WorldWideScience

Sample records for operating electric stresses

  1. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-10-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The first project evaluated the potentially aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity that produces escape or avoidance responses. The second project estimated the threshold intensity for detection threshold was 12 kV/m; the range of means was 6 to 16 kV/m. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. 131 refs., 87 figs., 123 tabs.

  2. Potential oxidative stress in the bodies of electric arc welding operators: effect of photochemical smog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, You-Gen; Zhou, Jun-Fu; Shan, Wei-Ying; Zhou, Pei-Su; Tong, Gui-Zhong

    2004-12-01

    To investigate whether photochemical smog emitted during the process of electric arc welding might cause oxidative stress and potential oxidative damage in the bodies of welding operators. Seventy electric arc welding operators (WOs) and 70 healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled in a randomized controlled study design, in which the levels of vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) in plasma as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and the level of lipoperoxide (LPO) in erythrocytes were determined by spectrophotometry. Compared with the average values of the above experimental parameters in the HVs group, the average values of VC and VE in plasma as well as those of SOD, CAT and GPX in erythrocytes in the WOs group were significantly decreased (P smog the values of VC, VE, SOD, and GPX, except for CAT, in the WOs were decreased gradually (P smog in the bodies of WOs, thereby causing potential oxidative and lipoperoxidative damages in their bodies.

  3. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates: Projects 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible hehavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. This volume contains only appendices for projects 3 and 4. 81 figs., 67 tabs.

  4. Operational electricity transmission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    1997-01-01

    In a liberalized electricity market both the consumers and the producers of electricity must pay for the use of the power transmission network. Thus, the net manager has unlimited options to realize efficiency improvements. A neutral and transparent management of the power grid is necessary to avoid disturbance of the market. KEMA Consulting translated abstract ideas and strategic advices to operational concepts in its report 'A framework for the determination of tariffs of the transport in the Dutch electricity sector'

  5. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behavior of nonhuman primates. Quarterly technical progress report No. 20, September 28-December 20, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.

    1986-01-03

    This research program will evaluate the aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity which produces avoidance or escape responses, will estimate the threshold intensity for detection of 60 Hz electric fields, will assess effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio and differential reinforcement of low rate responding, will investigate, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. In all experiments, the electric fields will be described, characterized, and controlled to account for recognized artifacts associated with high intensity 60 Hz electric fields and the health of all subjects will be described using the methods of primate veterinary medicine.

  6. Stress from electricity and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, W.

    1992-01-01

    The author, a journalist and a free expert in constructional biology, discusses the origins of electricity and radiation and their effects on human health. The emphasis is on the causes and measurement of stress-inducing or stress-enhancing factors. Preventive measures are pointed out. The book goes into detail about a.c. electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic waves, d.c. electric and magnetic fields, natural radioactivity, terrestrial radiation, vibration, and airborne pollutants. (uhe) [de

  7. Electric rate operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    1993-01-01

    The share of nuclear power in EDF production implies multiple rate structures. How are these rates determined. What are the new applications of electricity, and in particular those that make use of the especially low summer prices for electricity. These are topics of interest to the man in the street (witness EDF's recent 'red-white-blue' rates). This prompted the 'Nuclear Power in the Financial, Energy and Economic situation' department of France's nuclear power company to organize a conference bringing together an expert on rates - M.P. Bernard, head of the rate fixing service at the EDF's headquarters - and representatives from suppliers of equipment taking advantage of the various EDF rate options

  8. Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC) at PNNL brings together industry-leading software, real-time grid data, and advanced computation into a fully...

  9. Heat operated cryogenic electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.C.; Wang, T.C.; Saffren, M.M.; Elleman, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    An electrical generator useful for providing electrical power in deep space, is disclosed. The subject electrical generator utilizes the unusual hydrodynamic property exhibited by liquid helium as it is converted to and from a superfluid state to cause opposite directions of rotary motion for a rotor cell thereof. The physical motion of said rotor cell is employed to move a magnetic field provided by a charged superconductive coil mounted on the exterior of said cell. An electrical conductor is placed in surrounding proximity to said cell to interact with the moving magnetic field provided by the superconductive coil and thereby generate electrical energy. A heat control arrangement is provided for the purpose of causing the liquid helium to be partially converted to and from a superfluid state by being cooled and heated, respectively. (U.S.)

  10. Stress corrosion cracking prevention using solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harijan, K.; Uqaaili, M.A; Mirani, M.

    2004-01-01

    Metallic structures exposed to soil and water naturally experience corrosion due to electrolytic action. These structures are also subjected to sustained tensile stresses. The combined effects of corrosion and stress results stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Removal of either of these i.e. stress or corrosion prevents SCC. The cathodic protection (CP) prevents corrosion, and hence prevents stress corrosion. Solar Photo voltaic (PV) generated electricity can be best external power source for CP systems especially in remote areas. This paper presents CP system using solar PV generated electricity as an external power source for prevention of SCC of metallic structures. The paper also compares CP systems using solar electricity with those of CP systems using conventional electricity. The paper concludes that a solar electricity power system provides a reliable solution for powering CP stations especially in remote areas, enables the placing of CP units in any location, and thus ensures optimal current distribution for the exact protection requirements. The paper also concludes that solar electricity CP systems are well suited for SCC protection of metallic structures especially in remote areas of an energy deficit country like Pakistan. (author)

  11. Electrical operation of electrostatic precipitators

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The electrostatic precipitator remains on of the most cost effective means of controlling the emission of particulates from most industrial processes. This book will be of interest to both users and suppliers of electrostatic precipitators as well as advanced students on environmental based courses. The author identifies the physical and engineering basis for the development of electrical equipment for electrostatic precipitators and thoroughly explores the technological factors which optimize the efficiency of the precipitator and hence minimize emissions, as well as future developments in th

  12. Study on a New Operational Mode of Economic Operation of Islanded Microgrids Using Electric Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhiyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs into microgrids, the original operation mode of power generation determined by load demand faces severe challenges due to the uncertainties of the RESs power output. The electric springs(ESs, as an emerging technology has been verified to be effective in enabling load demand to follow power generation and stabilizing fluctuation of RESs output. This paper presents a new mode of economic operation for island microgrids including non-critical loads with embedded electric springs. Its connotation includes that i the capacity of energy storage can be reduced through the interaction of the energy storage system (ESS and the electric springs, ii the electric springs reduce the stress of peak load regulation and operational cost and iii the demand of microgrids system for ramping ability of generation units is reduced with the buffer of the electric springs. Numerical results show that the coordinated operation between electric springs and energy storage system of microgrids can bring down the investment cost for the ESS and short-term operational cost in the aspect of economic dispatch, reducing requirements for the capacity and ramp ability of the energy storage system in microgrids. Energy buffering can be achieved with lower cost and the load demand can follow power generation in the new operational mode of islanded microgrids using electric springs.

  13. An Operational Standpoint in Electrical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Rotella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In electrical engineering education exists a major difficulty for first level students, namely the Laplace transform. The question is: does this ubiquitous tool is needed in an electrical engineering course? Our answer is: Obviously, not. Based on an operational standpoint the paper describes some guidelines and results for a primer on handling signals and linear systems without using the Laplace transform. The main advantage is that the operational standpoint leads to simplified proofs for well-known results.

  14. International Benchmarking of Electricity Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Electricity transmission system operators (TSO) in Europe are increasing subject to high-powered performance-based regulation, such as revenue-cap regimes. The determination of the parameters in such regimes is challenging for national regulatory authorities (NRA), since there is normally a single...... TSO operating in each jurisdiction. The solution for European regulators has been found in international regulatory benchmarking, organized in collaboration with the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) in 2008 and 2012 for 22 and 23 TSOs, respectively. The frontier study provides static cost...... weight restrictions and a correction method for opening balances....

  15. Stress, performance, and control room operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    The notion of control room operator performance being detrimentally affected by stress has long been the focus of considerable conjecture. It is important to gain a better understanding of the validity of this concern for the development of effective severe-accident management approaches. This paper illustrates the undeniable negative impact of stress on a wide variety of tasks. A computer-controlled simulated work environment was designed in which both male and female operators were closely monitored during the course of the study for both stress level (using the excretion of the urine catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine as an index) and job performance. The experimental parameters employed by the study when coupled with the subsequent statistical analyses of the results allow one to make some rather striking comments with respect to how a given operator might respond to a situation that he or she perceives to be psychologically stressful (whether the stress be externally or internally generated). The findings of this study clearly indicated that stress does impact operator performance on tasks similar in nature to those conducted by control room operators and hence should be seriously considered in the development of severe-accident management strategies

  16. Operating health analysis of electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud

    The required level of operating reserve to be maintained by an electric power system can be determined using both deterministic and probabilistic techniques. Despite the obvious disadvantages of deterministic approaches there is still considerable reluctance to apply probabilistic techniques due to the difficulty of interpreting a single numerical risk index and the lack of sufficient information provided by a single index. A practical way to overcome difficulties is to embed deterministic considerations in the probabilistic indices in order to monitor the system well-being. The system well-being can be designated as healthy, marginal and at risk. The concept of system well-being is examined and extended in this thesis to cover the overall area of operating reserve assessment. Operating reserve evaluation involves the two distinctly different aspects of unit commitment and the dispatch of the committed units. Unit commitment health analysis involves the determination of which unit should be committed to satisfy the operating criteria. The concepts developed for unit commitment health, margin and risk are extended in this thesis to evaluate the response well-being of a generating system. A procedure is presented to determine the optimum dispatch of the committed units to satisfy the response criteria. The impact on the response wellbeing being of variations in the margin time, required regulating margin and load forecast uncertainty are illustrated. The effects on the response well-being of rapid start units, interruptible loads and postponable outages are also illustrated. System well-being is, in general, greatly improved by interconnection with other power systems. The well-being concepts are extended to evaluate the spinning reserve requirements in interconnected systems. The interconnected system unit commitment problem is decomposed into two subproblems in which unit scheduling is performed in each isolated system followed by interconnected system evaluation

  17. Electric foot shock stress adaptation: Does it exist or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-06-01

    Stress adaptation is a protective phenomenon against repeated stress exposure and is characterized by a decreased responsiveness to a repeated stress stimulus. The adaptation is associated with a complex cascade of events, including the changes in behavior, neurotransmitter and gene expression levels. The non-adaptation or maladaptation to stress may underlie the affective disorders, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Electric foot shock is a complex stressor, which includes both physical and emotional components. Unlike immobilization, restraint and cold immersion stress, the phenomenon of stress adaptation is not very well defined in response to electric foot shock. A number of preclinical studies have reported the development of adaptation to electric foot shock stress. However, evidence also reveals the non-adaptive behavior in response to foot shocks. The distinct adaptive/non-adaptive responses may be possibly influenced by the type, intensity, and duration of the stress. The present review discusses the existence or non-existence of adaptation to electric foot shock stress along with possible mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The neutron electric dipole moment and the Weinberg's operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chongsheng; Hu Bingquan

    1992-01-01

    After a summary of the predictions for the neutron electric dipole moment in a number of models of CP violation, the authors review mainly the recent developments associated with Weimberg's purely gluonic CP violation operator. Its implications on the neutron electric dipole moment in various models of CP violation are discussed. Inspired by Weimberg's work, several new mechanisms of generating large electric dipole moments of charged leptons and large electric and chromo-electric dipole moments of light quarks are recently proposed. Brief discussions on these new developments are also given

  19. Stress-oriented driver assistance system for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Georgia; Tsotoulidis, Savvas; Mitronikas, Epaminondas; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Stress is physiological and physical reaction that appears in highly demanding situations and affects human's perception and reaction capability. Occurrence of stress events within highly dynamic road environment could lead to life-threatening situation. With the perspective of safety and comfort driving provision to anxious drivers, in this paper a stress-oriented Driver Assistance System (DAS) is proposed. The DAS deployed on Electric Vehicle. This novel DAS customizes driving command signal in respect to road context, when stress is detected. The effectiveness of this novel DAS is verified by simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  20. A Method of Evaluating Operation of Electric Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Li, Tianyang; Cao, Fei; Chu, Pengfei; Zhao, Xinwang; Huang, Rui; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Chenglin

    2018-05-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  1. Electrical stress and strain in lunar regolith simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Richard, D.; Davis, S.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments to entrain dust with electrostatic and fluid-dynamic forces result in particulate clouds of aggregates rather than individual dust grains. This is explained within the framework of Griffith-flaw theory regarding the comminution/breakage of weak solids. Physical and electrical inhomogeneities in powders are equivalent to microcracks in solids insofar as they facilitate failure at stress risers. Electrical charging of powders induces bulk sample stresses similar to mechanical stresses experienced by strong solids, depending on the nature of the charging. A powder mass therefore "breaks" into clumps rather than separating into individual dust particles. This contrasts with the expectation that electrical forces on the Moon will eject a submicron population of dust from the regolith into the exosphere. A lunar regolith will contain physical and electrostatic inhomogeneities similar to those in most charged powders.

  2. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. (Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E[sub 1] (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E[sub 3] (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council's regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  3. Electrical response of relaxing dielectrics compressed by arbitrary stress pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysne, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical problem of the electric response of biased dielectrics and piezoelectrics subjected to planar stress pulse loading is considered. The materials are taken to exhibit dielectric relaxation in the sense that changes in the polarization induced by electric fields do not occur instantaneously with changes in the fields. While this paper considers arbitrary stress pulse loading of the specimen, examples that are amenable to projectile impact techniques are considered in detail. They are shock reverberation, thin pulse, and ramp loading experiments. It is anticipated that these experiments will play a role in investigations of dielectric relaxation caused by shock induced damage in insulators

  4. Sprag solenoid brake. [development and operations of electrically controlled brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of an electrically operated brake are discussed. The action of the brake depends on energizing a solenoid which causes internally spaced sprockets to contact the inner surface of the housing. A spring forces the control member to move to the braking position when the electrical function is interrupted. A diagram of the device is provided and detailed operating principles are explained.

  5. Economic Optimization Analysis of Chengdu Electric Community Bus Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidong, Wang; Yun, Cai; Zhengping, Tan; Xiong, Wan

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the government has strongly supported and promoted electric vehicles and has given priority to demonstration and popularization in the field of public transport. The economy of public transport operations has drawn increasing attention. In this paper, Chengdu wireless charging pure electric community bus is used as the research object, the battery, air conditioning, driver’s driving behavior and other economic influence factors were analyzed, and optimizing the operation plan through case data analysis, through the reasonable battery matching and mode of operation to help businesses effectively save operating costs and enhance economic efficiency.

  6. Electric Vehicle Sharing Planning and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Dongfang Zhao (ORCID ID 0000-0002-5424-9915); Xiaopeng (Shaw) Li (ORCID ID 0000-0002-5264-3775); Yu Zhang (ORCID ID 0000-0003-1202-626X) This project includes literature review and proposing a model for EV planning and operations. We first conducted ...

  7. Operation, Investment and Hedging in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Rune Ramsdal

    inflexible generation more than flexible generation due to the exposure to potential low prices. In Chapter 4 we study the valuation of three representative generation types, an inflexible wind turbine, a flexible gas fired power plant and a hydroelectric plant that allows for storage. We account...... for the special characteristics of each technology and include uncertainty in both price and volume through diffusion or jump diffusion models. We find explicit expressions for the expected instantaneous value of wind generation as a function of electricity price and wind speed. We include startup and shutdown...... costs for the gas fired power plant determine the startup and shutdown triggers as well as the value of the plant by maximizing the value of shutting down. This is done analytically in the diffusion models and numerically in the jump diffusion model. For the hydroelectric power plant we relax storage...

  8. New Operation and Maintenance Contract for Electrical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalik, G

    2001-01-01

    The Electrical Exploitation is one of the few remaining operation services at CERN which nearly entirely relies on the CERN staff. Last year CERN policy, in connection with the LHC project needs, have led to the formulation of the strategy of out-sourcing of the Electrical Exploitation activities, market survey and subsequent Invitation to Tender. The following paper presents the approach used in the preparation of the Invitation to Tender and in solving of the out-sourcing issues applied to the operation and maintenance of the CERN electrical network. In particular the problems of the results oriented contract, quality assurance and performance as well requirement of the constantly increasing productivity of the Contractors team are treated. The paper gives also the particularities of the application of the out-sourcing to the electrical operation service as will as techniques used for the estimation of the work load of the activities being outsourced.

  9. Electric Bike Sharing--System Requirements and Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Christopher; Worley, Stacy; Jordan, David

    2010-08-01

    Bike sharing is an exciting new model of public-private transportation provision that has quickly emerged in the past five years. Technological advances have overcome hurdles of early systems and cities throughout the globe are adopting this model of transportation service. Electric bikes have simultaneously gained popularity in many regions of the world and some have suggested that shared electric bikes could provide an even higher level of service compared to existing systems. There are several challenges that are unique to shared electric bikes: electric-assisted range, recharging protocol, and bike and battery checkout procedures. This paper outlines system requirements to successfully develop and deploy an electric bike sharing system, focusing on system architecture, operational concepts, and battery management. Although there is little empirical evidence, electric bike sharing could be feasible, depending on demand and battery management, and can potentially improve the utility of existing bike sharing systems. Under most documented bike sharing use scenarios, electric bike battery capacity is insufficient for a full day of operation, depending on recharging protocol. Off-board battery management is a promising solution to address this problem. Off-board battery management can also support solar recharging. Future pilot tests will be important and allow empirical evaluation of electric bikesharing system performance. (auth)

  10. Equivalent Electrical Circuits of Thermoelectric Generators under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Siouane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs can be used in two different operating conditions, under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow. The commonly used TEG electrical model, based on a voltage source in series with an electrical resistance, shows its limitations especially under constant heat flow conditions. Here, the analytical electrical modeling, taking into consideration the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEG under constant temperature gradient and constant heat flow conditions, is first given. To give further insight into the electrical behavior of a TEG module in different operating conditions, we propose a new and original way of emulating the above analytical expressions with usual electronics components (voltage source, resistors, diode, whose values are determined with the TEG’s parameters. Note that such a TEG emulation is particularly suited when designing the electronic circuitry commonly associated to the TEG, to realize both Maximum Power Point Tracking and output voltage regulation. First, the proposed equivalent electrical circuits are validated through simulation with a SPICE environment in static operating conditions using only one value of either temperature gradient or heat flow. Then, they are also analyzed in dynamic operating conditions where both temperature gradient and heat flow are considered as time-varying functions.

  11. Nuclear electric power safety, operation, and control aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Knowles, J Brian

    2013-01-01

    Assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial power generation and discusses the safety, operation, and control aspects of nuclear electric power From an expert who advised the European Commission and UK government in the aftermath of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations with renewable, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, Nuclear Electric Power: Safety, Operation, and Control Aspects ass

  12. Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles in Competitive Electricity Markets and Its Impact on Distribution Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    represent the future of electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. The impact of the optimal operation strategy for electric vehicles together with the optimal load response to spot market price on the distribution power system with high wind power penetrations...... are also discussed in the paper. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve minimum energy costs of the PEV. The optimal operation strategy of the PEV and the optimal load response may have significant effects on the distribution power system......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the electricity price could be transferred to the consumers and they may make some optimal charge and discharge schedules for their electric vehicles in order to minimize their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal...

  13. Electric shovels meet the demands for mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    Rugged, intelligent shovels offer better productivity and help mine operators avoid costly downtime in a very tight market. In 2007 P & H Mining Equipment began to produce a new breed of electric mining shovels designed to help reduce operating cost in coal and other mining operations. These were designated the P & H C-Series. All have an advanced communication, command and control system called the Centurion system. Coal mining applications for this series include 4100XPCs in Australia, China and Wyoming, USA. The Centurion system provides information on shovel performance and systems health which is communicated via graphic user interface terminals to the operators cab. Bucyrus International is developing a hydraulic crowd mechanism for its electric shovels and is now field testing one for its 495 series shovel. The company has also added greater capability in the primary software in the drive system for troubleshooting and fault identification to quickly diagnose problems onboard or remotely. 4 photos.

  14. Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    MRI confirmed a large coexisting haemangioma which may have confounded perception of stress fracture symptoms. Table 1 is a comprehensive subject...Johnson JR, Light KI, Yuan HA: A double-blind study of capacitively coupled electrical stimulation as an adjunct to lumbar spinal fusions. Spine 24...Simmons JW, Jr., Mooney V, Thacker I: Pseudarthrosis after lumbar spine fusion: nonoperative salvage with pulsed electromagnetic fields. Am J

  15. Electricity pricing: optimal operation and investment by industrial consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outhred, H.R.; Kaye, R.J.; Sutanto, D.; Manimaran, R.; Bannister, C.H.; Lee, Y.B.

    1988-08-01

    Ongoing research in the areas of economically efficient electricity pricing and industrial consumer response is described. A new electricity pricing theory is described that incorporates future uncertainty and intertemporal linkages between decisions. It indicates that electricity prices should contain two terms - short-run marginal cost plus a term that reflects how each particular decision is likely to affect future global welfare. A practical implementation using spot prices and forward contracts plus financial instruments for risk sharing and decision coordination is explored, and a procedure for developing long-term pricing policy is considered. The operation of industrial plant has been investigated and models developed to optimize plant behaviour in response to spot prices and forward contracts for electricity. These models are described and results of simulation studies discussed. The economic efficiency and risk sharing advantages of this advanced tariff structure compared with a conventional time-of-use tariff are illustrated.

  16. Operation of Modern Distribution Power Systems in Competitive Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao

    , DG units, loads and electricity price are studied. Further, the effect of energy storage systems will be considered, and an optimal operation strategy for energy storage devices in a large scale wind power system in the electricity market is proposed. The western Danish power system, which has large...... strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market in order to minimize the imbalance costs for regulation. A load optimization method based on spot price for demand side management in Denmark is proposed in order to save the energy costs for 3 types of typical Danish consumers...... maximum profit of the BESS is proposed. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studied. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are then proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV owners. Furthermore...

  17. Operational demands as determining factor for electric bus charging infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, R.; Van Den Hoed, R.

    2016-01-01

    Many cities in Europe have ambitious goals when it comes to making their public transport buses emission free. This article outlines the reasoning behind the choices made in the city of Amsterdam with regards to charging infrastructure for electric buses. Emphasising the importance of operational

  18. Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR): The United States Marine Corps Initiative to Deliver Mental Health Services to Operating Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nash, William P

    2006-01-01

    Combat/operational stress control, defined as programs and policies to prevent, identify, and manage adverse combat/operational stress reactions, is the primary responsibility of military commanders...

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hein, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  1. The spanish electric system operation. The contribution of nuclear generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvison, M. R.; Torre, M. de la

    2009-01-01

    Operation of an electric system encloses the collection of activities which extend from affective generation dispatch to issuing instruction for network manoeuvring along with international exchange scheduling. Based on the market mechanisms that apply to energy transactions, these tasks guarantee the security of supply end consumers, which is the final goal of the System Operators actions. In Spain this function is executed by Red Electrica de Espana (REE) since 1985, after being constituted as the first Transmission and System Operator (TSO) in the world. Additionally the variations to Law 54/1997 introduced by law 17/2007 also assign REE the function of sole transmission owner in the Spanish electric system. In order to achieve the aforementioned goal, nuclear energy plays in Spain a fundamental role in electric generation thanks to its high availability rate, the predictability of its fuel recharges, its high operational reliability, its geographical location, the stability of its costs and the security of supply given by the possibility of on-site fuel storage in the power plant. (Author)

  2. Evaluating penalized logistic regression models to predict Heat-Related Electric grid stress days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramer, L. M.; Rounds, J.; Burleyson, C. D.; Fortin, D.; Hathaway, J.; Rice, J.; Kraucunas, I.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the conditions associated with stress on the electricity grid is important in the development of contingency plans for maintaining reliability during periods when the grid is stressed. In this paper, heat-related grid stress and the relationship with weather conditions is examined using data from the eastern United States. Penalized logistic regression models were developed and applied to predict stress on the electric grid using weather data. The inclusion of other weather variables, such as precipitation, in addition to temperature improved model performance. Several candidate models and datasets were examined. A penalized logistic regression model fit at the operation-zone level was found to provide predictive value and interpretability. Additionally, the importance of different weather variables observed at different time scales were examined. Maximum temperature and precipitation were identified as important across all zones while the importance of other weather variables was zone specific. The methods presented in this work are extensible to other regions and can be used to aid in planning and development of the electrical grid.

  3. Overcoming the effects of stress on reactor operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Wei Li; Zhao Bingquan

    2003-01-01

    Reactor operators may be exposed to significant levels of stress during plant emergencies and their performance may be affected by the stress. This paper first identified the potential sources of stress in the nuclear power plant, then discussed the ways in which stress is likely to affect the reactor operators, and finally identified several training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects. The challenges for effective stress reducing training may seem daunting, yet the challenges are real and must be addressed. This paper reviewed researches in training design, knowledge and skill acquisition, and training transfer point to a number of strategies that can be used to address these challenges and lead to more effective training and development. (author)

  4. Overcoming the effects of stress on reactor operator performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xuhong; Wei Li; Zhao Bingquan [Tsinghua Univ., Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Training Center, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    Reactor operators may be exposed to significant levels of stress during plant emergencies and their performance may be affected by the stress. This paper first identified the potential sources of stress in the nuclear power plant, then discussed the ways in which stress is likely to affect the reactor operators, and finally identified several training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects. The challenges for effective stress reducing training may seem daunting, yet the challenges are real and must be addressed. This paper reviewed researches in training design, knowledge and skill acquisition, and training transfer point to a number of strategies that can be used to address these challenges and lead to more effective training and development. (author)

  5. Electric fuses operation, a review: 2. Arcing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussière, W

    2012-01-01

    In the electric fuse operation the arcing period follows immediately the pre-arcing period depicted in Part 1 (Part 1. Pre-arcing period). The transition between these two operation steps is not fully understood at this time. To simplify the beginning of the arcing period can be identified with the electric arc ignition i.e. with the electrodes voltage drop. The consecutive plasma is of metallic type at the beginning of the arcing period and of metallic plus silica type with varying mixture up to the end of the arcing period. The energy brought by the fault current is withdrawn by means of the interaction between the electric arc and the arc quenching material (usually silica sand) whose morphometric properties influence the properties of the plasma column: composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of the plasma column depend on the porosity (and other morphometric properties) of the filler. The fuse element erosion also known as burn-back is responsible for the lengthening of the plasma column and the variations of the electric field. The whole of these processes is depicted by means of experimental results or modellings when possible.

  6. Optimal Wind Power Uncertainty Intervals for Electricity Market Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhi; Botterud, Audun; Zhang, Kaifeng

    2018-01-01

    It is important to select an appropriate uncertainty level of the wind power forecast for power system scheduling and electricity market operation. Traditional methods hedge against a predefined level of wind power uncertainty, such as a specific confidence interval or uncertainty set, which leaves the questions of how to best select the appropriate uncertainty levels. To bridge this gap, this paper proposes a model to optimize the forecast uncertainty intervals of wind power for power system scheduling problems, with the aim of achieving the best trade-off between economics and reliability. Then we reformulate and linearize the models into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) without strong assumptions on the shape of the probability distribution. In order to invest the impacts on cost, reliability, and prices in a electricity market, we apply the proposed model on a twosettlement electricity market based on a six-bus test system and on a power system representing the U.S. state of Illinois. The results show that the proposed method can not only help to balance the economics and reliability of the power system scheduling, but also help to stabilize the energy prices in electricity market operation.

  7. Nuclear energy in the operation of the spanish electric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atienza, L.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays a basic role in electricity production in Spain. Its high availability rate, the predictability of its fuel recharges, its high operational reliability, its geographical location, the stability of its costs, with its fuel having low weight in the cost structure, the security of supply that the possibility of storing its fuel on-site in the power plant gives and the absence of CO 2 emissions are some of the advantages nuclear energy presents. Its stiffness for demand variations, its sudden disconnections, which are infrequent but with high impact on System Operation, the social perception and nuclear waste management must also be weighted up. (Author)

  8. Analysis of electrical and thermal stress effects on PCBM:P3HT solar cells by photocurrent and impedance spectroscopy modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torto, Lorenzo; Rizzo, Antonio; Cester, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of electrical stress and thermal storage by means of photocurrent, Impedance Spectroscopy and Open Circuit Voltage Decay models. The electrical stress damages only the active layer, by reducing the generation rate, the polaron separation probability and the carrier...... lifetime. The thermal stress also degrades the anode interface. This reflects on the appearance of an inflection in the I-V photocurrent shape close to the operative region....

  9. Keep your eyes open: dispositional vigilance moderates the relationship between operational police stress and stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Jeanette; Krick, Annika; Egloff, Boris

    2017-09-01

    Vigilant coping is characterized by a deep processing of threat-related information. In many cases, vigilant coping increases stress symptoms, whereas avoidant coping decreases negative affect. However, vigilance may be beneficial when stress-eliciting situations involve a risk of injury or escalation as is usually the case in police operations. We investigated the roles of vigilance and cognitive avoidance in police operations in a cross-sectional survey. The participants were 137 students (104 men, M age  = 28.54, SD = 8.04) from the Federal University of Applied Administrative Sciences; 76 of them were already police officers (work experience: M = 12.59 years), and 61 were police officer candidates who had completed a 3- to 6-month police internship. Participants completed a paper-and-pencil survey and reported their operational stress, dispositional vigilance and cognitive avoidance in police operations, and stress symptoms. We found that vigilance was negatively associated with stress symptoms and moderated the relationship between operational stress and stress symptoms. Cognitive avoidance, on the other hand, just missed the level of statistical significance in our test of whether it was positively associated with stress symptoms. Our findings demonstrate that vigilance may protect against the negative consequences of stress in police operations.

  10. Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations (Stress et aide psychologique dans les operations militaires modernes)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    NATO Task Group HFM-081/RTG on "Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations" has produced, in the form of a Military Leaders Guide, a series of guidelines for psychological support...

  11. Thermal stress comparison in modular power converter topologies for smart transformers in the electrical distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Markus; Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A Smart Transformer (ST) can cover an important managing role in the future electrical distribution grid. For the moment, the reliability and cost are not competitive with traditional transformers and create a barrier for its application. This work conduct detail designs and analysis...... for a promising modular ST solution, which is composed of Modular Multi-level converter, Quad Active Bridge DC-DC converters, and two-level voltage source converters. The focus is put on the loading conditions and thermal stress of power semiconductor devices in order to discover critical parts of the whole...... system when performing various mission profiles in the realistic distribution grid. It is concluded that the thermal stress for all stages is low during normal operation and especially the isolation stage is stressed least....

  12. Probability of inadvertent operation of electrical components in harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, A.

    1989-01-01

    Harsh environment, which means humidity and high temperature, may and will affect unsealed electrical components by causing leakage ground currents in ungrounded direct current systems. The concern in a nuclear power plant is that such harsh environment conditions could cause inadvertent operation of normally deenergized components, which may have a safety-related isolation function. Harsh environment is a common cause failure, and one way to approach the problem is to assume that all the unsealed electrical components will simultaneously and inadvertently energize as a result of the environmental common cause failure. This assumption is unrealistically conservative. Test results indicated that insulating resistences of any terminal block in harsh environments have a random distribution in the range of 1 to 270 kΩ, with a mean value ∼59 kΩ. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a realistic conditional failure probability for inadvertent operation of electrical components in harsh environments. This value will be used thereafter in probabilistic safety evaluations of harsh environment events and will replace both the overconservative common cause probability of 1 and the random failure probability used for mild environments

  13. ELECTRIC MOTORS MAINTENANCE PLANNING FROM ITS OPERATING VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco RODRIGUES

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance planning corresponds to an approach that seeks to maximize the availability of equipment and, conse-quently, increase the levels of competitiveness of companies by increasing production times. This paper presents a maintenance planning based on operating variables (number of hours worked, duty cycles, number of revolutions to maximizing the availability of operation of electrical motors. The reading of the operating variables and its sampling is done based on predetermined sampling cycles and subsequently is made the data analysis through time series algo-rithms aiming to launch work orders before reaching the variables limit values. This approach is supported by tools and technologies such as logical applications that enable a graphical user interface for access to relevant information about their Physical Asset HMI (Human Machine Interface, including the control and supervision by acquisition through SCADA (Supervisory Control And data acquisition data, also including the communication protocols among different logical applications.

  14. Reconfiguration strategies for electrical devices for operation within feasibility margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandor, Malin; Blank, Marita [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany); Lehnhoff, Sebastian [OFFIS - Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Due to a transition of the energy system towards a sustainable energy supply by the integration of renewable, decentralized energy resources, new challenges regarding a safe and secure energy supply appear. With renewable energy resources the power fee-in will be highly volatile. Furthermore, due to a correlated feed-in depending on e.g. weather phenomena or control strategies on the demand side, the system might be operated beyond feasible boundaries. However, the satisfaction of viable operational boundaries must be guaranteed. In this paper a method is presented that allows the utilization of degrees of freedom in form of decentralized flexible electric consumers and products in order to optimize an operational state with regard to its feasibility. First results are presented in a case study. (orig.)

  15. Electric Motors Maintenance Planning From Its Operating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisco; Fonseca, Inácio; Farinha, José Torres; Ferreira, Luís; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The maintenance planning corresponds to an approach that seeks to maximize the availability of equipment and, consequently, increase the levels of competitiveness of companies by increasing production times. This paper presents a maintenance planning based on operating variables (number of hours worked, duty cycles, number of revolutions) to maximizing the availability of operation of electrical motors. The reading of the operating variables and its sampling is done based on predetermined sampling cycles and subsequently is made the data analysis through time series algorithms aiming to launch work orders before reaching the variables limit values. This approach is supported by tools and technologies such as logical applications that enable a graphical user interface for access to relevant information about their Physical Asset HMI (Human Machine Interface), including the control and supervision by acquisition through SCADA (Supervisory Control And data acquisition) data, also including the communication protocols among different logical applications.

  16. Job satisfaction among control room operators of electrical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaia, Amanda A Silva; Marqueze, Elaine C; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Fischer, Frida Marina; Moreno, Claudia R C

    2012-01-01

    Shift workers from control centers of electrical systems are a group that has received little attention in Brazil. This study aimed to compare workers' job satisfaction at five control centers of a Brazilian company electrical system, and according to their job titles. The Organization Satisfaction Index (OSI) questionnaire to assess job satisfaction was used. ANOVA was used to compare OSI means, according to job title and control center. The results showed that there is no difference in job satisfaction among job titles, but a significant difference was found according to the control center. A single organizational culture cannot be applied to several branches. It is required to implement actions that would result in job satisfaction improvements among workers of all studied control rooms centers. The high level of education of operators working in all centers might have contributed to the similar values of perceived satisfaction among distinct job titles.

  17. Comfort Ye My People: Chaplains, Spiritual Care, and Operational Stress Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    post - traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), operational stress injury (OSI...combat operational stress injury and post - traumatic stress disorder yet, of necessity, their work is grounded in a medical model ill equipped to...into combat operational stress injury and post - traumatic stress disorder yet, of necessity’ their work is groWlded in. a medical model ill equipped

  18. Conceptual Design of Operation Strategies for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hoelzen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambitious targets to reduce emissions caused by aviation in the light of an expected ongoing rise of the air transport demand in the future drive the research of propulsion systems with lower CO2 emissions. Regional hybrid electric aircraft (HEA powered by conventional gas turbines and battery powered electric motors are investigated to test hybrid propulsion operation strategies. Especially the role of the battery within environmentally friendly concepts with significantly reduced carbon footprint is analyzed. Thus, a new simulation approach for HEA is introduced. The main findings underline the importance of choosing the right power-to-energy-ratio of a battery according to the flight mission. The gravimetric energy and power density of the electric storages determine the technologically feasibility of hybrid concepts. Cost competitive HEA configurations are found, but do not promise the targeted CO2 emission savings, when the well-to-wheel system is regarded with its actual costs. Sensitivity studies are used to determine external levers that favor the profitability of HEA.

  19. Electricity Networks: Infrastructure and Operations. Too complex for a resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Electricity security remains a priority of energy policy and continuous electrification will further enhance the importance in the years to come. Market liberalisation has brought substantial benefits to societies, including competition, innovation, more client-oriented services and the reduced needs for public expenditure. Further, the path of decarbonisation is a must but experiences with many new technologies and policies show their many implications on power systems. Electricity networks form the backbone of reliable and affordable power systems and also significantly support the inception of renewable generation. The importance of distribution and transmission networks has to be well understood by policy makers and regulators to maintain the sensitive balance within the policy triangle of reliability, affordability and sustainability as power systems rapidly change. Failures in choosing the right institutions and regulatory frameworks to operate and build networks will put the sensitive balance within the policy triangle at risk. ''Too complex for a resource?'' identifies the key challenges the electricity distribution and transmission networks face today and in the future. It further provides for best practice examples on institutional design choices and regulatory frameworks for sound network service provision but also highlights the importance of additional responses required. More market-based and dynamic frameworks for various system services, the growing need for active service participation of renewable generators and highly independent and transparent central operators seem to be at the heart of these responses. ''Too complex for a resource?'' finds that the answer to the challenges ahead is not always more infrastructure and that networks and the services they provide have to be regarded as equal part of the total power system. Thus, accurate and dynamic cost allocation can significantly support to transform

  20. 49 CFR 236.207 - Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.207 Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control. Electric lock on hand-operated switch shall be controlled so that it cannot be unlocked... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control...

  1. Operating experience and aging-seismic assessment of electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Burns, E.L.; Taylor, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify concerns related to the aging and service wear of equipment operating in nuclear power plants, to assess their possible impact on plant safety, to identify effective inspection surveillance and monitoring methods and to recommend suitable maintenance practices for mitigating aging related concerns and diminish the rate of degradation due to aging and service wear. Motor design and materials of construction are reviewed to identify age-sensitive components. Operational and accidental stressors are determined, and their effect on promoting aging degradation is assessed. Failure modes, mechanisms, and causes have been reviewed from operating experiences and existing data banks. The study has also included consideration for the seismic correlation of age-degraded motor components. The aforementioned reviews and assessments were assimilated to characterize the dielectric, rotational, and mechanical hazards on motor performance and operational readiness. The functional indicators which can be monitored to assess motor component deterioration due to aging or other accidental stressors are identified. Conforming with the NPAR strategy as outlined in the program plan, the study also includes a preliminary discussion of current standards and guides, maintenance programs, and research activities pertaining to nuclear power plant safety-related electric motors

  2. Development of an electrically operated cassava slicing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Aji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Labor input in manual cassava chips processing is very high and product quality is low. This paper presents the design and construction of an electrically operated cassava slicing machine that requires only one person to operate. Efficiency, portability, ease of operation, corrosion prevention of slicing component of the machine, force required to slice a cassava tuber, capacity of 10 kg/min and uniformity in the size of the cassava chips were considered in the design and fabrication of the machine. The performance of the machine was evaluated with cassava of average length and diameter of 253 mm and 60 mm respectively at an average speed of 154 rpm. The machine produced 5.3 kg of chips of 10 mm length and 60 mm diameter in 1 minute. The efficiency of the machine was 95.6% with respect to the quantity of the input cassava. The chips were found to be well chipped to the designed thickness, shape and of generally similar size. Galvanized steel sheets were used in the cutting section to avoid corrosion of components. The machine is portable and easy to operate which can be adopted for cassava processing in a medium size industry.

  3. Residual stress evaluation by Barkhausen signals with a magnetic field sensor for high efficiency electrical motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Yuji; Enokizono, Masato

    2018-04-01

    The iron loss of industrial motors increases by residual stress during manufacturing processes. It is very important to make clear the distribution of the residual stress in the motor cores to reduce the iron loss in the motors. Barkhausen signals which occur on electrical steel sheets can be used for the evaluation of the residual stress because they are very sensitive to the material properties. Generally, a B-sensor is used to measure Barkhausen signals, however, we developed a new H-sensor to measure them and applied it into the stress evaluation. It is supposed that the Barkhausen signals by using a H-sensor can be much effective to the residual stress on the electrical steel sheets by referring our results regarding to the stress evaluations. We evaluated the tensile stress of the electrical steel sheets by measuring Barkhausen signals by using our developed H-sensor for high efficiency electrical motors.

  4. Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

  5. Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

    2001-07-02

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

  6. Computer Pure-Tone and Operator Stress: Report III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caroline; Covert, Douglas C.

    Pure-tone sound at 15,750 Herz generated by flyback transformers in many computer and video display terminal (VDT) monitors has stress-related productivity effects in some operators, especially women. College-age women in a controlled experiment simulating half a normal work day showed responses within the first half hour of exposure to a tone…

  7. [Increase in number of operations for stress urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhout, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of the minimally invasive tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) the number of operations performed for treatment of stress urinary incontinence has increased dramatically from over 1600 in 1999 to more than 4200 in 2003. Both gynaecologists and urologists now perform more TVTs and

  8. Scenario-based electric bus operation: A case study of Putrajaya, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lay Eng Teoh; Hooi Ling Khoo; Siew Yoke Goh; Lai Mun Chong

    2018-01-01

    Globally, transportation sector has emerged as one of the major sources of air pollution. Correspondingly, green mobility (with electric bus) is gaining increasing attention as an essential step to mitigate emission concern. As such, a proper electric bus network design and fleet planning is important especially for bus operator to acquire an adequate number of electric bus, right on time, in order to operate electric bus system viably. Thus, this paper aims to examine the possibility to oper...

  9. Nuclear electric propulsion operational reliability and crew safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karns, J.J.; Fragola, J.R.; Kahan, L.; Pelaccio, D.

    1993-01-01

    The central purpose of this analysis is to assess the ''achievability'' of a nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system in a given mission. ''Achievability'' is a concept introduced to indicate the extent to which a system that meets or achieves its design goals might be implemented using the existing technology base. In the context of this analysis, the objective is to assess the achievability of an NEP system for a manned Mars mission as it pertains to operational reliability and crew safety goals. By varying design parameters, then examining the resulting system achievability, the design and mission risk drivers can be identified. Additionally, conceptual changes in design approach or mission strategy which are likely to improve overall achievability of the NEP system can be examined

  10. Method and system for operating an electric motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Hiti, Silva; Perisic, Milun

    2013-01-22

    Methods and systems for operating an electric motor having a plurality of windings with an inverter having a plurality of switches coupled to a voltage source are provided. A first plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The first plurality of switching vectors includes a first ratio of first magnitude switching vectors to second magnitude switching vectors. A direct current (DC) current associated with the voltage source is monitored during the applying of the first plurality of switching vectors to the plurality of switches. A second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors is selected based on the monitoring of the DC current associated with the voltage source. A second plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The second plurality of switching vectors includes the second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors.

  11. Operation and planning of coordinated natural gas and electricity infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaping

    Natural gas is becoming rapidly the optimal choice for fueling new generating units in electric power system driven by abundant natural gas supplies and environmental regulations that are expected to cause coal-fired generation retirements. The growing reliance on natural gas as a dominant fuel for electricity generation throughout North America has brought the interaction between the natural gas and power grids into sharp focus. The primary concern and motivation of this research is to address the emerging interdependency issues faced by the electric power and natural gas industry. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of the interactions between the two systems regarding the short-term operation and long-term infrastructure planning. Natural gas and renewable energy appear complementary in many respects regarding fuel price and availability, environmental impact, resource distribution and dispatchability. In addition, demand response has also held the promise of making a significant contribution to enhance system operations by providing incentives to customers for a more flat load profile. We investigated the coordination between natural gas-fired generation and prevailing nontraditional resources including renewable energy, demand response so as to provide economical options for optimizing the short-term scheduling with the intense natural gas delivery constraints. As the amount and dispatch of gas-fired generation increases, the long-term interdependency issue is whether there is adequate pipeline capacity to provide sufficient gas to natural gas-fired generation during the entire planning horizon while it is widely used outside the power sector. This thesis developed a co-optimization planning model by incorporating the natural gas transportation system into the multi-year resource and transmission system planning problem. This consideration would provide a more comprehensive decision for the investment and accurate assessment for system adequacy and

  12. Impact of peak electricity demand in distribution grids: a stress test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Schuring, Friso; Kootstra, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The number of (hybrid) electric vehicles is growing, leading to a higher demand for electricity in distribution grids. To investigate the effects of the expected peak demand on distribution grids, a stress test with 15 electric vehicles in a single street is conducted and described in this paper.

  13. New information technologies in operative control of modes in regional electrical power systems

    OpenAIRE

    ANDREY D. TEVJASHEV; TATJANA B. TIMOFEEVA

    2003-01-01

    The problem of development of software for management of modes in electrical power systems in connection with casual character of a load in network is considered. The stochastic mathematical model of a system for operating control of modes in regional electrical power systems is offered. The methods for problem solving of operating control and operating planning of operational modes in regional electrical power systems are developed. The application of the developed models and methods will al...

  14. Family stress and posttraumatic stress: the impact of military operations on military health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Barnett, Scott D; Hickling, Edward J

    2012-08-01

    This study uses data from the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel to examine relationships between family stress and posttraumatic stress symptoms across 4 subgroups of Operation Iraqi Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Iraq) or Operation Enduring Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Afghanistan) active-duty military service members. Results suggest the following: (a) the greatest positive correlation of family stressors with posttraumatic stress symptoms was found within the military health care officer group, and (b) these military health care officers differed in family stressors mediating posttraumatic stress with divorce and financial problems accounting for significant and unique portions of the variance. Implications for care of service members and their families are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL-ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Ursulyak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the operational characteristics of freight diesel-electric locomotives ER20CF and 2М62м, which are operated with Lithuanian Railways. Important problems on traction calculations are considered in this article. In this article the critical tasks of traction calculations are solved. It is the main computational tool in the rational functioning, planning and development of railways: determination of the estimated weight of the rolling stock, the diagrams construction of specific resultant forces of a train, the permitted speed definition of the train on the slopes, curves of train traffic construction on the section. Methodology. Using the rules and methods of traction calculations the analysis of the basic operational characteristics of the modernized freight diesel-electric locomotive 2М62m and freight passenger dual locomotive 2ER20CF was held. The maximum weight of the train set, the track structure on a high-speed ascent through the use of kinetic energy (with traction and without traction, technical speed, acceleration force and the value of the smallest radius curve are selected as controlled parameters. During the calculations it was considered that the trains were formed of a fully loaded four-axle gondola cars, model 112-119 (feature-606 with axle load of 23.5 t; the motion was carried out on the continuous welded rail track; the front of the train set is a dual locomotive 2ER20CF or two locomotive 2М62м. Longitudinal profile of the road on the route Vilnus–KlF was analyzed for the choice of theoretical rise. Inspection concerning the possibility of overcoming the high-speed rise was performed with an analytical method, based on the use of the kinetic energy accumulated by the overcoming of «light» elements of the profile. Findings. In the calculations, the maximum weight of the train set taking into account theoretical rise was analyzed. The inspection of the theoretical weight of the train set on a reliable

  16. 46 CFR 113.35-7 - Electric engine order telegraph systems; operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transmitter handle automatically connects that transmitter electrically to the engineroom indicator and simultaneously disconnects electrically all other transmitters. The reply pointers of all transmitters must... manually operated transfer switch which will disconnect the system in the unattended navigating bridge must...

  17. Evaluation of sounds for hybrid and electric vehicles operating at low speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), operated at low speeds may reduce auditory cues used by pedestrians to assess the state of nearby traffic creating a safety issue. This field study compares the auditory detectability of num...

  18. 76 FR 58101 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ....C. Cir. 2009). \\4\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, FERC... for maintaining real and reactive power balance. \\14\\ Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation...; Order No. 753] Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability...

  19. THE TRACTION ELECTRIC OPERATION AND ITS EXPLOITATION ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bezruchenko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of asynchronous traction electric motor drive are considered at the certain coupling mass taking into account the coupling restrictions. A variant of using the regulation law for electric motor drive allowing realizing traction force more rationally is offered. The possibility of reaching the speeds to 220 km/h for electric locomotive DS3 is shown

  20. Psychophysiological monitoring of operator's emotional stress in aviation and astronautics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, P V; Frolov, M V; Ivanov, E A

    1980-01-01

    The level of emotional stress depending on the power of motivation and the estimation by the subject of the probability (possibility) of goal achievement, largely influences the operator's skill performance (that of a pilot, controller, astronaut). A decrease in the emotional tonus leads to drowsiness, lack of vigilance, missing of significant signals, and to slower reactions. The extremely high stress level disorganizes the activity, complicates it with a trend toward untimely acts and reactions to the insignificant signals (false alarms). The best methods to monitor the degree of the operator's emotional state during his skill performance are the integral estimation of the changes in heart-rate and T-peak amplitude, as well as the analysis of spectral and intonational characteristics of the human voice during radio conversation. These methods were tested on paratroopers, pilots in civil aviation, and airport controllers.

  1. Electric power annual 1994. Volume 2, Operational and financial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-28

    This year, the annual is published in two volumes. Volume I focused on US electric utilities and contained final 1994 data on net generation, fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost. This Volume II presents annual 1994 summary statistics for the electric power industry, including information on both electric utilities and nonutility power producers. Included are preliminary data for electric utility retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on form EIA-861) and for electric utility financial statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, and demand- side management. Final 1994 data for US nonutility power producers on installed capacity and gross generation, as well as supply and disposition information, are also provided in Volume II. Technical notes and a glossary are included.

