WorldWideScience

Sample records for operating characteristic estimation

  1. Smooth time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Pardo-Fernández, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-01

    The receiver operating characteristic curve is a popular graphical method often used to study the diagnostic capacity of continuous (bio)markers. When the considered outcome is a time-dependent variable, two main extensions have been proposed: the cumulative/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve and the incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve. In both cases, the main problem for developing appropriate estimators is the estimation of the joint distribution of the variables time-to-event and marker. As usual, different approximations lead to different estimators. In this article, the authors explore the use of a bivariate kernel density estimator which accounts for censored observations in the sample and produces smooth estimators of the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves. The performance of the resulting cumulative/dynamic and incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curves is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, the influence of the choice of the required smoothing parameters is explored. Finally, two real-applications are considered. An R package is also provided as a complement to this article.

  2. Bayesian receiver operating characteristic estimation of multiple tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Chadian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB today primarily affects developing countries. In Africa, the disease is present essentially on the whole continent; however, little accurate information on its distribution and prevalence is available. Also, attempts to evaluate diagnostic tests for BTB in naturally infected cattle are scarce and mostly complicated by the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the tested animals. However, diagnostic test evaluation in a given setting is a prerequisite for the implementation of local surveillance schemes and control measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected a slaughterhouse population of 954 Chadian cattle to single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT testing and two recently developed fluorescence polarization assays (FPA. Using a Bayesian modeling approach we computed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of each diagnostic test, the true disease prevalence in the sampled population and the disease status of all sampled animals in the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the sampled animals. In our Chadian setting, SICCT performed better if the cut-off for positive test interpretation was lowered from >4 mm (OIE standard cut-off to >2 mm. Using this cut-off, SICCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 66% and 89%, respectively. Both FPA tests showed sensitivities below 50% but specificities above 90%. The true disease prevalence was estimated at 8%. Altogether, 11% of the sampled animals showed gross visible tuberculous lesions. However, modeling of the BTB disease status of the sampled animals indicated that 72% of the suspected tuberculosis lesions detected during standard meat inspections were due to other pathogens than Mycobacterium bovis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for BTB diagnosis in a high incidence sub-Saharan African setting and demonstrate the practicability of our Bayesian approach for

  3. Real time estimation of photovoltaic modules characteristics and its application to maximum power point operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrigos, Ausias; Blanes, Jose M.; Carrasco, Jose A. [Area de Tecnologia Electronica, Universidad Miguel Hernandez de Elche, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche, Alicante (Spain); Ejea, Juan B. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad de Valencia, Avda. Dr Moliner 50, 46100 Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, an approximate curve fitting method for photovoltaic modules is presented. The operation is based on solving a simple solar cell electrical model by a microcontroller in real time. Only four voltage and current coordinates are needed to obtain the solar module parameters and set its operation at maximum power in any conditions of illumination and temperature. Despite its simplicity, this method is suitable for low cost real time applications, as control loop reference generator in photovoltaic maximum power point circuits. The theory that supports the estimator together with simulations and experimental results are presented. (author)

  4. Maximum likelihood estimation of dose-response parameters for therapeutic operating characteristic (TOC) analysis of carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Tokars, R.P.; Kronman, H.B.; Griem, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    A Therapeutic Operating Characteristic (TOC) curve for radiation therapy plots, for all possible treatment doses, the probability of tumor ablation as a function of the probability of radiation-induced complication. Application of this analysis to actual therapeutic situation requires that dose-response curves for ablation and for complication be estimated from clinical data. We describe an approach in which ''maximum likelihood estimates'' of these dose-response curves are made, and we apply this approach to data collected on responses to radiotherapy for carcinoma of the nasopharynx. TOC curves constructed from the estimated dose-response curves are subject to moderately large uncertainties because of the limitations of available data.These TOC curves suggest, however, that treatment doses greater than 1800 rem may substantially increase the probability of tumor ablation with little increase in the risk of radiation-induced cervical myelopathy, especially for T1 and T2 tumors

  5. ROC [Receiver Operating Characteristics] study of maximum likelihood estimator human brain image reconstructions in PET [Positron Emission Tomography] clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llacer, J.; Veklerov, E.; Nolan, D.; Grafton, S.T.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Hawkins, R.A.; Hoh, C.K.; Hoffman, E.J.

    1990-10-01

    This paper will report on the progress to date in carrying out Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) studies comparing Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) and Filtered Backprojection (FBP) reconstructions of normal and abnormal human brain PET data in a clinical setting. A previous statistical study of reconstructions of the Hoffman brain phantom with real data indicated that the pixel-to-pixel standard deviation in feasible MLE images is approximately proportional to the square root of the number of counts in a region, as opposed to a standard deviation which is high and largely independent of the number of counts in FBP. A preliminary ROC study carried out with 10 non-medical observers performing a relatively simple detectability task indicates that, for the majority of observers, lower standard deviation translates itself into a statistically significant detectability advantage in MLE reconstructions. The initial results of ongoing tests with four experienced neurologists/nuclear medicine physicians are presented. Normal cases of 18 F -- fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) cerebral metabolism studies and abnormal cases in which a variety of lesions have been introduced into normal data sets have been evaluated. We report on the results of reading the reconstructions of 90 data sets, each corresponding to a single brain slice. It has become apparent that the design of the study based on reading single brain slices is too insensitive and we propose a variation based on reading three consecutive slices at a time, rating only the center slice. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Characteristics of operating pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallyamov, A K; Armenskii, E A; Gimaev, R G; Mastobaev, B N; Shammazov, A M

    1977-04-01

    The interval in pressure changes according to operational data for the Kamennyi Log--Perm oil pipeline was determined with the aid of the pattern identification method. This has made it possible to determine pressure changes in the operational process. 2 references, 1 table.

  7. Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project: Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Leijon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy conversion is a clean electric power production technology. During operation there are no emissions in the form of harmful gases. However there are unsolved issues considering environmental impacts such as: electromagnetism; the artificial reef effect and underwater noise. Anthropogenic noise is increasing in the oceans worldwide and wave power will contribute to this sound pollution in the oceans; but to what extent? The main purpose of this study was to examine the noise emitted by a full scale operating Wave Energy Converter (WEC in the Lysekil project at Uppsala University in Sweden. A minor review of the hearing capabilities of fish and marine mammals is presented to aid in the conclusions of impact from anthropogenic sound. A hydrophone was deployed to the seabed in the Lysekil research site park at distance of 20 and 40 m away from two operational WECs. The measurements were performed in the spring of 2011. The results showed that the main noise was a transient noise with most of its energy in frequencies below 1 kHz. These results indicate that several marine organisms (fish and mammals will be able to hear the operating WECs of a distance of at least 20 m.

  8. Characteristics of the Operational Noise from Full Scale Wave Energy Converters in the Lysekil Project : Estimation of Potential Environmental Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Haikonen, Kalle; Sundberg, Jan; Leijon, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Wave energy conversion is a clean electric power production technology. During operation there are no emissions in the form of harmful gases. However there are unsolved issues considering environmental impacts such as: electromagnetism; the artificial reef effect and underwater noise. Anthropogenic noise is increasing in the oceans worldwide and wave power will contribute to this sound pollution in the oceans; but to what extent? The main purpose of this study was to examine the noise emitted...

  9. Properties of estimated characteristic roots

    OpenAIRE

    Bent Nielsen; Heino Bohn Nielsen

    2008-01-01

    Estimated characteristic roots in stationary autoregressions are shown to give rather noisy information about their population equivalents. This is remarkable given the central role of the characteristic roots in the theory of autoregressive processes. In the asymptotic analysis the problems appear when multiple roots are present as this implies a non-differentiablity so the δ-method does not apply, convergence rates are slow, and the asymptotic distribution is non-normal. In finite samples ...

  10. Correlation of free-response and receiver-operating-characteristic area-under-the-curve estimates: Results from independently conducted FROC/ROC studies in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanca, Federica; Hillis, Stephen L.; Claus, Filip; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Celis, Valerie; Provoost, Veerle; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Bosmans, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: From independently conducted free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiments, to study fixed-reader associations between three estimators: the area under the alternative FROC (AFROC) curve computed from FROC data, the area under the ROC curve computed from FROC highest rating data, and the area under the ROC curve computed from confidence-of-disease ratings. Methods: Two hundred mammograms, 100 of which were abnormal, were processed by two image-processing algorithms and interpreted by four radiologists under the FROC paradigm. From the FROC data, inferred-ROC data were derived, using the highest rating assumption. Eighteen months afterwards, the images were interpreted by the same radiologists under the conventional ROC paradigm; conventional-ROC data (in contrast to inferred-ROC data) were obtained. FROC and ROC (inferred, conventional) data were analyzed using the nonparametric area-under-the-curve (AUC), (AFROC and ROC curve, respectively). Pearson correlation was used to quantify the degree of association between the modality-specific AUC indices and standard errors were computed using the bootstrap-after-bootstrap method. The magnitude of the correlations was assessed by comparison with computed Obuchowski-Rockette fixed reader correlations. Results: Average Pearson correlations (with 95% confidence intervals in square brackets) were: Corr(FROC, inferred ROC) = 0.76[0.64, 0.84] > Corr(inferred ROC, conventional ROC) = 0.40[0.18, 0.58] > Corr (FROC, conventional ROC) = 0.32[0.16, 0.46]. Conclusions: Correlation between FROC and inferred-ROC data AUC estimates was high. Correlation between inferred- and conventional-ROC AUC was similar to the correlation between two modalities for a single reader using one estimation method, suggesting that the highest rating assumption might be questionable.

  11. Characteristics of public roads operation

    OpenAIRE

    Pryimak, V.; Kyiashko, I.

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of public roads operation have been considered and factors influencing TEC of public roads that go via urban areas have been determined. There have been revealed contradictions in the normative-legal base concerning maintenance of public roads and municipal roads that merge into them.

  12. Some characteristics of offshore operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Đorđe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore operations are not on the margins of the world economy. They are an integral part of modern business practice. They have become one of the most important instruments in the contemporary globalized financial system. Offshore operations and tax havens are not only conduits for tax avoidance and evasion but belong more broadly to the world of finance, for the business of managing the monetary resources of an organization, country or individuals. Offshore business operating in tax havens is at the heart of a particular type of globalization that is characterized by a growing gap between the very rich and everyone else. Tax havens are financial conduits that, in exchange for a fee, use their one principal asset- their sovereignty to serve a nonresident constituency of accountants and lawyers, bankers and financiers, who bring a demand for offshore operations.

  13. Robust motion estimation using connected operators

    OpenAIRE

    Salembier Clairon, Philippe Jean; Sanson, H

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of connected operators for robust motion estimation The proposed strategy involves a motion estimation step extracting the dominant motion and a ltering step relying on connected operators that remove objects that do not fol low the dominant motion. These two steps are iterated in order to obtain an accurate motion estimation and a precise de nition of the objects fol lowing this motion This strategy can be applied on the entire frame or on individual connected c...

  14. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis without truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkelman, R.M.; Kay, I.; Bronskill, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, the preferred method of evaluating diagnostic imaging tests, requires an independent assessment of the true state of disease, which can be difficult to obtain and is often of questionable accuracy. A new method of analysis is described which does not require independent truth data and which can be used when several accurate tests are being compared. This method uses correlative information to estimate the underlying model of multivariate normal distributions of disease-positive and disease-negative patients. The method is shown to give results equivalent to conventional ROC analysis in a comparison of computed tomography, radionuclide scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging for liver metastasis. When independent truth is available, the method can be extended to incorporate truth data or to evaluate the consistency of the truth data with the imaging data

  15. 49 CFR 236.717 - Characteristics, operating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Characteristics, operating. 236.717 Section 236.717 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.717 Characteristics, operating. The measure of electrical values at which electrical or electronic...

  16. Code systems for effective and precise calculation of the basic neutron characteristics, core loading optimization, analysis and estimation of the operation regimes of WWER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolov, T.; Ivanov, K.; Prodanova, R.; Manolova, M.; Petrova, T.; Alekova, G.

    1993-01-01

    Two directions for investigations are suggested: 1) Analysis and evaluation of the real loading patterns and operational regimes for Kozloduy NPP WWER-440 and WWER-1000 in the frame of the recent safety criteria and nuclear power plant operating limits. 2) Development of modern code system for WWER type reactor core analysis with advanced features: new design and materials for fuel and control rods, increasing the fuel enrichment, using the integral and discrete burnable absorbers etc. The fuel technology design evolution maximizes the fuel utilization efficiency, improves operation performance and enhances safety margins. By the joint efforts of specialists from INRNE, Sofia (BG) and KAB, Berlin (GE), the codes NESSEL-IV-EC, PYTHIA and DERAB have been developed and verified. In the frame of the PHARE programme the joint project ASPERCA has been proposed intended for reactor physics calculations with PHYBER-WWER code for safety enhancement and operation reliability improvement. In-core fuel management benchmarks for 4 cycles of unit 2 (WWER-440) and 2 cycles of unit 5 (WWER-1000) have been performed. The coordination of burnable absorber design implementation, low leakage loadings usage, reloading enrichment increase and steel content reduction in the core have made the reactor core analysis more demanding and the definition of loading patterns - more difficult. This complexity requires routine use of three-dimensional fast accurate core model with extended and updated cross section libraries. To meet the needs of WWER advanced loading patterns and in-core fuel management improvements the HEXANES code systems is being developed and qualified. Some test calculations have been carried out by the HEXANES code system investigating the influence of Gd in the fuel on the main reactor physics parameters. For reevaluation of the core safety-related design limits forming the basis of licensing procedure, the code DYN3D/M2 is used. 16 refs., 3 figs. (author)

  17. Pointwise estimates of pseudo-differential operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Jon

    As a new technique it is shown how general pseudo-differential operators can be estimated at arbitrary points in Euclidean space when acting on functions u with compact spectra.The estimate is a factorisation inequality, in which one factor is the Peetre–Fefferman–Stein maximal function of u......, whilst the other is a symbol factor carrying the whole information on the symbol. The symbol factor is estimated in terms of the spectral radius of u, so that the framework is well suited for Littlewood–Paley analysis. It is also shown how it gives easy access to results on polynomial bounds...... and estimates in Lp , including a new result for type 1,1-operators that they are always bounded on Lp -functions with compact spectra....

  18. Pointwise estimates of pseudo-differential operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    As a new technique it is shown how general pseudo-differential operators can be estimated at arbitrary points in Euclidean space when acting on functions u with compact spectra. The estimate is a factorisation inequality, in which one factor is the Peetre–Fefferman–Stein maximal function of u......, whilst the other is a symbol factor carrying the whole information on the symbol. The symbol factor is estimated in terms of the spectral radius of u, so that the framework is well suited for Littlewood–Paley analysis. It is also shown how it gives easy access to results on polynomial bounds...... and estimates in Lp, including a new result for type 1, 1-operators that they are always bounded on Lp-functions with compact spectra....

  19. Pose estimation of industrial objects towards robot operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jie; Zhou, Fuqiang; Tan, Haishu; Cao, Yu

    2017-10-01

    With the advantages of wide range, non-contact and high flexibility, the visual estimation technology of target pose has been widely applied in modern industry, robot guidance and other engineering practices. However, due to the influence of complicated industrial environment, outside interference factors, lack of object characteristics, restrictions of camera and other limitations, the visual estimation technology of target pose is still faced with many challenges. Focusing on the above problems, a pose estimation method of the industrial objects is developed based on 3D models of targets. By matching the extracted shape characteristics of objects with the priori 3D model database of targets, the method realizes the recognition of target. Thus a pose estimation of objects can be determined based on the monocular vision measuring model. The experimental results show that this method can be implemented to estimate the position of rigid objects based on poor images information, and provides guiding basis for the operation of the industrial robot.

  20. Operational Waste Stream Assumption for TSLCC Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, S.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the background and basis for the operational waste stream used in the 2000 Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). This document has been developed in accordance with its Development Plan (CRWMS MandO 2000a), and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''

  1. Surgical Site Infections and Associated Operative Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Paul K; Zuckerbraun, Brian S

    Surgical site infection (SSI) contributes significantly to surgical morbidity. Patient factors and operative factors contribute to the risk of development of SSI. This review focuses on understanding operative characteristics that are associated with an increased risk of SSI. Much attention has been given to protocol care to reduce SSI, such as hair removal, skin preparation, and pre-operative antibiotic agents. Even with this, the appropriate antibiotic and re-dosing regimens often remain a challenge. Other operative factors such as blood loss/transfusion, emergency/urgent cases, duration of the operation, type of anesthesia, and resident involvement are also potentially modifiable to reduce the risk of SSI. Data are reviewed to highlight the increased risk associated with such factors. Strategies to reduce risk, such as operative care bundles, have significant promise to reduce the incidence of SSI for any given procedure.

  2. Planning and Estimation of Operations Support Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Barley, Bryan; Bacskay, Allen; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    Life Cycle Cost (LCC) estimates during the proposal and early design phases, as well as project replans during the development phase, are heavily focused on hardware development schedules and costs. Operations (phase E) costs are typically small compared to the spacecraft development and test costs. This, combined with the long lead time for realizing operations costs, can lead to de-emphasizing estimation of operations support requirements during proposal, early design, and replan cost exercises. The Discovery and New Frontiers (D&NF) programs comprise small, cost-capped missions supporting scientific exploration of the solar system. Any LCC growth can directly impact the programs' ability to fund new missions, and even moderate yearly underestimates of the operations costs can present significant LCC impacts for deep space missions with long operational durations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) D&NF Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that 4 out of the 5 missions studied had significant overruns at or after launch due to underestimation of the complexity and supporting requirements for operations activities; the fifth mission had not launched at the time of the mission. The drivers behind these overruns include overly optimistic assumptions regarding the savings resulting from the use of heritage technology, late development of operations requirements, inadequate planning for sustaining engineering and the special requirements of long duration missions (e.g., knowledge retention and hardware/software refresh), and delayed completion of ground system development work. This paper updates the D

  3. Numerical study of some operating characteristics for argon induction plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, K.

    1978-01-01

    Some operating characteristics of argon induction plasmas at atmospheric pressure were obtained numerically by using magnetohydrodynamic equations. From these characteristics we can estimate the general dependency of plasma temperatures on operating conditions for induction plasmas. Calculated relationships between the sustaining electric field strength at the plasma surface and the electric power input show the existence of a minimum value of the field strength, the reason for which is revealed by detailed investigation of the calculated radial temperature distributions. Further, it was found that the minimum increases almost linearly with increasing frequency. In addition, characteristics of the Poynting vector and heat conduction loss at the plasma surface were obtained. Some characteristics obtained here give practical information on the electromagnetic field which is necessary to maintain the steady plasmas

  4. 14 CFR 29.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be investigated in flight to determine that no adverse characteristics (such as stall, surge, of flameout) are...

  5. 14 CFR 23.939 - Powerplant operating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant operating characteristics. 23... General § 23.939 Powerplant operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine powerplant operating characteristics must be investigated in flight to determine that no adverse characteristics (such as stall, surge...

  6. 14 CFR 25.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics... engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be investigated in flight to determine that no adverse characteristics (such as stall, surge, or flameout) are present, to a...

  7. 14 CFR 27.939 - Turbine engine operating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine operating characteristics....939 Turbine engine operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine operating characteristics must be investigated in flight to determine that no adverse characteristics (such as stall, surge, or flameout) are...

  8. Operation characteristics of a multiple type MCFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroe, S.; Kamo, T. [Hitachi Research Lab., Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Fujimura, H.; Kahara, T. [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Multiple type structure of MCFC of which the separator of the cell is divided by four element cells has been studied. For the stable operation of this type cell, the effect of gas flow rate and temperature distribution on the cell voltage should be clear. In order to clarify these characteristics, a small sized mimic model has been made and tested. The flow rate distribution for the four element cells were varied and cell voltage and temperature distribution were measured for each cell. The decrease in cell voltage and the increase in maximum temperature became remarkable when the apparent utilization factor for one element cell became over 100%. The calculated results agreed fairly good with test results.

  9. Operational characteristics of VEC vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanadham, C.; Bhavsar, S.T.; Bose, D.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Das, S.K.; Tiwary, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    The main vacuum system of the Variable Energy Cyclotron which has been built indigenously has fulfilled the requirements for the smooth operation of the machine. By running two 88.9 cm diffusion pumps with freon cooled baffles and backed by 600 l/m rotary pumps, a pressure of 5 x 10 -6 torr in absence of the beam and 1 x 10 -5 torr in presence of the beam is readily achieved in the 23 m 3 volume. Various means have been adopted to maintain the system in order and contamination-free, by maintaining a pressure level of 1 x 10 -4 torr throughout the working week by a 30 cm diffusion pump, which can run even on emergency power. Cryopanels have also been installed and tried out. Details of pump-down characteristics and system performance are discussed. (auth.)

  10. Model improves oil field operating cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed operating cost model that forecasts operating cost profiles toward the end of a field's life should be constructed for testing depletion strategies and plans for major oil fields. Developing a good understanding of future operating cost trends is important. Incorrectly forecasting the trend can result in bad decision making regarding investments and reservoir operating strategies. Recent projects show that significant operating expense reductions can be made in the latter stages o field depletion without significantly reducing the expected ultimate recoverable reserves. Predicting future operating cost trends is especially important for operators who are currently producing a field and must forecast the economic limit of the property. For reasons presented in this article, it is usually not correct to either assume that operating expense stays fixed in dollar terms throughout the lifetime of a field, nor is it correct to assume that operating costs stay fixed on a dollar per barrel basis

  11. (RR) soybean cultivars estimated by phenotypic characteristics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... phenotypic characteristics and microsatellite molecular markers (SSR). ... discriminatory analysis, principal components, coordinate and cluster analysis .... were employed with 10.000 simulations to attribute significance values to ...... association analysis of protein and oil content in food-grade soybeans ...

  12. 33 CFR 157.158 - COW operations: Changed characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW operations: Changed... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.158 COW operations: Changed characteristics. The COW system may be operated with characteristics that do not meet those...

  13. A multimodal 3D framework for fire characteristics estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, T.; Rossi, L.; Akhloufi, M. A.; Pieri, A.; Maldague, X.

    2018-02-01

    In the last decade we have witnessed an increasing interest in using computer vision and image processing in forest fire research. Image processing techniques have been successfully used in different fire analysis areas such as early detection, monitoring, modeling and fire front characteristics estimation. While the majority of the work deals with the use of 2D visible spectrum images, recent work has introduced the use of 3D vision in this field. This work proposes a new multimodal vision framework permitting the extraction of the three-dimensional geometrical characteristics of fires captured by multiple 3D vision systems. The 3D system is a multispectral stereo system operating in both the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. The framework supports the use of multiple stereo pairs positioned so as to capture complementary views of the fire front during its propagation. Multimodal registration is conducted using the captured views in order to build a complete 3D model of the fire front. The registration process is achieved using multisensory fusion based on visual data (2D and NIR images), GPS positions and IMU inertial data. Experiments were conducted outdoors in order to show the performance of the proposed framework. The obtained results are promising and show the potential of using the proposed framework in operational scenarios for wildland fire research and as a decision management system in fighting.

  14. Robust Models for Operator Workload Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    piloted aircraft (RPA) simultaneously, a vast improvement in resource utilization compared to existing operations that require several operators per...into distinct cognitive channels (visual, auditory, spatial, etc.) based on our ability to multitask effectively as long as no one channel is

  15. Research about reactor operator's personality characteristics and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2003-01-01

    To predict and evaluate the reactor operator's performance by personality characteristics is an important part of reactor operator safety assessment. Using related psychological theory combined with the Chinese operator's fact and considering the effect of environmental factors to personality analysis, paper does the research about the about the relationships between reactor operator's performance and personality characteristics, and offers the reference for operator's selection, using and performance in the future. (author)

  16. Estimation of regulated term of technical systems further operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikov, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The technique of estimating the regulated term of technical systems further operation on the basis of data on failures during operation and use of probabilistic-physical model of failures (DN-distribution) is proposed

  17. Steady-state Operational Characteristics of Ghana Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steady state operational characteristics of the 30 kW tank-in-pool type reactor named Ghana Research Reactor-1 were investigated after a successful on-site zero power critical experiments. The steadystate operational character-istics determined were the thermal neutron fluxes, maximum period of operation at nominal ...

  18. ACCURATE ESTIMATES OF CHARACTERISTIC EXPONENTS FOR SECOND ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a second order linear differential equation is considered, and an accurate estimate method of characteristic exponent for it is presented. Finally, we give some examples to verify the feasibility of our result.

  19. Weighted estimates for the averaging integral operator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opic, Bohumír; Rákosník, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2010), s. 253-262 ISSN 0010-0757 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2033; GA ČR GA201/08/0383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : averaging integral operator * weighted Lebesgue spaces * weights Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF03191231

  20. Operational characteristics of nuclear power plants - modelling of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studovic, M.

    1984-01-01

    By operational experience of nuclear power plants and realize dlevel of availability of plant, systems and componenst reliabiliuty, operational safety and public protection, as a source on nature of distrurbances in power plant systems and lessons drawn by the TMI-2, in th epaper are discussed: examination of design safety for ultimate ensuring of safe operational conditions of the nuclear power plant; significance of the adequate action for keeping proess parameters in prescribed limits and reactor cooling rquirements; developed systems for measurements detection and monitoring all critical parameters in the nuclear steam supply system; contents of theoretical investigation and mathematical modeling of the physical phenomena and process in nuclear power plant system and components as software, supporting for ensuring of operational safety and new access in staff education process; program and progress of the investigation of some physical phenomena and mathematical modeling of nuclear plant transients, prepared at faculty of mechanical Engineering in Belgrade. (author)

  1. Estimating emissions from grout pouring operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    Grouting is a method for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in which a contaminated solution is mixed into a slurry, poured into a large storage vault, then dried, fixing the contaminants within a stable solid matrix. A model (RELEASE) has been developed to estimate the quantity of aeorsol created during the pouring process. Information and equations derived from spill experiments were used in the model to determine release fractions. This paper discusses the derivation of the release fraction equation used in the code and the model used to account for gravity settling of particles in the vault. The input and results for a base case application are shown

  2. Performance of sampling methods to estimate log characteristics for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Bate; Torolf R. Torgersen; Michael J. Wisdom; Edward O. Garton

    2004-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the characteristics of log resources, or coarse woody debris (CWD), is critical to effective management of wildlife and other forest resources. Despite the importance of logs as wildlife habitat, methods for sampling logs have traditionally focused on silvicultural and fire applications. These applications have emphasized estimates of log volume...

  3. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND... § 305.5 Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

  4. PFP total operating efficiency calculation and basis of estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Total Operating Efficiency Calculation and Basis of Estimate document is to provide the calculated value and basis of estimate for the Total Operating Efficiency (TOE) for the material stabilization operations to be conducted in 234-52 Building. This information will be used to support both the planning and execution of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Stabilization and Deactivation Project's (hereafter called the Project) resource-loaded, integrated schedule

  5. Important characteristics of operational force members

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Adelai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The operational forces military context is generally acknowledged as one of the most stressful contexts as it is demanding of members on a physical, psychological, social level with organisational, intra- and inter-personal demands of an extreme...

  6. Operational Characteristics of an Ultra Compact Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    UCC operation caused by the UCC itself acting as a nozzle. This decrease in area was quantified by Radtke [22] at 47% for the AFRL UCC and causes...results in lower work potential for the engine as Mach numbers are already elevated. Radtke [22] quantified total Rayleigh losses with the AFRL...theory and experiment is by the constant area with heat addition assumption. Radtke [22] notes that his UCC configuration did not maintain a

  7. 7 CFR 43.105 - Operating characteristics (OC) curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating characteristics (OC) curves. 43.105 Section 43.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR SAMPLING PLANS Sampling Plans § 43.105 Operating characteristics (OC...

  8. Operating Characteristics of the low energy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Baki, M.M.; Abd El-Rahman, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to describe the construction and operation of low energy accelerator with energy in the range from (zero to 100 KeV.). This accelerator includes an ion source of the cold cathode penning type (with pierce geometry for ion beam extraction), an accelerating tube (with 8 electrodes) and faraday cup for measuring ion current. A vacuum system which gives vacuum of the order 3.0 x 10 8 torr is used. A palladium tube is used to supply the source with pure hydrogen atoms. It was possible to operate this accelerator with an energy 50 KeV. at minimum hydrogen pressure. 6.3 x 10 6 torr. The total resistance applied between the accelerating electrodes R T = 31.5 M OMEGA. These data includes the influence of the pressure in the accelerating tube, the magnetic field of the ion source, the extraction potential and the accelerating potential on the collector ion current. It was possible to accelerate protons with an energy 50 KeV with current about 100 MU A at pressure 6.3 x 10 6 Torr, the source magnetic field + 1100 gauss (I B = 2A), the current = 0.4 A and the extraction potential = 10 K. V

  9. Robust Biometric Score Fusion by Naive Likelihood Ratio via Receiver Operating Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    This paper presents a novel method of fusing multiple biometrics on the matching score level. We estimate the likelihood ratios of the fused biometric scores, via individual receiver operating characteristics (ROC) which construct the Naive Bayes classifier. Using a limited number of operation

  10. Research of psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the working tasks of an operator being taken into full consideration in this paper, on the one hand the table of measuring psychological characteristics is designed through the selection of special dimensions; on the other hand the table of performance appraisal is drafted through the choice of suitable standards of an operator. The paper analyzes the results of two aspects, sets relevant nuclear power plant operators as the research objective, and obtains the psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators. The research can be as important and applied reference for the selection, evaluation and use of operators

  11. Estimated Costs of Continuing Operations in Iraq and Other Operations of the Global War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holtz-Eakin, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    At the request of Senator Conrad, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has estimated the costs of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan and other operations associated with the global war on terrorism (GWOT...

  12. Estimation of pump operational state with model-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, Tero; Tamminen, Jussi; Ahola, Jero; Viholainen, Juha; Aranto, Niina; Kestilae, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Pumps are widely used in industry, and they account for 20% of the industrial electricity consumption. Since the speed variation is often the most energy-efficient method to control the head and flow rate of a centrifugal pump, frequency converters are used with induction motor-driven pumps. Although a frequency converter can estimate the operational state of an induction motor without external measurements, the state of a centrifugal pump or other load machine is not typically considered. The pump is, however, usually controlled on the basis of the required flow rate or output pressure. As the pump operational state can be estimated with a general model having adjustable parameters, external flow rate or pressure measurements are not necessary to determine the pump flow rate or output pressure. Hence, external measurements could be replaced with an adjustable model for the pump that uses estimates of the motor operational state. Besides control purposes, modelling the pump operation can provide useful information for energy auditing and optimization purposes. In this paper, two model-based methods for pump operation estimation are presented. Factors affecting the accuracy of the estimation methods are analyzed. The applicability of the methods is verified by laboratory measurements and tests in two pilot installations. Test results indicate that the estimation methods can be applied to the analysis and control of pump operation. The accuracy of the methods is sufficient for auditing purposes, and the methods can inform the user if the pump is driven inefficiently.

  13. Operational Modal Analysis based Stress Estimation in Friction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarpø, Marius; Friis, Tobias; Nabuco, Bruna

    this assumption. In this paper, the precision of estimating the strain response of a nonlinear system is investigated using the operational response of numerical simulations. Local nonlinearities are introduced by adding friction to the test specimen and this paper finds that this approach of strain estimation...

  14. Interpolation Inequalities and Spectral Estimates for Magnetic Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbeault, Jean; Esteban, Maria J.; Laptev, Ari; Loss, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We prove magnetic interpolation inequalities and Keller-Lieb-Thir-ring estimates for the principal eigenvalue of magnetic Schr{\\"o}dinger operators. We establish explicit upper and lower bounds for the best constants and show by numerical methods that our theoretical estimates are accurate.

  15. $L^2$ estimates for the $\\bar \\partial$ operator

    OpenAIRE

    McNeal, Jeffery D.; Varolin, Dror

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey article about $L^2$ estimates for the $\\bar \\partial$ operator. After a review of the basic approach that has come to be called the "Bochner-Kodaira Technique", the focus is on twisted techniques and their applications to estimates for $\\bar \\partial$, to $L^2$ extension theorems, and to other problems in complex analysis and geometry, including invariant metric estimates and the $\\bar \\partial$-Neumann Problem.

  16. Estimation of fatigue characteristics of asphaltic mixes using simple tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medani, T.O.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2000-01-01

    A simplified procedure for estimation of fatigue characteristics of asphaltic mixes is presented. The procedure requires the determination of the so-called master curve (Le. the relationship between the mix stiffness, the loading time and the temperature), the asphalt properties and the mix

  17. Norm estimates of complex symmetric operators applied to quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Emil; Garcia, Stephan R; Putinar, Mihai

    2006-01-01

    This paper communicates recent results in the theory of complex symmetric operators and shows, through two non-trivial examples, their potential usefulness in the study of Schroedinger operators. In particular, we propose a formula for computing the norm of a compact complex symmetric operator. This observation is applied to two concrete problems related to quantum mechanical systems. First, we give sharp estimates on the exponential decay of the resolvent and the single-particle density matrix for Schroedinger operators with spectral gaps. Second, we provide new ways of evaluating the resolvent norm for Schroedinger operators appearing in the complex scaling theory of resonances

  18. Regional estimation of extreme suspended sediment concentrations using watershed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramblay, Yves; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; St-Hilaire, André; Poulin, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    SummaryThe number of stations monitoring daily suspended sediment concentration (SSC) has been decreasing since the 1980s in North America while suspended sediment is considered as a key variable for water quality. The objective of this study is to test the feasibility of regionalising extreme SSC, i.e. estimating SSC extremes values for ungauged basins. Annual maximum SSC for 72 rivers in Canada and USA were modelled with probability distributions in order to estimate quantiles corresponding to different return periods. Regionalisation techniques, originally developed for flood prediction in ungauged basins, were tested using the climatic, topographic, land cover and soils attributes of the watersheds. Two approaches were compared, using either physiographic characteristics or seasonality of extreme SSC to delineate the regions. Multiple regression models to estimate SSC quantiles as a function of watershed characteristics were built in each region, and compared to a global model including all sites. Regional estimates of SSC quantiles were compared with the local values. Results show that regional estimation of extreme SSC is more efficient than a global regression model including all sites. Groups/regions of stations have been identified, using either the watershed characteristics or the seasonality of occurrence for extreme SSC values providing a method to better describe the extreme events of SSC. The most important variables for predicting extreme SSC are the percentage of clay in the soils, precipitation intensity and forest cover.

  19. Direct estimation of functionals of density operators by local operations and classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Carolina Moura; Horodecki, Pawel; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Kwek, L. C.; Ekert, Artur K.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method of direct estimation of important properties of a shared bipartite quantum state, within the ''distant laboratories'' paradigm, using only local operations and classical communication. We apply this procedure to spectrum estimation of shared states, and locally implementable structural physical approximations to incompletely positive maps. This procedure can also be applied to the estimation of channel capacity and measures of entanglement

  20. Operational Characteristics of an Accelerator Driven Fissile Solution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpland, Robert Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Operational characteristics represent the set of responses that a nuclear system exhibits during normal operation. Operators rely on this behavior to assess the status of the system and to predict the consequences of off-normal events. These characteristics largely refer to the relationship between power and system operating conditions. The static and dynamic behavior of a chain-reacting system, operating at sufficient power, is primarily governed by reactivity effects. The science of reactor physics has identified and evaluated a number of such effects, including Doppler broadening and shifts in the thermal neutron spectrum. Often these reactivity effects are quantified in the form of feedback coefficients that serve as coupling coefficients relating the neutron population and the physical mechanisms that drive reactivity effects, such as fissile material temperature and density changes. The operational characteristics of such nuclear systems usually manifest themselves when perturbations between system power (neutron population) and system operating conditions arise. Successful operation of such systems requires the establishment of steady equilibrium conditions. However, prior to obtaining the desired equilibrium (steady-state) conditions, an approach from zero-power (startup) must occur. This operational regime may possess certain limiting system conditions that must be maintained to achieve effective startup. Once steady-state is achieved, a key characteristic of this operational regime is the level of stability that the system possesses. Finally, a third operational regime, shutdown, may also possess limiting conditions of operation that must be maintained. This report documents the operational characteristics of a ''generic'' Accelerator Driven Fissile Solution (ADFS) system during the various operational regimes of startup, steady-state operation, and shutdown. Typical time-dependent behavior for each operational regime will be illustrated, and key system

  1. Characteristic and Wigner function for number difference and operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hongyi; Hu Haipeng

    2004-01-01

    We introduce the characteristic function in the sense of number difference-operational phase, and we employ the correlated-amplitude-number-difference state representation to calculate it. It results in the form of the corresponding Wigner function and Wigner operator. The marginal distributions of the generalized Wigner function are briefly discussed

  2. Vacuum expectation values for four-fermion operators. Model estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitnitskij, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Some simple models (a system with a heavy quark, the rarefied insatanton gas) are used to investigate the problem of factorizability. Characteristics of vacuum fluctuations responsible for saturation of four-fermion vacuum expectation values which are known phenomenologically are discussed. A qualitative agreement between the model and phenomenologic;l estimates has been noted

  3. Vacuum expectation values of four-fermion operators. Model estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhitnitskii, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple models (a system with a heavy quark, a rarefied instanton gas) are used to study problems of factorizability. A discussion is given of the characteristics of the vacuum fluctuations responsible for saturation of the phenomenologically known four-fermion vacuum expectation values. Qualitative agreement between the model and phenomenological estimates is observed

  4. Schroedinger operators - geometric estimates in terms of the occupation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demuth, M.; Kirsch, W.; McGillivray, I.

    1995-01-01

    The difference of Schroedinger and Dirichlet semigroups is expressed in terms of the Laplace transform of the Brownian motion occupation time. This implies quantitative upper and lower bounds for the operator norms of the corresponding resolvent differences. One spectral theoretical consequence is an estimate for the eigenfunction for a Schroedinger operator in a ball where the potential is given as a cone indicator function. 12 refs

  5. A Cost Simulation Tool for Estimating the Cost of Operating Government Owned and Operated Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Horngren , C.T., Foster, G., Datar, S.M., Cost Accounting : A Management Emphasis, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994 IBM Corporation, A Graphical...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A COST SIMULATION TOOL FOR 5. FUNDING NUMBERS ESTIMATING THE COST OF OPERATING GOVERNMENT OWNED AND OPERATED SHIPS 6. AUTHOR( S ...normally does not present a problem to the accounting department. The final category, the cost of operating the government owned and operated ships is

  6. Application of Bayesian Networks for Estimation of Individual Psychological Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2017-07-19

    In this paper we apply Bayesian networks for developing more accurate final overall estimations of psychological characteristics of an individual, based on psychological test results. Psychological tests which identify how much an individual possesses a certain factor are very popular and quite common in the modern world. We call this value for a given factor -- the final overall estimation. Examples of factors could be stress resistance, the readiness to take a risk, the ability to concentrate on certain complicated work and many others. An accurate qualitative and comprehensive assessment of human potential is one of the most important challenges in any company or collective. The most common way of studying psychological characteristics of each single person is testing. Psychologists and sociologists are constantly working on improvement of the quality of their tests. Despite serious work, done by psychologists, the questions in tests often do not produce enough feedback due to the use of relatively poor estimation systems. The overall estimation is usually based on personal experiences and the subjective perception of a psychologist or a group of psychologists about the investigated psychological personality factors.

  7. Application of Bayesian Networks for Estimation of Individual Psychological Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Litvinenko, Natalya

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we apply Bayesian networks for developing more accurate final overall estimations of psychological characteristics of an individual, based on psychological test results. Psychological tests which identify how much an individual possesses a certain factor are very popular and quite common in the modern world. We call this value for a given factor -- the final overall estimation. Examples of factors could be stress resistance, the readiness to take a risk, the ability to concentrate on certain complicated work and many others. An accurate qualitative and comprehensive assessment of human potential is one of the most important challenges in any company or collective. The most common way of studying psychological characteristics of each single person is testing. Psychologists and sociologists are constantly working on improvement of the quality of their tests. Despite serious work, done by psychologists, the questions in tests often do not produce enough feedback due to the use of relatively poor estimation systems. The overall estimation is usually based on personal experiences and the subjective perception of a psychologist or a group of psychologists about the investigated psychological personality factors.

  8. METRIC TESTS CHARACTERISTIC FOR ESTIMATING JUMPING FOR VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toplica Stojanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available With goal to establish metric tests characteristics for estimating jumping for volleyball players, it was organized a pilot research on pattern of 23 volleyball players from cadet team and 23 students from high-school. For needs of this research four tests are valid for estimation, jump in block with left and right leg and jump in spike with left and right leg. Each test has been taken three times, so that we could with test-re test method determine their reliability, and with factor analysis their validity. Data were processed by multivariate analysis (item analysis, factor analysis from statistical package „Statistica 6.0 for windows“. On the results of research and discussion we can say that the tests had high coefficient of reliability, as well as factor validity, and these tests can be used to estimate jumping for volleyball players.

  9. Test results and operational characteristics of prototype SSCL half cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Burgett, W.; Carter, H.

    1994-01-01

    The SSCL Accelerator System's String Test (ASST) has had several cool down, subsequent operational test series, and warm up cycles. The first cycle of these was rather limited in scope as mandated by Congress. The subsequent tests have been performed to obtain more complete information about parameters of, or operating experience with, the ensemble of magnets and spools when operating serially as in accelerator operations. The tests and procedures performed to date have emphasized cryogenic, mechanical, and electrical operations. These have included running, as well as upset conditions, i.e., superconducting to normal transition of the string (quench). This paper represents a summary of the operational test results and characteristics seen to date. A limited discussion will be included as to their implications with respect to a successful accelerator operation

  10. Lessons Learned for Planning and Estimating Operations Support Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Operations (phase E) costs are typically small compared to the spacecraft development and test costs. This, combined with the long lead time for realizing operations costs, can lead projects to focus on hardware development schedules and costs, de-emphasizing estimation of operations support requirements during proposal, early design, and replan cost exercises. The Discovery and New Frontiers (D&NF) programs comprise small, cost-capped missions supporting scientific exploration of the solar system. Even moderate yearly underestimates of the operations costs can present significant LCC impacts for deep space missions with long operational durations, and any LCC growth can directly impact the programs ability to fund new missions. The D&NF Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center recently studied cost overruns for 7 D&NF missions related to phase C/D development of operational capabilities and phase E mission operations. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential operations risks and controlling the associated impacts to operations development and execution costs. The study found that the drivers behind these overruns include overly optimistic assumptions regarding the savings resulting from the use of heritage technology, late development of operations requirements, inadequate planning for sustaining engineering and the special requirements of long duration missions (e.g., knowledge retention and hardware/software refresh), and delayed completion of ground system development work. This presentation summarizes the study and the results, providing a set of lessons NASA can use to improve early estimation and validation of operations costs.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL-ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Ursulyak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the operational characteristics of freight diesel-electric locomotives ER20CF and 2М62м, which are operated with Lithuanian Railways. Important problems on traction calculations are considered in this article. In this article the critical tasks of traction calculations are solved. It is the main computational tool in the rational functioning, planning and development of railways: determination of the estimated weight of the rolling stock, the diagrams construction of specific resultant forces of a train, the permitted speed definition of the train on the slopes, curves of train traffic construction on the section. Methodology. Using the rules and methods of traction calculations the analysis of the basic operational characteristics of the modernized freight diesel-electric locomotive 2М62m and freight passenger dual locomotive 2ER20CF was held. The maximum weight of the train set, the track structure on a high-speed ascent through the use of kinetic energy (with traction and without traction, technical speed, acceleration force and the value of the smallest radius curve are selected as controlled parameters. During the calculations it was considered that the trains were formed of a fully loaded four-axle gondola cars, model 112-119 (feature-606 with axle load of 23.5 t; the motion was carried out on the continuous welded rail track; the front of the train set is a dual locomotive 2ER20CF or two locomotive 2М62м. Longitudinal profile of the road on the route Vilnus–KlF was analyzed for the choice of theoretical rise. Inspection concerning the possibility of overcoming the high-speed rise was performed with an analytical method, based on the use of the kinetic energy accumulated by the overcoming of «light» elements of the profile. Findings. In the calculations, the maximum weight of the train set taking into account theoretical rise was analyzed. The inspection of the theoretical weight of the train set on a reliable

  12. Eigenvalue estimates of positive integral operators with analytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eigenvalue estimates of positive integral operators. 337 will be used to denote, respectively, the complex line integral of f along γ and the integral of f with respect to arc-length measure. In the first case we assume γ has an orientation. The notation Lp(γ ) will denote the Lp space of normalized arc length measure on γ with.

