respondents. Results The response rate to the survey was 83.6%. A high proportion of respondents rated the different aspects of services and resources in the health institutions as weak or very weak including the availability of the required quantity and quality of medicines (68.7%, the availability of sufficient medical equipment and investigation tools (68.7%, and the quality of offered services (65.3%. Around 72% of respondents had a rather negative view on the overall health system. The weak role of medical research, the weak role of professional associations in controlling the system and the inefficient health education were identified as important problems in the current health system (87.9%, 87.1% and 84.9%, respectively. The priority needs of health system improvement included adoption of social insurance for medical care of the poor (82%, enhancing the role of family medicine (77.2%, adopting health

  16. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, a new subterranean loach from Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir; Ararat, Korsh; Ibrahim, Hamad; Geiger, Matthias F

    2016-10-04

    Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.

  17. Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus from the Tigris drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir

    2017-03-02

    Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males.

  18. Health related quality of life among Iraqi immigrants settled in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daher Thaaer M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migrants everywhere face several demands for health and maintaining good health and quality of life could be challenging. Iraqis are the second largest refugee group that has sought refuge in the recent years, yet little is known about their health related quality of life (HRQOL. The study aims at assessing the HRQOL among Iraqis living in Malaysia. Methods A self-administered Arabic version of Sf-36 questionnaire was distributed among 300 Iraqi migrants in Malaysia. The questionnaire taps eight concepts of physical and mental health to assess the HRQOL. Univariate analysis was performed for group analysis (t test, ANOVA and Multiple Linear Regression was used to control for confounding effects. Results Two hundred and fifty three participants ranging in age from 18 to 67 years (Mean = 33.6 returned the completed questionnaire. The majority was males (60.1% and more than half of the respondents (59.5% were married. Less than half (45.4% and about a quarter (25.9% reported bachelor degree and secondary school education respectively and the remaining 28.7% had either a master or a PhD degree. Univariate analysis showed that the HRQOL scores among male immigrants were found to be higher than those of females in physical function (80.0 vs. 73.5, general health (72.5 vs. 60.7 and bodily pain (87.9 vs. 72.5 subscales. The youngest age group had significantly higher physical function (79.32 and lower mental health scores (57.62. The mean score of physical component summary was higher than the mental component summary mean score (70.22 vs. 63.34. Stepwise multiple linear regression, revealed that gender was significantly associated with physical component summary (β = - 6.06, p = 0.007 and marital status was associated with mental component summary (β = 7.08, p = 0.003. Conclusions From the data it appears that Iraqi immigrants living in Malaysia have HRQOL scores that might be considered to indicate a relatively moderate HRQOL

  19. Job satisfaction and turnover intention among Iraqi doctors--a descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Jadoo, Saad Ahmed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Dastan, Ilker; Tawfeeq, Ruqiya Subhi; Mustafa, Mustafa Ali; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; AlDubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2015-04-19

    During the last two decades, the Iraqi human resources for health was exposed to an unprecedented turnover of trained and experienced medical professionals. This study aimed to explore prominent factors affecting turnover intentions among Iraqi doctors. A descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study was carried out among 576 doctors across 20 hospitals in Iraq using multistage sampling technique. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included socio-demographic information, work characteristics, the 10-item Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale, and one question on turnover intention. Descriptive and bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify significant factors affecting turnover intentions. More than one half of Iraqi doctors (55.2%) were actively seeking alternative employment. Factors associated with turnover intentions among doctors were low job satisfaction score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 0.99), aged 40 years old or less (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.74, 4.75), being male (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.54, 7.03), being single (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 2.61, 9.75), being threatened (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.80, 6.69), internally displaced (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.43, 6.57), having a perception of unsafe medical practice (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.86, 9.21), working more than 40 h per week, (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.27, 4.03), disagreement with the way manager handles staff (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 4.03), being non-specialist, (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.08, 7.13), and being employed in the government sector only (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.82). The high-turnover intention among Iraqi doctors is significantly associated with working and security conditions. An urgent and effective strategy is required to prevent doctors' exodus.

  20. A Random Walk to Economic Freedom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witte, Mark David

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the wide use of economic freedom in economic literature it is imperative to understand how economic freedom evolves. Results suggest that levels of economic freedom are dominated by random shocks. Using a test for stationarity devised by Westerlund and Larsson (2012 we are unable to reject the null hypothesis of a random walk. The changes to economic freedom also are mostly driven by random shocks with only a minor role played by country specific characteristics. Additionally, changes to economic freedom are partially reversed as increases (decreases in one year are partially offset by decreases (increases in the next year.

  1. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1989-01-01

    An approach to managing the operations of the Space Station Freedom based on their external effects is described. It is assumed that there is a conflict-free schedule that, if followed, will allow only appropriate operations to occur. The problem is then reduced to that of ensuring that the operations initiated are within the limits allowed by the schedule, or that the external effects of such operations are within those allowed by the schedule. The main features of the currently adopted transaction management approach are discussed.

  2. Machiavelli: Ambition, Freedom and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Villar Ezcurra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article tackles the anthropological conception of Machiavelli, mainly taken from the Discourses on the First Decade of Titus Livius in which stands out the identity of human passions and the importance of its understanding to reach political knowledge. Machiavelli considers that the human being is malleable in such a way that a passion can be fought and compensated by another one. From this perspective, is analysed the role of ambition and freedom both as a source of confrontation and degeneration and as an incentive to achieve the most important goals.

  3. The Epidemiology of Major Depressive Episode in the Iraqi General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Obaid Al-Hamzawi

    Full Text Available To assess the prevalence, symptom severity, functional impairment, and treatment of major depressive episode (MDE in the Iraqi general population.The Iraq Mental Health Survey is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 4,332 non-institutionalized adults aged 18+ interviewed in 2006-2007 as part of the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV MDE were determined with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI.Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of MDE were 7.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Close to half (46% of the 12-month MDE cases were severe/very severe. MDE was more common among women and those previously married. Median age of onset was 25.2. Only one-seventh of 12-month MDE cases received treatment despite being associated with very substantial role impairment (on average 70 days out of role in the past year.MDE is a commonly occurring disorder in the Iraqi general population and is associated with considerable disability and low treatment. Efforts are needed to decrease the barriers to treatment and to educate general medical providers in Iraq about the recognition and treatment of depression.

  4. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety among Iraqi Students and its Relation With Gender and Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Talib Ali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Language anxiety is always seen as debilitative factor that deters learners from successfully learning a foreign language. Although many studies have been reported on foreign language learners’ anxieties, little research, if any, has been undertaken on Iraqi postgraduate EFL learners. The objective of the present study is threefold: a to investigate the factors contributing to foreign language classroom anxiety among Iraqi postgraduate EFL students, b to investigate the difference between both genders in the level of anxiety and c to investigate the relationship between the level of anxiety and the academic achievement of the students based on GPA. The study employed a mixed mode approach using survey questionnaire (AFLAQand semi-structured interview. The study reported that three factors such as communication apprehension, negative evaluation and test anxiety are anxiety-arousing factors with test anxiety has the greatest contribution. The study also reported that females show more anxiety compared to males. It was also shown that there is a negative correlation between language anxiety and academic achievement which means that students with high level of FL anxiety tend to yield lower grades and vice-versa. Keywords: Arabic Foreign Language Anxiety Questionnaire (AFLAQ, Anxiety factors, Gender differences, Academic achievement

  5. The Usefulness of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR Eyespeak Software in Improving Iraqi EFL Students’ Pronunciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Fathi Sidig Sidgi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on determining whether automatic speech recognition (ASR technology is reliable for improving English pronunciation to Iraqi EFL students. Non-native learners of English are generally concerned about improving their pronunciation skills, and Iraqi students face difficulties in pronouncing English sounds that are not found in their native language (Arabic. This study is concerned with ASR and its effectiveness in overcoming this difficulty. The data were obtained from twenty participants randomly selected from first-year college students at Al-Turath University College from the Department of English in Baghdad-Iraq. The students had participated in a two month pronunciation instruction course using ASR Eyespeak software. At the end of the pronunciation instruction course using ASR Eyespeak software, the students completed a questionnaire to get their opinions about the usefulness of the ASR Eyespeak in improving their pronunciation. The findings of the study revealed that the students found ASR Eyespeak software very useful in improving their pronunciation and helping them realise their pronunciation mistakes. They also reported that learning pronunciation with ASR Eyespeak enjoyable.

  6. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE AND CATALASE ACTIVITIES IN SERA OF OBESE IRAQI MEN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsamie H. Alta'ee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a multifaceted disorder stemming from an imbalance in the homeostasis of energy, which leads to an accumulation of excess energy as fat. It has become of increasing concern in the Iraqi population since 2003, when obesity was identified as a significant factor in relation to several diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between oxidative stress and obesity in blood serum of obese Iraqi men. This study was conducted on two different groups with matching age ranges (25-35 years. The obese group consisted of thirty-six obese subjects with varying grades of obesity (BMI 40 ± 5 kg/m2 . The control group included thirty-six non-obese subjects (BMI 25 ± 3 kg/m2 . There are two parallel components to this study: The first involves Superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and total thiol group levels as a marker of antioxidants. The second involves the end product of lipid peroxidation (MDA as a marker of oxidative stress. When compared with the control group, SOD, CAT activity, and MDA were significantly increased, whereas TTG was significantly decreased. There is a balance between CAT activity compared with SOD activity and polyunsaturated fatty acids hydroxyl peroxide that play a vital role in the regulation of ROS and the body's defense system in obese men and in the human body in general.

  7. Narratives of Iraqi Adult Learners: Experiences of Spoken Register in English for Academic Purposes Programs at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hamdany, Hayder; Picard, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the perceptions of Iraqi students of three different English Programs (a general English for academic purposes program, a pre-enrolment English program and the English component of a disciplinary bridging program) at an Australian University as reflected in their language learning narratives. It focuses specifically on the…

  8. A novel mutation in the HEXA gene specific to Tay-Sachs disease carriers of Jewish Iraqi origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, M; Peleg, L; Gazit, E; Akstein, E; Goldman, B

    2000-05-01

    An increased frequency of carriers of 1:140, as defined by reduced hexosaminidase A (HexA) activity, was observed among Iraqi Jews participating in the Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier detection program. Prior to this finding, TSD among Jews had been restricted to those of Eastern European (Ashkenazi) and Moroccan descent with carrier frequencies of 1:29 and 1:110 for Jews of Ashkenazi and Moroccan extraction, respectively. A general, pan-ethnic frequency of approximately 1:280 has been observed among other Jewish Israeli populations. Analysis of 48 DNA samples from Iraqi Jews suspected, by enzymatic assay, to be carriers revealed a total of five mutations, one of which was novel. In nine carriers (19%), a known mutation typical to either Ashkenazi or Moroccan Jews was identified. DeltaF304/ 305 was detected in four individuals, and + 1278TATC in three. G269S and R170Q each appeared in a single person. The new mutation, G749T, resulting in a substitution of glycine to valine at position 250 has been found in 19 of the DNA samples (40%). This mutation was not detected among 100 non-carrier, Iraqi Jews and 65 Ashkenazi enzymatically determined carriers. Aside from Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews, a specific mutation in the HEXA gene has now also been identified in Jews of Iraqi descent.

  9. EvBO: Evidence-Based Operations. How to remove the bad guys from the battlefield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voetelink, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the final years of the military operations in Iraq, the US armed forces were only allowed to arrest people on the basis of an Iraqi arrest warrant. To ensure that this process ran as smoothly as possible, the concept of Warrant-Based Targeting was introduced. This concept was adapted to the local

  10. Establishment and characterization of a receptor-negative, hormone-nonresponsive breast cancer cell line from an Iraqi patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shammari AM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari,1 Mortadha A Alshami,2 Mahfoodha Abbas Umran,2 Asmaa Amer Almukhtar,3 Nahi Y Yaseen,1 Khansaa Raad,1 Ayman A Hussien1 1Experimental Therapy Department, Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Research, Mustansiriya University, 2Biotechnology Department, Collage of Science, Baghdad University, 3Medical Genetics Department, Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Research, Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, Iraq Abstract: A new breast cancer cell line (AMJ13 has been established from an Iraqi breast cancer patient. It is considered unique because it is the first for an Iraqi population, and is expected to be a useful tool in breast cancer research. The AMJ13 cell line was established from the primary tumor of a 70-year-old Iraqi woman with a histological diagnosis of infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The cells were morphologically characterized by light and scanning electron microscopy, and found to be elongated multipolar epithelial-like cells with a population doubling time of 22 hours. The anchorage-independent growth ability test showed that the cells were able to grow in semisolid agarose, confirming their transformed nature. Cytogenetic study of these cells showed chromosomal aberrations with many structural and numerical abnormalities, producing chromosomes of unknown origin called marker chromosomes. Immunocytochemistry showed that the estrogen receptor and the progesterone receptor were not expressed, and a weak positive result was found for HER2/neu gene expression. AMJ13 cells were positive for BRCA1 and BRCA2, as well as for vimentin. This cell line should be useful when testing new therapies for breast cancer in the Middle East. Keywords: ductal carcinoma, marker chromosomes, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor

  11. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the re-ligion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describ-ing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  12. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the religion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  13. Still more records, Iraqi violence and Caspian exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-06-15

    Oil prices set further records at the start of May before falling back. December WTI hit an all-time high of $78.00/bbl on Nymex on 3rd May. IPE November Brent went up to a record $76.45/bbl. Both contracts eventually settled lower and prices in general weakened before staging a minor rally at the end of the month. Other price records were broken early in the month. In Asia, the Indonesian marker grade, Minas, was recorded at $74.04/bbl on 2nd May, whilst Malaysia's Tapis went above $76.70/bbl. Strong Asian demand also boosted the prices of West African crudes. The markets appeared to be reacting to growing tensions in Iraq, Iran and Nigeria. These considerations returned to haunt the markets later in the month. All crude oil loadings at Iraq's Persian Gulf marine terminal were suspended following a fire, though the main Gulf terminal at Basrah continued to operate. The Ceyhan terminal remained out of action. Tensions between the US and Iran over the latter's nuclear programme gave rise to fears of an embargo on Iranian oil exports. Several foreign oil workers were kidnapped following an armed attack on oil installations in Nigeria. OPEC ministers kept their production ceiling unchanged at 28 mn bpd at a meeting in Caracas. (author)

  14. BBG 2009 Freedom of Information Act Repot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  15. BBG 2008 Freedom of Information Act Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  16. Automated electric power management and control for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.; Kish, James A.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. It strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. An integrated approach to the power system command and control problem is defined and used to direct technology development in: diagnosis, security monitoring and analysis, battery management, and cooperative problem-solving for resource allocation. The prototype automated power system is developed using simulations and test-beds.