  2. Scenario-based electric bus operation: A case study of Putrajaya, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, transportation sector has emerged as one of the major sources of air pollution. Correspondingly, green mobility (with electric bus is gaining increasing attention as an essential step to mitigate emission concern. As such, a proper electric bus network design and fleet planning is important especially for bus operator to acquire an adequate number of electric bus, right on time, in order to operate electric bus system viably. Thus, this paper aims to examine the possibility to operate electric bus as a replacement for the conventional bus operation (with natural gas buses for the study area in Putrajaya, Malaysia. In order to determine a proper-designed electric bus operating system in terms of electric bus route, service frequency and quantity, the proposed methodology is developed with the aid of a traffic modeling software to cater various scenarios. Based on the existing (conventional traffic and transit system in Putrajaya, the developed electric bus operating model is calibrated accordingly by considering various operational concerns including battery capacity and charging facility. The resultant findings revealed that the developed electric bus operating system in Putrajaya outperforms the conventional bus operation, not only in generating a higher profit margin for the bus operator, but also satisfying the passengers in a better manner (by carrying more passengers per unit of bus with a lower energy consumption.

  3. Independent Electricity Market Operator integration management participant technical reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document provides potential participants with the essential technical information to permit them to participate in the IMO-administered markets, and is not intended to be a complete technical reference manual for all issues within the realm of electricity production, distribution, or consumption. Written for the participants, it provides only that information which is relevant to the participant for interfacing with the IMO and participating in the market. Written as a generic guide, all the information contained within it may not be relevant to all the participants. The document's intent is to provide participants with a description of the various facilities and interfaces required by market participants to take part in the IMO-administered markets. The document supplements the market rules and provides installation, set-up, and configuration information for the various tools and facilities that will be required for market participation as a supplier, carrier/delivery (transmitter/distributor), generator, or consumer in the market. Aspects considered include: participant workstation specifications, dispatch workstation specification, message exchange, remote terminal unit specification, AGC operational RTU specification, real time network connection specification, telephone connection specification, revenue administration specification, funds administration specification, data catalogues, market information, power grid connection requirements, and appendices

  4. Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

  5. Operating principle of Soft Open Points for electrical distribution network operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wanyu; Wu, Jianzhong; Jenkins, Nick; Wang, Chengshan; Green, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two control modes were developed for a B2B VSCs based SOP. • The SOP operating principle was investigated under various network conditions. • The performance of the SOP using two control modes was analyzed. - Abstract: Soft Open Points (SOPs) are power electronic devices installed in place of normally-open points in electrical power distribution networks. They are able to provide active power flow control, reactive power compensation and voltage regulation under normal network operating conditions, as well as fast fault isolation and supply restoration under abnormal conditions. Two control modes were developed for the operation of an SOP, using back-to-back voltage-source converters (VSCs). A power flow control mode with current control provides independent control of real and reactive power. A supply restoration mode with a voltage controller enables power supply to isolated loads due to network faults. The operating principle of the back-to-back VSCs based SOP was investigated under both normal and abnormal network operating conditions. Studies on a two-feeder medium-voltage distribution network showed the performance of the SOP under different network-operating conditions: normal, during a fault and post-fault supply restoration. During the change of network operating conditions, a mode switch method based on the phase locked loop controller was used to achieve the transitions between the two control modes. Hard transitions by a direct mode switching were noticed unfavourable, but seamless transitions were obtained by deploying a soft cold load pickup and voltage synchronization process.

  6. Work stress of women in sewing machine operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, A; Desai, H; Nag, P K

    1992-06-01

    The study examined the work stresses of 107 women who were engaged in sewing machine operation in small garment manufacturing units. Of the three types of sewing machines (motor-operated, full and half shuttle foot-operated), 74% of the machines were foot-operated, where throttle action of the lower limb is required to move the shuttle of the machine. The motor-operated machines were faster than the foot-operated machines. The short cycle sewing work involves repetitive action of hand and feet. The women had to maintain a constant seated position on a stool without backrest and the body inclined forward. Long-term sewing work had a cumulative load on the musculo-skeletal structures, including the vertebral column and reflected in the form of high prevalence of discomfort and pain in different body parts. About 68% of the women complained of back pain, among whom 35% reported a persistent low back pain. Common sewing work accident is piercing of the needle through the fingers, particularly the right forefingers. Unsatisfactory man-machine incompatibility, work posture and fatigue, improper coordination of eye, leg and hand are the major problems of the operators. The design mis-match of the work place may be significantly improved by taking women's anthropometric dimensions in modifying the workplace, i.e. the seat surface, seat height, work height, backrest, etc.

  7. Electrohydrostatic and electrohydrodynamic theories of equilibrium shapes and stability of electrically stressed conducting liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This work represents an initial attempt at a systematic and rigorous study of the static and dynamic equilibrium shapes and stability of electrically stressed conducting fluids. The ultimate objective of the research is to explain the basic mechanism(s) describing the operation of a field emission liquid metal ion source. The variational procedure is used to obtain a set of equations whose solutions describe the static fluid shape as a function of applied field. Using an iterative procedure to solve Laplace's equation for an arbitrary geometry, a sequence of profiles is calculated that shows the evolution of the deformed fluid surface with applied field. A systematic study of stability is made by applying the Taylor and Zeleny criteria to quasi-statistically stressed fluids. To formulate a realistic and accurate description of the onset of instability, is is necessary to introduce fluid flow, which requires a dynamical analysis. To maintain contact with the LMIS configuration, the approach to instability is studied in axially symmetric fluids using a linearized set of electrohydrodynamic equations. The analysis is applied to different coordinate surfaces, which are used to model fluid shapes, which are observed, or assumed to exist, in an operating LMIS just prior to or at the onset of emission. Results suggest a new interpretation of the onset of instability

  8. Residual and operating stresses in welded Alloy 600 penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, E.S.; Gross, D.J.; Pathania, R.

    1995-01-01

    An elastic-plastic finite element model has been developed for calculating residual and operating stresses in Alloy 600 penetrations which are installed in pressure vessel shells by J-groove welds. The welding process is simulated by multiple passes of heat input with heat transfer into the adjacent parts during welding and cooling. Analysis results are presented for CRDM nozzles, pressurizer instrument nozzles and pressurizer heater sleeves. The effect of several key variables such as nozzle material yield strength, angle of the nozzle relative to the vessel shell, weld size, presence of counterbores, etc. are explored. Results of the modelling are correlated with field and laboratory data. Application of the stress analysis results to PWSCC predictive modeling is discussed. (author). 6 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Coordinated Operation of the Electricity and Natural Gas Systems with Bi-directional Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated operation of the natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables. This work focuses on the unified optimal operation of the integrated natural gas and electricity system considering the network...

  10. Guidelines for Distribution System Operators on Reactive Power Provision by Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Marinelli, Mattia; Træholt, Chresten

    2017-01-01

    The increasing success of electric vehicles is bringing new technical challenges to power system operators. This work intends to provide guidelines for distribution system operators in terms of reactive power requirements when evaluating and authorizing electric vehicles supply equipment with fast...... the amount of reactive power that an individual electric vehicle is expected to provide when connected to a low voltage feeder, in order to benefit of the desired voltage rise effect in comparison to the case of unitary power factor....

  11. Effect of External Electric Field Stress on Gliadin Protein Conformation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Shirin; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    A molecular dynamic (MD) modeling approach was applied to evaluate the effect of external electric field on gliadin protein structure and surface properties. Static electric field strengths of 0.001 V/nm and 0.002 V/nm induced conformational changes in the protein but had no significant effect on its surface properties. The study of hydrogen bond evolution during the course of simulation revealed that the root mean square deviation, radius of gyration and secondary structure formation, all de...

  12. Operating point resolved loss computation in electrical machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfingsten Georg Von

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic circuits of electromagnetic energy converters, such as electrical machines, are nowadays highly utilized. This proposition is intrinsic for the magnetic as well as the electric circuit and depicts that significant enhancements of electrical machines are difficult to achieve in the absence of a detailed understanding of underlying effects. In order to improve the properties of electrical machines the accurate determination of the locally distributed iron losses based on idealized model assumptions solely is not sufficient. Other loss generating effects have to be considered and the possibility being able to distinguish between the causes of particular loss components is indispensable. Parasitic loss mechanisms additionally contributing to the total losses originating from field harmonics, non-linear material behaviour, rotational magnetizations, and detrimental effects caused by the manufacturing process or temperature, are not explicitly considered in the common iron-loss models, probably even not specifically contained in commonly used calibration factors. This paper presents a methodology being able to distinguish between different loss mechanisms and enables to individually consider particular loss mechanisms in the model of the electric machine. A sensitivity analysis of the model parameters can be performed to obtain information about which decisive loss origin for which working point has to be manipulated by the electromagnetic design or the control of the machine.

  13. Generation Companies’ Operative Strategies in the Spot Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar-Hernández J.H.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In traditional regulation the obligation to meet the consumer demand was assumed, this guaranteed to generation companies the full recovery of their costs. However, in order to achieve greater efficiency, reduce the price of electricity, meet the continuously growing electricity consumption, and equalize prices in different regions, a new structure of the electricity industry has been created, where electric energy is traded through a market. Generation company’s future cash flows depend on day to day market participation, in order to satisfy all of their financial and economic requirements. In this paper, future cash flows required to fulfill with economic and financial commitments by a generation company immerse in this new market structure are studied. For this purpose, future cash flows are considered to be dependent on a single asset: electricity. Several scenarios with different fuel prices are generated in order to estimate the generation company’s future cash flows. The response of the competing generation companies is taken into account at each scenario. The fuel price changes are modelled using a concurrent binary tree.

  14. Do Capacitively Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A convenience sample based on availability of tibial stress fracture cases at local Sports Medicine Clinics will be selected over 2-3 years until forty subjects (20 male, 20 female) have been treated...

  15. Do Capacity Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A convenience sample based on availability of tibial stress fracture cases a% local Sports Medicine Clinics will be selected over 4 years until forty subjects (20 male, 20 female) have been treated...

  16. Do Capacitively Coupled Electric Fields Accelerate Tibial Stress Fracture Healing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    A convenience sample based on availability of tibial stress fracture cases at local Sports Medicine Clinics will be selected over 2-3 years until forty subjects (20 male, 20 female) have been treated...

  17. Voltage- and current-activated metal–insulator transition in VO2-based electrical switches: a lifetime operation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Crunteanu, Julien Givernaud, Jonathan Leroy, David Mardivirin, Corinne Champeaux, Jean-Christophe Orlianges, Alain Catherinot and Pierre Blondy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide is an intensively studied material that undergoes a temperature-induced metal–insulator phase transition accompanied by a large change in electrical resistivity. Electrical switches based on this material show promising properties in terms of speed and broadband operation. The exploration of the failure behavior and reliability of such devices is very important in view of their integration in practical electronic circuits. We performed systematic lifetime investigations of two-terminal switches based on the electrical activation of the metal–insulator transition in VO2 thin films. The devices were integrated in coplanar microwave waveguides (CPWs in series configuration. We detected the evolution of a 10 GHz microwave signal transmitted through the CPW, modulated by the activation of the VO2 switches in both voltage- and current-controlled modes. We demonstrated enhanced lifetime operation of current-controlled VO2-based switching (more than 260 million cycles without failure compared with the voltage-activated mode (breakdown at around 16 million activation cycles. The evolution of the electrical self-oscillations of a VO2-based switch induced in the current-operated mode is a subtle indicator of the material properties modification and can be used to monitor its behavior under various external stresses in sensor applications.

  18. Coupled stress-strain and electrical resistivity measurements on copper based shape memory single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Cezar Henrique

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, electrical resistivity (ER measurements have been done during some thermomechanical tests in copper based shape memory alloys (SMA's. In this work, single crystals of Cu-based SMA's have been studied at different temperatures to analyse the relationship between stress (s and ER changes as a function of the strain (e. A good consistency between ER change values is observed in different experiments: thermal martensitic transformation, stress induced martensitic transformation and stress induced reorientation of martensite variants. During stress induced martensitic transformation (superelastic behaviour and stress induced reorientation of martensite variants, a linear relationship is obtained between ER and strain as well as the absence of hys teresis. In conclusion, the present results show a direct evidence of martensite electrical resistivity anisotropy.

  19. Current Electric Distribution Network Operation and Grid Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of EcoGridEU task 1.4 is to extend the real‐time price approach with an integrated optimization of the distribution system operation. This will be achieved by extending the basic real‐time market concept with local location‐dependant prices that reflect the grid operation, especially...

  20. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anklam, T.

    2011-01-01

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  1. Renewable energy supply for electric vehicle operations in California

    OpenAIRE

    Papavasiliou, Anthony; Oren, Shmuel S.; Sidhy, Ikhlaq; Kaminsky, Phil; 32nd IAEE International Conference

    2009-01-01

    Due to technological progress, policy thrust and economic circumstances, the large scale integration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is becoming a reality in California, however the variable and unpredictable supply of these renewable resources poses a significant obstacle to their integration. At the same time we are witnessing a strong thrust towards the large scale deployment of electric vehicles which can ideally complement renewable power supply by acting as stor...

  2. 78 FR 44900 - Communication of Operational Information Between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System Operators (RTOs/ISOs) also noted that, although... operator from discussions between RTOs/ ISOs and natural gas pipelines regarding the status of a generator... not customers of electric transmission operators. Likewise, in the case of RTOs/ISOs, they are not...

  3. Physics-Based Modeling of Electric Operation, Heat Transfer, and Scrap Melting in an AC Electric Arc Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Florian; Treffinger, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Electric arc furnaces (EAF) are complex industrial plants whose actual behavior depends upon numerous factors. Due to its energy intensive operation, the EAF process has always been subject to optimization efforts. For these reasons, several models have been proposed in literature to analyze and predict different modes of operation. Most of these models focused on the processes inside the vessel itself. The present paper introduces a dynamic, physics-based model of a complete EAF plant which consists of the four subsystems vessel, electric system, electrode regulation, and off-gas system. Furthermore the solid phase is not treated to be homogenous but a simple spatial discretization is employed. Hence it is possible to simulate the energy input by electric arcs and fossil fuel burners depending on the state of the melting progress. The model is implemented in object-oriented, equation-based language Modelica. The simulation results are compared to literature data.

  4. Probabilistic Steady-State Operation and Interaction Analysis of Integrated Electricity, Gas and Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The existing studies on probabilistic steady-state analysis of integrated energy systems (IES are limited to integrated electricity and gas networks or integrated electricity and heating networks. This paper proposes a probabilistic steady-state analysis of integrated electricity, gas and heating networks (EGH-IES. Four typical operation modes of an EGH-IES are presented at first. The probabilistic energy flow problem of the EGS-IES considering its operation modes and correlated uncertainties in wind/solar power and electricity/gas/heat loads is then formulated and solved by the Monte Carlo method based on Latin hypercube sampling and Nataf transformation. Numerical simulations are conducted on a sample EGH-IES working in the “electricity/gas following heat” mode to verify the probabilistic analysis proposed in this paper and to study the effects of uncertainties and correlations on the operation of the EGH-IES, especially uncertainty transmissions among the subnetworks.

  5. Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Juan, Angel Alejandro; Mendez, Carlos Alberto; Faulin, Javier; de Armas, Jesica; Grasman, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Current logistics and transportation (L&T) systems include heterogeneous fleets consisting of common internal combustion engine vehicles as well as other types of vehicles using ?green? technologies, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs). However, the incorporation of EVs in L&T activities also raise some additional challenges from the strategic, planning, and operational perspectives. For instance, smart cities are required to provide recharge stations for electr...

  6. Impact of Deficient Electricity Supply on the Operations of Small Scale Businesses in North East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity supply in Nigeria is often erratic. Consumers of electricity (residential, commercial and industrial consumers suffer untold hardships as the State Owned Enterprise; the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN has been unable to supply reliable power. This is despite massive injections of funds by the Federal Government into the operations of the company over recent years. The failure has significantly impacted negatively on the operations of the business sector especially the small scale subsector that operates with little capital and are thus in most cases unable to afford a back-up facility to ensure un-interrupted power supply for their operations. The study examined the impact of deficient electric power supply on the operations of small scale businesses operating in north east of Nigeria. From the population of small scale businesses, a sample was selected through the use of stratified random sampling to ensure the effective representation of the population of small scale businesses in north east Nigeria. Results from data analysis indicates the severity of electricity supply outages and the costs imposed by power supply outages on the operation of this class of businesses in the region. The paper therefore recommends the need for policy attention towards revitalizing the electricity sector of Nigeria for enhanced supply of electricity to the national economy. When this is achieved, the small business sub-sector will be in a position to effectively lead in the drive towards industrializing the Nigerian economy.

  7. Electric Vehicle Requirements for Operation in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    Several European projects on smart grids are considering Electric Vehicles (EVs) as active element in future power systems. Both battery-powered vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are expected to interact with the grid, sharing their energy storage capacity. Different coordination concepts...... for EVs are being investigated, in which vehicles can be intelligently charged or discharged feeding power back to the grid in vehicle-to-grid mode (V2G). To respond to such needs, EVs are required to share their battery internal data as well as respond to external control signals. In this paper...

  8. Signal specific electric potential sensors for operation in noisy environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsmore-Rust, S T; Prance, R J; Aydin, A; Prance, H; Harl, C J; Stiffell, P B

    2009-01-01

    Limitations on the performance of electric potential sensors are due to saturation caused by environmental electromagnetic noise. The work described involves tailoring the response of the sensors to reject the main components of the noise, thereby enhancing both the effective dynamic range and signal to noise. We show that by using real-time analogue signal processing it is possible to detect a human heartbeat at a distance of 40 cm from the front of a subject in an unshielded laboratory. This result has significant implications both for security sensing and biometric measurements in addition to the more obvious safety related applications.

  9. Signal specific electric potential sensors for operation in noisy environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsmore-Rust, S T; Prance, R J; Aydin, A; Prance, H; Harl, C J; Stiffell, P B, E-mail: r.j.prance@sussex.ac.u [Centre for Physical Electronics and Quantum Technology, Department of Engineering and Design, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QT (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Limitations on the performance of electric potential sensors are due to saturation caused by environmental electromagnetic noise. The work described involves tailoring the response of the sensors to reject the main components of the noise, thereby enhancing both the effective dynamic range and signal to noise. We show that by using real-time analogue signal processing it is possible to detect a human heartbeat at a distance of 40 cm from the front of a subject in an unshielded laboratory. This result has significant implications both for security sensing and biometric measurements in addition to the more obvious safety related applications.

  10. Island operation capability in the Colombian electrical market: a promising ancillary service of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marín-Jiménez, Juan D.; Carvajal-Quintero, Sandra; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    is presented. Subsequently, an existing electrical distribution system with small hydropower plants is considered as a study case in order to identify the technical requirements set out for both, the distribution system and the generation source. Finally, taking into account the current Law and regulations......, a proposal is outlined for the implementation of the island operation capability ancillary service in the Colombian electrical system....

  11. Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations: implications for upstream water use

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset includes all data used in the creation of figures and graphs in the paper: "Scenarios for low carbon and low water electric power plant operations:...

  12. Application of Network-Constrained Transactive Control to Electric Vehicle Charging for Secure Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    including power transformer congestion and voltage violations. In this method, a price coordinator is introduced to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO) and aggregators in the smart grid. Electric vehicles are used to illustrate the proposed network...

  13. Secure Information Exchange Gateway for Electric Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, F. Russell [Grid Protection Alliance, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Carroll, J. Ritchie [Grid Protection Alliance, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Sanders, William [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yardley, Timothy [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Heine, Erich [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McKinnon, David [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Motteler, Barbara [Alstom Grid Inc., Levallois-Perret Cedex (France); Giri, Jay [Grid Protection Alliance, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Walker, William [PJM Interconnection (PJM), Norristown, PA (United States); McCartha, Esrick [PJM Interconnection (PJM), Norristown, PA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The major objectives of the SIEGate project were to improve the security posture and minimize the cyber-attack surface of electric utility control centers and to reduce the cost of maintaining control-room-to-control-room information exchange. Major project goals included the design, development, testing, and commercialization of a single security-hardened appliance that could meet industry needs for resisting cyber-attacks while protecting the confidentiality and integrity of a growing volume of real-time information needed to ensure the reliability of the bulk electric system and interoperating with existing data formats and networking technologies. The SIEGate project has achieved its goals and objectives. The SIEGate Design Document, issued in March 2012, presented SIEGate use cases, provided SIEGate requirements, established SIEGate design principles, and prescribed design functionality of SIEGate as well as the components that make up SIEGate. SIEGate Release Version 1.0 was posted in January 2014. Release Version 1.0.83, which was posted on March 28, 2014, fixed many issues discovered by early adopters and added several new features. Release Candidate 1.1, which added additional improvements and bug fixes, was posted in June 2014. SIEGate executables have been downloaded more than 300 times. SIEGate has been tested at PJM, Entergy, TVA, and Southern. Security testing and analysis of SIEGate has been conducted at PNNL and PJM. Alstom has provided a summary of recommended steps for commercialization of the SIEGate Appliance and identified two deployment models with immediate commercial application.

  14. HEMP emergency planning and operating procedures for electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddoch, T.W.; Markel, L.C. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Investigations of the impact of high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) on electric power systems and electrical equipment have revealed that HEMP creates both misoperation and failures. These events result from both the early time E{sub 1} (steep-front pulse) component and the late time E{sub 3} (geomagnetic perturbations) component of HEMP. In this report a HEMP event is viewed in terms of its marginal impact over classical power system disturbances by considering the unique properties and consequences of HEMP. This report focuses on system-wide electrical component failures and their potential consequences from HEMP. In particular, the effectiveness of planning and operating procedures for electric systems is evaluated while under the influence of HEMP. This assessment relies on published data and characterizes utilities using the North American Electric Reliability Council`s regions and guidelines to model electric power system planning and operations. Key issues addressed by the report include how electric power systems are affected by HEMP and what actions electric utilities can initiate to reduce the consequences of HEMP. The report also reviews the salient features of earlier HEMP studies and projects, examines technology trends in the electric power industry which are affected by HEMP, characterizes the vulnerability of power systems to HEMP, and explores the capability of electric systems to recover from a HEMP event.

  15. Manufacturing inspection of electrical steels using Magnetic Barkhausen Noise: residual stress detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samimi, A.A., E-mail: 9aa8@queensu.ca [Queen' s Univ., Applied Magnetics Group, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Krause, T.W. [Royal Military College of Canada, NDE Lab., Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Clapham, L. [Queen' s Univ., Applied Magnetics Group, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Gallaugher, M.; Ding, Y.; Chromik, R. [McGill Univ., Dept. of Mining and Materials Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Non-oriented Electrical Steel (NOES) is the magnetic core lamination material used for flux transfer in rotary machines. The presence of residual stress associated with material processing may be detrimental to magnetic domain structure refinement and as a result, magnetic performance of NOES. Therefore, manufacturing inspection of NOES that identifies the presence of residual stress could contribute to the production of more energy efficient cores. However, standard materials evaluation is limited to destructive and off-line techniques. The present work employed Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) for nondestructive identification of local residual stress associated with stages in material processing. Analysis of MBN from single strips of NOES demonstrated clear response to applied tensile stress, mechanical shearing, the presence of an insulating coating and punching. The results establish the potential of MBN as a nondestructive testing technology for quality control of electrical steels at various stages of manufacture. (author)

  16. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  17. Anti-stress effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on colonic motility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Sazu; Babygirija, Reji; Dobner, Anthony; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2012-05-01

    Disorders of colonic motility may contribute to symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and stress is widely believed to play a major role in developing IBS. Stress increases corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) of the hypothalamus, resulting in acceleration of colonic transit in rodents. In contrast, hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) has an anti-stress effect via inhibiting CRF expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and acupuncture have been shown to have anti-stress effects, the mechanism of the beneficial effects remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that TENS upregulates hypothalamic OXT expression resulting in reduced CRF expression and restoration of colonic dysmotility in response to chronic stress. Male SD rats received different types of stressors for seven consecutive days (chronic heterotypic stress). TENS was applied to the bilateral hind limbs every other day before stress loading. Another group of rats did not receive TENS treatment. TENS significantly attenuated accelerated colonic transit induced by chronic heterotypic stress, which was antagonized by a central injection of an OXT antagonist. Immunohistochemical study showed that TENS increased OXT expression and decreased CRF expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) following chronic heterotypic stress. It is suggested that TENS upregulates hypothalamic OXT expression which acts as an anti-stressor agent and mediates restored colonic dysmotility following chronic stress. TENS may be useful to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress.

  18. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Initial criticality occurred in March and start-up testing continued for most of the year. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns, maintenance, design changes, personnel radiation exposures, thermal transients, safety/relief valve malfunctions, condenser tube leaks, and recirculation pump seal failures

  19. Working group on unbundling of electricity trade operations 2. A group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    The current unbundling of operations in accounts has proved inadequate. No formula or model that could be made binding by provisions have been defined for unbundled accounts. In addition, unbundling can draw a distinct line between commercial activities and network operations, which have assumed various authoritative functions. Against this background, the need for clearer unbundling has become more marked. The working group suggests that the current provisions on unbundling of trade operations should be tightened and that the unbundling should be made clearer especially in terms of allocation of joint costs. For this, the necessary preparations by the authorities should be initiated urgently. At the same time, the working group proposes that network operations should be unbundled from other operations by incorporation or by unbundling them into a separate public utility. The smallest electric utilities should be exempted from the obligation of incorporating network operations. According to the working group, the lower limit could be fixed e.g. at 70 GWh a year. The working group also suggests that the licensees must own the electricity networks they operate. The licensees could not rent their networks from the mother company nor lease them from a financing company. The model proposed by the working group would redress the major problems connected with the supervision of the electricity market. The monopoly, i.e. the electricity network operations, under the supervision of the Electricity Market Authority could thus be unbundled. This would improve the functioning of the market and facilitate the supervision. However, the model would not abolish the tax concession of municipal public utilities in competitive trade operations, production and sale of electricity. The tax concession may affect the competitive situation on the electricity market. (orig.)

  20. Operating characteristics and modeling of the LLNL 100-kV electric gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osher, J.E.; Barnes, G.; Chau, H.H.; Lee, R.S.; Lee, C.; Speer, R.; Weingart, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the electric gun, the explosion of an electrically heated metal foil and the accompanying magnetic forces drive a thin flyer plate up a short barrel. Flyer velocities of up to 18 km/s make the gun useful for hypervelocity impact studies. The authors briefly review the technological evolution of the exploding-metal circuit elements that power the gun, describe the 100-kV electric gun designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in some detail, and present the general principles of electric gun operation. They compare the experimental performance of the LLNL gun with a simple model and with predictions of a magnetohydrodynamics code

  1. Electricity storages - optimised operation based on spot market prices; Stromspeicher. Optimierte Fahrweise auf Basis der Spotmarktpreise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Dominik; Roon, Serafin von [FfE Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    With its integrated energy and climate package the last federal government set itself ambitious goals for the improvement of energy efficiency and growth of renewable energy production. These goals were confirmed by the new government in its coalition agreement. However, they can only be realised if the supply of electricity from fluctuating renewable sources can be made to coincide with electricity demand. Electricity storages are therefore an indispensable component of the future energy supply system. This article studies the optimised operation of an electricity storage based on spot market prices and the influence of wind power production up to the year 2020.

  2. Hydraulically-activated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Imdad; Barkan, Philip

    1979-01-01

    This operating system comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit-breaker opening operation. A normally-closed valve located on the breaker-closing-side of the piston is openable to release liquid from the breaker-closing space so that pressurized liquid in the breaker-opening space can drive the piston in an opening direction. Means is provided for restoring the valve to its closed position following the circuit-breaker opening operation. An impeded passage affords communication between the accumulator and the breaker-closing space to allow pressurized liquid to flow from the accumulator to the breaker-closing space and develop a pressure therein substantially equal to accumulator pressure when the valve is restored to closed position following breaker-opening. This passage is so impeded that the flow therethrough from the accumulator into the breaker-closing space is sufficiently low during initial opening motion of the piston through a substantial portion of its opening stroke as to avoid interference with said initial opening motion of the piston.

  3. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress

  4. The effects of stress on nuclear power plant operational decision making and training approaches to reduce stress effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumaw, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Operational personnel may be exposed to significant levels of stress during unexpected changes in plant state an plant emergencies. The decision making that identifies operational actions, which is strongly determined by procedures, may be affected by stress, and performance may be impaired. ER report analyzes potential effects of stress in nuclear power plant (NPP) settings, especially in the context of severe accident management (SAM). First, potential sources of stress in the NPP setting are identified. This analysis is followed by a review of the ways in which stress is likely to affect performance, with an emphasis on performance of cognitive skills that are linked to operational decision making. Finally, potential training approaches for reducing or eliminating stress effects are identified. Several training approaches have the potential to eliminate or mitigate stress effects on cognitive skill performance. First, the use of simulated events for training can reduce the novelty and uncertainty that can lead to stress and performance impairments. Second, training to make cognitive processing more efficient and less reliant on attention and memory resources can offset the reductions in these resources that occur under stressful conditions. Third, training that targets crew communications skills can reduce the likelihood that communications will fail under stress.

  5. Nuclear power plants electrical retrofitting for cost effectiveness, reliability and operating efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciufu, L.; Popescu, M. O.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of continuous fast growing of the energy demand the current power plants retrofitting concept may represent an important step in the emission reduction, being able to offer in the same time a maximum operating efficiency. This desideratum can be obtained by implementing a rigorous energy management plan, based on an increased energy production capacity of non-pollutant electrical power plants and future-oriented frame on extending their lifetime operation. This management is focused on using state-of-art electronic, electrical and industrial control equipments, which can represent a real key factor. Thus, in this paper an analysis of the electrical system retrofitting is presented. As a part of this research the authors propose and simulate ambitious ways to upgrade actual control and command of the electrical operating systems, by promoting variable speed for large pumps and also computer software, as SCADA, for an intelligent control and monitoring of these studied processes. (authors)

  6. Optimal operation strategies of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on electricity spot markets with fluctuating prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Salgi, Georges; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    on electricity spot markets by storing energy when electricity prices are low and producing electricity when prices are high. In order to make a profit on such markets, CAES plant operators have to identify proper strategies to decide when to sell and when to buy electricity. This paper describes three...... plants will not be able to achieve such optimal operation, since the fluctuations of spot market prices in the coming hours and days are not known. Consequently, two simple practical strategies have been identified and compared to the results of the optimal strategy. This comparison shows that...... independent computer-based methodologies which may be used for identifying the optimal operation strategy for a given CAES plant, on a given spot market and in a given year. The optimal strategy is identified as the one which provides the best business-economic net earnings for the plant. In practice, CAES...

  7. Physiologic response of rats to cold stress after exposure to 60-Hz electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.; Free, M.J.; Lang, L.L.; Chandon, J.H.; Kaune, W.T.

    1978-01-01

    In two experiments, the responses of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal, thermoregulatory and cardiovascular systems were assessed in rats subjected to cold stress after exposure to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 100 kV/m for one month. In the first experiment, plasma corticosterone levels were measured following exposure or sham exposure with the animals maintained at room temperature (∼23 deg). Corticosterone levels were also measured in rats subjected to cold stress (-13 deg. for one hour) immediately after the exposure period. Plasma corticosterone levels in the cold-stressed animals were significantly higher than in those kept at room temperature; however, there were no significant differences between exposed and sham-exposed animals for either the ambient or cold-stress situations. The second experiment followed the same field exposure and cold-stress protocol, only measurements of heart rate, deep colonic temperature and skin temperature were made before, during and after cold-stressing. The results for exposed and sham-exposed animals were essentially identical, failing to demonstrate any effect of electric field exposure on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular response to cold stress. (author)

  8. PROVIDING QUALITY OF ELECTRIC POWER IN ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM IN PARALLEL OPERATION WITH WIND TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Rolik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of providing electric power quality in the electric power systems (EPS that are equipped with sufficiently long air or cable transmission lines is under consideration. This problem proved to be of particular relevance to the EPS in which a source of electrical energy is the generator of wind turbines since the wind itself is an instable primary energy source. Determination of the degree of automation of voltage regulation in the EPS is reduced to the choice of methods and means of regulation of power quality parameters. The concept of a voltage loss and the causes of the latter are explained by the simplest power system that is presented by a single-line diagram. It is suggested to regulate voltage by means of changing parameters of the network with the use of the method of reducing loss of line voltage by reducing its reactance. The latter is achieved by longitudinal capacitive compensation of the inductive reactance of the line. The effect is illustrated by vector diagrams of currents and voltages in the equivalent circuits of transmission lines with and without the use of longitudinal capacitive compensation. The analysis of adduced formulas demonstrated that the use of this method of regulation is useful only in the systems of power supply with a relatively low power factor (cosφ < 0.7 to 0.9. This power factor is typical for the situation of inclusion the wind turbine with asynchronous generator in the network since the speed of wind is instable. The voltage regulation fulfilled with the aid of the proposed method will make it possible to provide the required quality of the consumers’ busbars voltage in this situation. In is turn, it will make possible to create the necessary conditions for the economical transmission of electric power with the lowest outlay of reactive power and the lowest outlay of active power losses.

  9. Compressive stress-electrical conductivity characteristics of multiwall carbon nanotube networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodian, P.; Říha, Pavel; Lengálová, A.; Sáha, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 9 (2011), s. 3186-3190 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : carbon nanotube network * compression * electrical conductivity * stress sensor Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2011

  10. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Net electrical energy generated by Unit 1 was 30,399 MWH with the generator on line 334.5 hrs. Unit 2 generated 2,481,014 MWH with the generator on line 4,915.53 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns and power reductions, maintenance, power generation, modifications, changes to operational procedures, radiation exposures, and leak rate testing

  11. Scenarios for Low Carbon and Low Water Electric Power Plant Operations: Implications for Upstream Water Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodder, Rebecca S; Barnwell, Jessica T; Yelverton, William H

    2016-11-01

    Electric sector water use, in particular for thermoelectric operations, is a critical component of the water-energy nexus. On a life cycle basis per unit of electricity generated, operational (e.g., cooling system) water use is substantially higher than water demands for the fuel cycle (e.g., natural gas and coal) and power plant manufacturing (e.g., equipment and construction). However, could shifting toward low carbon and low water electric power operations create trade-offs across the electricity life cycle? We compare business-as-usual with scenarios of carbon reductions and water constraints using the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) energy system model. Our scenarios show that, for water withdrawals, the trade-offs are minimal: operational water use accounts for over 95% of life cycle withdrawals. For water consumption, however, this analysis identifies potential trade-offs under some scenarios. Nationally, water use for the fuel cycle and power plant manufacturing can reach up to 26% of the total life cycle consumption. In the western United States, nonoperational consumption can even exceed operational demands. In particular, water use for biomass feedstock irrigation and manufacturing/construction of solar power facilities could increase with high deployment. As the United States moves toward lower carbon electric power operations, consideration of shifting water demands can help avoid unintended consequences.

  12. Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR): The United States Marine Corps Initiative to Deliver Mental Health Services to Operating Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nash, William P

    2006-01-01

    .... The role of military mental health professionals in combat/operational stress control is to adapt scientific tools for prevention, identification, and treatment for use by military leaders at all levels...

  13. Operational decisionmaking and action selection under psychological stress in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.; Haney, L.N.; Jenkins, J.P.; Blackman, H.S.

    1985-05-01

    An extensive review of literature on individual and group performance and decisionmaking under psychological stress was conducted and summarized. Specific stress-related variables relevant to reactor operation were pinpointed and incorporated in an experiment to assess the performance of reactor operators under psychological stress. The decisionmaking performance of 24 reactor operators under differing levels of workload, conflicting information, and detail of available written procedures was assessed in terms of selecting immediate, subsequent, and nonapplicable actions in response to 12 emergency scenarios resulting from a severe seismic event at a pressurized water reactor. Specific personality characteristics of the operators suggested by the literature to be related to performance under stress were assessed and correlated to decisionmaking under stress. The experimental results were statistically analyzed, and findings indicated that operator decisionmaking under stress was more accurate under lower levels of workload, with the availability of detailed procedures, and in the presence of high conflicting information

  14. Electric circuit breaker comprising a plurality of vacuum interrupters simultaneously operated by a common operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1980-01-01

    This circuit breaker comprises a plurality of a vacuum-type circuit interrupters, each having a movable contact rod. A common operating device for the interrupters comprises a linearly-movable operating member. The interrupters are mounted at one side of the operating member with their movable contact rods extending in a direction generally toward the operating member. Means is provided for mechanically coupling the operating member to the contact rods, and this means comprises a plurality of insulating operating rods, each connected at one end to the operating member and at its opposite end to one of the movable contact rods. The operating rods are of substantially equal length and have longitudinal axes that converge and intersect at substantially a common point.

  15. Hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1978-01-01

    This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A vent is located hydraulically between the actuating space and the valve for affording communication between said actuating space and a low pressure region. Flow control means is provided for restricting leakage through said vent to a rate that prevents said leakage from substantially detracting from the development of pressure within said actuatng space during the period from initial opening of the valve to the time when said piston has moved through most of its opening stroke. Following such period and while the valve is still open, said flow control means allows effective leakage through said vent. The accumulator has a limited capacity that results in the pressure within said actuating space decaying promptly to a low value as a result of effective leakage through said vent after the piston has moved through a circuit-breaker opening stroke and while the valve is in its open state. Means is provided for resetting the valve to its closed state in response to said pressure decay in the actuating space.

  16. Analysis of Operational Data: A Proof of Concept for Assessing Electrical Infrastructure Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Project Number 30, “Analysis of Operational Data for Tactical Situational Understanding” ERDC TR-15-10 ii Abstract Infrastructure variables required...for a community or society to function include basic facilities, services, and installations; and these variables can impact many aspects of daily...life. The structure and functionality of the electrical grid in an operating area can affect multiple operational varia - bles. Other infrastructure

  17. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles City Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Goals of the site operator program include field evaluation of electric vehicles (EVs) in real-world applications and environments, advancement of electric vehicle technologies, development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant EV use, and increasing the awareness and acceptance of EVs by the public. The site operator program currently consists of 11 participants under contract and two other organizations with data-sharing agreements with the program. The participants (electric utilities, academic institutions, Federal agencies) are geographically dispersed within US and their vehicles see a broad spectrum of service conditions. Current EV inventories of the site operators exceeds 250 vehicles. Several national organizations have joined DOE to further the introduction and awareness of EVs, including: (1) EVAmerica (a utility program) and DOE conduct performance and evaluation tests to support market development for EVs; (2) DOE, DOT, the Electric Transportation Coalition, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas are conducting a series of workshops to encourage urban groups in Clean Cities (a DOE program) to initiate the policies and infrastructure development necessary to support large-scale demonstrations, and ultimately the mass market use, of EVs. Current focus of the program is collection and dissemination of EV operations and performance data to aid in the evaluation of real- world EV use. This report contains several sections with vehicle evaluation as a focus: EV testing results, energy economics of EVs, and site operators activities.

  18. Implementing energy efficiency: Challenges and opportunities for rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Elizabeth J.; Plummer, Joseph; Fischlein, Miriam; Smith, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    Challenges in implementing demand side management (DSM) programs in rural electric co-operatives and small municipal utilities are not well understood, yet these organizations sell roughly 15% of electricity in the US, many are more coal-intensive than investor-owned utilities (IOUs), and they are politically important-rural electric co-operatives cover about 75% of the US land area and municipal utilities are found in every state except Hawaii. We provide a background on rural co-operatives and municipal utilities in the context of the US electric sector and highlight the challenges and opportunities of implementing DSM programs in these institutions. Where past studies of utility DSM have mostly focused on IOUs or consisted of qualitative case studies of municipal utilities with exemplary DSM performance, this study makes a unique contribution to the DSM literature by systematically analyzing an entire co-operative and municipal utility population in Minnesota through the use of a survey. In doing so, we provide policy recommendations relevant to energy planners and policy makers to support DSM in rural electric co-operatives and municipal utilities

  19. Stress-induced deficits in working memory and visuo-constructive abilities in Special Operations soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Doran, Anthony; Steffian, George; Hazlett, Gary; Southwick, Steven M

    2006-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.

  20. Impact Of Secondary-Primary Pumps Operating Sequence On The Electrical Power Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Rusdiyanto; Kiswanto

    2001-01-01

    The operating procedure of the reactor cooling system has decided that the primary cooling pump should be operated before secondary cooling pump as known primary-secondary pumps operating sequence. This decision is based on consideration that starting current of the primary pump is higher than secondary pump. Therefore, the primary-secondary pumps operating sequence can avoid the power supply system failure. However, this operating procedure has to take a consequence that in case of primary pump failure, the shutdown time period of the reaktor to be longer caused to re operate the primary pump has required that the running secondary pump should be shutted off. To solve this problem, an impact analysis of the secondary-primary pumps operating sequence on the electric power supply system was carried out to identify the revision possibility of the cooling pump operating procedure. The analysis by discussion of the measuring results of the secondary and primary pump starting current related to another electrical loads has been measured. From discussion it can be concluded that secondary-primary pumps operating sequence has no impact to failure in electric power supply system

  1. Plasma waves and electrical discharges stimulated by beam operations on a high altitude satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, H.C.; Cohen, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    A satellite experiment was conducted to measure the characteristics of the spacecraft charging process near synchronous orbit. The payload included a particle beam system (both an electron gun and an ion gun) and a charging electrical effects analyzer consisting of a pulse shape analyzer, a VLF analyzer, and an RF analyzer. The characteristics of plasma waves and electrical discharges measured by these instruments during electron and ion beam operations are discussed

  2. Optimal Operation of the Integrated Electrical and Heating Systems to Accommodate the Intermittent Renewable Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinghua; Fang, Jiakun; Zeng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The integration of electrical and heating systems has great potential to enhance the flexibility of power systems to accommodate more renewable power such as the wind and solar. This study was to investigate an optimal way to integrate the energy of both systems in urban areas. The amount of energy...... the effectiveness of the proposed solution. The results showed that coordinated optimization of the energy distribution have significant benefits for reducing wind curtailment, operation cost, and energy losses. The proposed model and methodology could help system operators with decision support in the emerging...... conversion between the electrical system and heating system was optimally decided so that the demand within both systems could be met at the least operational cost. Besides, the best node to join with the electrical system and heating system was chosen by consideration of the energy transmission loss...

  3. Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators. 2010 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 6. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2010. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2010 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2010

  4. Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators. Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 8. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2012. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2012 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2012

  5. Enhancement of building operations: A successful approach towards national electrical demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G.P.; Al-Nakib, D.; ElSherbini, A.; Alghimlas, F.; Al-Taqi, H.; Al-Hadban, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhanced building operations were applied for eight large government buildings in Kuwait. • The enhanced building operations led to demand savings of 8.90 MW during the national peak hour. • Nationwide guidelines were developed for implementing the enhanced operations in similar government buildings in Kuwait. • The peak electrical demand reduction is likely to be 488 MW by the year 2030. - Abstract: An approach for managing electrical demand through enhanced building operations in hot climates is evaluated and demonstrated in this paper. The approach focuses on implementing enhanced operations in government buildings, since they are easier to implement and administer. These enhanced operations included early reduction of cooling supply before the end of the occupancy period, improved time-of-day control after occupancy period and reduced lighting. A total of eight government buildings with different construction and system characteristics were selected for implementing these enhanced operations. These buildings have a total air-conditioning area of 4.39 × 10 5 m 2 and a combined peak electrical demand of 29.3 MW. The enhanced operations resulted in demand savings of 8.90 MW during the national peak hour. Temperatures build up inside the buildings were monitored and found to be within acceptable ranges. Guidelines for nationwide implementation in similar buildings were developed based on the results of this work. Implementation is estimated to reduce demand by 488 MW by the year 2030, which amounts to capital savings of $585 million. These projected values would be important to adopt energy efficient policies for the country. Additional reductions in energy and fuel consumption are added benefits, which would result in large financial and environmental savings to the country. Moreover, the enhanced building operations would be an important tool to avoid any blackouts by properly reducing the peak electrical demand as well as operating the

  6. Combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of indentation cracks in a PZT-5H ferroelectric ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.Y.; Chu, W.Y.; Su, Y.J.; Qiao, L.J.; Gao, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of unloaded indentation cracks in a PZT-5 ceramic has been studied. The results show that residual stress itself is too small to induce delayed propagation of the indentation cracks in silicon oil. If applied constant electric field is larger than 0.2 kV/cm, the combined effect of electric field and residual stress can cause delayed propagation of the indentation crack after passing an incubation time in silicon oil, but the crack will arrest after propagating for 10-30 μm because of decrease of the resultant stress intensity factor induced by the field and residual stress with increasing the crack length. The threshold electric field for delayed propagation of the indentation crack in silicon oil is E DP = 0.2 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 5.25 kV/cm, combined effect of the electric field and residual stress can cause instant propagation of the indentation crack, and under sustained electric field, the crack which has propagated instantly can propagate continuously, until arrest at last. The critical electric field for instant propagation of the indentation crack is E P = 5.25 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 12.6 kV/cm, the microcracks induced by the electric field initiate everywhere, grow and connect in a smooth specimen, resulting in delayed failure, even without residual stress. The threshold electric field for delayed failure of a smooth specimen in silicon oil is E DF = 12.6 kV/cm and the critical electric field for instant failure is E F = 19.1 kV/cm

  7. Procedure for estimating nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, M.L.; Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    Revised guidelines are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants, specifically light-water-reactor plants and coal-fired plants. Previous guidelines were published in October 1975 in ERDA 76-37, a Procedure for Estimating Nonfuel Operating and Maintenance Costs for Large Steam-Electric Power Plants. Estimates for coal-fired plants include the option of limestone slurry scrubbing for flue gas desulfurization. A computer program, OMCOST, is also presented which covers all plant options

  8. Results from the Operational Testing of the General Electric Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Richard Barney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, Don [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  9. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, H.; Finn, P.; Mathiesen, B.V.; Leahy, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate that almost all (∼97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual investment repayments required. However, over the 5-year period investigated (2005-2009) the annual profit from the PHES facility varied by more than 50% on five out of six electricity markets considered. Considering the 40-year lifetime of PHES, even with low investment costs, a low interest rate, and a suitable electricity market, PHES is a risky investment without a more predictable profit. - Highlights: → Electricity generators typically operate on a market, including energy storage. → This paper assesses how energy storage can maximise its profits on a market. → Four operating strategies are assessed on 13 markets using a case study.→ One operating strategy achieves 97% of the profits feasible.→ However, the profit varies a lot depending on the market and capital costs.

  10. Cells exposed to nanosecond electrical pulses exhibit biomarkers of mechanical stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes, Ronald A.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.; Moen, Erick K.; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2015-03-01

    Exposure of cells to very short (stressors on a cell, including electrical, electro-chemical, and mechanical stress. Thus, nsEP exposure is not a "clean" insult, making determination of the mechanism of nanoporation quite difficult. We hypothesize that nsEP exposure creates acoustic shock waves capable of causing nanoporation. Microarray analysis of primary adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) exposed to nsEP, indicated several genes associated with mechanical stress were selectively upregulated 4 h post exposure. The idea that nanoporation is caused by external mechanical force from acoustic shock waves has, to our knowledge, not been investigated. This work will critically challenge the existing paradigm that nanoporation is caused solely by an electric-field driven event and could provide the basis for a plausible explanation for electroporation.