  13. Operator support through modern optimal estimation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdick, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    Applications of Modern Optimal Estimation and Control Theories are late in coming to the nuclear industry. Some features of the theories that might be exploited in nuclear systems applications are described. Activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory relating to operator support using those theories are identified and some implementation challenges are discussed

  14. MRI characteristics of torn and untorn post-operative menisci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Rosas, Humberto; Liu, Fang [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Williams, Adam [Radiology and Imaging Consultants, Colorado Springs (United States)

    2017-10-15

    To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of torn and untorn post-operative menisci. The study group consisted of 140 patients with 148 partially resected menisci who were evaluated with a repeat knee MRI examination and subsequent repeat arthroscopic knee surgery. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively assessed the following MRI characteristics of the post-operative meniscus: contour (smooth or irregular), T2 line through the meniscus (no line, intermediate signal line, intermediate-to-high signal line, and high fluid-like signal line), displaced meniscus fragment, and change in signal pattern through the meniscus compared with baseline MRI. Positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated using arthroscopy as the reference standard. All 36 post-operative menisci with no T2 line were untorn at surgery (100% NPV), whereas 46 of the 79 post-operative menisci with intermediate T2 line, 16 of the 18 post-operative menisci with intermediate-to-high T2 line, and 14 of the 15 post-operative menisci with high T2 line were torn at surgery (58.2%, 88.9%, and 93.3% PPV respectively). Additional MRI characteristics associated with torn post-operative meniscus at surgery were irregular meniscus contour (PPV 85.7%), displaced meniscus fragment (PPV 100%), and change in signal pattern through the meniscus (PPV 99.4%). Post-operative menisci with no T2 signal line were untorn at surgery. The most useful MRI characteristics for predicting torn post-operative menisci at surgery were change in signal pattern through the meniscus compared with baseline MRI, and displaced meniscus fragment followed by high T2 line through the meniscus, intermediate-to-high T2 line through the meniscus, and irregular meniscus contour. (orig.)

  15. MRI characteristics of torn and untorn post-operative menisci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijowski, Richard; Rosas, Humberto; Liu, Fang; Williams, Adam

    2017-01-01

    To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of torn and untorn post-operative menisci. The study group consisted of 140 patients with 148 partially resected menisci who were evaluated with a repeat knee MRI examination and subsequent repeat arthroscopic knee surgery. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively assessed the following MRI characteristics of the post-operative meniscus: contour (smooth or irregular), T2 line through the meniscus (no line, intermediate signal line, intermediate-to-high signal line, and high fluid-like signal line), displaced meniscus fragment, and change in signal pattern through the meniscus compared with baseline MRI. Positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated using arthroscopy as the reference standard. All 36 post-operative menisci with no T2 line were untorn at surgery (100% NPV), whereas 46 of the 79 post-operative menisci with intermediate T2 line, 16 of the 18 post-operative menisci with intermediate-to-high T2 line, and 14 of the 15 post-operative menisci with high T2 line were torn at surgery (58.2%, 88.9%, and 93.3% PPV respectively). Additional MRI characteristics associated with torn post-operative meniscus at surgery were irregular meniscus contour (PPV 85.7%), displaced meniscus fragment (PPV 100%), and change in signal pattern through the meniscus (PPV 99.4%). Post-operative menisci with no T2 signal line were untorn at surgery. The most useful MRI characteristics for predicting torn post-operative menisci at surgery were change in signal pattern through the meniscus compared with baseline MRI, and displaced meniscus fragment followed by high T2 line through the meniscus, intermediate-to-high T2 line through the meniscus, and irregular meniscus contour. (orig.)

  16. Estimating the energy saving potential of telecom operators in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tian-Jian; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Huang, Jin; Peng, Ruo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    A set of models are employed to estimate the potential of total energy saved of productions and segmented energy saving for telecom operators in China. During the estimation, the total energy saving is divided into that by technology and management, which are derived from technical reform and progress, and management control measures and even marketing respectively, and the estimating methodologies for energy saving potential of each segment are elaborated. Empirical results from China Mobile indicate that, first, the technical advance in communications technology accounts for the largest proportion (70%–80%) of the total energy saved of productions in telecom sector of China. Second, technical reform brings about 20%–30% of the total energy saving. Third, the proportions of energy saving brought by marketing and control measures appear relatively smaller, just less than 3%. Therefore, China's telecom operators should seize the opportunity of the revolution of communications network techniques in recent years to create an advanced network with lower energy consumption

  17. Verification of unfold error estimates in the unfold operator code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehl, D.L.; Biggs, F.

    1997-01-01

    Spectral unfolding is an inverse mathematical operation that attempts to obtain spectral source information from a set of response functions and data measurements. Several unfold algorithms have appeared over the past 30 years; among them is the unfold operator (UFO) code written at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition to an unfolded spectrum, the UFO code also estimates the unfold uncertainty (error) induced by estimated random uncertainties in the data. In UFO the unfold uncertainty is obtained from the error matrix. This built-in estimate has now been compared to error estimates obtained by running the code in a Monte Carlo fashion with prescribed data distributions (Gaussian deviates). In the test problem studied, data were simulated from an arbitrarily chosen blackbody spectrum (10 keV) and a set of overlapping response functions. The data were assumed to have an imprecision of 5% (standard deviation). One hundred random data sets were generated. The built-in estimate of unfold uncertainty agreed with the Monte Carlo estimate to within the statistical resolution of this relatively small sample size (95% confidence level). A possible 10% bias between the two methods was unresolved. The Monte Carlo technique is also useful in underdetermined problems, for which the error matrix method does not apply. UFO has been applied to the diagnosis of low energy x rays emitted by Z-pinch and ion-beam driven hohlraums. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. A study on the operator's communication pattern characteristics under abnormal operating situation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Park, J.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has become more important and a human reliability analysis (HRA) is known as a major contributor to the uncertainty of a PSA. As a part of enhancing the HRA quality, a study was initiated to find out characteristics of communication pattern and to evaluate communication quality of the operators of nuclear power plants. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing evaluation methods for the effect of human-induced events on risk/performance. This paper describes a study on the operator's communication pattern characteristics under abnormal operating situation of nuclear power plants. The study was carried out in four stages; 1) Video recording 2) Audio scripting 3) Message Classification 4) Communication Pattern Analysis. We recorded eight abnormal simulator training programs from Younggwang nuclear power plant training center. After that we performed message classification and carried out communication pattern analysis. We compared communication patterns of abnormal operating situation with emergency operating situation.As results of analysis, the role of SRO (senior reactor operator) under abnormal operating situation was decreased than the activities under emergency operating situation because each operator (reactor operator, turbine operator, safety supervisor) in main control room (MCR) performs the activity to control by himself with corresponding field engineers with his basic knowledge of the system. On the other hand, the operator's decision making processes and activities under abnormal operating situation were dramatically increased than the emergency operating situation. (authors)

  19. Estimation of Anonymous Email Network Characteristics through Statistical Disclosure Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Portela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis aims to obtain relational data from social systems to identify leaders, roles, and communities in order to model profiles or predict a specific behavior in users’ network. Preserving anonymity in social networks is a subject of major concern. Anonymity can be compromised by disclosing senders’ or receivers’ identity, message content, or sender-receiver relationships. Under strongly incomplete information, a statistical disclosure attack is used to estimate the network and node characteristics such as centrality and clustering measures, degree distribution, and small-world-ness. A database of email networks in 29 university faculties is used to study the method. A research on the small-world-ness and Power law characteristics of these email networks is also developed, helping to understand the behavior of small email networks.

  20. Estimation of Anonymous Email Network Characteristics through Statistical Disclosure Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Javier; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Silva Trujillo, Alejandra Guadalupe; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis aims to obtain relational data from social systems to identify leaders, roles, and communities in order to model profiles or predict a specific behavior in users’ network. Preserving anonymity in social networks is a subject of major concern. Anonymity can be compromised by disclosing senders’ or receivers’ identity, message content, or sender-receiver relationships. Under strongly incomplete information, a statistical disclosure attack is used to estimate the network and node characteristics such as centrality and clustering measures, degree distribution, and small-world-ness. A database of email networks in 29 university faculties is used to study the method. A research on the small-world-ness and Power law characteristics of these email networks is also developed, helping to understand the behavior of small email networks. PMID:27809275

  1. ANFIS-Based Modeling for Photovoltaic Characteristics Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Bi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high cost of photovoltaic (PV modules, an accurate performance estimation method is significantly valuable for studying the electrical characteristics of PV generation systems. Conventional analytical PV models are usually composed by nonlinear exponential functions and a good number of unknown parameters must be identified before using. In this paper, an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS based modeling method is proposed to predict the current-voltage characteristics of PV modules. The effectiveness of the proposed modeling method is evaluated through comparison with Villalva’s model, radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN based model and support vector regression (SVR based model. Simulation and experimental results confirm both the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Logistic Regression Analysis of Operational Errors and Routine Operations Using Sector Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfleiderer, Elaine M; Scroggins, Cheryl L; Manning, Carol A

    2009-01-01

    Two separate logistic regression analyses were conducted for low- and high-altitude sectors to determine whether a set of dynamic sector characteristics variables could reliably discriminate between operational error (OE...

  3. Dual ant colony operational modal analysis parameter estimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitarz, Piotr; Powałka, Bartosz

    2018-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is a common technique used to examine the dynamic properties of a system. Contrary to experimental modal analysis, the input signal is generated in object ambient environment. Operational modal analysis mainly aims at determining the number of pole pairs and at estimating modal parameters. Many methods are used for parameter identification. Some methods operate in time while others in frequency domain. The former use correlation functions, the latter - spectral density functions. However, while some methods require the user to select poles from a stabilisation diagram, others try to automate the selection process. Dual ant colony operational modal analysis parameter estimation method (DAC-OMA) presents a new approach to the problem, avoiding issues involved in the stabilisation diagram. The presented algorithm is fully automated. It uses deterministic methods to define the interval of estimated parameters, thus reducing the problem to optimisation task which is conducted with dedicated software based on ant colony optimisation algorithm. The combination of deterministic methods restricting parameter intervals and artificial intelligence yields very good results, also for closely spaced modes and significantly varied mode shapes within one measurement point.

  4. On Numerical Characteristics of а Simplex and their Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Nevskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let \\(n\\in {\\mathbb N}\\, and let \\(Q_n=[0,1]^n\\ be the \\(n\\-dimensionalunit cube. For a nondegenerate simplex \\(S\\subset {\\mathbb R}^n\\, by\\(\\sigma S\\ we denote the homothetic image of \\(S\\with the center of homothety in the center of gravity of S and theratio of homothety \\(\\sigma\\. We apply the followingnumerical characteristics of the simplex.Denote by \\(\\xi(S\\ the minimal \\(\\sigma>0\\ with the property\\(Q_n\\subset \\sigma S\\. By \\(\\alpha(S\\ we denote the minimal\\(\\sigma>0\\ such that \\(Q_n\\ is contained in a translateof a simplex \\(\\sigma S\\.By \\(d_i(S\\ we mean the \\(i\\th axial diameter of \\(S\\, i.\\,e.the maximum length of a segment contained in \\(S\\ and parallelto the \\(i\\th coordinate axis. We apply the computationalformulae for\\(\\xi(S\\, \\(\\alpha(S\\, \\(d_i(S\\ which have been proved by the firstauthor. In the paper we discuss the case \\(S\\subset Q_n\\.Let\\(\\xi_n=\\min\\{ \\xi(S: S\\subset Q_n\\}. \\Earlier the first author formulated the conjecture:{\\it if\\(\\xi(S=\\xi_n\\, then \\(\\alpha(S=\\xi(S\\.} He proved this statementfor \\(n=2\\ and the case when \\(n+1\\ is an Hadamard number, i.\\,e.there exists an Hadamard matrix of order \\(n+1\\. The followingconjecture is a strongerproposition: {\\it for each \\(n\\,there exist \\(\\gamma\\geq 1\\, not depending on \\(S\\subset Q_n\\, such that\\(\\xi(S-\\alpha(S\\leq \\gamma (\\xi(S-\\xi_n.\\}By \\(\\varkappa_n\\ we denote the minimal\\(\\gamma\\ with such a property.If \\(n+1\\ is an Hadamard number, then the precise value of \\(\\varkappa_n\\is 1. The existence of \\(\\varkappa_n\\ for other \\(n\\was unclear. In this paper with the use of computer methods we obtainan equality$$\\varkappa_2 = \\frac{5+2\\sqrt{5}}{3}=3.1573\\ldots $$Also we prove a new estimate$$\\xi_4\\leq \\frac{19+5\\sqrt{13}}{9}=4.1141\\ldots,$$which improves the earlier result \\(\\xi_4\\leq \\frac{13}{3}=4.33\\ldots\\Our conjecture is that \\(\\xi_4\\ is

  5. Design features and operating characteristics of the MC-50 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Hae Ill; Bak, Joo Shik

    1989-01-01

    The MC-50 cyclotron at Korean Cancer Center Hospital is now operational for neutron therapy and medical radioisotope production. Design features, mechanical structures and operating characteristics of the MC-50 are described in this paper. Optimum operating condition for this cyclotron has been determined by the repetitive running, and the performances of the internal beam have been investigated through the measurements of intensity and spatial distribution of the internal beam as a function of the radius of the cyclotron. Routinely, the 40 μA of 50 MeV protons have been obtained at first Faraday cup with a extraction efficiency of 61%. (Author)

  6. Post operation: The changing characteristics of nuclear fuel cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Fundamental changes have occurred in the nuclear fuel cycle. These changes forged by market forces, legislative action, and regulatory climate appear to be a long term characteristic of the nuclear fuel cycle. The nature of these changes and the resulting emerging importance of post-operation and its impact on fuel cycle costs are examined

  7. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs) in Recognition Memory: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Parks, Colleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is being used increasingly to examine the memory processes underlying recognition memory. The authors discuss the methodological issues involved in conducting and analyzing ROC results, describe the various models that have been developed to account for these results, review the behavioral empirical…

  8. OPERATION MODES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PLASMA DIPOLE ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Nikolaevich Bogachev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Existence modes of  surface electromagnetic wave on a plasma cylinder, operating modes and characteristics of the plasma antenna were studied in this paper. Solutions of the dispersion equation of surface wave were obtained for a plasma cylinder with finite radius for different plasma density values. Operation modes of the plasma asymmetric dipole antenna with finite length and radius were researched by numerical simulation. The electric field distributions of  the plasma antenna in near antenna field and the radiation pattern were obtained. These characteristics were compared to characteristics of the similar metal antenna. Numerical models verification was carried out by comparing of the counted and measured metal antenna radiation patterns.

  9. Global Carleman estimates for degenerate parabolic operators with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cannarsa, P; Vancostenoble, J

    2016-01-01

    Degenerate parabolic operators have received increasing attention in recent years because they are associated with both important theoretical analysis, such as stochastic diffusion processes, and interesting applications to engineering, physics, biology, and economics. This manuscript has been conceived to introduce the reader to global Carleman estimates for a class of parabolic operators which may degenerate at the boundary of the space domain, in the normal direction to the boundary. Such a kind of degeneracy is relevant to study the invariance of a domain with respect to a given stochastic diffusion flow, and appears naturally in climatology models.

  10. Blade Bearing Friction Estimation of Operating Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Blade root bearing on a wind turbine (WTG) enables pitching of blades for power control and rotor braking and is a WTG critical component. As the size of modern WTGs is constantly increasing, this leads to relatively less rigid bearings, more sensitive to deformations, thus WTG operational...... reliability can be increased by continuous monitoring of blade bearing. High blade bearing friction is undesirable, as it may be associated with excessive heating of the surfaces, damage and/or inefficient operation. Thus, continuous observation of bearing friction level is crucial for blade bearing health...... monitoring systems. A novel algorithm for online monitoring of bearing friction level is developed combining physical knowledge about pitch system dynamics with state estimator, i.e. observer theory and signal processing assuming realistic sensor availability. Results show estimation of bearing friction...

  11. 49 CFR 234.205 - Operating characteristics of warning system apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating characteristics of warning system... characteristics of warning system apparatus. Operating characteristics of electromagnetic, electronic, or... limits within which the system is designed to operate. ...

  12. Radium removal processes capital and operating cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, F.J.

    1979-09-01

    An estimate of the fixed capital and operating costs for two alternative processes for the removal of dissolved Ra-226 from uranium mill effluent in Elliot Lake, Ontario is presented. Process 1 consists of barium-radium coprecipitation followed by coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation. Process 2 consists of barium-radium coprecipitation followed by gravity media filtration, sand filter backwashing and sedimentation. Cost estimates were prepared for 18 different plant configurations designed to treat 1000 and 4000 imperial gallons per minute (ig/m) of effluent, 24 hrs per day, 7 days per week and 365 days per year with several equipment options. The estimated fixed capital costs for plants equipped with gravity filters were less than those equipped with circular clarifiers. The capital costs ranged from $552,000 with a flow rate of 1000 ig/m to $2,578,000 with a flow rate of 4000 ig/m. Estimated annual operating costs, based on a plant life of 10 years, ranged from $298,000 with a flow rate of 1000 ig/m to $1,061,000 with a flow rate of 4000 ig/m

  13. Estimation of the characteristic energy of electron precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. del Pozo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from simultaneous observations (on 13 February 1996, 9 November 1998, and 12 February 1999 with the IRIS, DASI and EISCAT systems are employed in the study of the energy distribution of the electron precipitation during substorm activity. The estimation of the characteristic energy of the electron precipitation over the common field of view of IRIS and DASI is discussed. In particular, we look closely at the physical basis of the correspondence between the characteristic energy, the flux-averaged energy, as defined below, and the logarithm of the ratio of the green-light intensity to the square of absorption. This study expands and corrects results presented in the paper by Kosch et al. (2001. It is noticed, moreover, that acceleration associated with diffusion processes in the magnetosphere long before precipitation may be controlling the shape of the energy spectrum. We propose and test a "mixed" distribution for the energy-flux spectrum, exponential at the lower energies and Maxwellian or modified power-law at the higher energies, with a threshold energy separating these two regimes. The energy-flux spectrum at Tromsø, in the 1–320 keV range, is derived from EISCAT electron density profiles in the 70–140 km altitude range and is applied in the "calibration" of the optical intensity and absorption distributions, in order to extrapolate the flux and characteristic energy maps.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation; particle acceleration

  14. Estimation of the characteristic energy of electron precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. del Pozo

    Full Text Available Data from simultaneous observations (on 13 February 1996, 9 November 1998, and 12 February 1999 with the IRIS, DASI and EISCAT systems are employed in the study of the energy distribution of the electron precipitation during substorm activity. The estimation of the characteristic energy of the electron precipitation over the common field of view of IRIS and DASI is discussed. In particular, we look closely at the physical basis of the correspondence between the characteristic energy, the flux-averaged energy, as defined below, and the logarithm of the ratio of the green-light intensity to the square of absorption. This study expands and corrects results presented in the paper by Kosch et al. (2001. It is noticed, moreover, that acceleration associated with diffusion processes in the magnetosphere long before precipitation may be controlling the shape of the energy spectrum. We propose and test a "mixed" distribution for the energy-flux spectrum, exponential at the lower energies and Maxwellian or modified power-law at the higher energies, with a threshold energy separating these two regimes. The energy-flux spectrum at Tromsø, in the 1–320 keV range, is derived from EISCAT electron density profiles in the 70–140 km altitude range and is applied in the "calibration" of the optical intensity and absorption distributions, in order to extrapolate the flux and characteristic energy maps.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation; particle acceleration

  15. On the comparability of acceptance tests for concrete by operation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, R.

    1978-01-01

    The purely statistical aspect of acceptance tests can be estimated by means of operation characteristics, the position and steepness of which determine the probability for acceptance or rejection of offered loads. For negative decisions in concrete checking there will be, as a rule, an after-check in normal quality control. The operation characteristics with after-check valid for DIN 1045, DIN 1084, and DIN 1048 are set up. Complete comparability of different acceptance tests by means of the operation characteristic can only be achieved if the different sampling rates and the number of decisions are also included in the consideration. Proposals for improving the acceptance tests for concrete are presented. (orig.) [de

  16. Preliminary analysis of the operating characteristics of a generic repository receiving facility: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The operating characteristics of a repository receiving facility structured around current technology and practices have been reviewed. Cask turnaround times and operator doses were estimated. Large throughout and long-term receiving operations at a nuclear waste repository result in an unprecedented number of casks being handled. While the current generation of material-handling equipment is adequate to process the casks, personnel radiation exposures for the generic facility analyzed are unacceptably high. This emphasizes the need for development of occupational radiation exposure control concepts for application in repository receiving facilities. 3 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs

  17. The characteristics of operation of the Shatlyk gas condensate deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatov, G.A.; Friman, Yu.M.; Frumson, Yu.V.; Koshayev, T.K.; Stepanov, N.G.; Tverkovkin, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Results are correlated of the operation of the Shatlyksk deposit for a 10 year period from the start of its development through 1982. The rates of gas withdrawal from the deposits are analyzed, along with the conditions for manifestation of elastic, water thrust modes, the characteristics of the studied wells and other issues. The results of modeling the advancement of stratum waters are cited. The modeling was performed on a computer (EVM) using a system of two dimensional, two phase filtration.

  18. Estimated water requirements for gold heap-leach operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water necessary for conventional gold heap-leach operations. Water is required for drilling and dust suppression during mining, for agglomeration and as leachate during ore processing, to support the workforce (requires water in potable form and for sanitation), for minesite reclamation, and to compensate for water lost to evaporation and leakage. Maintaining an adequate water balance is especially critical in areas where surface and groundwater are difficult to acquire because of unfavorable climatic conditions [arid conditions and (or) a high evaporation rate]; where there is competition with other uses, such as for agriculture, industry, and use by municipalities; and where compliance with regulatory requirements may restrict water usage. Estimating the water consumption of heap-leach operations requires an understanding of the heap-leach process itself. The task is fairly complex because, although they all share some common features, each gold heap-leach operation is unique. Also, estimating the water consumption requires a synthesis of several fields of science, including chemistry, ecology, geology, hydrology, and meteorology, as well as consideration of economic factors.

  19. Bootstrap-based procedures for inference in nonparametric receiver-operating characteristic curve regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Tahoces, Pablo G

    2018-03-01

    Prior to using a diagnostic test in a routine clinical setting, the rigorous evaluation of its diagnostic accuracy is essential. The receiver-operating characteristic curve is the measure of accuracy most widely used for continuous diagnostic tests. However, the possible impact of extra information about the patient (or even the environment) on diagnostic accuracy also needs to be assessed. In this paper, we focus on an estimator for the covariate-specific receiver-operating characteristic curve based on direct regression modelling and nonparametric smoothing techniques. This approach defines the class of generalised additive models for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. The main aim of the paper is to offer new inferential procedures for testing the effect of covariates on the conditional receiver-operating characteristic curve within the above-mentioned class. Specifically, two different bootstrap-based tests are suggested to check (a) the possible effect of continuous covariates on the receiver-operating characteristic curve and (b) the presence of factor-by-curve interaction terms. The validity of the proposed bootstrap-based procedures is supported by simulations. To facilitate the application of these new procedures in practice, an R-package, known as npROCRegression, is provided and briefly described. Finally, data derived from a computer-aided diagnostic system for the automatic detection of tumour masses in breast cancer is analysed.

  20. Assessing operating characteristics of CAD algorithms in the absence of a gold standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Paik, David S.; Yi, Chin A.; Napel, Sandy; Roos, Justus; Rubin, Geoffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examine potential bias when using a reference reader panel as ''gold standard'' for estimating operating characteristics of CAD algorithms for detecting lesions. As an alternative, the authors propose latent class analysis (LCA), which does not require an external gold standard to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. Methods: A binomial model for multiple reader detections using different diagnostic protocols was constructed, assuming conditional independence of readings given true lesion status. Operating characteristics of all protocols were estimated by maximum likelihood LCA. Reader panel and LCA based estimates were compared using data simulated from the binomial model for a range of operating characteristics. LCA was applied to 36 thin section thoracic computed tomography data sets from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): Free search markings of four radiologists were compared to markings from four different CAD assisted radiologists. For real data, bootstrap-based resampling methods, which accommodate dependence in reader detections, are proposed to test of hypotheses of differences between detection protocols. Results: In simulation studies, reader panel based sensitivity estimates had an average relative bias (ARB) of -23% to -27%, significantly higher (p-value <0.0001) than LCA (ARB -2% to -6%). Specificity was well estimated by both reader panel (ARB -0.6% to -0.5%) and LCA (ARB 1.4%-0.5%). Among 1145 lesion candidates LIDC considered, LCA estimated sensitivity of reference readers (55%) was significantly lower (p-value 0.006) than CAD assisted readers' (68%). Average false positives per patient for reference readers (0.95) was not significantly lower (p-value 0.28) than CAD assisted readers' (1.27). Conclusions: Whereas a gold standard based on a consensus of readers may substantially bias sensitivity estimates, LCA may be a significantly more accurate and consistent means for evaluating diagnostic accuracy.

  1. Classification of operational characteristics of commercial cup-anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T; Schmidt Paulsen, U [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The present classification of cup-anemometers is based on a procedure for classification of operational characteristics of cup-anemometers that was proposed at the EWEC `97 conference in Dublin 1997. Three definitions of wind speed are considered. The average longitudinal wind speed (ID), the average horizontal wind speed (2D) and the average vector wind speed (3D). The classification is provided in these terms, and additionally, the turbulence intensities, which are defined from the same wind speed definitions. The commercial cup-anemometers have all been calibrated in wind tunnel for the normal calibrations and angular characteristics. Friction was measured by blywheel testing, where the surrounding temperatures were varied over a wide range. The characteristics of the cup-anemometers have been fitted to the heuristic dynamic model, and the response has been calculated in time domain for prescribed ranges of external operational conditions. The results are presented in ranges of maximum deviations of `measured` average wind speed. For each definition of wind speed and turbulence intensity, the cup-anemometers are ranked according to the most precise instrument. Finally, the most important systematic error sources are commented. (au)

  2. Estimation of fire frequency from PWR operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Barrachin, G.; Bonino, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of a fire probabilistic safety assessment (Fire PSA), the French Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a method for estimating the frequency of fire in a nuclear power plant room. This method is based on the analysis of French Pressurized Water Reactors operating experience. The method adopted consists is carrying out an in-depth analysis of fire-related incidents. A database has been created including 202 fire events reported in 900 MWe and 1300 MWe reactors from the start of their commercial operation up to the first of March 1994, which represents a cumulated service life of 508 reactor-years. For each reported fire, several data were recorded among which: The operating state of the reactor in the stage preceding the fire, the building in which the fire broke out, the piece of equipment or the human intervention which caused the fire. Operating experience shows that most fires are initiated by electrical problems (short-circuits, arcing, faulty contacts, etc.) and that human intervention also plays an important role (grinding, cutting, welding, cleaning, etc.). A list of equipment and of human interventions which proved to be possible fire sources was therefore drawn up. the items of this list were distributed in 19 reference groups defined by taking into account the nature of the potential ignition source (transformers, electrical cabinets, pumps, fans, etc.). The fire frequency assigned to each reference group was figured out using the operating experience information of the database. The fire frequency in a room is considered to be made out of two contributions: one due to equipment which is proportional to the number of pieces of equipment from each reference group contained in the room, and a second one which is due to human interventions and assumed to be uniform throughout the reactor. Formulas to assess the fire frequencies in a room, the reactor being in a shutdown state or at power, are then proposed

  3. Operational characteristics of the CALIBAN fast pulse reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortella, J.; Reberol, R.; Vanel, M.

    1976-01-01

    CALIBAN is a FPR operated at CEA-Valduc Center since 1971. It has been designed as a fast neutron irradiation source and its environment is specific for this utilization. To date, it delivered more than 400 bursts and the fuel integrated about 5.10 19 fissions. The main characteristics are: - cylindirical core 113 kg U 235 - Mo 10% alloy - integrated dose in a burst in the central 2.5cm diam cavity:3.10 14 n.cm -2 - integrated dose in a burst outside of the core:5.10 13 n.cm -2 - pulse width:50μs A special effort was made in measuring the spectrometric and dosimetric neutron and gamma characteristics. Some results will be presented here. (auth.)

  4. Analysis for RSG-GAS operational characteristics of reactor cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhappy, T.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of operational characteristics of reactor cooling systems (JE01 and PA) is aimed at determining the effects of operation and maintenance patterns to the operational characteristic of the system. Analysis is carried out by virtue of the operating and maintenance data from 1987 to 1997, comprising the operating hours (duration) and data on operating failures of the systems. Results of study show that, either separately or jointly, the operating and maintenance patterns will qualitatively affect the operational characteristic of the systems

  5. Operational characteristics of the VEC radio-frequency system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khemka, P K; Basu Mallik, D N; Bhattacharya, D S; Mukherjee, A K; Mukherjee, B; Ramamurthy, S S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Variable Energy Cyclotron Project

    1979-01-01

    The operating characteristics of the 400 kW rf system of the VEC, based on the RCA 6949 oscillator tube, and covering a frequency range of 5.5 to 16.5 MHz, are described. The frequency stability of the system is measured to be 1 part in 10/sup 5/, and a dee voltage of 40 kV at 8 MHz has been achieved. The results of experimental adjustments of ratio capacitor for proper excitation and appropriate fixed dee voltage over the entire frequency range are discussed. An analysis of the multi-pactoring encountered during beam trials is presented.

  6. Operational characteristics of the VEC radio frequency system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khemka, P.K.; Basu Mallik, D.N.; Bhattacharya, D.S.; Mukherjee, A.K.; Mukherjee, B.; Ramamurthy, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    The operating characteristics of the 400 KW RF system of the VEC, based on the RCA 6949 oscillator tube, and covering a frequency range of 5.5 to 16.5 MHZ, are described. The frequency stability of the system is measured to be 1 part in 10 5 , and a dee voltage of 40 kV at 8 MHZ has been achieved. The results of experimental adjustments of ratio capacitor for proper excitation and appropriate fixed dee voltage over the entire frequency range are discussed. An analysis of the multi-pactoring encountered during beam trials is presented. (auth.)

  7. Study on the construction and its operating characteristics of Marx high voltage pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, W.K.; Yook, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    This study is to investigate the operating characteristics of a Marx high voltage pulse generator, which is designed and fabricated for the purpose of constructing a linear theta-pinch plasma generating facility. The Marx generator consists of a 2 kJ capacitor bank of maximum output voltage of 200kV, a set of main spark switch, a triggring system, and high voltage charging power supply. The experimental results show that the operating characteristics of the generator can be controlled through varying nitrogen pressure as a filling gas. The output pulse of the generator is achieved close to the estimated voltage with the rise time of 3*m seconds. The stability of the generator is also very satisfactory within operating range of main spark switch. (Author)

  8. Cauchy problem for differential operators with double characteristics non-effectively hyperbolic characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Nishitani, Tatsuo

    2017-01-01

    Combining geometrical and microlocal tools, this monograph gives detailed proofs of many well/ill-posed results related to the Cauchy problem for differential operators with non-effectively hyperbolic double characteristics. Previously scattered over numerous different publications, the results are presented from the viewpoint that the Hamilton map and the geometry of bicharacteristics completely characterizes the well/ill-posedness of the Cauchy problem. A doubly characteristic point of a differential operator P of order m (i.e. one where Pm = dPm = 0) is effectively hyperbolic if the Hamilton map FPm has real non-zero eigenvalues. When the characteristics are at most double and every double characteristic is effectively hyperbolic, the Cauchy problem for P can be solved for arbitrary lower order terms. If there is a non-effectively hyperbolic characteristic, solvability requires the subprincipal symbol of P to lie between − Pµj and P µj , where iµj are the positive imaginary eigenvalues of FPm ....

  9. Heat kernel estimates for pseudodifferential operators, fractional Laplacians and Dirichlet-to-Neumann operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimperlein, Heiko; Grubb, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to establish upper and lower estimates for the integral kernel of the semigroup exp(−t P) associated to a classical, strongly elliptic pseudodifferential operator P of positive order on a closed manifold. The Poissonian bounds generalize those obtained for perturbat......The purpose of this article is to establish upper and lower estimates for the integral kernel of the semigroup exp(−t P) associated to a classical, strongly elliptic pseudodifferential operator P of positive order on a closed manifold. The Poissonian bounds generalize those obtained...... for perturbations of fractional powers of the Laplacian. In the selfadjoint case, extensions to t∈C+  are studied. In particular, our results apply to the Dirichlet-to-Neumann semigroup....

  10. Mixed Estimates for Degenerate Multilinear Operators Associated to Simplexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kesler, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We prove that the degenerate trilinear operator $C_3^{-1,1,1}$ given by the formula \\begin{eqnarray*} C_3^{-1,1,1}(f_1, f_2, f_3)(x)=\\int_{x_1 < x_2 < x_3} \\hat{f_1}(x_1) \\hat{f_2}(x_2) \\hat{f_3}(x_3) e^{2\\pi i x (-x_1 + x_2 + x_3)} dx_1dx_2 dx_3 \\end{eqnarray*} satisfies the new estimates \\begin{eqnarray*} ||C_3^{-1,1,1}(f_1, f_2, f_3)||_{\\frac{1}{\\frac{1}{p_1}+\\frac{1}{p_2}+\\frac{1}{p_3}}} \\lesssim_{p_1, p_2, p_3} ||\\hat{f}_1||_{p^\\prime_1} ||f_2||_{p_2}||f_3||_{p_3} \\end{eqnarray*} for all...

  11. A Three-Dimensional Receiver Operator Characteristic Surface Diagnostic Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are commonly applied as metrics for quantifying the performance of binary fault detection systems. An ROC curve provides a visual representation of a detection system s True Positive Rate versus False Positive Rate sensitivity as the detection threshold is varied. The area under the curve provides a measure of fault detection performance independent of the applied detection threshold. While the standard ROC curve is well suited for quantifying binary fault detection performance, it is not suitable for quantifying the classification performance of multi-fault classification problems. Furthermore, it does not provide a measure of diagnostic latency. To address these shortcomings, a novel three-dimensional receiver operator characteristic (3D ROC) surface metric has been developed. This is done by generating and applying two separate curves: the standard ROC curve reflecting fault detection performance, and a second curve reflecting fault classification performance. A third dimension, diagnostic latency, is added giving rise to 3D ROC surfaces. Applying numerical integration techniques, the volumes under and between the surfaces are calculated to produce metrics of the diagnostic system s detection and classification performance. This paper will describe the 3D ROC surface metric in detail, and present an example of its application for quantifying the performance of aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. Metric limitations and potential enhancements are also discussed

  12. Demirjian approach of dental age estimation: Abridged for operator ease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vanshika; Kapoor, Priyanka; Miglani, Ragini

    2016-01-01

    Present times have seen an alarming increase in incidence of crimes by juveniles and of mass destruction that Highlight the preponderance of individual age estimation. Of the numerous techniques employed for age assessment, dental age estimation (DAE) and its correlation with chronological age (CA) have been of great significance in the recent past. Demirjian system, considered as gold standard in DAE is a simple and convenient method for DAE, though,, although, referring to multiple tables make it cumbersome and less eco friendly due to excessive paper load. The present study was aimed to develop a comprehensive chart (DAEcc) inclusive of all Demirjian tables and developmental stages of teeth and also to as well as to test the operator ease of 50 undergraduate dental students in performing DAE using this chart. The study was performed in two stages, wherein the first stage was aimed at formulation of the comprehensive chart (DAE CC ) which included pictorial representation of calcification stages, the Federation Dentaire Internationale notation of the teeth, and the corresponding scores for each stage with a concluding column at the end to enter the total score. The second stage assessed the applicability of the ease of DAE by DAE CC , whereby fifty 2 nd year BDS students were asked to trace the calcification stages of the seven permanent left mandibular teeth on a panorex, identify the correct stage, assign the corresponding score, and to calculate the total score for subsequent dental age assessment. showed that average time taken by the students for tracing seven mandibular teeth was 5 min and for assessment of dental age was 7 min. The total time taken for DAE was approximately 12 min, thus making the procedure less time consuming. Hence, this study proposes the use of DAEcc for age estimation due to ease in comprehension and execution of Demirjian system.

  13. Human dynamics scaling characteristics for aerial inbound logistics operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Guo, Jin-Li

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, the study of power-law scaling characteristics of real-life networks has attracted much interest from scholars; it deviates from the Poisson process. In this paper, we take the whole process of aerial inbound operation in a logistics company as the empirical object. The main aim of this work is to study the statistical scaling characteristics of the task-restricted work patterns. We found that the statistical variables have the scaling characteristics of unimodal distribution with a power-law tail in five statistical distributions - that is to say, there obviously exists a peak in each distribution, the shape of the left part closes to a Poisson distribution, and the right part has a heavy-tailed scaling statistics. Furthermore, to our surprise, there is only one distribution where the right parts can be approximated by the power-law form with exponent α=1.50. Others are bigger than 1.50 (three of four are about 2.50, one of four is about 3.00). We then obtain two inferences based on these empirical results: first, the human behaviors probably both close to the Poisson statistics and power-law distributions on certain levels, and the human-computer interaction behaviors may be the most common in the logistics operational areas, even in the whole task-restricted work pattern areas. Second, the hypothesis in Vázquez et al. (2006) [A. Vázquez, J. G. Oliveira, Z. Dezsö, K.-I. Goh, I. Kondor, A.-L. Barabási. Modeling burst and heavy tails in human dynamics, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 036127] is probably not sufficient; it claimed that human dynamics can be classified as two discrete university classes. There may be a new human dynamics mechanism that is different from the classical Barabási models.

  14. Revised estimates for ozone reduction by shuttle operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Previous calculations by five different modeling groups of the effect of space shuttle operations on the ozone layer yielded an estimate of 0.2 percent ozone reduction for the Northern Hemisphere at 60 launches per year. Since these calculations were made, the accepted rate constant for the reaction between hydroperoxyl and nitric oxide to yield hydroxyl and nitrogen dioxide, HO2 + NO yields OH + NO2, was revised upward by more than an order of magnitude, with a resultant increase in the predicted ozone reduction for chlorofluoromethanes by a factor of approximately 2. New calculations of the shuttle effect were made with use of the new rate constant data, again by five different modeling groups. The new value of the shuttle effect on the ozone layer was found to be 0.25 percent. The increase resulting from the revised rate constant is considerably less for space shuttle operations than for chlorofluoromethane production, because the new rate constant also increases the calculated rate of downward transport of shuttle exhaust products out of the stratosphere.

  15. Acquisition of Human Operation Characteristics for Kite-based Tethered Flying Robot using Human Operation Data

    OpenAIRE

    Todoroki, Chiaki; Takahashi, Yasutake; Nakamura, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows human skill acquisition systems to control the kite-based tethered flying robot. The kite-based tethered flying robot has been proposed as a flying observation system with long-term activity capability[1]. It is a relatively new system and aimed to complement other information gathering systems using a balloon or an air vehicle. This paper shows some approaches of human operation characteristics acquisition based on fuzzy learning controller, knearest neighbor algorithm, and ...

  16. Characteristics of Subfreezing Operation of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishler, Jeffrey Harris

    validated against experimental data. The ice coverage coefficient was shown to be a key variable in matching with experimental data. From model analysis, it appears that the coulombs of charge passed before operation failure is an important parameter characterizing PEM fuel cell cold start. To investigate the coulombs of charge and its determining factors, PEM fuel cells were constructed to measure the effects of membrane configuration (thickness and initial state), catalyst layer configuration (thickness and ionomer-carbon ratio), current density, and temperature on the quantity. It was found that subfreezing temperature, ionomer-catalyst ratio, and catalyst-layer thickness significantly affect the amount of charge transferred before operational failure, whereas the membrane thickness and initial hydration level have limited effect for the considered cases. In addition, degradation of the catalyst layer was observed and quantified. These results improve the fundamental understanding of characteristics of subfreezing operation and thus are valuable for automobile applications of PEM fuel cells. The model directly relates the material properties to voltage loss, and predicts voltage evolution, thus providing a way for material optimization and diagnostics. Additionally, insights into component design and operating conditions can be used to better optimize the fuel cell for cold start-up of the vehicle.

  17. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis for Detecting Explosives-related Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxley, Mark E; Venzin, Alexander M

    2012-11-14

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are interested in developing a standardized testing procedure for determining the performance of candidate detection systems. This document outlines a potential method for judging detection system performance as well as determining if combining the information from a legacy system with a new system can signicantly improve performance. In this document, performance corresponds to the Neyman-Pearson criterion applied to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the detection systems in question. A simulation was developed to investigate how the amount of data provided by the vendor in the form of the ROC curve eects the performance of the combined detection system. Furthermore, the simulation also takes into account the potential eects of correlation and how this information can also impact the performance of the combined system.

  18. Engineer’s estimate reliability and statistical characteristics of bids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz M. Tehrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to provide a methodology for examining bids and evaluating the performance of engineer’s estimates in capturing the true cost of projects. This study reviews the cost development for transportation projects in addition to two sources of uncertainties in a cost estimate, including modeling errors and inherent variability. Sample projects are highway maintenance projects with a similar scope of the work, size, and schedule. Statistical analysis of engineering estimates and bids examines the adaptability of statistical models for sample projects. Further, the variation of engineering cost estimates from inception to implementation has been presented and discussed for selected projects. Moreover, the applicability of extreme values theory is assessed for available data. The results indicate that the performance of engineer’s estimate is best evaluated based on trimmed average of bids, excluding discordant bids.

  19. The Acquisition Cost-Estimating Workforce. Census and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Abbreviations AAC Air Armament Center ACAT acquisition category ACEIT Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools AF Air Force AFB Air Force Base AFCAA Air...3 3 4 Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) 0 1 12 6 Tecolotea training 0 0 10 5 Other 3 13 24 18 No training 18 4 29 18 Total 100 100...other sources, including AFIT, ACEIT ,9 or the contracting agency that employed them. The remain- ing 29 percent reported having received no training

  20. NORMALIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE BRAKE CHARACTERISTICS WHILE OPERATING THEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Flerko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety provision for the operated auto-transport facilities is of great significance all over the world. The problem is also considered as an actual one for the automotive transport of theRepublicofBelarus. Provision of higher brake system reliability for the operated vehicles is one of the directions to solve the problem pertaining to improve traffic safety.The paper contains an analysis of basic national standard documents which regulate brake characteristics for the operated vehicles, evaluates checking methods of braking efficiency and vehicle stability at the moment of braking, considers some problems pertaining to methods used for checking and estimation of braking control systems of transport facilities. 

  1. Pseudo-spark switch (PSS) characteristics under different operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, B. H., E-mail: dr.bassmahussain@gmail.com; Ahmad, A. K., E-mail: ahmad.kamal@sc.nahrainuniv.edu.iq [College of Science, Al Nahrain University, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq); Lateef, K. H., E-mail: kamalhlatif@yahoo.com [Ministry of Science and Technology, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2016-08-15

    The present paper concentrates on the characteristics of the pseudospark switch (PSS) designed in a previous work. The special characteristics of PSS make it a replacement for other high voltage switches such as thyratrons and ordinary high-pressure spark gaps. PSS is characterized by short rise time and small jitter time. The pseudo park chamber consists of two hollow cylindrical electrodes made of a stainless steel material (type 306L) separated by an insulator. The insulator used in our design is a glazed ceramic 70 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm in thickness. A PSS with an anode voltage of 29.2 kV, and a current of 3.6 kA and 11 ns rise time was achieved and used successfully at a repetition rate of about 2.2 kHz. A simple trigger circuit designed, built, and used effectively reaching more than 1.56 kV trigger pulse which is sufficient to ignite the argon gas inside the cathode to cause a breakdown. A non-inductive dummy load is designed to be a new technique to find the accurate value of the PSS inductance. A jitter time of ±10 ns pulses is observed to occur in a reliable manner for more than 6 h of continuous operation. In this research, the important parameters of this switch like rise time, peak current, and anode voltage were studied at various values of charging capacitance. The lifetime of this system is depending on the kind of the electrode material and on the type of insulation material in the main gap of the pseudospark switch.

  2. [Characteristics of the Chinese human milk banks' operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-02

    Objective: To assess the operation status of human milk banks in the mainland of China. Method: This retrospective study included a consecutive series of 14 human milk banks in the mainland of China from March 2013 to December 2016. The opened date, condition of donated breast milk, characteristics of donors and clinical application of donated breast milk were analyzed. Result: There were 14 human milk banks successively founded in mainland China from March 2013 to December 2016. The number of human milk banks, the amount of donated breast milk, the number of eligible donors and the times of donation had increased each year. Howere, the operation status among these milk banks varied greatly. Among them, one human milk bank has newly opened without relevant data, 6 banks could accept frozen breast milk, and the remaining 7 banks could only collect breast milk by the nurses in the bank. Among the 3 121 eligible donors, 1 404 (45.0%) donated less than 3 times, 2 553 (81.8%) aged 25 to 35 years, 2 828 (90.6%) had term delivery, 2 409 (77.2%) began donation one month after birth, 1 798 (57.6%) were company employees and housewives and 1 891 (60.6%) had bachelor or higher degree. The use of donor breast milk, the number of recipients and the average received amount of breast milk every person varied greatly among these banks. Conclusion: The human milk banking developed quickly in the mainland of China. Howere, the number of donors and the amount of donated breast milk which could not meet the clinical demands should be improved. And it was urgent to establish the standards or guidelines of the human milk banking as soon as possible in China.