  17. Denial Denied: Freedom of Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Newey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Free speech is a widely held principle. This is in some ways surprising, since formal and informal censorship of speech is widespread, and rather different issues seem to arise depending on whether the censorship concerns who speaks, what content is spoken or how it is spoken. I argue that despite these facts, free speech can indeed be seen as a unitary principle. On my analysis, the core of the free speech principle is the denial of the denial of speech, whether to a speaker, to a proposition, or to a mode of expression. Underlying free speech is the principle of freedom of association, according to which speech is both a precondition of future association (e.g. as a medium for negotiation and a mode of association in its own right. I conclude by applying this account briefly to two contentious issues: hate speech and pornography.

  18. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l inge.vestergaard@aarch.dk Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... compares "best practice" in Denmark and "best practice" in Austria. The modern architects accepted the fact that industrialized architecture told the storey of repetition and monotonous as basic condition. This article aims to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through...... to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...

  19. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    compares "best practice" in Denmark and "best practice" in Austria. The modern architects accepted the fact that industrialized architecture told the storey of repetition and monotonous as basic condition. This article aims to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through......Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l inge.vestergaard@aarch.dk Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... to 1973 it is discussed how architects can handle these Danish element and montage buildings through the transformation to upgraded aesthetical, functional and energy efficient architecture. The method used is analysis of cases, parallels to literature studies and producer interviews. This analysis...

  20. Six degree of freedom sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  1. Model reduction for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    Model reduction is an important practical problem in the control of flexible spacecraft, and a considerable amount of work has been carried out on this topic. Two of the best known methods developed are modal truncation and internal balancing. Modal truncation is simple to implement but can give poor results when the structure possesses clustered natural frequencies, as often occurs in practice. Balancing avoids this problem but has the disadvantages of high computational cost, possible numerical sensitivity problems, and no physical interpretation for the resulting balanced 'modes'. The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of the subsystem balancing technique developed by the investigator when tested on a realistic flexible space structure, in this case a model of the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC) of Space Station Freedom. This method retains the desirable properties of standard balancing while overcoming the three difficulties listed above. It achieves this by first decomposing the structural model into subsystems of highly correlated modes. Each subsystem is approximately uncorrelated from all others, so balancing them separately and then combining yields comparable results to balancing the entire structure directly. The operation count reduction obtained by the new technique is considerable: a factor of roughly r(exp 2) if the system decomposes into r equal subsystems. Numerical accuracy is also improved significantly, as the matrices being operated on are of reduced dimension, and the modes of the reduced-order model now have a clear physical interpretation; they are, to first order, linear combinations of repeated-frequency modes.

  2. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  3. The right of freedom of public assembly - constitutional aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Flamur Hyseni

    2015-01-01

    Freedom and human rights are in the focus of human rights. The protection of fundamental freedoms and human rights still remains the main challenge of consolidating democracy in some countries. In this regard the difficulties in protecting rights and freedoms are connected with individual freedoms as well as collective freedoms. The freedom of expression continues to be among the freedoms that define the level of democratic development in countries. In this respect the right to public assembl...

  4. Structural technology challenges for evolutionary growth of Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Harold H.

    A proposed evolutionary growth scenario for Space Station Freedom was defined recently by a NASA task force created to study requirements for a Human Exploration Initiative. The study was an initial response to President Bush's July 20, 1989 proposal to begin a long range program of human exploration of space including a permanently manned lunar base and a manned mission to Mars. This growth scenario evolves Freedom into a critical transportation node to support lunar and Mars missions. The growth scenario begins with the Assembly Complete configuration and adds structure, power, and facilities to support a Lunar Transfer Vehicle (LTV) verification flight. Evolutionary growth continues to support expendable, then reusable LTV operations, and finally, LTV and Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) operations. The significant structural growth and additional operations creating new loading conditions will present new technological and structural design challenges in addition to the considerable technology requirements of the baseline Space Station Freedom program. Several structural design and technology issues of the baseline program are reviewed and related technology development required by the growth scenario is identified.

  5. Army Logistician. Volume 41, Issue 1, January-February 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    operations Chief for the 3D sustainment BrigaDe, WhiCh reCentLy reDe - pLoyeD from operation iraqi freeDom. he has a master’s Degree in LogistiCs management...conducting medical engagements. • Pamphlet-targeting and counter- propaganda efforts to build support for the Iraqi Security Forces and increase interactions...with the Iraqi Army and Iraqi Police. • Social and leadership engagements, including dinners with local sheiks and school visits. • Adopt-a-village

  6. The health profile and chronic diseases comorbidities of US-bound Iraqi refugees screened by the International Organization for Migration in Jordan: 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Emad A; Naoum, Marwan; Odeh, Nedal; Han, Pauline; Coleman, Margaret; Burke, Heather

    2013-02-01

    More than 63,000 Iraqi refugees were resettled in the United States from 1994 to 2010. We analyzed data for all US-bound Iraqi refugees screened in International Organization for Migration clinics in Jordan during June 2007-September 2009 (n = 18,990), to describe their health profile before arrival in the United States. Of 14,077 US-bound Iraqi refugees ≥ 15 years of age, one had active TB, 251 had latent TB infection, and 14 had syphilis. No HIV infections were reported. Chronic diseases comorbidities accounted for a large burden of disease in this population: 35% (n = 4,105) of screened Iraqi refugees had at least one of three chronic medical conditions; hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or obesity. State health departments and clinicians who screen refugees need to be aware of the high prevalence of chronic diseases among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States. These results will help public health specialists develop policies to reduce morbidity and mortality among US-bound Iraqi refugees.

  7. Intellectual Freedom and the Bible College Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    A number of evangelical Christian authors have wrestled with the subject of intellectual freedom--few, though, in the context of Bible college libraries. The secular concept of intellectual freedom is incompatible with Bible colleges in that it is absolutist and shuns any standard of morality. Theological, educational, and pragmatic factors…

  8. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship in the Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…

  9. Academic Freedom in Europe: Reviewing UNESCO's "Recommendation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, Terence

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the compliance of universities in the European Union with the UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel, which deals primarily with protection for academic freedom. The paper briefly surveys the European genesis of the modern research university and academic freedom, before evaluating…

  10. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  11. 75 FR 3843 - Religious Freedom Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... toil, it was the genius of America's forefathers to protect our freedom of religion, including the... Statute was more than a law. It was a statement of principle, declaring freedom of religion as the natural..., stating, ``Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the...

  12. A Legitimate Freedom Approach to Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabtree, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    an integrate sustainability into the Human Development Index would thus give the wrong policy message. Drawing on the works of Amartya Sen and Thomas Scanlon, this article argues that sustainable development can be seen as a process of increasing legitimate freedoms, the freedoms that others cannot reasonably...

  13. Is "Freedom" an Aim of Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinum, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that "freedom" properly understood cannot be an aim or an ideal of education, and that when educators talk of "freedom" as an aim or ideal of education, they usually have in mind the development of autonomy. (Author)

  14. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  15. Freedom of Speech as an Academic Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    Since its formation, the Speech Communication Association's Committee on Freedom of Speech has played a critical leadership role in course offerings, research efforts, and regional activities in freedom of speech. Areas in which research has been done and in which further research should be carried out include: historical-critical research, in…

  16. Northrop Frye on Academic Freedom: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Howard

    1992-01-01

    Argues that Frye's concept of academic freedom is based on an espistemological dualism that separates knowledge from experience. This distinction severely limits his account of academic freedom by excluding fundamental aspects of knowledge (experience, value judgments, teacher-student dialogue, rational argument, interdisciplinary inquiry,…

  17. Learners' right to freedom of written expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    In section 16(1)(a) of CRSA, freedom of the press and the media receive special reference ... order, safety, health and democratic values justify the imposition of restrictions on the ... cordance with the broader social interest in mind and certain questions ... mental rights, such as the right to freedom of expression, do not end.

  18. Individual Academic Freedom and Aprofessional Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreescu, Liviu

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Liviu Andreescu examines the question of whether a certain category of aprofessional acts by academics (in particular, political speech) deserves protection against academic sanctions under the principle of academic freedom. Andreescu discusses two alternative views of academic freedom (the extensive and the restrictive) providing…

  19. Do We Still Need Academic Freedom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shils, Edward

    1993-01-01

    This review of academic freedom in U.S. universities focuses on the role of the American Association of University Professors, which originally linked academic freedom and tenure but now views equality of genders, races, and cultures and the normality of homosexuality as the only real values, whereas truth is seen as illusory, even exploitative.…

  20. Freedom of Conscience and Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, J. K.; Gereluk, D.; Patterson, P.; Brandon, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper's purpose is to extensively review the historical understanding of conscience and the current juridical interpretation of freedom of conscience under section 2(a) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982). It then briefly notes that given the challenge faced by Ontario's Catholic schools in providing for inclusionary…

  1. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  2. IVA robotics for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica

    1992-01-01

    The objective is to increase the scientific productivity of Space Station Freedom (Spacelab) during the man-tended phase and beyond. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: Space Station Freedom (SSF) background, man-tended phase, intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, protein crystal growth experiment, thermal enclosure system equipment, and candidate mockup demonstrations.

  3. Exemplary Teachers: Teaching for Intellectual Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual freedom has long been a desirable ideal and a foundational value for supporting democratic governance. Since 1948, it has been a universal human right. Given the unique nature of education in democratic societies, schools serve as a crucible for helping children understand and practise the rudiments of intellectual freedom. Drawing on…

  4. Adorno on Kant, Freedom and Determinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jutten, Timo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I argue that Adorno's metacritique of freedom in Negative Dialectics and related texts remains fruitful today. I begin with some background on Adorno's conception of metacritique and on Kant's conception of freedom, as I understand it. Next, I discuss Adorno's analysis of the experient

  5. Movie Effects on EFL Learners at Iraqi School in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Huri Yaseen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously, one of the vital tasks of  English learning is to find new methods and resources to make the EFL students more stimulating and productive. Recently, the usage of movies (in DVD format in courses became popular or supplementary resources to learn English among EFL learners. Many researchers stated that authentic video is an advantage and inspiring tool in language learning. However, there have been quite few studies on the relationship between effective learning and students’ movie preferences. This research aims at finding the relationship between effective learning and students’ movie preferences. To this end, data were collected by using posttests. Participants were students from a Iraqi school in Kuala Lumpur. The researchers uncovered that the participants had insight into the subtitles/captions which are used in the movie in classrooms. The implications of these findings and suggestions are discussed. Keyword: Movie, learning language, vocabularies, implications

  6. Specific trauma subtypes improve the predictive validity of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire in Iraqi refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Bengt B; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Talia, Yousif Rofa; Arnetz, Judith E

    2014-12-01

    Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12 and 10%, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7 and 3%, respectively). Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations.

  7. Suicide by self-burning in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nasih

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to provide evidence for the problem of suicide by self-burning in Iraqi Kurdistan. Data were collected prospectively from all patients admitted to the burn center in the province of Sulaymaniyah and cases of self-burning were compared with cases of accidental burns. There were 197 cases with an annual incidence rate of 8.4 per 100,000 per year and female to male risk ratio of 13.1. Independent risk factors for self-burning were female sex (odds ratio 13.75, 95% CI 6.91-27.36, P Kurdistan especially among women. Urgent action is required to provide a better understanding of the situation, and identify partners, capacities, and opportunities for action.

  8. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Kidnapping and Mental Health in Iraqi Refugees: The Role of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A Michelle; Talia, Yousif R; Aldhalimi, Abir; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Bengt B; Arnetz, Judith E

    2017-02-01

    Although kidnapping is common in war-torn countries, there is little research examining its psychological effects. Iraqi refugees (N = 298) were assessed upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year later. At arrival, refugees were asked about prior trauma exposure, including kidnapping. One year later refugees were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression disorder (MDD) using the SCID-I. Individual resilience and narratives of the kidnapping were also assessed. Twenty-six refugees (9 %) reported being kidnapped. Compared to those not kidnapped, those who were had a higher prevalence of PTSD, but not MDD, diagnoses. Analyses examining kidnapping victims revealed that higher resilience was associated with lower rates of PTSD. Narratives of the kidnapping were also discussed. This study suggests kidnapping is associated with PTSD, but not MDD. Additionally, kidnapping victims without PTSD reported higher individual resilience. Future studies should further elucidate risk and resilience mechanisms.

  10. Pathology of nondiabetic glomerular disease among adult Iraqi patients from a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Al-Saedi Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all forms of glomerular diseases have been reported in diabetics. In a recent series, 12% of those with type I and 27% of those with type II diabetes were found to have non diabetic renal disease. We studied 80 adult diabetic Iraqi patients who were diagnosed with glo-merular disease on native kidney biopsies from January 2000 to April 2008. Membranoproliferative GN was seen in 32 patients (40%, Focal and Segmental glomerulosclerosis in 16 patients (20%, Membranous nephropathy in 20 patients (25%, Minimal change disease in 8 patients (10%, Renal amyloidosis in 4 patients (5%. In conclusion Membranoproliferative GN was the most common histological diagnosis in our diabetic patients undergoing renal biopsy.

  11. THE REVOLUTION AND THE MILITARY. AN ANALYSIS OF THE EGYPTIAN AND IRAQI REVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Alexandru CUCUT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to assess the role the military plays in revolutions. The first part of the study focuses on the manner in which the competing theories of revolutions try to explain and accommodate the military’s participation in revolutions, attempting to show that the limits of these theoretical enterprises call for a renewed research into the subject at hand. The second part of the paper tries to build a conceptual model, starting from the hypotheses of Charles Tilly, Samuel Huntington and Mehran Kamrava, tested on two particular cases – that of the 1958 Egyptian Revolution and that of the 1958 Iraqi Revolution that can better account for the military’s participation in revolutions and explain when does the military become a revolutionary force and what are the characteristics of revolutions in which the military plays a key-role.