  11. Measurement of the internal stress and electric field in a resonating piezoelectric transformer for high-voltage applications using the electro-optic and photoelastic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGordon, James A; Kovaleski, Scott D; Norgard, Peter; Gall, Brady B; Dale, Gregory E

    2014-02-01

    The high output voltages from piezoelectric transformers are currently being used to accelerate charged particle beams for x-ray and neutron production. Traditional methods of characterizing piezoelectric transformers (PTs) using electrical probes can decrease the voltage transformation ratio of the device due to the introduction of load impedances on the order of hundreds of kiloohms to hundreds of megaohms. Consequently, an optical diagnostic was developed that used the photoelastic and electro-optic effects present in piezoelectric materials that are transparent to a given optical wavelength to determine the internal stress and electric field. The combined effects of the piezoelectric, photoelastic, and electro-optic effects result in a time-dependent change the refractive indices of the material and produce an artificially induced, time-dependent birefringence in the piezoelectric material. This induced time-dependent birefringence results in a change in the relative phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary wave components of a helium-neon laser beam. The change in phase difference between the wave components was measured using a set of linear polarizers. The measured change in phase difference was used to calculate the stress and electric field based on the nonlinear optical properties, the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and the boundary conditions of the PT. Maximum stresses of approximately 10 MPa and electric fields of as high as 6 kV/cm were measured with the optical diagnostic. Measured results were compared to results from both a simple one-dimensional (1D) model of the piezoelectric transformer and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model. Measured stresses and electric fields along the length of an operating length-extensional PT for two different electrical loads were within at least 50 % of 3D finite element simulated results. Additionally, the 3D finite element results were more accurate than the results from the 1D model

  12. Measurement of the internal stress and electric field in a resonating piezoelectric transformer for high-voltage applications using the electro-optic and photoelastic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanGordon, James A.; Kovaleski, Scott D., E-mail: kovaleskis@missouri.edu; Norgard, Peter; Gall, Brady B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [High Power Electrodynamics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The high output voltages from piezoelectric transformers are currently being used to accelerate charged particle beams for x-ray and neutron production. Traditional methods of characterizing piezoelectric transformers (PTs) using electrical probes can decrease the voltage transformation ratio of the device due to the introduction of load impedances on the order of hundreds of kiloohms to hundreds of megaohms. Consequently, an optical diagnostic was developed that used the photoelastic and electro-optic effects present in piezoelectric materials that are transparent to a given optical wavelength to determine the internal stress and electric field. The combined effects of the piezoelectric, photoelastic, and electro-optic effects result in a time-dependent change the refractive indices of the material and produce an artificially induced, time-dependent birefringence in the piezoelectric material. This induced time-dependent birefringence results in a change in the relative phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary wave components of a helium-neon laser beam. The change in phase difference between the wave components was measured using a set of linear polarizers. The measured change in phase difference was used to calculate the stress and electric field based on the nonlinear optical properties, the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and the boundary conditions of the PT. Maximum stresses of approximately 10 MPa and electric fields of as high as 6 kV/cm were measured with the optical diagnostic. Measured results were compared to results from both a simple one-dimensional (1D) model of the piezoelectric transformer and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model. Measured stresses and electric fields along the length of an operating length-extensional PT for two different electrical loads were within at least 50 % of 3D finite element simulated results. Additionally, the 3D finite element results were more accurate than the results from the 1D model

  13. Integrating wind output with bulk power operations and wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wind farms have three characteristics that complicate their widespread application as an electricity resource: limited control, unpredictability and variability. Therefore the integration of wind output into bulk power electric systems is qualitatively different from that of other types of generators. The electric system operator must move other generators up or down to offset the time-varying wind fluctuations. Such movements raise the costs of fuel and maintenance for these other generators. Not only is wind power different, it is new. The operators of bulk power systems have limited experience in integrating wind output into the larger system. As a consequence, market rules that treat wind fairly - neither subsidizing nor penalizing its operation - have not yet been developed. The lack of data and analytical methods encourages wind advocates and sceptics to rely primarily on their biases and beliefs in suggesting how wind should be integrated into bulk power systems. This project helps fill this data and analysis gap. Specifically, it develops and applies a quantitative method for the integration of a wind resource into a large electric system. The method permits wind to bid its output into a short-term forward market (specifically, an hour-ahead energy market) or to appear in real time and accept only intrahour and hourly imbalance payments for the unscheduled energy it delivers to the system. Finally, the method analyses the short-term (minute-to-minute) variation in wind output to determine the regulation requirement the wind resource imposes on the electrical system. (author)

  14. Intraoperative hemidiaphragm electrical stimulation reduces oxidative stress and upregulates autophagy in surgery patients undergoing mechanical ventilation: exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T. Mankowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical ventilation (MV during a cardio-thoracic surgery contributes to diaphragm muscle dysfunction that impairs weaning and can lead to the ventilator- induced diaphragm dysfunction. Especially, it is critical in older adults who have lower muscle reparative capacity following MV. Reports have shown that the intraoperative intermittent hemidiaphragm electrical stimulation can maintain and/or improve post-surgery diaphragm function. In particular, from a molecular point of view, intermittent electrical stimulation (ES may reduce oxidative stress and increase regulatory autophagy levels, and therefore improve diaphragm function in animal studies. We have recently shown in humans that intraoperative ES attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and force decline in single diaphragm muscle fibers. The aim of this study was to investigate an effect of ES on oxidative stress, antioxidant status and autophagy biomarker levels in the human diaphragm during surgery. Methods One phrenic nerve was simulated with an external cardiac pacer in operated older subjects (62.4 ± 12.9 years (n = 8 during the surgery. The patients received 30 pulses per min every 30 min. The muscle biopsy was collected from both hemidiaphragms and frozen for further analyses. 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, an oxidative stress marker, and autophagy marker levels (Beclin-1 and the ratio of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, I and II-LC3 II/I protein concentrations were detected by the Western Blot technique. Antioxidant enzymatic activity copper-zinc (CuZnSOD and manganese (MnSOD superoxide dismutase were analyzed. Results Levels of lipid peroxidation (4-HNE were significantly lower in the stimulated side (p  0.05. Additionally, the protein concentrations of Beclin-1 and the LC3 II/I ratio were higher in the stimulated side (p < 0.05. Conclusion These results suggest that the intraoperative electrical stimulation decreases oxidative stress levels

  15. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2016-02-05

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  16. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Ng, Kim Choon; Thuw, Kyaw; Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  17. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Finn, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate...... that almost all (not, vert, similar97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day......-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual...

  18. Operationality Improvement Control of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair by Fuzzy Algorithm Considering Posture Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroki; Seki, Hirokazu; Minakata, Hideaki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel operationality improvement control for electric power assisted wheelchairs. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people, however, the performance of the straight and circular road driving must be further improved because the two wheels drive independently. This paper proposes a novel operationality improvement control by fuzzy algorithm to realize the stable driving on straight and circular roads. The suitable assisted torque of the right and left wheels is determined by fuzzy algorithm based on the posture angular velocity, the posture angle of the wheelchair, the human input torque proportion and the total human torque of the right and left wheels. Some experiments on the practical roads show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  19. Osteoblastic differentiation and stress response of human mesenchymal stem cells exposed to alternating current electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan David L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electric fields are integral to many biological events, from maintaining cellular homeostasis to embryonic development to healing. The application of electric fields offers substantial therapeutic potential, while optimal dosing regimens and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical impact are poorly understood. Methods The purpose of this study was to track the differentiation profile and stress response of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation during exposure to a 20 mV/cm, 60 kHz electric field. Morphological and biochemical changes were imaged using endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF and quantitatively assessed through eccentricity calculations and extraction of the redox ratio from NADH, FAD and lipofuscin contributions. Real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR were used to track osteogenic differentiation markers, namely alkaline phosphatase (ALP and collagen type 1 (col1, and stress response markers, such as heat shock protein 27 (hsp27 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70. Comparisons of collagen deposition between the stimulated hMSCs and controls were examined through second harmonic generation (SHG imaging. Results Quantitative differences in cell morphology, as described through an eccentricity ratio, were found on days 2 and days 5 (p Conclusions Electrical stimulation is a useful tool to improve hMSC osteogenic differentiation, while heat shock proteins may reveal underlying mechanisms, and optical non-invasive imaging may be used to monitor the induced morphological and biochemical changes.

  20. Survival of the insulator under the electrical stress condition at cryogenic temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Myeong [Dept. of Fire Protection Engineering, Changwon Moonsung University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We have clearly investigated with respect to the survival of the insulator at cryogenic temperature under the electrical stress. The breakdown and voltage-time characteristics of turn-to-turn models for point contact geometry and surface contact geometry using copper multi wrapped with polyimide film for an HTS transformer were investigated under AC and impulse voltage at 77 K. Polyimide film (Kapton) 0.025 mm thick is used for multi wrapping of the electrode. As expected, the breakdown voltages for the surface contact geometry are lower than that of the point contact geometry, because the contact area of the surface contact geometry is lager than that of the point contact geometry. The time to breakdown t50 decreases as the applied voltage is increased, and the lifetime indices increase slightly as the number of layers is increased. The electric field amplitude at the position where breakdown occurs is about 80% of the maximum electric field value. The relationship between survival probability and the electrical stress at cryogenic temperature was evident.

  1. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 4. Operator information needs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents detailed data concerning operator information needs that identify the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. The study defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related, and it identifies the requisite information as consistent with current industry practice so as to aid control system designers. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  2. 76 FR 23222 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ....3d 1342 (DC Cir. 2009). \\5\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693... Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System. Action: FERC-725A. OMB Control No.: 1902-0244. Respondents...] Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability AGENCY: Federal...

  3. Making the connection: The B.C. Hydro electric system and how it is operated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    British Columbia Hydro supplies electric energy to 93% of the province's population through an integrated electric system. Of the electricity supplied, 95% is generated at 29 hydroelectric plants, with the remainder coming from thermal plants burning fossil fuels. BC Hydro's high voltage transmission and distribution network consists of 17,600 km of lines 60 kV and above and 51,400 km of lines below 60 kV. A description of system operations begins with the principles of hydroelectric generation, with a brief note on thermal generation for peaking or short-term energy production. Non-power operations measures designed to minimize environmental impacts and enhance social benefits are also outlined along with electricity trade with other provinces and the USA. Planning of long- and short-term system operations is also reviewed. An analysis of system components is presented for the Peace, Columbia, Lower Mainland/Coastal/Fraser, and Vancouver Island regions. Finally, information is given on the 29 hydroelectric and 3 thermal plants, including drainage basin, reservoir description and map, inflow, capacity, turbine type, storage, operating constraints, and average energy capability. 51 figs

  4. 78 FR 70163 - Communication of Operational Information between Natural Gas Pipelines and Electric Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Street NE., Washington, DC 20426, (202) 502-8931, [email protected] . Anna Fernandez (Legal Information), Office of the General Counsel, 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20426, (202) 502-6682, anna.... Questions Posed by the Commission 100. A. Generator to Electric Transmission Operator 100. Communications 1...

  5. Conceptual Design of Electrical Propulsion System for Nuclear Operated Vessel Adventurer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, B.; Suh, K. Y.

    2009-01-01

    A design concept of the electric propulsion system for the Nuclear Operated Vessel Adventure (NOVA) is presented. NOVA employs Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS), a liquid metal cooled small fast integral reactor, and Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS), a supercritical CO 2 (SCO 2 ) Brayton cycle as power converter to Naval Application Vessel Integral System (NAVIS)

  6. COOPERATIVE MODE OF ELECTRIC MOTOR AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OPERATION IN THE CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the authors proposed a method to control the car, which is converted into a hybrid one. The electric motor and combustion engine operate alternately in the car. They proposed a device for implementing this method and a circuit design for the device in question. They also calculated the dynamics of the vehicle under the joint acceleration.

  7. State Regulatory responses to acid rain: Implications for electric utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagelhout, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the state regulatory responses to acid rain legislation and how this will affect electric utility operations. Topics discusses include planning and fuel procurement practices, least-cost planning, long-term supply contracts, fuel mix, cogeneration and small power production, qualifying facility contracts, avoided costs, environmental impact, lobbying expense, bill inserts, and forecasting models

  8. Coordinated operation of a neighborhood of smart households comprising electric vehicles, energy storage and distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Erdinc, O.; Pappi, I.N.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal operation of a neighborhood of smart households in terms of minimizing the total energy procurement cost is analyzed. Each household may comprise several assets such as electric vehicles, controllable appliances, energy storage and distributed generation. Bi-directional

  9. Large contribution to the neutron electric dipole moment from a dimension six four quark operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiaogang; McKellar, B.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the contribution of a dimension six four quark operator (Q q ) to the neutron electric dipole moment was studied. It was found that this contribution dominates over other contributions by at least one order of magnitude in Left-Right symmetric models and two orders of magnitude in di-quark scalar models. 10 refs., 1 fig

  10. Glass science tutorial: Lecture number-sign 2, Operating electric glass melters. James N. Edmonson, Lecturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1994-10-01

    This report contains basic information on electric furnaces used for glass melting and on the properties of glass useful for the stabilization of radioactive wastes. Furnace nomenclature, furnace types, typical silicate glass composition and properties, thermal conductivity information, kinetics of the melting process, glass furnace refractory materials composition and thermal conductivity, and equations required for the operation of glass melters are included

  11. Unraveling the nature of electric field- and stress- induced structural transformations in soft PZT by a new powder poling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; V, Lalitha K; James, Ajit R; Fitch, Andy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-02-25

    A 'powder-poling' technique was developed to study electric field induced structural transformations in ferroelectrics exhibiting a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The technique was employed on soft PZT exhibiting a large longitudinal piezoelectric response (d(33) ∼ 650 pC N(-1)). It was found that electric poling brings about a considerable degree of irreversible tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. The same transformation was achieved after subjecting the specimen to mechanical stress, which suggests an equivalence of stress and electric field with regard to the structural mechanism in MPB compositions. The electric field induced structural transformation was also found to be accompanied by a decrease in the spatial coherence of polarization.

  12. A framework for modelling the behaviour of a process control operator under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, C-C.F.; Roberts, P.D.; Smith, I.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes the basis for a framework for modelling effects of stress on the behaviour of a process control plant operator. The qualitative effects of stress on the cognitive processing ability of the operator are discussed. Stress is thought to mainly decrease the reasoning ability of the operator. The operator will experience increased rigidity in problem solving and the narrowing of his attention and perceptual field. At the same time, the operator will be increasingly reluctant in admitting that wrong decisions have been committed. Furthermore, he will revert to skill-based behaviours. The direct consequence of stress on the decision making mechanism of the operator is the selection of inappropriate choice of action. A formal representation of decision errors is proposed and various techniques are suggested for representing various mechanisms for decision error making. The degree of experience possessed by the operator is also an important factor to the operator's tolerance of stress. The framework also allows the experience of the operator to be integrated into the model. Such an operator model can be linked to a plant simulator and the complete behaviour of the plant then be simulated

  13. Increase in Operator's Sympathetic Nerve Activity during Complicated Hepatobiliary Surgery: Evidence for Surgeons' Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Kosho; Hayashida, Naomi; Kuba, Sayaka; Sakimura, Chika; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Noritada; Takamura, Noboru; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    Surgeons often experience stress during operations. The heart rate variability (HRV) is the variability in the beat-to-beat interval, which has been used as parameters of stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mental stress of surgeons before, during and after operations, especially during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Additionally, the parameters were compared in various procedures during the operations. By frequency domain method using electrocardiograph, we measured the high frequency (HF) component, representing the parasympathetic activity, and the low frequency (LF)/HF ratio, representing the sympathetic activity. In all 5 cases of PD, the surgeon showed significantly lower HF component and higher LF/HF during operation, indicating predominance of sympathetic nervous system and increased stress, than those before the operation (p operation. Out of the 4 LDLT cases, the value of HF was decreased in two and the LF/HF increased in three cases (p operation compared to those before the operation. In all cases, the value of HF was decreased and/or the LF/HF increased significantly during the reconstruction of the vessels or bile ducts than during the removal of the liver. Thus, sympathetic nerve activity increased during hepatobiliary surgery compared with the level before the operation, and various procedures during the operations induced diverse changes in the autonomic nervous activities. The HRV analysis could assess the chronological changes of mental stress by measuring the autonomic nervous balances.

  14. Implementing batteries in electrical grids. Possible operating modes for efficient business cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittlaus, Barnabas; Schreider, Achim; Pour, Adel Hassan [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Bad Vilbel (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    For almost two decades, there has been a global trend towards the deregulation and the liberalisation of electricity markets. Previously, national or regional monopolistic utility companies provided services along the entire supply chain of electricity supply: Beginning with the operation of power plants and thus the generation of electricity, continuing through the development and the operation of transmission and local distribution grids, to the connection points. Since all assets belonged to the utility company, they could easily access generation units in order to provide balancing power for the safe and reliable operation of the electricity networks. With the objective of a more efficient and cheaper electricity supply by enabling competition, European Directive 96/92/EC (repealed by 2003/53/EC) enacted so-called ''unbundling'' which meant the break-up of utility companies as full service suppliers into the three service oriented entities; for electricity generation, transmission and supply. Whereas previously a single utility company provided the balancing of the electricity grid with its own assets, as a consequence of the directive, markets developed for the provision of diverse technical services. As long as the utility companies provided these services on their own, technical rather than economic aspects prevailed in their investment decisions. With the establishment of open markets for primary, secondary and tertiary reserve power, commercial interfaces had been established which force the respective specialised market actor to investment decisions driven primarily by economic aspects. At nearly the same time - around two decades ago, the first renewable energy systems (RES) provided electricity to public grids. In the 1990's their share of the overall electricity mix was negligible, but since the beginning of the new millennium more and more countries recognised the ecological and economic advantages of RES and established incentive systems for their

  15. Factors related to teamwork performance and stress of operating room nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Yukio; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate operating room nurses' perception of teamwork performance and their level of mental stress and to identify related factors. Little is known about the factors affecting teamwork and the mental stress of surgical nurses, although the performance of the surgical team is essential for patient safety. The questionnaire survey for operation room nurses consisted of simple questions about teamwork performance and mental stress. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors causing a sense of teamwork performance or mental stress. A large number of surgical nurses had a sense of teamwork performance, but 30-40% of operation room nurses were mentally stressed during surgery. Neither the patient nor the operation factors were related to the sense of teamwork performance in both types of nurses. Among scrub nurses, endoscopic and abdominal surgery, body mass index, blood loss and the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class were related to their mental stress. Conversely, circulating nurses were stressed about teamwork performance. The factors related to teamwork performance and mental stress during surgery differed between scrub and circulating nurses. Increased support for operation room nurses is necessary. The increased support leads to safer surgical procedures and better patient outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Control area readiness audit report of the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladish, L.A.; Campoli, G.; Le, Q.; Farrokhpay, S.; Kirby, B.; Penwell, C.; Weaver, S.; Vicini, D.; Wells, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) is a control area authority that is responsible for the safe and reliable operation of its portion of the bulk electric system in cooperation with neighbouring control areas. This audit by the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) reviewed the readiness of Ontario's IMO to meets its responsibilities as a control area operator. NERC recommended specific actions to correct the deficiencies that resulted in the blackout in southeastern Ontario and northeastern United States on August 14, 2003. Initiatives to strengthen compliance with existing standards were also suggested along with longer-term technical initiatives to prevent or mitigate the impacts of cascading blackouts in the future. The audit process included: a self-assessment questionnaire to the control area being audited; a questionnaire to neighbouring control areas; a questionnaire to the reliability coordinator and an on-site audit by a selected audit team. The following issues were reviewed: criteria and compliance, authority, responsibilities in the planning time frame, real time monitoring, system restoration, delegation of reliability coordinator functions, outage coordination, transmission and generation relaying, energy emergency plan, operating policy, line clearances, and nuclear power plant requirements. It was concluded that the IMO has the necessary plans, procedures, processes, tools and trained personnel to respond to emergency events. The audit did not find any major operational problems, but offered a few recommendations for improvement. tabs

  17. An Optimal Operating Strategy for Battery Life Cycle Costs in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact on petroleum based vehicles on the environment, cost, and availability of fuel has led to an increased interest in electric vehicle as a means of transportation. Battery is a major component in an electric vehicle. Economic viability of these vehicles depends on the availability of cost-effective batteries. This paper presents a generalized formulation for determining the optimal operating strategy and cost optimization for battery. Assume that the deterioration of the battery is stochastic. Under the assumptions, the proposed operating strategy for battery is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem considering reliability and failure number. And an explicit expression of the average cost rate is derived for battery lifetime. Results show that the proposed operating strategy enhances the availability and reliability at a low cost.

  18. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program: Site Operation Program. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.; Bassett, R.R.; Briasco, S. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The Site Operator Program has evolved substantially since its inception in response to the Electric Vehicle Research and Demonstration Act of 1976. In its original form, a commercialization effort was intended but this was not feasible for lack of vehicle suppliers and infrastructure. Nonetheless, with DOE sponsorship and technical participation, a few results (primarily operating experience and data) were forthcoming. The current Program comprises eleven sites and over 200 vehicles, of which about 50 are latest generation vehicles. DOE partially funds the Program participant expenditures and the INEL receives operating and maintenance data for the DOE-owned, and participant-owned or monitored vehicles, as well as Program reports. As noted elsewhere in this report, participants represent several widely differing categories: electric utilities, academic institutions, and federal agencies. While both the utilities and the academic institutions tend to establish beneficial relationships with the industrial community.

  19. Advanced Launch System (ALS): Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  20. Effect of psychological stress on gastric motility assessed by electrical bio-impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, María Raquel; Vargas-Luna, Miguel; Montes-Frausto, Juana Berenice; Morales-Mata, Ismael; Ramirez-Padilla, Lorena

    2012-09-28

    To evaluate gastric motility using electrical bio-impedance (EBI) and gastric changes as a result of stress induced by psychological tests. A group of 57 healthy women, aged 40-60 years, was recruited, and a clinical history and physical examination were performed. The women were free from severe anxiety, chronic or acute stress, severe depression, mental diseases and conditions that affect gastric activity. The women were evaluated under fasting conditions, and using a four-electrode configuration, the gastric signals were obtained through a BIOPAC MP-150 system. The volunteers were evaluated using the following paradigm: basal state, recording during the Stroop Test, intermediate resting period, recording during the Raven Test, and a final resting period. We analyzed the relative areas of the frequency spectrum: A1 (1-2 cpm), A2 (2-4 cpm), A3 (4-8 cpm), and A4 (8-12 cpm), as well as the median of area A2 + A3. The data were analyzed by an autoregressive method using a Butterworth filter with MatLab and Origin. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Friedman ANOVA (for nonparametric variables) were performed; in addition, pairs of groups were compared using the T dependent and Wilcoxon T tests. The results of the main values of area A2 were not significantly different comparing the five steps of the experimental paradigm. Nevertheless, there was a tendency of this A2 region to decrease during the stress tests, with recuperation at the final resting step. When an extended gastric region was considered (1-4 cpm), significant differences with the psychological stress tests were present (F = 3.85, P = 0.005). The A3 region also showed significant changes when the stress psychological tests were administered (F = 7.25, P stress test showed significant changes (F = 5.5, P stress test (P stress can be evaluated by short-term EBI.

  1. Induced Stress, Artificial Environment, Simulated Tactical Operations Center Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    hiebman, Stress Situations (Philadelphia: J. Is. IJ iui ott CO., .lqý1.), pp. ’ - 6. ’ | ;* .- -~~~~~~~~. , ’ • :• ",. . .... . , • . 33 provides one or...April 1964, pp. 545-556. ~ .~:.;a-d K. " -Iu: izodoiog;ical Ls;suL5- in Experiuienting, withi Sil-.ISiilatý’ionS of Lusincss Pim ~"paper presentecd at

  2. A simple program to reduce the stress associated with NRC nuclear operator examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajwau, T.; Chardos, S.

    1988-01-01

    The NRC license for nuclear reactor operators requires periodic written examinations to demonstrate ongoing technical competency. Poor performance raises a competency question and can affect the individuals' careers. Accordingly, the exams can be highly stressful events. Stress has been demonstrated to affect memory, perception, other cognitive attitudes, and test performance. The phenomenon of test anxiety is well known. Instead of a generic, broadly focused stress management approach, a sharply focused, two-part program was developed for TVA operators scheduled to take the NRC examination. The first part was presented early in preparatory training, and the second part was given just prior to the examination. The first part consisted of a simple model of stress found in exams, early warning signs of test stress, and tactics of stress management that were practical to use during the NRC exam itself

  3. 77 FR 31402 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... SGTR accident. At normal operating pressures, leakage from primary water stress corrosion cracking... change during the 30-day comment period such that failure to act in a timely way would result, for... the requestor may challenge an NRC staff determination granting access to SUNSI whose release would...

  4. Modeling the dynamic and thermodynamic operation of Stirling engines by means of an equivalent electrical circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascella, Franco; Sorin, Mikhail; Formosa, Fabien; Teyssedou, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A model based on the electrical analogy theory has been developed to predict the operation of a Stirling engine. • The models takes into account the continuity, the momentum and the energy conservation equations. • The model predicts the operating conditions of the RE100 Free piston Stirling engine. • The model is sensible to the modeling of the effects of the machine load. - Abstract: The Stirling engines are inherently efficient; their thermodynamic cycles reach the Carnot efficiency. These technologies are suitable to operate under any low temperature difference between the hot and the cold sources. For these reasons, these engines can be considered as reliable power conversion systems to promote the conversion of low-grade waste heat generated by industrial plants. The need of a model to predict the behavior of these engines is of primary importance. Nevertheless, a great difficulty is encountered in developing such a model since it is not simple to take into account coupled thermodynamic and dynamic effects. This is the main reason why several models make use of electrical analogies to describe Stirling engines (in particular, free-piston machines): by assuming the pressure equivalent to a voltage and the flow rate to an electrical current, a coupled dynamic-thermodynamic analysis of the engine can be performed. In this paper, an electrical circuit whose behavior is equivalent to that of the engine is derived from the electrical analogy theory. To this aim, we propose an electrical analogy model based on the three conservation laws (mass, momentum and energy). Since limited experimental information is available in the open literature, the results obtained with the proposed model are compared with the experimental data collected at the NASA Lewis Research center for a free-piston Stirling engine i.e., the RE-1000 engine.

  5. Analysis of electric energy consumption of automatic milking systems in different configurations and operative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcante, Aldo; Tangorra, Francesco M; Oberti, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) have been a revolutionary innovation in dairy cow farming. Currently, more than 10,000 dairy cow farms worldwide use AMS to milk their cows. Electric consumption is one of the most relevant and uncontrollable operational cost of AMS, ranging between 35 and 40% of their total annual operational costs. The aim of the present study was to measure and analyze the electric energy consumption of 4 AMS with different configurations: single box, central unit featuring a central vacuum system for 1 cow unit and for 2 cow units. The electrical consumption (daily consumption, daily consumption per cow milked, consumption per milking, and consumption per 100L of milk) of each AMS (milking unit + air compressor) was measured using 2 energy analyzers. The measurement period lasted 24h with a sampling frequency of 0.2Hz. The daily total energy consumption (milking unit + air compressor) ranged between 45.4 and 81.3 kWh; the consumption per cow milked ranged between 0.59 and 0.99 kWh; the consumption per milking ranged between 0.21 and 0.33 kWh; and the consumption per 100L of milk ranged between 1.80 to 2.44 kWh according to the different configurations and operational contexts considered. Results showed that AMS electric consumption was mainly conditioned by farm management rather than machine characteristics/architectures. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Research on electricity market operation mechanism and its benefit of demand side participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuai; Yan, Xu; Qin, Li-juan; Lin, Xi-qiao; Zeng, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Demand response plays an important role in maintaining the economic stability of the system, and has the characteristics of high efficiency, low cost, fast response, good environmental benefits and so on. Demand side resource is an important part of electricity market. The research of demand side resources in our country is still in the initial stage, but the opening of the electricity sales side provides a broad prospect for the development of electricity market. This paper summarizes the main types of demand side resources in our country, analyzes the economic principle of demand response from the micro perspective, puts forward some suggestions on the operation mechanism of China’s demand side resources participating in the electricity market under the condition of electricity sales side opening, analyzes the current situation of pricing in the electricity wholesale market and sets up the pricing strategy of the centralized wholesale market with the demand side power supply participating in quotation, which makes the social and economic benefits reach the maximum.

  7. Mode of operation and performance of a simulation model for the electricity management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weible, H.

    1981-01-01

    In the first two main parts of this report the structure of a simulation model to define the consequences of decisions in the electricity supply sector is explained, based on a careful revision of relevant problems. By means of the system analysis the model represents an attempt to describe all essential relations between the electricity demand on the one hand and the consequences of the generation of electricity (indluding transport) for consumers, state, environment, market of capital and fuel on the other hand. The multifarious ways of operation and application of the model are demonstrated taking the public electricity management of Baden-Wuerttemberg as an example. Besides a validation of the model for 1970 to 1977, possible trends until the year 2000 are shown. As an essential result of the analyses it can be shown, that a renunciation on the further extension of nuclear energy turns out to be unrealistic by a supposed average increase of the electricity demand of 4% p.a.. A comparison of different model conceptions shows, that the information loss, which proceeds from the approximation of year-load-curves, leads to important deviations in the model results. According to the sensitivity analyses the increase of the electricity consumption turns out to be the most essential influence on the time dependent results. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Operational Water Withdrawal and Consumption Factors for Electricity Generation Technology in China—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjing Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As two indispensable resources for human development, energy and water are closely related. China, as the world’s largest consumer of electricity, is also experiencing very serious water shortages. Understanding the water consumption intensity in various types of electric power production technologies according to China’s national conditions is a prerequisite for understanding the potential impact of electrical power production on water resources. Therefore, following the steps of a meta-analysis, this paper provides a literature review on operational water withdrawal and consumption factors for electricity generation technology in China. We observed that 50% of water consumption for electricity generation was for coal power, whereas there was no research on the water consumption intensity of natural gas power generation, and a shortage of studies on water intake during electrical power production. The average water consumption intensity of hydropower is the largest. The results indicate that compared with other fuel types, hydropower is not a sustainable energy with respect to water conservation, and the study of hydropower applications should be improved in China.

  9. Reducing operating costs: A collaborative approach between industry and electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyers, B.; Sibbald, L.

    1993-01-01

    The unit cost of electricity to industrial consumers is expected to increase at a rate of 5% annually in the 1990s. The partnership that has been created between Amoco Canada Petroleum Company and TransAlta Utilities to control the cost of electricity is described. To allow the company to receive lower rates for interruptible power, a number of measures have been taken. The Amoco Whitecourt plant has standby generators in reserve that can be used when utility power is not available. A Pembina compressor can be turned off for up to 12 hours, at 30 minutes notice, without affecting field pressure. At the East Crossfield plant sales gas can be compressed using electricity or a gas-driven engine. Spot market energy is used in a number of plants allowing electric drive alternatives to plant operators and offering short term energy markets. TransAlta invests in electrical equipment such as switchgear as well as transmission lines and transformers. New rate alternatives offered by TransAlta Utilities include review of the need for a demand ratchet, additional time of use rates, unbundling of rates allowing power purchase from alternative sources, rates that follow product costs, reduced rates for conversion of gas to electric drives certain circumstances, energy audits, and power factor credits. 5 figs

  10. Real-time observations of stressful events in the operating room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlNassar Sami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify and quantify factors causing stress in the operating room (OR and evaluate the relationship between these factors and surgeons′ stress level. Methods: This is a prospective observational study from 32 elective surgical procedures conducted in the OR of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Before each operation, each surgeon was asked of stressors. Two interns observed 16 surgeries each, separately. The interns watched and took notes during the entire surgical procedure. During each operation, the observer recorded anxiety-inducing activities and events that occurred in real time by means of a checklist of 8 potential stressors: technical, patient problems, teamwork problems, time and management issues, distractions and interruptions, equipment problems, personal problems, and teaching. After each operation, surgeons were asked to answer the validated State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and self-report on their stress level from the 8 sources using a scale of 1-8 (1: stress free, 8: extremely stressful. The observer also recorded perceived stress levels experienced by the surgeons during the operation. Results: One hundred ten stressors were identified. Technical problems most frequently caused stress (16.4% and personal issues the least often (6.4%. Frequently encountered stressors (teaching and distractions/interruptions caused less stress to the surgeons. Technical factors, teamwork, and equipment problems occurred frequently and were also a major contributor to OR stress. All patients were discharged in good health and within 1 week of surgery. Conclusion: Certain stressful factors do occur among surgeons in the OR and can increase the potential for errors. Further research is required to determine the impact of stress on performance and the outcome of surgery.

  11. The role of nanosecond electric pulse-induced mechanical stress in cellular nanoporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Caleb C.

    Background: Exposures of cells to very short (less than 1 microsecond) electric pulses in the megavolt/meter range have been shown to cause a multitude of effects, both physical and molecular in nature. Physically, nanosecond electrical pulse exposure can disrupt the plasma membrane, leading to a phenomenon known as nanoporation. Nanoporation is the production of nanometer sized holes (less than 2 nanometers in diameter) that can persist for up to fifteen minutes, allowing the flow of ions into and out of the cell. Nanoporation can lead to secondary physical effects, such as cellular swelling, shrinking and blebbing. Molecularly, nanosecond electrical pulses have been shown to activate signaling pathways, produce oxidative stress, stimulate hormone secretion and induce both apoptotic and necrotic death. The mechanism by which nanosecond electrical pulses cause molecular changes is unknown; however, it is thought the flow of ions, such as calcium, into the cell via nanopores, could be a major cause. The ability of nanosecond electrical pulses to cause membranes to become permeable and to induce apoptosis makes the technology a desirable modality for cancer research; however, the lack of understanding regarding the mechanisms by which nanosecond electrical pulses cause nanoporation impedes further development of this technology. This dissertation documents the genomic and proteomic responses of cells exposed to nanosecond electrical pulses and describes in detail the biophysical effects of these electrical pulses, including the demonstration for the first time of the generation of acoustic pressure transients capable of disrupting plasma membranes and possibly contributing to nanoporation. Methods: Jurkat, clone E6-1 (human lymphocytic cell line), U937 (human lymphocytic cell line), Chinese hamster ovarian cells and adult primary human dermal fibroblasts exposed to nanosecond electrical pulses were subjected to a variety of molecular assays, including flow cytometry

  12. Impact of electric vehicles in the steady state operation of distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmo Saraiva de Castro

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to quantify the impact in the steady state operation of a distribution system when electric vehicles are connected. It is worth noting that the connection of them may cause significant changes in the voltage profile, in the degree of voltage unbalance and in the electrical losses of the system. In order to make this analysis, a three-phase power flow program was developed in MATLAB language. This program is based on the Ladder Iterative Technique and it contains models of overh...

  13. Obedience to compliance programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators. 2009 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    In France, system operators belong to groups that also conduct business in the energy sector, in fields governed by competition rules. They could therefore be tempted to use their privileged position to their group's benefit, which would disadvantage end consumers. Non-discriminatory access to electricity and gas transmission and distribution networks is at the core of the market opening to competition approach implemented by the European Union since the end of the 1990's. EU and national enactments in force highlight two tools to ensure nondiscrimination: compliance programmes and independence of system operators with regard to their parent companies. Firstly, compliance programs contain measures taken to ensure that discrimination is completely excluded and that their application is subject to appropriate monitoring. Secondly, system operator independence plays a part in preventing discrimination against competitors with other business activities (generation, supply, etc.) within the same group. In application of these enactments, every electricity or natural gas transmission or distribution system operator serving more than 100,000 customers provided CRE, the Energy Regulatory Commission, with their annual reports on the application of their compliance programs. This document is CRE's 2009 report about compliance programmes and independence of electricity and natural gas system operators. Its content can be summarized as follows: 1 - system operator independence serving consumers: Non-discriminatory access to networks is essential for the development of competitive markets, System operator compliance programs and independence act as a guarantee of nondiscrimination, The legal context in which these issues are addressed is set to change in the near future; 2 - A high level of obedience to compliance programs: The continued efforts of system operators prevent discrimination, CR E has assessed distribution system operators by means of a mystery

  14. Stress state of thin – walled member of the structure with operation damages under nonuniform loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Астанін

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication is dedicated to determining of stress state in particular the stress concentration factors for thin – walled members of the structures subject to nonuniform tension. A structure member has obtained the operation damage generation by corrosion and other causes.

  15. Integrated operation of electric vehicles and renewable generation in a smart distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram; Siano, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The contribution of electric vehicles to provide the reserve capacity is analyzed. • Decentralized energy and reserve scheduling in a distribution system is presented. • The integrated operation of renewable generation and electric vehicles is proposed. - Abstract: Distribution system complexity is increasing mainly due to technological innovation, renewable Distributed Generation (DG) and responsive loads. This complexity makes difficult the monitoring, control and operation of distribution networks for Distribution System Operators (DSOs). In order to cope with this complexity, a novel method for the integrated operational planning of a distribution system is presented in this paper. The method introduces the figure of the aggregator, conceived as an intermediate agent between end-users and DSOs. In the proposed method, energy and reserve scheduling is carried out by both aggregators and DSO. Moreover, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered as responsive loads that can participate in ancillary service programs by providing reserve to the system. The efficiency of the proposed method is evaluated on an 84-bus distribution test system. Simulation results show that the integrated scheduling of EVs and renewable generators can mitigate the negative effects related to the uncertainty of renewable generation

  16. INTEGRAL INDEX OF OPERATION QUALITY FOR EVALUATION OF IMPACT OF DISTRIBUTIVE GENERATION SOURCES ON ELECTRIC NETWORK MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro D. Lezhniuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Method of operation quality evaluation of electric network, comprising renewable sources of energy (RSE is considered. Integral index that enables to evaluate the impact of RSE on energy losses and its quality as well as balance reliability in electric network is suggested. Mathematical model is constructed, taking into account the assumption that electric network with RSE may be in various operation modes, characterized by different technical economic indices. To determine the integral index of operation quality of electric network with RSE in all possible states tools of Markov processes theory and criterial method are used.

  17. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    in the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV......The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations...... owners. Furthermore, the application of battery storage based aggregated PEV is analyzed as a regulation services provider in the power system with high wind power penetrations. The western Danish power system where the total share of annual wind power production is more than 27% of the electrical energy...

  18. RTE - Electricity transport network operator. Energy is our future: let's save it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Managing and developing the French electricity transport network is essential to provide quality electricity on a continuous basis to all consumers. Since it was founded in 2000, and since it was made into a public service company (2005), RTE has proven its ability to fulfil its public interest mission in complete security. In an open European electricity market, RTE is recognised for offering all of its customers fair access to its network, which is the first condition for healthy competition. Based on this and thanks to its investments and operating quality, RTE is constantly improving its performances to meet its customers', public authorities' and the Energy Regulation Committee's requirements. This public service action is focused on four strategic priorities: performance of industrial facilities; a human and managerial policy focused on skills and efficiency; sustainable development; professionalism and innovation. This brochure presents RTE's missions, company overview and European cooperation

  19. Stress-induced electric current fluctuations in rocks: a superstatistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright-Taylor, Alexis; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sammonds, Peter

    2017-04-01

    We recorded spontaneous electric current flow in non-piezoelectric Carrara marble samples during triaxial deformation. Mechanical data, ultrasonic velocities and acoustic emissions were acquired simultaneously with electric current to constrain the relationship between electric current flow, differential stress and damage. Under strain-controlled loading, spontaneous electric current signals (nA) were generated and sustained under all conditions tested. In dry samples, a detectable electric current arises only during dilatancy and the overall signal is correlated with the damage induced by microcracking. Our results show that fracture plays a key role in the generation of electric currents in deforming rocks (Cartwright-Taylor et al., in prep). We also analysed the high-frequency fluctuations of these electric current signals and found that they are not normally distributed - they exhibit power-law tails (Cartwright-Taylor et al., 2014). We modelled these distributions with q-Gaussian statistics, derived by maximising the Tsallis entropy. This definition of entropy is particularly applicable to systems which are strongly correlated and far from equilibrium. Good agreement, at all experimental conditions, between the distributions of electric current fluctuations and the q-Gaussian function with q-values far from one, illustrates the highly correlated, fractal nature of the electric source network within the samples and provides further evidence that the source of the electric signals is the developing fractal network of cracks. It has been shown (Beck, 2001) that q-Gaussian distributions can arise from the superposition of local relaxations in the presence of a slowly varying driving force, thus providing a dynamic reason for the appearance of Tsallis statistics in systems with a fluctuating energy dissipation rate. So, the probability distribution for a dynamic variable, u under some external slow forcing, β, can be obtained as a superposition of temporary local

  20. Operational Modal Analysis based Stress Estimation in Friction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarpø, Marius; Friis, Tobias; Nabuco, Bruna

    this assumption. In this paper, the precision of estimating the strain response of a nonlinear system is investigated using the operational response of numerical simulations. Local nonlinearities are introduced by adding friction to the test specimen and this paper finds that this approach of strain estimation...

  1. Simulation of thermal stresses in anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell stacks. Part II: Loss of gas-tightness, electrical contact and thermal buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Arata; Wuillemin, Zacharie; Van herle, Jan; Favrat, Daniel

    Structural stability issues in planar solid oxide fuel cells arise from the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the components. The stress state at operating temperature is the superposition of several contributions, which differ depending on the component. First, the cells accumulate residual stresses due to the sintering phase during the manufacturing process. Further, the load applied during assembly of the stack to ensure electric contact and flatten the cells prevents a completely stress-free expansion of each component during the heat-up. Finally, thermal gradients cause additional stresses in operation. The temperature profile generated by a thermo-electrochemical model implemented in an equation-oriented process modelling tool (gPROMS) was imported into finite-element software (ABAQUS) to calculate the distribution of stress and contact pressure on all components of a standard solid oxide fuel cell repeat unit. The different layers of the cell in exception of the cathode, i.e. anode, electrolyte and compensating layer were considered in the analysis to account for the cell curvature. Both steady-state and dynamic simulations were performed, with an emphasis on the cycling of the electrical load. The study includes two different types of cell, operation under both thermal partial oxidation and internal steam-methane reforming and two different initial thicknesses of the air and fuel compressive sealing gaskets. The results generated by the models are presented in two papers: Part I focuses on cell cracking. In the present paper, Part II, the occurrences of loss of gas-tightness in the compressive gaskets and/or electrical contact in the gas diffusion layer were identified. In addition, the dependence on temperature of both coefficients of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the metallic interconnect (MIC) were implemented in the finite-element model to compute the plastic deformation, while the possibilities of thermal buckling

  2. Risk management and market efficiency on the Midwest Independent System Operator electricity exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin

    Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) is a non-profit regional transmission organization (RTO) that oversees electricity production and transmission across thirteen states and one Canadian province. MISO also operates an electronic exchange for buying and selling electricity for each of its five regional hubs. MISO oversees two types of markets. The forward market, which is referred to as the day-ahead (DA) market, allows market participants to place demand bids and supply offers on electricity to be delivered at a specified hour the following day. The equilibrium price, known as the locational marginal price (LMP), is determined by MISO after receiving sale offers and purchase bids from market participants. MISO also coordinates a spot market, which is known as the real-time (RT) market. Traders in the real-time market must submit bids and offers by thirty minutes prior to the hour for which the trade will be executed. After receiving purchase and sale offers for a given hour in the real time market, MISO then determines the LMP for that particular hour. The existence of the DA and RT markets allows producers and retailers to hedge against the large fluctuations that are common in electricity prices. Hedge ratios on the MISO exchange are estimated using various techniques. No hedge ratio technique examined consistently outperforms the unhedged portfolio in terms of variance reduction. Consequently, none of the hedge ratio methods in this study meet the general interpretation of FASB guidelines for a highly effective hedge. One of the major goals of deregulation is to bring about competition and increased efficiency in electricity markets. Previous research suggests that electricity exchanges may not be weak-form market efficient. A simple moving average trading rule is found to produce statistically and economically significant profits on the MISO exchange. This could call the long-term survivability of the MISO exchange into question.

  3. Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Alejandro Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current logistics and transportation (L&T systems include heterogeneous fleets consisting of common internal combustion engine vehicles as well as other types of vehicles using “green” technologies, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs. However, the incorporation of EVs in L&T activities also raise some additional challenges from the strategic, planning, and operational perspectives. For instance, smart cities are required to provide recharge stations for electric-based vehicles, meaning that investment decisions need to be made about the number, location, and capacity of these stations. Similarly, the limited driving-range capabilities of EVs, which are restricted by the amount of electricity stored in their batteries, impose non-trivial additional constraints when designing efficient distribution routes. Accordingly, this paper identifies and reviews several open research challenges related to the introduction of EVs in L&T activities, including: (a environmental-related issues; and (b strategic, planning and operational issues associated with “standard” EVs and with hydrogen-based EVs. The paper also analyzes how the introduction of EVs in L&T systems generates new variants of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem, one of the most studied optimization problems in the L&T field, and proposes the use of metaheuristics and simheuristics as the most efficient way to deal with these complex optimization problems.

  4. Stressed state of a cement electrical insulation of a pulsed magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenevskij, V.V.; Sugak, E.B.; Fedorenko, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    The stresses arising in cement electrical insulation of a pulsed magnet intended for separation and scanning of beam of secondary particles with 5-10 MeV energy are investigated during its switching. The magnet represents a single-turn construction. During its switching repulsion forces arise in copper buses which affect the core consisting of a set of iron plates. In its turn two cores trying to separate transmit impact load onto cement electrical insulation, the mechanical strength of which determines the construction durability on the whole. For selection of calculation technique the method of photoelasticity is used on models of transparent polymeric materials. Epoxy resin served as material for insulation model, duraluminium for the rest of magnet parts. It is concluded that the calculation technique for the magnet under investigation is a hingeless circular arc

  5. Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrical stimulation stress in major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Ando, Tomoko; Okamoto, Shizuko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Kodama, Kensuke; Isogawa, Koichi; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-03-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by chronic stress. In comparison, psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary α-amylase (sAA) functions as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. However, in contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in MDD patients. The present study measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels in patients with MDD. The authors determined Profile of Mood State (POMS) and State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and sAA and salivary cortisol levels in 88 patients with MDD and 41 healthy volunteers following the application of electrical stimulation stress. Patients with major depressive disorder were 8 points or more on Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) scores. Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores in patients with major depressive disorder were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores in patients with MDD were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. There was no difference in heart rate variability measures between MDD patients and healthy controls. The threshold of electrical stimulation applied in MDD patients was lower than that in healthy controls. SAA levels in female MDD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. Finally, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between major depressive patients and controls. In the present study only three time points were explored. Furthermore, the increased secretion of sAA before and after stimulation could allude to an increased responsiveness of novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with MDD. These preliminary results suggest that sAA might be a useful biological marker of MDD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  7. Coordinated Operation of the Electricity and Natural Gas Systems with Bi-directional Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated operation of the natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables. This work focuses on the unified optimal operation of the integrated natural gas and electricity system considering the network...... constraints in both systems. An iterative method is proposed to deal with the nonlinearity in the proposed model. The models of the natural gas and power system are linearized in every iterative step. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. Applicability of the proposed method...... is tested in the sample case. Finally, the effect of Power to Gas (P2G) on the daily economic dispatch is also investigated....

  8. Economic impact assessment and operational decision making in emission and transmission constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanduri, Vishnu; Kazemzadeh, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a bilevel game-theoretic model for allowance and electricity markets. ► We solve the model using a reinforcement learning algorithm. ► Model accounts for transmission constraints, cap-and-trade constraints. ► Study demonstrated on 9-bus electric power network. ► Obtain insights about supply shares, impact of transmission constraints, and cost pass through. -- Abstract: Carbon constrained electricity markets are a reality in 10 northeastern states and California in the US, as well as the European Union. Close to a Billion US Dollars have been spent by entities (mainly generators) in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in procuring CO 2 allowances to meet binding emissions restrictions. In the near future, there are expected to be significant impacts due to the cap-and-trade program, especially when the cap stringency increases. In this research we develop a bilevel, complete-information, matrix game-theoretic model to assess the economic impact and make operational decisions in carbon-constrained restructured electricity markets. Our model is solved using a reinforcement learning approach, which takes into account the learning and adaptive nature of market participants. Our model also accounts for all the power systems constraints via a DC-OPF problem. We demonstrate the working of the model and compute various economic impact indicators such as supply shares, cost pass-through, social welfare, profits, allowance prices, and electricity prices. Results from a 9-bus power network are presented.

  9. Electric Vehicles for Improved Operation of Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Esben; Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    In a power system with a high share of wind energy the wind fluctuation causes a variation in the power generation, which must be compensated from other sources. The situation in Denmark with a penetration of more than 20% wind in yearly average is presented. The introduction of electric drive vehicles (EDV) as flexible loads can improve the system operation. Bidirectional power exchange through batteries (vehicle to grid) can be seen as a storage system in the grid. An analysis of possible e...

  10. Survey of seismic conditions of drilling and blasting operations near overhead electricity power lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Afanasev, P. I.; Bulbasheva, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The monitoring and survey results of drilling and blasting operations are specified during the development of Afanasyevsky deposit of cement raw materials for a 110 kV electricity power lines structure. Seismic explosion waves and air shock waves were registered in the course of monitoring. The dependency of peak particle velocities on the scaled distance and explosive weight by the delay time was obtained.

  11. QCD corrections to neutron electric dipole moment from dimension-six four-quark operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisano, Junji, E-mail: hisano@eken.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); IPMU, TODIAS, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Tsumura, Koji, E-mail: ko2@eken.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Yang, Masaki J.S., E-mail: yang@eken.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-07-18

    In this Letter, the renormalization-group equations for the (flavor-conserving) CP-violating interaction are derived up to the dimension six, including all the four-quark operators, at one-loop level. We apply them to the models with the neutral scalar boson or the color-octet scalar boson which have CP-violating Yukawa interactions with quarks, and discuss the neutron electric dipole moment in these models.

  12. The likelihood of failures in the operation of the lifting mechanism electrical hook bridge crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritenman I.L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the application of the methods of analysis of types and consequences of failures (FMEA analysis to assess the technical risk of occurrence of emergency situations during the operation of the lifting mechanism electrical hook bridge crane. The technique allows to identify the limiting elements and to determine the significance of effects in the design of the lifting mechanism, to develop measures to reduce the risk of the occurrence of an emergency.

  13. Stress sensitive electricity based on Ag/cellulose nanofiber aerogel for self-reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiufang; Fan, Bitao; Xiong, Ye; Wang, Chao; Wang, Hanwei; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng

    2017-07-15

    A self-reporting aerogel toward stress sensitive slectricity (SSE) was presented using an interconnected 3D fibrous network of Ag nanoparticles/cellulose nanofiber aerogel (Ag/CNF), which was prepared via combined routes of silver mirror reaction and ultrasonication. Sphere-like Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) with mean diameter of 74nm were tightly anchored in the cellulose nanofiber through by the coherent interfaces as the conductive materials. The as-prepared Ag/CNF as a self-reporting material for SSE not only possessed quick response and sensitivity, but also be easily recovered after 100th compressive cycles without plastic deformation or degradation in compressive strength. Consequently, Ag/CNF could play a viable role in self-reporting materials as a quick electric-stress responsive sensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate change and the vulnerability of electricity generation to water stress in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Paul; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Nanninga, Tijmen; Walsh, Brid; Rodrigues, João F. D.