  3. Exploring Alternative Characteristic Curve Approaches to Linking Parameter Estimates from the Generalized Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James S.; Bao, Han; Huang, Chun-Wei; Gagne, Phill

    Characteristic curve approaches for linking parameters from the generalized partial credit model were examined for cases in which common (anchor) items are calibrated separately in two groups. Three of these approaches are simple extensions of the test characteristic curve (TCC), item characteristic curve (ICC), and operating characteristic curve…

  4. Evaluation of the operational characteristics of a CT ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Ana F.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2006-01-01

    The most common ionization chamber used in computed tomography dosimetry is the 'pencil ionization chamber'. It is a special cylindrical dosimeter developed for attending computed tomography beams particularities. In this study, a Victoreen pencil ionization chamber was submitted to a set of tests for a detailed evaluation of its operational characteristics. Such as many kinds of detectors, especially field instruments, this ionization chamber had originally a preamplifier to keep it electrically more stable. In this study, the performance of the chamber was analyzed with the original preamplifier and after its removal, and the results were compared. The objective of the preamplifier removal was to enable connecting the chamber to other kinds of electrometers available in laboratories. The behavior of the pencil ionization chamber before and after the removal of the preamplifier was very similar, and the results obtained were always within the limits of international recommendations. The results obtained in both situations allow, if necessary, the preamplifier removal of the system without lack of precision in the measurements

  5. Fishery characteristics and abundance estimates of the mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mud crab Scylla serrata is lightly exploited along the East African seaboard. This study reports on fishing practices and gives preliminary estimates of abundance and size structures of the mud crab populations in Utende, Chole Island and Juani Island, Tanzania, and west of Quirimba and Ibo Island, Moçambique.

  6. Estimating forest characteristics using NAIP imagery and ArcObjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S Hogland; Nathaniel M. Anderson; Woodam Chung; Lucas Wells

    2014-01-01

    Detailed, accurate, efficient, and inexpensive methods of estimating basal area, trees, and aboveground biomass per acre across broad extents are needed to effectively manage forests. In this study we present such a methodology using readily available National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery, Forest Inventory Analysis samples, a two stage classification and...

  7. Metrological and reliable characteristics of transducers: estimation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.A.; Ryzhakov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Methods and techniques of finding the evaluations of metering method error dispersions by different factors, non-linearity of transformation functions, their hysteresis, as well as evaluations of full operating time of long-term use metering means, are presented. A program of static data computer processing is given. 65 refs

  8. Estimation of the peak factor based on watershed characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, Jean; Nolin, Simon; Ruest, Benoit [BPR Inc., Quebec, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Hydraulic modeling and dam structure design require the river flood flow as a primary input. For a given flood event, the ratio of peak flow over mean daily flow defines the peak factor. The peak factor value is dependent on the watershed and location along the river. The main goal of this study consisted in finding a relationship between watershed characteristics and this peak factor. Regression analyses were carried out on 53 natural watersheds located in the southern part of the province of Quebec using data from the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). The watershed characteristics included in the analyses were the watershed area, the maximum flow length, the mean slope, the lake proportion and the mean elevation. The results showed that watershed area and length are the major parameters influencing the peak factor. Nine natural watersheds were also used to test the use of a multivariable model in order to determine the peak factor for ungauged watersheds.

  9. Receiver operating characteristic analysis improves diagnosis by radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, C.Z.; Forman, M.B.; Vaugh, W.K.; Sandler, M.P.; Kronenberg, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC) evaluates continuous variables to define diagnostic criteria for the optimal sensitivity (SENS) and specificity (SPEC) of a test. The authors studied exercise-induced chest pain (CP), ST-changes on electrocardiography (ECG) and rest-exercise gated radionuclide ventriculography (RVG) using ROC to clarify the optimal criteria for detecting myocardial ischemia due to coronary artherosclerosis (CAD). The data of 95 consecutive patients studied with coronary angiography, rest-exercise RVG and ECG were reviewed. 77 patients had ''significant'' CAD (≥50% lesions). Exercise-induced CP, ECG abnormalities (ST-T shifts) and RVG abnormalities (change in ejection fraction, 2-view regional wall motion change and relative end-systolic volume) were evaluated to define optimal SENS/SPEC of each and for the combined data. ROC curves were constructed by multiple logistic regression (MLR). By MLR, RVG alone was superior to ECG and CP. The combination of all three produced the best ROC curve for the entire group and for clinical subsets based on the number of diseased vessels and the presence or absence of prior myocardial infarction. When CP, ECG and RVG were combined, the optimal SENS/SPEC for detection of single vessel disease was 88/86. The SENS/SPEC for 3 vessel disease was 93/95. Thus, the application of RVG for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is improved with the inclusion of ECG and CP data by the use of a multiple logistic regression model. ROC analysis allows clinical application of multiple data for diagnosing CAD at desired SENS/SPEC rather than by arbitrary single-standard criteria

  10. Threat aircraft intent estimation in joint air defence within operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available is required to determine the intent of an aircraft to assist in classification of airborne threats/targets. Throughout all military operations Intent is used to plan and execute operations. Knowledge of the enemy’s Intent will be useful to predict his actions...

  11. An investigation of the acoustic characteristics of a compression ignition engine operating with biodiesel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, D.; Tesfa, B.; Yuan, X.; Wang, R.; Gu, F.; Ball, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, an experimental investigation has been carried out on the acoustic characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine running with biodiesel blends under steady state operating conditions. The experiment was conducted on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection and turbocharged diesel engine which runs with biodiesel (B50 and B100) and pure diesel. The signals of acoustic, vibration and in-cylinder pressure were measured during the experiment. To correlate the combustion process and the acoustic characteristics, both phenomena have been investigated. The acoustic analysis resulted in the sound level being increased with increasing of engine loads and speeds as well as the sound characteristics being closely correlated to the combustion process. However, acoustic signals are highly sensitive to the ambient conditions and intrusive background noise. Therefore, the spectral subtraction was employed to minimize the effects of background noise in order to enhance the signal to noise ratio. In addition, the acoustic characteristics of CI engine running with different fuels (biodiesel blends and diesel) was analysed for comparison. The results show that the sound energy level of acoustic signals is slightly higher when the engine fuelled by biodiesel and its blends than that of fuelled by normal diesel. Hence, the acoustic characteristics of the CI engine will have useful information for engine condition monitoring and fuel content estimation.

  12. Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO) Cost Estimation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Innovation Laboratory, Inc., proposes to build a tool to estimate airline costs under TBO. This tool includes a cost model that explicitly reasons about traffic...

  13. Passive devices of a reactor stop: classification of the characteristics and estimation of perfection degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portyanoj, A.G.; Serdun', E.N.; Sorokin, A.P.; Egorov, V.S.; Shkarovskij, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The perspective direction in NPP safety improvement connected with development of passive devices for nuclear reactor emergency shutdown (PDRS) is discussed. More than hundred devices which can fulfil the PDRS functions are suggested nowadays. The analysis of PDRS designing status as applicable for the fast reactors in the main which are based on the physical effect used in an element sensitive to temperature is made. The complex consisting of nine general characteristics including passive character, thresholdness, forces generation, inertia, multichannel design, stability towards operational factors, safety at failures, simplicity and visualisation, development conditions, is suggested for estimation of the quality of PDRS of different types. Basing on expert assessments realized using the complex of general characteristics it is shown that the types of PDRS may be separated into following three groups: linear expansion of solid bodies and thermoelectric ones (K ≅ 0.45); magnet ones with shape memory effect, liquid volume expansion (K ≅ 0.6); fusing ones (K ≅ 0.7). The conclusion is made that PDRS on the basis of fusing devices of the sulphon type with liofobic capillary-porous working body most completely satisfy the complex of general characteristics considered

  14. Argument estimates of certain multivalent functions involving a linear operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nak Eun Cho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to derive some argument properties of certain multivalent functions in the open unit disk involving a linear operator. We also investigate their integral preserving property in a sector.

  15. Estimating the Costs of Military Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilmore, J. M

    2007-01-01

    This testimony, given by J. Michael Gilmore, Assistant Director for National Security, before the Committee on the Budget, United States Senate, discusses the costs of operations in the Iraq theater and issues associated...

  16. Research about reactor operator's personability characteristics and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan [Tsinghua Univ., Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    To predict and evaluate the reactor operator's performance by personality characteristics is an important part of reactor operator safety assessment. Using related psychological theory combined with the Chinese operator's fact and considering the effect of environmental factors to personality analysis, paper does the research about the about the relationships between reactor operator's performance and personality characteristics, and offers the reference for operator's selection, using and performance in the future. (author)

  17. Developing operator capacity estimates for supervisory control of autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M L; Guerlain, Stephanie

    2007-02-01

    This study examined operators' capacity to successfully reallocate highly autonomous in-flight missiles to time-sensitive targets while performing secondary tasks of varying complexity. Regardless of the level of autonomy for unmanned systems, humans will be necessarily involved in the mission planning, higher level operation, and contingency interventions, otherwise known as human supervisory control. As a result, more research is needed that addresses the impact of dynamic decision support systems that support rapid planning and replanning in time-pressured scenarios, particularly on operator workload. A dual screen simulation that allows a single operator the ability to monitor and control 8, 12, or 16 missiles through high level replanning was tested on 42 U.S. Navy personnel. The most significant finding was that when attempting to control 16 missiles, participants' performance on three separate objective performance metrics and their situation awareness were significantly degraded. These results mirror studies of air traffic control that demonstrate a similar decline in performance for controllers managing 17 aircraft as compared with those managing only 10 to 11 aircraft. Moreover, the results suggest that a 70% utilization (percentage busy time) score is a valid threshold for predicting significant performance decay and could be a generalizable metric that can aid in manning predictions. This research is relevant to human supervisory control of networked military and commercial unmanned vehicles in the air, on the ground, and on and under the water.

  18. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to permit inventory estimation in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH's purpose is to provide steady-state composition estimates for material residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimation, the results are determined for and cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent material collected in applicable vessels-including consideration for material previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple material balance models to estimate material holdups and distribution within unit operations. During simulated run testing, NUMATH-estimated inventories typically produced material balances within 7% of the associated measured material balances for uranium and within 16% of the associated, measured material balance for thorium during steady-state process operation

  19. Operator Bias in the Estimation of Arc Efficiency in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Sikström

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the operator bias in the measurement process of arc efficiency in stationary direct current electrode negative gas tungsten arc welding is discussed. An experimental study involving 15 operators (enough to reach statistical significance has been carried out with the purpose to estimate the arc efficiency from a specific procedure for calorimetric experiments. The measurement procedure consists of three manual operations which introduces operator bias in the measurement process. An additional relevant experiment highlights the consequences of estimating the arc voltage by measuring the potential between the terminals of the welding power source instead of measuring the potential between the electrode contact tube and the workpiece. The result of the study is a statistical evaluation of the operator bias influence on the estimate, showing that operator bias is negligible in the estimate considered here. On the contrary the consequences of neglecting welding leads voltage drop results in a significant under estimation of the arc efficiency.

  20. Psychological characteristics of licensed nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajwaj, T.; Ford, T.; McGee, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The safe production of electricity by nuclear power plants has been the focus of considerable attention. Much of this concern has been focused on equipment and procedural issues, with less attention to the psychological factors that affect the operations staff of the plants, i.e., those individuals who are most directly responsible for a plant's operations. Stress and type A qualities would be significant for these individuals because of their relationships to job performance and health. Of equal significance would be work-related factors, such as job involvement and work pressure. Also of interest would be hostile tendencies because of the need for cooperation and communications among operations staff. Two variables could influence these psychological factors. One is the degree of responsibility for a plant's nuclear reactors. The individuals with the greatest responsibility are licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). There are also individuals with less direct responsibilities who are not licensed. A second variable is the operating status of the plant, whether or not the plant is currently producing electricity. Relative to ensuring the safe operation of nuclear power plants, these data suggest a positive view of licensed operators. Of interest are the greater stress scores in the licensed staff of the operating plant in contrast with their peers in the nonoperating plant

  1. Operative and consultative proportions of neurosurgical disease worldwide: estimation from the surgeon perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Michael C; Rattani, Abbas; Baticulon, Ronnie E; Faruque, Serena; Johnson, Walter D; Dempsey, Robert J; Haglund, Michael M; Alkire, Blake C; Park, Kee B; Warf, Benjamin C; Shrime, Mark G

    2018-05-11

    OBJECTIVE The global magnitude of neurosurgical disease is unknown. The authors sought to estimate the surgical and consultative proportion of diseases commonly encountered by neurosurgeons, as well as surgeon case volume and perceived workload. METHODS An electronic survey was sent to 193 neurosurgeons previously identified via a global surgeon mapping initiative. The survey consisted of three sections aimed at quantifying surgical incidence of neurological disease, consultation incidence, and surgeon demographic data. Surgeons were asked to estimate the proportion of 11 neurological disorders that, in an ideal world, would indicate either neurosurgical operation or neurosurgical consultation. Respondent surgeons indicated their confidence level in each estimate. Demographic and surgical practice characteristics-including case volume and perceived workload-were also captured. RESULTS Eighty-five neurosurgeons from 57 countries, representing all WHO regions and World Bank income levels, completed the survey. Neurological conditions estimated to warrant neurosurgical consultation with the highest frequency were brain tumors (96%), spinal tumors (95%), hydrocephalus (94%), and neural tube defects (92%), whereas stroke (54%), central nervous system infection (58%), and epilepsy (40%) carried the lowest frequency. Similarly, surgery was deemed necessary for an average of 88% cases of hydrocephalus, 82% of spinal tumors and neural tube defects, and 78% of brain tumors. Degenerative spine disease (42%), stroke (31%), and epilepsy (24%) were found to warrant surgical intervention less frequently. Confidence levels were consistently high among respondents (lower quartile > 70/100 for 90% of questions), and estimates did not vary significantly across WHO regions or among income levels. Surgeons reported performing a mean of 245 cases annually (median 190). On a 100-point scale indicating a surgeon's perceived workload (0-not busy, 100-overworked), respondents selected a

  2. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Alaska Airlines Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport.

  3. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Virgin America Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Virgin America. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that about 25,000 gallons of fuel and about 2,500 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Virgin America in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Virgin America TASAR requests peaked at two to four requests per hour per sector in high-altitude Oakland and Salt Lake City center sectors east of San Francisco.

  4. Dispersive estimates for massive Dirac operators in dimension two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, M. Burak; Green, William R.; Toprak, Ebru

    2018-05-01

    We study the massive two dimensional Dirac operator with an electric potential. In particular, we show that the t-1 decay rate holds in the L1 →L∞ setting if the threshold energies are regular. We also show these bounds hold in the presence of s-wave resonances at the threshold. We further show that, if the threshold energies are regular then a faster decay rate of t-1(log ⁡ t) - 2 is attained for large t, at the cost of logarithmic spatial weights. The free Dirac equation does not satisfy this bound due to the s-wave resonances at the threshold energies.

  5. Characteristics of paddy operations with biodiesel fuelled tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.; Park, S.H.; Kim, C.K.; Im, D.H.; Kim, H.J.; Chung, S.C. [National Academy of Agricultural Science, Seodundong, Suwon (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of); Kim, S.S. [Daedong Industrial Co., Chang Nyong-Kun, Kyungnam (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which biofuels were tested for their power and competitiveness in various paddy operations, such as plowing and rotary tilling of paddy fields. The study considered the use of diesel fuel as well as 20 per cent biodiesel (BD20) and 100 per cent biodiesel (BD100) as an alternative fuel for tractors. Ignition problems or abrupt stopping were not monitored during operations of plowing, rotary tilling and travelling on the road. According to tractor power take-off (PTO) test codes, there was no considerable power difference between the 3 fuels. However, fuel consumption rates were quite different between the biodiesels and diesel fuel in the paddy works. Fuel consumption increased when biodiesel content increased. Approximately 35 to 40 per cent more fuel was needed for rotary tilling operations than plowing operations. Within the operations, the maximum difference occurred during the rotary tilling of wet paddy fields. This difference was as high as 20 per cent , between BD100 and diesel fuel. In terms of exhaust gases, more carbon dioxide was discharged from diesel fuel than biodiesels, but more nitrous oxide was discharged with biodiesels. It was difficult to differentiate quantities of carbon monoxide between the 3 different fuels.

  6. Operation characteristics and conditions of training reactor VR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejka, K.; Kolros, A.; Polach, S.; Sklenka, L.

    1994-01-01

    The first 3 years of operation of the VR-1 training reactor are reviewed. This period includes its physical start-up (preparation, implementation, results) and operation development as far as the current operating configuration of the reactor core. The physical start-up was commenced using a reactor core referred to as AZ A1, whose physical parameters had been verified by calculation and whose configuration was based on data tested experimentally on the SR-0 reactor at Vochov. The next operating core, labelled AZ A2, was already prepared during the test operation of the VR-1 reactor. Its configuration was such that both of the main horizontal channels, radial and tangential, could be employed. The configuration that followed, AZ A3, was an intermediate step before testing the graphite side reflector. The current reactor core, labelled AZ A3 G, was obtained by supplementing the previous core with a one-sided graphite side reflector. (Z.S.). 2 tabs., 11 figs., 2 refs

  7. Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.

  8. Model Optimization Identification Method Based on Closed-loop Operation Data and Process Characteristics Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang GENG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Output noise is strongly related to input in closed-loop control system, which makes model identification of closed-loop difficult, even unidentified in practice. The forward channel model is chosen to isolate disturbance from the output noise to input, and identified by optimization the dynamic characteristics of the process based on closed-loop operation data. The characteristics parameters of the process, such as dead time and time constant, are calculated and estimated based on the PI/PID controller parameters and closed-loop process input/output data. And those characteristics parameters are adopted to define the search space of the optimization identification algorithm. PSO-SQP optimization algorithm is applied to integrate the global search ability of PSO with the local search ability of SQP to identify the model parameters of forward channel. The validity of proposed method has been verified by the simulation. The practicability is checked with the PI/PID controller parameter turning based on identified forward channel model.

  9. Essential spectra and exponential estimates of eigenfunctions of lattice operators of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, Vladimir S; Roch, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    This paper is devoted to estimates of the exponential decay of eigenfunctions of difference operators on the lattice Z n which are discrete analogs of the Schroedinger, Dirac and square-root Klein-Gordon operators. Our investigation of the essential spectra and the exponential decay of eigenfunctions of the discrete spectra is based on the calculus of pseudodifference operators (i.e., pseudodifferential operators on the group Z n with analytic symbols), and the limit operators method. We obtain a description of the location of the essential spectra and estimates of the eigenfunctions of the discrete spectra of the main lattice operators of quantum mechanics, namely: matrix Schroedinger operators on Z n , Dirac operators on Z 3 and square root Klein-Gordon operators on Z n .

  10. Wavelet and receiver operating characteristic analysis of heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, G.; Griffith, T. M.; Naka, K.; Frennaux, M. P.; Matthai, C. C.

    2002-02-01

    Multiresolution wavelet analysis has been used to study the heart rate variability in two classes of patients with different pathological conditions. The scale dependent measure of Thurner et al. was found to be statistically significant in discriminating patients suffering from hypercardiomyopathy from a control set of normal subjects. We have performed Receiver Operating Characteristc (ROC) analysis and found the ROC area to be a useful measure by which to label the significance of the discrimination, as well as to describe the severity of heart dysfunction.

  11. Characteristics of a high current ion source operated with lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bay, H.L.; Dullni, E.; Leismann, P.

    1986-05-01

    A low pressure arc ion source has been tested for operation with lithium. Currents up to 120 mA could be extracted through a multiple aperture extraction system at energies of 30 keV. The ion beam was neutralized up to 70% in a charge exchange cell filled with lithium vapour. The beam divergence ranged from 20 to 25 mrad full angle deduced from the spatial distribution of the collision induced Li I resonance line. Current densities from 2 to 3 mA/m 2 at a distance of 1.9 m from the source were measured either by laser induced fluorescence or with a Faraday cup. (orig.)

  12. Operational characteristics, strategies and performance of foreign and demestic banks in India

    OpenAIRE

    Keshari, Pradeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper has tried to examine the relative characteristics and performance of foreign and domestic banks operating in India. A comparison of their characteristics undoubtedly suggest that foreign banks as a group differ significantly from domestic banks. It was also found that foreign banks enjoyed higher profitability than the domestic banks. The higher profitability of the former was a reflection of their particular operational characteristics, strategies and the favourable attitude of t...

  13. Estimation of macroscopic elastic characteristics for hierarchical anisotropic solids based on probabilistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolina, Irina Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical properties of a cable are of great importance in design and strength calculation of flexible cables. The problem of determination of elastic properties and rigidity characteristics of a cable modeled by anisotropic helical elastic rod is considered. These characteristics are calculated indirectly by means of the parameters received from statistical processing of experimental data. These parameters are considered as random quantities. With taking into account probable nature of these parameters the formulas for estimation of the macroscopic elastic moduli of a cable are obtained. The calculating expressions for macroscopic flexural rigidity, shear rigidity and torsion rigidity using the macroscopic elastic characteristics obtained before are presented. Statistical estimations of the rigidity characteristics of some cable grades are adduced. A comparison with those characteristics received on the basis of deterministic approach is given.

  14. Modeling the effect of operator and passenger characteristics on the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In Iran more than 25% of crash fatalities belong to motorcycle operators and passengers in the recent years, from which about 20% are related to passenger fatalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the motorcycle operator and passenger characteristics as well as other contributory factors that may affect the fatality risk of motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes. To this end, motorcycle crash data between 2009 and 2012 was extracted from Iran traffic crash database and a logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratio estimates for each of the study variables. The fatality risk of motorcyclists has a direct relationship with the number of pillion passengers carried. Results also indicate that the amount of increase in the likelihood of having a fatality in a motorcycles crash is considerably higher when the operator is accompanied by a male passenger of the same age. Furthermore, results showed that if the crash is occurred in the darkness, on curves, in rural areas and on highways, then the crash would be more likely to be fatal. Moreover, the head-on collisions, older operators, unlicensed operators and not using a safety helmet were found to increase the likelihood of a fatality in a motorcycle crash. Preventative measures such as, imposing stricter rules regarding safety helmet usage and confining the number of pillion passengers to one, might be implemented to reduce the fatality risk in motorcycle crashes. In addition, more appropriate infrastructures for penalizing offending motorcyclists could also reduce the frequency of law violations such as not wearing helmet or riding without motorcycle license, which in turn, would result into a reduction in the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  15. A simple procedure to estimate reactivity with good noise filtering characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new and simple on-line reactivity estimation method is proposed. • The estimator has robust noise filtering characteristics. • The noise filtering is equivalent to those of conventional reactivity meters. • The new estimator eliminates the burden of selecting optimum filter constants. • The new estimation performance is assessed without and with measurement noise. - Abstract: A new and simple on-line reactivity estimation method is proposed. The estimator has robust noise filtering characteristics without the use of complex filters. The noise filtering capability is equivalent to or better than that of a conventional estimator based on Inverse Point Kinetics (IPK). The new estimator can also eliminate the burden of selecting optimum filter time constants, such as would be required for the IPK-based estimator, or noise covariance matrices, which are needed if the extended Kalman filter (EKF) technique is used. In this paper, the new estimation method is introduced and its performance assessed without and with measurement noise

  16. Operational characteristics optimization of human-computer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulquernain Mallick

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer operational parameters are having vital influence on the operators efficiency from readability viewpoint. Four parameters namely font, text/background color, viewing angle and viewing distance are analyzed. The text reading task, in the form of English text, was presented on the computer screen to the participating subjects and their performance, measured in terms of number of words read per minute (NWRPM, was recorded. For the purpose of optimization, the Taguchi method is used to find the optimal parameters to maximize operators’ efficiency for performing readability task. Two levels of each parameter have been considered in this study. An orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise (S/N ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA were employed to investigate the operators’ performance/efficiency. Results showed that Times Roman font, black text on white background, 40 degree viewing angle and 60 cm viewing distance, the subjects were quite comfortable, efficient and read maximum number of words per minute. Text/background color was dominant parameter with a percentage contribution of 76.18% towards the laid down objective followed by font type at 18.17%, viewing distance 7.04% and viewing angle 0.58%. Experimental results are provided to confirm the effectiveness of this approach.

  17. Operational features and microwave characteristics of the Vircator II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.; Fittinghoff, O.; Benford, J.; Sze, H.; Woo, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Vircator II oscillating virtual-cathode microwave source operates with diode voltages between 600 and 800 kV and diode current between 50 and 120 kA. Maximal microwave output power between 200 and 500 MW is achieved when the diode aspect ratio, cathode surface, charge voltage, and extraction coupling are arranged to simultaneously 1) maximize diode voltage, 2) satisfy magnetic insulation criteria, 3) avoid nonuniform or unstable electron emission, and 4) optimize microwave transmission from the virtual cathode to the launching antenna. Broad-band radiation between 0.4 and 5.5 GHz is generated. The central frequency follows the beam plasma frequency. It is tuned by varying the current density with anode-cathode (A-K) gap adjustments

  18. WIND TURBINE OPERATION PARAMETER CHARACTERISTICS AT A GIVEN WIND SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kamiński

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the results of the CFD simulation of the flow around Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. The examined rotor was designed following patent application no. 402214. The turbine operation is characterised by parameters, such as opening angle of blades, power, torque, rotational velocity at a given wind velocity. Those parameters have an impact on the performance of entire assembly. The distribution of forces acting on the working surfaces in the turbine can change, depending on the angle of rotor rotation. Moreover, the resultant force derived from the force acting on the oncoming and leaving blades should be as high as possible. Accordingly, those parameters were individually simulated over time for each blade in three complete rotations. The attempts to improve the performance of the entire system resulted in a new research trend to improve the performance of working turbine rotor blades.

  19. Experimental investigation of the operating characteristic of a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, H.

    The design of a 60 kJ plasma focus installation of the Mather type for generating a deuterium plasma with fusion conditions is described. The advantages of a plasma focus layout in comparison with the linear z-pinch are explained, and questions which arise from the interaction of energy storage and plasma accelerator are discussed. The conclusions are used as a basis for planning the entire installation and dimensioning the individual components. This is followed by a description of some typical difficulties which can have a negative effect on the operation of the plasma focus and how these problems were overcome. Photographic observation of the acceleration and compression process has provided important information concerning the configuration, structure and velocity of the plasma, which is supplemented by magnetic probe measurements of the variations in current. Additional observations involve measurements of neutron yield, neutron flux anisotropy and the neutron spectrum. A theoretical analysis is also presented

  20. Operational Characteristics of Four Commercially Available Personal Cooling Vests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Lee, Hank C.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide chest cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive and two active cooling vests, and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. The MicroClimate Systems and the Life Enhancement Tech(LET) lightweight liquid cooling vests, the Steele Vest and LET's Zipper Front Garment were used to cool the chest region of 11 male and 10 female subjects (25 to 55 yr.) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx.21 C), were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a URI Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. In general, the male and female subjects' rectal and ear temperature responses to cooling were similar for all vest configurations tested. Oral temperatures during the recovery period were significantly (Pcooling and recovery periods. These results show that all vest configurations elicit a similar thermal response in both male and female subject groups. However, subject population variance was rather large and may have masked differences between the vests. One vest may prove more effective than another for a given individual, and experience is the only means of determining this.

  1. Operating characteristics of the Columbia University α-μ beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randers-Pehrson, G.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have constructed and are now operating an external alpha particle microbeam in a single ion mode for the study of radiation damage to living mammalian cells. Their objective is to understand the biological effects of radon-daughter exposures in the environment. The alpha particle beam is produced by accelerating helium ions with a 4.2 MV Van de Graaff. The beam is directed vertically through the floor of a biology laboratory and into a vibration-isolated microscope. The beam is collimated to a diameter of 6 micrometers by a pair of laser-drilled apertures mounted on a goniometric alignment fixture immediately below the microscope stage. A laser beam used to optically locate the beam also passes through the apertures. Cells growing on thin-bottomed petri dishes are treated with a nuclear stain and illuminated with UV light. The cell nuclei are observed with a microscope fitted with an image intensifier and CCD camera which feeds a PC-based frame grabber and commercial video analysis system. The analysis program is used to locate cellnuclei on the culture dish and then to communicate with an in-house program that controls the microscope stage. This latter program visits each cell in turn and, after final positioning by the operator using a joy stick, a chosen small number of alpha particles are allowed to penetrate the cell nucleus. The alpha particles are detected after passing through the cells by a gas proportional counter mounted on the microscope objective. Observation of the cells and the irradiation are simultaneous. The system presently requires about two minutes to locate the cells on the dish and then about five seconds per cell to visit and irradiate each one. Technical details concerning each of the subsystems in the apparatus and representative biological data will be presented

  2. Estimate of the difference between the Kac operator and the Schroedinger semigroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, T.; Satoshi, S.

    1997-01-01

    An operator norm estimate of the difference between the Kac operator and the Schroedinger semigroup is proved and used to give a variant of the Trotter product formula for Schroedinger operators in the L p operator norm. This extends Helffer's result in the L 2 operator norm to the case in the L p operator norm for more general scalar potentials and with vector potentials. The method of the proof is probabilistic based on the Feynman-Kac a nd Feynman-Kac-Ito formula. (orig.)

  3. Operational characteristics of pediatric radiology: Image display stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The display of diagnostic images is accomplished in the UCLA Pediatric Radiology Clinical Radiology Imaging System (CRIS) using 3 different types of digital viewing stations. These include a low resolution station with six 512 x 512 monitors, a high resolution station with three 1024 x 1024 monitors, and a very high resolution workstation with two 2048 x 2048 monitors. The display stations provide very basic image processing manipulations including zoom and scroll, contrast enhancement, and contrast reversal. The display stations are driven by a computer system which is dedicated for clinical use. During times when the clinical computer is unavailable (maintenance or system malfunction), the 512 x 512 workstation can be switched to operate from a research PACS system in the UCLA Image Processing Laboratory via a broadband communication network. Our initial clinical implementation involves digital viewing for pediatric radiology conferences. Presentation of inpatient cases use the six monitor 512 x 512 multiple viewing station. Later stages of the clinical implementation involve the use of higher resolution displays for the purpose of primary diagnosis from video displays

  4. Operational characteristics of miniature loop heat pipe with flat evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Dongxing; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jinguo [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2009-12-15

    Loop heat pipes are heat transfer devices whose operating principle is based on the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid, and which use the capillary pumping forces to ensure the fluid circulation. A series of tests have been carried out with a miniature loop heat pipe (mLHP) with flat evaporator and fin-and-tube type condenser. The loop is made of pure copper with stainless mesh wick and methanol as the working fluid. Detailed study is conducted on the start-up reliability of the mLHP at high as well as low heat loads. During the testing of mLHP under step power cycles, the thermal response presented by the loop to achieve steady state is very short. At low heat loads, temperature oscillations are observed throughout the loop. The amplitudes and frequencies of these fluctuations are large at evaporator wall and evaporator inlet. It is expected that the extent and nature of the oscillations occurrence is dependent on the thermal and hydrodynamic conditions inside the compensation chamber. The thermal resistance of the mLHP lies between 0.29 and 3.2 C/W. The effects of different liquid charging ratios and the tilt angles to the start-up and the temperature oscillation are studied in detail. (orig.)

  5. Compensating for evanescent modes and estimating characteristic impedance in waveguide acoustic impedance measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kren Rahbek; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2017-01-01

    The ear-canal acoustic impedance and reflectance are useful for assessing conductive hearing disorders and calibrating stimulus levels in situ. However, such probe-based measurements are affected by errors due to the presence of evanescent modes and incorrect estimates or assumptions regarding...... characteristic impedance. This paper proposes a method to compensate for evanescent modes in measurements of acoustic impedance, reflectance, and sound pressure in waveguides, as well as estimating the characteristic impedance immediately in front of the probe. This is achieved by adjusting the characteristic...... impedance and subtracting an acoustic inertance from the measured impedance such that the non-causality in the reflectance is minimized in the frequency domain using the Hilbert transform. The method is thus capable of estimating plane-wave quantities of the sought-for parameters by supplying only...

  6. Study of the method to estimate the hydraulic characteristics in rock masses by using elastic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsu, Kenta; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Yano, Takao; Ando, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka

    2008-01-01

    In the area of radioactive waste repository, estimating radionuclide migration through the rock mass is an important factor for assessment of the repository. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to estimate hydraulic characteristics of rock masses by using elastic wave velocity dispersion. This method is based on dynamics poroelastic relations such as Biot and BISQ theories. These theories indicate relations between velocity dispersion and hydraulic characteristics. In order to verify the validity of these theories in crystalline rocks, we performed laboratory experiments. The results of experiments show the dependency of elastic wave velocity on its frequency. To test the applicability of this method to real rock masses, we performed in-situ experiment for tuff rock masses. The results of in-situ experiment show the possibility as a practical method to estimate the hydraulic characteristics by using elastic wave velocity dispersion. (author)

  7. Absolute Monotonicity of Functions Related To Estimates of First Eigenvalue of Laplace Operator on Riemannian Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors find the absolute monotonicity and complete monotonicity of some functions involving trigonometric functions and related to estimates the lower bounds of the first eigenvalue of Laplace operator on Riemannian manifolds.

  8. Experimental apparatus and its operational characteristics for MHD rotating machine with superconducting rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsurai, Makoto; Karasaki, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shoji; Ichikawa, Hayao.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the construction and operational characteristics of the experimental apparatus of MHD rotating machine with superconducting rotor, which has the electromechanical energy conversion function based on the inductive interactions between travelling magnetic field produced by the rotor and MHD working fluid. The machine consists of a rotating-dewar type superconducting rotor and a coaxially rotating metal cylinder which simulates the liquid metal MHD working fluid, and the both of them are driven separately by speed-controlled driving motors. The superconducting magnets installed in the rotor has the 8 shaped winding whose outer diameter is 11 cm and hight is 11 cm, and with the excitation current of 200 A (rating), it produces screw type magnetic field in the inductive interaction region of the cylinder with the peak value of 0.2 Wb/m 2 , whereas the average field strength reaches almost 4 Wb/m 2 inside the winding. In this condition, mutual interaction force is 30 N in the peripheral direction and 8 N in the axial direction and the total driving power of motors is 1,300 W when the relative rotation speed of the rotor and the cylinder is 800 rpm. Observed characteristics of this machine are for the most part in agreement with those estimated by the theoretical analysis. (auth.)

  9. Vehicle operation characteristic under different ramp entrance conditions in underground road: Analysis, simulation and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiming; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Yang

    2018-05-01

    An experimental design was used to study the vehicle operation characteristics of different ramp entrance conditions in underground road. With driving simulator, the experimental scenarios include left or right ramp with first, second and third service level, respectively, to collect vehicle speed, acceleration, lateral displacement and location information at the ramp entrance section. By using paired t-test and ANOVA, the influence factors of vehicle operating characteristics are studied. The result shows that effects of ramp layout and mainline traffic environment on vehicle operation characteristics are significant. The regression model of vehicle traveling distance on acceleration lane is established. Suggestions are made for ramp entrance design of underground road.

  10. On the L-characteristic of nonlinear superposition operators in lp-spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedagic, F.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper we describe the L-characteristic of the nonlinear superposition operator F(x) f(s,x(s)) between two Banach spaces of functions x from N to R. It was shown that L-characteristic of the nonlinear superposition operator which acts between two Lebesgue spaces has so-called Σ-convexity property. In this paper we show that L-characteristic of the operator F (between two Banach spaces) has the convexity property. It means that the classical interpolation theorem of Reisz-Thorin for a linear operator holds for the nonlinear operator superposition which acts between two Banach spaces of sequences. Moreover, we consider the growth function of the operator superposition in mentioned spaces and we show that one has the logarithmically convexity property. (author). 7 refs

  11. Influence of reported study design characteristics on intervention effect estimates from randomized, controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savović, Jelena; Jones, Hayley E; Altman, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    bias and increases in between-trial heterogeneity were driven primarily by trials with subjective outcomes, with little evidence of bias in trials with objective and mortality outcomes. This study is limited by incomplete trial reporting, and findings may be confounded by other study design...... characteristics. Bias associated with study design characteristics may lead to exaggeration of intervention effect estimates and increases in between-trial heterogeneity in trials reporting subjectively assessed outcomes....

  12. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-01

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  13. An Estimation of Operator's Diagnostic Time for Feed-And-Bleed Operation under Various Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    In order to assess realistic safety of plant, effects of interactions between components, operator, and plant condition are needed to be considered in the PSA model. One of the important issues to estimate the CDF is the estimation of human error probability (HEP). When an accident occurs, operators follow the emergency operating procedure and check various alarm, parameters, and signals. In the conventional Korean PSA model, the Korean standard HRA (K-HRA) method is used. In this method, the HEP is the sum of diagnosis error probability and execution error probability. A diagnosis error probability is expressed by the available time for diagnosis and adjusting performance shaping factors, and an execution error probability is a function of task type and stress level. Available time for diagnosis is very important factor of HEP. If the available time for diagnosis is short, the HEP becomes high. In order to obtain the realistic risk assessment results, we first focus on the estimation of HEP considering the plant dynamics under various scenarios. Target operation and scenarios are feed-and bleed operation (F and B operation) and total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident with/without loss of coolant accident (LOCA). One of the highest HEP is HEP of FnB operation. In additional, Scenarios, which are related to combination secondary heat removal failure and primary heat removal failure, are most critical core damage scenario of the combined accident except scenarios related to station black out (SBO). In these scenarios, the FnB operation is last resort to prevent core damage. To estimate available operator diagnosis time, we identify the relationship between accidents, mitigation function, and plant condition. Distribution of available time of diagnosis was estimated using the MOSAIQUE. The variables are break size, break timing, trip timing of RCP, and availability of high pressure safety injection (HPSI) pump under the TLOFW accident with LOCA. For Type 1 accident

  14. Junction temperature estimation method for a 600 V, 30A IGBT module during converter operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, U. M.; Blaabjerg, F.; Iannuzzo, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an accurate method to estimate the junction temperature using the on-state collector-emitter voltage at high current. By means of the proposed method, the estimation error which comes from the different temperatures of the interconnection materials in the module is compensated....... Finally, it leads to satisfactory estimated results. The proposed method has been verified by means of an IR (Infra-Red) camera during power converter operations when the loading current is sinusoidal....

  15. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113: Project cost estimate. Preliminary design report. Volume IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains Volume IV of the Preliminary Design Report for the Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113 which is the Project Cost Estimate and construction schedule. The estimate was developed based upon Title 1 material take-offs, budgetary equipment quotes and Raytheon historical in-house data. The W-113 project cost estimate and project construction schedule were integrated together to provide a resource loaded project network

  16. NUMATH: a nuclear material holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    NUMATH provides inventory estimation by utilizing previous inventory measurements, operating data, and, where available, on-line process measurements. For the present time, NUMATH's purpose is to provide a reasonable, near-real-time estimate of material inventory until accurate inventory determination can be obtained from chemical analysis. Ultimately, it is intended that NUMATH will further utilize on-line analyzers and more advanced calculational techniques to provide more accurate inventory determinations and estimates

  17. Logistic Regression Analysis of Operational Errors and Routine Operations Using Sector Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfleiderer, Elaine M; Scroggins, Cheryl L; Manning, Carol A

    2009-01-01

    ...) and routine operation (RO) traffic samples. OE data were derived from SATORI re-creations of OEs occurring at the Indianapolis Air Route Traffic Control Center between 9/17/2001 and 12/10/2003...

  18. On the estimation variance for the specific Euler-Poincaré characteristic of random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscheschel, A; Stoyan, D

    2003-07-01

    The specific Euler number is an important topological characteristic in many applications. It is considered here for the case of random networks, which may appear in microscopy either as primary objects of investigation or as secondary objects describing in an approximate way other structures such as, for example, porous media. For random networks there is a simple and natural estimator of the specific Euler number. For its estimation variance, a simple Poisson approximation is given. It is based on the general exact formula for the estimation variance. In two examples of quite different nature and topology application of the formulas is demonstrated.

  19. Method for estimate the economic characteristics of an uranium enrichment plant by gaseous diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berault, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    To estimate the economic characteristics of an uranium enrichment plant by gaseous diffusion is to determine the prospective price of the separative work unit to which leads the concerned technology, and to collect the data allowing to ascertain that this price remains in the area of development of the prices forecasted by the other projects. The prospective price estimated by the promoter is the synthesis of the components of the go decision and which are a potential market and a comprehensive industrially proven plant design, including the basic economic and technical data of the project. Procedures for estimating these components and their synthesis, exclusive of financing problems are reviewed [fr

  20. Procedure for estimating nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, M.L.; Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    Revised guidelines are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants, specifically light-water-reactor plants and coal-fired plants. Previous guidelines were published in October 1975 in ERDA 76-37, a Procedure for Estimating Nonfuel Operating and Maintenance Costs for Large Steam-Electric Power Plants. Estimates for coal-fired plants include the option of limestone slurry scrubbing for flue gas desulfurization. A computer program, OMCOST, is also presented which covers all plant options

  1. On $L^p$ Estimates for the Time-Dependent Schrodinger Operator on $L^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Mortad, M H

    2006-01-01

    Let L denote the time-dependent Schrodinger operator in n space variables. We consider a variety of Lebesgue norms for functions u on R^{n+1}, and prove or disprove estimates for such norms of u in terms of the L^2-norms of u and Lu. The results have implications for self-adjo intness of operators of the form L+V where V is a multiplication operator. The proofs are based mainly on the Strichartz-type inequalities.

  2. PREMATH: a Precious-Material Holdup Estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.; Bruns, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program, PREMATH (Precious Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to permit inventory estimation in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. PREMATH's purpose is to provide steady-state composition estimates for material residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimation, the results are determined for and cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent material collected in applicable vessels - including consideration for material previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple material balance models to estimate material holdups and distribution within unit operations. During simulated run testing, PREMATH-estimated inventories typically produced material balances within 7% of the associated measured material balances for uranium and within 16% of the associated, measured material balances for thorium (a less valuable material than uranium) during steady-state process operation

  3. Demand Estimation with Heterogeneous Consumers and Unobserved Product Characteristics: A Hedonic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajari, Patrick; Benkard, C. Lanier

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the identification and estimation of Gorman-Lancaster-style hedonic models of demand for differentiated products in the spirit of Sherwin Rosen. We generalize Rosen's first stage to account for product characteristics that are not observed and to allow the hedonic pricing function to have a general nonseparable form. We take an…

  4. The TGT Estimation of the Social Behavior Characteristics for Permanent Resident around NPPs in KOREA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Sun-Young; Lee, Gab-Bock; Chung, Yang-Geun

    2006-01-01

    The most strong protection method of radiation emergency preparedness is the evacuation when a great deal of radionuclide materials is released to environment. NRC(Nuclear Regulation Committee) made the evacuation time estimation to be necessary condition of emergency plan as the basis technology through the NUREG-0654 and has performed the research of the evacuation using traffic analysis continuously. In KOREA, The Notice 2004-11 of Ministry of Science and Technology nuclear enterprise must estimate evacuation time through the consultation with local autonomous entities and the result of the consultation must be appended in emergency plan. But evacuation estimation method in KOREA was based on simple assumption which did not consider evacuation characteristics and traffic analysis; therefore it could not reflect actual accident adequately. Besides technical aspect, the characteristics of personal and social behavior must be considered in evaluation of the evacuation time. These characteristics of behavior emerged in the research of natural and human disaster rather than nuclear accident which has little experience. So, the characteristics of personal and social behavior must be considered in evacuation time estimation

  5. A method to estimate characteristics of grounding systems considering experimental studies and computational simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andre Nunes de; Silva, Ivan Nunes da; Ulson, Jose Alfredo C.; Zago, Maria Goretti [UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica]. E-mail: andrejau@bauru.unesp.br

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes a novel approach for mapping characteristics of grounding systems using artificial neural networks. The network acts as identifier of structural features of the grounding processes. So that output parameters can be estimated and generalized from an input parameter set. The results obtained by the network are compared with other approaches also used to model grounding systems concerning lightning. (author)

  6. The influence of population characteristics on variation in general practice based morbidity estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Dungen C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice based registration networks (GPRNs provide information on morbidity rates in the population. Morbidity rate estimates from different GPRNs, however, reveal considerable, unexplained differences. We studied the range and variation in morbidity estimates, as well as the extent to which the differences in morbidity rates between general practices and networks change if socio-demographic characteristics of the listed patient populations are taken into account. Methods The variation in incidence and prevalence rates of thirteen diseases among six Dutch GPRNs and the influence of age, gender, socio economic status (SES, urbanization level, and ethnicity are analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results are expressed in median odds ratios (MOR. Results We observed large differences in morbidity rate estimates both on the level of general practices as on the level of networks. The differences in SES, urbanization level and ethnicity distribution among the networks' practice populations are substantial. The variation in morbidity rate estimates among networks did not decrease after adjusting for these socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion Socio-demographic characteristics of populations do not explain the differences in morbidity estimations among GPRNs.