  12. Iraqi Prisoners in Norway: Educational Background, Participation, Preferences and Barriers to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariane Westrheim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article aimed to develop knowledge of the educational background, participation and preferences of Iraqi prisoners in Norwegian prisons and obstacles to participating in education. The study is based on interviews with 17 prisoners in three prisons. An important finding is that war and political unrest appear to have been significant causes for respondents to leaving education at various stages. As a result only half of them have as much as one final exam and only three respondents have a certificate of education. Even if the respondents want an education while in prison, and although education is offered in all prisons there is a lack of information about educational opportunities in an understandable language and long waiting time for a place at school. An implication of the study is that the criminal administration system and the educational authorities must take into account the multicultural reality by facilitating education and training offers accordingly.

  13. Willingness to Adopt Telemedicine in Major Iraqi Hospitals: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Jaber, Mustafa Musa

    2015-01-01

    The Iraqi healthcare services are struggling to regain their lost momentum. Many physicians and nurses left Iraq because of the current situation in the country. Despite plans of calling back the skilled health workforce, they are still worried by the disadvantages of their return. Hence, technology plays a central role in taking advantage of their profession through the use of telemedicine. Studying the factors that affect the implementation of telemedicine is necessary. Telemedicine covers network services, policy makers, and patient understanding. A framework that includes the influencing factors in adopting telemedicine in Iraq was developed in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among physicians in Baghdad Medical City to examine the hypothesis on each factor. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was utilized to verify the reliability of the questionnaire and Cronbach's alpha test shows that the factors have values more than 0.7, which are standard. PMID:26557848

  14. Willingness to Adopt Telemedicine in Major Iraqi Hospitals: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khanapi Abd Ghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iraqi healthcare services are struggling to regain their lost momentum. Many physicians and nurses left Iraq because of the current situation in the country. Despite plans of calling back the skilled health workforce, they are still worried by the disadvantages of their return. Hence, technology plays a central role in taking advantage of their profession through the use of telemedicine. Studying the factors that affect the implementation of telemedicine is necessary. Telemedicine covers network services, policy makers, and patient understanding. A framework that includes the influencing factors in adopting telemedicine in Iraq was developed in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among physicians in Baghdad Medical City to examine the hypothesis on each factor. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was utilized to verify the reliability of the questionnaire and Cronbach’s alpha test shows that the factors have values more than 0.7, which are standard.

  15. The frequency and spectrum of K-ras mutations among Iraqi patients with sporadic colorectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Al-Allawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiology of colorectal cancers (CRC is well known to differ in different geographical regions. K-ras mutations have been implicated in CRC carcinogenesis and they were extensively studied in developed countries; however, such studies are scarce from developing countries, like Iraq. Aim: To determine the frequency and spectrum of K-ras mutations among CRC Iraqi patients, and their clinico-pathological associations, if any. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive surgically resected sporadic CRC were evaluated. The evaluation included screening for ten K-ras mutations in codon 12 and 13 by mutant enriched polymerase chain reaction followed by reverse hybridization to oligospecific probes. Results: Out of the 50 enrolled patients, 24 (48% had K-ras mutations. A total of 29 mutations were identified in the tumors of the latter 24 patients (20/24 tumors had single mutations, 3/24 had double mutations and 1/24 had triple mutations. The most frequently encountered mutations were the G>T transversions and G>A transitions (41.4% each. Codon 12 mutations constituted 89.7%, while codon 13 the remaining 10.3%. The most frequent mutation was GGT>GTT (Gly>Val of codon 12 documented in 31%. No significant clinico-pathological correlations with K-ras mutational status were identified. Conclusion : The K-ras mutations are frequently encountered among Iraqi sporadic CRC patients, with relative higher frequencies of G>T transversions and Gly>Val codon 12 substitutions than encountered in their counterparts in developed countries. The latter is most likely to be related to differences in local carcinogens exposure, an aspect which requires further scrutiny.

  16. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in an Iraqi war veteran with posttraumatic stress disorder who committed suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omalu, Bennet; Hammers, Jennifer L; Bailes, Julian; Hamilton, Ronald L; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Webster, Garrett; Fitzsimmons, Robert P

    2011-11-01

    Following his discovery of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in football players in 2002, Dr. Bennet Omalu hypothesized that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military veterans may belong to the CTE spectrum of diseases. The CTE surveillance at the Brain Injury Research Institute was therefore expanded to include deceased military veterans diagnosed with PTSD. The authors report the case of a 27-year-old United States Marine Corps (USMC) Iraqi war veteran, an amphibious assault vehicle crewman, who committed suicide by hanging after two deployments to Fallujah and Ramadi. He experienced combat and was exposed to mortar blasts and improvised explosive device blasts less than 50 m away. Following his second deployment he developed a progressive history of cognitive impairment, impaired memory, behavioral and mood disorders, and alcohol abuse. Neuropsychiatric assessment revealed a diagnosis of PTSD with hyperarousal (irritability and insomnia) and numbing. He committed suicide approximately 8 months after his honorable discharge from the USMC. His brain at autopsy appeared grossly unremarkable except for congestive brain swelling. There was no atrophy or remote focal traumatic brain injury such as contusional necrosis or hemorrhage. Histochemical and immunohistochemical brain tissue analysis revealed CTE changes comprising multifocal, neocortical, and subcortical neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic threads (ranging from none, to sparse, to frequent) with the skip phenomenon, accentuated in the depths of sulci and in the frontal cortex. The subcortical white matter showed mild rarefaction, sparse perivascular and neuropil infiltration by histiocytes, and mild fibrillary astrogliosis. Apolipoprotein E genotype was 3/4. The authors report this case as a sentinel case of CTE in an Iraqi war veteran diagnosed with PTSD to possibly stimulate new lines of thought and research in the possible pathoetiology and pathogenesis of PTSD in military veterans as part of

  17. Preventing the Consequences of Alcohol Abuse: Identification of Soldiers at High Risk for Fatal and Serious Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    249-254, 1993. 92. Ottman R, Annegers JF, Hauser WA, and Kurland LT. Higher risk of seizures in offspring of mothers than of fathers with epilepsy . Am...OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom PASBA Patient Administration Systems and Biostatistics Activity PEB Physical Evaluation Board PTSD Post-traumatic Stress...a devastating outcome and thus important to consider. In addition, the more recent Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), the largest military action

  18. Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. Military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. background, military situation, and development of a "Leishmaniasis Control Program".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Russell E; Burkett, Douglas A; Putnam, John L; Sherwood, Van; Caci, Jennifer B; Jennings, Barton T; Hochberg, Lisa P; Spradling, Sharon L; Rowton, Edgar D; Blount, Keith; Ploch, John; Hopkins, Grady; Raymond, Jo-Lynne W; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Weina, Peter J

    2006-07-01

    One of the most significant modern day efforts to prevent and control an arthropod-borne disease during a military deployment occurred when a team of U.S. military entomologists led efforts to characterize, prevent, and control leishmaniasis at Tallil Air Base (TAB), Iraq, during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Soon after arriving at TAB on 22 March 2003, military entomologists determined that 1) high numbers of sand flies were present at TAB, 2) individual soldiers were receiving many sand fly bites in a single night, and 3) Leishmania parasites were present in 1.5% of the female sand flies as determined using a real-time (fluorogenic) Leishmania-generic polymerase chain reaction assay. The rapid determination that leishmaniasis was a specific threat in this area allowed for the establishment of a comprehensive Leishmaniasis Control Program (LCP) over 5 mo before the first case of leishmaniasis was confirmed in a U.S. soldier deployed to Iraq. The LCP had four components: 1) risk assessment, 2) enhancement of use of personal protective measures by all personnel at TAB, 3) vector and reservoir control, and 4) education of military personnel about sand flies and leishmaniasis. The establishment of the LCP at TAB before the onset of any human disease conclusively demonstrated that entomologists can play a critical role during military deployments.

  19. Research on common issues for relationship between mechanism degree of freedom,driving link and executive link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    During engineering practice and theoretical research, the mechanism degree of freedom is sometimes unequal to the number of the driving link, which is unable to be explained according to the classic theory of the mechanism degree of freedom. To solve this problem, the duality description for operating laws of mechanism is introduced based on the concepts of duality. The Junction-Structure Equation is established for the port descriptions of general ideal mechanism and the functional description for the mechanism degree of freedom is described by utilization of bond graph theory. The force-transfer de- gree of freedom, i.e. the antithesis concept of movement-transfer degree of freedom, is introduced and defined based on the analysis of energy transfer as well as the analysis of signal causality. By utiliza- tion of structural description, functional description and duality description for the equation of degree of freedom, the relationship between the movement-transfer degree of freedom and force-transfer de- gree of freedom is further explored and analyzed. Thus, the relationship between the mechanism de- gree of freedom upon the driving link and the executive link is described generally. Finally, some typical relationships between the mechanism degree of freedom, the driving link and the executive link are analyzed.

  20. Motorcycling freedom: a paraplegics dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomman, D; Kirk, B

    2006-03-01

    People with disabilities have the same rights as other members of society in directing and implementing the decisions which affect their lives, although it is not always afforded them due to physical limitations. A chance encounter by the author, a University of Western Australia mechanical engineering student, with a paraplegic man who expressed his dream of being able to ride a motorcycle again led to the design and build of a specially modified motorcycle that could be ridden safely and comfortably by a person without the use of their legs. The prototype involved several modifications which allow it to be ridden by a paraplegic person. They included, a thumb controlled pneumatic gear shifter, an integrated front and rear brake actuated with a single hand lever, ergonomic supports to hold the riders legs in place and an automatic stabilising system to balance the motorcycle at low speeds. The benefits that result from the inclusion of people with disabilities into regular leisure activities include normalisation as well as a sense of independence and freedom for the individual. It also allowed one man the chance to reach for his dreams.

  1. Contractors’ Support of U.S. Operations in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    significantly more than equivalent military personnel. For example, in Joseph Stiglitz and Linda Bilmes’s estimates of the overall cost of the war in...1287. Stiglitz , Joseph E., and Linda J. Bilmes. 2008. The Three Trillion Dollar War: The True Cost of the Iraq Conflict. New York: W.W...operating in Iraq, with as many as 25,000 employees working for the U.S., Iraqi, and coali- 22. See Stiglitz and Bilmes (2008), p. 12. Their figures

  2. The Predisposition of Iraqi Rice Husk to Remove Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions and Capitalized from Waste Residue

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Nsaif; Firas Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This study is deal with study the potential of Iraqi Rice Husk (IRH) on the removal of three heavy metals pollutant which were (Mg, Mn and Mo) ions from industrial wastewater using different design parameters by adsorption process. Results show that the removal efficiency were (93.95, 97.18 and 95.26) % for heavy metal (Mg, Mn and Mo) respectively from aquatic solution decreased with increasing of initial concentration and flow rate while the removal efficiency increased with increasing absor...

  3. Reproductive and Productive Performance of Iraqi Buffaloes as Influenced by Pre-Mating and Pre-Calving Concentrate Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Anwer Abdulkareem*, Sawsan Ali Al-Sharifi, Sajeda Mahdi Eidan and R.G. Sasser1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of pre-mating and pre-calving concentrate supplementation of Iraqi buffaloes on some of the reproductive (estrus, mating, pregnancy and calving rates and productive (daily milk yield and calves birth weight traits. This study was carried out in 4 Iraqi South-central governorates using 596 pre-mating and 628 pregnant buffaloes (during the last two months of gestation. Pre-mating buffaloes were divided randomly into 496 concentrate-supplemented buffaloes (Flushing and 100 control ones. Additionally, pregnant buffaloes were also divided into 528 concentrate- supplemented buffaloes (Steaming up and 100 controls. Each buffalo within the flushing and steaming up groups were fed daily on 7 Kg of concentrate diet (13% crude protein and 1.70 Mcal of net energy for 60 days. The control buffaloes were nourished only on low-quality roughages of the area and wheat bran. Higher estrus (+15%, P<0.01, pregnancy (+23.8%, P<0.05 and calving rates (+30.8%, P<0.01 were observed in concentrate-supplemented buffaloes as compared with controls. An obvious increase in (P<0.05 calving rate (+14.7%, daily milk yield (+44.8% and calf birth weight (+25.6% were noted in steaming up buffaloes in comparison with control buffaloes. Results indicated that improvement in feeding schedule of Iraqi buffaloes during pre-mating and late gestation periods enhanced the reproductive performance and increased milk production of subsequent lactation and calf birth weight. These improvements increased owner income ($174=209,000 Iraqi dinar /buffalo from the sale of meat and milk.

  4. Response to Haskell's "Academic Freedom ... & Student Evaluation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Stake

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Haskell (1997 argued that the administrative practice of student evaluation of faculty is a threat to academic freedom. However, before that claim can be substantiated, several prior questions must be addressed: To whom does academic freedom belong? Individual faculty? The academy? Whose actions can violate the right? Can any lines be drawn based on whether the substance or form of classroom behavior is influenced? And still another crucial point is whether a body can violate academic freedom without any intent to interfere with or control the substance of what is said to students.

  5. Kant, Freedom as Independence, and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    While the influence of Kant’s practical philosophy on contemporary political theory has been profound, it has its source in Kant’s autonomy-based moral philosophy rather than in his freedom-based philosophy of Right. Kant scholars have increasingly turned their attention to Kant’s Rechtslehre......, but they have largely ignored its potential contribution to discussions of democracy. However, Kant’s approach to political philosophy can supply unique insights to the latter. His notion that freedom and the public legal order are co-constitutive can be developed into a freedom argument for constitutional...