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectric generation requires large amounts of water for cooling. Recent warm periods have led to curtailments in generation, highlighting concerns about security of supply. Here we assess EU-wide climate impacts for 1,326 individual thermoelectric plants and 818 water basins in 2020 and 2030. We show that, despite policy goals and a decrease in electricity-related water withdrawal, the number of regions experiencing some reduction in power availability due to water stress rises from 47 basins to 54 basins between 2014 and 2030, with further plants planned for construction in stressed basins. We examine the reasons for these pressures by including water demand for other uses. The majority of vulnerable basins lie in the Mediterranean region, with further basins in France, Germany and Poland. We investigate four adaptations, finding that increased future seawater cooling eases some pressures. This highlights the need for an integrated, basin-level approach in energy and water policy.

  15. Electric signal emissions during repeated abrupt uniaxial compressional stress steps in amphibolite from KTB drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Triantis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments have confirmed that the application of uniaxial stress on rock samples is accompanied by the production of weak electric currents, to which the term Pressure Stimulated Currents – PSC has been attributed. In this work the PSC emissions in amphibolite samples from KTB drilling are presented and commented upon. After having applied sequential loading and unloading cycles on the amphibolite samples, it was ascertained that in every new loading cycle after unloading, the emitted PSC exhibits lower peaks. This attitude of the current peaks is consistent with the acoustic emissions phenomena, and in this work is verified for PSC emissions during loading – unloading procedures. Consequently, the evaluation of such signals can help to correlate the state and the remaining strength of the sample with respect to the history of its mechanical stress.

  16. 49 CFR 1242.67 - Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch crews; controlling operations; yard and terminal clerical; locomotive fuel; electric power purchased/produced for motive power; operating switches... SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.67 Switch crews; controlling operations...

  17. Multi-agent based modeling for electric vehicle integration in a distribution network operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a multi-agent based modeling technology for simulating and operating a hierarchical energy management of a power distribution system with focus on EVs integration. The proposed multi-agent system consists of four types of agents: i) Distribution system...... operator (DSO) technical agent and ii) DSO market agents that both belong to the top layer of the hierarchy and their roles are to manage the distribution network by avoiding grid congestions and using congestion prices to coordinate the energy scheduled; iii) Electric vehicle virtual power plant agents...

  18. A Novel Stress-Diathesis Model to Predict Risk of Post-operative Delirium: Implications for Intra-operative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée El-Gabalawy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk assessment for post-operative delirium (POD is poorly developed. Improved metrics could greatly facilitate peri-operative care as costs associated with POD are staggering. In this preliminary study, we develop a novel stress-diathesis model based on comprehensive pre-operative psychiatric and neuropsychological testing, a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI carbon dioxide (CO2 stress test, and high fidelity measures of intra-operative parameters that may interact facilitating POD.Methods: The study was approved by the ethics board at the University of Manitoba and registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02126215. Twelve patients were studied. Pre-operative psychiatric symptom measures and neuropsychological testing preceded MRI featuring a BOLD MRI CO2 stress test whereby BOLD scans were conducted while exposing participants to a rigorously controlled CO2 stimulus. During surgery the patient had hemodynamics and end-tidal gases downloaded at 0.5 hz. Post-operatively, the presence of POD and POD severity was comprehensively assessed using the Confusion Assessment Measure –Severity (CAM-S scoring instrument on days 0 (surgery through post-operative day 5, and patients were followed up at least 1 month post-operatively.Results: Six of 12 patients had no evidence of POD (non-POD. Three patients had POD and 3 had clinically significant confusional states (referred as subthreshold POD; ST-POD (score ≥ 5/19 on the CAM-S. Average severity for delirium was 1.3 in the non-POD group, 3.2 in ST-POD, and 6.1 in POD (F-statistic = 15.4, p < 0.001. Depressive symptoms, and cognitive measures of semantic fluency and executive functioning/processing speed were significantly associated with POD. Second level analysis revealed an increased inverse BOLD responsiveness to CO2 pre-operatively in ST-POD and marked increase in the POD groups when compared to the non-POD group. An association was also noted for

  19. Mission operations for unmanned nuclear electric propulsion outer planet exploration with a thermionic reactor spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, R. J.; Prickett, W. Z.; Garate, J. A.; Firth, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration NEP spacecraft employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference missions are the Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. The characteristics of the baseline multi-mission NEP spacecraft are presented and its performance in other outer planet missions, such as Saturn and Uranus orbiters and a Neptune flyby, are discussed. Candidate mission operations are defined from spacecraft assembly to mission completion. Pre-launch operations are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur D-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and the heliocentric mission phases. The sequence and type of operations are basically identical for all missions investigated.

  20. A flexible control strategy of plug-in electric vehicles operating in seven modes for smoothing load power curves in smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khemakhem, Siwar; Rekik, Mouna; Krichen, Lotfi

    2017-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) seem to be an interesting new electrical load for improving the reliability of smart grid. The purpose of this work is to investigate a supervision strategy based on regulated charging of PEVs in order to guarantee an optimized power management of the system and consequently a flatter power demand curve. The system mainly includes PEVs powered by a Lithium-ion battery ensuring the charging and discharging operations of these PEVs at home and a daily load power demanded by home appliances. The purpose of the considered strategy is to detect the connection status of each PEV and to establish the priority order between these PEVs with certain flexibility which results in managing the PEVs through seven operating modes. The response of the control algorithm enables to ensure the power flow exchange between the PEVs and the electrical grid, especially at rush hours, and to minimize load power variance aiming to achieve the smoothness for the power demand curve and to reduce the stress of the electrical grid. The simulation results are presented in order to illustrate the efficiency of this power control approach. - Highlights: • A flexible power management algorithm of Plug-in electric vehicle is proposed. • This control can be applied for any home equipped with two PEVs. • The response is to ensure the power flow exchange between PEVs and power grid. • The main contribution is to achieve the smoothness for the daily power demand curve.

  1. Circulatory Responses to Operative Stress in Females with Gestosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Mikhno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of hemodynamic responses in females with gestosis in the perioperative period; to evaluate the impact of intensive care on the basis of co-administration of dalargin, dexamethasone, pen-toxifylline, and reamberin.Materials and methods. A Diamant KM-AP-01 rheograph (Saint Petersburg was used to study hemodynamic parameters in 142 patients in whom surgical delivery was made under spinal anesthesia. A control group comprised 30 patients with uncomplicated pregnancy; Group 1 included 26 females with moderate gestosis; Group 2 consisted of 27 females with moderate gestosis who received the developed intensive care regimen; Group 3 comprised 29 females with severe gestosis; Group 4 included 30 females to whom the developed intensive care regimen was applied on the basis of the concurrent use of dalargin, dexamethasone, pentoxifylline, and reamberin.Results: A neurogenic mechanism prevails in females with moderate gestosis. The decreased baseline cardiac index is mostly due to a high postload. Surgical stress does not deteriorate postoperative circulatory parameters, which suggests that females with moderate gestosis have adequate capacities for self-regulation. As gestosis progresses to a severe degree, a role of humoral mechanisms increases in the maintenance of arteriolar spasm. Arteriolar spasm and hypokinetic hemodynamics are retained within 5 postoperative days, which is indicative of the inadequacy of self-regulation and compensatory mechanisms in overcoming two stressors: severe gestosis and surgical aggression.Conclusion: the intensive care regimen developed on the basis of combined use of dalargin, dexamethasone, pentoxifylline, and reamberin favors a more intensive (the promptest normalization of circulatory parameters after surgical delivery in females with moderate and severe gestosis. 

  2. Hybrid Systems of Distributed Generation with Renewable Sources: Modeling and Analysis of Their Operational Modes in Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gashimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to modeling and simulation of operational hybrid system modes of the distributed generation comprising conventional sources – modular diesel generators, gas-turbine power units; and renewable sources – wind and solar power plants. Operational modes of the hybrid system have been investigated under conditions of electrical connection with electric power system and in case of its isolated operation. As a consequence

  3. Benefits analysis of Soft Open Points for electrical distribution network operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wanyu; Wu, Jianzhong; Jenkins, Nick; Wang, Chengshan; Green, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An analysis framework was developed to quantify the operational benefits. • The framework considers both network reconfiguration and SOP control. • Benefits were analyzed through both quantitative and sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: Soft Open Points (SOPs) are power electronic devices installed in place of normally-open points in electrical power distribution networks. They are able to provide active power flow control, reactive power compensation and voltage regulation under normal network operating conditions, as well as fast fault isolation and supply restoration under abnormal conditions. A steady state analysis framework was developed to quantify the operational benefits of a distribution network with SOPs under normal network operating conditions. A generic power injection model was developed and used to determine the optimal SOP operation using an improved Powell’s Direct Set method. Physical limits and power losses of the SOP device (based on back to back voltage-source converters) were considered in the model. Distribution network reconfiguration algorithms, with and without SOPs, were developed and used to identify the benefits of using SOPs. Test results on a 33-bus distribution network compared the benefits of using SOPs, traditional network reconfiguration and the combination of both. The results showed that using only one SOP achieved a similar improvement in network operation compared to the case of using network reconfiguration with all branches equipped with remotely controlled switches. A combination of SOP control and network reconfiguration provided the optimal network operation.

  4. A Study of Digging Productivity of an Electric Rope Shovel for Different Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Babaei Khorzoughi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A performance monitoring study of an electric rope shovel operating in an open pit coal mine was conducted. As the mining industry moves toward higher productivity, profitability and predictability, the need for more reliable, productive and efficient mining shovels increases. Consequently, it is critical to study the productivity of these machines and to understand the effect of different operational parameters on that. In this paper a clustering analysis is performed to classify shovel digging effort and behaviour based on digging energy, dig time and payload per pass. Then the influence of the operator on the digging efficiency and productivity of the machine is analyzed with a focus on operator technique during digging. A statistical analysis is conducted on different cycle time components (dig time, swing time, return time for different operators. In addition to time components, swing and return angles as well as loading rate and mucking rate are observed and analyzed. The results of this study help to understand the effect of different operators on the digging productivity of the shovel and then to set the best operator practice.

  5. Families overcoming under stress: implementing family-centered prevention for military families facing wartime deployments and combat operational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Mogil, Catherine; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; Nash, William; Leskin, Gregory; Bursch, Brenda; Green, Sara; Pynoos, Robert; Beardslee, William

    2011-01-01

    The toll of multiple and prolonged deployments on families has become clearer in recent years as military families have seen an increase in childhood anxiety, parental psychological distress, and marital discord. Families overcoming under stress (FOCUS), a family-centered evidence-informed resiliency training program developed at University of California, Los Angeles and Harvard Medical School, is being implemented at military installations through an initiative from Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. The research foundation for FOCUS includes evidence-based preventive interventions that were adapted to meet the specific needs of military families facing combat operational stress associated with wartime deployments. Using a family narrative approach, FOCUS includes a customized approach utilizing core intervention components, including psychoeducation, emotional regulation skills, goal setting and problem solving skills, traumatic stress reminder management techniques, and family communication skills. The purpose of this study is to describe the development and implementation of FOCUS for military families. A case example is also presented.

  6. Effect of Electrical Discharge Machining on Stress Concentration in Titanium Alloy Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Hsuan; Chien, Wan-Ting

    2016-11-24

    Titanium alloys have several advantages, such as a high strength-to-weight ratio. However, the machinability of titanium alloys is not as good as its mechanical properties. Many machining processes have been used to fabricate titanium alloys. Among these machining processes, electrical discharge machining (EDM) has the advantage of processing efficiency. EDM is based on thermoelectric energy between a workpiece and an electrode. A pulse discharge occurs in a small gap between the workpiece and electrode. Then, the material from the workpiece is removed through melting and vaporization. However, defects such as cracks and notches are often detected at the boundary of holes fabricated using EDM and the irregular profile of EDM holes reduces product quality. In this study, an innovative method was proposed to estimate the effect of EDM parameters on the surface quality of the holes. The method combining the finite element method and image processing can rapidly evaluate the stress concentration factor of a workpiece. The stress concentration factor was assumed as an index of EDM process performance for estimating the surface quality of EDM holes. In EDM manufacturing processes, Ti-6Al-4V was used as an experimental material and, as process parameters, pulse current and pulse on-time were taken into account. The results showed that finite element simulations can effectively analyze stress concentration in EDM holes. Using high energy during EDM leads to poor hole quality, and the stress concentration factor of a workpiece is correlated to hole quality. The maximum stress concentration factor for an EDM hole was more than four times that for the same diameter of the undamaged hole.

  7. Use of SP-100 thermometry technology to improve operation of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Control of the nuclear power source for the SP-100 electric power supply required a thermometer that would be 1% accurate at temperatures to 1,100 C with no drift and unattended operation for more than 7 years in moderate radiation environment. Johnson noise thermometers had been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory originally for nuclear fuel centerline temperature measurements were believed to be able to provide this performance. They were then adapted for use in the SP-100. This Johnson noise technology also has direct application to two problems in the electric power plant: in situ calibration of conventional resistance thermometers installed in steam systems at temperatures up to about 560 C and measurement of combustion chamber temperatures up to bout 1,100 C. Both capacities require measurement of Johnson noise in harsh industrial environments. The final development and transfer of the SP-100 technology to the electric power sector is currently being supported by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

  8. Radial electric field evolution in various operational modes in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askinazi, L G; Kornev, V A; Krikunov, S V; Lebedev, S V; Smirnov, A I; Tukachinsky, A S; Vildjunas, M I; Zhubr, N A; Krupnik, L I; Tendler, M

    2008-01-01

    Radial electric field evolution has been studied on the TUAMN-3M tokamak in different modes of operation: ohmic and NBI heating, L- and H-modes, with and without strong MHD activity. Peripheral radial electric field was measured using Langmuire probes, which were inserted up to 2cm inside LCFS, while core plasma potential evolution was measured using HIBP diagnostic. It was found, that in presence of strong MHD activity radial electric field in a vicinity of the island changed sign from negative to positive and could reach up to 4kV/m. Central plasma potential exhibited a positive perturbation of ∼700V during the MHD burst. This positive radial electric field might lead to H-mode termination, both in ohmic and NBI heating cases. Possible mechanism of the positive E r generation, namely the electron losses along ergodized magnetic field lines in the presence of MHD-island, is discussed. The same mechanism might be responsible for the positive potential spikes during a saw-tooth crash, also observed using HIBP. Another phenomenon observed using HIBP was quasi-coherent potential oscillations with the frequency close to one of the GAM. Possible location of these oscillations in the core region r/a ∼ 0.33 is discussed

  9. Effect of iron deficiency stress on leaves movements and electrical potentials in mimosa (Mimosa pudica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ślesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the studies was to trace the motorical and electrical activity of the mimosa (Mimosa pudica L. grown under conditions of iron deficiency. The speed of leaf folding was measured (motorical activity and the action potential induced with thermic and light stimuli and turgorin (electrical activity was recorded. It was found that the iron deficiency caused acidification of medium and the maximum of the process coincided with the period when the young leaves were turning green. Chlorotic mimosa leaves, not detached from the plant, showed an increased motorical activity. Motorical and electrical activity of the leaves were inhibited by an inhibitor of the plasmalemma redox systems - quinacrine, and stimulated by blue light. Leaf movement factor - turgorin - caused a hypersensitivity of chlorotic plants. It follows from the studies that the observed effects resulted from the adaptation of mimosa to the iron stress. The adaptation was a result of formation of new plasmalemma redox systems (turbo-reductase, responsible for maintaining high energy levels in the cells.

  10. The structure and operation of the privatised UK electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerss, W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Grid Company has just over a years experience in running the England and Wales Grid System as a public limited company (plc) in a market led environment. The industry has been restructured for privatisation with NGC Holdings, owner of NGC plc, being jointly owned by the 12 Regional Electricity Companies. The successful flotation of the 12 Regional Electricity Companies at the end of 1990 included the businesses and assets of NGC. The role of NGC is twofold; firstly to operate and maintain the HV transmission grid for England and Wales and secondly to facilitate competition in the market for electricity. To meet the requirements for facilitating competition NGC is responsible for the arrangements which will enable new players to enter the market. Under its Transmission Licence NGC has to respond swiftly to a request for connections and the charges levied must be seen to be fair. The publishing of service charges and opportunities identified in the Seven Year Statement enable existing and potential users of the Grid System to identify new connection opportunities. To ensure impartiality in its operation, the pooling and settlement system is administered NGC Settlements Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of NGC, with strict rules on commercial security. Separate in-house businesses have also been set up to administer the other commercial activities of NGC; the Pumped Storage Business, the Interconnection Business (France and Scotland) and the Ancillary Services Business for the provision of system reserve and other services to ensure the stability and security of the system. (author)

  11. De-regulated electric power markets and operating nuclear power plants: the case of British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewlett, James G.

    2005-01-01

    One issue addressed in almost all electric power restructuring/de-regulation plans in both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) was the recovery of operating nuclear power plant's spent fuel disposal costs and the expenditures to decommission the units when they are retired. Prior to restructuring, in theory at least, in both countries, electricity consumers were paying for the back end costs from operating nuclear power plants. Moreover, in virtually all cases in the US, states included special provisions to insure that consumers would continue to do so after power markets were de-regulated. When power markets in the UK were initially restructured/de-regulated and nuclear power privatized, the shareholders of British Energy (BE) were initially responsible for these costs. However, after electricity prices fell and BE collapsed, the British government shifted many of the costs to future taxpayers, as much as a century forward. If this was not done, the book value of BE's equity would have been about -3.5 billion pounds. That is, BE's liabilities would have been about -3.5 billion pounds greater than their assets. It is difficult to see how BE could remain viable under such circumstances

  12. Operating experience relating to on-site electric power sources. Proceedings of a Specialist Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The reliability of on-site electric power sources of nuclear power plants usually consisting of diesel generators, gas turbine generators and DC power sources, has been a matter of concern during reactor operations. The frequent recurrence and the important consequences of failures relating to on-site electric power sources have led to a general consensus that they form one of the most significant features influencing the total performance of the safety Systems. This has also been confirmed by surveys performed on the incidents reported through the NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS). Accordingly, a recommendation to organise a Specialist Meeting on the subject was made at the third annual meeting of CSNI Principal Working Group No. 1 (Operating Experience and Human Factors). At the 12. meeting of the CSNI held in November 1984. the Committee endorsed the proposal and accepted an offer by the United Kingdom to host and organise the Specialist Meeting. The Specialist Meeting, sponsored by the CSNI, was held in London, United Kingdom from 16 to 18 October 1985. It was hosted by H.M. Nuclear Installations Inspectorate of the Health and Safety Executive. The purpose of the meeting was to promote the exchange of Information on operating experience relating to on-site electric power sources and to look for measures to further improve their reliability In the areas of design, operation and licensing. The meeting was organised by a Programme Group which included nominated members of CSNI PWG No. 1. the Programme Group met in May and June 1985 in Paris to agree on the programme and practical arrangements for the meeting. As a result of the review of the abstracts which had been contributed in response to the Call for Papers, 28 papers were accepted for presentation during the meeting. Approximately 60 delegates from 13 Member countries, and the NEA Secretariat, attended the meeting. Session summaries prepared by the respective session chairmen are Included prior to the

  13. Operating experience relating to on-site electric power sources. Proceedings of a Specialist Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-15

    The reliability of on-site electric power sources of nuclear power plants usually consisting of diesel generators, gas turbine generators and DC power sources, has been a matter of concern during reactor operations. The frequent recurrence and the important consequences of failures relating to on-site electric power sources have led to a general consensus that they form one of the most significant features influencing the total performance of the safety Systems. This has also been confirmed by surveys performed on the incidents reported through the NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS). Accordingly, a recommendation to organise a Specialist Meeting on the subject was made at the third annual meeting of CSNI Principal Working Group No. 1 (Operating Experience and Human Factors). At the 12. meeting of the CSNI held in November 1984. the Committee endorsed the proposal and accepted an offer by the United Kingdom to host and organise the Specialist Meeting. The Specialist Meeting, sponsored by the CSNI, was held in London, United Kingdom from 16 to 18 October 1985. It was hosted by H.M. Nuclear Installations Inspectorate of the Health and Safety Executive. The purpose of the meeting was to promote the exchange of Information on operating experience relating to on-site electric power sources and to look for measures to further improve their reliability In the areas of design, operation and licensing. The meeting was organised by a Programme Group which included nominated members of CSNI PWG No. 1. the Programme Group met in May and June 1985 in Paris to agree on the programme and practical arrangements for the meeting. As a result of the review of the abstracts which had been contributed in response to the Call for Papers, 28 papers were accepted for presentation during the meeting. Approximately 60 delegates from 13 Member countries, and the NEA Secretariat, attended the meeting. Session summaries prepared by the respective session chairmen are Included prior to the

  14. Methods for the secure and economical operation of inter-connected electrical power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iggland, L. J. E.

    2014-07-01

    This thesis considers aspects of the operation of electric power systems. In particular the focus is on the operation in systems where multiple operators are jointly responsible for the operation of an interconnected system, but where each operator is solely responsible for a sub-system. Due to the manner in which the operation is separated, the operators have detailed information about the subsystem they control, but only limited information about the rest of the system. The market liberalization, and an interest in an integrated pan-European energy market, are leading to increased cross-border power flows. These increased cross-border flows increase the interdependencies between the areas. With increasing interdependencies the problems associated with operators only having limited knowledge about the entire system increase. In order to reduce these issues, which include an inability to properly dispatch generation and being able to perform security analysis, this thesis presents methods which can be used to perform data-exchange without requiring that all information needs to be exchanged. By using repeated exchange of the price and amount of energy traded together with an iterative solution of the local generation dispatch problem, a multi-lateral solution for the interconnected system is achieved. The method is evaluated with respect to how close its solution is to the central one, both for the non-security constrained and the security constrained case. This method is then extended to include HVDC transmission systems. In order to allow the operators to evaluate the effect of contingencies which occur in other areas, the operators must exchange the contingencies which they consider with each other. In order to reduce the amount of data which must be transmitted this thesis proposes a method which summarizes contingencies which are similar into a common one. Thus allowing for a smaller number of contingencies to be considered, without reducing the coverage. This

  15. Methods for the secure and economical operation of inter-connected electrical power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iggland, L. J. E.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis considers aspects of the operation of electric power systems. In particular the focus is on the operation in systems where multiple operators are jointly responsible for the operation of an interconnected system, but where each operator is solely responsible for a sub-system. Due to the manner in which the operation is separated, the operators have detailed information about the subsystem they control, but only limited information about the rest of the system. The market liberalization, and an interest in an integrated pan-European energy market, are leading to increased cross-border power flows. These increased cross-border flows increase the interdependencies between the areas. With increasing interdependencies the problems associated with operators only having limited knowledge about the entire system increase. In order to reduce these issues, which include an inability to properly dispatch generation and being able to perform security analysis, this thesis presents methods which can be used to perform data-exchange without requiring that all information needs to be exchanged. By using repeated exchange of the price and amount of energy traded together with an iterative solution of the local generation dispatch problem, a multi-lateral solution for the interconnected system is achieved. The method is evaluated with respect to how close its solution is to the central one, both for the non-security constrained and the security constrained case. This method is then extended to include HVDC transmission systems. In order to allow the operators to evaluate the effect of contingencies which occur in other areas, the operators must exchange the contingencies which they consider with each other. In order to reduce the amount of data which must be transmitted this thesis proposes a method which summarizes contingencies which are similar into a common one. Thus allowing for a smaller number of contingencies to be considered, without reducing the coverage. This

  16. Advanced launch system (ALS) - Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrrical power system and controls for all aviation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a sdpecific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military ans civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of comercial applications.

  17. Modeling of electrical and mesoscopic circuits at quantum nanoscale from heat momentum operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    We develop a new method to study electrical circuits at quantum nanoscale by introducing a heat momentum operator which reproduces quantum effects similar to those obtained in Suykens's nonlocal-in-time kinetic energy approach for the case of reversible motion. The series expansion of the heat momentum operator is similar to the momentum operator obtained in the framework of minimal length phenomenologies characterized by the deformation of Heisenberg algebra. The quantization of both LC and mesoscopic circuits revealed a number of motivating features like the emergence of a generalized uncertainty relation and a minimal charge similar to those obtained in the framework of minimal length theories. Additional features were obtained and discussed accordingly.

  18. Planning low-carbon electricity systems under uncertainty considering operational flexibility and smart grid technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Street, Alexandre; Arroyo, José M; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2017-08-13

    Electricity grid operators and planners need to deal with both the rapidly increasing integration of renewables and an unprecedented level of uncertainty that originates from unknown generation outputs, changing commercial and regulatory frameworks aimed to foster low-carbon technologies, the evolving availability of market information on feasibility and costs of various technologies, etc. In this context, there is a significant risk of locking-in to inefficient investment planning solutions determined by current deterministic engineering practices that neither capture uncertainty nor represent the actual operation of the planned infrastructure under high penetration of renewables. We therefore present an alternative optimization framework to plan electricity grids that deals with uncertain scenarios and represents increased operational details. The presented framework is able to model the effects of an array of flexible, smart grid technologies that can efficiently displace the need for conventional solutions. We then argue, and demonstrate via the proposed framework and an illustrative example, that proper modelling of uncertainty and operational constraints in planning is key to valuing operationally flexible solutions leading to optimal investment in a smart grid context. Finally, we review the most used practices in power system planning under uncertainty, highlight the challenges of incorporating operational aspects and advocate the need for new and computationally effective optimization tools to properly value the benefits of flexible, smart grid solutions in planning. Such tools are essential to accelerate the development of a low-carbon energy system and investment in the most appropriate portfolio of renewable energy sources and complementary enabling smart technologies.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. A Pattern Analysis of Daily Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles: Operational Efficiency and Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit R. Desai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs are considered one solution to reducing GHG emissions from private transport. Additionally, PEV adopters often have free access to public charging facilities. Through a pattern analysis, this study identifies five distinct clusters of daily PEV charging profiles observed at the public charging stations. Empirically observed patterns indicate a significant amount of operational inefficiency, where 54% of the total parking duration PEVs do not consume electricity, preventing other users from charging. This study identifies the opportunity cost in terms of GHG emissions savings if gasoline vehicles are replaced with potential PEV adopters. The time spent in parking without charging by current PEV users can be used by these potential PEV users to charge their PEVs and replace the use of gasoline. The results suggest that reducing inefficient station use leads to significant reductions in emissions. Overall, there is significant variability in outcomes depending on the specific cluster membership.

  20. Electric Energy Consumption of Multi Purpose Reactor GA. Siwabessy During Reactor Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koes Indrakoesoema

    2012-01-01

    Electrical power supply of Reactor Center Multi Purpose obtained from PT PLN to 3030 kVA power contracts. Distribution to existing loads in PRSG divided into 3 (three) lines, each of which is supplied through a transformer BHT01, BHT02 and BHT03, each transformer have capacity of 1600 kVA. During reactor operation, only 2 lines that serve loads, each line serve 2 primary pump motor and 2 secondary pump motor. Electrical power for 24 hours for measurement BHT01, the average is 288 kW, for BHT02 is 641 kW and BHT03 is 466 kW. The energy absorbed by each transformer for 24 hours of measurement, for BHT01 is 6.44 MWh, BHT02 absorb 14.8 MWh and BHT03 absorb 10.9 MWh. (author)

  1. Evolution of Italian national electric power system: Relationship between ENEL and local operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of facilitating the option to privatize the Italian national electricity system known as ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board), new laws have been passed which have modified the legal framework pertaining to the management of ENEL's activities and have given ENEL a new status of state concessionaire. The modifications to the existing laws, however, were made in such a way as not to jeopardize the present integral nature of ENEL's activities relative to power generation and distribution. This paper discusses the impact of the new laws on the management of municipal and industrial power plants run by public administrations and private industrial firms licensed to operate under existing and future agreements made with ENEL

  2. First wall and blanket stresses induced by cyclic fusion core operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.; Kostoff, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is made of cyclic thermal loads and stresses for the complete range of operating conditions. Two critical components were examined; the solid wall adjacent to the fusion plasma (first wall) and the fuel elements in the high power density region of the blanket. Simple closed form expressions were derived for temperature increases and thermal stresses that may be evaluated conveniently and rapidly and the values compared for different systems

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE RESIDUAL OPERATING TIME OF UNRESTORABLE ELEMENT OF THE ELECTRIC POWER OBJECT AT THE WAYBALL DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namgaladze, D.; Gurgenidze, D.

    2007-01-01

    In practice, it is often essential to determinethe residual operating time for an unrestorable element of the electric power object which has operated without failure for a certain time. The density of probability distribution of operating time can be determined from the initial probability distribution of operating time. In this work, the relations for determination of the function of residual operating time of the unrestorable element at the exponential and Wayball distributions are analytically derived. (author)

  4. Effects Of Environmental And Operational Stresses On RF MEMS Switch Technologies For Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jah, Muzar; Simon, Eric; Sharma, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have been heralded for their ability to provide tremendous advantages in electronic systems through increased electrical performance, reduced power consumption, and higher levels of device integration with a reduction of board real estate. RF MEMS switch technology offers advantages such as low insertion loss (0.1- 0.5 dB), wide bandwidth (1 GHz-100 GHz), and compatibility with many different process technologies (quartz, high resistivity Si, GaAs) which can replace the use of traditional electronic switches, such as GaAs FETS and PIN Diodes, in microwave systems for low signal power (x technologies, the unknown reliability, due to the lack of information concerning failure modes and mechanisms inherent to MEMS devices, create an obstacle to insertion of MEMS technology into high reliability applications. All MEMS devices are sensitive to moisture and contaminants, issues easily resolved by hermetic or near-hermetic packaging. Two well-known failure modes of RF MEMS switches are charging in the dielectric layer of capacitive membrane switches and contact interface stiction of metal-metal switches. Determining the integrity of MEMS devices when subjected to the shock, vibration, temperature extremes, and radiation of the space environment is necessary to facilitate integration into space systems. This paper will explore the effects of different environmental stresses, operational life cycling, temperature, mechanical shock, and vibration on the first commercially available RF MEMS switches to identify relevant failure modes and mechanisms inherent to these device and packaging schemes for space applications. This paper will also describe RF MEMS Switch technology under development at NASA GSFC.

  5. Economic and environmental scheduling of smart homes with microgrid: DER operation and electrical tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An MILP model is formulated for energy consumption scheduling among smart homes. • Environmental and economic aspects are both addressed. • The model is implemented on an example with data profiles from the UK. • Pareto-optimal curves between cost and CO_2 emissions are obtained. • Real-time pricing and critical peak pricing schemes are investigated. - Abstract: Microgrids are promising in reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions, compared with the current centralised energy generation systems. Smart homes are becoming popular for their lower energy cost and provision of comfort. Flexible energy-consuming household tasks can be scheduled co-ordinately among multiple smart homes to reduce economic cost and CO_2. However, the electricity tariff is not always positively correlated with CO_2 intensity. In this work, a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is proposed to schedule the energy consumption within smart homes using a microgrid system. The daily power consumption tasks are scheduled by coupling environmental and economic sustainability in a multi-objective optimisation with ε-constraint method. The two conflicting objectives are to minimise the daily energy cost and CO_2 emissions. Distributed energy resources (DER) operation and electricity-consumption household tasks are scheduled based on electricity tariff, CO_2 intensity and electricity task time window. The proposed model is implemented on a smart building of 30 homes under three different price schemes. Electricity tariff and CO_2 intensity profiles of the UK are employed for the case study. The Pareto curves for cost and CO_2 emissions present the trade-off between the two conflicting objectives.

  6. The Efficiency of the Regulation for Horizontal Mergers Among Electricity Distribution Operators in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Gammeltvedt, Thor Erik

    2015-01-01

    the attractiveness of mergers. Norway is one country having implemented an ex ante regulation for mergers among electricity distribution operators (DSOs). We investigate whether the actual mergers of Norwegian DSOs in the period 1995-2004 can be rationalized as cost saving exercises or whether they should...... to identify plausible pre-merger motivations. We also discuss the possibility to gain from strategic gaming in the regulation. We compare the regulated revenues and the regulated efficiency improvement requirements before and after the mergers. We find limited potential cost gains ex ante but some improvement...

  7. Electric battery with gas-operated electrolyte flow. Elektrischer Akkumulator mit gasbetaetigter Elektrolytbewegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetlich, K.F.; Kappus, W.; Zweigardt, H.; Eckardt, R.

    1986-08-28

    The invention relates to an electric accumulator with gas-operated electrolyte flow between electrode plates connected to form a plate block according to the principle of the mammoth pump. At least two supply pipes arranged parallel to each other and with connected gas supply are mounted to a base plate of non-conducting material. The base plate can be pushed in between plate block and housing wall. The base plate consists of two plastic foils of equal height and width the supply pipes and gas leads being formed by protrusions in the plastic foil.

  8. Electric battery with gas-operated electrolyte flow. Elektrischer Akkumulator mit gasbetaetigter Elektrolytbewegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetlich, K.F.; Kappus, W.; Zweigardt, H.; Eckardt, R.

    1980-10-09

    The invention relates to an electric accumulator with gas-operated electrolyte flow between electrode plates connected to form a plate block according to the principle of the mammoth pump. At least two supply pipes arranged parallel to each other and with connected gas supply are mounted to a base plate of non-conducting material. The base plate can be pushed in between plate block and housing wall. The base plate consists of two plastic foils of equal height and width the supply pipes and gas leads being formed by protrusions in the plastic foil.

  9. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  10. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  11. Analysis and electrical modelling of a cylindrical DBD configuration at different operating frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia-Barrientos, R; Pacheco-Sotelo, J; Pacheco-Pacheco, M; BenItez-Read, J S; Lopez-Callejas, R

    2006-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge generated by flowing inert gas (helium) ionized by a high-voltage source through a cylindrical reactor working at atmospheric pressure has been studied and an electrical model characterizing this discharge is proposed. A sinusoidal voltage of up to 2 kV peak to peak with frequencies from 10 to 125 kHz has been applied to the discharge electrodes. The proposed model considers the geometry of the reactor and dielectric materials. From experimental and analytical results, a semi-empirical relation of the breakdown voltage is presented as a function of the operating frequency. The microdischarge regime is characterized by a dynamic equivalent capacitance

  12. Consolidating Learning in Power Systems: Virtual Reality Applied to the Study of the Operation of Electric Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Pebertli Nils Alho; Filho, Manoel Ribeiro; Nunes, Marcus V. Alves

    2015-01-01

    Within the field of electric power systems, the study of electrical equipment can be frustrating and demotivating because of the lack of a clear vision of how this equipment functions and operates in a real environment. The use of virtual reality can provide a more concrete representation for students, who rarely have the opportunity to visit a…

  13. Operating requirements for power plants in the liberalised electricity market; Einsatzanforderungen an Kraftwerke im liberalisierten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzbach, G. [Vereinigte Energiewerke AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The onset of liberalisation in the German electricity market now dates back one and a half years. All processes related to this event are still in a process of rapid change. These developments have already led to a substantial drop in electricity prices, especially for large customers, leaving suppliers with modest margins. Power supply companies such as VEAG, whose operations in East Germany include power transmission, electricity production from brown coal and wholesale trade, are taking measures to meet the new demands placed on them. Unbundling regulations and market processes are forcing companies to review their organisational and operational structures. Risk management, controlling and DP support for processes are indispensable. Profit centre structures and internal performance accounting systems are being used to distribute the market pressure evenly across the company's divisions. Companies' future success will be determined by their success in trading and selling. These developments will also have an impact on power plants, i.e. on the first stage of the supply chain. For one thing, the costs of power plant operation have to be reduced significantly. Reductions in staff costs will necessitate a review of technological processes. Furthermore, maintenance strategies and availability goals have to be reassessed. Another crucial factor is to be seen in power plants' operational flexibility, and this will also have an impact on fuel supply contracts. A particular concern of single-plant companies and small generation systems will be how to deal with strong fluctuations in demand and meet the hourly supply schedules agreed on with the customer without having to resort to the expensive regulating services of the grid operators. Electricity produced in excess of demand will find not always find buyers, not even after the establishment of physical electricity exchanges. Another factor which will increase the volatility of required power generation

  14. Which Factors Can Protect Against Range Stress in Everyday Usage of Battery Electric Vehicles? Toward Enhancing Sustainability of Electric Mobility Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to advance understanding of factors that can protect against range anxiety, specifically range stress in everyday usage of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Range anxiety is a major barrier to the broad adoption of sustainable electric mobility systems. To develop strategies aimed at overcoming range anxiety, a clear understanding of this phenomenon and influencing factors is needed. We examined range anxiety in the form of everyday range stress (ERS) in a field study setting. Seventy-two customers leased a BEV for 3 months. The field study was specifically designed to enable examination of factors that can contribute to lower ERS. In particular, study design and sample recruitment were targeted at generating vehicle usage profiles that would lead to relatively frequent experience of situations requiring active management of range resources and thereby potentially leading to experienced range stress. Less frequent encounter with critical range situations, higher practical experience, subjective range competence, tolerance of low range, and experienced trustworthiness of the range estimation system were related to lower ERS. Moreover, range stress was found to be related to range satisfaction and BEV acceptance. The results underline the importance of the human factors perspective to overcome range anxiety and enhance sustainability of electric mobility systems. Trustworthiness should be employed as a key benchmark variable in the design of range estimation systems, and assistance systems should target increasing drivers' adaptive capacity (i.e., resilience) to cope with critical range situations. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. Analysis for Involvement of TPP Operating in Accordance with Heating Schedule to Passing Through Failures of Electric Load Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes technical and economic evaluation of various methods pertaining to passing through failures of electric load at TPP which is operating in accordance with heating schedule.

  16. Surgeons' and surgical trainees' acute stress in real operations or simulation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Konstantinos; Larentzakis, Andreas; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2017-12-01

    Acute stress in surgery is ubiquitous and has an immediate impact on surgical performance and patient safety. Surgeons react with several coping strategies; however, they recognise the necessity of formal stress management training. Thus, stress assessment is a direct need. Surgical simulation is a validated standardised training milieu designed to replicate real-life situations. It replicates stress, prevents biases, and provides objective metrics. The complexity of stress mechanisms makes stress measurement difficult to quantify and interpret. This systematic review aims to identify studies that have used acute stress estimation measurements in surgeons or surgical trainees during real operations or surgical simulation, and to collectively present the rationale of these tools, with special emphasis in salivary markers. A search strategy was implemented to retrieve relevant articles from MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. The 738 articles retrieved were reviewed for further evaluation according to the predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Thirty-three studies were included in this systematic review. The methods for acute stress assessment varied greatly among studies with the non-invasive techniques being the most commonly used. Subjective and objective tests for surgeons' acute stress assessment are being presented. There is a broad spectrum of acute mental stress assessment tools in the surgical field and simulation and salivary biomarkers have recently gained popularity. There is a need to maintain a consistent methodology in future research, towards a deeper understanding of acute stress in the surgical field. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A framework for analyzing the impact of data integrity/quality on electricity market operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dae Hyun

    This dissertation examines the impact of data integrity/quality in the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on real-time locational marginal price (LMP) in electricity market operations. Measurement noise and/or manipulated sensor errors in a SCADA system may mislead system operators about real-time conditions in a power system, which, in turn, may impact the price signals in real-time power markets. This dissertation serves as a first attempt to analytically investigate the impact of bad/malicious data on electric power market operations. In future power system operations, which will probably involve many more sensors, the impact of sensor data integrity/quality on grid operations will become increasingly important. The first part of this dissertation studies from a market participant's perspective a new class of malicious data attacks on state estimation, which subsequently influences the result of the newly emerging look-ahead dispatch models in the real-time power market. In comparison with prior work of cyber-attack on static dispatch where no inter-temporal ramping constraint is considered, we propose a novel attack strategy, named ramp-induced data (RID) attack, with which the attacker can manipulate the limits of ramp constraints of generators in look-ahead dispatch. It is demonstrated that the proposed attack can lead to financial profits via malicious capacity withholding of selected generators, while being undetected by the existing bad data detection algorithm embedded in today's state estimation software. In the second part, we investigate from a system operator's perspective the sensitivity of locational marginal price (LMP) with respect to data corruption-induced state estimation error in real-time power market. Two data corruption scenarios are considered, in which corrupted continuous data (e.g., the power injection/flow and voltage magnitude) falsify power flow estimate whereas corrupted discrete data (e.g., the on/off status of

  18. Modeling of stresses and electric fields in piezoelectric multilayer: Application to multi quantum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaneshwar Mishra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Exact closed-form expressions have been derived for the stresses and the electric fields induced in piezoelectric multilayers deposited on a substrate with lattice misfit and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. The derived formulations can model any number of layers using recursive relations that minimize the computation time. A proper rotation matrix has been utilized to generalize the expressions so that they can be used for various growth orientations with each layer having hexagonal crystal symmetry. As an example, the influence of lattice misfit and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch on the state of electroelastic fields in different layers of GaN multi quantum wells has been examined. A comparison with the finite element analysis results showed very close agreement. The analytical expressions developed herein will be useful in designing optoelectronic devices as well as in predicting defect density in multi quantum wells.

  19. Independent operation by subsystems: Strategic behavior for the Brazilian electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido Tapia Carpio, Lucio; Olimpio Pereira, Amaro

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the competitive strategies of the subsystems in the Brazilian electricity sector. The objective is to present a model in which the operation of each subsystem is managed independently. As the subsystems correspond to the country's geographic regions, the adoption of this model creates conditions for each region to develop according to its own peculiarities. The decision-making process is described based Game Theory. As such, the players or operators of each subsystem carry out their strategies based on the quantities produced, which results in Nash-Cournot equilibrium. In this model, the importance of the proper transmission line dimensioning is highlighted. It determines the competition level among subsystems and allows for optimization of the whole system without requiring arrangements for managing the congestion of the energy transportation grid. The model was programmed in FORTRAN, using IBM's optimization subroutine library (OSL) package

  20. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2012-12-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Energy saving in the operation of industrial electrical substations. Part I. Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The main objective of this work is to offer a methodology for the operation of substations composed by two or more transformers that feed loads of first category. Understand by loads of first category those in that the interruption of the electric supply may cause the loss of human life. The core of this operation shows that in substations with several transformers, the number of transformers connected at a given moment should be one that avoids losses. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es ofrecer una metodologia para la operacion de subestaciones compuestas por dos o mas transformadores que alimentan cargas de primera categoria. Entendiendose por cargas de primera categoria, aquellas en que la interrupcion del suministro electrico puede causar la perdida de vidas humanas. El nucleo de esta operacion muestra que en las subestaciones con varios transformadores, el numero de transformadores conectados, en un momento dado, debe ser aquel que evite perdidas.

  3. Approach to Operational Experimental Estimation of Static Stresses of Elements of Mechanical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedov, A. V.; Kalinchuk, V. V.; Bocharova, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation of static stresses and strength of units and components is a crucial task for increasing reliability in the operation of vehicles and equipment, to prevent emergencies, especially in structures made of metal and composite materials. At the stage of creation and commissioning of structures to control the quality of manufacturing of individual elements and components, diagnostic control methods are widely used. They are acoustic, ultrasonic, X-ray, radiation methods and others. The using of these methods to control the residual life and the degree of static stresses of units and parts during operation is fraught with great difficulties both in methodology and in instrumentation. In this paper, the authors propose an effective approach of operative control of the degree of static stresses of units and parts of mechanical structures which are in working condition, based on recording the changing in the surface wave properties of a system consisting of a sensor and a controlled environment (unit, part). The proposed approach of low-frequency diagnostics of static stresses presupposes a new adaptive-spectral analysis of a surface wave created by external action (impact). It is possible to estimate implicit stresses of structures in the experiment due to this approach.

  4. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  5. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Järvelä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive feed-in tariffs that ensure a certain price for the energy. On the other hand, electricity markets operate on a supply-demand principle and a typical imbalance settlement period is one hour. This paper presents the energy, power and corresponding requirements for an energy storage system in a solar PV power plant to feed the power to the grid meeting the electricity spot markets practices. An ideal PV energy production forecast is assumed to be available to define reference powers of the system for the studied imbalance settlement periods. The analysis is done for three different PV system sizes using the existing irradiance measurements of the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant.

  6. Novel electrical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, C. H.; Kazempoor, P.; Braun, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) is an important component of the future electric grid. Given that no other widely available technology meets all the EES requirements, reversible (or regenerative) solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) working in both fuel cell (power producing) and electrolysis (fuel producing) modes are envisioned as a technology capable of providing highly efficient and cost-effective EES. However, there are still many challenges and questions from cell materials development to system level operation of ReSOCs that should be addressed before widespread application. This paper presents a novel system based on ReSOCs that employ a thermal management strategy of promoting exothermic methanation within the ReSOC cell-stack to provide thermal energy for the endothermic steam/CO2 electrolysis reactions during charging mode (fuel producing). This approach also serves to enhance the energy density of the stored gases. Modeling and parametric analysis of an energy storage concept is performed using a physically based ReSOC stack model coupled with thermodynamic system component models. Results indicate that roundtrip efficiencies greater than 70% can be achieved at intermediate stack temperature (680 °C) and elevated stack pressure (20 bar). The optimal operating condition arises from a tradeoff between stack efficiency and auxiliary power requirements from balance of plant hardware.

  7. NRC Information No. 87-24: Operational experience involving losses of electrical inverters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The NRC case study report identified three potential failure mechanisms for inverters. One of these involves relatively high ambient temperature and/or humidity within inverter enclosures. This condition appears to result in accelerated aging of components that form a part of the inverter circuitry causing a significant reduction in component life expectancy and inverter loss. Another mechanism for inverter failure involves the electrical interconnecting and physical arrangements for the inverter circuitry components. In some installations, these arrangements are such that when certain components fail, other components also may fail or degrade. The third failure mechanism involves voltage spikes and perturbations. Many of the electrical loads in a plant have inductive characteristics. During plant operations that involve energizing and deenergizing these loads, voltage spikes and perturbations are generated. The solid-state devices in the inverter circuitry are sensitive to these voltage spikes, and this has resulted in component failure, blown fuses, and inverter losses. Additionally, secondary voltage perturbations caused by lighting strikes or switching surges can have an adverse effect on inverter operation

  8. Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, J.; Vaterlaus, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

  9. Characteristics of the prices of operating reserves and regulation services in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, characteristics of the prices of reserves and regulation services in the Ontario, New York and ERCOT electricity markets are studied. More specifically, price variability, price jumps, long-range correlation, and non-linearity of the prices are analyzed using the available measures in the literature. For the Ontario electricity market, the prices of 10-min spinning, 10-min non-spinning, and 30-min operating reserves for the period May 1, 2002 to December 31, 2007 are analyzed. For the New York market, prices of the same reserves plus regulation service are studied for the period February 5, 2005 to December 31, 2008. For the ERCOT market, we analyze the prices of responsive reserve, regulation up and regulation down services, for the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009. The studied characteristics of operating reserve and regulation prices are also compared with those of energy prices. The findings of this paper show that the studied reserve and regulation prices feature extreme volatility, more frequent jumps and spikes, different peak price occurrence time, and lower predictability, compared to the energy prices. - Research highlights: → We examine various statistical characteristics of reserve and regulation prices. → We compare characteristics of reserve and regulation and energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices feature different patterns from energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices are more dispersive and volatile than energy price.

  10. Working group on unbundling of electricity trade operations 2. A group report; Saehkoeliiketoimintojen eriyttaemistyoeryhmae 2. Tyoeryhmaen mietintoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The current unbundling of operations in accounts has proved inadequate. No formula or model that could be made binding by provisions have been defined for unbundled accounts. In addition, unbundling can draw a distinct line between commercial activities and network operations, which have assumed various authoritative functions. Against this background, the need for clearer unbundling has become more marked. The working group suggests that the current provisions on unbundling of trade operations should be tightened and that the unbundling should be made clearer especially in terms of allocation of joint costs. For this, the necessary preparations by the authorities should be initiated urgently. At the same time, the working group proposes that network operations should be unbundled from other operations by incorporation or by unbundling them into a separate public utility. The smallest electric utilities should be exempted from the obligation of incorporating network operations. According to the working group, the lower limit could be fixed e.g. at 70 GWh a year. The working group also suggests that the licensees must own the electricity networks they operate. The licensees could not rent their networks from the mother company nor lease them from a financing company. The model proposed by the working group would redress the major problems connected with the supervision of the electricity market. The monopoly, i.e. the electricity network operations, under the supervision of the Electricity Market Authority could thus be unbundled. This would improve the functioning of the market and facilitate the supervision. However, the model would not abolish the tax concession of municipal public utilities in competitive trade operations, production and sale of electricity. The tax concession may affect the competitive situation on the electricity market. (orig.)