  7. Personal, place, and time characteristics of offshore accidents in five oil companies operating in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahardjo; Sudjoko; Sebayang

    1991-01-01

    This study is to determine personal, place and time characteristics of offshore accidents during the year of 1987, 1988 and 1989 of five oil companies operating in Indonesia. Age, length of service, employment status, job characteristics, work cycles, work schedules, marital status, citizenship, disability, anatomy and nature of accident

  8. Operational characteristics of dual gain single cavity Nd:YVO 4 laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Operational characteristics of a dual gain single cavity Nd:YVO4 laser have been investigated. With semiconductor diode laser pump power of 2 W, 800 mW output was obtained with a slope efficiency of 49%. Further, by changing the relative orientation of the two crystals the polarization characteristics of the output could be ...

  9. Survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs for estimating supersonic missile aerodynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, W. C.; Allen, J. M.; Hernandez, G.; Dillenius, M. F. E.; Hemsch, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs used for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations. Emphasis is placed on those methods which are suitable for preliminary design of conventional and advanced concepts. An analysis of the technical approaches of the various methods is made in order to assess their suitability to estimate longitudinal and/or lateral-directional characteristics for different classes of missile configurations. Some comparisons between the predicted characteristics and experimental data are presented. These comparisons are made for a large variation in flow conditions and model attitude parameters. The paper also presents known experimental research programs developed for the specific purpose of validating analytical methods and extending the capability of data-base programs.

  10. Buyer-focused operations as a supply chain strategy : Identifying the influence of business characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, T; van Donk, DP

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - Buyer-focused operations aim at a high level of supply chain alignment by singling out resources for one buyer in order to serve this buyer optimally. The purpose of this paper is to identify what business characteristics make suppliers choose buyer-focused operations as a supply chain

  11. Operating characteristics of a three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler operating around 5 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L. M.; Cao, Q.; Zhi, X. Q.; Han, L.; Gan, Z. H.; Yu, Y. B.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, X. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    A Stirling pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) operating at the liquid-helium temperatures represents an excellent prospect for satisfying the requirements of space applications because of its compactness, high efficiency and reliability. However, the working mechanism of a 4 K SPTC is more complicated than that of the Gifford McMahon (GM) PTC that operates at the relatively low frequency of 1-2 Hz, and has not yet been well understood. In this study, the primary operating parameters, including frequency, charge pressure, input power and precooling temperature, are systematically investigated in a home-developed separate three-stage SPTC. The investigation demonstrates that the frequency and precooling temperature are closely coupled via phase shift. In order to improve the cooling capacity it is important to lower the frequency and the precooling temperature simultaneously. In contrast to the behavior predicted by previous studies, the pressure dependence of the gas properties results in an optimized pressure that decreases significantly as the temperature is lowered. The third stage reaches a lowest temperature of 4.97 K at 29.9 Hz and 0.91 MPa. A cooling power of 25 mW is measured at 6.0 K. The precooling temperature is 23.7 K and the input power is 100 W.

  12. Verification of a model for the detection of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) by receiver operating characteristics (ROC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengbo; Mongelli, Max; Mondry, Adrian

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) a mathematical model supporting the hypothesis that IUGR can be diagnosed by estimating growth velocity. The ROC compare computerized simulation results with clinical data from 325 pregnant British women. Each patient had 6 consecutive ultrasound examinations for fetal abdominal circumference (fac). Customized and un-customized fetal weights were calculated according to Hadlock"s formula. IUGR was diagnosed by the clinical standard, i.e. estimated weight below the tenth percentile. Growth velocity was estimated by calculating the changes of fac (Dzfac/dt) at various time intervals from 3 to 10 weeks. Finally, ROC was used to compare the methods. At 3~4 weeks scan interval, the area under the ROC curve is 0.68 for customized data and 0.66 for the uncustomized data with 95% confidence interval. Comparison between simulation data and real pregnancies verified that the model is clinically acceptable.

  13. Study on the man-operator characteristics in the peak identification problem in line spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopych, P.M.; Sorokin, V.I.; Sotnikov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    ATOS program complex (automatical test spectra processing) realizing all stages of investigation necessary to obtain qualitative characteristics of the man-operator in the peak identification problem is developed. Qualitative characteristics of identitication ion quality of peaks by operators searching for peaks in line spectra are determined due to simulation experiment. It is shown, that for trained operators reference possibility of false detection of peaks is equal to F=0.012±0.004, while for untrained ones - F≅0.3. Comparison of results with analogous data on on-line programs for identification of peaks in γ-spectra is conducted

  14. Procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes and evaluates several procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plant operations. These HEPs are currently needed for several purposes, particularly for probabilistic risk assessments. Data do not exist for estimating these HEPs, so expert judgment can provide these estimates in a timely manner. Five judgmental procedures are described here: paired comparisons, ranking and rating, direct numerical estimation, indirect numerical estimation and multiattribute utility measurement. These procedures are evaluated in terms of several criteria: quality of judgments, difficulty of data collection, empirical support, acceptability, theoretical justification, and data processing. Situational constraints such as the number of experts available, the number of HEPs to be estimated, the time available, the location of the experts, and the resources available are discussed in regard to their implications for selecting a procedure for use

  15. Estimates of secondary waste production from operations at a proespective geologic repository in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhard, M.P.; Jardine, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, a method is outlined for estimating the volumes of solid and liquid radioactive wastes produced during the operation of a repository in tuff. Volume estimates were also developed based on a preliminary conceptual facility design. Based on a disposal rate of 3000 MTU/y of commercial spent fuel, the waste estimates ranged from 793 to 2464 m 3 /y of uncompacted solids and from 80,431 to 128,690 L/y of liquids, depending on the specific set of facility features assumed. The estimates of waste quantities were most dependent on variations in the ratio of truck to rail cask shipments received. The quantities of waste generated on site decreased as this ratio decreased. Although there are large uncertainties in the current estimates caused by the preliminary nature of the facility designs and the limited amount of engineering detail completed, the methodology can be used to refine estimates as the repository design progresses

  16. Condition monitoring of a motor-operated valve using estimated motor torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jangbom; Kang, Shinchul; Park, Sungkeun; Hong, Sungyull; Lim, Chanwoo

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of data analysis methods to be used in on-line monitoring and diagnosis of Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs) effectively and accurately. The technique to be utilized includes the electrical measurements and signal processing to estimate electric torque of induction motors, which are attached to most of MOV systems. The estimated torque of an induction motor is compared with the directly measured torque using a torque cell in various loading conditions including the degraded voltage conditions to validate the estimating scheme. The accuracy of the estimating scheme is presented. The advantages of the estimated torque signatures are reviewed over the currently used ones such as the current signature and the power signature in several respects: accuracy, sensitivity, resolution and so on. Additionally, the estimated torque methods are suggested as a good way to monitor the conditions of MOVs with higher accuracy. (author)

  17. Estimation of Streamflow Characteristics for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Morgan, Timothy J.; Dutton, DeAnn M.; McCarthy, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge (CMR) encompasses about 1.1 million acres (including Fort Peck Reservoir on the Missouri River) in northeastern Montana. To ensure that sufficient streamflow remains in the tributary streams to maintain the riparian corridors, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is negotiating water-rights issues with the Reserved Water Rights Compact Commission of Montana. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, conducted a study to gage, for a short period, selected streams that cross CMR, and analyze data to estimate long-term streamflow characteristics for CMR. The long-term streamflow characteristics of primary interest include the monthly and annual 90-, 80-, 50-, and 20-percent exceedance streamflows and mean streamflows (Q.90, Q.80, Q.50, Q.20, and QM, respectively), and the 1.5-, 2-, and 2.33- year peak flows (PK1.5, PK2, and PK2.33, respectively). The Regional Adjustment Relationship (RAR) was investigated for estimating the monthly and annual Q.90, Q.80, Q.50, Q.20, and QM, and the PK1.5, PK2, and PK2.33 for the short-term CMR gaging stations (hereinafter referred to as CMR stations). The RAR was determined to provide acceptable results for estimating the long-term Q.90, Q.80, Q.50, Q.20, and QM on a monthly basis for the months of March through June, and also on an annual basis. For the months of September through January, the RAR regression equations did not provide acceptable results for any long-term streamflow characteristic. For the month of February, the RAR regression equations provided acceptable results for the long-term Q.50 and QM, but poor results for the long-term Q.90, Q.80, and Q.20. For the months of July and August, the RAR provided acceptable results for the long-term Q.50, Q.20, and QM, but poor results for the long-term Q.90 and Q.80. Estimation coefficients were developed for estimating the long-term streamflow characteristics for which the RAR did not provide

  18. Two-Sided Estimates of Thermo-elastic Characteristics of Dispersed Inclusion Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composites, dispersion-reinforced with inclusions from high-strength and high-modulus materials are widely used in technology. Nanostructure elements can perform the role of such inclusions as well. Possible applications of such composites in heat-stressed structures under heavy mechanical and thermal influences significantly depend on a complex of thermo-mechanical characteristics including the values of the moduli of elasticity and coefficient of linear thermal expansion. There are different approaches to construction of mathematical models that allow calculating dependences to estimate elastic characteristics of composites. Relation between thermoelastic properties of matrix and inclusions of the composite with its temperature coefficient of linear expansion is studied in less detail. Thus, attention has been insufficient in estimating a degree of reliability and a possible error of derived dependencies.A dual variation formulation of the problem of thermo-elasticity in a non-uniform solids simulating the properties and structure of the composite with dispersed inclusions, makes it possible to define two-sided limits of possible values of the volume elasticity modulus, shear modulus, and coefficient of linear thermal expansion of such composite. These limits allow us to estimate the maximum possible error, if to take a half-sum of the limit values of these parameters as the thermoelastic characteristics of the composite. Implementing this approach to find possible errors, arising when using one or another calculating dependency, improves reliability of predicted thermo-elastic characteristics as applied to existing and promising composites.

  19. Characteristics estimation of coal liquefaction residue; Sekitan ekika zansa seijo no suisan ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itonaga, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The paper studied a possibility of estimating characteristics of coal liquefaction residue from liquefaction conditions in the case of fixing coal kind in the NEDOL process coal liquefaction PSU. Wyoming coal was used for the study, and the already proposed simplified liquefaction reaction models were used. Among material balances explained by the models, those of asphaltene, preasphaltene, THF insoluble matters are concerned with residue composition. Ash content is separately calculated from ash balance. Reaction velocity constants of simplified liquefaction reaction models which influence the residue composition were obtained by the multiple regression method from experimental results in the past. The estimation expression of residue viscosity was introduced from residue ash/composition. When the residue composition is estimated by the model from liquefaction conditions, and the residue viscosity is obtained using it, the higher the liquefaction temperature is, the higher the residue viscosity is. The result obtained well agreed the measuring result. The simplified liquefaction model of a certain coal kind has been established, and characteristics of residue can be estimated even at liquefaction conditions which have never been experienced before if there is a certain amount of the accumulated data on residue composition/characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  1. A robust estimate of the number and characteristics of persons released from prison in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Alex; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the number and characteristics of adults released from prison in Australia. We calculated ratios, stratified by age, sex and Indigenous status, by comparing the number of persons released from prison in New South Wales (NSW), with the number in NSW prisons on 30 June of the corresponding year. These stratified ratios were applied to Australia-wide prison data to estimate the number and characteristics of persons released annually. We estimated that in 2013, 38,576 persons were released from prison in Australia - 25.3% more than the daily prison population. Young people, Indigenous people and women were over-represented among those released. We estimated that 3.69 Indigenous women aged 18-24 were released annually for each equivalent person in prison; and 2.75 non-Indigenous women aged 18-24 were released annually for each equivalent person in prison. The annual 'flow' through Australia's prisons is well in excess of the daily number, but information on those moving through prison systems is not yet publicly available. The characteristics of those released from prison differ meaningfully from those of people in prison. Routine, national reporting of prison separations is critical to informing upscaling and targeting of Throughcare services for this profoundly vulnerable population. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. HOW TO ESTIMATE THE AMOUNT OF IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS MISSING IN A CONSUMERS SAMPLE BY USING BAYESIAN ESTIMATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli A. Mingoti

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumers surveys are conducted very often by many companies with the main objective of obtaining information about the opinions the consumers have about a specific prototype, product or service. In many situations the goal is to identify the characteristics that are considered important by the consumers when taking the decision of buying or using the products or services. When the survey is performed some characteristics that are present in the consumers population might not be reported by those consumers in the observed sample. Therefore, some important characteristics of the product according to the consumers opinions could be missing in the observed sample. The main objective of this paper is to show how the amount of characteristics missing in the observed sample could be easily estimated by using some Bayesian estimators proposed by Mingoti & Meeden (1992 and Mingoti (1999. An example of application related to an automobile survey is presented.Pesquisas de mercado são conduzidas freqüentemente com o propósito de obter informações sobre a opinião dos consumidores em relação a produtos já existentes no mercado, protótipos, ou determinados tipos de serviços prestados pela empresa. Em muitas situações deseja-se identificar as características que são consideradas importantes pelos consumidores no que se refere à tomada de decisão de compra do produto ou de opção pelo serviço prestado pela empresa. Como as pesquisas são feitas com amostras de consumidores do mercado potencial, algumas características consideradas importantes pela população podem não estar representadas nas amostras. O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar como a quantidade de características presentes na população e que não estão representadas nas amostras, pode ser facilmente estimada através de estimadores Bayesianos propostos por Mingoti & Meeden (1992 e Mingoti (1999. Como ilustração apresentamos um exemplo de uma pesquisa de mercado sobre um

  3. Operative needs in HIV+ populations: An estimation for sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherewick, Megan L; Cherewick, Steven D; Kushner, Adam L

    2017-05-01

    In 2015, it was estimated that approximately 36.7 million people were living with HIV globally and approximately 25.5 million of those people were living in sub-Saharan Africa. Limitations in the availability and access to adequate operative care require policy and planning to enhance operative capacity. Data estimating the total number of persons living with HIV by country, sex, and age group were obtained from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) in 2015. Using minimum proposed surgical rates per 100,000 for 4, defined, sub-Saharan regions of Africa, country-specific and regional estimates were calculated. The total need and unmet need for operative procedures were estimated. A minimum of 1,539,138 operative procedures were needed in 2015 for the 25.5 million persons living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, there was an unmet need of 908,513 operative cases in sub-Saharan Africa with the greatest unmet need in eastern sub-Saharan Africa (427,820) and western sub-Saharan Africa (325,026). Approximately 55.6% of the total need for operative cases is adult women, 38.4% are adult men, and 6.0% are among children under the age of 15. A minimum of 1.5 million operative procedures annually are required to meet the needs of persons living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The unmet need for operative care is greatest in eastern and western sub-Saharan Africa and will require investments in personnel, infrastructure, facilities, supplies, and equipment. We highlight the need for global planning and investment in resources to meet targets of operative capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in US manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries - Volume 1: Concepts and Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Serot, D.E. (D/E/S Research, Richland, WA (USA)); Kellogg, M.A. (ERCE, Inc., Portland, OR (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Development of integrated mobilization preparedness policies requires planning estimates of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. Such estimates must be developed in a manner to allow evaluation of current trends in capacity and the consideration of uncertainties in various data inputs and in engineering assumptions. This study developed estimates of emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 446 manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level of aggregation and for 24 key nonmanufacturing sectors. This volume lays out the general concepts and methods used to develop the emergency operating estimates. The historical analysis of capacity extends from 1974 through 1986. Some nonmanufacturing industries are included. In addition to mining and utilities, key industries in transportation, communication, and services were analyzed. Physical capacity and efficiency of production were measured. 3 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  5. Employing the therapeutic operating characteristic (TOC) graph for individualised dose prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L; Huizenga, Henk; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2013-03-07

    In current practice, patients scheduled for radiotherapy are treated according to 'rigid' protocols with predefined dose prescriptions that do not consider risk-taking preferences of individuals. The therapeutic operating characteristic (TOC) graph is applied as a decision-aid to assess the trade-off between treatment benefit and morbidity to facilitate dose prescription customisation. Historical dose-response data from prostate cancer patient cohorts treated with 3D-conformal radiotherapy is used to construct TOC graphs. Next, intensity-modulated (IMRT) plans are generated by optimisation based on dosimetric criteria and dose-response relationships. TOC graphs are constructed for dose-scaling of the optimised IMRT plan and individualised dose prescription. The area under the TOC curve (AUC) is estimated to measure the therapeutic power of these plans. On a continuous scale, the TOC graph directly visualises treatment benefit and morbidity risk of physicians' or patients' choices for dose (de-)escalation. The trade-off between these probabilities facilitates the selection of an individualised dose prescription. TOC graphs show broader therapeutic window and higher AUCs with increasing target dose heterogeneity. The TOC graph gives patients and physicians access to a decision-aid and read-out of the trade-off between treatment benefit and morbidity risks for individualised dose prescription customisation over a continuous range of dose levels.

  6. Employing the therapeutic operating characteristic (TOC) graph for individualised dose prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L; Huizenga, Henk; Kaanders, Johannes HAM

    2013-01-01

    In current practice, patients scheduled for radiotherapy are treated according to ‘rigid’ protocols with predefined dose prescriptions that do not consider risk-taking preferences of individuals. The therapeutic operating characteristic (TOC) graph is applied as a decision-aid to assess the trade-off between treatment benefit and morbidity to facilitate dose prescription customisation. Historical dose-response data from prostate cancer patient cohorts treated with 3D-conformal radiotherapy is used to construct TOC graphs. Next, intensity-modulated (IMRT) plans are generated by optimisation based on dosimetric criteria and dose-response relationships. TOC graphs are constructed for dose-scaling of the optimised IMRT plan and individualised dose prescription. The area under the TOC curve (AUC) is estimated to measure the therapeutic power of these plans. On a continuous scale, the TOC graph directly visualises treatment benefit and morbidity risk of physicians’ or patients’ choices for dose (de-)escalation. The trade-off between these probabilities facilitates the selection of an individualised dose prescription. TOC graphs show broader therapeutic window and higher AUCs with increasing target dose heterogeneity. The TOC graph gives patients and physicians access to a decision-aid and read-out of the trade-off between treatment benefit and morbidity risks for individualised dose prescription customisation over a continuous range of dose levels

  7. The ROC Toolbox: A toolbox for analyzing receiver-operating characteristics derived from confidence ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Joshua D; Barrett, Frederick S; Harlow, Iain M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-08-01

    Signal-detection theory, and the analysis of receiver-operating characteristics (ROCs), has played a critical role in the development of theories of episodic memory and perception. The purpose of the current paper is to present the ROC Toolbox. This toolbox is a set of functions written in the Matlab programming language that can be used to fit various common signal detection models to ROC data obtained from confidence rating experiments. The goals for developing the ROC Toolbox were to create a tool (1) that is easy to use and easy for researchers to implement with their own data, (2) that can flexibly define models based on varying study parameters, such as the number of response options (e.g., confidence ratings) and experimental conditions, and (3) that provides optimal routines (e.g., Maximum Likelihood estimation) to obtain parameter estimates and numerous goodness-of-fit measures.The ROC toolbox allows for various different confidence scales and currently includes the models commonly used in recognition memory and perception: (1) the unequal variance signal detection (UVSD) model, (2) the dual process signal detection (DPSD) model, and (3) the mixture signal detection (MSD) model. For each model fit to a given data set the ROC toolbox plots summary information about the best fitting model parameters and various goodness-of-fit measures. Here, we present an overview of the ROC Toolbox, illustrate how it can be used to input and analyse real data, and finish with a brief discussion on features that can be added to the toolbox.

  8. Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Resident Nonimmigrant Population in the United States: January 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This report presents estimates of the size and characteristics of the resident nonimmigrant population in the United States. The estimates are daily averages for the...

  9. Identifications of Carcass Characteristic for Estimating the Composition of Beef Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Hafid, H; Gurnadi, R.E; Priyanto, R; Saefuddin, A

    2010-01-01

    The research aimed to identify carcass characteristic that can be used for estimating composition ofbeef carcass. It was used 165 Brahman crossbred cattle in this research. Carcass characteristics wereweight of a half cold carcass (WC) ranged from 96 to 151 kg, loin eye area (LEA) ranged from 22.09 to304.8 mm2, 12th rib fat thickness (FT12) ranged from 0.80 to 2.90 mm, meat ranged from 53.55 to 90.10kg and carcass fat ranged from 5.54 to 39.72 kg. Result showed that a half weight cold carcass...

  10. Boundary conditions and subelliptic estimates for geometric Kramers-Fokker-Planck operators on manifolds with boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Nier, Francis

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with the maximal accretive realizations of geometric Kramers-Fokker-Planck operators on manifolds with boundaries. A general class of boundary conditions is introduced which ensures the maximal accretivity and some global subelliptic estimates. Those estimates imply nice spectral properties as well as exponential decay properties for the associated semigroup. Admissible boundary conditions cover a wide range of applications for the usual scalar Kramer-Fokker-Planck equation or Bismut's hypoelliptic laplacian.

  11. Estimation of crop water requirements using remote sensing for operational water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Tzabiras, John; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas

    2015-06-01

    An integrated modeling system, developed in the framework of "Hydromentor" research project, is applied to evaluate crop water requirements for operational water resources management at Lake Karla watershed, Greece. The framework includes coupled components for operation of hydrotechnical projects (reservoir operation and irrigation works) and estimation of agricultural water demands at several spatial scales using remote sensing. The study area was sub-divided into irrigation zones based on land use maps derived from Landsat 5 TM images for the year 2007. Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) was used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (ETrF) values from Landsat TM imagery. Agricultural water needs were estimated using the FAO method for each zone and each control node of the system for a number of water resources management strategies. Two operational strategies of hydro-technical project development (present situation without operation of the reservoir and future situation with the operation of the reservoir) are coupled with three water demand strategies. In total, eight (8) water management strategies are evaluated and compared. The results show that, under the existing operational water resources management strategies, the crop water requirements are quite large. However, the operation of the proposed hydro-technical projects in Lake Karla watershed coupled with water demand management measures, like improvement of existing water distribution systems, change of irrigation methods, and changes of crop cultivation could alleviate the problem and lead to sustainable and ecological use of water resources in the study area.

  12. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in US manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Serot, D.E. (D/E/S Research, Richland, WA (USA)); Kellogg, M.A. (ERCE, Inc., Portland, OR (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Development of integrated mobilization preparedness policies requires planning estimates of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. Such estimates must be developed in a manner that allows evaluation of current trends in capacity and the consideration of uncertainties in various data inputs and in engineering assumptions. This study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), developed estimates of emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 446 manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level of aggregation and for 24 key non-manufacturing sectors. This volume presents tabular and graphical results of the historical analysis and projections for each SIC industry. (JF)

  13. Cost estimates for Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm: a budgetary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J. Andrew.

    1991-01-01

    Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm (DS/DS) presented unique challenges for estimating the cost of that conflict. This analysis reviews the cost estimates and methodologies developed for that purpose by DoD, CBO and GAO. It considers the budget climate and the role of foreign cash and in-kind contributions. Finally, it reviews the budgeting innovations used to provide and monitor DS/DS defense spending. At the outset of the crisis, costs were estimated to determine the defense funding requir...

  14. Estimate of radionuclide release characteristics into containment under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1993-11-01

    A detailed review of the available light water reactor source term information is presented as a technical basis for development of updated source terms into the containment under severe accident conditions. Simplified estimates of radionuclide release and transport characteristics are specified for each unique combination of the reactor coolant and containment system combinations. A quantitative uncertainty analysis in the release to the containment using NUREG-1150 methodology is also presented

  15. Estimating the attributable fraction for melanoma: a meta-analysis of pigmentary characteristics and freckling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Carroll, Heidi J; Whiteman, David C

    2010-11-15

    Epidemiologic research has demonstrated convincingly that certain pigmentary characteristics are associated with increased relative risks of melanoma; however there has been no comprehensive review to rank these characteristics in order of their importance on a population level. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis to quantify the contribution of pigmentary characteristics to melanoma, estimated by the population-attributable fraction (PAF). Eligible studies were those that permitted quantitative assessment of the association between histologically confirmed melanoma and hair colour, eye colour, skin phototype and presence of freckling; we identified 66 such studies using citation databases, followed by manual review of retrieved references. We calculated summary relative risks using weighted averages of the log RR, taking into account random effects, and used these to estimate the PAF. The pooled RRs for pigmentary characteristics were: 2.64 for red/red-blond, 2.0 for blond and 1.46 for light brown hair colour (vs. dark); 1.57 for blue/blue-grey and 1.51 for green/grey/hazel eye colour (vs. dark); 2.27, 1.99 and 1.35 for skin phototypes I, II and III respectively (vs. IV); and 1.99 for presence of freckling. The highest PAFs were observed for skin phototypes 1/II (0.27), presence of freckling (0.23), and blond hair colour (0.23). For eye colour, the PAF for blue/blue-grey eye colour was higher than for green/grey/hazel eye colour (0.18 vs. 0.13). The PAF of melanoma associated with red hair colour was 0.10. These estimates of melanoma burden attributable to pigmentary characteristics provide a basis for designing prevention strategies for melanoma.

  16. Estimating small area health-related characteristics of populations: a methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of health-related characteristics at a fine local geographic level is vital for effective health promotion programmes, provision of better health services and population-specific health planning and management. Lack of a micro-dataset readily available for attributes of individuals at small areas negatively impacts the ability of local and national agencies to manage serious health issues and related risks in the community. A solution to this challenge would be to develop a method that simulates reliable small-area statistics. This paper provides a significant appraisal of the methodologies for estimating health-related characteristics of populations at geographical limited areas. Findings reveal that a range of methodologies are in use, which can be classified as three distinct set of approaches: i indirect standardisation and individual level modelling; ii multilevel statistical modelling; and iii micro-simulation modelling. Although each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses, it appears that microsimulation- based spatial models have significant robustness over the other methods and also represent a more precise means of estimating health-related population characteristics over small areas.

  17. Linking soil type and rainfall characteristics towards estimation of surface evaporative capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, D.; Bickel, S.; Lehmann, P.

    2017-12-01

    Separation of evapotranspiration (ET) to evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) components for attribution of surface fluxes or for assessment of isotope fractionation in groundwater remains a challenge. Regional estimates of soil evaporation often rely on plant-based (Penman-Monteith) ET estimates where is E is obtained as a residual or a fraction of potential evaporation. We propose a novel method for estimating E from soil-specific properties, regional rainfall characteristics and considering concurrent internal drainage that shelters soil water from evaporation. A soil-dependent evaporative characteristic length defines a depth below which soil water cannot be pulled to the surface by capillarity; this depth determines the maximal soil evaporative capacitance (SEC). The SEC is recharged by rainfall and subsequently emptied by competition between drainage and surface evaporation (considering canopy interception evaporation). We show that E is strongly dependent on rainfall characteristics (mean annual, number of storms) and soil textural type, with up to 50% of rainfall lost to evaporation in loamy soil. The SEC concept applied to different soil types and climatic regions offers direct bounds on regional surface evaporation independent of plant-based parameterization or energy balance calculations.

  18. LCDs are better: psychophysical and photometric estimates of the temporal characteristics of CRT and LCD monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagroix, Hayley E P; Yanko, Matthew R; Spalek, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    Many cognitive and perceptual phenomena, such as iconic memory and temporal integration, require brief displays. A critical requirement is that the image not remain visible after its offset. It is commonly believed that liquid crystal displays (LCD) are unsuitable because of their poor temporal response characteristics relative to cathode-ray-tube (CRT) screens. Remarkably, no psychophysical estimates of visible persistence are available to verify this belief. A series of experiments in which white stimuli on a black background produced discernible persistence on CRT but not on LCD screens, during both dark- and light-adapted viewing, falsified this belief. Similar estimates using black stimuli on a white background produced no visible persistence on either screen. That said, photometric measurements are available that seem to confirm the poor temporal characteristics of LCD screens, but they were obtained before recent advances in LCD technology. Using current LCD screens, we obtained photometric estimates of rise time far shorter (1-6 ms) than earlier estimates (20-150 ms), and approaching those of CRTs (<1 ms). We conclude that LCDs are preferable to CRTs when visible persistence is a concern, except when black-on-white displays are used.

  19. Estimated Mortality of Selected Migratory Bird Species from Mowing and Other Mechanical Operations in Canadian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Tews

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical operations such as mowing, tilling, seeding, and harvesting are well-known sources of direct avian mortality in agricultural fields. However, there are currently no mortality rate estimates available for any species group or larger jurisdiction. Even reviews of sources of mortality in birds have failed to address mechanical disturbance in farm fields. To overcome this information gap we provide estimates of total mortality rates by mechanical operations for five selected species across Canada. In our step-by-step modeling approach we (i quantified the amount of various types of agricultural land in each Bird Conservation Region (BCR in Canada, (ii estimated population densities by region and agricultural habitat type for each selected species, (iii estimated the average timing of mechanical agricultural activities, egg laying, and fledging, (iv and used these values and additional demographical parameters to derive estimates of total mortality by species within each BCR. Based on our calculations the total annual estimated incidental take of young ranged from ~138,000 for Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris to as much as ~941,000 for Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis. Net losses to the fall flight of birds, i.e., those birds that would have fledged successfully in the absence of mechanical disturbance, were, for example ~321,000 for Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus and ~483,000 for Savannah Sparrow. Although our estimates are subject to an unknown degree of uncertainty, this assessment is a very important first step because it provides a broad estimate of incidental take for a set of species that may be particularly vulnerable to mechanical operations and a starting point for future refinements of model parameters if and when they become available.

  20. Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a 4000-Pound-Thrust Axial-Flow Turbojet Engine. II - Operational Characteristics. II; Operational Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, William A.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the operational characteristics of an axial flow-type turbojet engine with a 4000-pound-thrust rating over a range of pressure altitudes from 5,000 to 50,OOO feet, ram pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.86, and temperatures from 60 deg to -50 deg F. The low-flow (standard) compressor with which the engine was originally equipped was replaced by a high-flow compressor for part of the investigation. The effects of altitude and airspeed on such operating characteristics as operating range, stability of combustion, acceleration, starting, operation of fuel-control systems, and bearing cooling were investigated. With the low-flow compressor, the engine could be operated at full speed without serious burner unbalance at altitudes up to 50,000 feet. Increasing the altitude and airspeed greatly reduced the operable speed range of the engine by raising the minimum operating speed of the engine. In several runs with the high-flow compressor the maximum engine speed was limited to less than 7600 rpm by combustion blow-out, high tail-pipe temperatures, and compressor stall. Acceleration of the engine was relatively slow and the time required for acceleration increased with altitude. At maximum engine speed a sudden reduction in jet-nozzle area resulted in an immediate increase in thrust. The engine started normally and easily below 20,000 feet with each configuration. The use of a high-voltage ignition system made possible starts at a pressure altitude of 40,000 feet; but on these starts the tail-pipe temperatures were very high, a great deal of fuel burned in and behind the tail-pipe, and acceleration was very slow. Operation of the engine was similar with both fuel regulators except that the modified fuel regulator restricted the fuel flow in such a manner that the acceleration above 6000 rpm was very slow. The bearings did not cool properly at high altitudes and high engine speeds with a low

  1. Combining lake and watershed characteristics with Landsat TM data for remote estimation of regional lake clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ian M.; Loftin, Cyndy; Sader, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Water clarity is a reliable indicator of lake productivity and an ideal metric of regional water quality. Clarity is an indicator of other water quality variables including chlorophyll-a, total phosphorus and trophic status; however, unlike these metrics, clarity can be accurately and efficiently estimated remotely on a regional scale. Remote sensing is useful in regions containing a large number of lakes that are cost prohibitive to monitor regularly using traditional field methods. Field-assessed lakes generally are easily accessible and may represent a spatially irregular, non-random sample of a region. We developed a remote monitoring program for Maine lakes >8 ha (1511 lakes) to supplement existing field monitoring programs. We combined Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) brightness values for TM bands 1 (blue) and 3 (red) to estimate water clarity (secchi disk depth) during 1990–2010. Although similar procedures have been applied to Minnesota and Wisconsin lakes, neither state incorporates physical lake variables or watershed characteristics that potentially affect clarity into their models. Average lake depth consistently improved model fitness, and the proportion of wetland area in lake watersheds also explained variability in clarity in some cases. Nine regression models predicted water clarity (R2 = 0.69–0.90) during 1990–2010, with separate models for eastern (TM path 11; four models) and western Maine (TM path 12; five models that captured differences in topography and landscape disturbance. Average absolute difference between model-estimated and observed secchi depth ranged 0.65–1.03 m. Eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes consistently were estimated more accurately than oligotrophic lakes. Our results show that TM bands 1 and 3 can be used to estimate regional lake water clarity outside the Great Lakes Region and that the accuracy of estimates is improved with additional model variables that reflect

  2. Risk estimates of HIV and HBV infection to the dental operator via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RISK ESTIMATES OF HIV AND HBV INFECTION. TO THE DENTAL OPERATOR VIA. PRICK ACCIDENTS. W.H. van Palenstein Helderman. Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry,. Faculty of Dentistry, Muhirilbili University College of Health Sciences,. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. , Introduction. Intact skin provides ...

  3. Dynamic state estimation and prediction for real-time control and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.H.; Venayagamoorthy, G.K.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Real-time control and operation are crucial to deal with increasing complexity of modern power systems. To effectively enable those functions, it is required a Dynamic State Estimation (DSE) function to provide accurate network state variables at the right moment and predict their trends ahead. This

  4. Evaluation of communication characteristics of operating teams in NPPs using SNA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J.; Lee, S. W.; Kang, H. G.; Seong, P. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, H. G. [Khalifa Univ. of Science, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-03-15

    Inappropriate communications within operational teams can lead to serious consequences of a system since it can cause lack of exchange of important information to perform the task to secure the safety of the system in nuclear power plants (NPPs). For that reason, we studied the communication characteristics However, existing studies on the communication characteristics seem to have problem since they have characterized team communications from a single perspective. According that, we have developed an evaluation method to characterize team communications using social network techniques which can evaluate them from various perspectives which are group cohesiveness, frequency of communications, degree of hierarchy, and communication contents. In addition, we suggested some kids of specific communication characteristics of operating teams that can reduce the occurrence of inappropriate communications. Eight verbal protocol data which are audio-visual recorded under emergency training sessions by main control room (MCR) operating teams are used. As a result of the study, there was negative relationship between group cohesiveness and the ratio of inappropriate communications. Moreover, some kinds of specific communication contents are related to the ratio of inappropriate communications. Consequently, we can evaluate communications characteristics of operating teams in NPPs and suggest specific characteristics to provide useful insights to prevent inappropriate communications.

  5. Evaluation of communication characteristics of operating teams in NPPs using SNA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Lee, S. W.; Kang, H. G.; Seong, P. H.; Park, J. K.; Kang, H. G.

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate communications within operational teams can lead to serious consequences of a system since it can cause lack of exchange of important information to perform the task to secure the safety of the system in nuclear power plants (NPPs). For that reason, we studied the communication characteristics However, existing studies on the communication characteristics seem to have problem since they have characterized team communications from a single perspective. According that, we have developed an evaluation method to characterize team communications using social network techniques which can evaluate them from various perspectives which are group cohesiveness, frequency of communications, degree of hierarchy, and communication contents. In addition, we suggested some kids of specific communication characteristics of operating teams that can reduce the occurrence of inappropriate communications. Eight verbal protocol data which are audio-visual recorded under emergency training sessions by main control room (MCR) operating teams are used. As a result of the study, there was negative relationship between group cohesiveness and the ratio of inappropriate communications. Moreover, some kinds of specific communication contents are related to the ratio of inappropriate communications. Consequently, we can evaluate communications characteristics of operating teams in NPPs and suggest specific characteristics to provide useful insights to prevent inappropriate communications

  6. Data Service:Characteristics,Market Structure,and the Role of Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruo-peng; LU Ting-jie

    2005-01-01

    To study characteristics and market structure of data service and the role of operator,this paper makes a commercial model by applying the theory of intermediaries and neoclassic economics.Data service has different economic characteristics from voice service.Firstly,production mode of data service is roundabout production,secondly,driving power of data service is economies of specialization,and finally,management method of data service is impersonal management.In data service market,information asymmetry and barrier to entry determine transaction efficiency and the specialization level of service providers indirectly.Therefore,operator should intervene in the market by offering trade service in order to promote development of service providers.Because of different quality of service providers,market structure of data service must be the state that trade platform built by operator and intermediary platform built by operator coexists.

  7. Operating characteristics of a 2.0-MeV RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purser, F.O.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Sander, O.R.; Potter, J.M.; Crandall, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    A second radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, constructed and operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The accelerator's design parameters represent a major extension from the original Los Alamos RFQ, with the new accelerator being 2.5 times as long, having three times the output energy, and with 2.5 times the current limit. The new accelerator's operating characteristics were studied for 3 months before disassembly to incorporate design mofidications. Results are discussed

  8. Association of coronary ischemia estimated by fractional flow reserve and psychological characteristics of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Jovan Sreckovic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Psychological characteristics of patients, depression, stress and anxiety are recognized as important confounding risk factors for ischemic heart disease. However, the impact of psychological characteristics on coronary ischemia and vice versa remain poorly understood. Aim: To demonstrate the interplay of psychological characteristics, depression, stress and anxiety with coronary ischemia estimated with fractional flow reserve (FFR. Material and methods : From 2014 to 2016, 147 patients who were planned for FFR measurement were included in this study. Psychological characteristics of patients were evaluated using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 items (DASS 21 self-report questionnaire. Results : Comparing the FFR ischemic vs. FFR non-ischemic groups, a significant difference was observed regarding results achieved for the depression, anxiety and stress scales. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the correlation between FFR and the DAS scale. It was clear, when controlling for previous myocardial infarction, that FFR was significant in all analyses. However, when the Canadian Cardiovascular Society grading of angina pectoris (CCS class was entered in the model, FFR was not a significant predictor of anxiety, but was significant in other analysis. Conclusions : Higher degrees of the psychological characteristics depression, stress and anxiety were observed in the group of patients with coronary ischemia, corresponding to lower fractional flow values.

  9. Design features and operational characteristics of the PEP beam-transport and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.; Brown, K.L.; Truher, J.B.

    1981-03-01

    The PEP beam-transport system was designed to transmit 4-to-15 GeV electron and positron beams from the SLAC linac within a +- 0.8% momentum band, to have flexible tuning of the betatron and off-momentum functions for matching into the PEP storage ring, and to have convenient operating characteristics. The transport lines were brought into operation quickly and have operated well. Electron injection has been consistent and efficient and relatively easy to accomplish. Positron injection also has been satisfactory but is variable and more sensitive to ring conditions

  10. Rotating Parabolic-Reflector Antenna Target in SAR Data: Model, Characteristics, and Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parabolic-reflector antennas (PRAs, usually possessing rotation, are a particular type of targets of potential interest to the synthetic aperture radar (SAR community. This paper is aimed to investigate PRA’s scattering characteristics and then to extract PRA’s parameters from SAR returns, for supporting image interpretation and target recognition. We at first obtain both closed-form and numeric solutions to PRA’s backscattering by geometrical optics (GO, physical optics, and graphical electromagnetic computation, respectively. Based on the GO solution, a migratory scattering center model is at first presented for representing the movement of the specular point with aspect angle, and then a hybrid model, named the migratory/micromotion scattering center (MMSC model, is proposed for characterizing a rotating PRA in the SAR geometry, which incorporates PRA’s rotation into its migratory scattering center model. Additionally, we in detail analyze PRA’s radar characteristics on radar cross-section, high-resolution range profiles, time-frequency distribution, and 2D images, which also confirm the models proposed. A maximal likelihood estimator is developed for jointly solving the MMSC model for PRA’s multiple parameters by optimization. By exploiting the aforementioned characteristics, the coarse parameter estimation guarantees convergency upon global minima. The signatures recovered can be favorably utilized for SAR image interpretation and target recognition.

  11. A Data Analysis Technique to Estimate the Thermal Characteristics of a House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amin Tabatabaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost one third of the energy is used in the residential sector, and space heating is the largest part of energy consumption in our houses. Knowledge about the thermal characteristics of a house can increase the awareness of homeowners about the options to save energy, for example by showing that there is room for improvement of the insulation level. However, calculating the exact value of these characteristics is not possible without precise thermal experiments. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically estimate two of the most important thermal characteristics of a house, i.e., the loss rate and the heat capacity, based on collected data about the temperature and gas usage. The method is evaluated with a data set that has been collected in a real-life case study. Although a ground truth is lacking, the analyses show that there is evidence that this method could provide a feasible way to estimate those values from the thermostat data. More detailed data about the houses in which the data was collected is required to draw stronger conclusions. We conclude that the proposed method is a promising way to add energy saving advice to smart thermostats.

  12. Interrelationships Between Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics Display, Binomial, Logit, and Bayes' Rule Probability of Detection Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Unknown risks are introduced into failure critical systems when probability of detection (POD) capabilities are accepted without a complete understanding of the statistical method applied and the interpretation of the statistical results. The presence of this risk in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community is revealed in common statements about POD. These statements are often interpreted in a variety of ways and therefore, the very existence of the statements identifies the need for a more comprehensive understanding of POD methodologies. Statistical methodologies have data requirements to be met, procedures to be followed, and requirements for validation or demonstration of adequacy of the POD estimates. Risks are further enhanced due to the wide range of statistical methodologies used for determining the POD capability. Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics (ROC) Display, simple binomial, logistic regression, and Bayes' rule POD methodologies are widely used in determining POD capability. This work focuses on Hit-Miss data to reveal the framework of the interrelationships between Receiver/Relative Operating Characteristics Display, simple binomial, logistic regression, and Bayes' Rule methodologies as they are applied to POD. Knowledge of these interrelationships leads to an intuitive and global understanding of the statistical data, procedural and validation requirements for establishing credible POD estimates.

  13. Operational production of Geodetic Excitation Functions from EOP estimated values at ASI-CGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, C.; Luceri, V.; Bianco, G.

    2009-04-01

    ASI-CGS is routinely providing geodetic excitation functions from its own estimated EOP values (at present SLR and VLBI; the current use of GPS EOP's is also planned as soon as this product will be fully operational) on the ASI geodetic web site (http://geodaf.mt.asi.it). This product has been generated and monitored (for ASI internal use only) in a long pre-operational phase (more than two years), including validation and testing. The daily geodetic excitation functions are now weekly updated along with the operational ASI SLR and VLBI EOP solutions and compared, whenever possible, with the atmospheric excitation functions available at the IERS SBAAM, under the IB and not-IB assumption, including the "wind" term. The work will present the available estimated geodetic function time series and its comparison with the relevant atmospheric excitation functions, deriving quantitative indicators on the quality of the estimates. The similarities as well as the discrepancies among the atmospheric and geodetic series will be analysed and commented, evaluating in particular the degree of correlation among the two estimated time series and the likelihood of a linear dependence hypothesis.

  14. Employing the therapeutic operating characteristic (TOC) graph for individualised dose prescription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.L.; Huizenga, H.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In current practice, patients scheduled for radiotherapy are treated according to 'rigid' protocols with predefined dose prescriptions that do not consider risk-taking preferences of individuals. The therapeutic operating characteristic (TOC) graph is applied as a decision-aid to assess

  15. Ion counting method and it's operational characteristics in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Toshihiro

    1976-01-01

    Ion counting method with continuous channel electron multiplier which affords the direct detection of very small ion currents and it's operational characteristics were studied in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Then this method was applied to the single ion detection technique of GC-MS. A detection limit was measured, using various standard samples of low level concentration. (auth.)

  16. PFP vault operations containers for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for containers procured for Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP's) Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function

  17. Receiver operating characteristics of perceptrons : Influence of sample size and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freking, Ansgar; Biehl, Michael; Braun, Christian; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Meesmann, Malte

    1999-01-01

    In many practical classification problems it is important to distinguish false positive from false negative results when evaluating the performance of the classifier. This is of particular importance for medical diagnostic tests. In this context, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have

  18. Calculation characteristics of centrifugal compressor operates on a mixture of gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitskiy, B. B.; Arbekov, A. N.

    2016-10-01

    The creation of Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) unit is impossible without developing the basic knots. This work is devoted to determining the characteristics of a centrifugal compressor when operating at various working bodies with the help of experimental and numerical studies.