  6. Investigating the Manifestation of Textual Themes in Argumentative English Assignments Written by Iraqi and Australian Postgraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jabbar Al BAKAA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the manifestation of Textual Themes in argumentative English assignments written by Iraqi and Australian postgraduate students. Textual structure is a core component of argumentation in academic writing. How the themes in a text are organized as a message component constructs voice and authority. An important question is how novice writers and in particular international students are able to handle these textual devices when they write their English academic assignments. To this end, four academic assignments were selected and analysed to uncover the similarities and differences in textual features, and how students of different cultures stamp their authorial voice on the text through the element of theme and rheme in their academic arguments. The data were analysed based on Halliday’s (2004 model of thematic organization. The findings showed that the failure to use theme appropriately in constructing a voice and authority in academic writing may have disadvantaged the non-native writers. The paper argues that this has occurred because critical thinking requires a clear self-voice in forming an academic argument. This has not been explicitly emphasized in the writers’ Iraqi curriculum for writing. In contrast, these elements are more explicitly emphasized in the Australian writing curriculum. Keywords: English academic assignments; Iraqi non-native writers; Australian native writers; textual structure; voice and authority; thematic organization; critical thinking

  7. Causes of and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder: the beliefs of Iraqi and Afghan refugees resettled in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Guajardo, Maria Gabriela Uribe; Yaser, Anisa; Mond, Jonathan; Smith, Mitchell; Milosevic, Diana; Smith, Caroline; Lujic, Sanja; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2017-01-01

    Resettled refugees are a vulnerable group for mental health problems and in particular, trauma-related disorders. Evidence suggests that poor 'mental health literacy' (MHL) is a major factor in low or inappropriate treatment-seeking among individuals with mental health problems. This study sought to determine the beliefs regarding the causes of and risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst two resettled refugee groups in Australia. Utilising a culturally adapted MHL survey method, 225 Iraqis and 150 Afghans of refugee background were surveyed. Approximately 52% of the Iraqi participants selected 'experiencing a traumatic event' as the 'most likely' cause for the clinical vignette, whereas 31.3% of the Afghan sample selected 'coming from a war torn country' as their top cause. While both groups identified being 'born in war torn country' as the most likely risk, at 34.4 and 48% of the Iraqis and Afghans respectively, differences regarding other risk factors selected were noted. The results of this study indicate the need for culturally sensitive health promotion and early intervention programs seeking to improve MHL relating to PTSD in resettled refugee populations. There is also a need for mental health services to recognise that variation in MHL may be a function of both the cultural origin of a refugee population and their resettlement experiences. Such recognition is needed in order to bridge the gap between Western, biomedical models for mental health care and the knowledge and beliefs of resettled refugee populations.

  8. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  9. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND VIOLENCE AGAINST JOURNALISTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radu Florin GEAMĂNU

    2017-01-01

    This study will contain an analysys on the international and regional standards in the field of freedom of expression, as stipulated in the United Nations conventions and in the European Convention of Human Rights...

  10. 85 SECULARISM, SECULAR STATE AND RELIGIOUS FREEDOM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    finds that, although more feasible within secular states, religious freedom and human ..... principle of natural morality independent of all revelation and supernatural .... In the Commonwealth Realms, the Head of State is required to take the.

  11. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Tracking system which allows for the input of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request date, compiles the due date, information pertaining to the request, name...

  12. Freedom of the Press – two concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1644 the debate for freedom of expression started in modern times thanks to John Milton’s Areopagitica, where he still argued about God in order to justify his quest for freedom. With the enlightenment God lost his unifying role for society and could no longer serve as justification. Two arguments were brought then forward to justify freedom of the press: One by the continental movement of the enlightenment; the other from within the movement of utilitarianism, and most influentially by John Stuart Mill. Both underlined the importance of truth; however, they differed in their understanding on what truth was good for. This difference in their arguments had a lasting impact on the debate on the limits of freedom of the press.

  13. 76 FR 3815 - Religious Freedom Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... matters of religion.'' The fundamental principle of religious freedom--guarded by our Founders and... religion as they choose, including the right to believe in no religion at all. However, these liberties...

  14. religious freedom in South African constitutional jurisprudence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irma Kroeze

    Personal freedom can be described as the right to decide for oneself the terms of .... republican attachment to rights, especially rights to speech and property.27 ..... taken into consideration and not those who are merely irritated, offended or. 66.

  15. Annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA makes annual reports of progress made on Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. This database contains PDF and XML versions of reports from 1999 to the...

  16. John Peter Zenger, Battler for Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Gerry

    1974-01-01

    Examines the freedom of the press precedent set by the John Peter Zenger case in 1743 and considers its application to such current events as the jailing of reporters for not disclosing news sources. (RB)

  17. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Executive Order (E.O.) 13,392 mandates that each federal agency shall have a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) working plan with established goals and time frames to...

  18. FAST - FREEDOM ASSEMBLY SEQUENCING TOOL PROTOTYPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    FAST is a project management tool designed to optimize the assembly sequence of Space Station Freedom. An appropriate assembly sequence coordinates engineering, design, utilization, transportation availability, and operations requirements. Since complex designs tend to change frequently, FAST assesses the system level effects of detailed changes and produces output metrics that identify preferred assembly sequences. FAST incorporates Space Shuttle integration, Space Station hardware, on-orbit operations, and programmatic drivers as either precedence relations or numerical data. Hardware sequencing information can either be input directly and evaluated via the "specified" mode of operation or evaluated from the input precedence relations in the "flexible" mode. In the specified mode, FAST takes as its input a list of the cargo elements assigned to each flight. The program determines positions for the cargo elements that maximize the center of gravity (c.g.) margin. These positions are restricted by the geometry of the cargo elements and the location of attachment fittings both in the orbiter and on the cargo elements. FAST calculates every permutation of cargo element location according to its height, trunnion fitting locations, and required intercargo element spacing. Each cargo element is tested in both its normal and reversed orientation (rotated 180 degrees). The best solution is that which maximizes the c.g. margin for each flight. In the flexible mode, FAST begins with the first flight and determines all feasible combinations of cargo elements according to mass, volume, EVA, and precedence relation constraints. The program generates an assembly sequence that meets mass, volume, position, EVA, and precedence constraints while minimizing the total number of Shuttle flights required. Issues associated with ground operations, spacecraft performance, logistics requirements and user requirements will be addressed in future versions of the model. FAST is written in C

  19. The fragility of freedom of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackel, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental liberty that imposes a stringent duty of tolerance. Tolerance is limited by direct incitements to violence. False notions and bad laws on speech have obscured our view of this freedom. Hence, perhaps, the self-righteous intolerance, incitements and threats in response to Giubilini and Minerva. Those who disagree have the right to argue back but their attempts to shut us up are morally wrong.

  20. PRESS FREEDOM IN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA: DEFAMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Kate Chapman

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protecti...

  1. Determination of 14 circulating microRNAs in Swedes and Iraqis with and without diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that immigrants from Middle Eastern countries are a high-risk group for type 2 diabetes (T2D compared with Swedes, and that the pathogenesis of T2D may be ethnicity-specific. Deregulation of microRNA (miRNA expression has been demonstrated to be associated with T2D but ethnic differences in miRNA have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the ethnic specific expression (Swedish and Iraqi of a panel of 14 previously identified miRNAs in patients without T2D (including those with prediabetes and T2D. METHODS: A total of 152 individuals were included in the study (84 Iraqis and 68 Swedes. Nineteen Iraqis and 14 Swedes were diagnosed with T2D. Expression of the 14 selected miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-20, miR-21, miR-24, miR-29b, miR-126, miR-144, miR-150, miR-197, miR-223, miR-191, miR-320a, miR-486-5p, and miR-28-3p in plasma samples was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS: In the whole study population, the expression of miR-24 and miR-29b was significantly different between T2D patients and controls after adjustment for age, sex, waist circumference, family history of T2D, and a sedentary lifestyle. Interestingly, when stratifying the study population according to country of birth, we found that higher expression of miR-144 was significantly associated with T2D in Swedes (OR = 2.43, p = 0.035, but not in Iraqis (OR = 0.54, p = 0.169. The interaction test was significant (p = 0.017. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the association between plasma miR-144 expression and T2D differs between Swedes and Iraqis.

  2. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  3. Military Entomology in Operation Enduring Freedom, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    caused by Leishmania major (Friedlin), or anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), caused by L. tropica (Wright). The majority of CL cases in 2010...3 of 74 pools of sand fl ies collected between July and September 2010 tested positive for Leishmania spp. In early 2011, two cases of ACL were...Acta Tropica . 2008;105:131-138. Kotwal RS, Wenzel RB, Sterling RA, Porter WD, 5. Jordan NN, Petrucelli BP. An outbreak of malaria in US Army

  4. International initiative to engage Iraq's science and technology community : report on the priorities of the Iraqi science and technology community.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Munir, Ammar M. (Arab Science and Technology Foundation, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates); Alnajjar, Abdalla Abdelaziz (Arab Science and Technology Foundation, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates); Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2004-05-01

    This report describes the findings of the effort initiated by the Arab Science and Technology Foundation and the Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories to identify, contact, and engage members of the Iraqi science and technology (S&T) community. The initiative is divided into three phases. The first phase, the survey of the Iraqi scientific community, shed light on the most significant current needs in the fields of science and technology in Iraq. Findings from the first phase will lay the groundwork for the second phase that includes the organization of a workshop to bring international support for the initiative, and simultaneously decides on an implementation mechanism. Phase three involves the execution of outcomes of the report as established in the workshop. During Phase 1 the survey team conducted a series of trips to Iraq during which they had contact with nearly 200 scientists from all sections of the country, representing all major Iraqi S&T specialties. As a result of these contacts, the survey team obtained over 450 project ideas from Iraqi researchers. These projects were revised and analyzed to identify priorities and crucial needs. After refinement, the result is approximately 170 project ideas that have been categorized according to their suitability for (1) developing joint research projects with international partners, (2) engaging Iraqi scientists in solving local problems, and (3) developing new business opportunities. They have also been ranked as to high, medium, or low priority.

  5. Infrastructure and the Operational Art: A Handbook for Understanding, Visualizing, and Describing Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    improving seismic design and construction over the last century. In spite of these laurels, some of our re- cent infrastructure endeavors have been less...gas generators. Natural gas turbine generators would al- low the Iraqis to make use of large natural gas reserves within their coun- try. However...power authority? How do the operators keep the turbine from silting up? Who provides training for the operators and maintainers? Who trains the

  6. Lucrative Targets: The U.S. Air Force in the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    sti- 7 fling. With the temperatures reaching daily highs of 115 to 120 degrees Fahren - heit, medics advised the American troops to drink at least six...defense operations were autonomous .7 Overwhelmed by these initial Coalition attacks, the Iraqi air defenses never regained their effectiveness. This was...contingency plans for continuing operations after their air defense system was attacked and its sub- ordinate elements were rendered autonomous . One KTO

  7. Distribution of Chronotypes among a Sample of Iraqi Kurdish Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awring M. Raoof

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of chronotypes in a sample of Iraqi Kurdish medical students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Hawler Medical University College of Medicine in Erbil City, Iraq, between 1st January and 31st March 2013. A total of 580 students were given the reduced version of the Horne and Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQr, a close-ended self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of the 580 students, 130 (22.4% were male and 450 (77.6% were female. The mean age ± standard deviation was 20.3 ± 1.45 years, with a range of 17‒24 years. Most of the students (52.6% were in the intermediate class, followed by morning type (24.1% and evening type (23.3%. Significant gender differences were detected in the proportion of morning, intermediate and evening types (P <0.001. The mean scores for the female students were 14.8 ± 2.2 and the mean scores for the male students were 14.6 ± 7.3, with no statistically significant differences (P = 0.45. Conclusion: Students in the College of Medicine were mostly classified as intermediate types. The morning type was more common among this student population, particularly male students, than has been reported in similar age groups in some Western countries. There was a significant gender difference in the proportion of MEQr types.

  8. Minimizing the Moisture Damage and Drain down of Iraqi SMA Mixtures Using Waste Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Hadidy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the viability of using polyester fiber (PF, crumb rubber tire (CRT and cellulose fiber (CF as stabilizing waste additives in producing Iraqi SMA mixtures that sustain drain down phenomenon and moisture damage sensitivity. Different ratios of these additives (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% by weight of aggregate and filler were mixed with 40/50 paving asphalt by means of dry process. Unmodified and modified SMA mixtures were subjected to drain down, Marshall, static indirect tensile strength, tensile stiffness modulus, static compressive strength, tensile strength ratio and index of retained strength tests. A set of regression equations between these tests were established. In addition, an optimization table based on these tests, which can be used to select the type or amount of additive for any field applications has been determined and reported. The results indicated that the inclusion of these additives in SMA mixtures can satisfy the performance requirement of high temperature and much rain zone.

  9. From Producers to Consumers: The Challenges and Opportunities of Agricultural Development in Iraqi Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Eklund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and rural life in the Middle East have gone through several changes in the past few decades. The region is characterized by high population growth, urbanization, and water scarcity, which poses a challenge to maintaining food security and production. This paper investigates agricultural and rural challenges in the Duhok governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan from biophysical, political, and socio-economic perspectives. Satellite data is used to study land use and productivity, while a review of government policies and interview data show the perspectives of the government and the local population. Our results reveal that these perspectives are not necessarily in line with each other, nor do they correspond well with the biophysical possibilities. While the government has been trying to increase agricultural productivity, satellite data show that yields have been declining since 2000. Furthermore, a lack of services in rural areas is driving people to cities to seek better opportunities, which means that the local population’s incentive to increase agricultural activity is low. Governmental plans suggest land extensification to increase production and self-sufficiency, but the land use classification shows little available land. Instead, we recommend supporting small-scale traditional agriculture development as a more sustainable and feasible alternative. Additionally, more resources need to be focused on improving rural infrastructure and services to increase access to education and health care as a means of gaining support from the local population.

  10. Characterization of Biochar Produced from IRAQI Palm Fronds by Thermal Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim H. Alwan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses in a particular on the study of the biochar production conditions by the thermal pyrolysis of biomass from local Iraqi palm fronds, in the absence of oxygen. The biochar product can be used as soil improvers. The effect of temperature on the extent of the thermal pyrolysis process was studied in the range from 523 to 773K with a residence time of 15 minutes and nitrogen gas flow rate of 0.1 l/min. The produced biochar was characterized as will as biomass and degradation products. The results showed that the rate of biochar production decreases with the increasing in temperature, also it was noted that the normalized biochar surface area and pore size increases with the increasing in temperature. The results showed an increase in the biochar ability to absorb water and the percent of water content increases with increasing temperature. The quality and quantity of the products of the thermal pyrolysis of biomass depend directly on the temperature and on the biomass basic composition of the compounds: hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. FTIR analysis gave an excellent description to the nature of the active groups on the biochar surface. These groups vary with the temperature and biochar composition (i.e. hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin.

  11. Demographic transition and potential for development: the case of Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadithi, T S; Shabila, N R; Al-Tawil, N G; Othman, S M

    2010-10-01

    The effect of population growth and demographic transitionon economic developmenthas been well documented. The population growth in Iraqi Kurdistan is passing through a critical stage of demographic transition. It is, in fact, extremely likely that the region will fail to efficiently move through the demographic transition and will experience a long period in the demographic trap, i.e. the population will grow steadily and rapidly owing to the high fertility and low mortality rates. With correct government policies in terms of promoting family planning programmes, should the political context allow, demographic transition can pass smoothly through this critical stage. Furthermore, if demographic transition in Kurdistan moves to the next stage, it will provide an important window of opportunity for economic development. Proper exploitation of this demographic window through investment in education, on-the-job training and health services, in addition to proper and appropriate exploitation of economic resources and suitable and productive use of the labour force, will result in significant economic development over the next few decades.