  11. Study on the Correlation between PSR and Korean Stress Test for Continued Operation of Aging NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Korean nuclear regulatory authority established the stress test guideline based on the EU stress test, and KHNP prepared the execution plan in response to the guideline for the CO of Kori Unit 1 and Wolsong Unit 1. PSR is a comprehensive safety review program for long term operation of NPP, which was developed by IAEA. Korea adopted PSR in 1999 as the regulatory requirement for CO of NPP. The IAEA standard guideline for PSR program was updated in 2003. However, the Korean PSR has not been revised yet to apply the new IAEA guidelines. Additionally, national legal systems and guidelines associated with the adoption of stress tests are urgently required as well. These revisions are imperative in order to ensure the reliability of NPPs, and to promote public acceptance and understanding. This study presents the technical basis and proposals for review actions necessary to address the issues and controversies surrounding the continued operation and decommissioning of aging NPPs in Korea. As discussed earlier in characteristics of Korean Stress Test, it is more comprehensive than the EU Stress Test in terms of its multilateral evaluation which includes equipment durability, plant operation, human factors, and safety margins, hence substantially raising the significance and value of the evaluation process. Thus, the addition of Korean Stress Test to the existing Korean Evaluation of CO is expected to greatly increase the quality of safety assessment of aging NPPs in Korea due to its stricter safety policies, hence providing a more meaningful evaluation process. However, a one-time application of the Korean Stress Test to only Kori Unit 1 and Wolsong Unit 1 would be a waste of the great effort that has been done thus far to improve the Korean Evaluation of CO and develop the Korean Stress Test. By extending the Korean Stress Test to all NPPs in Korea would maintain and ensure the reliability of NPPs as well as public

  12. Soldiers Working Internationally: Impacts of Masculinity, Military Culture, and Operational Stress on Cross-Cultural Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Patrice A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ramifications of masculinized military culture and operational stress on cross-cultural adaptation. The author examines how characteristics of military culture may obstruct effective cross-cultural adaptation by promoting a hypermasculinity that tends to oppose effective management of trauma, and thereby suppresses skills…

  13. Stress-Activated Electric Currents in the Earth Crust: How they Can and Cannot Flow (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, F. T.; Bleier, T. E.; Bortnik, J.; Dahlgren, R.

    2010-12-01

    Dormant electronic charge carriers exist in rocks. They “wake up” when stresses are applied: electrons e’ and positive holes, h., the latter being defect electrons in the oxygen anion sublattice of minerals [1, 2]. The h. can flow out of the stressed subvolume. They can spread into the unstressed surrounding, turning the rocks into p-type semiconductors. They travel fast and far using energy levels at the upper edge of the valence bands. Contrary to the h., the co-activated electrons e’ cannot flow out and propagate through unstressed rocks: they are stuck in the activation volume. The situation is akin to that in an electrochemical battery except that, in the “rock battery”, the positive charge carriers are not cations but positive holes h.. In the laboratory it is easy to close the battery circuit by offering the electrons a metal contact and connecting the stressed and unstressed rock with a metal wire. This is useful to demonstrate the functioning of the “rock battery”. In the field the h. outflow from a stressed rock volume is restricted as long as there is no return path. This is an important point when we try to understand why pre-earthquake EM emission is widely considered “unreliable” [3, 4]. However, there are at least three conditions, under which circuit closure can be achieved in the field under realistic pre-earthquake situations: (i) via n-type conducting rocks; (ii) via electrolytic conductivity of water; and (iii) via the air when the air above the epicentral region becomes highly ionized. We report on examples where these three conditions might have allowed large currents to flow and strong EM signals to be emitted. [1] Freund, F.T. et al.: Electric currents streaming out of stressed igneous rocks - A step towards understanding pre-earthquake low frequency EM emissions, Phys. Chem. Earth 31, 389-396 (2006). [2] Freund, F.T.: Charge generation and propagation in rocks, J. Geodyn. 33, 545-572 (2002). [3] Johnston, M.J.S. and

  14. Stress and Fatigue in Operators Under Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation and Shift Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangelova K.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR on stress indices, health complaints and fatigue of operators working fast-rotating extended shifts. Working conditions, job content, job control, social support, health complaints and fatigue were followed in 220 operators, 110 exposed to EMR and 110 control operators, matched by age and sex. The EMR was measured and time-weighted average (TWA was calculated. The excretion rates of stress hormones cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed during the extended shifts in 36 operators, working at different levels of exposure and 24-hour exposure was calculated. The exposed group pointed more problems with the working conditions, including EMR, noise, currents and risk of accidents, more health complaints and higher level of fatigue. The most common health complaints were mental and physical exhaustion after work, pains in the chest, musculoskeletal complaints, headache, and apathy. High level EMR exposure (TWAmean = 3.10 μW/cm2, TWAmax = 137.00 μW/cm2 significantly increased the 24-hour excretion of cortisol and noradrenaline, whereas the increase of adrenaline excretion did not reach significance, as well as hormone excretion rates under low level exposure (TWAmean = 1.89 μW/cm2, TWAmax = 5.24 μW/cm2. In conclusion, higher number of health complaints, higher stress hormone excretion rates and fatigue were found in operators under EMR.

  15. Hybrid multidimensional design for heterogeneous data supported by ontological analysis: an application case in the Brazilian electric system operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, João; Cordeiro, Kelli; Campos, Maria Luiza M.; Borges, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    An issue in operating a national electric system is how the corporate image of an Independent System Operator (ISO) can be impacted by disturbances in the system and their related news publications from specialized press. To deal with it, a solution was developed in the context of the Brazilian

  16. Study and characterization of the irreversible transformation of electrically stressed planar Ti/TiO{sub x}/Ti junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, N.; Puyoo, E., E-mail: etienne.puyoo@insa-lyon.fr; Le Berre, M.; Albertini, D.; Baboux, N.; Chevalier, C.; Ayadi, K.; Grégoire, J.; Gautier, B.; Calmon, F. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Université de Lyon, INL UMR 5270, CNRS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69621 (France)

    2015-10-14

    We investigate the properties and characteristics of planar Ti/TiO{sub x}/Ti junctions, which consist of transverse TiO{sub x} lines drawn on Ti test patterns. Junctions are elaborated by means of local anodic oxidation using atomic force microscopy. An irreversible morphological transformation occurring in a reproducible manner is observed when these planar junctions are electrically stressed under ambient atmosphere. Structural and chemical analyses based on transmission electron microscopy techniques reveal the extension of the initial amorphous TiO{sub x} into a crystalline rutile phase. This irreversible transformation is proven to vanish completely if the electrical stress occurs under vacuum atmosphere. Finally, we carry out temperature dependent electrical measurements in order to elucidate their conduction mechanism: Schottky emission above an ultra-low potential barrier is assumed to dominate under vacuum atmosphere whereas ionic conduction seems to prevail in air.

  17. Optimal short-term operation schedule of a hydropower plant in a competitive electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Diaz, Juan I.; Wilhelmi, Jose R.; Arevalo, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic programming model to solve the short-term scheduling problem of a hydropower plant that sells energy in a pool-based electricity market with the objective of maximizing the revenue. This is a nonlinear and non-concave problem subject to strong technical and strategic constraints, and in which discrete and continuous variables take part. The model described in this paper determines, in each hour of the planning horizon (typically from one day to one week), both the optimal number of units in operation (unit commitment) and the power to be generated by the committed units (generation dispatch). The power generated by each unit is considered as a nonlinear function of the actual water discharge and volume of the associated reservoir. The dependence of the units' efficiency and operating limits with the available gross head is also accounted for in this model. The application of this model to a real hydropower plant demonstrates its capabilities in providing the operation schedule that maximizes the revenue of the hydro plant while satisfying several constraints of different classes. In addition, the use of this model as a supporting tool to estimate the economic feasibility of a hydropower plant development project is also analyzed in the paper. (author)

  18. Investigations on GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling in stress and stress adaptive behavior in electric foot shock subjected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to explore the role of GSK-3β and NF-kB signaling in electric foot shock-induced stress and stress adaptation. Mice were subjected to foot shocks of 0.5mA intensity and 1s duration of 1h to produce acute stress. Animals were exposed to the same stressor for 5 days to induce stress adaptation. The behavioral alterations were assessed using the actophotometer, hole board, open field and social interaction tests. The serum corticosterone levels were assessed as a marker of the HPA axis. The levels of total GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB were determined in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and amygdala. Acute electric foot shock stress produced behavioral and biochemical changes; decreased the levels of p-GSK-3β-S9, produced no change in total GSK-3β levels and increased p-NF-kB levels in the brain. However, repeated exposure of foot shock stress restored the behavioral and biochemical changes along with normalization of p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels. Administration of AR-A01, a selective GSK-3β inhibitor, or diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DDTC), a selective NF-kB inhibitor, diminished acute stress-induced behavioral and biochemical changes. Furthermore, AR-A014418 normalized acute stress-induced alterations in p-GSK-3β-S9 and p-NF-kB levels, however, DDTC selectively restored NF-kB levels without any change in p-GSK-3β-S9 levels. It probably suggests that NF-kB is a downstream mediator of the GSK-3 signaling cascade. It may conclude that acute stress associated decrease in p-GSK-3β-S9 and increase in p-NF-kB levels in the brain contribute in the development of behavioral and biochemical alterations and normalization of GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling may contribute in stress adaptive behavior in response to repeated electric foot shock-subjected mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Heat stress management program improving worker health and operational effectiveness: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Rosalyn G; Skelton, Scott B; Alvis, Kimberly L; Shane, Leigh A

    2013-03-01

    Heat stress monitoring is a vital component of an effective health and safety program when employees work in exceptionally warm environments. Workers at hazardous waste sites often wear personal protective equipment (PPE), which increases the body heat stress load. No specific Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations address heat stress; however, OSHA does provide several guidance documents to assist employers in addressing this serious workplace health hazard. This article describes a heat stress and surveillance plan implemented at a hazardous waste site as part of the overall health and safety program. The PPE requirement for work at this site, coupled with extreme environmental temperatures, made heat stress a significant concern. Occupational health nurses and industrial hygienists developed a monitoring program for heat stress designed to prevent the occurrence of significant heat-related illness in site workers. The program included worker education on the signs of heat-related illness and continuous physiologic monitoring to detect early signs of heat-related health problems. Biological monitoring data were collected before workers entered the exclusion zone and on exiting the zone following decontamination. Sixty-six site workers were monitored throughout site remediation. More than 1,700 biological monitoring data points were recorded. Outcomes included improved worker health and safety, and increased operational effectiveness. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Electrical lysis: dynamics revisited and advances in On-chip operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Bashir; Shams, Maitham; Mussivand, Tofy

    2013-01-01

    Electrical lysis (EL) is the process of breaking the cell membrane to expose the internal contents under an applied high electric field. Lysis is an important phenomenon for cellular analysis, medical treatment, and biofouling control. This paper aims to review, summarize, and analyze recent advancements on EL. Major databases including PubMed, Ei Engineering Village, IEEE Xplore, and Scholars Portal were searched using relevant keywords. More than 50 articles published in English since 1997 are cited in this article. EL has several key advantages compared to other lysis techniques such as chemical, mechanical, sonication, or laser, including rapid speed of operation, ability to control, miniaturization, low cost, and low power requirement. A variety of cell types have been investigated for including protoplasts, E. coli, yeasts, blood cells, and cancer cells. EL has been developed and applied for decontamination, cytology, genetics, single-cell analysis, cancer treatment, and other applications. On-chip EL is a promising technology for multiplexed automated implementation of cell-sample preparation and processing with micro- or nanoliter reagents.

  1. Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macknick, J; Newmark, R; Heath, G; Hallett, K C

    2012-01-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The water factors presented may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available. Major findings of the report include: water withdrawal and consumption factors vary greatly across and within fuel technologies, and water factors show greater agreement when organized according to cooling technologies as opposed to fuel technologies; a transition to a less carbon-intensive electricity sector could result in either an increase or a decrease in water use, depending on the choice of technologies and cooling systems employed; concentrating solar power technologies and coal facilities with carbon capture and sequestration capabilities have the highest water consumption values when using a recirculating cooling system; and non-thermal renewables, such as photovoltaics and wind, have the lowest water consumption factors. Improved power plant data and further studies into the water requirements of energy technologies in different climatic regions would facilitate greater resolution in analyses of water impacts of future energy and economic scenarios. This report provides the foundation for conducting water use impact assessments of the power sector while also identifying gaps in data that could guide future research. (letter)

  2. Gravity flow operated small electricity generator retrofit kit to flour mill industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekara, Prithivi; Kumar V, Pavan; Hosamane, Gangadharappa Gundabhakthara

    2013-10-01

    Flour milling is a grinding process to produce flour from wheat through comprehensive stages of grinding and separation. The primary energy is required to provide power used in grinding of wheat. In wheat milling, tempering is the process of adding water to wheat before milling to toughen the bran and mellow the endosperm. Gravity flow of the wheat is utilized to rotate the dampener wheel with cups to add water. Low cost gravity flow operated small electricity generator retrofit kit for dampener was designed and developed to justify low cost energy production without expensive solutions. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there was significant difference in mean values for voltage, rpm and flow rate at the 95% probability level. The resulted maximum mechanical power and measured electrical power were 5.1 W and 4.9 W respectively at wheat flow rate of 1.6 Kg/s and dampener wheel rotational velocity of 4.4 rad/s.

  3. Gamma Radiation Effects on the Electrical Parameters of Some Operational Amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, H.A.; Soliman, F.A.S.; Swidan, A.M.; El-Ghana, M.; Abdel Rahman, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the effect of gamma-radiation on different types of operational amplifiers (HA17741 OK, HA17741 1D1, LM741 CN and μtA741 CN) was studied. It is shown that a serious effect occurs on the electrical characteristics of the op-amp's, and consequently the devices lose their main features. The input offset voltage, offset current, and bias current are shown to increase with increasing gamma dose. Also, the closed loop gain of the op-amp's is shown to decrease with increasing gamma dose, where its rate of decrease is a function of frequency. As a result, the slew rate, common mode rejection ratio and input impedance were shown to decrease with increasing gamma dose levels. On the other hand, the output impedance is inversely proportion to the gain; so, its value increases with increasing gamma exposure. Finally, it is clearly shown that the radiation dependence of the op-amp electrical parameters is a function of the fabrication technique of the op-amp's, where, the op-amps of the types HA17741 IDI and HA17741 OK are shown to be less sensitive to gamma rays than the op-amps of the types LM741 CN and μtA741 CN

  4. Electrical Conductivity of Charged Particle Systems and Zubarev's Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, G.

    2018-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems in physics that are not yet rigorously solved is the statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium processes. An important contribution to describing irreversible behavior starting from reversible Hamiltonian dynamics was given by D. N. Zubarev, who invented the method of the nonequilibrium statistical operator. We discuss this approach, in particular, the extended von Neumann equation, and as an example consider the electrical conductivity of a system of charged particles. We consider the selection of the set of relevant observables. We show the relation between kinetic theory and linear response theory. Using thermodynamic Green's functions, we present a systematic treatment of correlation functions, but the convergence needs investigation. We compare different expressions for the conductivity and list open questions.

  5. Normal return and efficient operation of the electric grid monopolies; Normalavkastning og effektiv drift for nettmonopolene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjeret, Frode Andre

    2001-07-01

    This report deals with the size of the risk premium for electric grid operation in Norway. The size of the companies' risk premium must reflect the market requirements on return compensation (for normal investment risk), adjusted for the return risk for this type of enterprise. The return risk of the grid companies is discussed using two approaches, one theoretical and one empirical. This implies an empirical analysis of comparable foreign companies and an examination of the Norwegian regulatory regime. It is concluded that the regulatory authority is using too small an estimate for the risk premium when determining the capital income of the Norwegian utilities. The report also discusses the principles for valuation of the capital base.

  6. Electric Vehicles for Improved Operation of Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben; Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    In a power system with a high share of wind energy the wind fluctuation causes a variation in the power generation, which must be compensated from other sources. The situation in Denmark with a penetration of more than 20% wind in yearly average is presented. The introduction of electric drive...... vehicles (EDV) as flexible loads can improve the system operation. Bidirectional power exchange through batteries (vehicle to grid) can be seen as a storage system in the grid. An analysis of possible economical incentives for the vehicle owners will be shown. By control of EDV charging through a price...... signal from the day ahead market the economical incentives for an EDV-owner will be small. If the EDV's can participate in the regulation of the grid through ancillary services the incentives will be increased to an attractive level....

  7. Estimation of Operating Condition of Appliances Using Circuit Current Data on Electric Distribution Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshie

    The Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method to enhance the capability of supply and demand balancing of a power system under the anticipated penetration of renewable energy generation such as Photovoltaics (PV). Elucidation of energy consumption structure in a building is one of important elements for realization of EMS and contributes to the extraction of potential energy saving. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of operating condition of household appliances using circuit current data on an electric distribution board. Circuit current data are broken down by their shape using a self-organization map method and aggregated by appliance based on customers' information of appliance possessed. Proposed method is verified using residential energy consumption measurement survey data.

  8. Results from the Operational Testing of the Eaton Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Eaton smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Eaton for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Eaton smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  9. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  10. Distributed Energy Systems Integration and Demand Optimization for Autonomous Operations and Electric Grid Transactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Greenlots, San Francisco, CA (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Center for Energy and Innovation Technologies (Austria); Yin, Rongxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Zhenhua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-29

    Distributed power systems in the U.S. and globally are evolving to provide reliable and clean energy to consumers. In California, existing regulations require significant increases in renewable generation, as well as identification of customer-side distributed energy resources (DER) controls, communication technologies, and standards for interconnection with the electric grid systems. As DER deployment expands, customer-side DER control and optimization will be critical for system flexibility and demand response (DR) participation, which improves the economic viability of DER systems. Current DER systems integration and communication challenges include leveraging the existing DER and DR technology and systems infrastructure, and enabling optimized cost, energy and carbon choices for customers to deploy interoperable grid transactions and renewable energy systems at scale. Our paper presents a cost-effective solution to these challenges by exploring communication technologies and information models for DER system integration and interoperability. This system uses open standards and optimization models for resource planning based on dynamic-pricing notifications and autonomous operations within various domains of the smart grid energy system. It identifies architectures and customer engagement strategies in dynamic DR pricing transactions to generate feedback information models for load flexibility, load profiles, and participation schedules. The models are tested at a real site in California—Fort Hunter Liggett (FHL). Furthermore, our results for FHL show that the model fits within the existing and new DR business models and networked systems for transactive energy concepts. Integrated energy systems, communication networks, and modeling tools that coordinate supply-side networks and DER will enable electric grid system operators to use DER for grid transactions in an integrated system.

  11. [The vola stress change of patients after operation of wrop-around flap for thumb reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-Jun; Pan, Yong-Wei; Wang, Zheng-Yi; Lin, Shun-Fu; Zhu, Xian-Long; Jiang, Jun; Zeng, Yan-Feng

    2009-11-01

    To analyse the vola stress change after operation of wrop-around flap for thumb reconstruction,to know the influence of vola pressure change after operation of wrop-around flap. From 1996 to 2004, 23 patients after the operation of wrop-around flap for thumb reconstruction were measured the entire footprint, the vola stress of single foot and double feet on static state and walking status. There were 16 males and 7 females,with a mean age of 23.7 years (17 to 42 years). The time from operation to measuring was 1.6 to 6 years (meana 3.8 years). The results of measuring were analyzed. Whether static footprint analysis or dynamic mechanical analysis, the plantar pressure distribution of donated foot were obviously different with those of the opposite site. The weight bearing of heel and the fourth and fifth metatarsal heads were nearly consistent with normal foot. But the former feet were obviously different. The weight bearing of the first metatarsal head was obviously lower than normal foot. And the weight bearing of the second and third metatarsal heads were obviously higher than normal foot. The operation of wrop-around flap for thumb reconstruction has advantage of the cosmesis and function of the reconstructed thumbs nearly consistent with normal thumbs. But the operation influences the postoperative foot pressure.

  12. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF OPERATING MODES OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS WITH THE TRACTION LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Bondarenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative scenarios of reliable energy supply of transportation process aimed at reducing the specific energy consumption and increase energy efficiency of the systems of electric traction. The paper suggests innovative energy saving directions in traction networks of railways and new circuit solutions accessing traction substations in energy systems networks, ensure energy security of the transportation process. To ensure the energy security of rail transport special schemes were developed to propose the concept of external power traction substations, which would increase the number of connections to the networks of 220 – 330 kV, as well as the creation of transport and energy corridors, development of its own supply of electric networks of 110 kV substations and mobile RP-110 kV of next generation. Therefore, the investment program of the structures owned by the Ukrainian Railways (Ukrzaliznytsia need to be synchronized in their technological characteristics, as well as the criteria of reliability and quality of power supply with the same external energy investment programs. It is found that without any load on left or right supplying arm one of two less loaded phases of traction transformer begins generating specific modes in the supplying three-phase line. Thus, modes of mobile substation cause leakage in one of the phases of the supply line of traction transformers of active-capacitive current, and as a result generating energy in the main power line of 154 kV, which is fixed and calculated by electricity meters. For these three phase mode supply network is necessary to use 1st algorithm, i.e. taking into account the amount of electricity as the energy in all phases. For effective application of reactive power compensation devices in the AC traction power supply systems it is proposed to develop regulatory documentation on necessity of application and the order of choice of parameters and placement of compensation systems taking into

  13. EU stress test: Swiss national report. ENSI review of the operators' reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    The earthquake on 11 March 2011 and the resultant tsunami led to severe accidents with core melt in three nuclear power plants (NPP) units at the Fukushima Dai-ichi site. These events were classified by the Japanese authorities as 'major accident' (INES 7). The EU stress test is part of the review process which Switzerland initiated immediately after the reactor accident. The Swiss Nuclear Safety Authority (ENSI) required from the operators of the Swiss NPPs to implement immediate measures and to conduct additional re-assessments. The immediate measures comprised the establishment of an external emergency storage facility for the Swiss NPPs, including the necessary plant specific connections, and back-fittings to provide external injection into the spent fuel pools. The additional re-assessments, which were to be carried out immediately, focused on the design of the Swiss NPPs against earthquakes, external flooding and a combination thereof, as well as investigations on the coolant supply for the safety systems and the spent fuel pool cooling. ENSI carried out an analysis of the events at Fukushima and published the results providing detailed descriptions of the causes, consequences and radiological impacts of the accident. The purpose of the EU stress test is to examine the robustness of the NPPs in case of impacts beyond the design basis due to earthquakes, external flooding and extreme weather conditions, loss of power supply and heat sink, and severe accident management. As the first step, it was necessary to present the hazard assumptions and design bases for the NPPs, and to assess their adequacy. In the second step, the objective was to identify and evaluate the protective measures implemented and their safety margins as compared to the design. Improvement measures were to be derived. The review by ENSI confirmed that the Swiss NPPs display a very high level of protection against the impacts of earthquakes, flooding and other natural hazards, as well as loss

  14. Report for 2008 on electricity and natural-gas network operators: obedience to compliance programmes and independence. Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    In France, system operators belong to groups that also conduct business in the energy sector, in fields governed by competition rules. They could therefore be tempted to use their privileged position to their group's benefit, which would disadvantage end consumers. Non-discriminatory access to electricity and gas transmission and distribution networks is at the core of the market opening to competition approach implemented by the European Union since the end of the 1990's. EU and national enactments in force highlight two tools to ensure nondiscrimination: compliance programmes and independence of system operators with regard to their parent companies. Firstly, compliance programs contain measures taken to ensure that discrimination is completely excluded and that their application is subject to appropriate monitoring. Secondly, system operator independence plays a part in preventing discrimination against competitors with other business activities (generation, supply, etc.) within the same group. In application of these enactments, every electricity or natural gas transmission or distribution system operator serving more than 100,000 customers provided CRE, the Energy Regulatory Commission, with their annual reports on the application of their compliance programs. This document is CRE's 2008 report about compliance programmes and independence of electricity and natural gas system operators. Contents: 1 - Obedience to compliance programmes: Assessment compared with 2007, Demands from CRE; 2 - The independence of system operators: Transmission system operators, Distribution system operators, Comments common to both transmission and distribution system operators

  15. Correlation of anti-stress ability of nuclear power plant operators with physiological and psychological indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Haihong; Liu Yulong; Li Yuan; Dai Tingting; Qiu Mengyue; Bian Huahui; Chen Weibo; Liu Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation of the anti-stress ability of nuclear power plant operators with their heart rate, blood pressure and mental health. Methods: A total of 136 male nuclear power plant operators received the continuous performance test (CPT) and mental health test (MHT), while 37 male senior students were used as the control group. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded before and after the test. The nuclear power plant operators were divided to high score group and low score group by CPT scores. The correlation of the anti-stress ability and blood pressure,heart rate and their mental health was analyzed. Results: The scores of CPT and MHT test with the operators were significantly higher than those of the control group (t=-1.25, 6.25, P<0.05). After the test, the heart rate, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure of the operators were all significantly lower than those of the control group (t=-2.07, 3.28, 2.74, P<0.05). The CPT score of the high score group was lower in the heart rate, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure than the low score group (t=-3.15, -2.78, -2.54, P<0.05), while the scores of CPT and MHT were better (t=0.63, 6.90, P<0.05). CPT scores were negatively correlated with the increasing range of the heart rate, systolic pressure and diastolic pressure (r=- 0.69, -0.94, and -0.62, P<0.05), and positively correlated with the MHT scores (r=0.54, P<0.05). Conclusions: To a certain extent, CPT and MHT test can reflect the anti-stress ability and be used as one of the bases to select nuclear power plant operators and to assess their competence. (authors)

  16. Use of structured personality survey techniques to indicate operator response to stressful situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Under given circumstances, a person will tend to operate in one of four dominant orientations: (1) to perform tasks; (2) to achieve consensus; (3) to achieve understanding, or (4) to maintain structure. Historically, personality survey techniques, such as the Myers-Briggs type indicator, have been used to determine these tendencies. While these techniques can accurately reflect a person's orientation under normal social situations, under different sets of conditions, the same person may exhibit other tendencies, displaying a similar or entirely different orientation. While most do not exhibit extreme tendencies or changes of orientation, the shift in personality from normal to stressful conditions can be rather dramatic, depending on the individual. Structured personality survey techniques have been used to indicate operator response to stressful situations. These techniques have been extended to indicate the balance between orientations that the control room team has through the various levels of cognizance

  17. Flexural Capability of Patterned Transparent Conductive Substrate by Performing Electrical Measurements and Stress Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chun Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of stacked thin films for next-generation display technology was analyzed based on their properties and geometrical designs to evaluate the mechanical reliability of transparent conducting thin films utilized in flexural displays. In general, the high bending stress induced by various operation conditions is a major concern regarding the mechanical reliability of indium–tin–oxide (ITO films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrates; mechanical reliability is commonly used to estimate the flexibility of displays. However, the pattern effect is rarely investigated to estimate the mechanical reliability of ITO/PET films. Thus, this study examined the flexible content of patterned ITO/PET films with two different line widths by conducting bending tests and sheet resistance measurements. Moreover, a stress–strain simulation enabled by finite element analysis was performed on the patterned ITO/PET to explore the stress impact of stacked film structures under various levels of flexural load. Results show that the design of the ITO/PET film can be applied in developing mechanically reliable flexible electronics.

  18. Invariable optical properties of phosphor-free white light-emitting diode under electrical stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Long; Hao, Fang; Sheng-Li, Qi; Li-Wen, Sang; Wen-Yu, Cao; Jian, Yan; Jun-Jing, Deng; Zhi-Jian, Yang; Guo-Yi, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that a dual-wavelength white light-emitting diode is fabricated by using a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method. Through a 200-hours' current stress, the reverse leakage current of this light-emitting diode increases with the aging time, but the optical properties remained unchanged despite the enhanced reverse leakage current. Transmission electron microscopy and cathodeluminescence images show that indium atoms were assembled in and around V-shape pits with various compositions, which can be ascribed to the emitted white light. Evolution of cathodeluminescence intensities under electron irradiation is also performed. Combining cathodeluminescence intensities under electron irradiation and above results, the increase of leakage channels and crystalline quality degradation are realized. Although leakage channels increase with aging, potential fluctuation caused by indium aggregation can effectively avoid the impact of leakage channels. Indium aggregation can be attributed to the mechanism of preventing optical degradation in phosphor-free white light-emitting diode. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Economic assessment and optimal operation of CSP systems with TES in California electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Alexander W.; Dyreson, Ana; Miller, Franklin; Zavala, Victor M.

    2017-06-01

    The economics and performance of concentrated power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES) inherently depend on operating policies and the surrounding weather conditions and electricity markets. We present an integrated economic assessment framework to quantify the maximum possible revenues from simultaneous energy and ancillary services sales by CSP systems. The framework includes both discrete start-up/shutdown restrictions and detailed physical models. Analysis of coinci-dental historical market and meteorological data reveals provision of ancillary services increases market revenue 18% to 37% relative to energy-only participation. Surprisingly, only 53% to 62% of these revenues are available through sole participation in the day-ahead market, indicating significant opportunities at faster timescales. Motivated by water-usage concerns and permitting requirements, we also describe a new nighttime radiative-enhanced dry-cooling system with cold-side storage that consumes no water and offers higher effciencies than traditional air-cooled designs. Operation of this new system is complicated by the cold-side storage and inherent coupling between the cooling system and power plant, further motivating integrated economic analysis.

  20. Cutting efficiency of diamond burs operated with electric high-speed dental handpiece on zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Katsuda, Yusuke; Ankyu, Shuhei; Harada, Akio; Tenkumo, Taichi; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi; Egusa, Hiroshi; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2015-10-01

    Zirconia-based dental restorations are becoming used more commonly. However, limited attention has been given to the difficulties experienced, concerning cutting, in removing the restorations when needed. The aim of the present study was to compare the cutting efficiency of diamond burs, operated using an electric high-speed dental handpiece, on zirconia (Zir) with those on lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LD) and leucite glass-ceramic (L). In addition, evaluation of the cutting efficiency of diamond burs on Zir of different thicknesses was performed. Specimens of Zir were prepared with thicknesses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mm, and specimens of LD and L were prepared with a thickness of 1.0 mm. Cutting tests were performed using diamond burs with super coarse (SC) and coarse (C) grains. The handpiece was operated at 150,000 rpm with a cutting force of 0.9 N. The results demonstrated that cutting of Zir took about 1.5- and 7-fold longer than cutting of LD and L, respectively. The SC grains showed significantly higher cutting efficiency on Zir than the C grains. However, when the thickness of Zir increased, the cutting depth was significantly decreased. As it is suggested that cutting of zirconia is time consuming, this should be taken into consideration in advance when working with zirconia restorations. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  1. Mechanical stress analysis for a fuel rod under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy S.; Giovedi, Claudia; Serra, Andre da Silva; Abe, Alfredo Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements consist mainly in a system of a nuclear fuel encapsulated by a cladding material subject to high fluxes of energetic neutrons, high operating temperatures, pressure systems, thermal gradients, heat fluxes and with chemical compatibility with the reactor coolant. The design of a nuclear reactor requires, among a set of activities, the evaluation of the structural integrity of the fuel rod submitted to different loads acting on the fuel rod and the specific properties (dimensions and mechanical and thermal properties) of the cladding material and coolant, including thermal and pressure gradients produced inside the rod due to the fuel burnup. In this work were evaluated the structural mechanical stresses of a fuel rod using stainless steel as cladding material and UO 2 with a low degree of enrichment as fuel pellet on a PWR (pressurized water reactor) under normal operating conditions. In this sense, tangential, radial and axial stress on internal and external cladding surfaces considering the orientations of 0 deg, 90 deg and 180 deg were considered. The obtained values were compared with the limit values for stress to the studied material. From the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that, under the expected normal reactor operation conditions, the integrity of the fuel rod can be maintained. (author)

  2. Drive Control Scheme of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Neural Network Learning of Human Wheelchair Operation Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanohata, Naoki; Seki, Hirokazu

    This paper describes a novel drive control scheme of electric power assisted wheelchairs based on neural network learning of human wheelchair operation characteristics. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which enhances the drive force of the operator by employing electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly and disabled people. However, some handicapped people with paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body cannot maneuver the wheelchair as desired because of the difference in the right and left input force. Therefore, this study proposes a neural network learning system of such human wheelchair operation characteristics and a drive control scheme with variable distribution and assistance ratios. Some driving experiments will be performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  3. Annual report on the Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 2. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2006. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2006 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2006

  4. 2008 report on the Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 4. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2008. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2008 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2008

  5. Annual report on the Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 3. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2007. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2007 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2007

  6. The comparison of gamma-radiation and electrical stress influences on oxide and interface defects in power VDMOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorić-Veljković Snežana M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of oxide and interface defects in n-channel power vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, firstly degraded by the gamma-irradiation and electric field and subsequently recovered and annealed, is presented. By analyzing the transfer characteristic shifts, the changes of threshold voltage and underlying changes of gate oxide and interface trap densities during the stress (recovery, annealing of investigated devices, it is shown that these two types of stress influence differently on the gate oxide and the SiO2-Si interface. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI171026

  7. Reliability analysis and optimisation of subsea compression system facing operational covariate stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okaro, Ikenna Anthony; Tao, Longbin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an enhanced Weibull-Corrosion Covariate model for reliability assessment of a system facing operational stresses. The newly developed model is applied to a Subsea Gas Compression System planned for offshore West Africa to predict its reliability index. System technical failure was modelled by developing a Weibull failure model incorporating a physically tested corrosion profile as stress in order to quantify the survival rate of the system under additional operational covariates including marine pH, temperature and pressure. Using Reliability Block Diagrams and enhanced Fusell-Vesely formulations, the whole system was systematically decomposed to sub-systems to analyse the criticality of each component and optimise them. Human reliability was addressed using an enhanced barrier weighting method. A rapid degradation curve is obtained on a subsea system relative to the base case subjected to a time-dependent corrosion stress factor. It reveals that subsea system components failed faster than their Mean time to failure specifications from Offshore Reliability Database as a result of cumulative marine stresses exertion. The case study demonstrated that the reliability of a subsea system can be systematically optimised by modelling the system under higher technical and organisational stresses, prioritising the critical sub-systems and making befitting provisions for redundancy and tolerances. - Highlights: • Novel Weibull Corrosion-Covariate model for reliability analysis of subsea assets. • Predict the accelerated degradation profile of a subsea gas compression. • An enhanced optimisation method based on Fusell-Vesely decomposition process. • New optimisation approach for smoothening of over- and under-designed components. • Demonstrated a significant improvement in producing more realistic failure rate.

  8. Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators. Summary report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 7. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2011. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2011 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2011. These elements were supplemented and clarified by many exchanges with the operators, in particular during the committee hearings that took place in spring 2012 with each network operator. This report is structured around four cross-cutting themes, supplemented by individual analyses of each operator's situation. The cross-cutting issues address communication and user's awareness of the network operators, the new compliance officer function, TSO certification and, finally, the results of the 'mystery shopper' telephone survey carried out by the CRE. The individual situations analysed were those of the eight DSOs serving over 100,000 customers (ERDF, ES, URM, SRD and Geredis-Deux-Sevres for electricity, GrDF, Regaz-Bordeaux and Reseau GDS for natural gas) and the three TSOs (RTE for electricity and GRTgaz and TIGF for natural gas)

  9. Stress testing of electrically active FlexMEAs with simultaneous electrical recording in fluidic environment: Introduction of a new measurement setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhausen, Markus; Martin, Tanja; Kappel, Marcel; Hofmann, Boris

    2018-02-01

    We present a measurement setup consisting of two fluid-filled pressure chambers to mimic the mechanical stress likely to that of small body movements on biomedical flexible micro-electrode arrays for the analysis of various degradation mechanisms. Our main goal was the simulation of micro-motions in fluid conditions, while maintaining an electric access to the device. These micro-motions would be likely to those occurring in the human body caused by the intracranial pressure in magnitudes of 7-25 mmHg, which translates to a fluid pressure of 9-33 mbar. Furthermore, severe mechanical stress can be administered to the samples under the previously mentioned environment. Therefore, a flexible, polyimide-based sample with various metal test structures was fabricated and analyzed in the presented measurement setup. A comparison of the elongation of the sample's surface as a function of the applied hydrostatic pressure is given with computer simulations.

  10. Utsu aftershock productivity law explained from geometric operations on the permanent static stress field of mainshocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2018-03-01

    The aftershock productivity law is an exponential function of the form K ∝ exp(αM), with K being the number of aftershocks triggered by a given mainshock of magnitude M and α ≈ ln(10) being the productivity parameter. This law remains empirical in nature although it has also been retrieved in static stress simulations. Here, we parameterize this law using the solid seismicity postulate (SSP), the basis of a geometrical theory of seismicity where seismicity patterns are described by mathematical expressions obtained from geometric operations on a permanent static stress field. We first test the SSP that relates seismicity density to a static stress step function. We show that it yields a power exponent q = 1.96 ± 0.01 for the power-law spatial linear density distribution of aftershocks, once uniform noise is added to the static stress field, in agreement with observations. We then recover the exponential function of the productivity law with a break in scaling obtained between small and large M, with α = 1.5ln(10) and ln(10), respectively, in agreement with results from previous static stress simulations. Possible biases of aftershock selection, proven to exist in epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) simulations, may explain the lack of break in scaling observed in seismicity catalogues. The existence of the theoretical kink, however, remains to be proven. Finally, we describe how to estimate the solid seismicity parameters (activation density δ+, aftershock solid envelope r∗ and background stress amplitude range Δo∗) for large M values.

  11. Operational Review of the First Wireline In Situ Stress Test in Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Moore

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific ocean drilling’s first in situ stress measurement was made at Site C0009A during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 319 as part of Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE Stage 2. The Modular Formation Dynamics Tester (MDT, Schlumbergerwireline logging tool was deployed in riser Hole C0009A to measure in situ formation pore pressure, formation permeability (often reported as mobility=permeability/viscosity, and the least principal stress (S3 at several isolated depths (Saffer et al., 2009; Expedition 319 Scientists, 2010. The importance of in situ stress measurements is not only for scientific interests in active tectonic drilling, but also for geomechanical and well bore stability analyses. Certain in situ tools were not previously available for scientific ocean drilling due to the borehole diameter and open hole limits of riserless drilling. The riser-capable drillship, D/V Chikyu,now in service for IODP expeditions, allows all of the techniques available to estimate the magnitudes and orientations of 3-D stresses to be used. These techniques include downhole density logging for vertical stress, breakout and caliper log analyses for maximum horizontal stress, core-based anelastic strain recovery (ASR, used in the NanTroSEIZE expeditions in 2007–2008, and leak-off test (Lin et al., 2008 and minifrac/hydraulic fracturing (NanTroSEIZE Expedition319 in 2009. In this report, the whole operational planning process related to in situ measurements is reviewed, and lessons learned from Expedition 319 are summarized for efficient planning and testing in the future.

  12. Dielectric and Electrical Properties of WS2 Nanotubes/Epoxy Composites and Their Use for Stress Monitoring of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sedova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric and electrical characteristics of the semiconductive WS2 nanotubes/epoxy composites were studied as a function of the nanotubes concentration and the pressure applied during their molding. In addition, the ability of WS2 nanotubes to serve as stress sensors in epoxy based nanocomposites, for health-monitoring applications, was studied. The nanocomposite elements were loaded in three-point bending configuration. The direct current was monitored simultaneously with stress-strain measurements. It was found that, in nanocomposites, above the percolation concentrations of the nanotubes, the electrical conductivity increases considerably with the applied load and hence WS2 nanotubes can be potentially used as sensors for health monitoring of structural components.

  13. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  14. Operational synergy in the US electric utility industry under an influence of deregulation policy: A linkage to financial performance and corporate value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2011-01-01

    have examined a synergy effect between electricity and gas services in the US electric utility industry. They have compared electricity-specialized firms with diversified utility firms in their financial performance and corporate value. A problem of their study is that it has not empirically measured the operational performance of the electric utility firms. As an extension of the preceding study, this research investigates the operational performance of 104 US electric utility firms (1990-2004) by fully utilizing DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis). This study finds the three new policy implications. First, the synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. Thus, core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. Second, the operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996. Thus, the US deregulation policy has been influential on their operational performance. Third, the enhancement in operational performance of electric utility firms has improved their financial performance. The improvement in financial performance has increased their corporate value. Thus, this study finds the business causality among operational performance, financial performance and corporate value in the US electric utility industry. - Research Highlights: →The synergy effect has not existed in the operational performance of diversified utility firms before and after the deregulation on the US electricity markets. →Core business concentration is more effective for electric utility firms than corporate diversification to enhance their operational performance under the current US deregulation policy. →The operational performance has had an increasing trend until 1996 and a decreasing trend after 1996.

  15. Influence of different anesthesia methods on stress reaction and hemodynamics for elderly orthopedics patients during operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the influence of general anesthesia, epidural anesthesia and combined spinal and epidural anesthesia method on stress reaction and hemodynamics for elderly orthopedics patients during operations. Methods: A total of 90 cases of elder patients who received orthopedic operations were randomly divided to group A, B and C, with 30 cases per group. Three groups of patients were separately given by general anesthesia, epidural anesthesia and combined spinal and epidural anesthesia for operations; The variations of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH, Cortisol (Cor, β-endorphin (β-EP, Angiotensin- Ⅱ(Ang-Ⅱ, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (SBP, DBP on patients in three groups before anesthesia (T0, during skin incision (T1, after skin incision (T2 and extubation after operation (T3 were compared and analyzed. Results: During T1, T2, ACTH, Cor, β-EP and Ang-Ⅱlevels in 3 groups of patients were significantly higher than those during T0; SBP and DBP were significantly lower than that during T0; HR during T2 was significantly lower than that during T0; During T3, every index in 3 groups were recovered to levels close to that during T0; During T1, T2, ACTH, Cor, β-EP, Ang-Ⅱ levels in group B and C were significantly lower than that in group A. And levels in C was lower than that in B; SBP and DBP in group B and C were significantly higher than A. No HR statistical significance appeared between each group. Conclusions: During clinical anesthesia, we should choose suitable anesthesia method combined with actual situations of patients. Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia had a slight influence on hemodynamics of elder orthopedics patients during operation, and it could effectively alleviate stress reaction during operation.

  16. Survey on severity of magnetic and electric fields around video display terminals and its association with health effects on operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rezaee

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsIntensity of Magnetic and Electric fields around visual displayterminals and its association on health effects were studied.Methodsmagnetic and electric fields intensities around 237 VDTs at distances 30¡50¡ 60 cm and different operating conditions (active¸ screen saver¸ shut down with use of HI-3603 device  according to Svensk standard method were monitored. Resultsmagnetic and electric fields Intensities at 30 cm were higher than standard and at 50 cm Monitors in all measurements were lower than standard (20mA/m MPRII, TCO and (1V/m,TCO Magnetic fields intensities of LCD monitors in rare side were higher than all other directionsand rise versa intensities of magnetic fields of cathodiC monitors were in front than other sides. Differences of magnetic and electric fields intensities were not significant in various operating conditions (screen saver and active operation. Comparison of chronic syndrome of  exhaustion in two groups of case and control, demonstrated higher of prevalence of symptoms such as shedding  tears, eye irritation and fatigue in case rather than control group.Conclusionat time of procurement of monitors TCO standard label should be noticed. During recess times, monitors should be turned off in order to reduce exposure to electric and magnetic  fields.

  17. Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazif Faqiry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a transactive energy market, distributed energy resources (DERs such as dispatchable distributed generators (DGs, electrical energy storages (EESs, distribution-scale load aggregators (LAs, and renewable energy sources (RESs have to earn their share of supply or demand through a bidding process. In such a market, the distribution system operator (DSO may optimally schedule these resources, first in a forward market, i.e., day-ahead, and in a real-time market later on, while maintaining a reliable and economic distribution grid. In this paper, an efficient day-ahead scheduling of these resources, in the presence of interaction with wholesale market at the locational marginal price (LMP, is studied. Due to inclusion of EES units with integer constraints, a detailed mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation that incorporates simplified DistFlow equations to account for grid constraints is proposed. Convex quadratic line and transformer apparent power flow constraints have been linearized using an outer approximation. The proposed model schedules DERs based on distribution locational marginal price (DLMP, which is obtained as the Lagrange multiplier of the real power balance constraint at each distribution bus while maintaining physical grid constraints such as line limits, transformer limits, and bus voltage magnitudes. Case studies are performed on a modified IEEE 13-bus system with high DER penetration. Simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed model.

  18. Electrical Stress Influences the Efficiency of CH3 NH3 PbI3 Perovskite Light Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lianfeng; Gao, Jia; Lin, YunHui L; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Lee, Kyung Min; Yao, Nan; Loo, Yueh-Lin; Rand, Barry P

    2017-06-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials are emerging as semiconductors with potential application in optoelectronic devices. In particular, perovskites are very promising for light-emitting devices (LEDs) due to their high color purity, low nonradiative recombination rates, and tunable bandgap. Here, using pure CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite LEDs with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 5.9% as a platform, it is shown that electrical stress can influence device performance significantly, increasing the EQE from an initial 5.9% to as high as 7.4%. Consistent with the enhanced device performance, both the steady-state photoluminescence (PL) intensity and the time-resolved PL decay lifetime increase after electrical stress, indicating a reduction in nonradiative recombination in the perovskite film. By investigating the temperature-dependent characteristics of the perovskite LEDs and the cross-sectional elemental depth profile, it is proposed that trap reduction and resulting device-performance enhancement is due to local ionic motion of excess ions, likely excess mobile iodide, in the perovskite film that fills vacancies and reduces interstitial defects. On the other hand, it is found that overstressed LEDs show irreversibly degraded device performance, possibly because ions initially on the perovskite lattice are displaced during extended electrical stress and create defects such as vacancies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Investigation on the electrical characteristics of a pentacene thin-film transistor and its reliability under positive drain bias stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Chiu, Ping-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Zuo; Yang, Tsung-Hsien; Chiang, Chin-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This study systematically investigates the effects of pentacene deposition rates and channel lengths on the electrical characteristics of pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and the performance degradation of OTFTs under the positive drain bias stress. With a slower deposition rate of the pentacene channel layer, the larger grain size is formed, and it improves the performance of pentacene-based OTFTs. As the channel length decreases, the threshold voltage (V TH ) shifts toward the positive direction and the field-effect mobility (µ FE ) decreases, which are due to the drain-induced barrier lowering effect and the lower mobility in the active channel near the region of source/drain electrodes, respectively. In addition, we also propose a mechanism to present the channel length dependence on the field-effect mobility. Results also show that the pentacene-based OTFTs, which are under positive drain bias stress, exhibit greater performance degradation than those under negative drain bias stress. The greater performance degradation, the decreasing I ON and the larger V TH shift are due to the greater trap state density (N trap ) created in the bulk channel by the large lateral electrical field and the carriers injected into the gate insulator by the large vertical electrical field, respectively

  20. Operating Experience of Digital, Software-based Components Used in I and C and Electrical Systems in German NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Stefanie; Lochthofen, Andre; Quester, Claudia; Arians, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many components in instrumentation and control (I and C) and electrical systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs) were replaced by digital, software-based components. Due to the more complex structure, software-based I and C and electrical components show the potential for new failure mechanisms and an increasing number of failure possibilities, including the potential for common cause failures. An evaluation of the operating experience of digital, software-based components may help to determine new failure modes of these components. In this paper, we give an overview over the results of the evaluation of the operating experience of digital, software-based components used in I and C and electrical systems in NPPs in Germany. (authors)

  1. Optimal scheduling for vehicle-to-grid operation with stochastic connection of plug-in electric vehicles to smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Linni; Zheng, Yanchong; Xiao, Xinping; Chan, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel event-triggered scheduling scheme for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation is proposed. • New scheme can handle the uncertainty arising from stochastic connection of electric vehicles. • New scheme aims at minimizing the overall load variance of power grid by V2G operation. • Method to evaluate the performance of proposed scheme is elaborated and demonstrated. - Abstract: Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is attracting increasing attention since it can assist to improve the efficiency and reliability of power grid, as well as reduce the operating cost and greenhouse gas emission of electric vehicles. Within the scheme of V2G operation, PEVs are expected to serve as a novel distributed energy storage system (ESS) to help achieve the balance between supply and demand of power grid. One of the key difficulties concerning its practical implementation lies in that the availability of PEVs as ESS for grid remains highly uncertain due to their mobility as transportation tools. To address this issue, a novel event-triggered scheduling scheme for V2G operation based on the scenario of stochastic PEV connection to smart grid is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the mathematical model is formulated. Secondly, the preparation of input data for systematic evaluation is introduced and the case study is conducted. Finally, statistic analysis results demonstrate that our proposed V2G scheduling scheme can dramatically smooth out the fluctuation in power load profiles

  2. Application of neural networks for finding the relation between stress and operational parameters of NPP Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzek, L.

    2003-01-01

    Quick and sufficiently precise determination of stresses and strains measured by I and C, TMDS a CHEMIS is very important for on-line assessment of continuous damage of material under operating conditions. The application of some of the artificial intelligence methods, viz. neural network, is convenient in this context. A practical example of the application of this method is presented and the advantages in comparison with the finite element method (FEM) are discussed. The approach to the selection of characteristic loading used for the preparation of training data is also shown. The paper presents the results of actual calculation and analyses the merits of the attained coincidence for the determination of the tensor of stresses by FEM and neural networks

  3. 76 FR 388 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Operating Company; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of Consideration of Issuance... Web site http://www.regulations.gov . Because your comments will not be edited to remove any... will not edit their comments to remove any identifying or contact information, and therefore, they...

  4. 76 FR 30206 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 1 and 2; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Operating Company, Inc., Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 1 and 2; Notice of Consideration of Issuance..., http://www.regulations.gov . Because your comments will not be edited to remove any identifying or... received from other persons for submission to the NRC inform those persons that the NRC will not edit their...