  19. Ensemble Kalman Filtering with Residual Nudging: An Extension to State Estimation Problems with Nonlinear Observation Operators

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is an efficient algorithm for many data assimilation problems. In certain circumstances, however, divergence of the EnKF might be spotted. In previous studies, the authors proposed an observation-space-based strategy, called residual nudging, to improve the stability of the EnKF when dealing with linear observation operators. The main idea behind residual nudging is to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the distances (misfits) between the real observations and the simulated ones of the state estimates, in the hope that by doing so one may be able to obtain better estimation accuracy. In the present study, residual nudging is extended and modified in order to handle nonlinear observation operators. Such extension and modification result in an iterative filtering framework that, under suitable conditions, is able to achieve the objective of residual nudging for data assimilation problems with nonlinear observation operators. The 40-dimensional Lorenz-96 model is used to illustrate the performance of the iterative filter. Numerical results show that, while a normal EnKF may diverge with nonlinear observation operators, the proposed iterative filter remains stable and leads to reasonable estimation accuracy under various experimental settings.

  20. Estimating truck operating costs for domestic trips – case studies from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdoukopoulos Eleftherios

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector represents a vital component of national economies and has significant impacts on productivity and social welfare. In 2012, the transport sector in Europe was estimated to account for 3.7% of the European Gross Domestic Product (GDP and 5.1% for employment. Road transport proves to be the predominant mode for moving goods within Europe holding a share of approximately 45.8% in 2012 (in ton-kms. In Greece, the share of road freight transport is significantly higher (98% indicating the importance of this sector for the Greek economy. To this end and considering the existing needs of road freight transport operators in Greece, the objective of this research is to establish an analytical and documented basis for estimating the operating cost of a truck on specific urban or national freight transport routes. To achieve this goal, an extended literature review has been conducted resulting in the identification of the main components comprising the total truck operating cost, which were then updated and validated through a series of personal interviews with selected road freight transport professionals. An excel-based application tool was also developed in order to facilitate operating cost estimates for different cases, through selection of the proper values of the relevant parameters. The resulting tool was used to analyse four test cases, which demonstrate the tool’s usability and applicability. Results from this analysis have been also validated by industry experts and they reflect real-world transport scenarios.

  1. An innovative multivariate tool for fuel consumption and costs estimation of agricultural operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Guerrieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of operating costs of agricultural and forestry machineries is a key factor in both planning agricultural policies and farm management. Few works have tried to estimate operating costs and the produced models are normally based on deterministic approaches. Conversely, in the statistical model randomness is present and variable states are not described by unique values, but rather by probability distributions. In this study, for the first time, a multivariate statistical model based on Partial Least Squares (PLS was adopted to predict the fuel consumption and costs of six agricultural operations such as: ploughing, harrowing, fertilization, sowing, weed control and shredding. The prediction was conducted on two steps: first of all few initial selected parameters (time per surface-area unit, maximum engine power, purchase price of the tractor and purchase price of the operating machinery were used to estimate the fuel consumption; then the predicted fuel consumption together with the initial parameters were used to estimate the operational costs. Since the obtained models were based on an input dataset very heterogeneous, these resulted to be extremely efficient and so generalizable and robust. In details the results show prediction values in the test with r always ≥ 0.91. Thus, the approach may results extremely useful for both farmers (in terms of economic advantages and at institutional level (representing an innovative and efficient tool for planning future Rural Development Programmes and the Common Agricultural Policy. In light of these advantages the proposed approach may as well be implemented on a web platform and made available to all the stakeholders.

  2. An innovative multivariate tool for fuel consumption and costs estimation of agricultural operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrieri, M.; Fedrizzi, M.; Antonucci, F.; Pallottino, F.; Sperandio, G.; Pagano, M.; Figorilli, S.; Menesatti, P.; Costa, C.

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of operating costs of agricultural and forestry machineries is a key factor in both planning agricultural policies and farm management. Few works have tried to estimate operating costs and the produced models are normally based on deterministic approaches. Conversely, in the statistical model randomness is present and variable states are not described by unique values, but rather by probability distributions. In this study, for the first time, a multivariate statistical model based on Partial Least Squares (PLS) was adopted to predict the fuel consumption and costs of six agricultural operations such as: ploughing, harrowing, fertilization, sowing, weed control and shredding. The prediction was conducted on two steps: first of all few initial selected parameters (time per surface-area unit, maximum engine power, purchase price of the tractor and purchase price of the operating machinery) were used to estimate the fuel consumption; then the predicted fuel consumption together with the initial parameters were used to estimate the operational costs. Since the obtained models were based on an input dataset very heterogeneous, these resulted to be extremely efficient and so generalizable and robust. In details the results show prediction values in the test with r always ≥ 0.91. Thus, the approach may results extremely useful for both farmers (in terms of economic advantages) and at institutional level (representing an innovative and efficient tool for planning future Rural Development Programmes and the Common Agricultural Policy). In light of these advantages the proposed approach may as well be implemented on a web platform and made available to all the stakeholders.

  3. An innovative multivariate tool for fuel consumption and costs estimation of agricultural operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrieri, M.; Fedrizzi, M.; Antonucci, F.; Pallottino, F.; Sperandio, G.; Pagano, M.; Figorilli, S.; Menesatti, P.; Costa, C.

    2016-07-01

    The estimation of operating costs of agricultural and forestry machineries is a key factor in both planning agricultural policies and farm management. Few works have tried to estimate operating costs and the produced models are normally based on deterministic approaches. Conversely, in the statistical model randomness is present and variable states are not described by unique values, but rather by probability distributions. In this study, for the first time, a multivariate statistical model based on Partial Least Squares (PLS) was adopted to predict the fuel consumption and costs of six agricultural operations such as: ploughing, harrowing, fertilization, sowing, weed control and shredding. The prediction was conducted on two steps: first of all few initial selected parameters (time per surface-area unit, maximum engine power, purchase price of the tractor and purchase price of the operating machinery) were used to estimate the fuel consumption; then the predicted fuel consumption together with the initial parameters were used to estimate the operational costs. Since the obtained models were based on an input dataset very heterogeneous, these resulted to be extremely efficient and so generalizable and robust. In details the results show prediction values in the test with r always ≥ 0.91. Thus, the approach may results extremely useful for both farmers (in terms of economic advantages) and at institutional level (representing an innovative and efficient tool for planning future Rural Development Programmes and the Common Agricultural Policy). In light of these advantages the proposed approach may as well be implemented on a web platform and made available to all the stakeholders.

  4. Comparing NEXRAD Operational Precipitation Estimates and Raingage Observations of Intense Precipitation in the Missouri River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    Accurate observation of precipitation is critical to the study and modeling of land surface hydrologic processes. NEXRAD radar-based precipitation estimates are increasingly used in field experiments, hydrologic modeling, and water and energy budget studies due to their high spatial and temporal resolution, national coverage, and perceived accuracy. Extensive development and testing of NEXRAD precipitation algorithms have been carried out in the Southern Plains. Previous studies (Young et al. 2000, Young et al. 1999, Smith et al. 1996) indicate that NEXRAD operational products tend to underestimate precipitation at light rain rates. This study investigates the performance of NEXRAD precipitation estimates of high-intensity rainfall, focusing on flood-producing storms in the Missouri River Basin. NEXRAD estimates for these storms are compared with data from multiple raingage networks, including NWS recording and non-recording gages and ALERT raingage data for the Kansas City metropolitan area. Analyses include comparisons of gage and radar data at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Particular attention is paid to the October 4th, 1998, storm that produced severe flooding in Kansas City. NOTE: The phrase `NEXRAD operational products' in this abstract includes precipitation estimates generated using the Stage III and P1 algorithms. Both of these products estimate hourly accumulations on the (approximately) 4 km HRAP grid.

  5. Estimation Algorithm of Machine Operational Intention by Bayes Filtering with Self-Organizing Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an intention estimator algorithm that can deal with dynamic change of the environment in a man-machine system and will be able to be utilized for an autarkical human-assisting system. In the algorithm, state transition relation of intentions is formed using a self-organizing map (SOM from the measured data of the operation and environmental variables with the reference intention sequence. The operational intention modes are identified by stochastic computation using a Bayesian particle filter with the trained SOM. This method enables to omit the troublesome process to specify types of information which should be used to build the estimator. Applying the proposed method to the remote operation task, the estimator's behavior was analyzed, the pros and cons of the method were investigated, and ways for the improvement were discussed. As a result, it was confirmed that the estimator can identify the intention modes at 44–94 percent concordance ratios against normal intention modes whose periods can be found by about 70 percent of members of human analysts. On the other hand, it was found that human analysts' discrimination which was used as canonical data for validation differed depending on difference of intention modes. Specifically, an investigation of intentions pattern discriminated by eight analysts showed that the estimator could not identify the same modes that human analysts could not discriminate. And, in the analysis of the multiple different intentions, it was found that the estimator could identify the same type of intention modes to human-discriminated ones as well as 62–73 percent when the first and second dominant intention modes were considered.

  6. Estimation of primary cosmic ray characteristics with the help of EAS Cherenkov light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, L.; Brankova, M.; Kirov, I.; Mishev, A.; Stamenov, J.; Ushev, S.; Mavrodiev, S.

    1999-01-01

    A new method of estimating primary cosmic ray characteristics based on the registration and analysis of EAS Cherenkov light is proposed. The nature, energy and arrival direction of primaries are obtained as a solution of a nonlinear inverse problem. The applied mathematical model is created by analyzing 'Hotovo' telescope experimental data. The behaviour of model parameters is studied using CORSIKA code for the primary energy interval 30 GeV-3 TeV. This method could be applied successfully for a different kind of detector displacements of EAS arrays. Moreover, it is shown that the shower parameter estimation could be obtained more effectively and precisely in the case of detectors displacement according to a Spiral

  7. Red lesion detection using background estimation and lesions characteristics in diabetic retinal image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Peng, Yinghui; Yi, Yao; Shang, Xingyu

    2013-10-01

    Detection of red lesions [hemorrhages (HRs) and microaneurysms (MAs)] is crucial for the diagnosis of early diabetic retinopathy. A method based on background estimation and adapted to specific characteristics of HRs and MAs is proposed. Candidate red lesions are located by background estimation and Mahalanobis distance measure and then some adaptive postprocessing techniques, which include vessel detection, nonvessel exclusion based on shape analysis, and noise points exclusion by double-ring filter (only used for MAs detection), are conducted to remove nonlesion pixels. The method is evaluated on our collected image dataset, and experimental results show that it is better than or approximate to other previous approaches. It is effective to reduce the false-positive and false-negative results that arise from incomplete and inaccurate vessel structure.

  8. Self-validated calculation of characteristics of a Francis turbine and the mechanism of the S-shape operational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z; Titzschkau, M

    2012-01-01

    A calculation method has been presented to accurately estimate the characteristics of a Francis turbine. Both the shock loss at the impeller inlet and the swirling flow loss at the Impeller exit have been confirmed to dominantly influence the turbine characteristics and particularly the hydraulic efficiency. Both together totally govern the through flow of water through the impeller being at the rest. Calculations have been performed for the flow rate, the shaft torque and the hydraulic efficiency and compared with the available measurements on a model turbine. Excellent agreements have been achieved. Some other interesting properties of the turbine characteristics could also be derived from the calculations and verified by experiments. For this reason and because of not using any unreliable assumptions the calculation method has been confirmed to be self-validated. The operational instability in the upper range of the rotational speed, known as the S-shape instability, is ascribed to the total flow separation and stagnation at the impeller inlet. In that range of the rotational speed, the operation of the Francis turbine oscillates between pump and turbine mode.

  9. A Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Vocal-Tract-Related Filter Characteristics for Single Channel Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansereau Richard M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for separating two speech signals from a single recording. The proposed method bridges the gap between underdetermined blind source separation techniques and those techniques that model the human auditory system, that is, computational auditory scene analysis (CASA. For this purpose, we decompose the speech signal into the excitation signal and the vocal-tract-related filter and then estimate the components from the mixed speech using a hybrid model. We first express the probability density function (PDF of the mixed speech's log spectral vectors in terms of the PDFs of the underlying speech signal's vocal-tract-related filters. Then, the mean vectors of PDFs of the vocal-tract-related filters are obtained using a maximum likelihood estimator given the mixed signal. Finally, the estimated vocal-tract-related filters along with the extracted fundamental frequencies are used to reconstruct estimates of the individual speech signals. The proposed technique effectively adds vocal-tract-related filter characteristics as a new cue to CASA models using a new grouping technique based on an underdetermined blind source separation. We compare our model with both an underdetermined blind source separation and a CASA method. The experimental results show that our model outperforms both techniques in terms of SNR improvement and the percentage of crosstalk suppression.

  10. A Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Vocal-Tract-Related Filter Characteristics for Single Channel Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Radfar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for separating two speech signals from a single recording. The proposed method bridges the gap between underdetermined blind source separation techniques and those techniques that model the human auditory system, that is, computational auditory scene analysis (CASA. For this purpose, we decompose the speech signal into the excitation signal and the vocal-tract-related filter and then estimate the components from the mixed speech using a hybrid model. We first express the probability density function (PDF of the mixed speech's log spectral vectors in terms of the PDFs of the underlying speech signal's vocal-tract-related filters. Then, the mean vectors of PDFs of the vocal-tract-related filters are obtained using a maximum likelihood estimator given the mixed signal. Finally, the estimated vocal-tract-related filters along with the extracted fundamental frequencies are used to reconstruct estimates of the individual speech signals. The proposed technique effectively adds vocal-tract-related filter characteristics as a new cue to CASA models using a new grouping technique based on an underdetermined blind source separation. We compare our model with both an underdetermined blind source separation and a CASA method. The experimental results show that our model outperforms both techniques in terms of SNR improvement and the percentage of crosstalk suppression.

  11. Capital and operating cost estimates for high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenung, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Fagaly, R.L.; Heiberger, M.; Stephens, R.B.; Leuer, J.A.; Guzman, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Capital and operating costs have been estimated for mid-scale (2 to 200 Mwh) superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) designed to use high temperature superconductors (HTS). Capital costs are dominated by the cost of superconducting materials. Operating costs, primarily for regeneration, are significantly reduced for HTS-SMES in comparison to low temperature, conventional systems. This cost component is small compared to other O and M and capital components, when levelized annual costs are projected. In this paper, the developments required for HTS-SMES feasibility are discussed

  12. Change in working characteristics of the steam turbine metal with operating time of more than 330000 hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladshteyn, V. I.; Troitskiy, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Research of a metal of the stop valve case (SVC) of the K-300-23.5 LMZ turbine (steel grade 15Kh1M1FL), destroyed after operation for 331000 hours, is performed. It's chemical composition and properties are determined as follows: a short-term mechanical tensile stress at 20°C and at elevated temperature, critical temperature, fragility, critical crack opening at elevated temperature, and long-term strength. Furthermore, nature of the microstructure, packing density of carbide particles and their size, and chemical composition of carbide sediment are estimated. A manifestation of metal properties for the main case components by comparison with a forecast of the respective characteristics made for the operating time of 331000 hours is tested. Property-time relationships are built for the forecast using statistical treatment of the test results for the samples cut out from more than 300 parts. Representativeness of the research results is proved: the statistical treatment of their differences are within the range of ±5%. It has been found that, after 150000 hours of operation, only the tensile strength insignificantly depends on the operating time at 20°C, whereas indicators of strength at elevated temperature significantly reduce, depending on the operating time. A brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (BDTT) raises, a critical notch opening changes in a complicated way, a long-term strength reduces. It has been found empirically that the limit of a long-term strength of the SVC metal at 540°C and the operating time of 105 hours is almost 1.6 times less than the required value in the as-delivered state. It is possible to evaluate a service life of the operating valves with the operating time of more than 330000 hours with respect to the long-term strength of the metal taking into account the actual temperature and stress. Guidelines for the control of similar parts are provided.

  13. Radiation dose estimates due to air particulate emissions from selected phosphate industry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.E.; Horton, T.R.; Sensintaffar, E.L.; Boysen, G.A.

    1978-06-01

    The EPA Office of Radiation Programs has conducted a series of studies to determine the radiological impact of the phosphate mining and milling industry. This report describes the efforts to estimate the radiation doses due to airborne emissions of particulates from selected phosphate milling operations in Florida. Two wet process phosphoric acid plants and one ore drying facility were selected for this study. The 1976 Annual Operations/Emissions Report, submitted by each facility to the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, and a field survey trip by EPA personnel to each facility were used to develop data for dose calculations. The field survey trip included sampling for stack emissions and ambient air samples collected in the general vicinity of each plant. Population and individual radiation dose estimates are made based on these sources of data

  14. Improved Battery Parameter Estimation Method Considering Operating Scenarios for HEV/EV Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jufeng Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved battery parameter estimation method based on typical operating scenarios in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. Compared with the conventional estimation methods, the proposed method takes both the constant-current charging and the dynamic driving scenarios into account, and two separate sets of model parameters are estimated through different parts of the pulse-rest test. The model parameters for the constant-charging scenario are estimated from the data in the pulse-charging periods, while the model parameters for the dynamic driving scenario are estimated from the data in the rest periods, and the length of the fitted dataset is determined by the spectrum analysis of the load current. In addition, the unsaturated phenomenon caused by the long-term resistor-capacitor (RC network is analyzed, and the initial voltage expressions of the RC networks in the fitting functions are improved to ensure a higher model fidelity. Simulation and experiment results validated the feasibility of the developed estimation method.

  15. Dose estimative in operators during petroleum wells logging with nuclear wireless probes through computer modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Correa, Samanda Cristine Arruda; Rocha, Paula L.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the absorbed dose and the effective dose on operators during the petroleum well logging with nuclear wireless that uses gamma radiation sources. To obtain the data, a typical scenery of a logging procedure will be simulated with MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulated logging probe was the Density Gamma Probe - TRISOND produced by Robertson Geolloging. The absorbed dose values were estimated through the anthropomorphic simulator in male voxel MAX. The effective dose values were obtained using the ICRP 103

  16. Estimation of the optimal operating conditions for a radiation chemical neutralization unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putilov, A.V.; Kamenetskaya, S.A.; Pshezhetskii, S.Ya.; Kazakov, M.S.; Kudryavtsev, S.L.; Petrukhin, N.V.; Misharin, B.A.; Koneev, V.Z.

    1985-01-01

    An estimate is made of the effect of the hydrodynamic conditions on the efficiency of foam units for the radiation chemical neutralization of impurities, taking into account the penetrating power of accelerated electrons having various energies. Expressions are obtained for calculating the efficiency of such units with sectionized operation of the chamber and taking account of the effect of incomplete mixing of the products of radiolysis through the height of the foam layer

  17. Estimating the operator's performance time of emergency procedural tasks based on a task complexity measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Dae; Park, Jink Yun

    2012-01-01

    It is important to understand the amount of time required to execute an emergency procedural task in a high-stress situation for managing human performance under emergencies in a nuclear power plant. However, the time to execute an emergency procedural task is highly dependent upon expert judgment due to the lack of actual data. This paper proposes an analytical method to estimate the operator's performance time (OPT) of a procedural task, which is based on a measure of the task complexity (TACOM). The proposed method for estimating an OPT is an equation that uses the TACOM as a variable, and the OPT of a procedural task can be calculated if its relevant TACOM score is available. The validity of the proposed equation is demonstrated by comparing the estimated OPTs with the observed OPTs for emergency procedural tasks in a steam generator tube rupture scenario.

  18. A study on operators' cognitive response characteristics to the computerized working environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jang Soo; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Jung, Kwang Tae; Lee, Dhong Ha

    1998-12-01

    Although the introduction of computerized working environment to the nuclear facilities, the study on the human factors impacts of computers and automation has not been enough like the other industries. It is necessary to prepare the way to cope with the negative aspects in spite of many positive aspects of computerization in nuclear. This study is an empirical study including the survey of the human factor concerning, especially to the cognitive response of operators' and the experiments on the error proneness. At first, we survey the design and its changes of operator interface and interaction in nuclear power plants, and conclude five human factor issues. We discuss situation awareness issues as one of the major human factor concerning, and the assessment method. Secondly, a questionnaire and interviews survey to the operator's response characteristics are performed for possible criterion measures tot he in-depth study on the cognitive characteristics. Finally, several experiments are conducted to test the error proneness. The issues and findings of this study could be utilized to any further study on the cognitive characteristic of operators to the computerized work environment

  19. A study on operators' cognitive response characteristics to the computerized working environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jang Soo; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Jung, Kwang Tae; Lee, Dhong Ha

    1998-12-01

    Although the introduction of computerized working environment to the nuclear facilities, the study on the human factors impacts of computers and automation has not been enough like the other industries. It is necessary to prepare the way to cope with the negative aspects in spite of many positive aspects of computerization in nuclear. This study is an empirical study including the survey of the human factor concerning, especially to the cognitive response of operators' and the experiments on the error proneness. At first, we survey the design and its changes of operator interface and interaction in nuclear power plants, and conclude five human factor issues. We discuss situation awareness issues as one of the major human factor concerning, and the assessment method. Secondly, a questionnaire and interviews survey to the operator's response characteristics are performed for possible criterion measures to the in-depth study on the cognitive characteristics. Finally, several experiments are conducted to test the error proneness. The issues and findings of this study could be utilized to any further study on the cognitive characteristic of operators to the computerized work environment.

  20. Study of geometrical and operational parameters controlling the low frequency microjet atmospheric pressure plasma characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Rhee, J. K.; Moon, S. Y.; Choe, W.

    2006-01-01

    Controllability of small size atmospheric pressure plasma generated at low frequency in a pin to dielectric plane electrode configuration was studied. It was shown that the plasma characteristics could be controlled by geometrical and operational parameters of the experiment. Under most circumstances, continuous glow discharges were observed, but both the corona and/or the dielectric barrier discharge characteristics were observed depending on the position of the pin electrode. The plasma size and the rotational temperature were also varied by the parameters. The rotational temperature was between 300 and 490 K, being low enough to treat thermally sensitive materials

  1. Part 5: Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve and Area under the Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Safari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple diagnostic tools are used by emergency physicians,every day. In addition, new tools are evaluated to obtainmore accurate methods and reduce time or cost of conventionalones. In the previous parts of this educationalseries, we described diagnostic performance characteristicsof diagnostic tests including sensitivity, specificity, positiveand negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Thereceiver operating characteristics (ROC curve is a graphicalpresentation of screening characteristics. ROC curve is usedto determine the best cutoff point and compare two or moretests or observers by measuring the area under the curve(AUC. In this part of our educational series, we explain ROCcurve and two methods to determine the best cutoff value.

  2. Characteristics of switched reluctance motor operating in continuous and discontinuous conduction mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalasan Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents mechanical characteristics of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM when it operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM or in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM, i.e. when the current through the phase coils (windings flows discontinuously or continuously. Firstly, in order to maximize the output power of SRM optimization of its control parameters was performed, such that the peak and RMS values of the current do not exceed the predefined values. The optimal control parameters vs. rotation speed, as well as the corresponding characteristics of torque, power and efficiency. It is shown that with CCM the machine torque (power, at high speed, can be increased.

  3. Cash flows: The Gap Between Reported and Estimated Operating Cash Flow Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The FASB and the IASB recently released a joint Discussion Paper “Preliminary Views on FinancialStatement Presentation” (International Accounting Standards Board 2008, which contains a major proposalrequiring companies to report operating cash flows using the direct method and it also requires that theindirect method of calculating operating cash flows be disclosed in the notes. This is a departure from currentrules and has generated considerable debate among respondents’ comment letters on the Discussion Paper.This paper adds to this debate by providing some evidence as to the size of the gap users confront when usingthe indirect method to estimate the major operating cash flow elements, such as cash collected fromcustomers and cash paid to suppliers. Using a sample of Australian companies which reported operating cashflows using the direct method, and presented the indirect method in the notes, we find significant differencesbetween reported and estimated figures for both cash collected from customers and cash paid to suppliers.These findings support the discussion paper’s proposal that companies be required to report cash flows usingboth the direct and indirect methods.

  4. Estimation of the laser cutting operating cost by support vector regression methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Srđan; Radović, Aleksandar; Šarkoćević, Živče; Petković, Dalibor; Alizamir, Meysam

    2016-09-01

    Laser cutting is a popular manufacturing process utilized to cut various types of materials economically. The operating cost is affected by laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure, nozzle diameter and focus point position as well as the workpiece material. In this article, the process factors investigated were: laser power, cutting speed, air pressure and focal point position. The aim of this work is to relate the operating cost to the process parameters mentioned above. CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel of medical grade AISI316L has been investigated. The main goal was to analyze the operating cost through the laser power, cutting speed, air pressure, focal point position and material thickness. Since the laser operating cost is a complex, non-linear task, soft computing optimization algorithms can be used. Intelligent soft computing scheme support vector regression (SVR) was implemented. The performance of the proposed estimator was confirmed with the simulation results. The SVR results are then compared with artificial neural network and genetic programing. According to the results, a greater improvement in estimation accuracy can be achieved through the SVR compared to other soft computing methodologies. The new optimization methods benefit from the soft computing capabilities of global optimization and multiobjective optimization rather than choosing a starting point by trial and error and combining multiple criteria into a single criterion.

  5. Energy efficiency estimation of a steam powered LNG tanker using normal operating data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajendra Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ship’s energy efficiency performance is generally estimated by conducting special sea trials of few hours under very controlled environmental conditions of calm sea, standard draft and optimum trim. This indicator is then used as the benchmark for future reference of the ship’s Energy Efficiency Performance (EEP. In practice, however, for greater part of operating life the ship operates in conditions which are far removed from original sea trial conditions and therefore comparing energy performance with benchmark performance indicator is not truly valid. In such situations a higher fuel consumption reading from the ship fuel meter may not be a true indicator of poor machinery performance or dirty underwater hull. Most likely, the reasons for higher fuel consumption may lie in factors other than the condition of hull and machinery, such as head wind, current, low load operations or incorrect trim [1]. Thus a better and more accurate approach to determine energy efficiency of the ship attributable only to main machinery and underwater hull condition will be to filter out the influence of all spurious and non-standard operating conditions from the ship’s fuel consumption [2]. The author in this paper identifies parameters of a suitable filter to be used on the daily report data of a typical LNG tanker of 33000 kW shaft power to remove effects of spurious and non-standard ship operations on its fuel consumption. The filtered daily report data has been then used to estimate actual fuel efficiency of the ship and compared with the sea trials benchmark performance. Results obtained using data filter show closer agreement with the benchmark EEP than obtained from the monthly mini trials . The data filtering method proposed in this paper has the advantage of using the actual operational data of the ship and thus saving cost of conducting special sea trials to estimate ship EEP. The agreement between estimated results and special sea trials EEP is

  6. Hospital costs estimation and prediction as a function of patient and admission characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiarina, Robert; Almeida, Renan Mvr; Pereira, Wagner Ca

    2008-01-01

    The present work analyzed the association between hospital costs and patient admission characteristics in a general public hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The unit costs method was used to estimate inpatient day costs associated to specific hospital clinics. With this aim, three "cost centers" were defined in order to group direct and indirect expenses pertaining to the clinics. After the costs were estimated, a standard linear regression model was developed for correlating cost units and their putative predictors (the patients gender and age, the admission type (urgency/elective), ICU admission (yes/no), blood transfusion (yes/no), the admission outcome (death/no death), the complexity of the medical procedures performed, and a risk-adjustment index). Data were collected for 3100 patients, January 2001-January 2003. Average inpatient costs across clinics ranged from (US$) 1135 [Orthopedics] to 3101 [Cardiology]. Costs increased according to increases in the risk-adjustment index in all clinics, and the index was statistically significant in all clinics except Urology, General surgery, and Clinical medicine. The occupation rate was inversely correlated to costs, and age had no association with costs. The (adjusted) per cent of explained variance varied between 36.3% [Clinical medicine] and 55.1% [Thoracic surgery clinic]. The estimates are an important step towards the standardization of hospital costs calculation, especially for countries that lack formal hospital accounting systems.

  7. Studying the dynamical characteristics of pumps in NPP unit auxiliary water system under operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, S.G.; Puzanov, A.I.; Belikov, V.P.; Dizik, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrodynamic loads appearing in the flow-through part of pump aggregates of the system of auxiliary water supply in NPP with variations in the operation modes are investigated. It is shown that during operation of centrifugal pumps the position of the mode on the pump characteristic plot must be controlled. When the mode point exceeds the limits of the working zone it results in a considerable increase of dynamic loads: pressure pulsation and vibration. As the flow rate increase the decrease in dynamic loads is recorded at low frequencies of about 2-4 Hz

  8. Further characteristics important in the operation of ceramic BeO TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    There is now a considerable volume of published research dealing with ceramic BeO--TLD (Crase and Gammage, 1975; Yamashita et al., 1974; Scarpa et al., 1971). Its high sensitivity to radiation (1 mR), cheapness, commercial availability, non-toxicity, chemical stability, an atomic number of near tissue equivalence, and resistance to thermal fading, suggest that it should, by now, have found widespread acceptance as a TLD phosphor. It has not. There are only a small handful of reports dealing with the practical application of this type of dosimeter (Puite et al., 1974; Gammage and Haywood, 1976; Gesell et al., 1975). It seems wise, therefore, to look at the phosphor more closely and to focus on characteristics likely to cause problems under real operating conditions, especially those which are acting as a deterrent to its widespread acceptance. Operational characteristics were studied and the results are discussed

  9. Settling characteristics of nursery pig manure and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

    2003-05-01

    The hydrometer method to measure manure specific gravity and subsequently relate it to manure nutrient contents was examined in this study. It was found that this method might be improved in estimation accuracy if only manure from a single growth stage of pigs was used (e.g., nursery pig manure used here). The total solids (TS) content of the test manure was well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.9944 and 0.9873, respectively. Also observed were good linear correlations between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.9836 and 0.9843, respectively). These correlations were much better than those reported by past researchers, in which lumped data for pigs at different growing stages were used. It may therefore be inferred that developing different linear equations for pigs at different ages should improve the accuracy in manure nutrient estimation using a hydrometer. Also, the error of using the hydrometer method to estimate manure TN and TP was found to increase, from +/- 10% to +/- 50%, with the decrease in TN (from 700 ppm to 100 ppm) and TP (from 130 ppm to 30 ppm) concentrations in the manure. The estimation errors for TN and TP may be larger than 50% if the total solids content is below 0.5%. In addition, the rapid settling of solids has long been considered characteristic of swine manure; however, in this study, the solids settling property appeared to be quite poor for nursery pig manure in that no conspicuous settling occurred after the manure was left statically for 5 hours. This information has not been reported elsewhere in the literature and may need further research to verify.

  10. Non-working nurses in Japan: estimated size and its age-cohort characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yoshifumi; Miyazaki, Satoru

    2008-12-01

    This paper aims to forecast the total number of non-working nursing staff in Japan both overall and in terms of separate age groups for assistant nurses and fully qualified nurses. This also examines policy implications of those forecasts. Although the existence of around 550,000 of non-working nursing staff has been announced, the actual number of non-working nurses is not so clear that we might make errors in making policy to meet nurse workforce demand and supply in Japan. Estimations by integrating various data on the quantitative characteristics of non-working nursing staff were carried out. Considering the length and the type of education or training in referred four nursing positions; registered nurses, assistant nurses, public health nurses and midwives, we first estimated the number of students who completed a full course. And then multiplying by the ratio for gender and age classifications at the time of entry into courses, the number of those who obtained licenses was estimated. The number of non-working nurses was estimated at 100,000 higher than those in 2005 by government. Looking at age group, it is also possible to see a strong reflection of an employment pattern that follows the life cycle of female workers. Further analysis of life cycle effects and cohort effects proved the effect of life cycles even when subtracting the differences between the working behaviours of different generations. Our findings strongly suggest the need to provide an urgent policy that workplace conditions can be created in which a balance between work and family is achievable. Moreover, to empower clinical activity, we also believe there is an urgent need to reexamine the overall career vision for assistant nurses including in terms of compensation. Relevance to clinical practice. Our findings strongly suggests that consideration for work-life balance of nursing staff; particularly, female staff is all the more important to provide a stable quality care.

  11. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Matthew J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Tamburello, David A. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2018-04-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed a vehicle Framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to Technical Targets established by DOE for four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be estimated easily. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates system parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, the design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the Framework model. These models will be explained and exercised with the representative hydrogen storage materials exothermic ammonia borane (NH3BH3) and endothermic alane (AlH3).

  12. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Sprik, Sam; Tamburello, David; Thornton, Matthew

    2018-05-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to DOE’s Technical Targets using four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework model for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be easily estimated. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates the systems parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, this design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the framework model and compare it to the DOE Technical Targets. These models will be explained and exercised with existing hydrogen storage materials.

  13. Perfectionism, selected demographic and job characteristics as predictors of burnout in operating suite nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Włodarczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was aimed at verifying the predictive power of perfectionism for professional burnout among nurses exposed to distress resulting from work in an operating suite and testing whether this effect exists after controlling for selected demographic and job characteristics. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 100 nurses (93 women; mean age: 38.67 years. The majority in the group worked in public facilities (68%, in duty system (62%, as operating (75% or anesthesiology (25% nurses. To test perfectionism The Polish Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism Questionnaire (AMPQ (Perfekcjonizm Adaptacyjny i Dezadaptacyjny - PAD, developed by Szczucka, was used. To examine burnout the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI by Demerouti et al. was adopted. The effects of selected demographic and job characteristics were controlled. Results: The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that after controlling for selected demographic and job characteristics maladaptive perfectionism was a significant predictor of disengagement and exhaustion whereas adaptive perfectionism predicted a better work engagement. Significant predictors were also: education, number of workplaces, duty system and marital status. Conclusions: The study allowed to confirm the hypothesis on a harmful role of maladaptive perfectionism in shaping burnout among operating suite nurses. The hypothesis on protective function of adaptive perfectionism was confirmed only partially, with regard to disengagement. The results of the study also highlighted some risk factors of burnout which may exist in this occupational group. This confirms the need to continue research in this area. Med Pr 2013;64(6:761–773

  14. Planning for success: desired characteristics of special operations surgeons, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Barrett H; Alderman, Shawn M

    2012-01-01

    Selection criteria for Special Operations Forces (SOF) physicians are often unclear to potential candidates without prior SOF experience. To date, no published career resource exists to guide the careers of physicians interested in becoming a SOF surgeon. Using a survey tool, desirable characteristics and personal attributes were identified that can be used to inform candidate career decisions and better prepare them for a future position in Special Operations. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey instrument was developed and distributed to current Army SOF Command Surgeons for further distribution to subordinate surgeons. RESULTS were analyzed as a cohort and by subordinate command. Respondents consisted of current SOF Surgeons. Uniformly, the individual characteristics most strongly desired are professionalism, being a team player, and leadership. Possessing or obtaining Airborne and Flight Surgeon qualifications prior to consideration for a surgeon position was highly desired. Residency training within Family Medicine or Emergency Medicine constituted the vast majority of specialty preference. Understanding which characteristics and attributes are desirable to current surgeons and commanders can aid physicians interested in SOF surgeon positions. Using this study and future studies can guide career planning and foster the selection of ideally trained physicians who will operate at the tip of the spear. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the official policy of the Department of the Army, the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 2012.

  15. Characteristics of the prices of operating reserves and regulation services in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, characteristics of the prices of reserves and regulation services in the Ontario, New York and ERCOT electricity markets are studied. More specifically, price variability, price jumps, long-range correlation, and non-linearity of the prices are analyzed using the available measures in the literature. For the Ontario electricity market, the prices of 10-min spinning, 10-min non-spinning, and 30-min operating reserves for the period May 1, 2002 to December 31, 2007 are analyzed. For the New York market, prices of the same reserves plus regulation service are studied for the period February 5, 2005 to December 31, 2008. For the ERCOT market, we analyze the prices of responsive reserve, regulation up and regulation down services, for the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009. The studied characteristics of operating reserve and regulation prices are also compared with those of energy prices. The findings of this paper show that the studied reserve and regulation prices feature extreme volatility, more frequent jumps and spikes, different peak price occurrence time, and lower predictability, compared to the energy prices. - Research highlights: → We examine various statistical characteristics of reserve and regulation prices. → We compare characteristics of reserve and regulation and energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices feature different patterns from energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices are more dispersive and volatile than energy price.

  16. Development of GP and GEP models to estimate an environmental issue induced by blasting operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faradonbeh, Roohollah Shirani; Hasanipanah, Mahdi; Amnieh, Hassan Bakhshandeh; Armaghani, Danial Jahed; Monjezi, Masoud

    2018-05-21

    Air overpressure (AOp) is one of the most adverse effects induced by blasting in the surface mines and civil projects. So, proper evaluation and estimation of the AOp is important for minimizing the environmental problems resulting from blasting. The main aim of this study is to estimate AOp produced by blasting operation in Miduk copper mine, Iran, developing two artificial intelligence models, i.e., genetic programming (GP) and gene expression programming (GEP). Then, the accuracy of the GP and GEP models has been compared to multiple linear regression (MLR) and three empirical models. For this purpose, 92 blasting events were investigated, and subsequently, the AOp values were carefully measured. Moreover, in each operation, the values of maximum charge per delay and distance from blast points, as two effective parameters on the AOp, were measured. After predicting by the predictive models, their performance prediction was checked in terms of variance account for (VAF), coefficient of determination (CoD), and root mean square error (RMSE). Finally, it was found that the GEP with VAF of 94.12%, CoD of 0.941, and RMSE of 0.06 is a more precise model than other predictive models for the AOp prediction in the Miduk copper mine, and it can be introduced as a new powerful tool for estimating the AOp resulting from blasting.

  17. Investigation of the I-40 Jet-Propulsion Engine in the Cleveland Altitude Wind Tunnel. V - Operational Characteristics. 5; Operational Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golladay, Richard L.; Gendler, Stanley L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the operational characteristics of the I-40 jet-propulsion engine over a range of pressure altitudes from 10,000 to 50,000 feet and ram-pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.76. Engine operational data were obtained with the engine in the standard configuration and with various modifications of the fuel system, the electrical system, and the combustion chambers. The effects of altitude and airspeed on operating speed range, starting, windmilli.ng, acceleration, speed regulation, cooling, and vibration of the standard and modified engines were determined, and damage to parts was noted. Maximum engine speed was obtainable at all altitudes and airspeeds wi th each fuel-control system investigated. The minimum idling speed was raised by increases in altitude and airspeed. The lowest minimum stable speeds were obtained with the standard configuration using 40-gallon nozzles with individual metering plugs. The engine was started normally at altitudes as high as 20,000 feet with all of the fuel systems and ignition combinations except one. Ignition at 70,000 feet was difficult and, although successful ignition occurred, acceleration was slow and usually characterized by excessive tail-pipe temperature. During windmilling investigations of the engine equipped with the standard fuel system, the engine could not be started at ram-pressure ratios of 1.1 to 1.7 at altitudes of 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000 feet. When equipped with the production barometric and Monarch 40-gallon nozzles, the engine accelerated in 12 seconds from an engine speed of 6000 rpm to 11,000 rpm at 20,000 feet and an average tail-pipe temperature of 11000 F. At the same altitude and temperature, all the engine configurations had approximately the same rate of acceleration. The Woodward governor produced the safest accelerations, inasmuch as it could be adjusted to automatically prevent acceleration blow out. The engine speed was

  18. Development of the system for the estimation of materials flow in pyrochemical reprocessing plant. Characteristic evaluation of the oxide electrowinning plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Nobuo; Tozawa, Katuhiro; Sato, Koji

    2002-07-01

    The operation of the plant with the non-aqueous reprocessing technology depends on the materials handling equipment closely. Because the value of decontamination factor of the products in the plant is low, treatment of nuclear materials requires remote operation technology. So the system for the evaluation of materials flow in the plant was built to evaluate the production ability of the plant and to check out the plant operation from the viewpoint of materials flow. The system is only based on information of the treatment abilities of materials handling machines and process installations and the arrangement of process installations in the reprocessing cell that influences a way to operate materials handling machines intensity. Therefore the system can be used to estimate the characteristics of non-aqueous plants that are not in detail design stage. The amount of production and the characteristics of the oxide electrowinning plant (operation term 200days/year, plant capacity 50tHM/year in design) designed in Feasibility Study Phase1 were estimated using the system. The results show that the practical amount of production of the plant design is about 88% of the designed value. To increase the amount of production, it is more useful to speed up materials handling machine time than to install new installation or to give priority to conduct bottleneck processes. It is because materials handling influences the production ability of the plant deeply. (author)

  19. The Effect of Infrastructure Sharing in Estimating Operations Cost of Future Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Meenakshi

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the aerospace industry are extremely serious about reducing the cost and improving the performance of launch vehicles both manned or unmanned. In the aerospace industry, sharing infrastructure for manufacturing more than one type spacecraft is becoming a trend to achieve economy of scale. An example is the Boeing Decatur facility where both Delta II and Delta IV launch vehicles are made. The author is not sure how Boeing estimates the costs of each spacecraft made in the same facility. Regardless of how a contractor estimates the cost, NASA in its popular cost estimating tool, NASA Air force Cost Modeling (NAFCOM) has to have a method built in to account for the effect of infrastructure sharing. Since there is no provision in the most recent version of NAFCOM2002 to take care of this, it has been found by the Engineering Cost Community at MSFC that the tool overestimates the manufacturing cost by as much as 30%. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a methodology to assess the impact of infrastructure sharing so that better operations cost estimates may be made.

  20. Projected metastable Markov processes and their estimation with observable operator models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hao; Prinz, Jan-Hendrik; Noé, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The determination of kinetics of high-dimensional dynamical systems, such as macromolecules, polymers, or spin systems, is a difficult and generally unsolved problem — both in simulation, where the optimal reaction coordinate(s) are generally unknown and are difficult to compute, and in experimental measurements, where only specific coordinates are observable. Markov models, or Markov state models, are widely used but suffer from the fact that the dynamics on a coarsely discretized state spaced are no longer Markovian, even if the dynamics in the full phase space are. The recently proposed projected Markov models (PMMs) are a formulation that provides a description of the kinetics on a low-dimensional projection without making the Markovianity assumption. However, as yet no general way of estimating PMMs from data has been available. Here, we show that the observed dynamics of a PMM can be exactly described by an observable operator model (OOM) and derive a PMM estimator based on the OOM learning

  1. E2CAV, Pavement layer thickness estimation system based on image texture operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Barrios Arcila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Public roads are an essential part of economic progress in any country; they are fundamental for increasing the efficiency on transportation of goods and are a remarkable source of employment. For its part, Colombia has few statistics on the condition of its roads; according with INVIAS the state of the roads in Colombia can be classified as “Very Good” (21.1%, “Good” (34.7%, and “Regular” or “Bad” (43.46%. Thus, from the point of view of pavement rehabilitation, it is worth securing the quality of those roads classified as “Regular” or “Bad”. Objective: In this paper we propose a system to estimate the thickness of the pavement layer using image segmentation methods. The pavement thickness is currently estimated using radars of terrestrial penetration, extraction of cores or making pips; and it is part of structural parameters in the systems of evaluation of pavement. Method: The proposed system is composed of a vertical movement control unit, which introduces a video scope into a small hole in the pavement, then the images are obtained and unified in a laptop. Finally, this mosaic is processed through texture operators to estimate the thickness of the pavement. Users can select between the Otsu method and Gabor filters to process the image data. Results: The results include laboratory and field tests; these tests show errors of 5.03% and 11.3%, respectively, in the thickness of the pavement. Conclusion: The proposed system is an attractive option for local estimation of pavement thickness, with minimal structural damage and less impact on mobility and number of operators.

  2. An estimation of population doses from a nuclear power plant during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, K.

    1975-07-01

    A model is presented for estimation of the potential submersion and inhalation radiation doses to people located within a distance of 1000 km from a nuclear power plant during normal operation. The model was used to calculate doses for people living 200-1000 km from hypothetical nuclear power facility sited near the geographical centre of Denmark. Two kinds of sources are considered for this situation: - unit release of 15 isotopes of noble gases and iodines, - effluent releases from two types of 1000 MWe Light Water Power Reactors: PWR and BWR. Parameter variations were made and analyzed in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of the model. (author)

  3. Estimated Impact of the Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Antonescu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation process is a basic element of modern public sector management practice. If this process is well conducted, it can contribute to improved public interventions, increased transparency, accountability and cost-effectiveness. In the European Union, old Member States have a relatively long record of conducting evaluations and acting on their results, especially regarding Structural Funds. For Romania and other new Member States, this process is being introduced increasingly, in particular, after integration. The study analyses the estimated impact of Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 in Romania.