  12. Translating Legal Collocations in Contract Agreements by Iraqi EFL Students-Translators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaha A. Abdulwahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal translation of contract agreements is a challenge to translators as it involves combining the literary translation with the technical terminological precision. In translating legal contract agreements, a legal translator must utilize the lexical or syntactic precision and, more importantly, the pragmatic awareness of the context. This will guarantee an overall communicative process and avoid inconsistency in legal translation. However, the inability of the translator to meet these two functions in translating the contract item not only affects the contractors’ comprehension of the contract item but also affects the parties’ contractual obligations. In light of this, the purpose of this study was to find out how legal collocations used in contract agreements are translated from Arabic into English by student-translators in terms of (1 purely technical, (2 semi-technical, and (3 everyday vocabulary collocations. For the data collection, a multiple-choice collocation test was used to be answered by 35 EFL Iraqi undergraduate translator-students to decide on the aspects of weaknesses and strengths of their translation, thus decide on the aspects of correction. The findings showed that these students had serious problems in translating legal collocations as they lack the linguistic knowledge and pragmatic awareness needed to achieve the legal meaning and effect. They were also unable to make a difference among the three categories of legal collocations, purely technical, semi-technical, and everyday vocabulary collocations. These students should be exposed to more legal translation practices to obtain the required experience needed for their future career.

  13. Geological evolution of the Iraqi Mesopotamia Foredeep, inner platform and near surroundings of the Arabian Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissakian, Varoujan K.

    2013-08-01

    The Iraqi territory could be divided into four main tectonic zones; each one has its own characteristics concerning type of the rocks, their age, thickness and structural evolution. These four zones are: (1) Inner Platform (stable shelf), (2) Outer Platform (unstable shelf), (3) Shalair Zone (Terrain), and (4) Zagros Suture Zone. The first two zones of the Arabian Plate lack any kind of metamorphism and volcanism. The Iraqi territory is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is colliding with the Eurasian (Iranian) Plate. This collision has developed a foreland basin that includes: (1) Imbricate Zone, (2) High Folded Zone, (3) Low Folded Zone and (4) Mesopotamia Foredeep. The Mesopotamia Foredeep, in Iraq includes the Mesopotamia Plain and the Jazira Plain; it is less tectonically disturbed as compared to the Imbricate, High Folded and Low Folded Zones. Quaternary alluvial sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries as well as distributaries cover the central and southeastern parts of the Foredeep totally; it is called the Mesopotamian Flood Plain. The extension of the Mesopotamia Plain towards northwest however, is called the Jazira Plain, which is covered by Miocene rocks. The Mesopotamia Foredeep is represented by thick sedimentary sequence, which thickens northwestwards including synrift sediments; especially of Late Cretaceous age, whereas on surface the Quaternary sediments thicken southeastwards. The depth of the basement also changes from 8 km, in the west to 14 km, in the Iraqi-Iranian boarders towards southeast. The anticlinal structures have N-S trend, in the extreme southern part of the Mesopotamia Foredeep and extends northwards until the Latitude 32°N, within the Jazira Plain, there they change their trends to NW-SE, and then to E-W trend. The Mesozoic sequence is almost without any significant break, with increase in thickness from the west to the east, attaining 5 km. The sequence forms the main

  14. Estimation of the Consumer Peak Load for the Iraqi Distribution System Using intelligent Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Al-Nama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The drastic increase of residential load consumption in recent years result in over loading feeder lines and transformers for the Iraqi northern area distribution system especially in the city of Mosul. Solution for this problem require up to date research consumers load study to find the proper solution to stop excess overload in the transformers and the feeders. This paper include the regional survey for samples of consumers representing typical types of different standard of living and energy consumption by distributing questioners contain list of information such as load type in daily use. Also current readings are recorded for the individual consumer for the months of the year 2006. In addition to those readings, energy consumption is recorded once every two months. The registered readings are used in conjunction with the list of questionnaires to find a sample (for different loads that coincide with the list of questionnaires for current and energy readings. Resulting in the feasibility of using the sample to know the peak value of current for any consumer even if he is not included in the list of questionnaires and for any new consumer, since it become possible to decide the size of the transformers and feeder lines, to overcome the problem of overloading in any part of the distribution system. The Artificial Neural Network (ANN is used in this paper to find the above mentioned sample.

  15. Acculturation and Post-Migration Psychological Symptoms Among Iraqi Refugees: A Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaster, Joseph W; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Lumley, Mark A; Arnetz, Judith E; Arfken, Cynthia; Fetters, Michael D; Jamil, Hikmet; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2017-03-02

    Refugees frequently experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression, which impede their acculturation in the new host country where they are resettling. There are few longitudinal studies investigating predictors of mental health and acculturation during the early postmigration period. We conducted a longitudinal study of 298 Iraqi refugees, assessing them upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year after migration. Premigration trauma was associated with increased PTSD and depressive symptoms at baseline, and with decreased acculturation 1 year later. Resilience was associated with depressive symptoms at 1-year follow-up, but not with other resettlement outcomes (PTSD symptoms, English-language skills, or acculturation). PTSD and depressive symptoms at baseline predicted the same symptoms at 1-year follow-up, but not any other resettlement outcomes. The number of chronic diseases at baseline predicted worse PTSD and depressive symptoms, acculturation, and English language skills at 1-year follow up. Postmigratory exposure to daily stressors and less social support predicted worse 1-year outcomes. Results suggest that interventions that aim to improve mental health and promote acculturation among refugees should assess their history of trauma, chronic disorders, and psychological symptoms soon after migration, and promptly provide opportunities for social support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Risk factors in the occurrence of molar-incisor hypomineralization amongst a group of Iraqi children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Aghareed; Manton, David; Bailey, Denise; Mariño, Rodrigo; Morgan, Michael

    2013-05-01

    BACKGROUND.  Despite the worldwide increasing interest in the prevalence studies of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), there is still insufficient evidence to verify the aetiological factors of this condition. AIMS.  To investigate risk factors involved in the development of MIH in a group of school-aged Iraqi children. DESIGN.  Seven- to nine-year-old school children (823 of 1000 eligible, response rate of 82.3%) had their first permanent molars and incisors evaluated using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry evaluation criteria for MIH. Mothers completed a medical history questionnaire-based interview performed in the schools by a trained examiner. RESULTS.  For children with MIH, 6% reported no relevant medical history; the remaining 94% reported various medical conditions putatively associated with MIH compared with 70% for the non-affected group. Post-natal medical conditions (33.3%) were most frequently reported. When data were split into the possible risk effect groups, maternal psychological stress (OR, 3.24), frequent exposure to ultrasonic scans during the last gestational trimester (OR, 2.51) and birth order as a fourth sibling or later (OR, 3.17 and 5.73, respectively) were previously unreported significant risk factors and postulated as contributing to, or causing the defect. CONCLUSIONS.  Children with MIH had experienced a greater number of medical conditions than their unaffected peers with no single health event identified as a risk factor.

  17. Effect of hemi-castration on testicular growth and seminal characteristics of Iraqi male goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Taha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of hemi-castration on testicular size and semen characteristics of Iraqi local bucks. Eighteen adult bucks aged 1.5-2.5 years, weighing 36.9-43.7 kg were used. Animals were randomly divided into three groups (6 in each; groups 1 control group. Animals in groups 2 and 3 were subjected to hemi-castration in left and right testicles, respectively. Testicular circumference was measured two weeks before hemi-castration and ten weeks after. Semen samples were collected using electro-ejaculator two weeks after hemi-castration. Volume, color, mass motility, individual motility, percentage of live sperm, percentage of abnormal sperm and sperm concentration were analyzed immediately after collection. Results of the present study showed a significant (P<0.05 increase in testicular circumference after hemi-castration. Testicular circumference in left hemi-castration was higher than that in right hemi-castration. Result also showed a significant (P<0.05 increase in semen volume, mass motility individual motility and percentage of live sperm in semen of animal without any differences between left and right hemi-castrated animals comparing with control groups. The study concluded that hemi-castration leading to improve semen characteristics due to compensatory mechanism of the remaining testis.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Iraqi Khestawy Date Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah H. Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work includes a synthesis of three types of the activated carbon (AC from three different positions from the same Iraqi Khestawy date palm. These three positions are the palm fronds (AC1, the date palm seeds (AC2, and the palm fiber (AC3. These three types of AC were synthesized by a physiochemical activation method using the same activator which was H3PO4. These materials were investigated using different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The adsorption activity of the synthesized AC samples was investigated by following the removal of both Bismarck brown G (BBG and reactive yellow dye 145 (RY145. Both the kinetics of adsorption and the removal percentage of these dyes were investigated from the batch tests in this study. Different reaction parameters and conditions for adsorption processes were investigated. Also an investigation of both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms was considered. The different physical properties of these materials were undertaken such as the point zero charges of the synthesized samples (PZCs, the percentage of humidity, and the adsorption capacity also being investigated. The activity of these materials in the removal of BBG from the aqueous solution was as follows: AC1>AC2>AC3.

  19. Unemployment in Iraqi refugees: The interaction of pre and post-displacement trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A Michelle; Dhalimi, Abir; Lumley, Mark A; Jamil, Hikmet; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Judith E; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2016-12-01

    Previous refugee research has been unable to link pre-displacement trauma with unemployment in the host country. The current study assessed the role of pre-displacement trauma, post-displacement trauma, and the interaction of both trauma types to prospectively examine unemployment in a random sample of newly-arrived Iraqi refugees. Participants (N = 286) were interviewed three times over the first two years post-arrival. Refugees were assessed for pre-displacement trauma exposure, post-displacement trauma exposure, a history of unemployment in the country of origin and host country, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Analyses found that neither pre-displacement nor post-displacement trauma independently predicted unemployment 2 years post-arrival; however, the interaction of pre and post-displacement trauma predicted 2-year unemployment. Refugees with high levels of both pre and post-displacement trauma had a 91% predicted probability of unemployment, whereas those with low levels of both traumas had a 20% predicted probability. This interaction remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic variables and mental health upon arrival to the US. Resettlement agencies and community organizations should consider the interactive effect of encountering additional trauma after escaping the hardships of the refugee's country of origin.

  20. Integrative Leadership in Higher Education: Meeting the Needs of Student Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earls, Jamie Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Since the attacks on September 11, 2001, over two million men and women have deployed as part of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND). In 2011 there were more than half a million veterans of OEF/OIF enrolled in college. Soldiers face many issues when returning home from war. This qualitative…

  1. Leadership in Modern Wars: How the French and American Armies Have Implemented Leader Development and Education 2001-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Officer OEF Operation Enduring Freedom OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom PDI Power Distance Indicator RMA Revolution in Military Affairs ROTC Reserve...contradict the lessons learned in recent operations. One indicator in particular, the Power Distance Indicator ( PDI ), measures how subordinates and...uncertainty does not mean that creativity and efficiency are constrained.82 78 The PDI illustrates

  2. Democratic Freedom and the Concept of Freedom in Plato and Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Herman Hansen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several meanings of eleutheria used by Greeks in the classical period, democratic freedom is rejected by both Plato and Aristotle, who do not articulate a theory of political freedom but rather confine eleutheria to a social context.

  3. A Journey From Bondage To Freedom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑颖

    2009-01-01

    Beloved, one of the representative works of Toni Morrison, was published more than a decade after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued. Although many years went by, the evil slavery still had an impact on the black people's internal world, because the condition of the enslavement of the external world, especially the denial of one's status as a human subject. The black people couldn't get out of the bondage of the past experience to gain the real freedom. In Beloved, Morrison emphasizes on gaining the internal freedom of the black people. She tries to tell the readers about the evil impact of slavery on the black people and she also wants to call up her fellow men to get out of the bondage and gain the internal freedom.

  4. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND VIOLENCE AGAINST JOURNALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Florin GEAMĂNU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study will contain an analysys on the international and regional standards in the field of freedom of expression, as stipulated in the United Nations conventions and in the European Convention of Human Rights. Further we will establish a link between the breach of the freedom of expression when cases of violence against journalists arise, especially tackling the impunity problem. The paper will focus on the study of the ECtHR judgements regarding freedom of expression and cases of violence against journalists. Also, we will address the recent recommendations at the Council of Europe level. Concluding, the study will attempt to express some reccommendations in solving the problem of violence against journalists.

  5. Decoherence of rotational degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, F.

    2016-11-01

    The mechanism of decoherence for a mesoscopic quantum system with rotational degrees of freedom is studied. From a simple model of elastic scattering, we show that the nondiagonal density-matrix elements of the system exponentially decay. The decay rate depends on the difference of scattering amplitudes for different rotational configurations, leading to the gradual loss of quantum coherence between the pointer states in the orientational space. For a dielectric ellipsoid immersed in a photon-gas environment (assuming no absorption), the decay rate is found to be proportional to the seventh power of the temperature. For an ellipsoidal object interacting with massive particles, the decay rate is proportional to the 5/2 power of the temperature. Both are different from the case of translational decoherence induced by the same environment scattering. For photon scattering, the coherence time in the rotational degrees of freedom is shown to be much shorter than that in the translational degrees of freedom.

  6. Space Station Freedom - Configuration management approach to supporting concurrent engineering and total quality management. [for NASA Space Station Freedom Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    1990-01-01

    Some experiences of NASA configuration management in providing concurrent engineering support to the Space Station Freedom program for the achievement of life cycle benefits and total quality are discussed. Three change decision experiences involving tracing requirements and automated information systems of the electrical power system are described. The potential benefits of concurrent engineering and total quality management include improved operational effectiveness, reduced logistics and support requirements, prevention of schedule slippages, and life cycle cost savings. It is shown how configuration management can influence the benefits attained through disciplined approaches and innovations that compel consideration of all the technical elements of engineering and quality factors that apply to the program development, transition to operations and in operations. Configuration management experiences involving the Space Station program's tiered management structure, the work package contractors, international partners, and the participating NASA centers are discussed.