  5. Study of the properties of the operation of an end-type plasma accelerator initiated by electric foil detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dberg, M.M.; Vikaruk, A.Ya.; Sokolov, S.V.; Suminov, I.V.

    1986-01-01

    The results of experimental study of an end-type high-current pulsed plasma accelerator initiated by electric foil detonation are presented. The development stages of the process and formation of the flow pinch are examined during accelerator operation. Analytic functions are obtained which determine the origination conditions of the pinch-effect

  6. Plant operator selection system for evaluating employment candidates' potential for success in electric power plant operations positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnette, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Plant Operator Selection System is a battery of tests and questionnaires that can be administered to job candidates in less than three hours. Various components of the battery measure what a job candidate has accomplished in previous educational and work situations, how well a candidate compares with others on a number of important aptitudes or abilities, and whether or not a candidate possesses the kind of personal stability required in power plant operations positions. A job candidate's answers to the tests and questionnaires of the Plant Operator Selection System are scored and converted to an OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX. Values of the OVERALL POTENTIAL INDEX [OPI] range between 0 and 15. Candidates with high OPI values are much more likely to become effective and successful plant operators than candidates with low OPI values. It is possible to estimate the financial advantages to a company of using the Plant Operator Selection System in evaluating candidates for plant operations jobs

  7. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  8. Human factors review of electric power dispatch control centers. Volume 3. Operator information needs summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.J.; Najaf-Zadeh, K.; Darlington, H.T.; McNair, H.D.; Seidenstein, S.; Williams, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Human factors is a systems-oriented interdisciplinary specialty concerned with the design of systems, equipment, facilities and the operational environment. An important aspect leading to the design requirements is the determination of the information requirements for electric power dispatch control centers. There are significant differences between the system operator's actions during normal and degraded states of power system operation, and power system restoration. This project evaluated the information the operator requires for normal power system and control system operations and investigates the changes of information required by the operator as the power system and/or the control system degrades from a normal operating state. The Phase II study, published in two volumes, defines power system states and control system conditions to which operator information content can be related. This volume presents a summary of operator information needs, identifying the needs for and the uses of power system information by a system operator in conditions ranging from normal through degraded operation. Training requirements are also included for planning entry-level and follow-on training for operators.

  9. An examination of the roles of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder on emotion regulation strategies of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Lauren M; Roy, Alicia M; Southwick, Steven M; Fichtenholtz, Harlan M

    2016-09-01

    Theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicate emotional processes, including difficulties utilizing adaptive emotion regulation strategies, as critical to the etiology and maintenance of PTSD. Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OIF/OEF/OND) veterans report high levels of combat exposure and PTSD. We aimed to extend findings suggesting that emotion regulation difficulties are a function of PTSD, rather than combat trauma exposure or common comorbidities, to OIF/OEF/OND veterans, in order to inform models of PTSD risk and recovery that can be applied to returning veterans. We tested differences in emotion regulation, measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, among trauma-exposed veterans with (n = 24) or without PTSD (n = 22) and healthy civilian comparison participants (n = 27) using multivariate analyses of covariance, adjusting for major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and demographic variables (age, sex, and ethnicity). Veterans with PTSD reported more use of expressive suppression and more difficulties with emotion regulation than veterans without PTSD and healthy comparison participants. Groups did not differ on cognitive reappraisal. Findings suggest the key role of PTSD above and beyond trauma exposure, depression, and anxiety in specific aspects of emotion dysregulation among OIF/OEF/OND veterans. Interventions that help veterans expand and diversify their emotion regulation skills may serve as helpful adjunctive treatments for PTSD among OIF/OEF/OND veterans.

  10. Short-term pre- and post-operative stress prolongs incision-induced pain hypersensitivity without changing basal pain perception

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jing; Wang, Po-Kai; Tiwari, Vinod; Liang, Lingli; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Zang, Wei-Dong; Kaufman, Andrew G.; Bekker, Alex; Gao, Xiao-Qun; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic stress has been reported to increase basal pain sensitivity and/or exacerbate existing persistent pain. However, most surgical patients have normal physiological and psychological health status such as normal pain perception before surgery although they do experience short-term stress during pre- and post-operative periods. Whether or not this short-term stress affects persistent postsurgical pain is unclear. Results In this study, we showed that pre- or post-surgical expos...

  11. Hierarchical Load Tracking Control of a Grid-connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Maximum Electrical Efficiency Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yonghui; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhu, Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    efficiency operation obtained at different active power output levels, a hierarchical load tracking control scheme for the grid-connected SOFC was proposed to realize the maximum electrical efficiency operation with the stack temperature bounded. The hierarchical control scheme consists of a fast active...... power control and a slower stack temperature control. The active power control was developed by using a decentralized control method. The efficiency of the proposed hierarchical control scheme was demonstrated by case studies using the benchmark SOFC dynamic model......Based on the benchmark solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) dynamic model for power system studies and the analysis of the SOFC operating conditions, the nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization method was used to determine the maximum electrical efficiency of the grid-connected SOFC subject...

  12. Feasibility study on economic operation of wind farms in the electric power system of the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabadan, L.P.; Sansevic, M.; Klarin, B.

    1996-01-01

    In this work are analyzed island and coastal locations on the Adriatic Sea as possible sites of wind farms. The analysis is based on the expert system developed by authors of other literature. The macrolocation selection is performed by the multicriterial decision-making method and in compliance with the current world approach to their wind potential and some other criteria. The choice of wind turbine generator (WTG) unit is based on the fundamental criteria: operational efficiency on the given location, price per installed kW, and price of the generated electricity. The results obtained in this study show that the contribution in electricity yield from the selected wind power plants could amount to 4.33% of the electricity generated by the Croatian power plants in the year 1990. The calculations of electricity costs are based on the quantity of electricity obtained by simulating the operation of the best WTG units selected from the ES database and including other influential factors. In the choice of macrolocations and WTG units the fuzzy method is implemented as part of the ES. (author)

  13. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  14. A Common Definition of the System Operators' Core Activities[Electric Power Transmission System Operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    In this report a common definition of the system operator's core activities in the Nordic countries is identified and also a list of non-core activities is introduced. As a starting point the common tasks for system responsibility as identified by Nordel has been used for the work. The term TSO (Transmission System Operator) is employed as a common denominator in the report. It is found out that the TSOs carry out common core activities in the roles as a transmission operator, a system operator and a balance settlement responsible. The core activities for the TSO as a transmission network operator are: Maintain the adequate transmission system in the long run and network development plan on the national as well as on the Nordic level using sophisticated analysis and planning methods and tools. Plan the transmission network on the national as well as on the Nordic level utilising new investments, renewal and maintenance of existing network components so that the network is secure to operate and adequate transmission capacity is guaranteed. Aim at timely network expansions using enhanced information exchange between the Nordic TSOs, and on the national level between the TSO and distribution and regional network operators, large consumers and large producers. Secure the technical compatibility with networks across the border and within a country by establishing connection requirements on the national level and ensuring that the national requirements are compatible across the Nordic power system. The core activities for the TSO as a system operator are: Define common technical requirements for the secure system operation using common planning, operation, connection and data exchange procedures. Secure the system operation with the operational planning for the following year by using information exchange between TSOs enabling the TSOs to make the best possible forecast of the global grid situation in order to assess the flows in their network and the available

  15. Symptoms of Psychological Distress and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in United States Air Force Drone Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Disorder in United States Air Force “ Drone ” Operators 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...referred to as “ drones .” Participants were assessed for self-reported sources of occupational stress, levels of clinical distress using the Outcome...providers are discussed. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Stress, drone operator, PTSD, USAF 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  16. Language and motor function thresholds during pediatric extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Vera, Alonso; Aungaroon, Gewalin; Horn, Paul S; Byars, Anna W; Greiner, Hansel M; Tenney, Jeffrey R; Arthur, Todd M; Crone, Nathan E; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T; Arya, Ravindra

    2017-10-01

    To examine current thresholds and their determinants for language and motor mapping with extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation (ECS). ECS electrocorticograph recordings were reviewed to determine functional thresholds. Predictors of functional thresholds were found with multivariable analyses. In 122 patients (age 11.9±5.4years), average minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were 7.4 (± 3.0), 7.8 (± 3.0), and 7.4 (± 3.1) mA respectively. Average minimum, face, upper and lower extremity motor thresholds were 5.4 (± 2.8), 6.1 (± 2.8), 4.9 (± 2.3), and 5.3 (± 3.3) mA respectively. Functional and after-discharge (AD)/seizure thresholds were significantly related. Minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were higher than AD thresholds at all ages. Minimum motor threshold was higher than minimum AD threshold up to 8.0years of age, face motor threshold was higher than frontal AD threshold up to 11.8years age, and lower subsequently. UE motor thresholds remained below frontal AD thresholds throughout the age range. Functional thresholds are frequently above AD thresholds in younger children. These findings raise concerns about safety and neurophysiologic validity of ECS mapping. Functional and AD/seizure thresholds relationships suggest individual differences in cortical excitability which cannot be explained by clinical variables. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementation and evaluation of an electricity market operated at district level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzis, M.; Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) in the distribution grid, in combination with the liberalization of the electricity markets, introduces small-scale electricity producers in a market architecture designed for large-scale power plants. This work examines a

  18. Identification of emergent off-nominal operational requirements during conceptual architecting of the more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael James

    Increases in power demands and changes in the design practices of overall equipment manufacturers has led to a new paradigm in vehicle systems definition. The development of unique power systems architectures is of increasing importance to overall platform feasibility and must be pursued early in the aircraft design process. Many vehicle systems architecture trades must be conducted concurrent to platform definition. With an increased complexity introduced during conceptual design, accurate predictions of unit level sizing requirements must be made. Architecture specific emergent requirements must be identified which arise due to the complex integrated effect of unit behaviors. Off-nominal operating scenarios present sizing critical requirements to the aircraft vehicle systems. These requirements are architecture specific and emergent. Standard heuristically defined failure mitigation is sufficient for sizing traditional and evolutionary architectures. However, architecture concepts which vary significantly in terms of structure and composition require that unique failure mitigation strategies be defined for accurate estimations of unit level requirements. Identifying of these off-nominal emergent operational requirements require extensions to traditional safety and reliability tools and the systematic identification of optimal performance degradation strategies. Discrete operational constraints posed by traditional Functional Hazard Assessment (FHA) are replaced by continuous relationships between function loss and operational hazard. These relationships pose the objective function for hazard minimization. Load shedding optimization is performed for all statistically significant failures by varying the allocation of functional capability throughout the vehicle systems architecture. Expressing hazards, and thereby, reliability requirements as continuous relationships with the magnitude and duration of functional failure requires augmentations to the traditional

  19. Safety and operational aspects in in-situ electrical baking of large vacuum systems of Indus accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Bhange, Nilesh; Joshi, Sujata; Sridhar, R.

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve pressures in UHV (Ultra High Vacuum) range, the vacuum chambers and associated vacuum components, necessarily made of UHV compatible materials, should be baked sufficiently long enough so as to reduce outgassing rates. The baking period usually ranges from 48 hours to 72 hours for an electrical load of more than 30 kW per sector, in which baking temperatures, a characteristic parameter and specific to material, range from 150°C-180°C for Aluminium alloy and 250°C-300°C for SS (stainless steel). Indus accelerators vacuum installations include more than 300 m long vacuum chamber which are subjected to rigorous, standardized and labour intensive electrical baking procedure involving an intelligent ON-OFF distributed temperature control system with in-built defence of electrical safety and expandability as per the needs. The paper discusses various in built electrical safely features, operational aspects, work practices and challenges involved in accomplishing an interrupt free continuous electrical baking for distributed electrical load of more than 30 kW for a typical vacuum segment of Indus accelerator. (author)

  20. Virtual Power Plants as a Model for the Competitiveness of Small Manufacturers and Operators of Virtual Power Plants in Markets of Electricity and Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galic, T.; Tomsic, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Production of electricity from renewable energy sources and energy-efficient power sources to be connected to the electricity distribution network is still not competitive with electricity production from conventional sources of electricity. A powerful technological development of distributed energy sources and technologies for electricity storage has reduced their production costs, production costs of electricity from distributed energy sources, the costs of simultaneous production of electricity and thermal energy from cogeneration distributed energy sources and thus has facilitated their increased use in practice. It also allows them to interconnect systems such as virtual power plants in order to achieve full economic feasibility of their use. Current electricity and gas customers, now also in the role of small power producers, interconnected by virtual power plants operators, in addition to buying electricity and gas on retail markets for electricity and gas, will be able to sell electricity and new energy services also on wholesale electricity markets. Development and application of new distributed technologies will enable the production of new quantities of electricity which will increase the competitiveness of electricity producers, competitiveness of electricity suppliers of end-customers and elasticity of supply and demand in the electricity market. These processes will also increase the efficiency of the entire systems of electricity supply and of the gas supply systems.(author)

  1. Transport and operation of Spanish electrical system; El transporte y la operacion del sistema electrico en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielgo Alvarez, P.

    1998-12-01

    The article summarized the institutional organization of the electric sector in Spain during recent years, up to the deregulation phase initial by the Electricity Sector Act. approved in november 1997. It includes a review of the regulation an retribution of the transmission, system operation and network management activities, as well as a description of the development and capabilities of Red Electrica as the company to which these central functions are assigned, and also of the legal limitations, and the opportunities opened by the new legal framework. (Author)

  2. Electric stress computations for designing a novel unibody composite cross-arm using finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahangiri, Tohid; Wang, Qian; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    This paper deal with the electrical performance of a newly proposed fully composite pylon in Denmark, which has a unibody composite cross-arm at 420 kV highest system voltage level. Electric field consideration along the insulations of the novel unibody cross-arm is one of the most important...

  3. Pre-earthquake signals – Part I: Deviatoric stresses turn rocks into a source of electric currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Freund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes are feared because they often strike so suddenly. Yet, there are innumerable reports of pre-earthquake signals. Widespread disagreement exists in the geoscience community how these signals can be generated in the Earth's crust and whether they are early warning signs, related to the build-up of tectonic stresses before major seismic events. Progress in understanding and eventually using these signals has been slow because the underlying physical process or processes are basically not understood. This has changed with the discovery that, when igneous or high-grade metamorphic rocks are subjected to deviatoric stress, dormant electronic charge carriers are activated: electrons and defect electrons. The activation increases the number density of mobile charge carriers in the rocks and, hence, their electric conductivity. The defect electrons are associated with the oxygen anion sublattice and are known as positive holes or pholes for short. The boundary between stressed and unstressed rock acts a potential barrier that lets pholes pass but blocks electrons. Therefore, like electrons and ions in an electrochemical battery, the stress-activated electrons and pholes in the "rock battery" have to flow out in different directions. When the circuit is closed, the battery currents can flow. The discovery of such stress-activated currents in crustal rocks has far-reaching implications for understanding pre-earthquake signals.

  4. Decomposing climate-induced temperature and water effects on the expansion and operation of the US electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Eurek, K.; Macknick, J.; Steinberg, D. C.; Averyt, K.; Badger, A.; Livneh, B.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change has the potential to affect the supply and demands of the U.S. power sector. Rising air temperatures can affect the seasonal and total demand for electricity, alter the thermal efficiency of power plants, and lower the maximum capacity of electric transmission lines. Changes in hydrology can affect seasonal and total availability of water used for power plant operations. Prior studies have examined some climate impacts on the electricity sector, but there has been no systematic study quantifying and comparing the importance of these climate-induced effects in isolation and in combination. Here, we perform a systematic assessment using the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) electricity sector model in combination with downscaled climate results from four models in the CMIP5 archive that provide contrasting temperature and precipitation trends for key regions in the U.S. The ReEDS model captures dynamic climate and hydrological resource data .when choosing the cost optimal mix of generation resources necessary to balance supply and demand for electricity. We examine how different climate-induced changes in air temperature and water availability, considered in isolation and in combination, may affect energy and economic outcomes at a regional and national level from the present through 2050. Results indicate that temperature-induced impacts on electricity consumption show consistent trends nationwide across all climate scenarios. Hydrological impacts and variability differ by model and tend to have a minor effect on national electricity trends, but can be important determinants regionally. Taken together, this suggests that isolated climate change impacts on the electricity system depend on the geographic scale of interest - the effect of rising temperatures on demand, which is qualitatively robust to the choice of climate model, largely determines impacts on generation, capacity and cost at the national level, whereas other impact pathways may

  5. The operation of wholesale electricity, CO2 and natural gas markets in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The first part analyses the electricity wholesale markets: development of the main wholesale market segments, electricity price, electricity production analysis and transparency of production data, transaction analysis. The second part analyses CO 2 markets: evolution of the institutional framework and perspectives, exchanges volumes on the CO 2 market, the CO 2 price in Europe, fundamentals of the European CO 2 market. The third part addresses the gas market: development of gas trade, gas price, gas infrastructures, supply and outlets for stake holders and new comers

  6. Model of the electric energy market in Poland. Assumptions, structure and operation principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagowski, W.

    1994-01-01

    Present state of works on model of electric energy market in Poland with special consideration of bulk energy market is presented. The designed model based on progressive, evolutionary changes is so elastic, that when keeping general structure and fundamentals the particular solutions can be verified or corrected. The changes in the electric energy market are considered as an integral part of existing restructuring process of Polish electric energy sector. The rate of those changes and the mode of their introduction influence on introduction speed of the new solutions. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs

  7. Assessment of Clinical Stressful Factors Among Academic Students of Nursing and Operating Room of Dezful University of Medical Sciences (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Raji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nursing students are exposed to clinical environmental stresses in addition to educational environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to assessment of clinical stressful factors among Academic Students of Nursing and Operating Room of Dezful University of Medical Sciences in 2015.Materials and Methods: This study was a description-analytical study with 234 students of nursing and operation room up to two semesters for enrolled. Data was using a self-made researcher Questionnaire consisted of demographic information and clinical stressful factors. Data analysis was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS-PC (v.20.Results: The findings showed that the main stressors in students of nursing and operation room were unpleasant emotions and least stressful areas were interpersonal communication in a clinical environment. The results showed that the average score of the field of education and humiliating experiences using Spearman correlation test (P=0/045 (r=0/16.Conclusion: Study showed, the mean stress is the moderate level. Stressful areas obtained in the four areas of personal communication, clinical practice stressful, unpleasant feelings and humiliating experience that fortunately, in many cases reform and change.

  8. Study on relationship of performance shaping factor in human error probability with prevalent stress of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Ahmad Nabil Bin Ab; Mohamed, Faizal; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abdul; Fazli Zakaria, Mohd; Sangau Ligam, Alfred; Ramli, Nurhayati Binti

    2018-01-01

    Human factor can be affected by prevalence stress measured using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). From the respondents feedback can be summarized that the main factor causes the highest prevalence stress is due to the working conditions that require operators to handle critical situation and make a prompt critical decisions. The relationship between the prevalence stress and performance shaping factors found that PSFFitness and PSFWork Process showed positive Pearson’s Correlation with the score of .763 and .826 while the level of significance, p = .028 and p = .012. These positive correlations with good significant values between prevalence stress and human performance shaping factor (PSF) related to fitness, work processes and procedures. The higher the stress level of the respondents, the higher the score of selected for the PSFs. This is due to the higher levels of stress lead to deteriorating physical health and cognitive also worsened. In addition, the lack of understanding in the work procedures can also be a factor that causes a growing stress. The higher these values will lead to the higher the probabilities of human error occur. Thus, monitoring the level of stress among operators RTP is important to ensure the safety of RTP.

  9. Operation of high-current connections for the electric supply of conurbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosch, H; Krause, D

    1975-01-01

    The suitability of superconducting cables for the electric power supply of a large town is investigated on the basis of technical and economic parameters and from the point of view of the power supply.

  10. Electrical power supply and controls for a remotely operated glass melter for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haideri, A.Q.

    1985-01-01

    An electrical power supply, controls and instruments used for a joule heated glass melter for nuclear waste are discussed. Remotely replaceable interconnection wiring assemblies for power, controls and instruments are also described

  11. Power quality analysis of DC arc furnace operation using the Bowman model for electric arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherman, P. L.

    2018-01-01

    This work is about a relatively new domain. The DC electric arc is superior to the AC electric arc and it’s not used in Romania. This is why we analyzed the work functions of these furnaces by simulation and model checking of the simulation results.The conclusions are favorable, to be carried is to develop a real-time control system of steel elaboration process.

  12. Smart and sustainable power systems operations, planning, and economics of insular electricity grids

    CERN Document Server

    Catalão, João P S

    2015-01-01

    The smart grid initiative, integrating advanced sensing technologies, intelligent control methods, and bi-directional communications into the contemporary electricity grid, offers excellent opportunities for energy efficiency improvements and better integration of distributed generation, coexisting with centralized generation units within an active network. A large share of the installed capacity for recent renewable energy sources already comprises insular electricity grids, since the latter are preferable due to their high potential for renewables. However, the increasing share of

  13. Accelerated reliability testing of highly aligned single-walled carbon nanotube networks subjected to DC electrical stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strus, Mark C; Chiaramonti, Ann N; Kim, Young Lae; Jung, Yung Joon; Keller, Robert R

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the electrical reliability of nanoscale lines of highly aligned, networked, metallic/semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) fabricated through a template-based fluidic assembly process. We find that these SWCNT networks can withstand DC current densities larger than 10 MA cm(-2) for several hours and, in some cases, several days. We develop test methods that show that the degradation rate, failure predictability and total device lifetime can be linked to the initial resistance. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy suggest that fabrication variability plays a critical role in the rate of degradation, and we offer an empirical method of quickly determining the long-term performance of a network. We find that well-fabricated lines subject to constant electrical stress show a linear accumulation of damage reminiscent of electromigration in metallic interconnects, and we explore the underlying physical mechanisms that could cause such behavior.

  14. Portland General Electric Company report on the operating and startup experience with control and instrumentation and electrical systems at the Trojan Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Trojan Nuclear Plant is an 1178 MWe nuclear plant located on the Columbia River 40 miles northwest of Portland, Oregon. The Nuclear Stream Supply System vendor is Westinghouse with a General Electric turbine generator. The reactor is rated and licensed for 3423 MWt (1178 MWe) and the turbine generator is designed for 3570 MWt(1219 MWe). The startup phase testing of Trojan commenced on November 21, 1975, upon receipt of our NRC Operating License. The startup testing program was completed on May 22, 1976, following 100 hours of full-power operation, at which time a scheduled summer maintenance outage began. Some of the highlights and milestones of the startup testing program are described

  15. Coordinated Control Scheme of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Distributed Generations (DGs) for Electric Distribution Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    into the islanding operation mode, while the centralized joint load frequency control (CJLFC) utilizing DGs handles the secondary frequency regulation. The BESS with the associated controllers has been modelled in Real-time digital simulator (RTDS) in order to identify the improvement of the frequency and voltage......This paper describes a coordinated control scheme of battery energy storage system (BESS) and distributed generations (DGs) for electric distribution grid operation. The BESS is designed to stabilize frequency and voltages as a primary control after the electric distribution system enters...... response. The modified IEEE 9-bus system, which is comprised of several DG units, wind power plant and the BESS, has been employed to illustrate the performance of the proposed coordinated flexible control scheme using RTDS in order to verify its practical efficacy....

  16. Review of electricity supply failures and plant improvements over 25 years operation of the Harwell materials test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of the on-site electrical power sources is described, operational experience is reported and shortcomings are identified. Disturbances in the external power supplies to the reactors are listed for the past 25 years and failure probabilities are derived from this historical data. The 132 kV overhead supply to the Harwell site is identified as the source of nearly 90% of the disturbances. (author)

  17. Application of wire electrodes in electric discharge machining of metal samples of reactor blocks of the operative atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozhenko, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Features of application of electroerosive methods are considered during the process of direct definition of properties of metal of the equipment of power units of the atomic power station. Results of development of a complex of the equipment for wire electric discharge machining of metal templet and its use are presented at the control of the basic metal of the main circulating pipelines over blocks of the atomic power station of Ukraine over long terms of operation

  18. Review of electricity supply failures and plant improvements over 25 years operation of the Harwell materials test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D. J. [UKAEA Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1986-02-15

    The evolution of the on-site electrical power sources is described, operational experience is reported and shortcomings are identified. Disturbances in the external power supplies to the reactors are listed for the past 25 years and failure probabilities are derived from this historical data. The 132 kV overhead supply to the Harwell site is identified as the source of nearly 90% of the disturbances. (author)

  19. Large contribution to the neutron electric dipole moment from a dimension-six four-quark operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.; McKellar, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we study the contribution of a dimension-six four-quark operator to the neutron electric dipole moment. We find that this contribution dominates over the one-loop contributions due to W L- WR mixing by at least one order of magnitude in left-right-symmetric models, and in diquark scalar models this contribution is two orders of magnitude larger than other contributions

  20. The likelihood of failures in the operation of the mechanism of movement of a cargo truck electrical hook bridge crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritenman I.L.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the application of the methods of analysis of types and consequences of failures (FMEA analysis to assess the technical risk of occurrence of emergency situations during the operation of the lifting mechanism electrical hook bridge crane. The technique allows to identify the limiting elements and to determine the significance of effects in the design of the lifting mechanism, to develop measures to reduce the risk of the occurrence of an emergency.

  1. The likelihood of failures in the operation of the mechanism of movement of a cargo truck electrical hook bridge crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritenman I.L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the application of the methods of analysis of types and consequences of failures (FMEA analysis to assess the technical risk of occurrence of emergency situations during the operation of the lifting mechanism electrical hook bridge crane. The technique allows to identify the limiting elements and to determine the significance of effects in the design of the lifting mechanism, to develop measures to reduce the risk of the occurrence of an emergency.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of temperature, stress, and electric field in GaN HEMTs with micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, Kevin R; Moore, Elizabeth A; Badescu, Stefan C; Zhang, Lenan; Wang, Evelyn N

    2017-11-01

    As semiconductor devices based on silicon reach their intrinsic material limits, compound semiconductors, such as gallium nitride (GaN), are gaining increasing interest for high performance, solid-state transistor applications. Unfortunately, higher voltage, current, and/or power levels in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) often result in elevated device temperatures, degraded performance, and shorter lifetimes. Although micro-Raman spectroscopy has become one of the most popular techniques for measuring localized temperature rise in GaN HEMTs for reliability assessment, decoupling the effects of temperature, mechanical stress, and electric field on the optical phonon frequencies measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy is challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the simultaneous measurement of temperature rise, inverse piezoelectric stress, thermoelastic stress, and vertical electric field via micro-Raman spectroscopy from the shifts of the E 2 (high), A 1 longitudinal optical (LO), and E 2 (low) optical phonon frequencies in wurtzite GaN. We also validate experimentally that the pinched OFF state as the unpowered reference accurately measures the temperature rise by removing the effect of the vertical electric field on the Raman spectrum and that the vertical electric field is approximately the same whether the channel is open or closed. Our experimental results are in good quantitative agreement with a 3D electro-thermo-mechanical model of the HEMT we tested and indicate that the GaN buffer acts as a semi-insulating, p-type material due to the presence of deep acceptors in the lower half of the bandgap. This implementation of micro-Raman spectroscopy offers an exciting opportunity to simultaneously probe thermal, mechanical, and electrical phenomena in semiconductor devices under bias, providing unique insight into the complex physics that describes device behavior and reliability. Although GaN HEMTs have been specifically used in this study to

  3. Simultaneous measurement of temperature, stress, and electric field in GaN HEMTs with micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, Kevin R.; Moore, Elizabeth A.; Badescu, Stefan C.; Zhang, Lenan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-11-01

    As semiconductor devices based on silicon reach their intrinsic material limits, compound semiconductors, such as gallium nitride (GaN), are gaining increasing interest for high performance, solid-state transistor applications. Unfortunately, higher voltage, current, and/or power levels in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) often result in elevated device temperatures, degraded performance, and shorter lifetimes. Although micro-Raman spectroscopy has become one of the most popular techniques for measuring localized temperature rise in GaN HEMTs for reliability assessment, decoupling the effects of temperature, mechanical stress, and electric field on the optical phonon frequencies measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy is challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the simultaneous measurement of temperature rise, inverse piezoelectric stress, thermoelastic stress, and vertical electric field via micro-Raman spectroscopy from the shifts of the E2 (high), A1 longitudinal optical (LO), and E2 (low) optical phonon frequencies in wurtzite GaN. We also validate experimentally that the pinched OFF state as the unpowered reference accurately measures the temperature rise by removing the effect of the vertical electric field on the Raman spectrum and that the vertical electric field is approximately the same whether the channel is open or closed. Our experimental results are in good quantitative agreement with a 3D electro-thermo-mechanical model of the HEMT we tested and indicate that the GaN buffer acts as a semi-insulating, p-type material due to the presence of deep acceptors in the lower half of the bandgap. This implementation of micro-Raman spectroscopy offers an exciting opportunity to simultaneously probe thermal, mechanical, and electrical phenomena in semiconductor devices under bias, providing unique insight into the complex physics that describes device behavior and reliability. Although GaN HEMTs have been specifically used in this study to

  4. Operational experience in the non-destructive assay of fissile material in General Electric's nuclear fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Operational experience in the non-destructive assay of fissile material in a variety of forms and containers and incorporation of the assay devices into the accountability measurement system for General Electric's Wilmington Fuel Fabrication Facility measurement control programme is detailed. Description of the purpose and related operational requirements of each non-destructive assay system is also included. In addition, the accountability data acquisition and processing system is described in relation to its interaction with the various non-destructive assay devices and scales used for accountability purposes within the facility. (author)

  5. Operating an EPR: A strong asset in the future European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve, Bernard; Beutier, Didier

    2006-01-01

    Recently, two nuclear units have been decided in Europe, both EPR 1,600 MWe. In Finland, TVO Company decided to commission a reactor in 2009 on Olkiluoto site. The license was granted in February 2005 and the construction started in summer. In 2004 in France, EDF Company decided an EPR to be commissioned in 2012 at Flamanville. In both cases, national Parliament vote has given the green light. It is interesting to understand why each company has made such decision. In TVO case, the main driving factor seems to be the need of industrial consumers for low and stable electricity price in a context of growing excess demand. In EDF case, no short term demand, but rather long term electricity company strategy seems to be the main reason. The relation to national energy policy is very clear in both cases. In Finland, the 5. Nuclear Power Plant was decided: - as a key element of the energy mix to meet growing electricity needs while replacing older plants, - to ensure, together with renewables, the fulfillment of the Kyoto commitments, - to secure stable and predictable electricity price for intensive industrial consumers (for instance, paper mills), - to reduce the dependence on electricity import. Here, it is argued more broadly that EPR will be a strong asset in the future European electricity market. To support this argument, we shall describe: 1) to what extent the evolving European electricity market may call for new nuclear units, 2) specific design features explaining why EPR especially fits with expectations, 3) cost assessments giving the conditions of EPR competitiveness, 4) main elements of risk assessment and how they are dealt with. (authors)

  6. Matrix elements of the electric multiple transition and relativistic correction operators in the case of complex configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyauskas, Yu.M.; Rudzikas, Z.B.

    1976-01-01

    Operators and their submatrix elements are studied in the framework of the electric multipole transitions of complex atoms with account of relativistic corrections of the order of the square of the fine structure constant. The analysis is performed by means of irreducible tensor operators and genealogical coefficients. It has been assumed that angular momenta of individual shells are coupled with each other according to ls, lk, jk and jj coupling. Formulas are given for the operator which causes the relativistic corrections for the single-electron multipole transition and for its submatrix element in the case of configurations with two unfilled shells. A possibility is discussed of using the formulas suggested for calculation. As follows from analysis, the relativistic correction operators even with the pure ls coupling allow intercombination transitions with ΔS equals +-1. The expressions obtained may turn out to be useful for performing calculations in the case of the intermediate type of coupling

  7. Managing operations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) exchange stations for use with a smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurre, Sarah G.; Bent, Russell; Pan, Feng; Sharkey, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a deterministic integer programming model for determining the optimal operations of multiple plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) battery exchange stations over time. The operations include the number of batteries to charge, discharge, and exchange at each point in time over a set time horizon. We allow discharging of batteries back to the power grid, through vehicle-to-grid technology. We incorporate the exchange station's dependence on the power network, transportation network, and other exchange stations. The charging and discharging at these exchange stations lead to a greater amount of variability which creates a less predictable and flat power generation curve. We introduce and test three policies to smooth the power generation curve by balancing its load. Further, tests are conducted evaluating these policies while factoring wind energy into the power generation curve. These computational tests use realistic data and analysis of the results suggest general operating procedures for exchange stations and evaluate the effectiveness of these power flattening policies. - Highlights: • Model the operations of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery exchange stations. • Determine the optimal and general charging, discharging, and exchange operations. • Conclude that forced customer service levels are unnecessary with proper pricing. • Examine policies to reduce variability in power generation from PHEVs and wind. • Observe that strict constraints on exchange stations best reduce variability

  8. Hierarchical Load Tracking Control of a Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Maximum Electrical Efficiency Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the benchmark solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC dynamic model for power system studies and the analysis of the SOFC operating conditions, the nonlinear programming (NLP optimization method was used to determine the maximum electrical efficiency of the grid-connected SOFC subject to the constraints of fuel utilization factor, stack temperature and output active power. The optimal operating conditions of the grid-connected SOFC were obtained by solving the NLP problem considering the power consumed by the air compressor. With the optimal operating conditions of the SOFC for the maximum efficiency operation obtained at different active power output levels, a hierarchical load tracking control scheme for the grid-connected SOFC was proposed to realize the maximum electrical efficiency operation with the stack temperature bounded. The hierarchical control scheme consists of a fast active power control and a slower stack temperature control. The active power control was developed by using a decentralized control method. The efficiency of the proposed hierarchical control scheme was demonstrated by case studies using the benchmark SOFC dynamic model.

  9. A study of job stress, stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction for nurses working in middle-level hospital operating rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Kuang; Lin, Cecilia; Wang, Shu-Hui; Hou, Tung-Hsu

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the interactive relationships between demographics and work-related variables, job stress, job stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction for operating room (OR) nurses is important. The purpose of this study was to determine the stressors, the stress coping strategies, and the job satisfaction of nursing staff who worked in the OR and to evaluate influence of demographic characteristics on job stress, stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data. Participants included 121 nurses with more than 6 months of work experience at seven hospitals in Yunlin and Chiayi Counties. Data were collected from March through May 2008. One hundred twelve questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 92.56%. The questionnaire included four parts designed to gather data on demographics and work-related information, job stress, stress coping strategies, and job satisfaction. Major findings of this study were as follows: (a) stress level and frequency perception of OR nurses were significantly related to the type of hospital; (b) the most intense stressor perceived by OR nurses was patient safety; (c) the stressor most frequently perceived by OR nurses was administrative feedback; (d) although all job stressors were positively related to destructive stress coping strategies, professional status, patient safety, and OR environment were also positively related to constructive stress coping strategies; (e) factors including work rewards, OR environment, and administrative management of job satisfaction were inversely related to destructive stress coping strategies; and (f) factors including work rewards, OR environment, and administrative management of job satisfaction were inversely related to all job stressors. Major suggestions of this study include the following: (a) hospitals should ensure set standard operating procedures for the OR, strengthen the designed-in security of the OR working

  10. The stress characteristics of plate-fin structures at the different operation parameters of LNG heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the stresses of plate-fin structures at the different operation parameters were analyzed in actual operation process of LNG plate-fin heat exchanger based on finite element method and thermal elastic theory. Stress characteristics of plate-fin structures were investigated at the different operation parameters of that. The results show that the structural failure of plate-fin structures is mainly induced by the maximum shear stress at the brazing filler metal layer between plate and fin while by the maximum normal stress in the region of brazed joint near the fin side. And a crack would initiate in brazed joint near the fin side. The maximum normal stress is also main factor to result in the structural failure of plate-fin structures at the different temperature difference (between Natural Gas (NG and Mixture Refrigerant (MR, MR temperature and NG pressure of LNG heat exchanger. At the same time, the peak stresses obviously increase as the temperature difference, MR temperature and NG pressure increase. These results will provide some constructive instructions in the safe operation of LNG plate-fin heat exchanger in a large-scale LNG cold-box.

  11. Effects of electric field and Coriolis force on electrohydrodynamic stability of poorly conducting couple stress parallel fluid flow in a channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, B.M.; Rudraiah, N.

    2013-01-01

    The linear stability of electrohydrodynamic poorly conducting couple stress viscous parallel fluid flow in a channel is studied in the presence of a non-uniform transverse electric field and Coriolis force using energy method and supplemented with Galerkin Technique. The sufficient condition for stability is obtained for sufficiently small values of the Reynolds number, R e . From this condition we show that strengthening or weakening of the stability criterion is dictated by the values of the strength of electric field, the coefficient of couple stress fluid and independent of Taylor number. In particular, it is shown that the interaction of electric field with couple stress is more effective in stabilizing the poorly conducting couple stress fluid compared to that in an ordinary Newtonian viscous fluid. (author)

  12. High-electric-field-stress-induced degradation of SiN passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen-Ping, Gu; Huan-Tao, Duan; Jin-Yu, Ni; Yue, Hao; Jin-Cheng, Zhang; Qian, Feng; Xiao-Hua, Ma

    2009-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are fabricated by employing SiN passivation, this paper investigates the degradation due to the high-electric-field stress. After the stress, a recoverable degradation has been found, consisting of the decrease of saturation drain current I Dsat , maximal transconductance g m , and the positive shift of threshold voltage V TH at high drain-source voltage V DS . The high-electric-field stress degrades the electric characteristics of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs because the high field increases the electron trapping at the surface and in AlGaN barrier layer. The SiN passivation of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs decreases the surface trapping and 2DEG depletion a little during the high-electric-field stress. After the hot carrier stress with V DS = 20 V and V GS = 0 V applied to the device for 10 4 sec, the SiN passivation decreases the stress-induced degradation of I Dsat from 36% to 30%. Both on-state and pulse-state stresses produce comparative decrease of I Dsat , which shows that although the passivation is effective in suppressing electron trapping in surface states, it does not protect the device from high-electric-field degradation in nature. So passivation in conjunction with other technological solutions like cap layer, prepassivation surface treatments, or field-plate gate to weaken high-electric-field degradation should be adopted. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  13. Radical change of the European electricity market. The challenges and opportunities for large operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caperan, L.

    2000-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) generates and sells 460 TWh to around 30 million customers in France and 17 million abroad. Owing to the opening of the electricity markets all electricity producers must review their company policy and their technical and economic strategies. It is a question of survival - but this development also opens up new possibilities. Competition is a source of progress and a quantum leap in terms of quality: Reduced costs for customers, greater range of services, improved product quality, the need for a good corporate image and probably, therefore, a greater commitment to the environment and certainly a better dialogue with customers and society in general. (orig.) [de

  14. A win-win marginal rent analysis for operator and consumer under battery leasing mode in China electric vehicle market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhe; Ouyang Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Recently battery leasing has been introduced into the market by automobile manufacturers and power suppliers due to its potential to reduce the purchase cost of electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profit prospect of battery leasing is still uncertain. This paper takes the views of both the operators and consumers and calculates the 'win-win' marginal rent, which not only ensures the profitability of operators, but also allows consumers a lower expenditure than using Internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs) and EVs with embedded batteries. Battery cost, vehicle weight, gasoline and electricity price, and the discount rate have impacts on the rent. Battery cost plays a dominant role and a battery cost >5 Yen /W h fails to enable the survival of battery leasing to all types of EVs. Battery leasing would be more competitive when focusing on heavier EVs. At least one of the three thresholds is required for the existence of rent pricing range for a 1000 kg EV: gasoline retail price >6 Yen /L, electricity price <0.6 Yen /kW h, or the discount rate <7%. Typically, the feasible battery rent range is 0.34-0.38 Yen /W h/year for a 1000 kg EV under the present battery cost 2 Yen /W h and China current gasoline and electricity prices. - Highlights: → Rent pricing for EV battery leasing must obey win-win rule for BLO and consumers. → Rent is affected by battery cost, vehicle weight, energy price and discount rate. → Battery cost plays dominant role for the BLO survival as described in '5-3-2' Law. → Heavier EVs are more suitable for battery leasing when battery cost is high. → The profitability of BLO is sensitive to the price of gasoline and electricity.

  15. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995 (first quarter of fiscal year 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    This is the Site Operator Program quarterly report for USDOE electric and hybrid vehicle research. Its mission now includes the three major activity categories of advancement of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use and increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 11 Site Operator Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of the site operators totals about 250 vehicles. The individual fleets are summarized.

  16. Perturabation of nodular operation under salt and water deficit stress in rhizobium common bean symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harzalli Jebara, Salwa

    2006-01-01

    indicates the great importance of the interaction of the two partners of symbiosis and of their contribution in great variability. The whole of results permits us to choose contrasting symbioses for better elucidating the mechanisms of nodular operation in response to the osmotic stress. (author). 282 refs

  17. The future of GPS-based electric power system measurements, operation and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizy, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, R.E. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States); Martin, K.E.; Litzenberger, W.H. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Overholt, P.N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Much of modern society is powered by inexpensive and reliable electricity delivered by a complex and elaborate electric power network. Electrical utilities are currently using the Global Positioning System-NAVSTAR (GPS) timekeeping to improve the network`s reliability. Currently, GPS synchronizes the clocks on dynamic recorders and aids in post-mortem analysis of network disturbances. Two major projects have demonstrated the use of GPS-synchronized power system measurements. In 1992, the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) sponsored Phase Measurements Project used a commercially available Phasor Measurements Unit (PMU) to collect GPS-synchronized measurements for analyzing power system problems. In 1995, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) under DOE`s and EPRI`s sponsorship launched the Wide Area Measurements (WAMS) project. WAMS demonstrated GPS-synchronized measurements over a large area of their power networks and demonstrated the networking of GPS-based measurement systems in BPA and WAPA. The phasor measurement technology has also been used to conduct dynamic power system tests. During these tests, a large dynamic resistor was inserted to simulate a small power system disturbance.

  18. 75 FR 80391 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretations of Interconnection Reliability Operations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... transmission (G&T) cooperative or similar organization to accept compliance responsibility on behalf of its... be found on the Commission's Web site; see, e.g., the ``Quick Reference Guide for Paper Submissions... Electric Reliability Standards, Order No. 672, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,204, order on reh'g, Order No. 672...

  19. 76 FR 36864 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Operation Without Normal Electric Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Normal Electric Power AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special... Interface Branch, ANM-111, Transport Standards Staff, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification... Model GVI airplane will be an all-new, two- engine jet transport airplane. The maximum takeoff weight...

  20. 77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... application of thermal overload protection devices that are integral with the motor starter for electric... Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001, telephone: 301-251-7455; email... Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. [FR Doc. 2012-4552 Filed 2...

  1. 76 FR 23171 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretations of Interconnection Reliability Operations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,242, order on reh'g...-Power System reliability may request an interpretation of a Reliability Standard.\\7\\ The ERO's standards... information in its reliability assessments. The Reliability Coordinator must monitor Bulk Electric System...

  2. Macroscopic electrical field distribution and field-induced surface stresses of needle-shaped field emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, Charles K.S., E-mail: charles.moy@sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ranzi, Gianluca [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Petersen, Timothy C. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ringer, Simon P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    One major concern since the development of the field ion microscope is the mechanical strength of the specimens. The macroscopic shape of the imaging tip greatly influences field-induced stresses and there is merit in further study of this phenomenon from a classical perspective. Understanding the geometrical, as opposed to localized electronic, factors that affect the stress might improve the quality and success rate of atom probe experiments. This study uses macroscopic electrostatic principles and finite element modelling to investigate field-induced stresses in relation to the shape of the tip. Three two-dimensional idealized models are considered, namely hyperbolic, parabolic and sphere-on-orthogonal-cone; the shapes of which are compared to experimental tips prepared by electro-polishing. Three dimensional morphologies of both a nano-porous and single-crystal aluminium tip are measured using electron tomography to quantitatively test the assumption of cylindrical symmetry for electro-polished tips. The porous tip was prepared and studied to demonstrate a fragile specimen for which such finite element studies could determine potential mechanical failure, prior to any exhaustive atom probe investigation. -- Research highlights: {yields} We use electrostatic principles and finite element to model field-induced stresses. {yields} We study two-dimensional idealized needle-shaped field emitters. {yields} Stress distribution of hyperbolic, parabolic and sphere-on-orthogonal-cone tips mapped. {yields} Electron tomography to obtain the morphology of three-dimensional aluminium tips. {yields} Studies of the morphology of the porous tip demonstrate a fragile specimen.

  3. 3-D finite element stress analysis for fatigue design and evaluation: a parametric study of MOV(Motor Operated Valve)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong Keun; Lee, Sang Min; Chang, Yoon Suk; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Yun Jae

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a new procedure is proposed to accomplish the primary plus secondary stress(P+Q) at the 'structural element' instead of 'transition element'. For the P+Q evaluation, the calculated stresses by FEA are linearized along a stress classification line to extract the stress category, then the stress intensity is calculated to compare with the 3Sm limit. Also, in this paper, the 'design by analysis' criteria, adopted fundamental concepts and a new approach to calculate Ke factors are explained. The new procedure combined with 3-D FEA has been applied to motor operated valve in order to the over conservatism and the rack of margin. The evaluation results show a good applicability and can be utilized for fatigue life evaluation by using P+Q

  4. Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong; Dooner, Mark; Clarke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An overview of the state-of-the-art in Electrical Energy Storage (EES) is provided. • A comprehensive analysis of various EES technologies is carried out. • An application potential analysis of the reviewed EES technologies is presented. • The presented synthesis to EES technologies can be used to support future R and D and deployment. - Abstract: Electrical power generation is changing dramatically across the world because of the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to introduce mixed energy sources. The power network faces great challenges in transmission and distribution to meet demand with unpredictable daily and seasonal variations. Electrical Energy Storage (EES) is recognized as underpinning technologies to have great potential in meeting these challenges, whereby energy is stored in a certain state, according to the technology used, and is converted to electrical energy when needed. However, the wide variety of options and complex characteristic matrices make it difficult to appraise a specific EES technology for a particular application. This paper intends to mitigate this problem by providing a comprehensive and clear picture of the state-of-the-art technologies available, and where they would be suited for integration into a power generation and distribution system. The paper starts with an overview of the operation principles, technical and economic performance features and the current research and development of important EES technologies, sorted into six main categories based on the types of energy stored. Following this, a comprehensive comparison and an application potential analysis of the reviewed technologies are presented

  5. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurabekova, Flyura, E-mail: flyura.djurabekova@helsinki.fi; Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences, UCL Earth Sciences, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hakala, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from −1 V/nm up to −2 V/nm (−1 to −2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  6. Evaluation of stress and saturation effects on seismic velocity and electrical resistivity - laboratory testing of rock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Jirků, Jaroslav; Slavík, Lubomír; Bárta, Jaroslav

    2016-04-01

    Repository, located in a deep geological formation, is today considered the most suitable solution for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The geological formations, in combination with an engineered barrier system, should ensure isolation of the waste from the environment for thousands of years. For long-term monitoring of such underground excavations special monitoring systems are developed. In our research we developed and tested monitoring system based on repeated ultrasonic time of flight measurement and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). As a test site Bedřichov gallery in the northern Bohemia was selected. This underground gallery in granitic rock was excavated using Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). The seismic high-frequency measurements are performed by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock wall using one seismic source and three receivers in the distances of 1, 2 and 3 m. The ERT measurement is performed also on the rock wall using 48 electrodes. The spacing between electrodes is 20 centimeters. An analysis of relation of seismic velocity and electrical resistivity on water saturation and stress state of the granitic rock is necessary for the interpretation of both seismic monitoring and ERT. Laboratory seismic and resistivity measurements were performed. One series of experiments was based on uniaxial loading of dry and saturated granitic samples. The relation between stress state and ultrasonic wave velocities was tested separately for dry and saturated rock samples. Other experiments were focused on the relation between electrical resistivity of the rock sample and its saturation level. Rock samples with different porosities were tested. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic, project No. TA 0302408

  7. The effect of load and thickness variation on stress analysis of monocoque frame of electric city car using FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhrojan, Agus; Suprihadi, Agus; Budi, Sigit Setijo; Jamari, J.; Ismail, Rifky

    2017-01-01

    The electric car is transportation which growing and constantly put through improvisation vehicle design. One of the structural components of the electric car which holds a major role is a frame. The purpose of this study is to get monocoque frame design which lightweight and powerful for a city car with two passengers that was able to improve the efficiency of the battery voltage source. Monocoque frame should be able to accept the normal loads such as the weight of batteries, passenger, and body. The most important thing, monocoque frame should also be able to protect the driver and passengers in the event of a collision. Mild steel was chosen for the design because it is easy to obtain and reasonable price as well as easy to shaped for two-seater electric car. FEM (finite element method) was used to determine stress determination and rigidity of the monocoque frame when receiving a static load. The results show that the monocoque frame was still able to withstand the required loads with minimal deflection.