  4. The relationship of seismic velocity structure and surface fracture characteristics of basalt outcrops to rippability estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, S.E.; Dougherty, M.E.; Pelton, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Seismic velocity has been shown in previous engineering studies to be related to the fracture characteristics and rippability of rock outcrops. However, common methods of measuring seismic velocity in outcrops do not take into account the many possible travel paths for wave propagation and the fact that velocity zones may exist within an outcrop. Presented here are the results of using raytracing inversion of first-arrival travel-time data to map P-velocity structure in basalt outcrops, and also the investigation of the relationship of the mapped velocities to observed surface fractures and hand-sample P-velocities. It is shown that basalt outcrops commonly consist of an irregular near-surface low-velocity zone underlain by higher velocity material; that velocity gradients can exist in outcrops; that hand-sample velocity measurements are typically higher than outcrop-scale measurements; and that the characteristics of surface fractures are empirically related to near-surface P-velocity. All of these findings are relevant to the estimated rippability of rock in geotechnical engineering. The data for this study are derived from eleven sites on basalt outcrops of the Troodos Ophiolite in Cyprus. The basalt types include pillow basalts, massive flows, and a pillow breccia. A commonly available raytracing inversion program (RAYINVR) was used to produce a velocity profile of each outcrop. Different velocity zones were detailed by inverting observed travel times to produce a model of outcrop velocity structure which produces rippability profiles for each outcrop. 16 refs., 9 figs

  5. Soil characteristics of landslides on Mount Elgon (Uganda): implications for estimating their age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eynde, Elise; Dondeyne, Stefaan; Isabirye, Moses; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The slopes of Mount Elgon, a complex volcano at the border between Uganda and Kenya, are frequently affected by landslides with disastrous effects on the livelihood of its population. Since local people greatly depend on the land for crop production, we examined if and how fast physico-chemical characteristics in landslide scars recover. A chronosequence of 18 landslides covering a period of 103 years was sampled in order to explore differences between topsoil within and outside landslide scars. For each landslide, two topsoil samples were taken within the landslide and two in nearby undisturbed soils to compare their physico-chemical characteristics. No differences were found for available P, Ca2+, Mg2+ content or for the fine earth texture. Recent landslides had however lower content of soil organic carbon (OC) and K+, and higher content of rock fragments and Na+ than the adjacent soils. Soil OC content increased significantly with age and reached levels of the corresponding undisturbed soils after ca. 60 years. Older landslides had even higher OC contents than soils adjacent to the landslide. Hence landslide scars act as local carbon sink. We suggest that the occurrence of rock fragments in the topsoil is a useful indicator for mapping past landslides. Moreover, the difference in soil OC content between landslide scars and adjacent soil could be used for estimating the age of landslides in data-poor regions.

  6. Fleet size estimation for spreading operation considering road geometry, weather and traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I-Jy Chien

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions(i.e. snow storm in winter time have caused significant travel disruptions and increased delay and traffic accidents. Snow plowing and salt spreading are the most common counter-measures for making our roads safer for motorists. To assist highway maintenance authorities with better planning and allocation of winter maintenance resources, this study introduces an analytical model to estimate the required number of trucks for spreading operation subjective to pre-specified service time constraints considering road geometry, weather and traffic. The complexity of the research problem lies in dealing with heterogeneous road geometry of road sections, truck capacities, spreading patterns, and traffic speeds under different weather conditions and time periods of an event. The proposed model is applied to two maintenance yards with seven road sections in New Jersey (USA, which demonstrates itself fairly practical to be implemented, considering diverse operational conditions.

  7. Organoleptic characteristics and nutritive value estimation of baked food products from Manonjaya variety salacca flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarto; Aprianty, D.; Bachtiar, R. A.; Kristiana, L.

    2018-01-01

    Manonjaya salacca (snake fruit) is one of the original varieties of Indonesia which is currently declining due to the quality of taste less favoured than the snake fruit on the market. This variety in the future is feared to be lost, so it is necessary to revitalize the utilization of this snake fruit by diversifying processed products, one of them is baked food products from Manonjaya salacca flour. The purpose of this research was to know the acceptance level of baked food products from Manonjaya salacca flour organoleptically and the nutritional value estimation. This research method was observational with a descriptive explanation. Panellists in this study were consumers with a total of 61 people. Organoleptically, respondents tend to value cake, muffin, cookies, and flakes in every color, flavor, taste, and texture parameters. Nutritional value per 100 g of baked food products from Salacca flour (cake, muffin, cookies, flakes) were energy 287.5-479.0 kcal, water 0.8-3.8 g, protein 6.0-6.7 g, fat 0.8-31.0 g, carbohydrates 45.0-98.8 g, and fiber 1.1-4.6 g. Panellists were accepted the organoleptic characteristics and the estimated nutritional values on baked food products from Manonjaya variety salacca flour were varied.

  8. Study of the dynamic operational characteristics of the Taiwan Power Company system - a nuclear majority system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, I.H.

    1982-01-01

    All conclusions drawn in this dissertation are based on the results of about six hundred study cases. The dynamic characteristics of the present Taiwan Power Company system are very different not only from the characteristics of any other power system in the world but also from Taipower's own history characteristics. Based on the engineers' knowledge, this dissertation takes a calculation risk approach to deal with the problems in the energy systems. Chapter I introduces the information related with the stability of the present Taipower system. Taipower operating engineers are facing the problem of committing a large amount of nuclear generation at a low base load level. The general introduction of the stability program developed for this study is described in Chapter II. In Chapter III, the processes of performing the transient stability study are explained to show how this study was performed. Critical tie flows were suggested in Chapter IV, which might help balance the nuclear generation and thermal generation at the base load level and plan the unit maintenance schedule. Several operation modes which may increase the degree of stability or minimize the number unit trippings were discussed in Chapter V. In Chapter VI, how to adjust the load shedding policy to improve the stability are discussed. The remote tripping scheme which is effective in preventing massive system blackout was studied in Chapter VII. Some broader concepts in load management are presented in Chapter VII for Taipower's management decision

  9. Rainfall Estimation Using Specific Differential Phase for the First Operational Polarimetric Radar in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hwan You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the performance of rainfall estimation using specific differential phase observed by Bislsan radar, the first polarimetric radar in Korea, three rainfall cases occurring in 2011 were selected, each caused by different conditions: the first is the Changma front and typhoon, the second is only the Changma front, and the third is only a typhoon. For quantitative use of specific differential phase (KDP, a data quality algorithm was developed for differential phase shift (ΦDP, composed of two steps; the first involves removal of scattered noise and the second is unfolding of ΦDP. This order of the algorithm is necessary so as not to remove unfolded areas, which are the real meteorological target. All noise was removed and the folded ΦDP were unfolded successfully for this study. RKDP relations for S-band radar were calculated for 84,754 samples of observed drop size distribution (DSD using different drop shape assumptions. The relation for the Bringi drop shape showed the best statistics: 0.28 for normalized error, and 6.7 mm for root mean square error for rainfall heavier than 10 mm h-1. Because the drop shape assumption affects the accuracy of rainfall estimation differently for different rainfall types, such characteristics should be taken into account to estimate rainfall more accurately using polarimetric variables.

  10. Operational Characteristics Identification and Simulation Model Verification for Incheon International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Yeonju; Jeon, Daekeun; Lee, Hanbong; Zhu, Zhifan; Jung, Yoon C.; Jeong, Myeongsook; Kim, Hyounkyong; Oh, Eunmi; Hong, Sungkwon; Lee, Junwon

    2016-01-01

    integrated into NASA's Airspace Technology Demonstration-2 (ATD-2) project for technology demonstration of Integrated Arrival-Departure-Surface (IADS) operations at CLT. This study is a part of the international research collaboration between KAIA (Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement), KARI (Korea Aerospace Research Institute) and NASA, which is being conducted to validate the effectiveness of SARDA concept as a controller decision support tool for departure and surface management of ICN. This paper presents the preliminary results of the collaboration effort. It includes investigation of the operational environment of ICN, data analysis for identification of the operational characteristics of the airport, construction and verification of airport simulation model using Surface Operations Simulator and Scheduler (SOSS), NASA's fast-time simulation tool.

  11. Heat transfer characteristics and operation limit of pressurized hybrid heat pipe for small modular reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Bang, In Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performances and operation limits of hybrid heat pipe were experimentally studied. • Models for predicting the operation limit of the hybrid heat pipe was developed. • Non-condensable gas affected heat transfer characteristics of the hybrid heat pipe. - Abstract: In this paper, a hybrid heat pipe is proposed for use in advanced nuclear power plants as a passive heat transfer device. The hybrid heat pipe combines the functions of a heat pipe and a control rod to simultaneously remove the decay heat generated from the core and shutdown the reactor under accident conditions. Thus, the hybrid heat pipe contains a neutron absorber in the evaporator section, which corresponds to the core of the reactor pressure vessel. The presence of the neutron absorber material leads to differences in the heated diameter and hydraulic diameter of the heat pipe. The cross-sectional areas of the vapor paths through the evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser sections are also different. The hybrid heat pipe must operate in a high-temperature, high-pressure environment to remove the decay heat. In other words, the operating pressure must be higher than those of the commercially available thermosyphons. Hence, the thermal performances, including operation limit of the hybrid heat pipe, were experimentally studied in the operating pressure range of 0.2–20 bar. The operating pressure of the hybrid heat pipe was controlled by charging the non-condensable gas which is unused method to achieve the high saturation pressure in conventional thermosyphons. The effect of operating pressure on evaporation heat transfer was negligible, while condensation heat transfer was affected by the amount of non-condensable gas in the test section. The operation limit of the hybrid heat pipe increased with the operating pressure. Maximum heat removal capacity of the hybrid heat pipe was up to 6 kW which is meaningful value as a passive decay heat removal device in the nuclear power

  12. Transmission Technologies and Operational Characteristic Analysis of Hybrid UHV AC/DC Power Grids in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhang; Yanfeng, Gong

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the contradiction between demand and distribution range of primary energy resource, Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power grids should be developed rapidly to meet development of energy bases and accessing of large-scale renewable energy. This paper reviewed the latest research processes of AC/DC transmission technologies, summarized the characteristics of AC/DC power grids, concluded that China’s power grids certainly enter a new period of large -scale hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids and characteristics of “strong DC and weak AC” becomes increasingly pro minent; possible problems in operation of AC/DC power grids was discussed, and interaction or effect between AC/DC power grids was made an intensive study of; according to above problems in operation of power grids, preliminary scheme is summarized as fo llows: strengthening backbone structures, enhancing AC/DC transmission technologies, promoting protection measures of clean energ y accessing grids, and taking actions to solve stability problems of voltage and frequency etc. It’s valuable for making hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids adapt to operating mode of large power grids, thus guaranteeing security and stability of power system.

  13. Performance and emission characteristics of biogas used in diesel engine operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, Violeta; Sendzikiene, Egle; Pukalskas, Saugirdas; Rimkus, Alfredas; Vegneris, Ricardas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas is an environmentally friendly biofuel for diesel engines. • Results of diesel engine tests when fuelling with biogas are presented. • Engine and environmental characteristics depends on carbon dioxide content in biogas. • Using biogas in a diesel engine requires certain operational modifications. - Abstract: The objective of this study it to evaluate the impact of the carbon dioxide concentration in biogas on the operating characteristics and exhaust gas emissions of a diesel engine running on a mixture of biogas and mineral diesel fuel. The tests were carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the impact of different biogas compositions and the exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR) on the engine parameters was determined. Lower pollutant levels were measured in the studies without the EGR system, except for the nitrogen oxides NO x levels. The NO x concentration decrease was directly proportional to the concentration of methane in the common fuel mixture. In the second stage, the gas with the highest methane content was used to determine the impact of the start of injection timing on the engine operating parameters. As the methane content in the common fuel mixture increased, the start of injection timing had to be progressively advanced to increase the thermal efficiency and to lower the fuel consumption, the CO and HC concentrations and the smokiness of the exhaust; however, advancing the start of injection timing increased NO x pollution

  14. DIADEME: A computer code to assess in operation defective fuel characteristics and primary circuit contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genin, J.B. [DEN/DEC/S3C, CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Harrer, A. [EdF/SEPTEN, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Musante, Y. [FRAMATOME-ANP, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-07-01

    DIADEME is a computer code developed within the framework of R and D cooperation between the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Electricite de France (EdF) and FRAMATOME-ANP. Its aim is to assess in operation defective fuel characteristics and primary circuit contamination for actinides and long half-life fission products involved in health physics problems as well as in waste and decommissioning studies. DIADEME has been developed and qualified for the EDF nuclear power plants. For many years, both theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out at the CEA on the release of fission products and actinides out of defective fuel rods in operation, their migration and deposition in PWR primary circuits. These studies have allowed defect characteristic diagnosis methods to be developed, based on radiochemical measurements of the primary coolant. These methods are generally used along with gamma spectrometry measurements on primary water sampling. In order to be completely efficient, these methods can also be used in connection with an on-line primary water gamma spectrometry device. This permits to obtain the most comprehensive data on fission product activity evolutions at steady state and during operation transients, and allows the on-line characterization of the defective fuel assemblies. For long half-life fission products and for actinides, DIADEME is also able to assess the activities of soluble and insoluble forms in the primary water and in the chemical and voluminal control system (CVCS) filters and resins, as well as those activities deposited on primary circuit surfaces. (author)

  15. DIADEME: A computer code to assess in operation defective fuel characteristics and primary circuit contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, J.B.; Harrer, A.; Musante, Y.

    2002-01-01

    DIADEME is a computer code developed within the framework of R and D cooperation between the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Electricite de France (EdF) and FRAMATOME-ANP. Its aim is to assess in operation defective fuel characteristics and primary circuit contamination for actinides and long half-life fission products involved in health physics problems as well as in waste and decommissioning studies. DIADEME has been developed and qualified for the EDF nuclear power plants. For many years, both theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out at the CEA on the release of fission products and actinides out of defective fuel rods in operation, their migration and deposition in PWR primary circuits. These studies have allowed defect characteristic diagnosis methods to be developed, based on radiochemical measurements of the primary coolant. These methods are generally used along with gamma spectrometry measurements on primary water sampling. In order to be completely efficient, these methods can also be used in connection with an on-line primary water gamma spectrometry device. This permits to obtain the most comprehensive data on fission product activity evolutions at steady state and during operation transients, and allows the on-line characterization of the defective fuel assemblies. For long half-life fission products and for actinides, DIADEME is also able to assess the activities of soluble and insoluble forms in the primary water and in the chemical and voluminal control system (CVCS) filters and resins, as well as those activities deposited on primary circuit surfaces. (author)

  16. An estimation of the electrical characteristics of planetary shallow subsurfaces with TAPIR antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, A.; Reineix, A.; Ciarletti, V.; Berthelier, J. J.; Ney, R.; Dolon, F.; Corbel, C.

    2006-06-01

    In the frame of the NETLANDER program, we have developed the Terrestrial And Planetary Investigation by Radar (TAPIR) imaging ground-penetrating radar to explore the Martian subsurface at kilometric depths and search for potential water reservoirs. This instrument which is to operate from a fixed lander is based on a new concept which allows one to image the various underground reflectors by determining the direction of propagation of the reflected waves. The electrical parameters of the shallow subsurface (permittivity and conductivity) need to be known to correctly determine the propagation vector. In addition, these electrical parameters can bring valuable information on the nature of the materials close to the surface. The electric antennas of the radar are 35 m long resistively loaded monopoles that are laid on the ground. Their impedance, measured during a dedicated mode of operation of the radar, depends on the electrical parameters of soil and is used to infer the permittivity and conductivity of the upper layer of the subsurface. This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study of the antenna impedance and shows that the frequency profile of the antenna complex impedance can be used to retrieve the geoelectrical characteristics of the soil. Comparisons between a numerical modeling and in situ measurements have been successfully carried over various soils, showing a very good agreement.

  17. Estimation and comparison of intra operative blood loss in patients with and without venous thromboembolism prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsin, S.; Bashir, A.; Faiz, S.A.; Tahir, J.; Ijaz, A.

    2014-01-01

    To estimate and compare intraoperative blood loss in surgical patients with and without deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis using unfractionated heparin Study Design: Clinical Trial Place and Duration: Surgery Department of Fauji Foundation Hospital and Physiology Department Foundation University Medical College from October 2011 to August 2012 Patients and Methodology: Patients were selected by non probability purposive sampling. Patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were divided into 2 groups 25 each on the basis of order of presentation at Fauji Foundation Hospital until cohort numbers were reached. Group I received no heparin whereas group II received heparin. Written informed consent was taken from the patient after explaining the procedure of the study. Coagulation profile was done for both groups before the planned surgery. Heparin in a dose of 5000 units was administered subcutaneously to group II on the morning of the planned surgery and it was stopped 24 hours post operatively. Blood loss was estimated in both groups by weighing cotton swabs pre and post operatively. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 17. Results: Demographic data and surgical procedure time between the two groups did not differ. Blood loss between the two groups did not show any statistically significant difference. Conclusion: DVT prophylaxis using unfractionated heparin did not lead to any significant overt blood loss when compared with those without it. (author)

  18. Mean Green operators of deformable fiber networks embedded in a compliant matrix and property estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Patrick; Spagnuolo, Mario; Salman, Oguz Umut

    2018-04-01

    Composites comprising included phases in a continuous matrix constitute a huge class of meta-materials, whose effective properties, whether they be mechanical, physical or coupled, can be selectively optimized by using appropriate phase arrangements and architectures. An important subclass is represented by "network-reinforced matrices," say those materials in which one or more of the embedded phases are co-continuous with the matrix in one or more directions. In this article, we present a method to study effective properties of simple such structures from which more complex ones can be accessible. Effective properties are shown, in the framework of linear elasticity, estimable by using the global mean Green operator for the entire embedded fiber network which is by definition through sample spanning. This network operator is obtained from one of infinite planar alignments of infinite fibers, which the network can be seen as an interpenetrated set of, with the fiber interactions being fully accounted for in the alignments. The mean operator of such alignments is given in exact closed form for isotropic elastic-like or dielectric-like matrices. We first exemplify how these operators relevantly provide, from classic homogenization frameworks, effective properties in the case of 1D fiber bundles embedded in an isotropic elastic-like medium. It is also shown that using infinite patterns with fully interacting elements over their whole influence range at any element concentration suppresses the dilute approximation limit of these frameworks. We finally present a construction method for a global operator of fiber networks described as interpenetrated such bundles.

  19. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ): a review of its development, current version, operating characteristics and uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R

    2005-01-01

    The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was developed in the late 1980s by clinicians at Oregon Health & Science University in an attempt to capture the total spectrum of problems related to fibromyalgia and the responses to therapy. It was first published in 1991 and since that time has been extensively used as an index of therapeutic efficacy. Overall, it has been shown to have a credible construct validity, reliable test-retest characteristics and a good sensitivity in demonstrating therapeutic change. The original questionnaire was modified in 1997 and 2002, to reflect ongoing experience with the instrument and to clarify the scoring system. The latest version of the FIQ can be found at the web site of the Oregon Fibromyalgia Foundation (www.myalgia.com/FIQ/FIQ). The FIQ has now been translated into eight languages, and the translated versions have shown operating characteristics similar to the English version.

  20. The TileCal Online Energy Estimation for the Next LHC Operation Period

    CERN Document Server

    Peralva, B S; The ATLAS collaboration; Cerqueira, A S; Seixas, J M

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a study on the TileCal online energy estimation for the next LHC operation period (Run2). Due to hardware limitation, the algorithm that performs the online energy estimation must remain based on the linear and fast Optimal Filter (OF) technique, which envisages the use of the background covariance matrix in its design. During Run1, TileCal made use of an identity matrix to describe and the background covariance matrix, which showed to be a reasonable approximation for the low luminosity scenario. Under such conditions, the background for most of its cells comprised mainly electronic noise which can be approximated as a uncorrelated Gaussian process. However, as the pile-up introduces a non-Gaussian component to the background, the OF method presents larger variance and it becomes biased. The use of the background covariance matrix in the design of the OF weights is expected to improve the energy estimation performance. The results for the scenario considered show that for high occupancy ce...

  1. Estimates of emergency operating capacity in U.S. manufacturing industries: 1994--2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1997-02-01

    To develop integrated policies for mobilization preparedness, planners require estimates and projections of available productive capacity during national emergency conditions. This report develops projections of national emergency operating capacity (EOC) for 458 US manufacturing industries at the 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level. These measures are intended for use in planning models that are designed to predict the demands for detailed industry sectors that would occur under conditions such as a military mobilization or a major national disaster. This report is part of an ongoing series of studies prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to support mobilization planning studies of the Federal Emergency Planning Agency/US Department of Defense (FEMA/DOD). Earlier sets of EOC estimates were developed in 1985 and 1991. This study presents estimates of EOC through 2005. As in the 1991 study, projections of capacity were based upon extrapolations of equipment capital stocks. The methodology uses time series regression models based on industry data to obtain a response function of industry capital stock to levels of industrial output. The distributed lag coefficients of these response function are then used with projected outputs to extrapolate the 1994 level of EOC. Projections of industrial outputs were taken from the intermediate-term forecast of the US economy prepared by INFORUM (Interindustry Forecasting Model, University of Maryland) in the spring of 1996.

  2. The TileCal Online Energy Estimation for the Next LHC Operation Period

    CERN Document Server

    Peralva, B S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the detector used in the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, muons and missing transverse energy from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It covers the central part of the ATLAS detector (|η|<1.6). The energy deposited by the particles is read out by approximately 5,000 cells, with double readout channels. The signal provided by the readout electronics for each channel is digitized at 40 MHz and its amplitude is estimated by an optimal filtering algorithm, which expects a single signal with a well-defined shape. However, the LHC luminosity is expected to increase leading to signal pile-up that deforms the signal of interest. Due to limited resources, the current DSP-based hardware setup does not allow the implementation of sophisticated energy estimation methods that deal with the pile-up. Therefore, the technique to be employed for online energy estimation in TileCal for next LHC operation period must be based on fast filters such as the M...

  3. A Modified Model to Estimate Building Rental Multipiers Accounting for Advalorem Operating Expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolyak S.A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop ideas on building element valuation contained in the first article on the subject published in REMV, we propose an elaboration of the approach accounting for ad valorem expenses incidental to property management, such as land taxes, income/capital gains tax, and insurance premium costs; all such costs, being of an ad valorem nature in the first instance, cause circularity in the logic of the model, which, however, is not intractable under the proposed approach. The resulting formulas for carrying out practical estimation of building rental multipliers and, in consequence, of building values, turn out to be somewhat modified, and we demonstrate the sensitivity of the developed approach to the impact of these ad valorem factors. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that (accounting for building depreciation charges, which should seemingly be included among the considered ad valorem factors, cancel out and do not have any impact on the resulting estimates. However, treating the depreciation of buildings in quantifiable economic terms as a reduction in derivable operating benefits over time (instead of mere physical indications, such as age, we also demonstrate that the approach has implications for estimating the economic service lives of buildings and can be practical when used in conjunction with the market-related approach to valuation – from which the requisite model inputs can be extracted as shown in the final part of the paper.

  4. Prediction equation for estimating total daily energy requirements of special operations personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, N D; Pasiakos, S M; McClung, H L; Crombie, A P; Margolis, L M

    2018-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) engage in a variety of military tasks with many producing high energy expenditures, leading to undesired energy deficits and loss of body mass. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate daily energy requirements would be useful for accurate logistical planning. Generate a predictive equation estimating energy requirements of SOF. Retrospective analysis of data collected from SOF personnel engaged in 12 different SOF training scenarios. Energy expenditure and total body water were determined using the doubly-labeled water technique. Physical activity level was determined as daily energy expenditure divided by resting metabolic rate. Physical activity level was broken into quartiles (0 = mission prep, 1 = common warrior tasks, 2 = battle drills, 3 = specialized intense activity) to generate a physical activity factor (PAF). Regression analysis was used to construct two predictive equations (Model A; body mass and PAF, Model B; fat-free mass and PAF) estimating daily energy expenditures. Average measured energy expenditure during SOF training was 4468 (range: 3700 to 6300) Kcal·d- 1 . Regression analysis revealed that physical activity level ( r  = 0.91; P  plan appropriate feeding regimens to meet SOF nutritional requirements across their mission profile.

  5. Operational characteristics of the OMEGA short-wavelength laser fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soures, J.M.; Hutchison, R.; Jacobs, S.; McCrory, R.L.; Peck, R.; Seka, W.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve beams of the OMEGA, 24 beam direct-drive laser facility have been converted to 351-nm wavelength operation. The performance characteristics of this short-wavelength facility will be discussed. Beam-to-beam energy balance of +-2.3% and on-target energy, at 351-nm, in excess of 70 J per beam have been demonstrated. Long-term performance (>600 shots) of the system has been optimized by appropriate choice of index matching liquid, optical materials and coatings. The application of this system in direct-drive laser fusion experiments will be discussed

  6. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of chest radiographs with computed radiography and conventional analog films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, C.; Brown, K.; Dalter, S.; Milos, M.J.; Huang, H.K.; Kangarloo, H.; Boechat, I.M.; Batra, P.

    1988-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic is used to compare the image quality of films obtained digitally using computed radiography (CR) and conventionally using analog film following fluoroscopic examination. Twenty-four cases, some with a solitary noncalcified nodule and/or pneumothorax, were collected. Ten radiologists have been tested viewing analog and CR digital films separately. Preliminary results indicate that there is no significant difference in the ability to detect either a pneumothorax or a solitary noncalcified nodule when comparing CR digital film with conventional analog film. A comparison of the CR digital image displayed on a 2,048-line monitor against analog and CR digital film is in progress

  7. Borehole heat exchangers: Longterm operational characteristics of a decentral geothermal heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Eugster, W.J.; Hopkirk, R.J.; Kaelin, B.

    1992-01-01

    The heat pump-coupled borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is an efficient and small geothermal energy system for supplying heat typically to a single dwelling house. The long-term performance characteristics have been investigated by computer simulations. The numerical models were validated by measurements at instrumented BHE facilities. The results show the development of a new thermal equilibrium state after the first few years of BHE operation. The thermal influence is limited to the first few meters of the ground surrounding the BHE. The BHE could be scaled up in order to be installed in deep 'failed' holes (e.g. dry geothermal or hydrocarbon exploration holes)

  8. The specification and the operation characteristics of the low energy accelerator in JAERI-TRCRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Yotsumoto, Keiichi; Okamoto, Jiro

    1993-06-01

    The low energy accelerator system of JAERI TRCRE is of a non scanned type electron accelerator, manufactured by NISSIN HIGH VOLTAGE Co., LTD. The system consists of an oil filled d.c.high voltage generator, semicylindrical acceleration chamber in which a linear cathode is supported coaxially, and the products handling conveyor. The high voltage generator and the acceleration chamber are connected by a flexible cable. A batch irradiation can be carried out using the conveyor in inert gases. The output of the accelerator is 300 kV, 100 mA and the beam width is 60 cm. The specification, the operation procedure, and the operation characteristics of the system are described. (author)

  9. Analysis on operation characteristics and power burdens of the double quench trigger type SFCLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seung Taek; Lim, Sung Hun [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tae Hee [Dept. of Aero Materials Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To protect the power systems from fault current, the rated protective equipment should be installed. However growth of power system scale and concentration of loads caused the large fault current in power transmission system and distribution system. The capacities of installed protective equipment have been exceeded the due to increase of fault current. This increase is not temporary phenomenon but will be steadily as long as the industry develops. The power system operator need a counter-measurement for safety, so superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) has been received attention as effective solutions to reduce the fault current. For the above reasons various type SFCLs have been studied recently. In this paper, operation characteristics and power burden of trigger type SFCL is studied. The trigger type SFCL has been used for real system research in many countries. Another trigger type SFCL (double quench trigger type SFCL) is also studied. For this paper, short circuit test is performed.

  10. Computer Drawing Method for Operating Characteristic Curve of PV Power Plant Array Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianbin

    2018-02-01

    According to the engineering design of large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power stations and the research and development of many simulation and analysis systems, it is necessary to draw a good computer graphics of the operating characteristic curves of photovoltaic array elements and to propose a good segmentation non-linear interpolation algorithm. In the calculation method, Component performance parameters as the main design basis, the computer can get 5 PV module performances. At the same time, combined with the PV array series and parallel connection, the computer drawing of the performance curve of the PV array unit can be realized. At the same time, the specific data onto the module of PV development software can be calculated, and the good operation of PV array unit can be improved on practical application.

  11. Approach to Operational Experimental Estimation of Static Stresses of Elements of Mechanical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedov, A. V.; Kalinchuk, V. V.; Bocharova, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation of static stresses and strength of units and components is a crucial task for increasing reliability in the operation of vehicles and equipment, to prevent emergencies, especially in structures made of metal and composite materials. At the stage of creation and commissioning of structures to control the quality of manufacturing of individual elements and components, diagnostic control methods are widely used. They are acoustic, ultrasonic, X-ray, radiation methods and others. The using of these methods to control the residual life and the degree of static stresses of units and parts during operation is fraught with great difficulties both in methodology and in instrumentation. In this paper, the authors propose an effective approach of operative control of the degree of static stresses of units and parts of mechanical structures which are in working condition, based on recording the changing in the surface wave properties of a system consisting of a sensor and a controlled environment (unit, part). The proposed approach of low-frequency diagnostics of static stresses presupposes a new adaptive-spectral analysis of a surface wave created by external action (impact). It is possible to estimate implicit stresses of structures in the experiment due to this approach.

  12. Estimating energy requirement in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut processing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jekayinfa, S.O. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B. 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria); Bamgboye, A.I. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2006-07-15

    This work deals with a study on estimation of energy consumption in eight readily defined unit operations of cashew nut processing. Data for analysis were collected from nine cashew nut mills stratified into small, medium and large categories to represent different mechanization levels. Series of equations were developed to easily compute requirements of electricity, fuel and labour for each of the unit operations. The computation of energy use was done using spreadsheet program on Microsoft Excel. The results of application test of the equations show that the total energy intensity in the cashew nut mills varied between 0.21 and 1.161MJ/kg. Electrical energy intensity varied between 0.0052 and 0.029MJ/kg, while thermal energy intensity varied from 0.085 to 1.064MJ/kg. The two identified energy intensive operations in cashew nut processing are cashew nut drying and cashew nut roasting, altogether accounting for over 85% of the total energy consumption in all the three mill categories. Thermal energy, obtained from diesel fuel, represented about 90% of the unit energy cost for cashew nut processing. The developed equations have therefore proven to be a useful tool for carrying out budgeting, forecasting energy requirements and planning plant expansion. (author)

  13. Performance and operational economics estimates for a coal gasification combined-cycle cogeneration powerplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Burns, R. K.; Easley, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A performance and operational economics analysis is presented for an integrated-gasifier, combined-cycle (IGCC) system to meet the steam and baseload electrical requirements. The effect of time variations in steam and electrial requirements is included. The amount and timing of electricity purchases from sales to the electric utility are determined. The resulting expenses for purchased electricity and revenues from electricity sales are estimated by using an assumed utility rate structure model. Cogeneration results for a range of potential IGCC cogeneration system sizes are compared with the fuel consumption and costs of natural gas and electricity to meet requirements without cogeneration. The results indicate that an IGCC cogeneration system could save about 10 percent of the total fuel energy presently required to supply steam and electrical requirements without cogeneration. Also for the assumed future fuel and electricity prices, an annual operating cost savings of 21 percent to 26 percent could be achieved with such a cogeneration system. An analysis of the effects of electricity price, fuel price, and system availability indicates that the IGCC cogeneration system has a good potential for economical operation over a wide range in these assumptions.

  14. Characteristics of plasma streams and optimization of operational regimes for magnetoplasma compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Ladygina, M.S.; Marchenko, A.K.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Solyakov, D.G.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Chuvilo, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of these studies is characterization of dense xenon plasma streams generated by magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) in different operational regimes. Optimization of plasma compression in MPC allows increase of the plasma stream pressure up to 22...25 bar, average temperature of electrons of 10...20 eV and plasma stream velocity varied in the range of (2...9)x10 6 cm/s depending on operation regime. Spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that in these conditions most of Xe spectral lines are reabsorbed. In the case of known optical thickness, the real value of electron density can be calculated with accounting self-absorption. Estimations of optical thickness were performed and resulting electron density in focus region was evaluated as 10 18 cm -3 .

  15. Operative and postoperative control of variations in characteristics of physicochemical processes in NPP circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkov, N.Ya.; Krjukov, Yu.V.; Blinov, S.V.; Fedoseev, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    Based on actual data obtained from operative chemical monitoring in operating NPPs, the authors show the use of some probability diagnosis methods in practical applications such as identification of anomalies of the water chemistry condition, specifically, in the following: detecting violation of control limits a priori determined for the water chemistry parameters, using the control card method; construction of detectors for identifying probably (statistically) significant stepwise changes in the current arithmetical mean of the water chemistry parametric values; identifying successive changes in the behavior of robust estimators of the monitored parameters values; construction of robust linear regression prognostic models for dynamic changes in the monitored parameters values; correlation analysis of time series formed from the measured data on the water chemistry connected parameters (which are lumped (concentrated at one control point) and/or distributed along the coolant path). (author)

  16. Analysis on Biomechanical Characteristics of Post-operational Vertebral C5-C6 Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heqiang Tian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR have obvious advantages in the treatment of cervical spondylosis. To analyze the operation results, it is absolutely necessary to study the biomechanics of the movement range of post-operational vertebral C5-C6 segments, especially the biomechanical characteristics in cervical tissues in actual movements. In this study, using the human vertebral 3D graph gained by imaging diagnosis (CT, a vertebral solid model is established by the 3D reconstruction algorithm and reverse engineering technology. After that, with cervical soft tissue structure added to the solid model and set with a joint contact mechanism, a finite element model with a complete, accurate cervical C5-C6 kinematic unit is constructed, based on relevant physiological anatomical knowledge. This model includes vertebral segments, an intervertebral disc, ligament and zygopophysis in the cervical C5-C6 kinematic unit. In the created vertebral finite element model, the model is amended, referring to ACDF and ACDR, and the load and constraint are applied to a normal group, a fusion group and a displacement group, so as to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of the cervical vertebra after ACDF and ACDR. By comparing the finite element simulation results of different surgeries, this paper is intended to evaluate the functions and biomechanical behaviors of the post-operational vertebra, and explore the influence of the operation on the biomechanical stability of the cervical vertebra. This will provide theoretical guidance for implementation and optimization of ACDF and ACDR.

  17. [Research on Oil Sands Spectral Characteristics and Oil Content by Remote Sensing Estimation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jin-feng; Xing, Li-xin; Pan, Jun; Shan, Xuan-long; Liang, Li-heng; Fan, Rui-xue

    2015-04-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a proven technology to be widely used in identification and exploration of hydrocarbon energy sources with high spectral resolution for detail diagnostic absorption characteristics of hydrocarbon groups. The most prominent regions for hydrocarbon absorption bands are 1,740-1,780, 2,300-2,340 and 2,340-2,360 nm by the reflectance of oil sands samples. These spectral ranges are dominated by various C-H overlapping overtones and combination bands. Meanwhile, there is relatively weak even or no absorption characteristics in the region from 1,700 to 1,730 nm in the spectra of oil sands samples with low bitumen content. With the increase in oil content, in the spectral range of 1,700-1,730 nm the obvious hydrocarbon absorption begins to appear. The bitumen content is the critical parameter for oil sands reserves estimation. The absorption depth was used to depict the response intensity of the absorption bands controlled by first-order overtones and combinations of the various C-H stretching and bending fundamentals. According to the Pearson and partial correlation relationships of oil content and absorption depth dominated by hydrocarbon groups in 1,740-1,780, 2,300-2,340 and 2,340-2,360 nm wavelength range, the scheme of association mode was established between the intensity of spectral response and bitumen content, and then unary linear regression(ULR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) methods were employed to model the equation between absorption depth attributed to various C-H bond and bitumen content. There were two calibration equations in which ULR method was employed to model the relationship between absorption depth near 2,350 nm region and bitumen content and PLSR method was developed to model the relationship between absorption depth of 1,758, 2,310, 2,350 nm regions and oil content. It turned out that the calibration models had good predictive ability and high robustness and they could provide the scientific

  18. Operational features and air plasma characteristics of a thermal plasma torch with hollow electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Min; Kim, Keun Su; Hong, Sang Hee

    2003-01-01

    The operational features and thermal plasma characteristics of a plasma torch with hollow electrodes are investigated based on their dependence on input current, gas flow rate and electrode diameter when air is used as a plasma gas. A plasma torch with a hollow cathode and anode has been designed and fabricated, and the arc voltages and thermal efficiencies are measured from its discharge. The newly modified similarity criteria are derived from the measured data related to torch performances. From the fact that these criteria successfully describe both the arc voltage and thermal efficiency behaviour of the torch, depending on its operating and geometrical parameters, it is proved that they can be usefully applied to the design and operation of high power torches. For the numerical modelling of the interior region of the torch, a cold flow analysis is employed along with a simplified balance equation of the Lorentz and gas dynamic drag forces in order to determine a cathode spot position on the cathode surface. The validity of this method is confirmed by comparison of the calculated and measured net powers. As a practically useful result of this analysis, carried out through this numerical and experimental work, it is suggested that low input current, high gas flow rate and relatively large electrode diameter are more favourable as appropriate operating conditions of the torch for the efficient treatment of hazardous organic wastes

  19. Characteristics of membrane fouling in submerged membrane bioreactor under sub-critical flux operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y C; Huang, C P; Pan, Jill R; Lee, H C

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process has become one of the novel technologies to enhance the performance of biological treatment of wastewater. Membrane bioreactor process uses the membrane unit to replace a sediment tank, and this can greatly enhance treatment performance. However, membrane fouling in MBR restricts its widespread application because it leads to permeate flux decline, making more frequent membrane cleaning and replacement necessary, which then increases operating and maintenance costs. This study investigated the sludge characteristics in membrane fouling under sub-critical flux operation and also assessed the effect of shear stress on membrane fouling. Membrane fouling was slow under sub-critical flux operation. However, as filamentous microbes became dominant in the reactor, membrane fouling increased dramatically due to the increased viscosity and polysaccharides. A close link was found between membrane fouling and the amount of polysaccharides in soluble EPS. The predominant resistance was the cake resistance which could be minimized by increasing the shear stress. However, the resistance of colloids and solutes was not apparently reduced by increasing shear stress. Therefore, smaller particles such as macromolecules (e.g. polysaccharides) may play an important role in membrane fouling under sub-critical flux operation.

  20. SWIFT BAT Loop Heat Pipe Thermal System Characteristics and Ground/Flight Operation Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    The SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Detector Array has a total power dissipation of 208 W. To meet the stringent temperature gradient and thermal stability requirements in the normal operational mode, and heater power budget in both the normal operational and safehold modes, the Detector Array is thermally well coupled to eight constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) embedded in the Detector Array Plate (DAP), and two loop heat pipes (LHPs) transport heat fiom the CCHPs to a radiator. The CCHPs have ammonia as the working fluid and the LHPs have propylene as the working fluid. Precision heater controllers, which have adjustable set points in flight, are used to control the LHP compensation chamber and Detector Array XA1 ASIC temperatures. The radiator has the AZ-Tek AZW-LA-II low-alpha white paint as the thermal coating and is located on the anti-sun side of the spacecraft. This paper presents the characteristics, ground operation and flight operation procedures of the LHP thermal system.

  1. Retinal vascular segmentation using superpixel-based line operator and its application to vascular topology estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Tong; Xie, Jianyang; Zhao, Yitian; Zhao, Yifan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian; Liu, Jiang

    2018-05-09

    Automatic methods of analyzing of retinal vascular networks, such as retinal blood vessel detection, vascular network topology estimation, and arteries/veins classification are of great assistance to the ophthalmologist in terms of diagnosis and treatment of a wide spectrum of diseases. We propose a new framework for precisely segmenting retinal vasculatures, constructing retinal vascular network topology, and separating the arteries and veins. A nonlocal total variation inspired Retinex model is employed to remove the image intensity inhomogeneities and relatively poor contrast. For better generalizability and segmentation performance, a superpixel-based line operator is proposed as to distinguish between lines and the edges, thus allowing more tolerance in the position of the respective contours. The concept of dominant sets clustering is adopted to estimate retinal vessel topology and classify the vessel network into arteries and veins. The proposed segmentation method yields competitive results on three public data sets (STARE, DRIVE, and IOSTAR), and it has superior performance when compared with unsupervised segmentation methods, with accuracy of 0.954, 0.957, and 0.964, respectively. The topology estimation approach has been applied to five public databases (DRIVE,STARE, INSPIRE, IOSTAR, and VICAVR) and achieved high accuracy of 0.830, 0.910, 0.915, 0.928, and 0.889, respectively. The accuracies of arteries/veins classification based on the estimated vascular topology on three public databases (INSPIRE, DRIVE and VICAVR) are 0.90.9, 0.910, and 0.907, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed framework has effectively addressed crossover problem, a bottleneck issue in segmentation and vascular topology reconstruction. The vascular topology information significantly improves the accuracy on arteries/veins classification. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. Remaining useful life estimation in heterogeneous fleets working under variable operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dahidi, Sameer; Di Maio, Francesco; Baraldi, Piero; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The availability of condition monitoring data for large fleets of similar equipment motivates the development of data-driven prognostic approaches that capitalize on the information contained in such data to estimate equipment Remaining Useful Life (RUL). A main difficulty is that the fleet of equipment typically experiences different operating conditions, which influence both the condition monitoring data and the degradation processes that physically determine the RUL. We propose an approach for RUL estimation from heterogeneous fleet data based on three phases: firstly, the degradation levels (states) of an homogeneous discrete-time finite-state semi-markov model are identified by resorting to an unsupervised ensemble clustering approach. Then, the parameters of the discrete Weibull distributions describing the transitions among the states and their uncertainties are inferred by resorting to the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method and to the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM), respectively. Finally, the inferred degradation model is used to estimate the RUL of fleet equipment by direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The proposed approach is applied to two case studies regarding heterogeneous fleets of aluminium electrolytic capacitors and turbofan engines. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in predicting the RUL and its superiority compared to a fuzzy similarity-based approach of literature. - Highlights: • The prediction of the remaining useful life for heterogeneous fleets is addressed. • A data-driven prognostics approach based on a Markov model is proposed. • The proposed approach is applied to two different heterogeneous fleets. • The results are compared with those obtained by a fuzzy similarity-based approach.

  3. Estimating cancer risk in relation to tritium exposure from routine operation of a nuclear-generating station in Pickering, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanigaratne, S; Holowaty, E; Jiang, H; Norwood, T A; Pietrusiak, M A; Brown, P

    2013-09-01

    Evidence suggests that current levels of tritium emissions from CANDU reactors in Canada are not related to adverse health effects. However, these studies lack tritium-specific dose data and have small numbers of cases. The purpose of our study was to determine whether tritium emitted from a nuclear-generating station during routine operation is associated with risk of cancer in Pickering, Ontario. A retrospective cohort was formed through linkage of Pickering and north Oshawa residents (1985) to incident cancer cases (1985-2005). We examined all sites combined, leukemia, lung, thyroid and childhood cancers (6-19 years) for males and females as well as female breast cancer. Tritium estimates were based on an atmospheric dispersion model, incorporating characteristics of annual tritium emissions and meteorology. Tritium concentration estimates were assigned to each cohort member based on exact location of residence. Person-years analysis was used to determine whether observed cancer cases were higher than expected. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine whether tritium was associated with radiation-sensitive cancers in Pickering. Person-years analysis showed female childhood cancer cases to be significantly higher than expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.38). The issue of multiple comparisons is the most likely explanation for this finding. Cox models revealed that female lung cancer was significantly higher in Pickering versus north Oshawa (HR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.23-4.46) and that tritium was not associated with increased risk. The improved methodology used in this study adds to our understanding of cancer risks associated with low-dose tritium exposure. Tritium estimates were not associated with increased risk of radiationsensitive cancers in Pickering.

  4. The influence of personal characteristics on the resilience of operating room nurses: a predictor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2009-07-01

    Resilience in the workplace has been described as a means of facilitating adaptation in stressful environments, and therefore has application in nursing contexts. However, little research has examined how personal characteristics such as age, nursing experience and education contribute to resilience in clinical environments such as the operating room (OR). First to identify the level of resilience, and second, investigate whether age, experience and education contribute to resilience in an Australian sample of OR nurses. A predictive survey design was used. A random sample of 1430 nurses who were members of the Australian College of Operating Room Nurses association were surveyed. The survey included the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and demographic questions. A standard regression model tested the hypothesis that age, years of OR experience and education contributed to resilience in OR nurses. A total of 735 (51.4%) completed, usable surveys were returned. Pearson's correlations demonstrated modest but statistically significant associations between age (presilience. In the multiple regression model, only years of OR experience predicted resilience (presilience. In OR nurses, resilience appears to be predicted by other attributes and is not necessarily dependent on an individual's personal characteristics. Thus, recruitment to the OR should not be based on the conventional notion that an older nursing workforce will have greater longevity and hence be more stable. If younger, less experienced nurses are adequately supported, they may thrive in the OR environment.