  7. Space Station Freedom - Configuration management approach to supporting concurrent engineering and total quality management. [for NASA Space Station Freedom Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    1990-01-01

    Some experiences of NASA configuration management in providing concurrent engineering support to the Space Station Freedom program for the achievement of life cycle benefits and total quality are discussed. Three change decision experiences involving tracing requirements and automated information systems of the electrical power system are described. The potential benefits of concurrent engineering and total quality management include improved operational effectiveness, reduced logistics and support requirements, prevention of schedule slippages, and life cycle cost savings. It is shown how configuration management can influence the benefits attained through disciplined approaches and innovations that compel consideration of all the technical elements of engineering and quality factors that apply to the program development, transition to operations and in operations. Configuration management experiences involving the Space Station program's tiered management structure, the work package contractors, international partners, and the participating NASA centers are discussed.

  8. Revising the "Rule of Three" for inferring seizure freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, M Brandon; Cormier, Justine; Bianchi, Matt T; Shafi, Mouhsin; Kilbride, Ronan; Cole, Andrew J; Cash, Sydney S

    2012-02-01

    How long after starting a new medication must a patient go without seizures before they can be regarded as seizure-free? A recent International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) task force proposed using a "Rule of Three" as an operational definition of seizure freedom, according to which a patient should be considered seizure-free following an intervention after a period without seizures has elapsed equal to three times the longest preintervention interseizure interval over the previous year. This rule was motivated in large part by statistical considerations advanced in a classic 1983 paper by Hanley and Lippman-Hand. However, strict adherence to the statistical logic of this rule generally requires waiting much longer than recommended by the ILAE task force. Therefore, we set out to determine whether an alternative approach to the Rule of Three might be possible, and under what conditions the rule may be expected to hold or would need to be extended. Probabilistic modeling and application of Bayes' rule. We find that an alternative approach to the problem of inferring seizure freedom supports using the Rule of Three in the way proposed by the ILAE in many cases, particularly in evaluating responses to a first trial of antiseizure medication, and to favorably-selected epilepsy surgical candidates. In cases where the a priori odds of success are less favorable, our analysis requires longer seizure-free observation periods before declaring seizure freedom, up to six times the average preintervention interseizure interval. The key to our approach is to take into account not only the time elapsed without seizures but also empirical data regarding the a priori probability of achieving seizure freedom conferred by a particular intervention. In many cases it may be reasonable to consider a patient seizure-free after they have gone without seizures for a period equal to three times the preintervention interseizure interval, as proposed on pragmatic grounds in a recent ILAE

  9. Revising the Rule Of Three For Inferring Seizure Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, M. Brandon; Cormier, Justine; Bianchi, Matt T.; Shafi, Mouhsin; Kilbride, Ronan; Cole, Andrew J.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose How long after starting a new medication must a patient go without seizures before they can be regarded as seizure free? A recent ILAE task force proposed using a “Rule of Three” as an operational definition of seizure freedom, according to which a patient should be considered seizure-free following an intervention after a period without seizures has elapsed equal to three times the longest pre-intervention inter-seizure interval over the previous year. This rule was motivated in large part by statistical considerations advanced in a classic 1983 paper by Hanley and Lippman-Hand. However, strict adherence to the statistical logic of this rule generally requires waiting much longer than recommended by the ILAE task force. Therefore, we set out to determine whether an alternative approach to the Rule of Three might be possible, and under what conditions the rule may be expected to hold or would need to be extended. Methods Probabilistic modeling and application of Bayes’ rule. Key Findings We find that an alternative approach to the problem of inferring seizure freedom supports using the Rule of Three in the way proposed by the ILAE in many cases, particularly in evaluating responses to a first trial of anti-seizure medication, and to favorably-selected epilepsy surgical candidates. In cases where the a priori odds of success are less favorable, our analysis requires longer seizure-free observation periods before declaring seizure freedom, up to six times the average pre-intervention insterseizure interval. The key to our approach is to take into account not only the time elapsed without seizures but also empirical data regarding the a priori probability of achieving seizure freedom conferred by a particular intervention. Significance In many cases it may be reasonable to consider a patient seizure free after they have gone without seizures for a period equal to three times the pre-intervention inter-seizure interval, as proposed on pragmatic

  10. Confirmation of the presence of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 (Pomacanthidae in Iraqi marine waters, Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad, L. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens (116,119 mm TL of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and four specimens (171–190 mm TL of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 were collected from Iraqi marine waters of the Arabian Gulf. These findings confirm the presence of H. acuminatus and establish the first record of P. maculosus from Iraqi waters. The samples were captured by hook and line off the coasts of Al–Fao City Peninsula, southern Iraq. Arabian Gulf. morphometric and meristic data are provided and compared with data from other parts of the world.

  11. Progress as Compositional Lock-Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Dardha, Ornela; Montesi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    such definition to capture a more intuitive notion of context adequacy for checking progress. Interestingly, our new catalysers lead to a novel characterisation of progress in terms of the standard notion of lock-freedom. Guided by this discovery, we also develop a conservative extension of catalysers that does...... not depend on types, generalising the notion of progress to untyped session-based processes. We combine our results with existing techniques for lock-freedom, obtaining a new methodology for proving progress. Our methodology captures new processes wrt previous progress analysis based on session types....

  12. The City Between Freedom and Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , participatory democracy, and the freedom of speech and assembly. From the starting point of the disputed redevelopment of the Oslo Government Quarter in the aftermath of attacks in 2011, the book functions as a broader discursive platform mediating a range of opposing actors and positions at the intersection......The publication "The City between Freedom and Security" addresses the contested territory between the state and corporate drive to 'securitise' contemporary urban space – and the principle of the city and its public spaces as fundamental yet fragile sites for enacting open civil society...

  13. Economic freedom and new economic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Are economic freedoms going to clear our way to prosperity? Is the growth of economic freedoms our path to prosperity? Is it in the base of the new understanding of development? If yes, what will necessarily have to be changed in the economic practice of every country and whole world in general? What will be changed in economic theory? What are potential consequences of an attempt to offer resistance to the new concept of development? These are just some of the questions discussed in this paper, whereas the starting point is the economy and economic development of Montenegro.

  14. Asymptocic Freedom of Gluons in Hamiltonian Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rocha, María; Głazek, Stanisław D.

    2016-07-01

    We derive asymptotic freedom of gluons in terms of the renormalized SU(3) Yang-Mills Hamiltonian in the Fock space. Namely, we use the renormalization group procedure for effective particles to calculate the three-gluon interaction term in the front-form Yang-Mills Hamiltonian using a perturbative expansion in powers of g up to third order. The resulting three-gluon vertex is a function of the scale parameter s that has an interpretation of the size of effective gluons. The corresponding Hamiltonian running coupling constant exhibits asymptotic freedom, and the corresponding Hamiltonian {β} -function coincides with the one obtained in an earlier calculation using a different generator.

  15. Food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, 10 years after the invasion of Iraq: data from a household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Hala; Sassine, AnnieBelle J; Seyfert, Karin; Nord, Mark; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2014-07-14

    Iraqi refugees in Lebanon are vulnerable to food insecurity because of their limited rights and fragile livelihoods. The objective of the present study was to assess household food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, almost 10 years after the invasion of Iraq. A representative survey of 800 UN High Commissioner for Refugees-registered refugee households in Lebanon was conducted using multi-stage cluster random sampling. We measured food insecurity using a modified US Department of Agriculture household food security module. We collected data on household demographic, socio-economic, health, housing and dietary diversity status and analysed these factors by food security status. Hb level was measured in a subset of children below 5 years of age (n 85). Weighted data were used in univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the Iraqi refugee households surveyed (n 630), 20·1% (95% CI 17·3, 23·2) were found to be food secure, 35·5% (95% CI 32·0, 39·2) moderately food insecure and 44·4% (95% CI 40·8, 48·1) severely food insecure. Severe food insecurity was associated with the respondent's good self-reported health (OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·2, 0·5), length of stay as a refugee (OR 1·1, 95% CI 1·0, 1·2), very poor housing quality (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·6, 6·5) and the number of children in the household (OR 1·2, 95% CI 1·0, 1·4), and resulted in poor dietary diversity (Prefugees living in Lebanon call for urgent programmes to address the food and health situation of this population with restricted rights.

  16. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Iraqi and Swedish residents in a deprived Swedish neighbourhood - a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundquist Jan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrants from the Middle-East are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D. The aim of the present survey was to measure, in a single deprived neighbourhood, the prevalence rates of impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and T2D in residents originating from Iraq and to compare them to those in residents born in Sweden. An additional aim was to identify metabolic, lifestyle and socioeconomic risk factors associated with IFG/IGT and T2D in these residents. Methods The study was conducted February 1'st to March 31'st 2010. Men and women aged 45 to 65 years of Swedish or Iraqi origin, living in the neighbourhood of Rosengård, Malmö, Sweden, were randomly selected from the census register. Each participant signed a written informed consent form, underwent a physical examination and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, provided blood samples and filled in a questionnaire. A total of 175 subjects participated (Swedish origin n = 79, Iraqi origin n = 96, reflecting an overall response rate of almost 60%. Results In total, 21.9% and 19.0% of the Iraqi and Swedish participants, respectively, suffered from T2D, while 24.0% of the Iraqi participants and 25.3% of the Swedish participants had IFG/IGT. There were no significant differences in prevalence rates relating to country of origin. Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and sedentary leisure time physical activity were highly prevalent in both groups, while a family history of diabetes was more prevalent in participants from Iraq (49.2% than in those from Sweden (22.8% (p = 0.001. Being obese or having a sedentary leisure time were, independently associated with T2D (OR 5.43 (95% CI 2.10-14.02 and 2.89 (95% CI 1.03-8.10 respectively, while economic difficulties were independently associated with IFG/IGT (OR 2.55 (95% CI 1.06-6.15 after adjustment for the confounding effects of other common risk factors for T2D. Conclusions This study reveals a high prevalence

  17. EFFECTS OF THE ECONOMIC FREEDOMS ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE EU AND COMCEC COUNTRIES (1996-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALİL İBRAHİM AYDIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of the economic freedoms on the economic growth for EU and COMCEC countries at different development/income level are econometrically analyzed via panel data analysis for the period of 1996- 2014 by being considered the improvement of economic growth theories for the key determinants of economic growth. From this aspect, it is aimed at this research that to evaluate the effects of the economic freedoms on the long termed economic growth performances and income level differences of EU and COMCEC countries which have different statuses in terms of economic freedoms and income level indicators. It is determined at the end of the study that the economic freedoms have a positive and statistically significant effect on the economic growth of EU countries in investigation period, on the other hand, these freedoms have not any effect on the economic growth of COMCEC countries. Moreover, the existence of a one-way causality relation operates from economic freedoms to the economic growth in EU countries is specified while there is any causality link found between these freedoms and the economic growth for the countries in COMCEC group. All these results indicate that also the economic freedoms besides the physical human capital accumulation, in other words, whether the EU and COMCEC countries have a market economy adopts outward-oriented liberal fiscal policies plays a major role in differentiating the income levels or the economic growth performances.

  18. The Chains Around Academic Freedom in Teaching-Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Barbara Backer

    2017-04-01

    Freedom as a concept has been much debated. Is freedom an innate part of being, or does freedom even truly exists? These are questions that have gleaned countless hours of discourse over the years. Two components of freedom that can influence nurse higher education are freedom of speech, in the form of media, and academic freedom. The author of this column first introduces three views of freedom to demonstrate the differences surrounding it. A discussion of the media's use or misuse of freedom of speech and its influence on nursing education is then presented, followed by an examination of current threats to academic freedom in today's institutes of higher learning and specifically in the nursing education arena. The author concludes with suggestions on being a nurse educator through living as a humanbecoming professional while navigating issues surrounding nursing education.

  19. The long flow to freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Ofer; Razamat, Shlomo S.; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional field theories do not have a moduli space of vacua. Instead, it is common that their low-energy behavior is a sigma model with a target space. When this target space is compact its renormalization group flow is standard. When it is non-compact the continuous spectrum of operators can change the qualitative behavior. Here we discuss two-dimensional gauge theories with N = (2, 2) supersymmetry. We focus on two specific theories, for which we argue that they flow to free chiral multiplets at low energies: the U(1) gauge theory with one flavor (two chiral superfields with charges plus and minus one) and a non-zero Fayet-Iliopoulos term, and pure SU( N ) gauge theories. We argue that the renormalization group flow of these theories has an interesting order of limits issue. Holding the position on the target space fixed, the space flattens out under the renormalization group. On the other hand, if we first go to infinity on the target space and then perform the renormalization group, we always have a non-trivial space, e.g. a cone with a deficit angle. We explain how to interpret low-energy dualities between theories with non-compact target spaces. We expect a similar qualitative behavior also for other non-compact sigma models, even when they do not flow to free theories.

  20. The long flow to freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Aharony, Ofer; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional field theories do not have a moduli space of vacua. Instead, it is common that their low-energy behavior is a sigma model with a target space. When this target space is compact its renormalization group flow is standard. When it is non-compact the continuous spectrum of operators can change the qualitative behavior. Here we discuss two-dimensional gauge theories with N=(2,2) supersymmetry. We focus on two specific theories, for which we argue that they flow to free chiral multiplets at low energies: the U(1) gauge theory with one flavor (two chiral superfields with charges plus and minus one) and a non-zero Fayet-Iliopoulos term, and pure SU(N) gauge theories. We argue that the renormalization group flow of these theories has an interesting order of limits issue. Holding the position on the target space fixed, the space flattens out under the renormalization group. On the other hand, if we first go to infinity on the target space and then perform the renormalization group, we always have a non...

  1. Mothers' factors associated with female genital mutilation in daughters in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabila, Nazar P

    2017-03-01

    An important proactive factor for the continuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) is tradition and customs inherited in the family from mothers to daughters. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine mothers' factors associated with the occurrence of FGM among their daughters. The datasets from the Iraq Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011, on 5,184 women aged 15 to 49 years having at least one daughter, was used. Multivariate analysis based on a binary logistic regression model was applied. Mothers' age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.18 at ages 25-34 years, aOR = 22.64 at ages 35-44 years, and aOR = 29.78 at ages 45-49 years, compared to the age group 15-24 years), educational level (aOR = 0.52 for primary education, aOR = 0.26 for secondary education, and aOR = 0.03 for higher education compared to uneducated), employment status (aOR = 0.55 for women having office work compared with unemployed), FGM status (aOR = 27.44 for circumcised mothers compared to uncircumcised), the governorate of residence (aOR = 18.73 for Suleimaniya and aOR = 33.23 for Erbil compared with Dohuk), and the wealth index of the household (aOR = 0.55 for richest group compared to the poorest) were significantly associated with the occurrence of FGM in daughters. Strategies aimed at preventing this harmful practice in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region should include female education and empowerment.