  8. Commissioning and First Operation of the Low-Beta Triplets and Their Electrical Feed Boxes at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Darve, C; Casas-Cubillos, J; Claudet, S; Feher, S; Ferlin, G; Kerby, J; Metral, L; Perin, A; Peterson, T; Prin, H; Rabehl, R; Vauthier, N; Wagner, U; van Weelderen, R

    2010-01-01

    The insertion regions located around the four interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are mainly composed of the low-b triplets, the separation dipoles and their respective electrical feed-boxes (DFBX). The low-b triplets are Nb-Ti superconductor quadrupole magnets, which operate at 215 T/m in superfluid helium at a temperature of 1.9 K. The commissioning and the first operation of these components have been performed. The thermo-mechanical behavior of the low-b triplets and DFBX were studied. Cooling and control systems were tuned to optimize the cryogenic operation of the insertion regions. Hardware commissioning also permitted to test the system response. This paper summarizes the performance results and the lessons learned.

  9. Short-term pre- and post-operative stress prolongs incision-induced pain hypersensitivity without changing basal pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Wang, Po-Kai; Tiwari, Vinod; Liang, Lingli; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Zang, Wei-Dong; Kaufman, Andrew G; Bekker, Alex; Gao, Xiao-Qun; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-12-02

    Chronic stress has been reported to increase basal pain sensitivity and/or exacerbate existing persistent pain. However, most surgical patients have normal physiological and psychological health status such as normal pain perception before surgery although they do experience short-term stress during pre- and post-operative periods. Whether or not this short-term stress affects persistent postsurgical pain is unclear. In this study, we showed that pre- or post-surgical exposure to immobilization 6 h daily for three consecutive days did not change basal responses to mechanical, thermal, or cold stimuli or peak levels of incision-induced hypersensitivity to these stimuli; however, immobilization did prolong the duration of incision-induced hypersensitivity in both male and female rats. These phenomena were also observed in post-surgical exposure to forced swimming 25 min daily for 3 consecutive days. Short-term stress induced by immobilization was demonstrated by an elevation in the level of serum corticosterone, an increase in swim immobility, and a decrease in sucrose consumption. Blocking this short-term stress via intrathecal administration of a selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU38486, or bilateral adrenalectomy significantly attenuated the prolongation of incision-induced hypersensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and cold stimuli. Our results indicate that short-term stress during the pre- or post-operative period delays postoperative pain recovery although it does not affect basal pain perception. Prevention of short-term stress may facilitate patients' recovery from postoperative pain.

  10. Status of the Review of Electric Items in Spain Related to the Post-Fukushima Stress Test Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Moreno, Manuel R.; Perez Rodriguez, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Spain Authorities has established a comprehensive compilation of the actions currently related to the post-Fukushima program. It has been initiated both at national and international level and it is developed in an Action Plan. This Plan is aligned to the 6 topics identified in the August 2012 CNS-EOM report, and organized in four parts. One of these parts is related to the loss of electrical power and with a clear objective in implemented new features on increase robustness. This program has been reinforced and the task of Electric Issues has been incremented as a consequence of this Plan. The normal tasks of the Electric Systems and I and C Branch will be presented with the Fukushima related issues as well. The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear -CSN-(Nuclear Safety Council) maintains a permanent program of control and surveillance of nuclear safety issues in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. The Electric Systems and I and C Branch of the CSN have different tasks related Electric Issues: - Inspection, control and evaluation of different topics in normal and accidents operation. - Surveillance Testing Inspections. - Design Modifications Inspections and evaluation. - Reactive inspections - Other activities: Participation in Escered project (a before Fukushima Accident) with an objective of analyzed exterior grid stability and check that electric faults in the NPPs vicinity did not cause the simultaneous loss of the offsite supplies fault effects with interaction in inner related systems. Other task related with the management of aging and long-term operation. Now, as a consequence, it has been incremented its task with some new Fukushima related topics: - Analysis of beyond accident related with U.S. SBO Rule (Reg. Guide 1.155) is a part of the design bases for the Spanish plants designed by Westinghouse/ General Electric; switchyard/grid events and extreme weather events are considered, with 10 minutes to connect an alternate source (if provided; if not, use of d

  11. Heuristic Storage System Sizing for Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles Powered by Photovoltaic Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Blasius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the utilisation of PV systems for electric vehicles charging for transportation requirements of smart cities. The gap between PV power output and vehicles charging demand is highly variable. Therefore, there is a need for additional support from a public distribution grid or a storage device in order to handle the residual power. Long term measurement data retrieved from a charging station for 15 vehicles equipped with a PV system were used in the research. Low and high irradiation seasons influenced the PV output. The charging demand of electric vehicles varied over the course of a year and was correlated to weather conditions. Therefore, the sizing and performance of a supportive storage device should be evaluated in a statistical manner using long period observations.

  12. CO2 price dynamics. The implications of EU emissions trading for electricity prices and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Bakker, S.J.A.; Harmsen, H.W.; Lise, W.; Chen, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The experience with CO 2 trading and allowances prices in the last year is reviewed, with a focus on the factors influencing the price of electricity in EU countries. A statistical analysis investigates the relationship between the large increases in electricity prices experienced in 2005 and their relationship to CO 2 prices. In addition, a market simulation analysis using the COMPETES model is performed to assess the extent to which profit-maximizing generators, some of which possess market power, might pass on the opportunity cost of allowances to consumers. The paper concludes by reviewing possible options for policy makers to address the possible adverse implications of price increases caused by CO/sub 2/ trading.

  13. Operating experience and licensing criteria relating to on-site electric power systems in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciattaglia, S.; Grimaldi, G. [ENEA/DISP, Via Vitaliano Brancati, 48, 00144 Roma/Rome (Italy)

    1986-02-15

    The most significant events of on-site electrical power supply degradation in Italian plants took place in coincidence with severe atmospheric conditions or with the propagation of disturbances by lightning stroke inside the plant. Essential instrumentation was lost in two cases so that, for some time, no indication of the plant status was allowed. In both cases the recovery of the plant was achieved by restoration of external power supply. Corrective actions included both improvement in immunity to disturbances, redundancy, capability and physical separation and DG's reliability demonstration. Design and safety analysis of new plants are now carried out with the help of reliability studies and probabilistic risk assessment. As a result, design changes were performed on new plants to improve the reliability of DGs start-up and the independence of the electrical emergency divisions. (authors)

  14. Operating experience and licensing criteria relating to on-site electric power systems in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciattaglia, S.; Grimaldi, G.

    1986-01-01

    The most significant events of on-site electrical power supply degradation in Italian plants took place in coincidence with severe atmospheric conditions or with the propagation of disturbances by lightning stroke inside the plant. Essential instrumentation was lost in two cases so that, for some time, no indication of the plant status was allowed. In both cases the recovery of the plant was achieved by restoration of external power supply. Corrective actions included both improvement in immunity to disturbances, redundancy, capability and physical separation and DG's reliability demonstration. Design and safety analysis of new plants are now carried out with the help of reliability studies and probabilistic risk assessment. As a result, design changes were performed on new plants to improve the reliability of DGs start-up and the independence of the electrical emergency divisions. (authors)

  15. United States Department of Energy`s electric and hybrid vehicle site operator program. Final report, April 1991--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-06

    Drivers in San Juan County, which, is comprised of islands making for short distances on rural (low speed limits) roads, found that present day electric vehicle technology can work in certain applications. An honest, accurate appraisal of the expectations of the vehicle is essential. When needs and capabilities are able to match up, then successful ownership and operation can occur. Today`s EV technology can accomplish certain driving tasks. Careful, honest analysis what is expected of the car can lead to a rewarding EV driving experience. Providing recharge locations in the community proved essential of the peace of mind of the EV driver. Since heating and air conditioning represent electric loads whose reduces range, a moderate to warm year round climate is best for today`s EV. Also, even limited solar recharging has been determined to improve battery pack life.

  16. Optimal Planning and Operation Management of a Ship Electrical Power System with Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Meng, Lexuan

    2016-01-01

    Next generation power management at all scales is highly relying on the efficient scheduling and operation of different energy sources to maximize efficiency and utility. The ability to schedule and modulate the energy storage options within energy systems can also lead to more efficient use...... of the generating units. This optimal planning and operation management strategy becomes increasingly important for off-grid systems that operate independently of the main utility, such as microgrids or power systems on marine vessels. This work extends the principles of optimal planning and economic dispatch...... for the proposed plan is derived based on the solution from a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. Simulation results showed that including well-sized energy storage options together with optimal operation management of generating units can improve the economic operation of the test system while...

  17. EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) operator reliability experiments program - Training implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.; Spurgin, A.J.; Orvis, D.D.; Moieni, P.; Worledge, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The primary purpose of the EPRI Operator Reliability Experiments (ORE) Program is to collect data for use in reliability and safety studies of nuclear power plant operation to more realistically take credit for operator performance in preventing core damage. The two objectives for fulfilling this purpose are: (1) to obtain quantitative/qualitative performance data on operating crew responses in the control room for potential accident sequences by using plant simulators, and (2) to test the Human Cognitive Reliability (HCR) correlation. This paper briefly discusses the background to this program, data collection and analysis, the results and quantitative/qualitative insights stemming from phase one which might be of interest to simulator operators and trainers

  18. Energy conversion efficiency of hybrid electric heavy-duty vehicles operating according to diverse drive cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banjac, Titina [AVL-AST d.o.o., Trg Leona Stuklja 5, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Trenc, Ferdinand; Katrasnik, Tomaz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depend on the HEV topology, power ratios of their components and applied control strategy. Combined analytical and simulation approach was applied to analyze energy conversion efficiency of different HEV topologies. Analytical approach is based on the energy balance equations and considers all energy paths in the HEVs from the energy sources to the wheels and to other energy sinks. Simulation approach is based on a fast forward-facing simulation model for simulating parallel and series HEVs as well as for conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, and considers all components relevant for modeling energy conversion phenomena. Combined approach enables evaluation of energy losses on different energy paths and provides their impact on the fuel economy. It therefore enables identification of most suitable HEV topology and of most suitable power ratios of the components for targeted vehicle application, since it reveals and quantifies the mechanisms that could lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of particular HEV. The paper exposes characteristics of the test cycles that lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of HEVs. Mechanisms leading to improved fuel economy of parallel HEVs through drive-away and vehicle propulsion at low powertrain loads by electric motor are also analyzed. It was also shown that control strategies managing energy flow through electric storage devices significantly influence energy conversion efficiency of series HEVs. (author)

  19. Impact of wind generation on the operation and development of the UK electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran; Shakoor, Anser; Pudjianto, Danny; Black, Mary; Bopp, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although penetration of wind generation may displace a significant amount of energy produced by large conventional plant, there are issues associated with the extent to which wind generation will be able to replace the capacity and flexibility of conventional generating plant. This is important since wind power is variable, so it will be necessary to retain a significant proportion of conventional plant to ensure security of supply especially under conditions of high demand and low wind. Hence, the capacity value of wind generation will be limited as it will not be possible to displace conventional generation capacity on a ''megawatt for megawatt'' basis. Wind power is variable and not easy to predict, hence various forms of additional reserves will be needed to maintain the balance between supply and demand at all times. Additionally, if the majority of wind generation plant is located in Scotland and the North of England, reinforcement of the transmission network will be needed to accommodate the increases in the north-south flow of electricity. In this paper an assessment of the costs and benefits of wind generation on the UK electricity system is carried out, assuming different levels of wind power capacity. Overall, it is concluded that the system will be able to accommodate significant increases in wind power generation with relatively small increases in overall costs of supply, about 5% of the current domestic electricity price in case of 20% energy produced by wind power. (author)

  20. Creation of operation algorithms for combined operation of anti-lock braking system (ABS) and electric machine included in the combined power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, S. V.; Ivanov, V. G.; Karpukhin, K. E.; Umnitsyn, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The paper considers the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) operation algorithm, which enables the implementation of hybrid braking, i.e. the braking process combining friction brake mechanisms and e-machine (electric machine), which operates in the energy recovery mode. The provided materials focus only on the rectilinear motion of the vehicle. That the ABS task consists in the maintenance of the target wheel slip ratio, which depends on the tyre-road adhesion coefficient. The tyre-road adhesion coefficient was defined based on the vehicle deceleration. In the course of calculated studies, the following operation algorithm of hybrid braking was determined. At adhesion coefficient ≤0.1, driving axle braking occurs only due to the e-machine operating in the energy recovery mode. In other cases, depending on adhesion coefficient, the e-machine provides the brake torque, which changes from 35 to 100% of the maximum available brake torque. Virtual tests showed that values of the wheel slip ratio are close to the required ones. Thus, this algorithm makes it possible to implement hybrid braking by means of the two sources creating the brake torque.

  1. Metodologija određivanja elektroenergetskog bilansa operacije / Methodology of determining electric energy balance of operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velenko Milanović

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Pored ubojnih i pogonskih sredstava, električna energija je treći bitan elemenat energije boja. Proračun i poznavanje elektroenergetskog bilansa jedinice podrazumeva određivanje potreba za električnom energijom (izvorima punjačima, ispravljačima, pretvaračima, omogućuje iznalaženje optimalnih rešenja pomoću raspoložive opreme i sredstava, a komandovanju obezbeđuje donošenje pravovremenih i kvalitetnih odluka i predstavlja bitan faktor borbene gotovosti jedinice. Poznavanje elektroenergetskog bilansa omogućuje određivanje autonomnosti jedinica, što je važno za planiranje i realizaciju određenih zadataka i aktivnosti. U ovom radu predstavljen je matematički model za određivanje elektroenergetskog bilansa bilo koje jedinice, za sve uslove i zadatke u kojima se može naći i koje može izvršavati. Bilans se može odrediti sa ili bez upotrebe informatičke opreme što mu obezbeđuje široku i svenivojsku primenu. / Besides explosives and propulsive devices, electric energy represents the third crucial element of battle energy. Calculation and understanding of electric energy balance of units imply determination of needs for electric energy (sources, chargers, transformers, converters, enable optimal solutions by the help of available equipment and in commanding they provide making timely and high-quality decisions thus representing an important factor of unit combat readiness. Furthermore, knowledge of electric energy balance provides unit autonomy, which is very important in planning and realization of particular missions and activities. This paper presents a mathematical model for electric energy balance determination for any type of units, all circumstances and missions they may be involved in. The model is applicable with or without use of computers, thus providing its wide and all level-application.

  2. Participation of nuclear power plants in variable operation regimes under conditions of combined electric power and heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydzi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of nuclear power units in the control of the output of an electric power system is affected by technical and economic factors as well as by the manner of heat take-off from the nuclear power unit for heating purposes. The effect was therefore studied of the technological solution of converting the heat output of WWER-440 units to operating parameters of turbines in nonrated regimes of operation. Some results of the study are graphically represented. An analysis was also made of limitations preventing WWER-440 units from supplying heat with regard to their incorporation in the electric power transmission system. The results show that using nuclear power units for district heating will in the future strictly determine the seasonal shut-down of nuclear units for fuel exchange and overhauls. This could interfere with the considered concept of the 1.5 year duty time of WWER-440 reactors. With regard to the economy of operation of the nuclear power system and reduced demands on weekend unloading it will be necessary to incorporate in the power system pumped-storage power plants with one-week pumped-storage systems. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  3. Experience in operation and maintenance of systems of electrical generation by micro turbine: Transierra S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Franz Miranda [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2009-07-01

    This work tries to share the experience of throughout six years, turned into experience of operation and maintenance of micro turbines for generation electrical; same those are used in the stations of measurement of Transierra S.A. In the initial stage it would describe to the ways and characteristic operative qualities for each one of the Micro Turbines in each scene that differs throughout the four stations that the GASYRG composes, taking like game the analysis of the thermal efficiency. Next a particular description of happened events would be realized in the six translated years in faults of general and particular way, centering the attention to the analysis of the resources provided by the controllers of the equipment through registry of events. Analyses that finally would be translated in solutions to short and medium term obtaining operative continuity and provision of electrical energy indispensable for the systems of measurement and control of the stations. Finally a description of all the particular solutions and modifications that went giving problems of design which they were not contemplated by the manufacturer emanated of the necessity and shaped with the aid of the same knowledge of the equipment. (author)

  4. The contribution of personal and seniority variables to the presence of stress symptoms among Israeli UAV operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Shiri; Shelef, Leah; Oz, Idit; Yavnai, Nirit; Carmon, Erez; Gordon, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    The exposure to war scenes via screens, despite offering a degree of detachment, can be stressful for the operator. The aim of the current study is to examine the existence of anxiety, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Israeli operators. Participants comprised 41 UAV operators (87.2% male), aged 22-38 ( M age  = 26.05, SD  = 3.54). Most (78.0%) reported having viewed battlefield scenes. All participants completed a total of five questionnaires: Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and three questionnaires of PTSD: Post Trauma Questionnaire (CAPS), the Post-Traumatic Cognition Inventory (CTPI), and the Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale (PSS). Mean scores of depression and anxiety were found significantly lower than diagnosis cut-off points ( p  UAV operators are highly beneficial for preventing psychopathology.

  5. Holomorphic Embedding for Loadflow Integration of Operational Thermal and Electric Reliable Procedural Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This sound, low risk proposal aims at developing technology for the fundamental modeling and data processing needs of future autonomous operation. It addresses...

  6. Modelling of thermal stresses in bearing steel structure generated by electrical current impulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjukovs, M.; Jakovics, A.; Holweger, W.

    2018-05-01

    This work is the study of one particular candidate for white etching crack (WEC) initiation mechanism in wind turbine gearbox bearings: discharge current impulses flowing through bearing steel with associated thermal stresses and material fatigue. Using data/results from previously published works, the authors develop a series of models that are utilized to simulate these processes under various conditions/local microstructure configurations, as well as to verify the results of the previous numerical studies. Presented models show that the resulting stresses are several orders of magnitude below the fatigue limit/yield strength for the parameters used herein. Results and analysis of models provided by Scepanskis, M. et al. also indicate that certain effects predicted in their previous work resulted from a physically unfounded assumption about material thermodynamic properties and numerical model implementation issues.

  7. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Thomas M. [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Erlach, Celeste [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  8. Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on bone mineral density, thyroid, and oxidative stress index in electrical workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunt H

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Halil Kunt,1,* İhsan Şentürk,2,* Yücel Gönül,3,* Mehmet Korkmaz,4 Ahmet Ahsen,5 Ömer Hazman,6 Ahmet Bal,7 Abdurrahman Genç,8 Ahmet Songur3 1Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Dumlupinar University, Kütahya, 2Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, 3Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, 4Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dumlupinar University, Kütahya, 5Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, 6Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, 7Department of General Surgery, 8Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: In the literature, some articles report that the incidence of numerous diseases increases among the individuals who live around high-voltage electric transmission lines (HVETL or are exposed vocationally. However, it was not investigated whether HVETL affect bone metabolism, oxidative stress, and the prevalence of thyroid nodule.Methods: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA bone density measurements, serum free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4, RANK, RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, phosphor, total antioxidant status (TAS, total oxidant status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI levels were analyzed to investigate this effect.Results: Bone mineral density levels of L1–L4 vertebrae and femur were observed significantly lower in the electrical workers. ALP, phosphor, RANK, RANKL, TOS, OSI, and anteroposterior diameter of the left thyroid lobe levels were significantly higher, and OPG, TAS, and FT4 levels were detected significantly lower in the study group when compared with the control group.Conclusion: Consequently, it was observed that the balance between construction and destruction in the bone metabolism of the electrical workers who were employed in HVETL replaced toward

  9. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-382)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    Supplement 10 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Louisiana Power and Light Company for a license to operate the Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-382), located in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation Report by providing the staff's evaluation of information submitted by the licensee since the Safety Evaluation Report and its nine previous supplements were issued

  10. A structural model for electricity prices with spikes: measurement of spike risk and optimal policies for hydropower plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamura, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model for electricity prices based on demand and supply, which we call a structural model. We show that the structural model can generate price spikes that fits the observed data better than those generated by other preceding models such as the jump diffusion model and the Box-Cox transformation model. We apply the structural model to obtain the optimal operation policy for a pumped-storage hydropower generator, and show that the structural model can provide more realistic optimal policies than the jump diffusion model. (author)

  11. A structural model for electricity prices with spikes: measurement of spike risk and optimal policies for hydropower plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamura, Takashi [Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of International Corporate Strategy; Ohashi, Azuhiko [J-Power, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    This paper proposes a new model for electricity prices based on demand and supply, which we call a structural model. We show that the structural model can generate price spikes that fits the observed data better than those generated by other preceding models such as the jump diffusion model and the Box-Cox transformation model. We apply the structural model to obtain the optimal operation policy for a pumped-storage hydropower generator, and show that the structural model can provide more realistic optimal policies than the jump diffusion model. (author)

  12. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  13. Electric-stress reliability and current collapse of different thickness SiNx passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Yang; Gui-Zhou, Hu; Yue, Hao; Xiao-Hua, Ma; Si, Quan; Li-Yuan, Yang; Shou-Gao, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of electrical degradation and current collapse on different thickness SiN x passivated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. It finds that higher thickness SiN x passivation can significantly improve the high-electric-field reliability of a device. The degradation mechanism of the SiN x passivation layer under ON-state stress has also been discussed in detail. Under the ON-state stress, the strong electric-field led to degradation of SiN x passivation located in the gate-drain region. As the thickness of SiN x passivation increases, the density of the surface state will be increased to some extent. Meanwhile, it is found that the high NH 3 flow in the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process could reduce the surface state and suppress the current collapse. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. Microstructural evolution of pipelines for thermal electric power plants after a prolongated operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, M.; Rosetti, R.; Porta, G.

    1991-01-01

    The study of failures originated in pipelines for thermal electric power plants allows an evaluation of the limit microstructural conditions that turn the system to critical conditions. A set of pipe samples with different microsctructural evolution which had been affected by direct flame were prepared. The samples were taken close to failures, away from them, from out of use pipes, etc. Metallographic studies were carried out using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Phase distribution, morphology and their relation with the different stages of aging were observed. (Author) [es

  15. Multi-agents Based Modelling for Distribution Network Operation with Electric Vehicle Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Zong, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EV) can become integral part of a smart grid because instead of just consuming power they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems. To integrate EVs smoothly into the power systems, a multi-agents system (MAS) with hierarchical organization structure...... and its role is to manage the distribution network safely by avoiding grid congestions and using congestion prices to coordinate the energy schedule of VPPs. VPP agents belong to the middle level and their roles are to manage the charge periods of the EVs. EV agents sit in the bottom level...

  16. Requirements to be taken into account in the design, qualification startup and operation of electrical equipment for safety-related electrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to provide the rules to be respected in order that safety-related electrical systems can perform its function under plausible operating conditions

  17. The operation of French electric power and natural gas retail markets - Report 2014-2015. Report 2015 by the CRE on the operation of French electricity and natural gas markets - Press file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, Anne; Casadei, Cecile

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of some key figures illustrating the French electricity and natural gas markets (customers, number of providers, and so on), and an executive summary, this voluminous report proposes a presentation of CRE's missions regarding the survey and control of retail markets, and of the methodology adopted to survey retail markets, and a recall of the main steps of electricity market and natural gas market opening. Then, it its first chapter, the report proposes a detailed picture and analysis by the end of 2014 for the electricity retail market, for the natural gas retail market, and a discussion about key process follow-up and power cut-off for unpaid bills. The second chapter addresses supplies and prices. It analyses the levels and evolutions of electricity regulated tariffs, of regulated tariffs for gas sales, and of the various market supplies. The third chapter addresses issues related to competition and to the operation of the retail market: the end of sales regulated tariffs, general framework for the survey of providers' practices, provider price practices, analysis of commercial practices implemented by providers, evolutions of the competitive environment on the retail market. An appendix briefly addresses retail markets and regulated tariffs in Europe. A second report proposes a more synthetic presentation which is used as a press file, proposes an executive summary, and addresses the following issues: status of competition (key data for 2014 and 2015), the end of sales regulated tariffs for professionals as a major step of market opening to competition, favourable regulatory context and market price leading to an intensified competition on the residential market, the preferred market supplies for residential consumers, comparison between fixed price and regulated tariffs, an almost non-existent opening in the competition of local distribution utilities, and regulated tariffs in Europe

  18. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1. Docket No. 50-358. Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Information is presented concerning site characteristics; design criteria for structures, systems, and components; reactor; reactor coolant system and connected systems; engineered safety features; instrumentation and controls; electric power; auxiliary systems; conduct of operations; and TMI-2 requirements

  19. Prospective evaluation of stress myocardial perfusion imaging for pre-operative cardiac risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.J.; Rowe, C.C.; Flannery, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A prospective evaluation of patients who underwent stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) to assess preoperative cardiac risk was undertaken. At the time of the scan patients were classified into 4 Clinical Risk groups (CR) based on known clinical data. On completion of the scan, the patient was then categorised into 4 Scan based Risk groups (SR), incorporating size of perfusion deficit, single versus multi-vessel disease and ejection fraction. Surgery at Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre within 6 months of scan and complications were identified using the hospital medical database. Major early cardiac events coded were death (cardiac related), myocardial infarction, unstable angina, acute pulmonary oedema, cardiac arrest, and urgent revascularisation. 208 patients have reached 6 months post-MPI scan. Of these 119 (57%) were identified as having surgery. Of the Scan Risk groups, 63% of normal, 57% of increased, and 47% of high and very high groups have had surgery. An abnormal scan is associated with a three-fold risk of cardiac complication (3.5% vs 11.3%). This is lower than most previous reports and may be due to higher representation of low risk surgical procedures (14% in this series), improved peri-operative care and/or the test result influence on management (suggested by decreasing surgical rate as SR estimate rose). Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  20. Family support, family stress, and suicidal ideation in a combat-exposed sample of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Smith, Brian N; Vogt, Dawne

    2015-01-01

    Deployment-related risk factors for suicidal ideation among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans have received a great deal of attention. Studies show that mental health symptoms mediate the association between most deployment stressors and suicidal ideation; however, family-related factors during deployment are largely unexplored. We examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms as mediators of the associations between deployment family support and stress and post-deployment suicidal ideation in combat-exposed OEF/OIF veterans. National cross-sectional mail survey. 1046 veterans responded to the survey. The sample for this study was 978 veterans who experienced combat. Regression-based path analyses were conducted. Family support and stress had direct associations with suicidal ideation. When PTSD and depression symptoms were examined as mediators of these associations, results revealed significant indirect paths through these symptoms. This study contributes to the literature on suicidal ideation risk factors among OEF/OIF veterans. Deployment family support and family stress are associated with suicidal ideation; however these associations occur primarily through mental health symptomatology, consistent with findings observed for other deployment factors. This research supports ongoing efforts to treat mental health symptomatology as a means of suicide prevention.

  1. Numerical investigation of refrigeration machine compressor operation considering single-phase electric motor dynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidak, Y.; Smyk, V.

    2017-08-01

    Using as the base the differential equations system which was presented in relative units for generalized electric motor of hermetic refrigeration compressor, mathematical model of the software for dynamic performance calculation of refrigeration machine compressors drive low-power asynchronous motors was developed. Performed on its ground calculations of the basic model of two-phase electric motor drive of hermetic compressor and the proposed newly developed model of the motor with single-phase stator winding, which is an alternative to the industrial motor winding, have confirmed the benefits of the motor with innovative stator winding over the base engine. Given calculations of the dynamic characteristics of compressor drive motor have permitted to determine the value of electromagnetic torque swinging for coordinating compressor and motor mechanical characteristics, and for taking them into consideration in choosing compressor elements construction materials. Developed and used in the process of investigation of refrigeration compressor drive asynchronous single-phase motor mathematical and software can be considered as an element of computer-aided design system for design of the aggregate of refrigeration compression unit refrigerating machine.

  2. Energy Management and Control of Electric Vehicles, Using Hybrid Power Source in Regenerative Braking Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s battery powered electric vehicles still face many issues: (1 Ways of improving the regenerative braking energy; (2 how to maximally extend the driving-range of electric vehicles (EVs and prolong the service life of batteries; (3 how to satisfy the energy requirements of the EVs both in steady and dynamic state. The electrochemical double-layer capacitors, also called ultra-capacitors (UCs, have the merits of high energy density and instantaneous power output capability, and are usually combined with power battery packs to form a hybrid power supply system (HPSS. The power circuit topology of the HPSS has been illustrated in this paper. In the proposed HPSS, all the UCs are in series, which may cause an imbalanced voltage distribution of each unit, moreover, the energy allocation between the batteries and UCs should also be considered. An energy-management scheme to solve this problem has been presented. Moreover, due to the parameter variations caused by temperature changes and produced errors, the modelling procedure of the HPSS becomes very difficult, so an H∞ current controller is presented. The proposed hybrid power source circuit is implemented on a laboratory hardware setup using a digital signal processor (DSP. Simulation and experimental results have been put forward to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the approach.

  3. Instrumentation and control activities at the Electric Power Research Institute to support operator support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.

    1995-01-01

    Most nuclear power plants in the United States continue to operate with analog instrumentation and control (I and C) technology designed 20 to 40 years ago. This equipment is approaching or exceeding its life expectancy, resulting in increasing maintenance efforts to sustain system performance. Decreasing availability of replacement parts and the accelerating deterioration of the infrastructure of manufacturers that support analog technology exacerbate obsolescence problems and resultant operation and maintenance (O and M) cost increases. Modern digital technology holds a significant potential to improve the safety, cost-effectiveness, productivity, and, therefore, competitiveness of nuclear power plants. Operator support systems provide the tools to help achieve this potential. Reliable, integrated information is a critical element for protecting the utility's capital investment and increasing availability, reliability, and productivity. Integrated operator support systems with integrated information can perform more effectively to increase productivity, to enhance safety, and to reduce O and M costs. The plant communications and computing architecture is the infrastructure needed to allow the implementation of I and C systems and associated operator support systems in an integrated manner. Current technology for distributed digital systems, plant process computers, and plant communications and computing networks support the integration of systems and information. (author). 16 refs

  4. Characteristics of Superjunction Lateral-Double-Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor and Degradation after Electrical Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyh‑Ling; Lin, Ming‑Jang; Lin, Li‑Jheng

    2006-04-01

    The superjunction lateral double diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect has recently received considerable attention. Introducing heavily doped p-type strips to the n-type drift region increases the horizontal depletion capability. Consequently, the doping concentration of the drift region is higher and the conduction resistance is lower than those of conventional lateral-double-diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (LDMOSFETs). These characteristics may increase breakdown voltage (\\mathit{BV}) and reduce specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). In this study, we focus on the electrical characteristics of conventional LDMOSFETs on silicon bulk, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) LDMOSFETs and superjunction LDMOSFETs after bias stress. Additionally, the \\mathit{BV} and Ron,sp of superjunction LDMOSFETs with different N/P drift region widths and different dosages are discussed. Simulation tools, including two-dimensional (2-D) TSPREM-4/MEDICI and three-dimensional (3-D) DAVINCI, were employed to determine the device characteristics.

  5. Effect of rolling on the residual stresses and magnetic properties of a 0.5% Si electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.F. de; Sablik, M.J.; Landgraf, F.J.G.; Hirsch, T.K.; Machado, R.; Magnabosco, R.; Gutierrez, C.J.; Bandyopadhyay, A.

    2008-01-01

    Cold-rolled (0-19% of reduction) 0.5% Si electrical steel sheets were studied in detail, including macro and micro residual stress measurements, crystallographic texture, dc-hysteresis curves and iron losses. Even for the smallest deformation, losses increase significantly, with large increase of the hysteresis losses, whereas the anomalous losses reduce slightly. The residual microstresses are ∼150-350 MPa, whereas residual macrostresses are compressive, ∼50 MPa. The large increase of the hysteresis losses is attributed to the residual microstresses. The dislocation density estimated by X-ray diffraction is in reasonable agreement with that predicted from the Sablik et al. model for effect of plastic deformation on hysteresis. The intensity of the texture fibers {1 1 1} and //RD (RD=rolling direction) increases with the reduction

  6. Use of the RoboFlag synthetic task environment to investigate workload and stress responses in UAV operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guznov, Svyatoslav; Matthews, Gerald; Funke, Gregory; Dukes, Allen

    2011-09-01

    Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is an increasingly important element of military missions. However, controlling UAVs may impose high stress and workload on the operator. This study evaluated the use of the RoboFlag simulated environment as a means for profiling multiple dimensions of stress and workload response to a task requiring control of multiple vehicles (robots). It tested the effects of two workload manipulations, environmental uncertainty (i.e., UAV's visual view area) and maneuverability, in 64 participants. The findings confirmed that the task produced substantial workload and elevated distress. Dissociations between the stress and performance effects of the manipulations confirmed the utility of a multivariate approach to assessment. Contrary to expectations, distress and some aspects of workload were highest in the low-uncertainty condition, suggesting that overload of information may be an issue for UAV interface designers. The strengths and limitations of RoboFlag as a methodology for investigating stress and workload responses are discussed.

  7. A program to operate the TSI electrical aerosol analyser using an IBM-PC microcomputer - technical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, K.D.; Mitchell, J.P.; Snelling, K.W.

    1988-02-01

    A program has been written to enable the TSI Electrical Aerosol Analyser (EAA model 3030) to be operated using an IBM-PC microcomputer. Although much of the program is based on the software supplied by TSI Inc to collect and process data from the EAA, it incorporates numerous improvements including the option to operate the EAA automatically via a TSI Differential Mobility Particle Sizer interface. When compiled, the program enables the data reduction which takes into account the significant cross-channel sensitivity of the EAA, to be performed in about 30 seconds making it possible to use the EAA to monitor rapid changes in the behaviour of sub-micron aerosol particles. (author)

  8. Optimization and Model Validation of Operation Control Strategies for a Novel Dual-Motor Coupling-Propulsion Pure Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The strict operational condition of driving motors for vehicles propels the development of more complicated configurations in pure electric vehicles (PEVs. Multi-power-source powertrain configurations are one of the efficient technologies to reduce the manufacturing difficulty of driving motors. However, most of the existing studies are predominantly focused on optimal designs of powertrains and power distribution between the engine and motor of hybrid electric vehicles, which are not appropriate for PEVs. This paper proposes a novel dual-motor coupling-propulsion powertrain system that improves the dynamic and economic performance of the powertrain system in PEVs. The proposed powertrain system can realize both the single-motor driving mode and dual-motor coupling driving mode. The driving modes are divided and a power distribution strategy for the different driving modes based on an optimal system efficiency rule is employed, which enhances the performance of the proposed system. Further, a mode-switching strategy that ensures driving comfort by preventing jerk during mode switching is incorporated into the system. The results of comparative evaluations that were conducted using a dual-motor electric vehicle model implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, indicate that the mileage and dynamic performance of the proposed powertrain system are significantly better than those of the traditional single-motor powertrain system.

  9. Stable Operation and Electricity Generating Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Free Piston Engine Linear Generator: Simulation and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel design of a single-cylinder free piston engine linear generator (FPELG incorporating a linear motor as a rebound device. A systematic simulation model of this FPELG system was built containing a kinematic and dynamic model of the piston and mover, a magneto-electric model of the linear generator, a thermodynamic model of the single-cylinder engine, and a friction model between the piston ring and cylinder liner. Simulations were performed to understand the relationships between pre-set motor parameters and the running performance of the FPELG. From the simulation results, it was found that a motor rebound force with a parabolic profile had clear advantages over a force with a triangular profile, such as a higher running frequency and peak cylinder pressure, faster piston motion, etc. The rebound position and the amplitude of rebound force were also determined by simulations. The energy conversion characteristics of the generator were obtained from our FPELG test rig. The parameters of intake pressure, motor frequency, and load resistance were varied over certain ranges, and relationships among these three parameters were obtained. The electricity-generating characteristic parameters include output power and system efficiency, which can measure the quality of matching the controllable parameters. The output power can reach 25.9 W and the system efficiency can reach 13.7%. The results in terms of matching parameters and electricity-generating characteristics should be useful to future research in adapting these engines to various operating modes.

  10. Thermal and Electrical Characterization of a Semi-Transparent Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Module under Real Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cornaro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell technology is having an important role in renewable energy research due to its features and low-cost manufacturing processes. Devices based on this technology appear very well suited for integration into glazing systems due to their characteristics of transparency, color tuning and manufacturing directly on glass substrates. Field data of thermal and electrical characteristics of dye-sensitized solar modules (DSM are important since they can be used as input of building simulation models for the evaluation of their energy saving potential when integrated into buildings. However, still few studies in the literature provide this information. The study presented here aims to contribute to fill this lack providing a thermal and electrical characterization of a DSM in real operating conditions using a method developed in house. This method uses experimental data coming from test boxes exposed outdoor and dynamic simulation to provide thermal transmittance (U-value and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC of a DSM prototype. The device exhibits a U-value of 3.6 W/m2·K, confirmed by an additional measurement carried on in the lab using a heat flux meter, and a SHGC of 0.2, value compliant with literature results. Electrical characterization shows an increase of module power with respect to temperature resulting DSM being suitable for integration in building facades.

  11. Optimal operation strategy of battery energy storage system to real-time electricity price in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studies in the paper. Simulation results show, that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may have some motivations to install an energy storage system in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal operation strategy for a battery energy storage...

  12. High speed hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman, Imdad

    1983-06-07

    This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a breaker-opening piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A dashpotting mechanism operating separately from the hydraulic actuating system is provided, thereby reducing flow restriction interference with breaker opening.

  13. Electrical characterisation of p-doped distributed Bragg reflectors in electrically pumped GaInNAs VCSOAs for 1.3 {mu}m operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaqmaqchee, F.A.I. [University of Essex, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering Colchester, CO43SQ (United Kingdom); Mazzucato, S., E-mail: smazzu@essex.ac.uk [University of Essex, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering Colchester, CO43SQ (United Kingdom); Sun, Y.; Balkan, N. [University of Essex, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering Colchester, CO43SQ (United Kingdom); Tiras, E. [Anadolu University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Yunus Emre Campus 26470, Eskisehir (Turkey); Hugues, M.; Hopkinson, M. [University of Sheffield, Electronic and Electrical Engineering Department, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We electrically characterised two p-type doped DBRs for 1.3 {mu}m VCSOA applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Abrupt and graded structures were designed and investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Longitudinal and vertical transports were measured as function of temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low series resistivity achieved using the interface composition grading technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theoretical model confirmed the obtained results. - Abstract: The high resistivity that is encountered in p-type DBRs is an important problem in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers and optical amplifiers (VCSELs and VCSOAs). This is because the formation of potential barriers at the interfaces between layers of high and low refractive index inhibits the carrier flow, thus increasing the DBR series resistance. In this work, the electrical characteristics of two p-type doped DBR structures grown on undoped and p-type doped GaAs substrates have been investigated. The DBRs are designed for VCSOAs operating at 1.3 {mu}m and consist of 14-periods of alternating GaAs and Al{sub 0.9}Ga{sub 0.1}As in the first sample and 14-periods of GaAs and Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/Al{sub 0.9}Ga{sub 0.1}As in the second one. For the longitudinal transport sample, Hall mobility and sheet carrier density were measured in the temperature range from 77 to 300 K. In the vertical transport sample, current-voltage (I-V) measurements across the DBR layers were carried out at different temperatures in the range between 15 and 300 K. We achieved resistivity reduction in our samples by using an interface composition grading technique aimed at improving the VCSOA characteristics.

  14. 75 FR 19431 - Union Electric Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a Hearing The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the... staff must determine that the amendment request involves no significant hazards consideration. Under the...

  15. Assessment of operation reserves in hydrothermal electric systems with high wind generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Andres; Rivier, Michel; García-González, Javier; Latorre, Jesus M.; Morales Espana, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to analyze the amount of operation reserves procured in a system based on two stages. The first stage is a detailed hourly unit commitment and the second stage is a simulation model with a shorter time period. The method is applied to the Spanish hydrothermal

  16. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    After a month-by-month summary of operations and maintenance activities, data are presented concerning modifications, procedure changes, and man-rem radiation doses. Appendices include information on the main generator outage, leak rate testing, refueling outage, recirculation pump modifications, and instrument drift

  17. Design and operating experience with electric systems for high rate liquid argon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droege, T.F.; Hibbard, M.C.; Nelson, C.A. Jr.; Thompson, P.A.; Makdisi, Y.; Lipton, R.

    1979-01-01

    A number of experiments have been instrumented by an ADC scheme utilizing an integrated amplifier, a packaged delay line, the difference of two samples taken Before and After the signal exits the delay, and a multiplexer to a single ADC for a system. Design features, operating peculiarities, and experience to date are discussed

  18. Network effects in the operation of electrical equipment; Efectos de la red en la operacion del equipo electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia T, Arturo; Rosales S, Inocente; Garcia P, Job; Ruiz F, L. Ivan; Robles P, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In the nineties, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) Electrical Equipment Management (GEE) was restricted to make the diagnosis of generators, transformers, switch boards and cables, without considering the global operating conditions. With the experience acquired in different services it was verified that, inclusively when this equipment is correctly designed, it can be subjected to unfavorable operative conditions, which causes an accelerated deterioration to the degree of producing a fault. In agreement with this, the GEE settled down new line of development named Analysis of the network effect on the electrical equipment, that analyzes the behavior of the equipment originated by work abnormal causes, including the network configuration effect. [Spanish] En la decada de los noventa, la Gerencia de Equipos Electricos (GEE) del IIE se limitaba a realizar el diagnostico de generadores, transformadores, tableros de distribucion y cables, sin considerar las condiciones globales de operacion. Con la experiencia adquirida en diferentes servicios se comprobo que, inclusive cuando estos equipos esten correctamente disenados, pueden verse sometidos a condiciones de operacion desfavorables, lo que ocasiona un deterioro acelerado al grado de producir una falla. De acuerdo con esto, la GEE establecio una nueva linea de desarrollo de nominada Analisis del efecto de la red en los equipos electricos, que analiza el comportamiento de los equipos originado por causas anormales de trabajo, incluido el efecto de la configuracion de la red.

  19. Reliability through markets in Ontario : submission by the Independent Electricity Market Operator to the Minister of Energy's Consultation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    For the past five years, Ontario has invested $1 billion to restructure and open its electricity market to competition. In recent months, and in response to residential consumers pricing concerns, the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) transferred credits to local distribution companies allowing them to issue $75 rebates to all affected customers as of December 1, 2002, and to bill low-volume and other designated customers at a rate of 4.3 cents per kilowatt hour for the commodity portion of their bills. This report addresses the concern that price responsiveness will be lost for those parts of the market with fixed prices. It was noted that the reliability of the power system could be placed at risk if the range of customers with fixed prices is broadened. Fixed prices would also jeopardize the province's ability to attract new supply and enhance competition in the electricity sector. The IMO believes that price responsiveness in the wholesale market is crucial to the reliability of the electricity system and recommends that a plan for any additional fixed pricing should include a clearly defined phase-out over the period ending in 2006 as new supply comes on-line. The IMO emphasizes that the lack of price responsiveness to the market, particularly in peak energy demand periods, is equivalent to adding hundreds of MW to the load. The report presents lessons learned in other jurisdictions and highlights noteworthy considerations such as the market power mitigation agreement, improving competition, a phased-in approach, and demand side initiatives

  20. Direct participation of electrical loads in the California independent system operator markets during the Summer of 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Khavkin, Mark; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-01-01

    California's restructured electricity markets opened on 1 April 1998. The former investor-owned utilities were functionally divided into generation, transmission, and distribution activities, all of their gas-fired generating capacity was divested, and the retail market was opened to competition. To ensure that small customers shared in the expected benefit of lower prices, the enabling legislation mandated a 10% rate cut for all customers, which was implemented in a simplistic way that fossilized 1996 tariff structures. Rising fuel and environmental compliance costs, together with a reduced ability to import electricity, numerous plant outages, and exercise of market power by generators drove up wholesale electricity prices steeply in 2000, while retail tariffs remained unchanged. One of the distribution/supply companies entered bankruptcy in April 2001, and another was insolvent. During this period, two sets of interruptible load programs were in place, longstanding ones organized as special tariffs by the distribution/supply companies and hastily established ones run directly by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). The distribution/supply company programs were effective at reducing load during the summer of 2000, but because of the high frequency of outages required by a system on the brink of failure, customer response declined and many left the tariff. The CAISO programs failed to attract enough participation to make a significant difference to the California supply demand imbalance. The poor performance of direct load participation in California's markets reinforces the argument for accurate pricing of electricity as a stimulus to energy efficiency investment and as a constraint on market volatility

  1. Electrical system using phase-shifted carrier signals and related operating methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchko, Brian A; Campbell, Jeremy B

    2012-09-18

    An automotive drive system and methods for making the same are provided. The system includes a three-phase motor and an inverter module. The three-phase motor includes a first set of windings each having a first magnetic polarity; and a second set of windings each having a second magnetic polarity that is opposite the first magnetic polarity. The first set of windings being electrically isolated from the second set of windings. The inverter module includes a first set of phase legs and a second set of phase legs. Each one of the first set of phase legs is coupled to a corresponding phase of the first set of windings, and each one of the second set of phase legs is coupled to a corresponding phase of the second set of windings.

  2. Induction Machine with Improved Operating Performances for Electric Trucks. A FEM-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU, A.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study concerning the performance developed by induction motors destined for motorization of heavy electric vehicles such as trucks. Taking into consideration the imposed restrictions, one presents, in a comparative manner, the main geometrical parameters which come of the classical design algorithms. A special attention is dedicated to the winding design, since it has to ensure two synchronous speeds corresponding to 16 and 8 poles, respectively. Moreover, the influence of the rotor slots shape for the improvement of the start-up is analyzed. Finally, a FEM-based study (approach based on finite element method is performed to put in view specific torque and slip values such as rated, start-up and pull-out ones.

  3. Analysis of electrical energy consumers operation in the heating plant with proposal of energy savings measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of power quality measurements, obtained during an energy audit in the heating plant Vreoci in the Electric Power System of Serbia, are presented in the paper. Two steam boilers, rated at 120MW each, are installed in this heating plant, using coal as a fuel. The energy audit encompassed the measurements of the complete set of parameters needed to determine the thermal efficacy of boilers and the entire heating plant. Based on the measurement results, several technical measures for improving energy efficiency of the plant are proposed. The measures evaluated in the paper should contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel usage and CO2 emissions, thereby resulting in a significant impact in both financial and ecological areas.

  4. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) Electrical Power Systems Test Operations: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTA Electrical Power Systems Test Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  5. Overview of condition monitoring and operation control of electric power conversion systems in direct-drive wind turbines under faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shoudao; Wu, Xuan; Liu, Xiao; Gao, Jian; He, Yunze

    2017-09-01

    Electric power conversion system (EPCS), which consists of a generator and power converter, is one of the most important subsystems in a direct-drive wind turbine (DD-WT). However, this component accounts for the most failures (approximately 60% of the total number) in the entire DD-WT system according to statistical data. To improve the reliability of EPCSs and reduce the operation and maintenance cost of DD-WTs, numerous researchers have studied condition monitoring (CM) and fault diagnostics (FD). Numerous CM and FD techniques, which have respective advantages and disadvantages, have emerged. This paper provides an overview of the CM, FD, and operation control of EPCSs in DD-WTs under faults. After introducing the functional principle and structure of EPCS, this survey discusses the common failures in wind generators and power converters; briefly reviewed CM and FD methods and operation control of these generators and power converters under faults; and discussed the grid voltage faults related to EPCSs in DD-WTs. These theories and their related technical concepts are systematically discussed. Finally, predicted development trends are presented. The paper provides a valuable reference for developing service quality evaluation methods and fault operation control systems to achieve high-performance and high-intelligence DD-WTs.

  6. Uniaxial stress influence on electrical conductivity of thin epitaxial lanthanum-strontium manganite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankevič, V., E-mail: wstan@pfi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A.Gostauto 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Šimkevičius, Č.; Balevičius, S.; Žurauskienė, N. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A.Gostauto 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Cimmperman, P. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A.Gostauto 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Abrutis, A. [Vilnius University, Dept. of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Naugarduko 24, Vilnius (Lithuania); Plaušinaitienė, V. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A.Gostauto 11, Vilnius (Lithuania); Vilnius University, Dept. of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Naugarduko 24, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-07-01

    This is a study of the influence of external uniaxial mechanical strains on the transport properties of thin epitaxial La{sub 0.83}Sr{sub 0.17}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) films. Our measurements were carried out using standard isosceles triangle-shaped cantilever. Films which were tensed in-plane or compressed or were subjected to both tension and compression strains were grown onto SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) and (001) NdGaO{sub 3} (NGO) substrates, respectively. It was found that for thin films (less than 100 nm), the uniaxial compression of such films which were initially tensed in-plane (grown onto STO substrates) produces a decrease of their resistance, whereas the compression of initially compressed films (on LAO substrates) produces an increase of the films' resistance. The same results were obtained for LSMO films grown onto (001) NGO substrates when they were compressed along the [010] and [100] directions, respectively. For thicker films (more than 100 nm), the resistance behavior after uniaxial compression was found to be identical to that produced by hydrostatic compression, namely, the resistance decreases irrespective of the substrate. These experiments also reveal an increase of resistance and a shift of metal–insulator transition temperature T{sub m} to lower temperatures corresponding to a decrease of the film thickness. The occurrence of this effect is also independent of the kind of substrate used. Thus it was concluded that the influence of film thickness on its resistance as well as on the behavior of such films while under external uniaxial compression cannot be explained fully by only the presence of residual stress in these films. A possible reason is that the inhomogeneous distribution of the mechanical stresses in the films can lead to the appearance of two conductivity phases, each having a different mechanism. The results which were obtained when these films were subjected to hydrostatic compression were also explained by this

  7. Combining hydro-generation and wind energy. Biddings and operation on electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarita, Jorge Marquez; Usaola, Julio Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Wind generation is growing rapidly in all the world, especially in Europe. The power produced by this kind of generation is difficult to predict and the predictions are not very accurate. In most systems these imbalances are costly. These penalties reduce the revenue for the wind generation company (WGENCOs). An option to solve this problem would be to work together with another agent. In this paper, a combined strategy for bidding and operating in a power exchange is presented. It considers the combination of a WGENCO and a hydro-generation company (HGENCO). The mathematical formulation for the optimal bids and for the optimal operation is presented, as well as results from realistic cases. (author)

  8. Stress and Psychological Support in Modern Military Operations: A Military Leader's Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cammaert, P. C

    2006-01-01

    ... to provide psychological support to deployed troops. Key factors in Stress Management are realistic training, fostering unit cohesion in arduous environments, communicating and providing time outs...