  5. Improvement of the environmental and operational characteristics of vehicles through decreasing the motor fuel density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaril, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The environmental and operational characteristics of motor transport, one of the main consumers of motor fuel and source of toxic emissions, soot, and greenhouse gases, are determined to a large extent by the fuel quality which is characterized by many parameters. Fuel density is one of these parameters and it can serve as an indicator of fuel quality. It has been theoretically substantiated that an increased density of motor fuel has a negative impact both on the environmental and operational characteristics of motor transport. The use of fuels with a high density leads to an increase in carbonization within the engine, adversely affecting the vehicle performance and increasing environmental pollution. A program of technological measures targeted at reducing the density of the fuel used was offered. It includes a solution to the problem posed by changes in the refining capacities ratio and the temperature range of gasoline and diesel fuel boiling, by introducing fuel additives and adding butanes to the gasoline. An environmental tax has been developed which allows oil refineries to have a direct impact on the production of fuels with improved environmental performance, taking into account the need to minimize the density of the fuel within a given category of quality.

  6. Evaluation of damping estimates by automated Operational Modal Analysis for offshore wind turbine tower vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajrić, Anela; Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Rüdinger, Finn

    2018-01-01

    Reliable predictions of the lifetime of offshore wind turbine structures are influenced by the limited knowledge concerning the inherent level of damping during downtime. Error measures and an automated procedure for covariance driven Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) techniques has been proposed....... In order to obtain algorithmic independent answers, three identification techniques are compared: Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), covariance driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (COV-SSI) and the Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD). Discrepancies between automated identification...... techniques are discussed and illustrated with respect to signal noise, measurement time, vibration amplitudes and stationarity of the ambient response. The best bias-variance error trade-off of damping estimates is obtained by the COV-SSI. The proposed automated procedure is validated by real vibration...

  7. Lipschitz estimates for commutators of singular integral operators associated with the sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqing Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Let H be Monge-Ampère singular integral operator, b ∈ L i p F β $b\\in Lip_{\\mathcal{F}}^{\\beta}$ , and 1 / q = 1 / p − β $1/q=1/p-\\beta$ . It is proved that the commutator [ b , H ] $[b,H]$ is bounded from L p ( R n , d μ $L^{p}(\\mathbb{R}^{n},d\\mu$ to L q ( R n , d μ $L^{q}(\\mathbb{R}^{n},d\\mu$ for 1 < p < 1 / β $1< p<1/\\beta$ and from H F p ( R n $H^{p}_{\\mathcal{F}}(\\mathbb{R}^{n}$ to L q ( R n , d μ $L^{q}(\\mathbb{R}^{n},d\\mu$ for 1 / ( 1 + β < p ≤ 1 $1/(1+\\beta< p\\leq1$ . For the extreme case p = 1 / ( 1 + β $p=1/(1+\\beta$ , a weak estimate is given.

  8. Estimation of Operating Condition of Appliances Using Circuit Current Data on Electric Distribution Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshie

    The Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method to enhance the capability of supply and demand balancing of a power system under the anticipated penetration of renewable energy generation such as Photovoltaics (PV). Elucidation of energy consumption structure in a building is one of important elements for realization of EMS and contributes to the extraction of potential energy saving. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of operating condition of household appliances using circuit current data on an electric distribution board. Circuit current data are broken down by their shape using a self-organization map method and aggregated by appliance based on customers' information of appliance possessed. Proposed method is verified using residential energy consumption measurement survey data.

  9. Development of an operator`s mental model acquisition system. 1. Estimation of a physical mental model acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Mitsuru; Mizoguchi, Riichirou [Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshikawa, Shinji; Ozawa, Kenji

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a technical survey of acquisition method of an operator`s understanding for functions and structures of his target nuclear plant. This method is to play a key role in the information processing framework to support on-training operators in forming their knowledge of the nuclear plants. This kind of technical framework is aiming at enhancing human operator`s ability to cope with anomaly plant situations which are difficult to expect from preceding experiences or engineering surveillance. In these cases, cause identifications and responding operation selections are desired to made not only empirically but also based on thoughts about possible phenomena to take place within the nuclear plant. This report focuses on a particular element technique, defined as `explanation-based knowledge acquisition`, as the candidate technique to potentially be extended to meet the requirement written above, and discusses about applicability to the learning support system and about necessary improvements, to identify future technical developments. (author)

  10. Waste Estimates for a Future Recycling Plant in the US Based Upon AREVA Operating Experience - 13206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foare, Genevieve; Meze, Florian [AREVA E and P, SGN - 1, rue des Herons, 78182 Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France); Bader, Sven; McGee, Don; Murray, Paul [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 7207 IBM Drive, Mail Code CLT- 1D, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States); Prud' homme, Pascal [AREVA NC SA - 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense CEDEX (France)

    2013-07-01

    Estimates of process and secondary wastes produced by a recycling plant built in the U.S., which is composed of a used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing facility and a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility, are performed as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study [1]. In this study, a set of common inputs, assumptions, and constraints were identified to allow for comparison of these wastes between different industrial teams. AREVA produced a model of a reprocessing facility, an associated fuel fabrication facility, and waste treatment facilities to develop the results for this study. These facilities were divided into a number of discrete functional areas for which inlet and outlet flow streams were clearly identified to allow for an accurate determination of the radionuclide balance throughout the facility and the waste streams. AREVA relied primarily on its decades of experience and feedback from its La Hague (reprocessing) and MELOX (MOX fuel fabrication) commercial operating facilities in France to support this assessment. However, to perform these estimates for a U.S. facility with different regulatory requirements and to take advantage of some technological advancements, such as in the potential treatment of off-gases, some deviations from this experience were necessary. A summary of AREVA's approach and results for the recycling of 800 metric tonnes of initial heavy metal (MTIHM) of LWR UNF per year into MOX fuel under the assumptions and constraints identified for this DOE study are presented. (authors)

  11. Estimating envelope thermal characteristics from single point in time thermal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshatshati, Salahaldin Faraj

    Energy efficiency programs implemented nationally in the U.S. by utilities have rendered savings which have cost on average 0.03/kWh. This cost is still well below generation costs. However, as the lowest cost energy efficiency measures are adopted, this the cost effectiveness of further investment declines. Thus there is a need to more effectively find the most opportunities for savings regionally and nationally, so that the greatest cost effectiveness in implementing energy efficiency can be achieved. Integral to this process. are at scale energy audits. However, on-site building energy audits process are expensive, in the range of US1.29/m2-$5.37/m2 and there are an insufficient number of professionals to perform the audits. Energy audits that can be conducted at-scale and at low cost are needed. Research is presented that addresses at community-wide scales characterization of building envelope thermal characteristics via drive-by and fly-over GPS linked thermal imaging. A central question drives this research: Can single point-in-time thermal images be used to infer U-values and thermal capacitances of walls and roofs? Previous efforts to use thermal images to estimate U-values have been limited to rare steady exterior weather conditions. The approaches posed here are based upon the development two models first is a dynamic model of a building envelope component with unknown U-value and thermal capacitance. The weather conditions prior to the thermal image are used as inputs to the model. The model is solved to determine the exterior surface temperature, ultimately predicted the temperature at the thermal measurement time. The model U-value and thermal capacitance are tuned in order to force the error between the predicted surface temperature and the measured surface temperature from thermal imaging to be near zero. This model is developed simply to show that such a model cannot be relied upon to accurately estimate the U-value. The second is a data

  12. Reactor core modeling practice: Operational requirements, model characteristics, and model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbino, H.

    1997-01-01

    The physical models implemented in power plant simulators have greatly increased in performance and complexity in recent years. This process has been enabled by the ever increasing computing power available at affordable prices. This paper describes this process from several angles: First the operational requirements which are more critical from the point of view of model performance, both for normal and off-normal operating conditions; A second section discusses core model characteristics in the light of the solutions implemented by Thomson Training and Simulation (TT and S) in several full-scope simulators recently built and delivered for Dutch, German, and French nuclear power plants; finally we consider the model validation procedures, which are of course an integral part of model development, and which are becoming more and more severe as performance expectations increase. As a conclusion, it may be asserted that in the core modeling field, as in other areas, the general improvement in the quality of simulation codes has resulted in a fairly rapid convergence towards mainstream engineering-grade calculations. This is remarkable performance in view of the stringent real-time requirements which the simulation codes must satisfy as well as the extremely wide range of operating conditions that they are called upon to cover with good accuracy. (author)

  13. The estimation of the control rods absorber burn-up during the VVER-1000 operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolshagin, Sergey N.; Gorodkov, Sergey S.; Sukhino-Khomenko, Evgeniya A. [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    The isotopic composition of the control rods absorber changes under the neutron flux influence, so the control rods efficiency can decrease. In the VVER-1000 control rods boron carbide and dysprosium titanate are used as absorbing materials. In boric part the efficiency decreases due to the {sup 10}B isotope burn-up. Dysprosium isotopes turn into other absorbing isotopes, so the absorbing properties of dysprosium part decrease to a lesser degree. Also the control rod's shells may be deformed as a consequence of boron carbide radiation swelling. This fact should be considered in substantiation of control rods durability. For the estimation of the control rods absorber burn-up two models are developed: VVER-1000 3-D fuel assembly with control rods partially immersed (imitation of the control rods operation in the working group) and VVER-1000 3-D fuel assembly with control rods, located at the upper limit switch (imitation of the control rods operation in groups of the emergency shutdown system). (orig.)

  14. Operational Definitions of Sexual Orientation and Estimates of Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Derrick D.; Blosnich, John R.; Farmer, Grant W.; Adams, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Increasing attention to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations comes with requisite circumspection about measuring sexual orientation in surveys. However, operationalizing these variables also requires considerable thought. This research sought to document the consequences of different operational definitions of sexual orientation by examining variation in health risk behaviors. Methods Using Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined how operational definitions of sexual behavior and sexual identity influenced differences among three health behaviors known to disparately affect LGB populations: smoking, suicide risk, and methamphetamine use. Sexual behavior and sexual identity were also examined together to explore if they captured unique sources of variability in behavior. Results Estimates of health disparities changed as a result of using either sexual behavior or sexual identity. Youth who reported their sexual identity as “not sure” also had increased odds of health risk behavior. Disaggregating bisexual identity and behavior from same-sex identity and behavior frequently resulted in the attenuation or elimination of health disparities that would have otherwise been attributable to exclusively same-sex sexual minorities. Finally, sexual behavior and sexual identity explained unique and significant sources of variability in all three health behaviors. Conclusion Researchers using different operational definitions of sexual orientation could draw different conclusions, even when analyzing the same data, depending upon how they chose to represent sexual orientation in analyses. We discuss implications that these manipulations have on data interpretation and provide specific recommendations for best-practices when analyzing sexual orientation data collected from adolescent populations. PMID:25110718

  15. Characteristics and Diurnal Cycle of GPM Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate and evaluate the quality, limitations and uncertainties of satellite rainfall estimates are fundamental to assure the correct and successful use of these products in applications, such as climate studies, hydrological modeling and natural hazard monitoring. Over regions of the globe that lack in situ observations, such studies are only possible through intensive field measurement campaigns, which provide a range of high quality ground measurements, e.g., CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GlobAl Precipitation Measurement and GoAmazon (Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon over the Brazilian Amazon during 2014/2015. This study aims to assess the characteristics of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite-based precipitation estimates in representing the diurnal cycle over the Brazilian Amazon. The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG and the Goddard Profiling Algorithm—Version 2014 (GPROF2014 algorithms are evaluated against ground-based radar observations. Specifically, the S-band weather radar from the Amazon Protection National System (SIPAM, is first validated against the X-band CHUVA radar and then used as a reference to evaluate GPM precipitation. Results showed satisfactory agreement between S-band SIPAM radar and both IMERG and GPROF2014 algorithms. However, during the wet season, IMERG, which uses the GPROF2014 rainfall retrieval from the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI sensor, significantly overestimates the frequency of heavy rainfall volumes around 00:00–04:00 UTC and 15:00–18:00 UTC. This overestimation is particularly evident over the Negro, Solimões and Amazon rivers due to the poorly-calibrated algorithm over water surfaces. On the other hand, during the dry season, the IMERG product underestimates mean precipitation in comparison to the S-band SIPAM

  16. Operational characteristics and analysis of the immersed-Bz diode on RITS-3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, Nichelle " Nicki" ; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Portillo, Salvador; Puetz, Elizabeth A.; Johnston, Mark D.; Welch, Dale Robert; Rose, David Vincent; Cooper, G.M. (AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, United Kingdom); McLean, John (AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, United Kingdom); Rovang, Dean Curtis; Maenchen, John Eric

    2006-02-01

    The immersed-B{sub z} diode is being developed as a high-brightness, flash x-ray radiography source. This diode is a foil-less electron-beam diode with a long, thin, needle-like cathode inserted into the bore of a solenoid. The solenoidal magnetic field guides the electron beam emitted from the cathode to the anode while maintaining a small beam radius. The electron beam strikes a thin, high-atomic-number anode and produces bremsstrahlung. We report on an extensive series of experiments where an immersed-B{sub z} diode was fielded on the RITS-3 pulsed power accelerator, a 3-cell inductive voltage generator that produced peak voltages between 4 and 5 MV, {approx}140 kA of total current, and power pulse widths of {approx}50 ns. The diode is a high impedance device that, for these parameters, nominally conducts {approx}30 kA of electron beam current. Diode operating characteristics are presented and two broadly characterized operating regimes are identified: a nominal operating regime where the total diode current is characterized as classically bipolar and an anomalous impedance collapse regime where the total diode current is in excess of the bipolar limit and up to the full accelerator current. The operating regimes are approximately separated by cathode diameters greater than {approx}3 mm for the nominal regime and less than {approx} 3 mm for the anomalous impedance collapse regime. This report represents a compilation of data taken on RITS-3. Results from key parameter variations are presented in the main body of the report and include cathode diameter, anode-cathode gap, and anode material. Results from supporting parameter variations are presented in the appendices and include magnetic field strength, prepulse, pressure and accelerator variations.

  17. Combination study of operation characteristics and heat transfer mechanism for pulsating heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Yue; Li, Zhihua; Shun, Shende

    2014-01-01

    Pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is becoming a promising heat transfer device for the application like electronics cooling. However, due to its complicated operation mechanism, the heat transfer properties of the PHP still have not been fully understood. This study experimentally investigated on a closed-loop PHP charged with four types of working fluids, deionized water, methanol, ethanol and acetone. Combined with the visualization experimental results from the open literature, the operation characteristics and the corresponding heat transfer mechanisms for different heat inputs (5 W up to 100 W) and different filling ratios (20% up to 95%) have been presented and elaborated. The results show that heat-transfer mechanism changed with the transition of operation patterns; before valid oscillation started, the thermal resistance was not like that described in the open literature where it decreased almost linearly, but would rather slowdown descending or even change into rise first before further decreasing (i.e. an inflection point existed); when the heat input further increased to certain level, e.g. 65 W or above, there presented a limit of heat-transfer performance which was independent of the types of working fluids and the filling ratios, but may be related to the structure, the material, the size and the inclination of the PHP. - Highlights: •The thermal mechanisms altered accordingly with the operation features in the PHP. •Unlike conventional heat pipes, continuous temperature soaring would not happen in the PHP. •Before the oscillation start-up, there existed a heat-transfer limit for the relatively stagnated flow in the PHP. •A limit of thermal performance existed in the PHP at relatively high heat inputs

  18. Operational characteristics and analysis of the immersed-Bz diode on RITS-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, Nichelle

    2006-01-01

    The immersed-B z diode is being developed as a high-brightness, flash x-ray radiography source. This diode is a foil-less electron-beam diode with a long, thin, needle-like cathode inserted into the bore of a solenoid. The solenoidal magnetic field guides the electron beam emitted from the cathode to the anode while maintaining a small beam radius. The electron beam strikes a thin, high-atomic-number anode and produces bremsstrahlung. We report on an extensive series of experiments where an immersed-B z diode was fielded on the RITS-3 pulsed power accelerator, a 3-cell inductive voltage generator that produced peak voltages between 4 and 5 MV, ∼140 kA of total current, and power pulse widths of ∼50 ns. The diode is a high impedance device that, for these parameters, nominally conducts ∼30 kA of electron beam current. Diode operating characteristics are presented and two broadly characterized operating regimes are identified: a nominal operating regime where the total diode current is characterized as classically bipolar and an anomalous impedance collapse regime where the total diode current is in excess of the bipolar limit and up to the full accelerator current. The operating regimes are approximately separated by cathode diameters greater than ∼3 mm for the nominal regime and less than ∼ 3 mm for the anomalous impedance collapse regime. This report represents a compilation of data taken on RITS-3. Results from key parameter variations are presented in the main body of the report and include cathode diameter, anode-cathode gap, and anode material. Results from supporting parameter variations are presented in the appendices and include magnetic field strength, prepulse, pressure and accelerator variations

  19. Study on Hyperspectral Characteristics and Estimation Model of Soil Mercury Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbao; Dong, Zhenyu; Sun, Zenghui; Ma, Hongchao; Shi, Lei

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the mercury content of 44 soil samples in Guan Zhong area of Shaanxi Province was used as the data source, and the reflectance spectrum of soil was obtained by ASD Field Spec HR (350-2500 nm) Comparing the reflection characteristics of different contents and the effect of different pre-treatment methods on the establishment of soil heavy metal spectral inversion model. The first order differential, second order differential and reflectance logarithmic transformations were carried out after the pre-treatment of NOR, MSC and SNV, and the sensitive bands of reflectance and mercury content in different mathematical transformations were selected. A hyperspectral estimation model is established by regression method. The results of chemical analysis show that there is a serious Hg pollution in the study area. The results show that: (1) the reflectivity decreases with the increase of mercury content, and the sensitive regions of mercury are located at 392 ~ 455nm, 923nm ~ 1040nm and 1806nm ~ 1969nm. (2) The combination of NOR, MSC and SNV transformations combined with differential transformations can improve the information of heavy metal elements in the soil, and the combination of high correlation band can improve the stability and prediction ability of the model. (3) The partial least squares regression model based on the logarithm of the original reflectance is better and the precision is higher, Rc2 = 0.9912, RMSEC = 0.665; Rv2 = 0.9506, RMSEP = 1.93, which can achieve the mercury content in this region Quick forecast.

  20. Depth-area-duration characteristics of storm rainfall in Texas using Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, J. A.; Jitkajornwanich, K.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will describe the methodology and overall system development by which a benchmark dataset of precipitation information has been used to characterize the depth-area-duration relations in heavy rain storms occurring over regions of Texas. Over the past two years project investigators along with the National Weather Service (NWS) West Gulf River Forecast Center (WGRFC) have developed and operated a gateway data system to ingest, store, and disseminate NWS multi-sensor precipitation estimates (MPE). As a pilot project of the Integrated Water Resources Science and Services (IWRSS) initiative, this testbed uses a Standard Query Language (SQL) server to maintain a full archive of current and historic MPE values within the WGRFC service area. These time series values are made available for public access as web services in the standard WaterML format. Having this volume of information maintained in a comprehensive database now allows the use of relational analysis capabilities within SQL to leverage these multi-sensor precipitation values and produce a valuable derivative product. The area of focus for this study is North Texas and will utilize values that originated from the West Gulf River Forecast Center (WGRFC); one of three River Forecast Centers currently represented in the holdings of this data system. Over the past two decades, NEXRAD radar has dramatically improved the ability to record rainfall. The resulting hourly MPE values, distributed over an approximate 4 km by 4 km grid, are considered by the NWS to be the "best estimate" of rainfall. The data server provides an accepted standard interface for internet access to the largest time-series dataset of NEXRAD based MPE values ever assembled. An automated script has been written to search and extract storms over the 18 year period of record from the contents of this massive historical precipitation database. Not only can it extract site-specific storms, but also duration-specific storms and

  1. Neuro-fuzzy computing for vibration-based damage localization and severity estimation in an experimental wind turbine blade with superimposed operational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Fueled by increasing demand for carbon neutral energy, erections of ever larger wind turbines (WTs), with WT blades (WTBs) with higher flexibilities and lower buckling capacities lead to increasing operation and maintenance costs. This can be counteracted with efficient structural health monitoring (SHM), which allows scheduling maintenance actions according to the structural state and preventing dramatic failures. The present study proposes a novel multi-step approach for vibration-based structural damage localization and severity estimation for application in operating WTs. First, partial autocorrelation coefficients (PACCs) are estimated from vibrational responses. Second, principal component analysis is applied to PACCs from the healthy structure in order to calculate scores. Then, the scores are ranked with respect to their ability to differentiate different damage scenarios. This ranking information is used for constructing hierarchical adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (HANFISs), where cross-validation is used to identify optimal numbers of hierarchy levels. Different HANFISs are created for the purposes of structural damage localization and severity estimation. For demonstrating the applicability of the approach, experimental data are superimposed with signals from numerical simulations to account for characteristics of operational noise. For the physical experiments, a small scale WTB is excited with a domestic fan and damage scenarios are introduced non-destructively by attaching small masses. Numerical simulations are also performed for a representative fully functional small WT operating in turbulent wind. The obtained results are promising for future applications of vibration-based SHM to facilitate improved safety and reliability of WTs at lower costs.

  2. Clinical microbiology in the intensive care unit: Strategic and operational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs. The application of the principles and the practice of Clinical Microbiology for ICU patients can significantly improve clinical outcome. The present article is aimed at summarising the strategic and operational characteristics of this unique field where medical microbiology attempts to venture into the domain of direct clinical care of critically ill patients. The close and strategic partnership between clinical microbiologists and intensive care specialists, which is essential for this model of patient care have been emphasized. The article includes discussions on a variety of common clinical-microbiological problems faced in the ICUs such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, blood stream infections, skin and soft tissue infection, UTI, infection control, besides antibiotic management.

  3. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves: review of methods with applications in diagnostic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowski, Nancy A.; Bullen, Jennifer A.

    2018-04-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is a tool used to describe the discrimination accuracy of a diagnostic test or prediction model. While sensitivity and specificity are the basic metrics of accuracy, they have many limitations when characterizing test accuracy, particularly when comparing the accuracies of competing tests. In this article we review the basic study design features of ROC studies, illustrate sample size calculations, present statistical methods for measuring and comparing accuracy, and highlight commonly used ROC software. We include descriptions of multi-reader ROC study design and analysis, address frequently seen problems of verification and location bias, discuss clustered data, and provide strategies for testing endpoints in ROC studies. The methods are illustrated with a study of transmission ultrasound for diagnosing breast lesions.

  4. Optimal algorithm for automatic detection of microaneurysms based on receiver operating characteristic curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Luo, Shuqian

    2010-11-01

    Microaneurysms (MAs) are the first manifestations of the diabetic retinopathy (DR) as well as an indicator for its progression. Their automatic detection plays a key role for both mass screening and monitoring and is therefore in the core of any system for computer-assisted diagnosis of DR. The algorithm basically comprises the following stages: candidate detection aiming at extracting the patterns possibly corresponding to MAs based on mathematical morphological black top hat, feature extraction to characterize these candidates, and classification based on support vector machine (SVM), to validate MAs. Feature vector and kernel function of SVM selection is very important to the algorithm. We use the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate the distinguishing performance of different feature vectors and different kernel functions of SVM. The ROC analysis indicates the quadratic polynomial SVM with a combination of features as the input shows the best discriminating performance.

  5. Operating characteristics of radiation-hardened silicon pixel detectors for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hyosung, Cho

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will have forward silicon pixel detectors as its innermost tracking device. The pixel devices will be exposed to the harsh radiation environment of the LHC. Prototype silicon pixel detectors have been designed to meet the specification of the CMS experiment. No guard ring is required on the n/sup +/ side, and guard rings on the p/sup +/ side are always kept active before and after type inversion. The whole n/sup +/ side is grounded and connected to readout chips, which greatly simplifies detector assembling and improves the stability of bump-bonded readout chips on the n/sup +/ side. Operating characteristics such as the leakage current, the full depletion voltage, and the potential distributions over guard rings were tested using standard techniques. The tests are discussed in this paper. (9 refs).

  6. Development of Estimating Equation of Machine Operational Skill by Utilizing Eye Movement Measurement and Analysis of Stress and Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For an establishment of a skill evaluation method for human support systems, development of an estimating equation of the machine operational skill is presented. Factors of the eye movement such as frequency, velocity, and moving distance of saccade were computed using the developed eye gaze measurement system, and the eye movement features were determined from these factors. The estimating equation was derived through an outlier test (to eliminate nonstandard data and a principal component analysis (to find dominant components. Using a cooperative carrying task (cc-task simulator, the eye movement and operational data of the machine operators were recorded, and effectiveness of the derived estimating equation was investigated. As a result, it was confirmed that the estimating equation was effective strongly against actual simple skill levels (r=0.56–0.84. In addition, effects of internal condition such as fatigue and stress on the estimating equation were analyzed. Using heart rate (HR and coefficient of variation of R-R interval (Cvrri. Correlation analysis between these biosignal indexes and the estimating equation of operational skill found that the equation reflected effects of stress and fatigue, although the equation could estimate the skill level adequately.

  7. Receiver Operator Characteristic Tools Graphic User Interface Extension for R Commander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Corneliu LEUCUŢA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC curve, is a graphical plot which presents the performance of a binary classifier when the discrimination cutoff is varied. The aim of this work was to create an extension for R Commander that offers a graphical user interface for Receiver Operator Characteristic tools provided by several existing command line accessible packages like pROC and ROCR. Material and Methods: The extension was built and tested with R version 3.2.0 and R Commander 2.1-7. Results: We built an extension called RcmdrPlugin.ROC that we uploaded on the CRAN servers. The extension adds a new menu called ROC, along with two submenus pROC and ROCR that broadly corresponds to commands available to access the functions of these packages. The pROC menu offers several commands: to plot a ROC curve for a dataset or for a logistic regression model, to compare paired and unpaired ROC curves, each providing the following tabs: General (to select the variables for the analysis, and options for switching cases with controls; Smoothing (allowing the user to select different types of smoothing – binominal, density, distributions like normal, lognormal, ...; AUC (to specify the partial area under the curve (AUC options, CI (to select the options of confidence intervals (CI – the level, computing method: DeLong, bootstrap, ...; Plot (for the plotting options. The ROCR dialogue window offers more options in choosing the performance measures for the plot. Conclusion: The RcmdrPlugin.ROC extension helps less advanced users of R accessing ROC tools in a friendly graphical user interface.

  8. Operational, professional, and business characteristics of radiology groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, J H; Bansal, S

    1992-05-01

    To learn the main operational, professional, and business characteristics of U.S. radiology group practices, researchers at the American College of Radiology surveyed these groups. Major findings included the following: Approximately 30% of groups provide only diagnostic radiologic services, a similar percentage provides only radiation therapy for oncologic patients, and the remainder provides both types of services. Forty-one percent of groups practice only in hospitals, 11% practice only in an office, and 48% practice in both settings. Diagnostic-only practices average 10,000-12,000 procedures per full-time equivalent radiologist per year. Groups typically require new members to be part of the group for almost 3 years before they become full partners. Formal call schedules are nearly universal among radiology groups. Groups are becoming increasingly involved with health maintenance organizations and other "alternative delivery systems," but fee-for-service remains by far the dominant source of groups' revenue. Most studied characteristics of groups are changing relatively slowly, and trends are generally toward increasing formalization of arrangements.

  9. Operational characteristics of hybrid-type SFCL with closed and open cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.S.; Lee, N.Y.; Choi, H.S.; Chung, D.C.; Lim, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the operational characteristics of the hybrid-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with the closed and the open cores, which induced the variation of the magnetic flux between the primary and the secondary windings. The experimental set-up of the hybrid-type SFCL with the closed and the open cores were prepared and the experimental analyses for the current limiting characteristics were performed. The peak value of the fault current in the hybrid-type SFCL with the open core was higher than that of the closed core at the first cycle after fault occurrence. However, in the case of the hybrid-type SFCL with the open core, the limiting current level after fault occurrence was decreased less than that of the hybrid-type SFCL with the closed core, because the magnetic leakage reluctance of the open core was higher than that of the closed core. The quench time (T q ) and the arrival time (T a ) for the peak voltage (V SC ) in the hybrid-type SFCL with the closed core were faster than that of the hybrid-type SFCL with the open core due to the increase of the mutual flux. We verified that the consumption power in the hybrid-type SFCL with the open core was larger owing to the increase of leakage flux by the reduction of mutual inductance between primary and secondary windings

  10. Influence of Characteristic-Soil-Property-Estimation Approach on the Response of Monopiles for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kim, Sun-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Different approaches to estimation of the characteristic undrained shear strength of soil are discussed, based on 12 cone penetration tests (CPTs) carried out within a soil volume representative of an offshore monopile foundation. The paper is focused on the statistical treatment of the data, and...

  11. Estimate of the largest Lyapunov characteristic exponent of a high dimensional atmospheric global circulation model: a sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrieri, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report the largest Lyapunov characteristic exponent of a high dimensional atmospheric global circulation model of intermediate complexity has been estimated numerically. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out by varying the equator-to-pole temperature difference, the space resolution and the value of some parameters employed by the model. Chaotic and non-chaotic regimes of circulation have been found. [it

  12. Using operational data to estimate the reliable yields of water-supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misstear, Bruce D. R.; Beeson, Sarah

    The reliable yield of a water-supply well depends on many different factors, including the properties of the well and the aquifer; the capacities of the pumps, raw-water mains, and treatment works; the interference effects from other wells; and the constraints imposed by ion licences, water quality, and environmental issues. A relatively simple methodology for estimating reliable yields has been developed that takes into account all of these factors. The methodology is based mainly on an analysis of water-level and source-output data, where such data are available. Good operational data are especially important when dealing with wells in shallow, unconfined, fissure-flow aquifers, where actual well performance may vary considerably from that predicted using a more analytical approach. Key issues in the yield-assessment process are the identification of a deepest advisable pumping water level, and the collection of the appropriate well, aquifer, and operational data. Although developed for water-supply operators in the United Kingdom, this approach to estimating the reliable yields of water-supply wells using operational data should be applicable to a wide range of hydrogeological conditions elsewhere. Résumé La productivité d'un puits capté pour l'adduction d'eau potable dépend de différents facteurs, parmi lesquels les propriétés du puits et de l'aquifère, la puissance des pompes, le traitement des eaux brutes, les effets d'interférences avec d'autres puits et les contraintes imposées par les autorisations d'exploitation, par la qualité des eaux et par les conditions environnementales. Une méthodologie relativement simple d'estimation de la productivité qui prenne en compte tous ces facteurs a été mise au point. Cette méthodologie est basée surtout sur une analyse des données concernant le niveau piézométrique et le débit de prélèvement, quand ces données sont disponibles. De bonnes données opérationnelles sont particuli

  13. Perspectives on greenhouse gas emission estimates based on Australian wastewater treatment plant operating data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, D W; Pepperell, C; Foley, J

    2014-01-01

    Primary operating data were collected from forty-six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located across three states within Australia. The size range of plants was indicatively from 500 to 900,000 person equivalents. Direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions were calculated using a mass balance approach and default emission factors, based on Australia's National Greenhouse Energy Reporting (NGER) scheme and IPCC guidelines. A Monte Carlo-type combined uncertainty analysis was applied to the some of the key emission factors in order to study sensitivity. The results suggest that Scope 2 (indirect emissions due to electrical power purchased from the grid) dominate the emissions profile for most of the plants (indicatively half to three quarters of the average estimated total emissions). This is only offset for the relatively small number of plants (in this study) that have significant on-site power generation from biogas, or where the water utility purchases grid electricity generated from renewable sources. For plants with anaerobic digestion, inventory data issues around theoretical biogas generation, capture and measurement were sometimes encountered that can skew reportable emissions using the NGER methodology. Typically, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions dominated the Scope 1 (direct) emissions. However, N(2)O still only accounted for approximately 10 to 37% of total emissions. This conservative estimate is based on the 'default' NGER steady-state emission factor, which amounts to 1% of nitrogen removed through biological nitrification-denitrification processing in the plant (or indicatively 0.7 to 0.8% of plant influent total nitrogen). Current research suggests that true N(2)O emissions may be much lower and certainly not steady-state. The results of this study help to place in context research work that is focused on direct emissions from WWTPs (including N(2)O, methane and carbon dioxide of non-biogenic origin). For example, whereas non-biogenic CO(2

  14. Impact of signal scattering and parametric uncertainties on receiver operating characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. Keith; Breton, Daniel J.; Hart, Carl R.; Pettit, Chris L.

    2017-05-01

    The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve), which is a plot of the probability of detection as a function of the probability of false alarm, plays a key role in the classical analysis of detector performance. However, meaningful characterization of the ROC curve is challenging when practically important complications such as variations in source emissions, environmental impacts on the signal propagation, uncertainties in the sensor response, and multiple sources of interference are considered. In this paper, a relatively simple but realistic model for scattered signals is employed to explore how parametric uncertainties impact the ROC curve. In particular, we show that parametric uncertainties in the mean signal and noise power substantially raise the tails of the distributions; since receiver operation with a very low probability of false alarm and a high probability of detection is normally desired, these tails lead to severely degraded performance. Because full a priori knowledge of such parametric uncertainties is rarely available in practice, analyses must typically be based on a finite sample of environmental states, which only partially characterize the range of parameter variations. We show how this effect can lead to misleading assessments of system performance. For the cases considered, approximately 64 or more statistically independent samples of the uncertain parameters are needed to accurately predict the probabilities of detection and false alarm. A connection is also described between selection of suitable distributions for the uncertain parameters, and Bayesian adaptive methods for inferring the parameters.

  15. Characteristics of magnetically insulated diode in a multi-shot operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chishiro, E; Masugata, K; Yatsui, K [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan). Laboratory of Beam Technology

    1997-12-31

    The beam characteristics in a multi-shot operation were evaluated. The MID utilized in the experiment is a racetrack type diode, where flat anode and cathode electrodes are utilized. On the anode, a polyethylene sheet of 1 mm thickness is attached as an ion source. The MID is successively operated without breaking the vacuum. An ion current density (J{sub i}) of 350 A/cm{sup 2} is observed at the first shot when the diode gap is 5 mm. The value decreases with increasing number of shots and at the 7th shot, J{sub i} is less than 150 A/cm{sup 2}. After 7 shots, the anode surface is inspected and found to be covered with stuck matter of metallic materials such as Zn, Al, Fe, Cu. These materials seem to be produced by the ablation of the MID electrode. By eliminating the stuck matter from the surface, J{sub i} is recovered to the initial value. The decrease in J{sub i} is due to the fact that the anode is covered with the stuck matter, which prevents the growth of anode plasma. (author). 6 figs., 8 refs.

  16. Condenser design optimization and operation characteristics of a novel miniature loop heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhenping; Wang Xiaowu; Tang Yong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel miniature LHP (mLHP) system was presented. ► Optimal design of condenser was considered. ► The heat transfer performance was investigated experimentally. - Abstract: Loop heat pipe (LHP) is a promising means for electronics cooling since LHP is a exceptionally efficient heat transfer device. In this paper, a novel miniature LHP (mLHP) system is presented and optimal design of condenser is considered seeing that evaporators have been able to handle very high-heat fluxes with low-heat transfer resistances since most of the previous researchers focused on the evaporator of mLHP. The arrayed pins were designed and machined out on the bottom of condenser to enhance condensation heat transfer. The parameters of the arrayed pins, including layout, cross-section shape and area, were optimized by finite element analysis. Tests were carried out on the mLHP with a CPU thermal simulator using forced air convection condenser cooling to validate the optimization. The operation characteristics of the mLHP with optimal design parameters of condenser were investigated experimentally. The experimental results show that the mLHP can reject head load 200 W while maintaining the cooled object temperatures below 100 °C, and for a variable power applied to the evaporator, the system presents reliable startups and continuous operation.

  17. Analysis of the operational performance and efficiency characteristic for photovoltaic system in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, Gary H.W.; Lam, Joseph C.

    2005-01-01

    The applications of photovoltaic (PV) systems have become more widespread in both developed and developing countries. The most critical exercise in designing a PV system is the determination of the optimum size of the solar panel and the battery capacity to meet the load demand with acceptable reliability. The amount of power generated by a PV system strongly depends on the availability of solar insolation at the required location. Also, the efficiency of a PV system is influenced considerably by a number of climatic variables, such as solar irradiance availability and ambient temperature. The technical information is provided for standard test conditions that may never occur in practice. Reliable knowledge of the performance of PV systems under actual operating conditions is essential for correct product selection and accurate performance prediction. This paper investigates the operational performance and efficiency characteristic of a small PV system installed at the City University of Hong Kong. The solar data and the power generated by the PV system are systematically recorded and analysed. The findings provide technical data in different months for designers and engineers to assess and size PV systems

  18. Estimation of left ventricular operating stiffness from Doppler early filling deceleration time in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M J; Firstenberg, M S; Greenberg, N L; Smedira, N; Rodriguez, L; Prior, D; Thomas, J D

    2001-02-01

    Shortened early transmitral deceleration times (E(DT)) have been qualitatively associated with increased filling pressure and reduced survival in patients with cardiac disease and increased left ventricular operating stiffness (K(LV)). An equation relating K(LV) quantitatively to E(DT) has previously been described in a canine model but not in humans. During several varying hemodynamic conditions, we studied 18 patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Transesophageal echocardiographic two-dimensional volumes and Doppler flows were combined with high-fidelity left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) pressures to determine K(LV). From digitized Doppler recordings, E(DT) was measured and compared against changes in LV and LA diastolic volumes and pressures. E(DT) (180 +/- 39 ms) was inversely associated with LV end-diastolic pressures (r = -0.56, P = 0.004) and net atrioventricular stiffness (r = -0.55, P = 0.006) but had its strongest association with K(LV) (r = -0.81, P < 0.001). K(LV) was predicted assuming a nonrestrictive orifice (K(nonrest)) from E(DT) as K(nonrest) = (0.07/E(DT))(2) with K(LV) = 1.01 K(nonrest) - 0.02; r = 0.86, P < 0.001, DeltaK (K(nonrest) - K(LV)) = 0.02 +/- 0.06 mm Hg/ml. In adults with cardiac disease, E(DT) provides an accurate estimate of LV operating stiffness and supports its application as a practical noninvasive index in the evaluation of diastolic function.

  19. Development of Unavailability Estimation Method Considering Various Operating States of Dynamic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Ki; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic system can be defined as a system which has a state at any given time which can be represented by a point in an appropriate state space. In order to analyze the dynamic systems, various failure mechanisms with time requirements such as the failure orders of sub-components and the changes of system states with time need to be modeled and quantitatively estimated. Since the conventional static fault tree analysis has imitations when applied to the dynamic systems, two types of dynamic fault tree methods have been developed. Dugan et al. proposed four dynamic gates to handle failure mechanisms composed of sequence-dependent events and Cepin and Mavko proposed the use of house events to handle failure mechanisms of dynamic systems which have various operating states with time. However, modeling a fault tree from a complex system is a cumbersome task even for the experts who is familiar to it, and demands a great amount of attention and caution to avoid errors. In order to model complex systems more conveniently from system block diagrams compared to the fault tree, a reliability graph with general gates (RGGG) was developed by introduction of general gates to a conventional reliability graph. The RGGG is an easy-to-modeling method as powerful as fault tree. It was also improved to analyze the dynamic failure mechanisms composed of sequence-dependent events with the addition of dynamic nodes. In this paper, unavailability assessment method for dynamic systems which have various operating states is proposed using the RGGG method. To achieve this, a novel concept of reliability matrix for the RGGG is introduced and Bayesian Networks are used for the quantification

  20. Crustal growth of the Izu-Ogasawara arc estimated from structural characteristics of Oligocene arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; No, T.; Tatsumi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out seismic surveys using a multichannel reflection system and ocean bottom seismographs, and we have clarified crustal structures of whole Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Marina (IBM) arc since 2002. These refection images and velocity structures suggest that the crustal evolution in the intra-oceanic island arc accompanies with much interaction of materials between crust and mantle. Slow mantle velocity identified beneath the thick arc crusts suggests that dense crustal materials transformed into the mantle. On the other hand, high velocity lower crust can be seen around the bottom of the crust beneath the rifted region, and it suggests that underplating of mafic materials occurs there. Average crustal production rate of the entire arc is larger than expected one and approximately 200 km3/km/Ma. The production rate of basaltic magmas corresponds to that of oceanic ridge. Repeated crustal differentiation is indispensable to produce much light materials like continental materials, however, the real process cannot still be resolved yet. We, therefore, submitted drilling proposals to obtain in-situ middle crust with P-wave velocity of 6 km/s. In the growth history of the IBM arc, it is known by many papers that boninitic volcanisms preceded current bimodal volcanisms based on basaltic magmas. The current volcanisms accompanied with basaltic magmas have been occurred since Oligocene age, however, the tectonic differences to develop crustal architecture between Oligocene and present are not understood yet. We obtained new refraction/reflection data along an arc strike of N-S in fore-arc region. Then, we estimate crustal structure with severe change of the crustal thickness from refraction data, which are similar to that along the volcanic front. Interval for location of the thick arc crust along N-S is very similar to that along the volcanic front. The refection image indicates that the basement of the fore

  1. Operator Splitting Methods for Degenerate Convection-Diffusion Equations I: Convergence and Entropy Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Helge; Karlsen, Kenneth H.; Lie, Knut-Andreas

    1999-10-01

    We present and analyze a numerical method for the solution of a class of scalar, multi-dimensional, nonlinear degenerate convection-diffusion equations. The method is based on operator splitting to separate the convective and the diffusive terms in the governing equation. The nonlinear, convective part is solved using front tracking and dimensional splitting, while the nonlinear diffusion equation is solved by a suitable difference scheme. We verify L{sup 1} compactness of the corresponding set of approximate solutions and derive precise entropy estimates. In particular, these results allow us to pass to the limit in our approximations and recover an entropy solution of the problem in question. The theory presented covers a large class of equations. Important subclasses are hyperbolic conservation laws, porous medium type equations, two-phase reservoir flow equations, and strongly degenerate equations coming from the recent theory of sedimentation-consolidation processes. A thorough numerical investigation of the method analyzed in this paper (and similar methods) is presented in a companion paper. (author)

  2. Psychological scaling of expert estimates of human error probabilities: application to nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, K.; Gaddy, C.D.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a project to evaluate psychological scaling techniques for use in generating estimates of human error probabilities. The project evaluated two techniques: direct numerical estimation and paired comparisons. Expert estimates were found to be consistent across and within judges. Convergent validity was good, in comparison to estimates in a handbook of human reliability. Predictive validity could not be established because of the lack of actual relative frequencies of error (which will be a difficulty inherent in validation of any procedure used to estimate HEPs). Application of expert estimates in probabilistic risk assessment and in human factors is discussed

  3. Operational characteristics of nuclear power plants - modelling of operational safety; Pogonske karakteristike nuklearnih elektrana - modelsko izucavanje pogonske sigurnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studovic, M [Masinski fakultet, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    By operational experience of nuclear power plants and realize dlevel of availability of plant, systems and componenst reliabiliuty, operational safety and public protection, as a source on nature of distrurbances in power plant systems and lessons drawn by the TMI-2, in th epaper are discussed: examination of design safety for ultimate ensuring of safe operational conditions of the nuclear power plant; significance of the adequate action for keeping proess parameters in prescribed limits and reactor cooling rquirements; developed systems for measurements detection and monitoring all critical parameters in the nuclear steam supply system; contents of theoretical investigation and mathematical modeling of the physical phenomena and process in nuclear power plant system and components as software, supporting for ensuring of operational safety and new access in staff education process; program and progress of the investigation of some physical phenomena and mathematical modeling of nuclear plant transients, prepared at faculty of mechanical Engineering in Belgrade. (author)

  4. Analyses of computer programs for the probabilistic estimation of design earthquake and seismological characteristics of the Korean Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gi Hwa

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of the present study is to develop predictive equations from simulated motions which are adequate for the Korean Peninsula and analyze and utilize the computer programs for the probabilistic estimation of design earthquakes. In part I of the report, computer programs for the probabilistic estimation of design earthquake are analyzed and applied to the seismic hazard characterizations in the Korean Peninsula. In part II of the report, available instrumental earthquake records are analyzed to estimate earthquake source characteristics and medium properties, which are incorporated into simulation process. And earthquake records are simulated by using the estimated parameters. Finally, predictive equations constructed from the simulation are given in terms of magnitude and hypocentral distances

  5. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for somatic cell scores and California mastitis test in Valle del Belice dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Valentina; Pesce, Lorenzo L; Morreale, Salvatore; Portolano, Baldassare

    2013-06-01

    Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology this study was designed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of somatic cell count (SCC) and the California mastitis test (CMT) in Valle del Belice sheep, and to propose and evaluate threshold values for those tests that would optimally discriminate between healthy and infected udders. Milk samples (n=1357) were collected from 684 sheep in four flocks. The prevalence of infection, as determined by positive bacterial culture was 0.36, 87.7% of which were minor and 12.3% major pathogens. Of the culture negative samples, 83.7% had an SCCculture negative vs. infected), minor pathogen status (culture negative vs. infected with minor pathogens), major pathogen status (culture negative vs. infected with major pathogens), and CMT results were evaluated, the estimated area under the ROC curve was greater for glands infected with major compared to minor pathogens (0.88 vs. 0.73), whereas the area under the curve considering all pathogens was similar to the one for minor pathogens (0.75). The estimated optimal thresholds were 3.00 (CMT), 2.81 (SCS for the whole sample), 2.81 (SCS for minor pathogens), and 3.33 (SCS for major pathogens). These correctly classified, respectively, 69.0%, 73.5%, 72.6% and 91.0% of infected udders in the samples. The CMT appeared only to discriminate udders infected with major pathogens. In this population, SCS appeared to be the best indirect test of the bacteriological status of the udder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve-Based Prediction Model for Periodontal Disease Updated With the Calibrated Community Periodontal Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chiu-Wen; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Lai, Hongmin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    The accuracy of a prediction model for periodontal disease using the community periodontal index (CPI) has been undertaken by using an area under a receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve. How the uncalibrated CPI, as measured by general dentists trained by periodontists in a large epidemiologic study, and affects the performance in a prediction model, has not been researched yet. A two-stage design was conducted by first proposing a validation study to calibrate CPI between a senior periodontal specialist and trained general dentists who measured CPIs in the main study of a nationwide survey. A Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression model was applied to estimate the non-updated and updated clinical weights used for building up risk scores. How the calibrated CPI affected performance of the updated prediction model was quantified by comparing AUROC curves between the original and updated models. Estimates regarding calibration of CPI obtained from the validation study were 66% and 85% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively. After updating, clinical weights of each predictor were inflated, and the risk score for the highest risk category was elevated from 434 to 630. Such an update improved the AUROC performance of the two corresponding prediction models from 62.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.7% to 63.6%) for the non-updated model to 68.9% (95% CI: 68.0% to 69.6%) for the updated one, reaching a statistically significant difference (P prediction model was demonstrated for periodontal disease as measured by the calibrated CPI derived from a large epidemiologic survey.