  2. Molecular Analysis of CYP21A2 Gene Mutations among Iraqi Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqayah G. Y. Al-Obaidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of autosomal recessive disorders. The most frequent one is 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Analyzing CYP21A2 gene mutations was so far not reported in Iraq. This work aims to analyze the spectrum and frequency of CYP21A2 mutations among Iraqi CAH patients. Sixty-two children were recruited from the Pediatric Endocrine Consultation Clinic, Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq, from September 2014 till June 2015. Their ages ranged between one day and 15 years. They presented with salt wasting, simple virilization, or pseudoprecocious puberty. Cytogenetic study was performed for cases with ambiguous genitalia. Molecular analysis of CYP21A2 gene was done using the CAH StripAssay (ViennaLab Diagnostics for detection of 11 point mutations and >50% of large gene deletions/conversions. Mutations were found in 42 (67.7% patients; 31 (50% patients were homozygotes, 9 (14.5% were heterozygotes, and 2 (3.2% were compound heterozygotes with 3 mutations, while 20 (32.3% patients had none of the tested mutations. The most frequently detected mutations were large gene deletions/conversions found in 12 (19.4% patients, followed by I2Splice and Q318X in 8 (12.9% patients each, I172N in 5 (8.1% patients, and V281L in 4 (6.5% patients. Del 8 bp, P453S, and R483P were each found in one (1.6% and complex alleles were found in 2 (3.2%. Four point mutations (P30L, Cluster E6, L307 frameshift, and R356W were not identified in any patient. In conclusion, gene deletions/conversions and 7 point mutations were recorded in varying proportions, the former being the commonest, generally similar to what was reported in regional countries.

  3. Risk factors associated with deciduous tooth decay in Iraqi preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mendalawi, Mahmood Dhahir; Karam, Nadia Taha

    2014-01-01

    Tooth decay (TD) is common in children with significant consequences on systemic well-being, growth and quality of life, as well as increasing the risk of decay in the permanent teeth. The aim of the present study is to define risk factors associated with deciduous TD (DTD) in Iraqi preschool children. From the 1(st) June to 31(st) December 2012, a case-control study was carried out on 684 children under the age of 6 years who attended Al-Aulwyiah pediatric teaching hospital in Baghdad. Clinical examination and World Health Organization caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were applied. Data including gender, residence, socio-economic status (SES), parental education level, parental smoking, tooth brushing frequency, type of feeding during infancy and the presence of any systemic disease in the child were sought. The mean DMFT score in the case group was 2.03 ± 1.39, of which decayed teeth formed 1.93. Males had a higher mean DMFT (2.10 ± 1.08) than females (1.96 ± 1.70) but with no statistically significant difference. The study revealed that residence, SES, parental education level and tooth brushing frequency were dependent risk factors significantly associated with DTD. However, gender, parental smoking and pattern of feeding during infancy were not significantly associated with DTD. Only four children with systemic disorders (1.2%), namely asthma and congenital heart diseases, were noticed to have DTD. Pediatricians and dentists could provide dental preventive and screening measures. Confronting relevant risk factors associated with DTD and improving access to oral care services are suggested. In addition, promotion of oral health programs through school curricula is needed.

  4. Precipitating and Relieving Factors of Migraine Headache in 200 Iraqi Kurdish Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan K. Al-Shimmery

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the precipitating and relieving factors of migraine headache in a group of Iraqi Kurdish patients including the effect of fasting in Ramadan, and to estimate the percentage of family history of migraine. Methods: A series of 200 migraine cases from different parts of the Kurdistan region in the North of Iraq attending the out-patient Neurology clinic at Rizgary Teaching Hospital and a private Neurology clinic at Erbil City was carried out between October 2007 and May 2008 were reviewed. The precipitating factors and relieving factors for migraine headache were registered and tabulated to be compared with others. Case definition of migraine was based on the International Headache Society (IHS criteria.Results: 33% of the patients were aged between 30-39 years, while 40.5% of patients experienced their first attack aged between 20-29 years. Stress or psychological upset was the commonest triggering factor (80%, followed by increasing physical activity (68%, change in weather (65.5%, and in relation to fasting (65%. Fasting in Ramadan was a triggering factor for headaches in 65% of patients. However, there was no significant association between the triggering factors with regards to sex difference. Relief of migraine in the studied sample was achieved using NSAIDs in 50% of patients, and sleep (45.5%. Hence, 61% of the study population had positive family history of migraine, 32.5% of them reported maternal history of migraine. Conclusion: Psychological upset, stress and excessive physical activity were the commonest triggering factors of migraine headache, while NSAID was the commonest relieving factor of migraine in this population. Family history was present in 61% of migraine patients based mainly from maternal root.

  5. Freedom of Expression in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    Uses question and answer format to discuss scope of elementary students' First Amendment freedom of expression rights. For example, does the First Amendment prevent the disciplining of a sixth grader for writing a sexually inappropriate remark in another student's notebook? Answer: No. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)

  6. FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE LEGAL AND RELIGIOUS IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Conscience is a defining existential reality of man, whose meaning can be seen only through an interdisciplinary unceasing effort of thinking and knowledge. In this study, we aim to make such an analysis of the conscience as an ontological foundation and characteristic of man, in its individual and social dimension, whose basis is made up of philosophical, theological and legal ideas, concepts and theories. Freedom of conscience is the main feature of the manifestations of man as a person within the specific environment of his/her existence. From the legal point of view, freedom of conscience is a complex fundamental right requesting a wide legislative system in order to establish and guarantee it. In our opinion, both the basis and the legitimacy of the legal system protecting the freedom of conscience are given by the philosophical truths and the truths of faith, as expressed in theological writings and meditations. In this study, we identify the theological and philosophical bases of the freedom of conscience and their reflection in the legal field.

  7. Hannah Arendt and the "Freedom" to Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the Western tradition of political philosophy, Arendt maintained a tension between the political, which she associates primarily with the freedom to act, and the philosophical, which she associates principally with the activity of thinking, throughout her works. Whilst Arendt's work is underpinned by a focus on political action,…

  8. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION IN ETHIOPIA: THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    our courts, we have yet to develop a body of standards, tests and doctrines ..... the press relating to deliberate acts of stifling freedom of expression through ...... protection of the fundamental rights of others like the right to a fair trial or it.

  9. 77 FR 2907 - Religious Freedom Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... call America home and seek to follow their consciences in peace. Our long history of religious... United States of America A Proclamation For nearly four centuries, men and women have immigrated to America's shores in pursuit of religious freedom. Hailing from diverse backgrounds and faiths,...

  10. Milton's "Areopagitica" Freedom of Speech on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel F.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the content in John Milton's "Areopagitica: A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the Parliament of England" (1985) and provides parallelism to censorship practiced in higher education. Originally published in 1644, "Areopagitica" makes a powerful--and precocious--argument for freedom of speech…

  11. Happiness and economic freedom: Are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the linkage between economic freedom and happiness (subjective well-being. We attempt to understand which economic institutions (rule of law, limited government, regulatory efficiency, open markets have influence on subjective well-being. For this purpose we use a panel dataset and analyze the effect of economic freedom on subjective well-being while using various control variables such as government expenditures as percentage of GDP, human development, social support, freedom of choice and generosity. Our pooled FGLS estimations indicate that all pillars of economic freedom have a strong influence on the average subjective well-being in society. Three of these pillars, namely rule of law, regulatory efficiency and open markets, positively affect subjective well-being. To our surprise we have found a negative relationship between limited government and subjective wellbeing. This might be due to the situation that reducing the size of government possibly leads to lower government expenditures and higher unemployment, which in turn results in lower subjective well-being.

  12. Strengthening Academic Freedom by Nurturing Academic Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, John A.

    2005-01-01

    When the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) decided to remove the Virginia Community College System (VCCS) from its list of censured colleges, an opportunity was created for VCCS colleges to examine anew the status of academic freedom. The 1972 decision to abolish tenure within the VCCS had been viewed by some faculty as a direct…

  13. Freedom and security: a sometimes delicate balance

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Like any academic institution, CERN celebrates freedom: freedom of expression, freedom of thought and freedom of movement. Occasionally, however, circumstances beyond our control oblige us to impose certain restrictions.   Friday, 26 June was just such an occasion. On that day, terrorists chose to commit unfathomable atrocities in France, near Lyon, as well as in Kuwait and Tunisia. The brutality exhibited in all three attacks is beyond comprehension, and I am sure that we all feel for the victims and all those touched by these hideous acts. At times such as this, and on the basis of information that I receive from external agencies, it is my responsibility as Director-General to decide whether measures are needed at CERN, and to apply them at an appropriate level if I deem it necessary. On Friday, based on the information I had at my disposal, I decided that the situation merited extra vigilance at the entrances to CERN for the sake of ensuring the safety and security of everyone on site. I...

  14. Academic Freedom: Problems in Conceptualization and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Academic freedom is of central importance to higher education and it affects all aspects of work at universities. It symbolizes academics' acceptance of the need for openness and flexibility (Balyer, 2011) and it protects the conditions leading to the creation of good teaching and learning, sound research, and scholarship (Atkinson, 2004).…

  15. Sociological Discourse(s) on Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...

  16. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...

  17. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural...

  18. Censorship and Intellectual Freedom in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Edna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes seven articles that discuss censorship and intellectual freedom in junior and senior high schools. Highlights include access to appropriate information; library material selection; dealing with complaints; a list of potentially controversial titles and topics; a history of book burning; the censorship of fiction; weeding versus…

  19. Two-spinor geometry and gauge freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Canarutto, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Gauge freedom in quantum particle physics is shown to arise in a natural way from the geometry of two-spinors (Weyl spinors). Various related mathematical notions are reviewed, and a special ansatz of the kind "the system defines the geometry" is discussed in connection with the stated results.

  20. Caricature freedom of expression in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Vega Cantor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present a sample of the way in France, the acclaimed birthplace and home of freedom of expression, censored, persecuted, and even imprisons those who dare to criticize the Israel lobby or their positions are not in tune with the thought “warm” right, the academic and cultural world

  1. Index of Economic Freedom: Unrealized Pedagogical Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Mark; Miller, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Although the Index of Economic Freedom appears in many economic textbooks, their coverage of the index misses opportunities to teach statistical and policy-related concepts important for the principles course. The standard textbook presentation passes up an opportunity to examine the statistical issues of weighting in composite index numbers and…

  2. Defending Academic Freedom: Advice for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Social studies and history teachers should be free to expose students to controversial ideas and to teach critical thinking skills. But are they free? Do they have the constitutional right--call it academic freedom--to teach what they want and to discuss controversial issues in the classroom? The short answer is "no." In this article,…

  3. Milton's "Areopagitica" Freedom of Speech on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel F.

    2006-01-01

    The author discusses the content in John Milton's "Areopagitica: A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing to the Parliament of England" (1985) and provides parallelism to censorship practiced in higher education. Originally published in 1644, "Areopagitica" makes a powerful--and precocious--argument for freedom of speech…

  4. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up…

  5. The Freedoms and Capabilities of Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaret, Jacques; Chylinski, Caroline; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming promotes animal husbandry practices that consider the welfare of the animals on the farm. The concept of animal welfare and the standards that should encompass this concept have in many cases been largely generalised in practice, which leaves relevant aspects of animal freedom or ...

  6. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  7. Religious Freedoms In Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaj-Stojanova Albana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.

  8. The Role of Psychological Symptomatology and Social Support in the Academic Adjustment of Previously Deployed Student Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robyn; Riggs, Shelley A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Research has indicated that returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans are experiencing mental health concerns following deployment. Increasing numbers of veterans are enrolling in higher education institutions; there is a scarcity of empirical research investigating student veterans' experiences as…

  9. Transformations: Working with Veterans in the Composition Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardy, Galen

    2009-01-01

    Veterans make up a fair number of potential students. It is important to understand them, even if teachers do not agree with the politics of the War on Terror, Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). In working with the veterans at Black Hawk College and other two-year and four-year institutions, the author has learned…

  10. Invisible Wounds: Serving Service Members and Veterans with PTSD and TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2009

    2009-01-01

    More than 1.6 million American service members have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). As of December 2008, more than 4,000 troops have been killed and over 30,000 have returned from a combat zone with visible wounds and a range of permanent disabilities. In addition, an…

  11. Perceptions of the Dilemma--Order versus Freedom at Managing Faculty: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaferye, Figen; Agaoglu, Esmahan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the perceptions of the middle management (deans and heads of departments) and academicians on the dilemma order versus freedom at faculty management. It discusses how this dilemma is seen at an operational level and how it can be managed at university where both parties--with a managerial role or not--are…

  12. Non-governmental religious schools in Europe: institutional opportunities, associational freedoms, and contemporary challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maussen, M.; Bader, V.

    2015-01-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights guarantees freedom of education, including opportunities to create and operate faith-based schools. But as European societies become religiously more diverse and ‘less religious’ at the same time, the role of religious schools increasingly is being contested.

  13. Freedom of Speech and Hate Speech: an analysis of possible limits for freedom of speech

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riva Sobrado de Freitas; Matheus Felipe de Castro

    2013-01-01

      In a view to determining the outlines of the Freedom of Speech and to specify its contents, we face hate speech as an offensive and repulsive manifestation, particularly directed to minority groups...

  14. Living with burn scars caused by self-immolation among women in Iraqi Kurdistan: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlashari, Jila; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Amin, Pakestan Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    Patients with burns have to live with a variety of long-term physical and psychosocial consequences. Burns lead to prolonged hospital stay, disfiguring scars, disability, and even death. Since self-immolation is common in women of Iraqi Kurdistan, the present study sought to explore the experiences of women living with scars caused by self-immolation. This paper was part of a qualitative research study. A purposive sample of 18 female self-immolation survivors from Iraqi Kurdistan was selected, and 21 individual interviews were conducted and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Four categories emerged during the data analysis: (1) feelings of disbelief, regret, and anger caused by post-burn scars; (2) desperately seeking solutions; (3) grief due to disappointment and surrender to despair; and (4) rejection and isolation. In conclusion, individuals with scars and disfigurements sometimes adopted inappropriate measures to deal with the psychological problems caused by others' behaviors and wrong perceptions. Educational and support programs are hence indicated to promote awareness levels of self-immolation survivors, their families, and the whole society.