  9. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Markku Järvelä; Seppo Valkealahti

    2017-01-01

    There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV) generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive fee...

  10. Results from operation and research of the experimental wind farm of the Dutch electricity generating board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, P.; Hutting, H.K.; Mortier, M.; Cleijne, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This combined paper consists of four parts. The order of the above authors corresponds to the order of the parts. The first part deals with the operational experience of the farm. It reports an average capacity factor of 24% and an availability of 90%. The second part reports measured power losses due to wake effects, while the third part shows wind velocity deficits and turbulence characteristics within a wake. In the last part the application of a wind farm controller is demonstrated. (au)

  11. Possible fire hazard caused by mismatching electrical chargers with the incorrect device within the operating room.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, Martin

    2012-02-03

    It has come to our attention that numerous devices that need charging adaptors during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have similar charging sockets but different voltage requirements. This has caused one of our devices in the operating theater to overheat and completely shut down when connected to an incorrect higher-voltage charger. The possibility of fire, device destruction, or patient harm in such circumstances is of serious concern.

  12. Effects of electric field and Coriolis force on electrohydrodynamic stability of poorly conducting couple stress parallel fluid flow in a channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, B.M.; Rudraiah, N.

    2013-01-01

    The effective functioning of microfluidic devices in chemical, electrical and mechanical engineering involving fluidics particularly those having vibrations and petroleum products containing organic, inorganic and other microfluidics require understanding and control of stability of poorly conducting parallel fluid flows. The electrical conductivity, σ, of a poorly conducting fluidics, increases with the temperature and the concentration of freely suspended particles like RBC, WBC and so on in the blood, the hylauronic acid (HA) and nutrients of synovial fluid in synovial joints will spin producing microrotation, forming micropolar fluid of Eringen. The presence of Deuterium - Tritium (DT) in inertial fusion target (IFT) may also be modeled using micropolar fluid theory of Eringen. A particular case of micropolar fluid theory when microrotation balances with the natural vorticity of a poorly conducting fluidics in the presence of an electric field is called ‘electrohydrodynamic couple stress fluid’ (EHDCF). These EHDCFs exhibit a variation of electrical conductivity, ∇ σ, increasing with temperature and concentration of freely suspended particles, releases the charges from the nuclei forming distribution of charge density, ρ e . These charges induce an electric field, 1 E i . If need be, we can apply an electric field, 1 E a , by embedding electrodes of different potentials at the boundaries. The total electric field, 1 E = 1 E i + 1 E a , produces a current density, 1 J = ρ σ 1 E, according to Ohm’s law and also produces an electric force, 1 F σ = σ 1 E. This current 1 J acts as sensing and the force, 1 F σ acts as actuation. These two properties make the poorly conducting couple stress fluid to act as a smart material. The objective of this paper is to show that EHDCV in presence of coriolis force plays a significant role in controlling the stability of parallel flows which is essential for an effective functioning of machineries that occur in

  13. Legal aspects of electric power supply. Grid operator obligations between entrepreneurial responsibility and state control; Das Recht der Elektrizitaetsversorgungsnetze. Netzbetreiberpflichten zwischen unternehmerischer Eigenverantwortung und staatlicher Steuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maetzig, Karoline

    2012-07-01

    The publication provides a systematic outline of the legal boundary conditions governing the operation of electric power supply grids. It goes beyond mere regulatory aspects, covering also the projecting and construction of grids, the acquisition or leasing of land for power transmission line construction, operating licenses and utility certification, the organisational structure and purpose of electric utilities, as well as the operating, servicing and enhancement of electricity grids including calculation of electricity rates. In addition to this systematic outline of legal aspects, it is investigated how the balance between entrepreneurial responsibility and state control was defined in the EnWG 2011, and it is discussed if the law provides sufficient room for entrepreneurial decisions.

  14. Influence of Preparatory Workshops on Dental Students' Academic Performance and Stress on Their First Operative Dentistry Psychomotor Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbone, Deborah A; Feng, Xiaoying; Su, Yu; Xirau-Probert, Patricia; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Nascimento, Marcelle M

    2018-06-01

    Predoctoral dental psychomotor examinations are known to generate high levels of stress among dental students, which may compromise their academic performance. At one U.S. dental school, all 93 first-year dental students were invited to attend a series of three workshop sessions prior to enrollment in their initial operative dentistry course. The workshops were developed to facilitate academic transition from the dental anatomy course to the operative dentistry course; provide early exposure to materials, instruments, and laboratory techniques; support the early development of psychomotor and self-assessment skills; and lessen students' stress and anxiety levels regarding psychomotor examinations. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the workshops on the students' academic performance and self-reported stress and preparedness. All students who attended the workshop sessions and all who did not were asked to complete a pre-exam survey (immediately preceding the exam) and a post-exam survey (immediately after the exam) on the day of their first operative dentistry psychomotor exam. Of the 93 students, 21 attended one, 34 attended two, and 25 attended three workshop sessions, while 13 students did not attend any. Response rates for the pre- and post-exam surveys were 100% and 98.9%, respectively. Students who attended all three workshop sessions reported being significantly less stressed about taking the exam than the other groups. The mean exam grade of students who attended the workshop sessions was significantly higher than that of students who did not attend the sessions. These findings support the development and implementation of preparatory workshops to improve academic performance and decrease the stress levels of dental students prior to the first operative dentistry psychomotor exam.

  15. Costs and Operating Dynamics of Integrating Distributed Energy Resources in Commercial and Industrial Buildings with Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Robert Joseph

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions have increased the pressure to shift energy conversion paradigms from current forms to more sustainable methods, such as through the use of distributed energy resources (DER) at industrial and commercial buildings. This dissertation is concerned with the optimal design and dispatch of a DER system installed at an industrial or commercial building. An optimization model that accurately captures typical utility costs and the physical constraints of a combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is designed to size and operate a DER system at a building. The optimization model is then used with cooperative game theory to evaluate the financial performance of a CCHP investment. The CCHP model is then modified to include energy storage, solar powered generators, alternative fuel sources, carbon emission limits, and building interactions with public and fleet PEVs. Then, a separate plugin electric vehicle (PEV) refueling model is developed to determine the cost to operate a public Level 3 fast charging station. The CCHP design and dispatch results show the size of the building load and consistency of the thermal loads are critical to positive financial performance. While using the CCHP system to produce cooling can provide savings, heat production drives positive financial performance. When designing the DER system to reduce carbon emissions, the use of renewable fuels can allow for a gas turbine system with heat recovery to reduce carbon emissions for a large university by 67%. Further reductions require large photovoltaic installations coupled with energy storage or the ability to export electricity back to the grid if costs are to remain relatively low. When considering Level 3 fast charging equipment, demand charges at low PEV travel levels are sufficiently high to discourage adoption. Integration of the equipment can reduce demand charge costs only if the building maximum demand does not coincide

  16. Effect of indium low doping in ZnO based TFTs on electrical parameters and bias stress stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheremisin, Alexander B., E-mail: acher612@gmail.com; Kuznetsov, Sergey N.; Stefanovich, Genrikh B. [Physico-Technical Department, Petrozavodsk State University, Petrozavodsk 185910 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Some applications of thin film transistors (TFTs) need the bottom-gate architecture and unpassivated channel backside. We propose a simple routine to fabricate indium doped ZnO-based TFT with satisfactory characteristics and acceptable stability against a bias stress in ambient room air. To this end, a channel layer of 15 nm in thickness was deposited on cold substrate by DC reactive magnetron co-sputtering of metal Zn-In target. It is demonstrated that the increase of In concentration in ZnO matrix up to 5% leads to negative threshold voltage (V{sub T}) shift and an increase of field effect mobility (μ) and a decrease of subthreshold swing (SS). When dopant concentration reaches the upper level of 5% the best TFT parameters are achieved such as V{sub T} = 3.6 V, μ = 15.2 cm{sup 2}/V s, SS = 0.5 V/dec. The TFTs operate in enhancement mode exhibiting high turn on/turn off current ratio more than 10{sup 6}. It is shown that the oxidative post-fabrication annealing at 250{sup o}C in pure oxygen and next ageing in dry air for several hours provide highly stable operational characteristics under negative and positive bias stresses despite open channel backside. A possible cause of this effect is discussed.

  17. Identification of Conflicts between Transmission and Distribution System Operators when Acquiring Ancillary Services from Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    ancillary services from flexible units. The investigation is carried out considering a 3-area power system which allows to take into account local constraints as well as system-wide needs. As outcome, this paper identifies the conflicts from both a theoretical and a practical point of view, by means...... products according to requests coming from both distribution and transmission system operators. The goal of this paper is to provide an identification procedure that is able to detect, identify and catalogue possible conflicts among the involved stakeholders that take place when requesting and/or acquiring...

  18. Specifics of energy-saving technologies in electrical power supply systems of operating industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Кирисов, Игорь Геннадиевич; Овчаренко, Татьяна Ивановна

    2014-01-01

    В статье рассмотрены особенности разных энергосберегающих технологий, которые можно применить в системах электроснабжения промышленных предприятий. Проведены расчеты, подтверждающие целесообразность замены недозагруженных асинхронных двигателей на двигатели меньшей мощности. The paper deals with the speci cs of different energy-saving technologies that can be applied in electrical power supply systems of industrial enterprises. The paper presents calculations that corroborate ...

  19. Development of the apparatus for measuring magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets in arbitrary directions under compressive stress normal to their surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Maeda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In designing motors, one must grasp the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets considering actual conditions in motors. Especially important is grasping the stress dependence of magnetic power loss. This paper describes a newly developed apparatus to measure two-dimensional (2-D magnetic properties (properties under the arbitrary alternating and the rotating flux conditions of electrical steel sheets under compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. The apparatus has a 2-D magnetic excitation circuit to generate magnetic fields in arbitrary directions in the evaluation area. It also has a pressing unit to apply compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. During measurement, it is important to apply uniform stress throughout the evaluation area. Therefore, we have developed a new flux density sensor using needle probe method. It is composed of thin copper foils sputtered on electrical steel sheets. By using this sensor, the stress can be applied to the surface of the specimen without influence of this sensor. This paper described the details of newly developed apparatus with this sensor, and measurement results of iron loss by using are shown.

  20. Development of the apparatus for measuring magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets in arbitrary directions under compressive stress normal to their surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yoshitaka; Urata, Shinya; Nakai, Hideo; Takeuchi, Yuuya; Yun, Kyyoul; Yanase, Shunji; Okazaki, Yasuo

    2017-05-01

    In designing motors, one must grasp the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets considering actual conditions in motors. Especially important is grasping the stress dependence of magnetic power loss. This paper describes a newly developed apparatus to measure two-dimensional (2-D) magnetic properties (properties under the arbitrary alternating and the rotating flux conditions) of electrical steel sheets under compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. The apparatus has a 2-D magnetic excitation circuit to generate magnetic fields in arbitrary directions in the evaluation area. It also has a pressing unit to apply compressive stress normal to the sheet surface. During measurement, it is important to apply uniform stress throughout the evaluation area. Therefore, we have developed a new flux density sensor using needle probe method. It is composed of thin copper foils sputtered on electrical steel sheets. By using this sensor, the stress can be applied to the surface of the specimen without influence of this sensor. This paper described the details of newly developed apparatus with this sensor, and measurement results of iron loss by using are shown.

  1. Hybrid electrical generation system utilizing wind, diesel and hydropower for operation of an underground zinc mine in southern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridley, Norman [Minera El Toqui (Chile); Banto, Marcelo [Seawind Chile (Chile)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid electrical generation system used for underground zinc mine operations that utilizes wind, diesel and hydropower. This mine is located in Coyhaique and had a total energy consumption of 32,567 MWh in 2010 which is anticipated to increase by 25% in 2011. Power generation in this mine is independent of the power grid. It consists of four main portals: ventilation, electrical and drainage systems and ramp access to all mining zones. The technical details for all the parts of the mine and the hybrid generation system are given. A tabular form shows the energy consumed every month from 2005-2010 for all three systems involved, namely wind power generation, diesel generation and the hydro generation system. Benefits of this hybrid system include stability and constant power generation under variable loads. This system can also be applied to other mines using a grid. From the study it can be concluded that the hybrid system is environmentally friendly, economical and sustainable.

  2. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document supplement 25 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Unit 2 (NUREG-0797), has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 21, 22, 23, and 24 to that report were published. This supplement deals primarily with Unit 2 issues; however, it also references evaluations for several Unit 1 licensing items resolved since Supplement 24 was issued

  3. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-446)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Supplement 26 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES), Unit 2, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The facility is located in Somervell County, Texas, approximately 40 miles southwest of Fort Worth, Texas. This supplement reports the status of certain issues that had not been resolved when the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplements 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25 to that report were published. This supplement deals primarily with Unit 2 issues; however, it also references evaluations for several licensing issues that relate to Unit 1, which have been resolved since Supplement 25 was issued

  4. Failures by stress corrosion of electrical heating accessories, instrument leads and thermoelements of chromium nickel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement and control devices are being increasingly used for process control, monitoring and the safety of chemical plants. Pressure, temperature, through-put, moisture, composition and the like are continuously measured at many positions of the system. The supervision of the measuring equipment and hence the necessary exchanging ability of the devices during operation means good access to the plant. An extensive system of pipelines between the measuring equipment and the product lines to be supervised is the result. Common austenite 18 10 CrNi steel pipes of 12 mm diameter and 1 mm wall thickness are used for assembling and corrosion reasons in these pulse instrument leads. The failure of several instrument leads in a large scale plant at the beginning of the frost period interfers with the control. It was therefore necessary to find the exact cause; this is described in the present work. (orig.) [de

  5. A case study employing operant conditioning to reduce stress of capture for red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Yvonne; Amory, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Traditional techniques used to capture New World monkeys, such as net capture, can induce high levels of acute stress detrimental to welfare. Alternatively, training nonhuman animals via operant conditioning to voluntarily participate in husbandry and/or veterinary practices is accepted as a humane process that can reduce stress and improve welfare. This study details the use of operant conditioning using positive reinforcement training (PRT) and target training to train a family of 5 captive red-bellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus) in a wildlife park to voluntarily enter a transportation box and remain calm for 1 min after 54 training sessions. Observations of 2 unrelated net-capture processes provided measures of locomotion and vocalizations as indicators of stress behavior that were compared with those of the trained tamarins. Net-captured monkeys exhibited rapid erratic locomotion and emitted long, high-frequency vocalizations during capture whereas the trained tamarins exhibited minimal locomotion and emitted only 4 brief vocalizations (root mean square 35 dB) during capture. This indicates that the use of PRT considerably reduced potential for stress and improved welfare during the capture and containment of the tamarins. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness of neurofeedback in the reduction of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in a patient following high-voltage electric shock with the use of ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chrapusta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of our research was an evaluation of the effectiveness of neurofeedback in reducing the symptoms of Post-trauma stress disorder (PTSD, which had developed as a result of a high-voltage electric burn to the head. Quantitative EEG (QEEG and Event related potentials (ERPs were utilised in the evaluation. Case study. A 21-year-old patient, experienced 4[sup]th[/sup] degree burns to his head as a result of a high-voltage electric burn. The patient was repeatedly operated on and despite the severity of the injuries was to recover. However the patient complained of flashbacks, difficulties with sleeping as well as an inability to continue work in his given profession. Specialist tests were to show the presence within him of PTSD. As a result of which the patient was provided with neurofeedback therapy. The effectiveness of this therapy in the reduction (eradication of the symptoms of PTSD were evaluated through the utilisation of qantitative eeg (Qeeg and event related potentials (ERPs. Results. It was found that in the first examination that ERPs display the most significant deviations from the reference in the two components: (1 the one component is generated within the cingulate cortex. The pattern of its deviation from the norms is similar to that found in a group of OCD patients. In contrast to healthy subjects the component repeats itself twice; (2 the second component is generated in the medial prefrontal cortex. Its pattern (neuromarker is similar to that found in PTSD patients. There is a delay in the late part of the component, which probably reflects the flashbacks. In the second examination, after neurofeedback training, the ERPs were similar to the norm. The patient returned to work. Conclusions. Chronic PTSD developed within the patient as a result of a high-voltage electric burn. The application of a method of therapy (neurofeedback resulted in the withdrawal of the syndrome symptoms. ERPs in a GO/NOGO task can be

  7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of neurofeedback in the reduction of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a patient following high-voltage electric shock with the use of ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapusta, Anna; Pąchalska, Maria; Wilk-Frańczuk, Magdalena; Starczyńska, Małgorzata; Kropotov, Juri D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our research was an evaluation of the effectiveness of neurofeedback in reducing the symptoms of Post-trauma stress disorder (PTSD), which had developed as a result of a high-voltage electric burn to the head. Quantitative EEG (QEEG) and Event related potentials (ERPs) were utilised in the evaluation. A 21-year-old patient, experienced 4(th) degree burns to his head as a result of a high-voltage electric burn. The patient was repeatedly operated on and despite the severity of the injuries was to recover. However the patient complained of flashbacks, difficulties with sleeping as well as an inability to continue work in his given profession. Specialist tests were to show the presence within him of PTSD. As a result of which the patient was provided with neurofeedback therapy. The effectiveness of this therapy in the reduction (eradication) of the symptoms of PTSD were evaluated through the utilisation of qantitative eeg (Qeeg) and event related potentials (ERPs). It was found that in the first examination that ERPs display the most significant deviations from the reference in the two components: (1) the one component is generated within the cingulate cortex. The pattern of its deviation from the norms is similar to that found in a group of OCD patients. In contrast to healthy subjects the component repeats itself twice; (2) the second component is generated in the medial prefrontal cortex. Its pattern (neuromarker) is similar to that found in PTSD patients. There is a delay in the late part of the component, which probably reflects the flashbacks. In the second examination, after neurofeedback training, the ERPs were similar to the norm. The patient returned to work. Chronic PTSD developed within the patient as a result of a high-voltage electric burn. The application of a method of therapy (neurofeedback) resulted in the withdrawal of the syndrome symptoms. ERPs in a GO/NOGO task can be used to plan neurofeedback and in the assessment of functional brain

  8. Ecological effects of nuclear steam electric station operations on estuarine systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihursky, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of studies of the impact of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant on the aquatic biota of Chesapeake Bay. Physical findings show that the typical radial extent of influence of the discharge on the physical and chemical environment of the Bay is rather limited (< 2 km). This suggestion is bolstered by findings of phytoplankton and zooplankton studies: when effects were noted at all, they only appeared at sampling stations nearest (within 2 km of) the discharge. Also, direct entrainment effects on these groups were either small (in the case of phytoplankton) or species-specific (in the case of zooplankton). Benthos showed mixed responses to plant operations - the populations of some species were enhanced, one species was adversely affected, and others were unaffected. The major plant effect on the benthos was due to habitat resource enrichment, and the consequence was higher standing stocks (e.g., more food for fish) in the affected area. Direct plant effects on finfish are dominated by impingement. Mortality as a result of impingement, for many species, tends to be moderate to slight. Effects as a result of entrainment of eggs and larvae are limited because the Calvert Cliffs area is not a major spawning location for any species. In sum, the Calvert Cliffs plant appears to have a limited effect on the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. 180 references, 6 figures, 18 tables

  9. Operant conditioning of rat navigation using electrical stimulation for directional cues and rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Maan-Gee; Jun, Gayoung; Choi, Hyo-Soon; Jang, Hwan Soo; Bae, Yong Chul; Suk, Kyoungho; Jang, Il-Sung; Choi, Byung-Ju

    2010-07-01

    Operant conditioning is often used to train a desired behavior in an animal. The contingency between a specific behavior and a reward is required for successful training. Here, we compared the effectiveness of two different mazes for training turning behaviors in response to directional cues in Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty-three rats were implanted with electrodes into the medial forebrain bundle and the left and right somatosensory cortices for reward and cues. Among them, thirteen rats discriminated between the left and right somatosensory stimulations to obtain rewards. They were trained to learn ipsilateral turning response to the stimulation of the left or right somatosensory cortex in either the T-maze (Group T) or the E| maze (Group W). Performance was measured by the navigation speed in the mazes. Performances of rats in Group T were enhanced faster than those in Group W. A significant correlation between performances during training and performance in final testing was observed in Group T starting with the fifth training session while such a correlation was not observed in Group W until the tenth training session. The training mazes did not however affect the performances in the final test. These results suggest that a simple maze is better than a complicated maze for training animals to learn directions and direct cortical stimulation can be used as a cue for direction training. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Operation planning of electrical power systems; Planeacion de operacion de sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The development of a software that has facilitated and improved considerably the planning tasks, besides diminishing the production costs is presented. The software denominated Hydrothermal Coordination (HTC)(Coordinacion Hidrotermica (CHT)), was developed in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), with this software the plan of short term operation of the generating units is determined. The software analyzes mathematically a great number of options regarding to the allocation of generation units and selects very close solutions, in cost, to the optimal one. It constitutes in addition an information system that stores the relevant data of each unit, useful for decision making. [Spanish] Se presenta el desarrollo de un software que ha facilitado y mejorado considerablemente las tareas de planeacion, ademas de disminuir los costos de produccion. El paquete denominado Coordinacion Hidrotermica (CHT), fue desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE); con el se determina el plan de operacion a corto plazo de las unidades generadoras. El paquete analiza matematicamente un gran numero de opciones en lo que se refiere a la asignacion de unidades de generacion y selecciona soluciones muy cercanas, en costo, a la optima. Constituye ademas un sistema de informacion que almacena los datos relevantes de cada unidad, utiles para la toma de decisiones.

  11. Safety Evaluation Report related to the renewal of the operating license for the General Electric-Nuclear Test Reactor (GE-NTR) (Docket No. 50-73)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the General Electric Company (GE) for a renewal license number R-33 to continue to operate its research reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by GE and is located in Pleasanton, California. The staff concludes that the reactor can continue to be operated by GE without endangering the health and safety of the public

  12. Electric- and magnetic-dipole contributions to a theory of radiation reaction field and atom self-energy: An operator reaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A.S.F.; Mahran, M.H.

    1982-08-01

    The consequences of including magnetic-dipole contributions, besides the electric-dipole, are considered in the operators for the radiation field. The Bloch equations which describe the two-level atom operators are modified. These equations together with the field operators are discussed, and the contributions are manifested. The spectrum for spontaneous emission and a generalized dynamical Stark effect are obtained. Rabi frequency is modified. (author)

  13. Stress-related psycho-physiological disorders: randomized single blind placebo controlled naturalistic study of psychometric evaluation using a radio electric asymmetric treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a radio electric asymmetric treatment on psycho-physiological disorders (PPD). PPD are often stress related and are under the unconscious control of the patient and cannot be traced back to any serious physical disease. The brain stimulation treatment protocol used is called Neuro Psycho Physical Optimization (NPPO) with a Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC) device. Methods Psychological stress and PPD were measured for a group of 888 subjects using the Psychological Stress Measure (PSM) test, a self-administered questionnaire. Data were collected immediately before and after the 4-weeks of REAC treatment cycle. Results This study showed a significant reduction in scores measuring subjective perceptions of stress for subjects treated with a cycle of NPPO REAC treatment. At the end-point the number of subjects reporting symptoms of stress-related PPD on the PSM test was significantly reduced, whereas in the placebo group the difference was not significant. Conclusion A cycle of NPPO treatment with REAC was shown to reduce subjective perceptions of stress measured by the PSM test and in particular on PPD. Trial Registration This trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) with the number: ACTRN12607000463471. PMID:21771304

  14. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  15. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  16. Single-blind, randomized, controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no active treatment in the management of stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Castro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no active treatment in women with urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred eighteen subjects were randomly selected to recieve pelvic floor exercises (n=31, ES (n=30, vaginal cones (n=27, or no treatment (untreated control (n=30. Women were evaluated before and after completion of six months of treatment by the pad test, quality of life questionnaire (I-QOL, urodynamic test, voiding diary, and subjective response. RESULTS: In the objective evaluation, we observed a statistically significant reduction in the pad test (p=0.003, in the number of stress urinary episodes (p<0.001, and a significant improvement in the quality of life (p<0.001 in subjects who used pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, and vaginal cones compared to the control group. No significant difference was found between groups in the urodynamic parameters. In the subjective evaluation, 58%, 55%, and 54% of women who had used pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, and vaginal cones, respectively, reported being satisfied after treatment. In the control group, only 21% patients were satisfied with the treatment. CONCLUSION: Based on this study, pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, and vaginal cones are equally effective treatments and are far superior to no treatment in women with urodynamic stress urinary incontinence.

  17. Proposal for Managing Eco-efficient Operations Plant Dedicated to Waste Handling at Costa Rican Institute of Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Chinchilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different eco-efficient specifications were established considered by Ingeniería y Construcciónor IC (Engineering and Construction, a business of the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE, in Spanish, at the time of developing an operational plant devoted to the handling of waste, in order to make rational use of resources and generate the lowest environmental impact. Initially a general diagnosis was conducted to learn about the current process of waste management in IC, as well as the identification and assessment of its aspects and environmental impacts. An ecoefficiency proposal program was subsequently prepared to be implemented once the ordinary, special and hazardous waste plant is operating. As part of this investigation, eco-efficient measures and technologies were also identified; this can be adopted by IC or any organization to improve its waste management. Finally, it is necessary that the Eco-efficient Management Program (PGE, in Spanish is organized, planned and systematized over time; in addition, the need to have an Ecoefficiency Management Committee arises, which will allow to implement it and measure it through a series of indicators.

  18. Evaluation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Starter Generator in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations of the motor were investigated with respect to the operating parameters, particularly the rotation speed and environment temperature. At a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 4500 rpm, the coil of the motor was heated to approximately 189 °C in generating mode. The harsh conditions of the starting mode were analyzed by assuming that the motor operates during the start-up time at a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 800 rpm; the coil was heated to approximately 200 °C, which is close to the insulation temperature limit. The model for analyzing the thermal performance of the ISG was verified by comparing its results with those obtained through a generating-mode-based experiment

  19. Direct electrical stimulation using a battery-operated device for induction and modulation of colonic contractions in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschi, Mattia; Schlageter, Vincent; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Aellen, Steve; Peloponissios, Nicolas; D'Ambrogio, Aris; Wiesel, Paul Herman; Givel, Jean-Claude; Kucera, Pavel; Virag, Nathalie

    2010-07-01

    Direct electrical stimulation of the colon offers a promising approach for the induction of propulsive colonic contractions by using an implantable device. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility to induce colonic contractions using a commercially available battery-operated stimulator (maximum pulse width of 1 ms and maximum amplitude of 10 V). Three pairs of pacing electrodes were inserted into the cecal seromuscular layer of anesthetized pigs. During a first set of in vivo experiments conducted on six animals, a pacing protocol leading to cecum contractions was determined: stimulation bursts with 1 ms pulse width, 10 V amplitude (7-15 mA), 120 Hz frequency, and 30-s burst duration, repeated every 2-5 min. In a second testing phase, an evaluation of the pacing protocol was performed in four animals (120 stimulation bursts in total). By using the battery-operated stimulator, contractions of the cecum and movement of contents could be induced in 92% of all stimulations. A cecal shortening of about 30% and an average intraluminal pressure increase of 10.0 +/- 6.0 mmHg were observed.

  20. Using genetic algorithms to determine near-optimal pricing, investment and operating strategies in the electric power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongjun

    Network industries have technologies characterized by a spatial hierarchy, the "network," with capital-intensive interconnections and time-dependent, capacity-limited flows of products and services through the network to customers. This dissertation studies service pricing, investment and business operating strategies for the electric power network. First-best solutions for a variety of pricing and investment problems have been studied. The evaluation of genetic algorithms (GA, which are methods based on the idea of natural evolution) as a primary means of solving complicated network problems, both w.r.t. pricing: as well as w.r.t. investment and other operating decisions, has been conducted. New constraint-handling techniques in GAs have been studied and tested. The actual application of such constraint-handling techniques in solving practical non-linear optimization problems has been tested on several complex network design problems with encouraging initial results. Genetic algorithms provide solutions that are feasible and close to optimal when the optimal solution is know; in some instances, the near-optimal solutions for small problems by the proposed GA approach can only be tested by pushing the limits of currently available non-linear optimization software. The performance is far better than several commercially available GA programs, which are generally inadequate in solving any of the problems studied in this dissertation, primarily because of their poor handling of constraints. Genetic algorithms, if carefully designed, seem very promising in solving difficult problems which are intractable by traditional analytic methods.

  1. Power system operation risk analysis considering charging load self-management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhe; Wang, Dan; Jia, Hongjie; Djilali, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The interactive mechanism between system and PHEVs is presented. • The charging load self-management without sacrificing user requirements is proposed. • The charging load self-management is coupled to system operation risk analysis. • The charging load self-management can reduce the extra risk brought by PHEVs. • The charging load self-management can shift charging power to the time with low risk. - Abstract: Many jurisdictions around the world are supporting the adoption of electric vehicles through incentives and the deployment of a charging infrastructure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), with offer mature technology and stable performance, are expected to gain an increasingly larger share of the consumer market. The aggregated effect on power grid due to large-scale penetration of PHEVs needs to be analyzed. Nighttime-charging which typically characterizes PHEVs is helpful in filling the nocturnal load valley, but random charging of large PHEV fleets at night may result in new load peaks and valleys. Active response strategy is a potentially effective solution to mitigate the additional risks brought by the integration of PHEVs. This paper proposes a power system operation risk analysis framework in which charging load self-management is used to control system operation risk. We describe an interactive mechanism between the system and PHEVs in conjunction with a smart charging model is to simulate the time series power consumption of PHEVs. The charging load is managed with adjusting the state transition boundaries and without violating the users’ desired charging constraints. The load curtailment caused by voltage or power flow violation after outages is determined by controlling charging power. At the same time, the system risk is maintained under an acceptable level through charging load self-management. The proposed method is implemented using the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) and

  2. Apparent stress-strain relationships in experimental equipment where magnetorheological fluids operate under compression mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazlan, S A; Ekreem, N B; Olabi, A G

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of two different magnetorheological (MR) fluids, namely, water-based and hydrocarbon-based MR fluids in compression mode under various applied currents. Finite element method magnetics was used to predict the magnetic field distribution inside the MR fluids generated by a coil. A test rig was constructed where the MR fluid was sandwiched between two flat surfaces. During the compression, the upper surface was moved towards the lower surface in a vertical direction. Stress-strain relationships were obtained for arrangements of equipment where each type of fluid was involved, using compression test equipment. The apparent compressive stress was found to be increased with the increase in magnetic field strength. In addition, the apparent compressive stress of the water-based MR fluid showed a response to the compressive strain of greater magnitude. However, during the compression process, the hydrocarbon-based MR fluid appeared to show a unique behaviour where an abrupt pressure drop was discovered in a region where the apparent compressive stress would be expected to increase steadily. The conclusion is drawn that the apparent compressive stress of MR fluids is influenced strongly by the nature of the carrier fluid and by the magnitude of the applied current

  3. The effects of urban driving conditions on the operating characteristics of conventional and hybrid electric city buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Operating characteristics of conventional and hybrid electric buses were examined. • Recovery of braking energy offers an excellent opportunity to improve fuel economy. • Speed and altitude profiles of routes have dramatic impacts on the energy recovery. • Capacity of the auxiliary power source has a dramatic impact on the energy recovery. • Round-trip efficiency of the regenerative braking system was calculated to be 27%. - Abstract: The basic operating characteristics of a conventional bus (CB) and a hybrid electric bus (HEB) were examined under urban driving conditions. To perform this examination, real-time operating data from the buses were collected on the Campus-Return route of the Sakarya Municipality. The main characteristics examined were the traction, braking, engine, engine generator unit (EGU), motor/generator (M/G), and ultracapacitor (Ucap) energies and efficiencies of the buses. The route elevation profile and the frequency of stop-and-go operations of the buses were found to have dramatic impacts on the braking and traction energies of the buses. The declining profile of the Campus-Return route provided an excellent opportunity for energy recovery by the regenerative braking system of the HEB. However, owing to the limits on the capacities and efficiencies of the hybrid drive train components and the Ucap, the bus braking energies were not recovered completely. Braking energies as high as 2.2 kW h per micro-trip were observed, but less than 1 kW h of braking energy per micro-trip was converted to electricity by the M/G; the rest of the braking energy was wasted in frictional braking. The maximum energy recovered and stored in the Ucap per micro-trip was 0.5 kW h, but the amount of energy recovered and stored per micro-trip was typically less than 0.2 kW h for the entire route. The cumulative braking energy recovered and stored in the Ucap for the Campus-Return route was 52% of the available brake energy, which was 13.02 kW h

  4. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-424 and 50-425)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    In June 1985, the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Safety Evaluation Report (NUREG-1137) regarding the application of Georgia Power Company, Municipal Electric Authority of Georgia, Oglethorpe Power Corporation, and the City of Dalton, Georgia, for licenses to operate the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-424 and 50-425). This sixth supplement of NUREG-1137 provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the open and confirmatory items that remained unresolved at the time the Safety Evaluation Report was issued. These areas are performance testing, reactor cooling hydraulics, loose parts monitoring, and electric power systems

  5. Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators in 2015 and 2016. Follow-up report, January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 10. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the 2015-2016 period. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in 2015-2016 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies during the same period

  6. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces oxidative stress and improves skeletal muscle function in response to electrically stimulated isometric contractions in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael J.; Jackson, Janna R.; Hao, Yanlei; Leonard, Stephen S.; Alway, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a putative factor responsible for reducing function and increasing apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle with aging. This study examined the contribution and functional significance of the xanthine oxidase enzyme as a potential source of oxidant production in aged skeletal muscle during repetitive in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited in young adult and aged mice via a subcutaneously placed time release (2.5 mg/day) allopurinol pellet, 7 days prior to the start of in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Gastrocnemius muscles were electrically activated with 20 maximal contractions for three consecutive days. Xanthine oxidase activity was 65% greater in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged mice compared to young mice. Xanthine oxidase activity also increased after in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions in muscles from both young (33%) and aged (28%) mice, relative to contralateral non-contracted muscles. Allopurinol attenuated the exercise-induced increase in oxidative stress, but it did not affect the elevated basal levels of oxidative stress that was associated with aging. In addition, inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity decreased caspase 3 activity, but it had no effect on other markers of mitochondrial associated apoptosis. Our results show that compared to control conditions, suppression of xanthine oxidase activity by allopurinol reduced xanthine oxidase activity, H2O2 levels, lipid peroxidation and caspase-3 activity, prevented the in situ electrically stimulated isometric contraction-induced loss of glutathione, prevented the increase of catalase and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activities, and increased maximal isometric force in the plantar flexor muscles of aged mice after repetitive electrically evoked contractions. PMID:21530649

  7. Finite element method (FEM) model of the mechanical stress on phospholipid membranes from shock waves produced in nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ronald; Roth, Caleb C.; Shadaram, Mehdi; Beier, Hope; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2015-03-01

    The underlying mechanism(s) responsible for nanoporation of phospholipid membranes by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsEP) remains unknown. The passage of a high electric field through a conductive medium creates two primary contributing factors that may induce poration: the electric field interaction at the membrane and the shockwave produced from electrostriction of a polar submersion medium exposed to an electric field. Previous work has focused on the electric field interaction at the cell membrane, through such models as the transport lattice method. Our objective is to model the shock wave cell membrane interaction induced from the density perturbation formed at the rising edge of a high voltage pulse in a polar liquid resulting in a shock wave propagating away from the electrode toward the cell membrane. Utilizing previous data from cell membrane mechanical parameters, and nsEP generated shockwave parameters, an acoustic shock wave model based on the Helmholtz equation for sound pressure was developed and coupled to a cell membrane model with finite-element modeling in COMSOL. The acoustic structure interaction model was developed to illustrate the harmonic membrane displacements and stresses resulting from shockwave and membrane interaction based on Hooke's law. Poration is predicted by utilizing membrane mechanical breakdown parameters including cortical stress limits and hydrostatic pressure gradients.

  8. Physiological Indices of Stress Prior to and Following Total Knee Arthroplasty Predict the Occurrence of Severe Post-Operative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeans-Smith, Julie K; Greene, Kenneth; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2016-05-01

    The severe pain and disability associated with osteoarthritis often motivate individuals to undergo arthroplastic surgery. However, a significant number of surgical patients continue to experience pain following surgery. Prior research has implicated both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in the sensitization of pain receptors and chronic pain conditions. This study uses a prospective, observational, cohort design to examine whether physiological stress responses before and after surgery could predict post-operative pain severity. Participants included 110 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Physiological indices of stress included the measurement of catecholamine and cortisol levels in 15-hour urine samples collected prior to and 1 month following surgery, as well as in-hospital heart rate and blood pressure (before and after surgery), which were abstracted from medical records. Patients completed the pain subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) [Bellamy et al., J Orthop Rheumatol 1: , 95 (1988)] 2.5 weeks prior to surgery and at a 3-month follow-up. Contrary to expectations, lower stress hormone levels at baseline were related to more severe post-operative pain. Data at later time points, however, supported our hypothesis: cardiovascular tone shortly before surgery and urinary levels of epinephrine 1 month following surgery were positively related to pain severity 3 months later. Results suggest that the occurrence of post-operative pain can be predicted on the basis of stress physiology prior to and following arthroplastic surgery. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Development of Estimating Equation of Machine Operational Skill by Utilizing Eye Movement Measurement and Analysis of Stress and Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For an establishment of a skill evaluation method for human support systems, development of an estimating equation of the machine operational skill is presented. Factors of the eye movement such as frequency, velocity, and moving distance of saccade were computed using the developed eye gaze measurement system, and the eye movement features were determined from these factors. The estimating equation was derived through an outlier test (to eliminate nonstandard data and a principal component analysis (to find dominant components. Using a cooperative carrying task (cc-task simulator, the eye movement and operational data of the machine operators were recorded, and effectiveness of the derived estimating equation was investigated. As a result, it was confirmed that the estimating equation was effective strongly against actual simple skill levels (r=0.56–0.84. In addition, effects of internal condition such as fatigue and stress on the estimating equation were analyzed. Using heart rate (HR and coefficient of variation of R-R interval (Cvrri. Correlation analysis between these biosignal indexes and the estimating equation of operational skill found that the equation reflected effects of stress and fatigue, although the equation could estimate the skill level adequately.

  10. Review of operational experience with the gas-cooled Magnox reactors of the United Kingdom Central Electricity Generating Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, L.; Clarke, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a review, which is mainly of a statistical nature, of 260 reactor years of operating experience which the (United Kingdom) Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has obtained with its gas-cooled, graphite moderated Magnox reactors. The main emphasis in the review is on safety rather than on availability. Data are provided on the overall incidence and frequencies of faults and it is shown that the plant items which are predominantly responsible for recorded faults are the gas circulators and the turbo-alternators. Analysis of the reactor trip experience shows that the incidence of events which necessitate an automatic shutdown of the reactor has been about one per reactor year and that of other events leading to a reactor trip has not been much higher (1.4 per reactor year). As would be expected from the length of the operating experience, some relatively rare events have occurred (expected frequency 10 -2 per reactor year, or less) but on each occasion the reactor shutdown system and decay heat removal systems functioned satisfactorily. No overheating of, or damage to, the fuel occurred as a result of these rare events or of other, more frequent, faults. Analysis of the trend of failure rates has shown an improvement with time in nearly all safety-related items and external inspection of the primary coolant circuits has shown no significant deterioration with time. However, some derating of the reactors has been necessary to reduce the effects of oxidation of mild steel in CO 2 , in order to obtain optimum service lives. In spite of major differences between the systems, a comparison of the failure rates of analogous systems and plant items in PWRs and the Magnox reactors show a considerable similarity. Overall, the review of CEGB's operational experience with its Magnos reactors has shown that the frequencies of faults in systems and plant items has been satisfyingly low. (author)

  11. Optimizing the Operation of Windfarms, Energy Storage and Flexible Loads in Modern Power Systems and Deregulated Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Zamiyad

    The amount of wind energy in power systems is increasing at a significant rate. With this increased penetration, there are certain problems associated with the operation of windfarms which need careful attention. In the operations side, the wake effects of upstream wind turbines on downstream wind turbines can cause a reduction in the total generated power of a windfarm. On the market side, the fluctuation of real-time prices can make the operation of windfarms less profitable. Similarly, the intermittent nature of wind power prevents the windfarms from participating in the day-ahead and forward markets. On the system side, the volatile nature of wind speeds is also an obstacle for windfarms to provide frequency regulation to the system. In this thesis, we address these issues and optimize the operation of windfarms in power systems and deregulated electricity markets. First, the total power generation in a windfarm is maximized by using yaw angle of wind turbines as a control variable. We extend the existing wake models to include the effects of yaw misalignment and wake deflection of wind turbines. A numerical study is performed to find the optimal values of induction factor and yaw misalignment angle of wind turbines in a single row of a windfarm for achieving the maximum total power with wake effects. The numerical study shows that the maximum power is achieved by keeping the induction factor close to 1/3 and only changing the yaw angle to deflect the wake. We then propose a Dynamic Programming Framework (DPF) to maximize the total power production of a windfarm using yaw angle as the control variable. We compare the windfarm efficiency achieved with our DPF with the efficiency values obtained through greedy control strategy and induction factor optimization. We also extend our expressions to a windfarm with multiple rows and columns of turbines and perform simulations on the 3x3 and 4x4 grid topologies. Our results show that the optimal induction factor for

  12. Plasma characteristics in an electrically asymmetric capacitive discharge sustained by multiple harmonics: operating in the very high frequency regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Ru; Hu, Yan-Ting; Gao, Fei; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian

    2018-05-01

    A novel method, the so-called electrical asymmetry effect (EAE), is gaining increasing interest for realizing the separate control of the ion flux and ion energy. In this paper, a two-dimensional fluid model combined with the full set of Maxwell equations is used to investigate the plasma properties in an electrically asymmetric capacitive discharge sustained by multiple consecutive harmonics operating in the very high frequency regime. The results indicate that by increasing the total number of consecutive harmonics k, the modulation of the dc self-bias induced by changing {θ }1 (the relative phase of the fundamental frequency) becomes different, especially for k ≤slant 6. In a discharge driven by eight consecutive harmonics, the dc self-bias varies with a period 2π, and the most positive value appears at {θ }1 = 3π/2. In addition, with the electromagnetic effects taken into account, the plasma density shifts from edge-high to uniform when {θ }1 increases from 0 to π, and the maximum moves again towards the radial wall at {θ }1 = 3π/2. Moreover, the transient behavior of electrodynamics is also important for a better understanding of the EAE. Within a period, three positive peaks of {P}z are observed, which cause substantial ionization at similar places. {P}r is characterized by a pronounced peak at the end of the period, and the lowest peak value appears at {θ }1 = π. The results obtained in this work are important for improving the plasma processes by utilizing the EAE, especially when the higher order harmonics are included.

  13. Future distributed generation: An operational multi-objective optimization model for integrated small scale urban electrical, thermal and gas grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Cascio, Ermanno; Borelli, Davide; Devia, Francesco; Schenone, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization model for retrofitted and integrated natural gas pressure regulation stations. • Comparison of different incentive mechanisms for recovered energy based on the characteristics of preheating process. • Control strategies comparison: performances achieved with optimal control vs. ones obtained by thermal load tracking. - Abstract: A multi-objective optimization model for urban integrated electrical, thermal and gas grids is presented. The main system consists of a retrofitted natural gas pressure regulation station where a turbo-expander allows to recover energy from the process. Here, the natural gas must be preheated in order to avoid methane hydrates. The preheating phase could be based on fossil fuels, renewable or on a thermal mix. Depending on the system configuration, the proposed optimization model enables a proper differentiation based on how the natural gas preheating process is expected to be accomplished. This differentiation is addressed by weighting the electricity produced by the turbo-expander and linking it to proper remuneration tariffs. The effectiveness of the model has been tested on an existing plant located in the city of Genoa. Here, the thermal energy is provided by means of two redundant gas-fired boilers and a cogeneration unit. Furthermore, the whole system is thermally integrated with a district heating network. Numerical simulation results, obtained with the commercial proprietary software Honeywell UniSim Design Suite, have been compared with the optimal solutions achieved. The effectiveness of the model, in terms of economic and environmental performances, is finally quantified. For specific conditions, the model allows achieving an operational costs reduction of about 17% with the respect to thermal-load-tracking control logic.

  14. Second rank direction cosine spherical tensor operators and the nuclear electric quadrupole hyperfine structure Hamiltonian of rotating molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lauro, C.

    2018-03-01

    Transformations of vector or tensor properties from a space-fixed to a molecule-fixed axis system are often required in the study of rotating molecules. Spherical components λμ,ν of a first rank irreducible tensor can be obtained from the direction cosines between the two axis systems, and a second rank tensor with spherical components λμ,ν(2) can be built from the direct product λ × λ. It is shown that the treatment of the interaction between molecular rotation and the electric quadrupole of a nucleus is greatly simplified, if the coefficients in the axis-system transformation of the gradient of the electric field of the outer charges at the coupled nucleus are arranged as spherical components λμ,ν(2). Then the reduced matrix elements of the field gradient operators in a symmetric top eigenfunction basis, including their dependence on the molecule-fixed z-angular momentum component k, can be determined from the knowledge of those of λ(2) . The hyperfine structure Hamiltonian Hq is expressed as the sum of terms characterized each by a value of the molecule-fixed index ν, whose matrix elements obey the rule Δk = ν. Some of these terms may vanish because of molecular symmetry, and the specific cases of linear and symmetric top molecules, orthorhombic molecules, and molecules with symmetry lower than orthorhombic are considered. Each ν-term consists of a contraction of the rotational tensor λ(2) and the nuclear quadrupole tensor in the space-fixed frame, and its matrix elements in the rotation-nuclear spin coupled representation can be determined by the standard spherical tensor methods.

  15. Innovative protection and control systems for a reliable and secure operation of electrical transmission systems; Innovative Schutz- und Leitsysteme zur zuverlaessigen und sicheren elektrischen Energieuebertragung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sven C.; Kubis, Adreas; Rehtanz, Christian [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiesysteme, Energieeffizienz und Energiewirtschaft (ie3); Brato, Sebastian; Goetze, Juergen [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Arbeitsgebiet Datentechnik

    2012-07-01

    The integration of European electricity markets as well as the increasing power feed-in by renewable energy sources pose new challenges to the operation of electrical transmission systems. Modern protection and control systems based on wide-area information can substantially contribute to a reliable and secure system operation even against the background of future demands. In this paper research advances regarding new applications for wide-area monitoring, protection and control as well as an integrated simulation for power and ICT systems are presented that have been developed in the course of DFG research unit FOR1511 at TU Dortmund. (orig.)

  16. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-387 and 50-388). Suppl.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    In April 1981, the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Safety Evaluation Report (NUREG-0776) regarding the application of the Pennsylvania Power and Light Company (the applicant and/or licensee) and the Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc. (co-applicant) for licenses to operate the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Units 1 and 2, located on a site in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. This supplement to NUREG-0776 addresses the remaining issues that required resolution before licensing operation of Unit 2 and closes them out

  17. Operation and maintenance of the RA Reactor in 1985, Part 1, Annex E - Report of the electric Equipment Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanovic, V.; Stamenkovic, D.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes organisational structure of the Service dealing with control and maintenance of electrical supply system and equipment. It includes detailed data about electric power consumption, power cuts and failures during the past period [sr

  18. The Determination of Stresses in Wire-Drawing Operation Using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the Bubnov-Galerkin finite element model is used to get the distribution of stresses and pressures set up at various cross-sections of a blank during metal forming process. Four Lagrange quadratic elements were assembled to represent the blank. The governing equation is a one dimensional differential ...

  19. The study of the stress - strain state of the tank with bottom water drainage during operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchipkova, Yu V.; Tokarev, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    Bottom drainage from tank is a current problem in modern tank usage. This article proposes the use of the bottom drainage system from the tank with the shape of the sloped cone to the centre of it. Changing the bottom design alters the stress - strain state to be analyzed in the Ansys. The analysis concluded that the proposed drainage system should be applied.

  20. Emotional-volitional components of operator reliability. [sensorimotor function testing under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileryan, Y. A.

    1975-01-01

    Sensorimotor function testing in a tracking task under stressfull working conditions established a psychological characterization for a successful aviation pilot: Motivation significantly increased the reliability and effectiveness of their work. Their acitivities were aimed at suppressing weariness and the feeling of fear caused by the stress factors; they showed patience, endurance, persistence, and a capacity for lengthy volitional efforts.