  15. Viability of the ground of Shithatha, western Iraqi plateau, for industrial and commercial uses via hydrochemistry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaraghuli, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    Iraqi western plateau is considered as one of the most resourceful areas of the middle east, that is not yet well explored, due to the many political disturbances and security issues. The viability of underground water for the various industrial, municipal, commercial and agricultural uses is examined for Shithatha, Karbala governorates as a representative for the western plateau via chemical and physical analysis of water samples that are taken from 9 wells and 3 springs all-around the study area during the wet and dry periods. Hydro chemical and statistical analysis for the field samples have proved that groundwater of the studied area is classified as slightly-brackish water and water hardness is very high. Also, the results of the analyses of trace elements in the groundwater of the study area have confirmed the contamination of groundwater with some elements such as (Fe, Cd, Pb, Ni) in concentrations that have exceeded the WHO and Iraqi national standards IQS, permissible limits. The application of Hydro-chemical formulae of Kurlouv and Piper, Schoeller, Stiff classifications have demonstrated that most samples of the study area have water type of (Na2SO4) while other samples have ranged between (MgSO4), and (NaCl) water type. The quality of groundwater is unsuitable for drinking and industrial purposes and it is almost suitable for irrigation purposes, but it is suitable for livestock, building and agricultural purposes because the salinity of the water is within the permissible limits when considering the nature of the soil.

  16. A Systematic Review of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Amongst Iraqi Refugees Located in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Uribe Guajardo, Maria Gabriela; Heriseanu, Andreea; Hasan, Tasnim

    2015-08-01

    A systematic review of literature reporting prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression amongst community samples of resettled Iraqi refugees was undertaken. A search of the electronic databases of Medline, PsychINFO, CINAHL, PILOTS, Scopus, and Cochrane, up to November 2013 was conducted. Following the application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight empirical papers were included in the review and analysis. Specifically, six studies reported on PTSD prevalence (total n = 1,912), which ranged from 8 to 37.2 % and seven studies reported on rates of depression (total n = 1,647) noted to be 28.3 to 75 %. The overall interobserver agreement for the methodological quality assessment was good to excellent with a Kappa coefficient of 0.64. Iraqi refugees continue to represent one of the largest groups being resettled worldwide. This systematic review indicates that prevalence of PTSD and depression is high and should be taken into consideration when developing mental health early intervention and treatment services.

  17. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A novel approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  18. Transatlantic Discourses of Freedom and Slavery during the English Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Donoghue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three themes in the discursive history of freedom and slavery during the English Revolution are explored here: the liberty of conscience, the liberty of the body, and the liberty of commerce. In the contests waged to define these liberties, contending factions of revolutionaries refashioned their opponents’ concepts of freedom as forms of bondage. Although explored in discrete fashion by historians, these discourses of religious, bodily, and commercial liberty hardly operated independently from one another.  Indeed, they became increasingly entangled as the Revolution reached its imperial turn (ca. 1649-1655, accompanied as it was by the rise of the slave trade in the West Indies and debates over the nature of “free trade” that circulated between England and the colonies.  Ultimately, to recover the entangled nature of these languages of liberty and their importance in the Revolution’s history of ideas, we must move beyond England itself and into the wider Atlantic world to grasp the material contexts that conditioned the Revolution’s discursive history. 

  19. Globalization, economic freedom, and wage inequality: A panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yay Gülsün

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of globalization and liberalization on wage inequality using the KOF globalization index, the Economic Freedom Index (EFI of the Fraser Institute and the Theil industrial pay inequality statistic compiled by the University of Texas Inequality Project (UTIP. Both static and dynamic fixedeffects models are estimated using a 5-year panel data set consisting of about 90 developed and developing countries for the 1970-2005 period. Estimation results from the dynamic panel data specification suggest that wage inequality has a significant and slowly changing component. The overall KOF and EFI indexes are found to be statistically insignificant in the full sample, but the results show that economic freedom is associated with more wage inequality, especially in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD countries. The estimation results from country groups indicate that more deregulation is associated with more earnings inequality in OECD countries. The results from the models with subcomponents of the EFI imply that access to sound money has a negative effect on wage inequality. A more stable price system in an economy implies a more equal wage distribution in emerging markets (EM, non-OECD countries, and European Union (EU.

  20. Space Station Freedom solar array panels plasma interaction test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Donald F.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Power System will make extensive use of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. The phase 1 power system consists of two PV power modules each capable of delivering 37.5 KW of conditioned power to the user. Each PV module consists of two solar arrays. Each solar array is made up of two solar blankets. Each solar blanket contains 82 PV panels. The PV power modules provide a 160 V nominal operating voltage. Previous research has shown that there are electrical interactions between a plasma environment and a photovoltaic power source. The interactions take two forms: parasitic current loss (occurs when the currect produced by the PV panel leaves at a high potential point and travels through the plasma to a lower potential point, effectively shorting that portion of the PV panel); and arcing (occurs when the PV panel electrically discharges into the plasma). The PV solar array panel plasma interaction test was conceived to evaluate the effects of these interactions on the Space Station Freedom type PV panels as well as to conduct further research. The test article consists of two active solar array panels in series. Each panel consists of two hundred 8 cm x 8 cm silicon solar cells. The test requirements dictated specifications in the following areas: plasma environment/plasma sheath; outgassing; thermal requirements; solar simulation; and data collection requirements.

  1. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  2. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  3. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the deliberative democracy argument for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. It engages the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy and argues that autonomy-based democracy...... is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, it argues that people cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation and develop some degree of personal autonomy. While freedom...... of expression is indispensable for deliberation and autonomy, this does not mean that people have no obligations regarding how they speak to each other. The moral insights provided by deliberation depend on the participants in the process treating one another with respect. The argument is related to the Danish...

  4. Trans fat bans and human freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective.

  5. Academic freedom Akademískt frelsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðmundur Heiðar Frímannsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article academic freedom is examined and an attempt made to elucidate and explain its content. The function of universities is discussed to set the context for academic freedom. A distinction is drawn between freedom of expression and academic freedom and it is argued that these two concepts of freedom are logically distinct and independent of each other. Also, a distinction between a wide and narrow conception of academic freedom is explored. It is argued that awide conception of academic freedom should be rejected. An example of a seemingly justified use of the wide conception of academic freedom is explored and rejected. At last it is argued that it is inevitable that some of the teaching and research in theoretical disciplines at universities is not useful or socially relevant in any significant sense but they are important for universities and for those who learn and teach them. They can also be beneficial for society in general as well.Í greininni er fjallað um akademískt frelsi og leitast við að skýra það og hlutverk þess. Farið er nokkrum orðum um hlutverk háskóla til að gera grein fyrir bakgrunni akademísks frelsis. Gerður er greinarmunur á tjáningarfrelsi og akademísku frelsi og því haldið fram að þessar tvær frelsisreglur séu röklega óháðar hvor annarri. Sömuleiðis verður að skilja á milli þröngs og víðs skilnings á akademísku frelsi. Í greininni er leitast við að skýra akademískt frelsi þröngt þannig að það nái einungis til þeirra sem starfa við háskóla og uppfylla tilteknar þekkingarkröfur og starfa þeirra við þá. Leitast er við að rökstyðja að hafna beri víðum skilningi á akademísku frelsi, að akademískar kröfur eigi við á vettvangi samfélagsins. Skoðað er dæmi þar sem til álita kemur að beita víðum skilningi en því hafnað. Að lokum er því haldið fram að í háskólum sé óhjákvæmilegt að stunda rannsóknir á sviðum sem

  6. Freedom of Expression, Deliberation, Autonomy, and Respect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh

    diversity. On the basis of an intersubjective epistemology, I argue that citizens cannot know how to live on mutually respectful terms without engaging in public deliberation. Moreover, to be successful deliberation must foster some degree of personal autonomy, at least the ability to distinguish what......The strongest versions of the democracy argument for freedom of expression rely on the deliberative conception of democracy. Deliberative democracy entails both an ideal of political autonomy and of autonomous preference formation. This paper elaborates the deliberative democracy argument...... for freedom of expression in terms of its relationship to different dimensions of autonomy. In response to the objection that Enlightenment theories pose a threat to cultures that reject autonomy, it is argued that autonomy-based democracy is not only compatible with but necessary for respect for cultural...

  7. Asymptocic Freedom of Gluons in Hamiltonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Rocha, María

    2016-01-01

    We derive asymptotic freedom of gluons in terms of the renormalized $SU(3)$ Yang-Mills Hamiltonian in the Fock space. Namely, we use the renormalization group procedure for effective particles (RGPEP) to calculate the three-gluon interaction term in the front-form Yang-Mills Hamiltonian using a perturbative expansion in powers of $g$ up to third order. The resulting three-gluon vertex is a function of the scale parameter $s$ that has an interpretation of the size of effective gluons. The corresponding Hamiltonian running coupling constant exhibits asymptotic freedom, and the corresponding Hamiltonian $\\beta$-function coincides with the one obtained in an earlier calculation using a different generator.

  8. PRESS FREEDOM IN SINGAPORE AND MALAYSIA: DEFAMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kate Chapman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protection from large media corporations and their political alignments. This report will assess the bias of reporting and news media publication that exists in Malaysia and Singapore due to legislative and regulatory constraints as opposed to bias that exist in the western liberal democratic nations of the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA due to Media Organisation control.

  9. Academic freedom, public reactions, and anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; that anonymity would not in most cases effectively protect the kind of immunity sought after; and that in some cases it would not even be desirable to protect scholars from public reactions to their controversial claims. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Re-Framing Student Academic Freedom: A Capability Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The scholarly debate about academic freedom focuses almost exclusively on the rights of academic faculty. Student academic freedom is rarely discussed and is normally confined to debates connected with the politicisation of the curriculum. Concerns about (student) freedom of speech reflect the dominant role of negative rights in the analysis of…

  11. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  12. Freedom:Perquisite of Emerson’s Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jing-xin

    2015-01-01

    Emerson established a systematic philosophy of individualism at his early stage. The basic three elements of individual⁃ism described in Emerson’s works are: freedom, self-identity and independence to others. Freedom, including the freedom to think and act, is the perquisite of the realization of individualism.

  13. Exploring Notions of Freedom in and through Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen J.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers teachers a critical framework for use and adaptation in organizing class discussions focused on notions of freedom in young adult literature. The authors open by discussing the notion of freedom, including concepts related to negative and positive freedom and to arguments advocating critical discussion of common assumptions…

  14. Re-Framing Student Academic Freedom: A Capability Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The scholarly debate about academic freedom focuses almost exclusively on the rights of academic faculty. Student academic freedom is rarely discussed and is normally confined to debates connected with the politicisation of the curriculum. Concerns about (student) freedom of speech reflect the dominant role of negative rights in the analysis of…

  15. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  16. Fire safety practices in the Shuttle and the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert

    1993-02-01

    The Shuttle reinforces its policy of fire-preventive measures with onboard smoke detectors and Halon 1301 fire extinguishers. The forthcoming Space Station Freedom will have expanded fire protection with photoelectric smoke detectors, radiation flame detectors, and both fixed and portable carbon dioxide fire extinguishers. Many design and operational issues remain to be resolved for Freedom. In particular, the fire-suppression designs must consider the problems of gas leakage in toxic concentrations, alternative systems for single-failure redundancy, and commonality with the corresponding systems of the Freedom international partners. While physical and engineering requirements remain the primary driving forces for spacecraft fire-safety technology, there are, nevertheless, needs and opportunities for the application of microgravity combustion knowledge to improve and optimize the fire-protective systems.

  17. Impact vibration reduction for flexible manipulators via controllable local degrees of freedom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bian Yushu; Gao Zhihui; Deng Yuchun

    2013-01-01

    When performing operation tasks, the interaction between a flexible manipulator and a grasped object usually results in an impact. In this paper, a new way is suggested to alleviate impact vibration of a flexible manipulator via its structural characteristic when capturing a moving object. Controllable local degrees of freedom are introduced to the topological structure of the flexible manipulator, and used as an effective tool to combat impact vibration through dynamic coupling. A corresponding method is put forward to reduce impact vibration responses of the flexible manip-ulator via the controllable local degrees of freedom. By planning motion of the controllable local degrees of freedom, appropriate control force can be constructed to increase the modal damping and stiffness and eliminate the exciting force simultaneously, thereby reducing impact vibration responses of the flexible manipulator. Simulations are conducted and results are shown to prove the presented method.

  18. New masculinities and pedagogy of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Rios

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The research on masculinity in education has mainly been focused on analyze the organization of schools and the attention given to the students. This analysis has confirmed the existence of gender inequalities in schools, within them gender violence. This article will start from this background but has as objective to provide new knowledge about the pedagogy of freedom in the promotion of new alternative masculinities. Design/methodology: From a communicative-oriented qualitative methodology the voices of young boys and adult men that have been involved in educational actions, based on a pedagogy of freedom which have contributed to foster new alternative masculinities, have been collected. Findings: The results explain why the pedagogy of freedom can contribute to foster new alternative masculinities. Special attention is paid in the evolution of oppressed traditional masculinities (OTM to new alternative masculinities (NAM. In this regard, it is highlighted how OTM, that not contributes to gender violence but overcome neither, are walking to become NAM thanks to the organizational approach of the pedagogy of freedom. Practical implications: To provide scientific knowledge which could be used as a basis of the educational practices addressed to prevent gender violence. Social implications: The social impact refers to the effect of scientific knowledge in the educational quality and in the socialization of alternative masculinities which overcome harassment and gender violence. Originality/value: The article provides of new knowledge on the coeducational field which allows overcoming the double standards and the attraction against the violence reproduced in the traditional masculinity models.

  19. Degrees of freedom in discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy P

    2016-01-01

    Following recent developments in discrete gravity, we study geometrical variables (angles and forms) of simplices in the discrete geometry point of view. Some of our relatively new results include: new ways of writing a set of simplices using vectorial (differential form) and coordinate-free pictures, and a consistent procedure to couple particles of space, together with a method to calculate the degrees of freedom of the system of 'quanta' of space in the classical framework.

  20. Histories and Freedom of the Present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vucina, Naja; Drejer, Claus Munch; Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the ways in which Michel Foucault and Quentin Skinner’s historical analyses seek to unsettle the limits on present forms of freedom. We do so by comparing their ways of analyzing discourse, rationality and agency. The two authors differ significantly in the ways they deal...... Foucault seems to go furthest in this endeavour, a comparison may enrich both lines of historical analyses....