  7. TOPEX: An expert system for estimating and analyzing the operating costs of oil and gas production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greffioz, J.; Olver, A.J.; Schirmer, P.

    1993-01-01

    TOPEX is a new approach to operating costs estimation of oil and gas installations. It does not rely on knowledge of the capital cost of the installation and uses a computerized expert system (or knowledge base). Estimates are generated from specific details of the equipment and systems and general databases of prices and man hours. A novel methodology has been developed for quantifying the operational complexity of an installation which is then correlated with operations manpower. The use of a computerized application allows rapid calculation of estimates so that what-if and sensitivity studies can be readily done. The knowledge base provides a powerful tool to handle the large amounts of data involved and acts as a repository for the expertise used in its development

  8. Dynamic estimator for determining operating conditions in an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, Erik; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Jiang, Li; Larimore, Jacob

    2016-01-05

    Methods and systems are provided for estimating engine performance information for a combustion cycle of an internal combustion engine. Estimated performance information for a previous combustion cycle is retrieved from memory. The estimated performance information includes an estimated value of at least one engine performance variable. Actuator settings applied to engine actuators are also received. The performance information for the current combustion cycle is then estimated based, at least in part, on the estimated performance information for the previous combustion cycle and the actuator settings applied during the previous combustion cycle. The estimated performance information for the current combustion cycle is then stored to the memory to be used in estimating performance information for a subsequent combustion cycle.

  9. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON JATROPHA OIL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddayaraganalu Amasegoda Dhananjaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as jatropha oil, linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, karanji oil, etc., are potentially effective diesel substitute. Vegetable oils have reasonable energy content. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in diesel engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has combustion characteristics similar to petroleum diesel. The current paper reports a study carried out to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of jatropha oil methyl ester and its blend B20 (80% petroleum diesel and 20% jatropha oil methyl ester and diesel fuel on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injections, water cooled diesel engine. This study gives the comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, smoke opacity, HC, NOx, ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, and peak heat release rates. The engine performance in terms of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of blend B20 fuel operation was observed and compared with jatropha oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel fuel for injection timing of 20° bTDC, 23° bTDC and 26° bTDC at injection opening pressure of 220 bar.

  10. Operating Characteristics of a Continuous Two-Stage Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Pil-Sang; Choi, Jeong-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    Flow characteristics and the operating range of gas velocity was investigated for a two-stage bubbling fluidized-bed (0.1 m-i.d., 1.2 m-high) that had continuous solids feed and discharge. Solids were fed in to the upper fluidized-bed and overflowed into the bed section of the lower fluidized-bed through a standpipe (0.025 m-i.d.). The standpipe was simply a dense solids bed with no mechanical or non-mechanical valves. The solids overflowed the lower bed for discharge. The fluidizing gas was fed to the lower fluidized-bed and the exit gas was also used to fluidize the upper bed. Air was used as fluidizing gas and mixture of coarse (<1000 μm in diameter and 3090 kg/m 3 in apparent density) and fine (<100 μm in diameter and 4400 kg/m 3 in apparent density) particles were used as bed materials. The proportion of fine particles was employed as the experimental variable. The gas velocity of the lower fluidized-bed was defined as collapse velocity in the condition that the standpipe was emptied by upflow gas bypassing from the lower fluidized-bed. It could be used as the maximum operating velocity of the present process. The collapse velocity decreased after an initial increase as the proportion of fine particles increased. The maximum took place at the proportion of fine particles 30%. The trend of the collapse velocity was similar with that of standpipe pressure drop. The collapse velocity was expressed as a function of bulk density of particles and voidage of static bed. It increased with an increase of bulk density, however, decreased with an increase of voidage of static bed

  11. IMPROVEMENT OF BUS OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS WHILE USING INTEGRATED CONTROL OF SUSPENSION AND TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mikhailau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-natural tests for active pneumatic suspension of a 18-tonne tourist bus with the system of automatic body stabilization of the mobile machine and feed-back coupling according to kinematics parameter. The test have been executed in the cases when the bus is stocked with an automatic hydro-mechanical transmission in the process of speed picking up, gear-changing or road braking which is assigned by accidental road humps. A computer simulation of dynamic structures in combination with virtual devices and real objects (HIL – Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation has been carried in the paper. Personal computers, software, programmed logic controller, frequency generator, solenoid-operated valve have been used for the investigation process. The paper proposes an unconventional method for improvement operational characteristics which is based on integrated control of a suspension and automatic hydro-mechanical transmission. A mathematical model includes systems of automatic transmission, suspension and module for generation of accidental road humps. The model has been considered as a basis for semi-natural laboratory bench with industrially-manufactured controller, other components of automatic systems and standard control organs. The most efficient method for body stabilization is control of the suspension according to the parameter of angular rate during vertical turn of an automobile’s center line with a turning point in the center of mass. The developed algorithm and stabilization system according to angular rate of body’s center line turning have made it possible to improve dynamics of the bus while making gear-changing and to reduce fuel consumption during starting-up and speed picking-up processes. During the braking process such system simultaneously decreases oscillation amplitude of some parameters more than two-fold.

  12. Hydroclimatic Characteristics of the 2012–2015 California Drought from an Operational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxue He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available California experienced an extraordinary drought from 2012–2015 (which continues into 2016. This study, from an operational perspective, reviewed the development of this drought in a hydroclimatic framework and examined its characteristics at different temporal and spatial scales. Observed and reconstructed operational hydrologic indices and variables widely used in water resources planning and management at statewide and (hydrologic regional scales were employed for this purpose. Parsimonious metrics typically applied in drought assessment and management practices including the drought monitor category, percent of average, and rank were utilized to facilitate the analysis. The results indicated that the drought was characterized by record low snowpack (statewide four-year accumulated deficit: 280%-of-average, exceptionally low April-July runoff (220%-of-average deficit, and significantly below average reservoir storage (93%-of-average deficit. During the period from 2012–2015, in general, water year 2015 stood out as the driest single year; 2014–2015 was the driest two-year period; and 2013–2015 tended to be the driest three-year period. Contrary to prior studies stating that the 2012–2015 drought was unprecedented, this study illustrated that based on eight out of 28 variables, the 2012–2015 drought was not without precedent in the record period. Spatially, on average, the South Coast Region, the Central Coast Region, the Tulare Region, and the San Joaquin Region generally had the most severe drought conditions. Overall, these findings are highly meaningful for water managers in terms of making better informed adaptive management plans.

  13. Incidence, characteristics and management of pain in one operational area of medical emergency teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiński, Sylweriusz; Bryja, Magdalena; Wojtaszowicz, Rafał; Górka, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Experience of pain associated with both chronic as well as acute medical conditions is a main cause for call for ambulance. The aim of this study was to establish both frequency and characteristics of pain reported by patients treated in pre-hospital environment in a single operational area. The supplementary goal was an analysis of methods of pain alleviation applied by medical personnel in the above described scenario. The written documentation of 6 months of year 2009 provided by doctor-manned as well as paramedic-only ambulances operating in Tatra county, Małopolska, Poland was analyzed. Medical personnel inquired about pain experienced in 57.4% of cases, 10-point numerical rating scale was used in 22.3% of patients. Pain was reported by 43.8% of patients, the most frequent reasons of experienced pain were trauma and cardiovascular diseases. In almost half of the cases pain was referred to the areas of chest and abdomen. Non-traumatic pain was reported by 47.7% of patients, post-traumatic in 41.3% of cases, 11% of subjects reported ischemic chest pain. 42.3% of pain-reporting patients received some form of analgesia, yet only 3% of subjects in this group received opiates. Personnel of paramedic-only ambulances tended to use pain intensity scale more often (P < 0.01), yet administered pain alleviating drugs noticeably less often than the doctor-manned teams (P < 0.01). The use of pain alleviating drugs, opiates especially, was inadequate in proportion to frequency and intensity of pain reported by patients. General, nation-wide standards of pain measurement and treatment in pre-hospital rescue are suggested as a means to improve the efficacy of pain reduction treatment.

  14. Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. Of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Oxy-fuel combustion has been used previously in a wide range of industrial applications. Oxy- combustion is carried out by burning a hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen instead of air. Flames burning in this configuration achieve higher flame temperatures which present opportunities for significant efficiency improvements and direct capture of CO2 from the exhaust stream. In an effort to better understand and characterize the fundamental flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion this research presents the experimental measurements of flame stability of various oxyfuel flames. Effects of H2 concentration, fuel composition, exhaust gas recirculation ratio, firing inputs, and burner diameters on the flame stability of these fuels are discussed. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation i.e. CO2 and H2O (steam) acting as diluents on burner operability are also presented. The roles of firing input on flame stability are then analyzed. For this study it was observed that many oxy-flames did not stabilize without exhaust gas recirculation due to their higher burning velocities. In addition, the stability regime of all compositions was observed to decrease as the burner diameter increased. A flashback model is also presented, using the critical velocity gradient gF) values for CH4-O2-CO2 flames. The second part of the study focuses on the experimental measurements of the flow field characteristics of premixed CH4/21%O2/79%N2 and CH4/38%O2/72%CO2 mixtures at constant firing input of 7.5 kW, constant, equivalence ratio of 0.8, constant swirl number of 0.92 and constant Reynolds Numbers. These measurements were taken in a swirl stabilized combustor at atmospheric pressure. The flow field visualization using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) technique is implemented to make a better understanding of the turbulence characteristics of

  15. An assessment of ozone levels, UV radiation and their occupational health hazard estimation during photocopying operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupendra Pratap, E-mail: bpsingh0783@gmail.com; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Deepak; Punia, Monika; Kumar, Krishan; Jain, Vinod Kumar

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • First quantitative report of ozone level and UV radiation emission from photocopier. • Ozone production is directly proportional with intensity of photocopy operation. • Ozone level from ground floor is significantly higher than basement photocopier. • Ozone production and UV radiation studied has less correlation during photocopy. • Health hazard issue has been evaluated for effect of UV radiation in terms of SED. - Abstract: This study investigates the levels of ozone concentration along with an ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectral radiation at eight photocopy centers in an academic institute, Delhi. Sampling was done in two types of locations, i.e., basement photocopy centers (BPC) and ground floor photocopy centers (GPC) for 8 h. Measurements of levels of ozone, UV and visible radiation were done by ozone analyzer, UV radiometer and Field spectra instrument, respectively. Results show that the hourly mean concentration of ozone was observed to be in the range of 1.8–10.0 ppb and 5.3–45.8 ppb for BPC and GPC, respectively. In terms UV radiations, energy lies between 5.0 × 10{sup −3} and 7.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet A (UVA), 1.0 × 10{sup −3} and 2.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet B (UVB) and 6.0 × 10{sup −3} and 8.0 × 10{sup −3} mW/cm{sup 2} for ultraviolet C (UVC). Correlation between the UV radiations and ozone production observed was statistically insignificant. To know the health hazard occurred to the workers, the standard erythema dose (SED) value was calculated for emitting UV radiation. The SED was estimated to be in the range of 0.02–0.04 and 0.02–0.32 for direct and indirect methods which is less than the guideline prescribed by Commission Internationale del’ Eclairage (CIE). In nutshell, person involved in photocopy operation for their livelihood must be trained and should have knowledge for the long term gradual build up health problems due to ozone and UV production from

  16. The paradox of characteristics of silicon detectors operated at temperature close to liquid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, V.; Shepelev, A.; Verbitskaya, E.; Zamantzas, C.; Galkin, A.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to give characterization of silicon p+/n/n+ detectors for the monitoring systems of the Large Hadron Collider machine at CERN with the focus on justifying the choice of silicon resistivity for the detector operation at the temperature of 1.9-10 K. The detectors from n-type silicon with the resistivity of 10, 4.5, and 0.5 kΩ cm were investigated at the temperature from 293 up to 7 K by the Transient Current Technique with a 660 nm pulse laser and alpha-particles. The shapes of the detector current pulse response allowed revealing a paradox in the properties of shallow donors of phosphorus, i.e., native dopants in the n-type Si. There was no carrier freeze-out on the phosphorus energy levels in the space charge region (SCR), and they remained positively charged irrespective of temperature, thus limiting the depleted region depth. As for the base region of a partially depleted detector, the levels became neutral at T < 28 K, which transformed silicon to an insulator. The reduction of the activation energy for carrier emission in the detector SCR estimated in the scope of the Poole-Frenkel effect failed to account for the impact of the electric field on the properties of phosphorus levels. The absence of carrier freeze-out in the SCR justifies the choice of high resistivity silicon as the only proper material for detector operation in a fully depleted mode at extremely low temperature.

  17. Influence of reported study design characteristics on intervention effect estimates from randomised controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savović, J; Jones, He; Altman, Dg

    2012-01-01

    The design of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) should incorporate characteristics (such as concealment of randomised allocation and blinding of participants and personnel) that avoid biases resulting from lack of comparability of the intervention and control groups. Empirical evidence suggests...

  18. Differences in characteristics of raters who use the visual estimation method in hospitals based on their training experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yui; Tamaura, Yuki; Akamatsu, Rie; Sakai, Masashi; Fujiwara, Keiko

    2018-02-07

    Despite a clinical need, only a few studies have provided information concerning visual estimation training for raters to improve the validity of their evaluations. This study aims to describe the differences in the characteristics of raters who evaluated patients' dietary intake in hospitals using the visual estimation method based on their training experiences. We collected data from three hospitals in Tokyo from August to September 2016. The participants were 199 nursing staff members, and they completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic data; working career; training in the visual estimation method; knowledge, attitude, and practice associated with nutritional care; and self-evaluation of method validity of and skills of visual estimation. We classified participants into two groups, experienced and inexperienced, based on whether they had received training. Square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to describe the differences between these two groups in terms of their characteristics; knowledge, attitude, and practice associated with nutritional care; and self-evaluation of method validity and tips used in the visual estimation method. Of the 158 staff members (79.4%) (118 nurses and 40 nursing assistants) who agreed to participate in the analysis, thirty-three participants (20.9%) were trained in the visual estimation method. Participants who had received training had better knowledge (2.70 ± 0.81, score range was 1-5) than those who had not received any training (2.34 ± 0.74, p = 0.03). Score of self-evaluation of method validity of the visual estimation method was higher in the experienced group (3.78 ± 0.61, score range was 1-5) than the inexperienced group (3.40 ± 0.66, p trained had adequate knowledge (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.05-7.35) and frequently used tips in visual estimation (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.26-2.73). Trained participants had more required knowledge and

  19. Characteristics associated with organizational independence in consumer-operated service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2011-01-01

    This research compares two types of consumer organizations in one state in order to explore the significance of organizational independence for internal structure/operations and external relationships. The first type, consumeroperated service organizations (COSOs), are independent and fully self-governing; the second are peer-support service organizations (PSSOs), which are part of larger non-consumer entities. Mail surveys were completed by COSO and PSSO directors of a geographically representative sample of organizations; telephone interviews were conducted with a sub-sample. Owing to small sample size, matched COSO-PSSO pairs were analyzed using non-parametric statistics. COSOs and PSSOs are similar in some ways, e.g., types of services provided, but significantly different on internal variables, such as budget size, and external variables, such as number of relationships with community groups. Organizational independence appears to be a significant characteristic for consumer service organizations and should be encouraged by funders and among participants. Funders might establish administrative and/or programmatic measures to support consumer organizations that are independent or moving toward independence; their participants would also benefit from the provision, by authorities or advocates, of materials to guide organizations toward, for example, 501(c)3 status.

  20. Receiver operating characteristic curve evaluation on computed radiography: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zixi; Wang Changyuan; Xu Yue; Xie Jindong; Zhang Menglong; Wang Jian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To get the maximum information from computed radiography (CR) output images by changing post-processing parameters. Methods: Six experimental photos of polypropylene balls of 2.0 mm in diameter were taken by means of one time X-ray exposing on an imaging plate (IP) with different post-processing parameters including rotation amount (GA), gray gradation type (GT), rotation center (GC), shifting amount (GS), frequency rank (RN), frequency type (RT), and degree of enhancement (RE). 6 photos were viewed by three students and one radiologist on a 6000 lx illuminance viewbox. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were made by means of 5-value-differentiation method. Results: The largest mean area value (Az) below ROC curves of a low contrast experimental photo with post-processing parameters GA=1.0, GT=A, GC=1.6, GS=0.3, RN=4.0, RT=R and RE=3.0 was 0.96, and the maximum information was obtained. The smallest mean area value (Az) was 0.78 with changed post-processing parameters GA=0.8, GS=-0.2 and RE=0.5 while other parameters were not changed. The minimum information was obtained from this photo. Conclusion: In order to get the maximum information from a CR output image, the post-processing parameters should be suitably selected

  1. Theoretical research for natural circulation operational characteristic of ship nuclear machinery under ocean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Binghuo [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)], E-mail: yanbh1986@163.com; Yu Lei [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)], E-mail: yulei301@163.com

    2009-06-15

    Based on the two-phase drift flux model and the multi-pressure nodes matrix solving method, natural circulation thermal hydraulic analysis models for the Nuclear Machinery (NM) under ocean conditions are developed. The neutron physical activities and the responses of the reactivity control systems are described by the two-group, 3-dimensional space and time dependent neutron kinetics model. Reactivity feedback is calculated by coupling the neutron physics and thermal hydraulic codes, and is tested by comparison with experiments. Using the models developed, the natural circulation operating characteristics of NM in rolling and pitching motions and the transitions between forced circulation (FC) to natural circulation (NC) are analyzed. The results show that the influence of the rolling motion increases as the rolling amplitude is increased, and as the rolling period becomes shorter. The results also show that for this NM, with the same rolling period and rolling angle, the influence of pitching motion on natural circulation is greater than that of rolling motion. Furthermore, the oscillation period for pitching motion is the same as the pitching period, while the oscillation period for rolling is one half of the rolling period. In the ocean environment, excessive flow oscillation of the natural circulation may cause the control rods to respond so frequently that the NM would not be able to realize the transition from the FC to NC steadily. However, the influence of ocean environment on the transition from NC to FC is limited.

  2. Cognitive Dysfunction after On-Pump Operations: Neuropsychological Characteristics and Optimal Core Battery of Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. Polunina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD is a mild form of perioperative ischemic brain injury, which emerges as memory decline, decreased attention, and decreased concentration during several months, or even years, after surgery. Here we present results of our three neuropsychological studies, which overall included 145 patients after on-pump operations. We found that the auditory memory span test (digit span was more effective as a tool for registration of POCD, in comparison with the word-list learning and story-learning tests. Nonverbal memory or visuoconstruction tests were sensitive to POCD in patients after intraoperative opening of cardiac chambers with increased cerebral air embolism. Psychomotor speed tests (digit symbol, or TMT A registered POCD, which was characteristic for elderly atherosclerotic patients. Finally, we observed that there were significant effects of the order of position of a test on the performance on this test. For example, the postoperative performance on the core tests (digit span and digit symbol showed minimal impairment when either of these tests was administered at the beginning of testing. Overall, our data shows that the selection of tests, and the order of which these tests are administered, may considerably influence the results of studies of POCD.

  3. Operating characteristics of a qualitative troponin assay for the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Davood; Pishbin, Elham; Abbasi, Saeed; Hafezimoghadam, Peyman; Fathi, Marzieh; Zare, Mohammad Amin

    2013-04-01

    The troponin I serum level is widely used in acute coronary syndrome patients for their classification. The qualitative assay is faster and more available than the quantitative assay. The objective was to determine the operating characteristics of a qualitative troponin I assay compared with a quantitative method. This is a prospective observational study and patients suspected to have acute coronary syndrome were enrolled. A rapid troponin I test and a quantitative assay were carried out for each patient on arrival and 6 h after admission. A total of 262 patients were enrolled. The degree of agreement between the second rapid qualitative and quantitative troponin I was excellent (κ=0.946; 95% confidence interval, 0.903-0.989). The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of the rapid qualitative troponin I test were 92.6, 100, 96.8, and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, this study reveals an excellent agreement between quantitative and qualitative bedside assays 6 h after admission in a sample of Iranian patients in the emergency department.

  4. Measuring diagnostic and predictive accuracy in disease management: an introduction to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel

    2006-04-01

    Diagnostic or predictive accuracy concerns are common in all phases of a disease management (DM) programme, and ultimately play an influential role in the assessment of programme effectiveness. Areas, such as the identification of diseased patients, predictive modelling of future health status and costs and risk stratification, are just a few of the domains in which assessment of accuracy is beneficial, if not critical. The most commonly used analytical model for this purpose is the standard 2 x 2 table method in which sensitivity and specificity are calculated. However, there are several limitations to this approach, including the reliance on a single defined criterion or cut-off for determining a true-positive result, use of non-standardized measurement instruments and sensitivity to outcome prevalence. This paper introduces the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis as a more appropriate and useful technique for assessing diagnostic and predictive accuracy in DM. Its advantages include; testing accuracy across the entire range of scores and thereby not requiring a predetermined cut-off point, easily examined visual and statistical comparisons across tests or scores, and independence from outcome prevalence. Therefore the implementation of ROC as an evaluation tool should be strongly considered in the various phases of a DM programme.

  5. Design of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study of 10:1 lossy image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cary A.; Lane, David; Frank, Mark S.; Hardy, Michael E.; Haynor, David R.; Smith, Donald V.; Parker, James E.; Bender, Gregory N.; Kim, Yongmin

    1994-04-01

    The digital archiving system at Madigan Army Medical Center (MAMC) uses a 10:1 lossy data compression algorithm for most forms of computed radiography. A systematic study on the potential effect of lossy image compression on patient care has been initiated with a series of studies focused on specific diagnostic tasks. The studies are based upon the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method of analysis for diagnostic systems. The null hypothesis is that observer performance with approximately 10:1 compressed and decompressed images is not different from using original, uncompressed images for detecting subtle pathologic findings seen on computed radiographs of bone, chest, or abdomen, when viewed on a high-resolution monitor. Our design involves collecting cases from eight pathologic categories. Truth is determined by committee using confirmatory studies performed during routine clinical practice whenever possible. Software has been developed to aid in case collection and to allow reading of the cases for the study using stand-alone Siemens Litebox workstations. Data analysis uses two methods, ROC analysis and free-response ROC (FROC) methods. This study will be one of the largest ROC/FROC studies of its kind and could benefit clinical radiology practice using PACS technology. The study design and results from a pilot FROC study are presented.

  6. ROCView: prototype software for data collection in jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J; Hogg, P; Thompson, S; Manning, D; Szczepura, K

    2012-01-01

    ROCView has been developed as an image display and response capture (IDRC) solution to image display and consistent recording of reader responses in relation to the free-response receiver operating characteristic paradigm. A web-based solution to IDRC for observer response studies allows observations to be completed from any location, assuming that display performance and viewing conditions are consistent with the study being completed. The simplistic functionality of the software allows observations to be completed without supervision. ROCView can display images from multiple modalities, in a randomised order if required. Following registration, observers are prompted to begin their image evaluation. All data are recorded via mouse clicks, one to localise (mark) and one to score confidence (rate) using either an ordinal or continuous rating scale. Up to nine “mark-rating” pairs can be made per image. Unmarked images are given a default score of zero. Upon completion of the study, both true-positive and false-positive reports can be downloaded and adapted for analysis. ROCView has the potential to be a useful tool in the assessment of modality performance difference for a range of imaging methods. PMID:22573294

  7. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of age-related changes in lineup performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Joyce E; Flowe, Heather D

    2015-04-01

    In the basic face memory literature, support has been found for the late maturation hypothesis, which holds that face recognition ability is not fully developed until at least adolescence. Support for the late maturation hypothesis in the criminal lineup identification literature, however, has been equivocal because of the analytic approach that has been used to examine age-related changes in identification performance. Recently, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied for the first time in the adult eyewitness memory literature to examine whether memory sensitivity differs across different types of lineup tests. ROC analysis allows for the separation of memory sensitivity from response bias in the analysis of recognition data. Here, we have made the first ROC-based comparison of adults' and children's (5- and 6-year-olds and 9- and 10-year-olds) memory performance on lineups by reanalyzing data from Humphries, Holliday, and Flowe (2012). In line with the late maturation hypothesis, memory sensitivity was significantly greater for adults compared with young children. Memory sensitivity for older children was similar to that for adults. The results indicate that the late maturation hypothesis can be generalized to account for age-related performance differences on an eyewitness memory task. The implications for developmental eyewitness memory research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of eyewitness memory: comparing the diagnostic accuracy of simultaneous versus sequential lineups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickes, Laura; Flowe, Heather D; Wixted, John T

    2012-12-01

    A police lineup presents a real-world signal-detection problem because there are two possible states of the world (the suspect is either innocent or guilty), some degree of information about the true state of the world is available (the eyewitness has some degree of memory for the perpetrator), and a decision is made (identifying the suspect or not). A similar state of affairs applies to diagnostic tests in medicine because, in a patient, the disease is either present or absent, a diagnostic test yields some degree of information about the true state of affairs, and a decision is made about the presence or absence of the disease. In medicine, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is the standard method for assessing diagnostic accuracy. By contrast, in the eyewitness memory literature, this powerful technique has never been used. Instead, researchers have attempted to assess the diagnostic performance of different lineup procedures using methods that cannot identify the better procedure (e.g., by computing a diagnosticity ratio). Here, we describe the basics of ROC analysis, explaining why it is needed and showing how to use it to measure the performance of different lineup procedures. To illustrate the unique advantages of this technique, we also report 3 ROC experiments that were designed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of simultaneous versus sequential lineups. According to our findings, the sequential procedure appears to be inferior to the simultaneous procedure in discriminating between the presence versus absence of a guilty suspect in a lineup.

  9. Recollection is a continuous process: Evidence from plurality memory receiver operating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D; Jeye, Brittany M; Dodson, Chad S

    2016-01-01

    Is recollection a continuous/graded process or a threshold/all-or-none process? Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis can answer this question as the continuous model and the threshold model predict curved and linear recollection ROCs, respectively. As memory for plurality, an item's previous singular or plural form, is assumed to rely on recollection, the nature of recollection can be investigated by evaluating plurality memory ROCs. The present study consisted of four experiments. During encoding, words (singular or plural) or objects (single/singular or duplicate/plural) were presented. During retrieval, old items with the same plurality or different plurality were presented. For each item, participants made a confidence rating ranging from "very sure old", which was correct for same plurality items, to "very sure new", which was correct for different plurality items. Each plurality memory ROC was the proportion of same versus different plurality items classified as "old" (i.e., hits versus false alarms). Chi-squared analysis revealed that all of the plurality memory ROCs were adequately fit by the continuous unequal variance model, whereas none of the ROCs were adequately fit by the two-high threshold model. These plurality memory ROC results indicate recollection is a continuous process, which complements previous source memory and associative memory ROC findings.

  10. An extension of the receiver operating characteristic curve and AUC-optimal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenouchi, Takashi; Komori, Osamu; Eguchi, Shinto

    2012-10-01

    While most proposed methods for solving classification problems focus on minimization of the classification error rate, we are interested in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which provides more information about classification performance than the error rate does. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a natural measure for overall assessment of a classifier based on the ROC curve. We discuss a class of concave functions for AUC maximization in which a boosting-type algorithm including RankBoost is considered, and the Bayesian risk consistency and the lower bound of the optimum function are discussed. A procedure derived by maximizing a specific optimum function has high robustness, based on gross error sensitivity. Additionally, we focus on the partial AUC, which is the partial area under the ROC curve. For example, in medical screening, a high true-positive rate to the fixed lower false-positive rate is preferable and thus the partial AUC corresponding to lower false-positive rates is much more important than the remaining AUC. We extend the class of concave optimum functions for partial AUC optimality with the boosting algorithm. We investigated the validity of the proposed method through several experiments with data sets in the UCI repository.

  11. Identifying indicators of harmful and problem gambling in a Canadian sample through receiver operating characteristic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Avila Murati, Daniela; Bagby, R Michael

    2014-03-01

    Many gamblers would prefer to reduce gambling on their own rather than to adopt an abstinence approach within the context of a gambling treatment program. Yet responsible gambling guidelines lack quantifiable markers to guide gamblers in wagering safely. To address these issues, the current investigation implemented receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify behavioral indicators of harmful and problem gambling. Gambling involvement was assessed in 503 participants (275 psychiatric outpatients and 228 community gamblers) with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Overall gambling frequency, duration, and expenditure were able to distinguish harmful and problematic gambling at a moderate level. Indicators of harmful gambling were generated for engagement in specific gambling activities: frequency of tickets and casino; duration of bingo, casino, and investments; and expenditures on bingo, casino, sports betting, games of skill, and investments. Indicators of problem gambling were similarly produced for frequency of tickets and casino, and expenditures on bingo, casino, games of skill, and investments. Logistic regression analyses revealed that overall gambling frequency uniquely predicted the presence of harmful and problem gambling. Furthermore, frequency indicators for tickets and casino uniquely predicted the presence of both harmful and problem gambling. Together, these findings contribute to the development of an empirically based method enabling the minimization of harmful or problem gambling through self-control rather than abstinence.

  12. Screening for depressive disorders using the MASQ anhedonic depression scale: A receiver-operator characteristic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operator characteristic analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8 and 14-item subscales, were examined in relation to both current and lifetime DSM-IV depressive disorder diagnoses in two nonpatient samples. As a means of comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of a measure of a relevant personality dimension, neuroticism, was also examined. Results from both samples support the clinical utility of the MASQ-AD scale as a means of screening for depressive disorders. Findings were strongest for the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale and when predicting current depression status. Furthermore, the MASQ-AD 8-item subscale outperformed the neuroticism measure under certain conditions. The overall usefulness of the MASQ-AD scale as a screening device is discussed, as well as possible cutoff scores for use in research. PMID:20822283

  13. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC to Determine Cut-Off Points of Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Weiss

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of biomarkers in disease prognosis continues to be an important investigation in many cancer studies. In order for these biomarkers to have practical application in clinical decision making regarding patient treatment and follow-up, it is common to dichotomize patients into those with low vs. high expression levels. In this study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, area under the curve (AUC of the ROC, sensitivity, specificity, as well as likelihood ratios were calculated to determine levels of growth factor biomarkers that best differentiate lung cancer cases versus control subjects. Selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 and EGFR membrane appear to have good discriminating power to differentiate control tissues versus uninvolved tissues from patients with lung cancer (AUC = 89% and 90%, respectively; while AUC increased to at least 90% for selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 membrane, EGFR membrane, and FASE when comparing between control versus carcinoma tissues from lung cancer cases. Using data from control subjects compared to patients with lung cancer, we presented a simple and intuitive approach to determine dichotomized levels of biomarkers and validated the value of these biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for cancer outcome.

  14. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemcov, A.; Barclay, L.L.; Sansone, J.; Metz, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to quantitatively assess the ability of individual detectors in a 32-detector 133 Xe inhalation system to discriminate between two populations over the range of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values. These populations were clinically evaluated as normal (age 63.1 +/- 13.1, n = 23) and presumed Alzheimer's disease (age 72.7 +/- 7.0, n = 82). Summary statistics showed that for homologous detectors the average value of blood flow in the normal group was greater than the flow value in the group of subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions drawn from single values of flow or mean hemispheric flow can lead to erroneous conclusions about hemisphere asymmetries. However, the dynamic relationship between the correct identifications (true positives) compared with incorrect identifications (false positives) of Alzheimer's disease at each detector varies over the range of blood flow values, and quantitative characterization of this relationship in terms of an ROC curve provides more insight into the structure of the data. Detectors approximating the speech, auditory and association cortex were most effective in discriminating between groups. Frontal detectors were marginally useful diagnostically

  15. Operating characteristics of a 0.87 kW-hr flywheel energy storage module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Scibbe, H. W.; Parker, R. D.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion is given of the design and loss characteristics of 0.87 kW-hr (peak) flywheel energy storage module suitable for aerospace and automotive applications. The maraging steel flywheel rotor, a 46-cm- (18-in-) diameter, 58-kg (128-lb) tapered disk, delivers 0.65 kW-hr of usable energy between operating speeds of 10,000 and 20,000 rpm. The rotor is supported by 20- and 25-mm bore diameter, deep-groove ball bearings, lubricated by a self-replenishing wick type lubrication system. To reduce aerodynamic losses, the rotor housing was evacuated to vacuum levels from 40 to 200 millitorr. Dynamic rotor instabilities uncovered during testing necessitated the use of an elastometric-bearing damper to limit shaft excursions. Spindown losses from bearing, seal, and aerodynamic drag at 50 millitorr typically ranged from 64 to 193 W at 10,000 and 20,000 rpm, respectively. Discharge efficiency of the flywheel system exceeded 96 percent at torque levels greater than 21 percent of rated torque.

  16. Estimation technique of corrective effects for forecasting of reliability of the designed and operated objects of the generating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhanov, V. N.; Sultanov, M. M.

    2017-11-01

    In the present article researches of statistical material on the refusals and malfunctions influencing operability of heat power installations have been conducted. In this article the mathematical model of change of output characteristics of the turbine depending on number of the refusals revealed in use has been presented. The mathematical model is based on methods of mathematical statistics, probability theory and methods of matrix calculation. The novelty of this model is that it allows to predict the change of the output characteristic in time, and the operating influences have been presented in an explicit form. As desirable dynamics of change of the output characteristic (function, reliability) the law of distribution of Veybull which is universal is adopted since at various values of parameters it turns into other types of distributions (for example, exponential, normal, etc.) It should be noted that the choice of the desirable law of management allows to determine the necessary management parameters with use of the saved-up change of the output characteristic in general. The output characteristic can be changed both on the speed of change of management parameters, and on acceleration of change of management parameters. In this article the technique of an assessment of the pseudo-return matrix has been stated in detail by the method of the smallest squares and the standard Microsoft Excel functions. Also the technique of finding of the operating effects when finding restrictions both for the output characteristic, and on management parameters has been considered. In the article the order and the sequence of finding of management parameters has been stated. A concrete example of finding of the operating effects in the course of long-term operation of turbines has been shown.

  17. Remaining useful life estimation for deteriorating systems with time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic time-varying operational conditions pose great challenge to the estimation of system remaining useful life (RUL for the deteriorating systems. This paper presents a method based on probabilistic and stochastic approaches to estimate system RUL for periodically monitored degradation processes with dynamic time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones. The method assumes that the degradation rate is influenced by specific operational condition and moreover, the transition between different operational conditions plays the most important role in affecting the degradation process. These operational conditions are assumed to evolve as a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC. The failure thresholds are also determined by specific operational conditions and described as different failure zones. The 2008 PHM Conference Challenge Data is utilized to illustrate our method, which contains mass sensory signals related to the degradation process of a commercial turbofan engine. The RUL estimation method using the sensor measurements of a single sensor was first developed, and then multiple vital sensors were selected through a particular optimization procedure in order to increase the prediction accuracy. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are presented in a comparison with existing methods for the same dataset.

  18. Operational characteristic analysis of conduction cooling HTS SMES for Real Time Digital Simulator based power quality enhancement simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.R.; Kim, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Kim, D.W.; Park, M.; Yu, I.K.; Kim, S.H.; Sim, K.; Sohn, M.H.; Seong, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operational characteristics of conduction cooling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) through a real hardware based simulation. To analyze the operational characteristics, the authors manufactured a small-scale toroidal-type SMES and implemented a Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) based power quality enhancement simulation. The method can consider not only electrical characteristics such as inductance and current but also temperature characteristic by using the real SMES system. In order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, a voltage sag compensation simulation has been implemented using the RTDS connected with the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) model coil and DC/DC converter system, and the simulation results are discussed in detail.

  19. Estimation of erosion amount by geochemical characteristic in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazuharu; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Eiichi

    2005-08-01

    This article presents the results of the estimated amount of erosion and uplifting based on mineralogy and organic geochemical characters of the Neogene siliceous rock (Wakkanai and Koetoi Formations) in Horonobe. As a result of the transformational change of silica minerals, it was clarified that the erosion amount was about 0.66 [m ky -1 ] or more at the large uplift site, and about 0.21 [m ky -1 ] or more at the small uplift site at Hokushin region, Horonobe area. In this case of the correlation with the palaeo-geothermal temperature and the sterane/sterene ratio, the ratio is effective measure to estimate the burial depth and erosion amount. We think that the estimation of the amount of erosion and uplifting became possible in high resolution by the organic geochemical character. (author)

  20. Dose estimate for personal music players including earphone sensitivity and characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Christensen, Anders Tornvig

    2016-01-01

    Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user. In the pres......Personal music players can expose their listeners to high sound pressure levels over prolonged periods of time. The risk associated with prolonged listening is not readily available to the listener, and efforts are made to standardize dose estimates that may be displayed for the user...... earphone measurements published in the past. The work is on-going....

  1. Operational characteristics analysis of a 8 mH class HTS DC reactor for an LCC type HVDC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Go, B. S.; Dinh, M. C.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Kim, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Many kinds of high temperature superconducting (HTS) devices are being developed due to its several advantages. In particular, the advantages of HTS devices are maximized under the DC condition. A line commutated converter (LCC) type high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission system requires large capacity of DC reactors to protect the converters from faults. However, conventional DC reactor made of copper causes a lot of electrical losses. Thus, it is being attempted to apply the HTS DC reactor to an HVDC transmission system. The authors have developed a 8 mH class HTS DC reactor and a model-sized LCC type HVDC system. The HTS DC reactor was operated to analyze its operational characteristics in connection with the HVDC system. The voltage at both ends of the HTS DC reactor was measured to investigate the stability of the reactor. The voltages and currents at the AC and DC side of the system were measured to confirm the influence of the HTS DC reactor on the system. Two 5 mH copper DC reactors were connected to the HVDC system and investigated to compare the operational characteristics. In this paper, the operational characteristics of the HVDC system with the HTS DC reactor according to firing angle are described. The voltage and current characteristics of the system according to the types of DC reactors and harmonic characteristics are analyzed. Through the results, the applicability of an HTS DC reactor in an HVDC system is confirmed

  2. Operational characteristics analysis of a 8 mH class HTS DC reactor for an LCC type HVDC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. K.; Go, B. S.; Dinh, M. C.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K. [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H. [Daejeon University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Many kinds of high temperature superconducting (HTS) devices are being developed due to its several advantages. In particular, the advantages of HTS devices are maximized under the DC condition. A line commutated converter (LCC) type high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission system requires large capacity of DC reactors to protect the converters from faults. However, conventional DC reactor made of copper causes a lot of electrical losses. Thus, it is being attempted to apply the HTS DC reactor to an HVDC transmission system. The authors have developed a 8 mH class HTS DC reactor and a model-sized LCC type HVDC system. The HTS DC reactor was operated to analyze its operational characteristics in connection with the HVDC system. The voltage at both ends of the HTS DC reactor was measured to investigate the stability of the reactor. The voltages and currents at the AC and DC side of the system were measured to confirm the influence of the HTS DC reactor on the system. Two 5 mH copper DC reactors were connected to the HVDC system and investigated to compare the operational characteristics. In this paper, the operational characteristics of the HVDC system with the HTS DC reactor according to firing angle are described. The voltage and current characteristics of the system according to the types of DC reactors and harmonic characteristics are analyzed. Through the results, the applicability of an HTS DC reactor in an HVDC system is confirmed.

  3. Research on characteristics of communication content of operation crew in digital main control room of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Ye Haifeng; Qing Tao; Li Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Communication content, communication mode and timeliness of communication are the main three factors that influence the effectiveness of the communication between team members. Based on the work domain analysis to execution of state-oriented procedures (SOP), the assumptions for operation crews' characteristics of the communication content in executing SOP were proposed, which supposed that the power plant status and parameters, power plant system functions and equipment, and SOP as well were the main communication contents. On a full-scope simulator of nuclear power plant, three operation crews performed experiments simulating accident scenarios. The results show that the assumptions of characteristics of the communication content are valid. (authors)

  4. An online Vce measurement and temperature estimation method for high power IGBT module in normal PWM operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    An on-state collector-emitter voltage (Vce) measurement and thereby an estimation of average temperature in space for high power IGBT module is presented while power converter is in operation. The proposed measurement circuit is able to measure both high and low side IGBT and anti parallel diode...

  5. THE ESTIMATION OF HUMAN-OPERATOR CYBERNETIC ABILITIES DURING THE IMPACT OF DESTABILIZING FACTORS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii T. Polishchuk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  The method of estimation of human-operator cybernetics abilities during of the impacting of destabilizing factors of external environment is suggested. It was proved that up-to-date biomedical approach for periodical health examination of pilots in civil aviation isn’t guarantees theirs cybernetics abilities in cases of influence of destabilizing factors.

  6. Earth Observation-Based Operational Estimation of Soil Moisture and Evapotranspiration for Agricultural Crops in Support of Sustainable Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Petropoulos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global information on the spatio-temporal variation of parameters driving the Earth’s terrestrial water and energy cycles, such as evapotranspiration (ET rates and surface soil moisture (SSM, is of key significance. The water and energy cycles underpin global food and water security and need to be fully understood as the climate changes. In the last few decades, Earth Observation (EO technology has played an increasingly important role in determining both ET and SSM. This paper reviews the state of the art in the use specifically of operational EO of both ET and SSM estimates. We discuss the key technical and operational considerations to derive accurate estimates of those parameters from space. The review suggests significant progress has been made in the recent years in retrieving ET and SSM operationally; yet, further work is required to optimize parameter accuracy and to improve the operational capability of services developed using EO data. Emerging applications on which ET/SSM operational products may be included in the context specifically in relation to agriculture are also highlighted; the operational use of those operational products in such applications remains to be seen.

  7. A Data Analysis Technique to Estimate the Thermal Characteristics of a House

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabatabaei, S.; van der Ham, Wim; Klein, Michel C. A.; Treur, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Almost one third of the energy is used in the residential sector, and space heating is the largest part of energy consumption in our houses. Knowledge about the thermal characteristics of a house can increase the awareness of homeowners about the options to save energy, for example by showing that

  8. Estimation of scattering object characteristics for image reconstruction using a nonzero background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Astheimer, Jeffrey; Waag, Robert

    2010-06-01

    Two methods are described to estimate the boundary of a 2-D penetrable object and the average sound speed in the object. One method is for circular objects centered in the coordinate system of the scattering observation. This method uses an orthogonal function expansion for the scattering. The other method is for noncircular, essentially convex objects. This method uses cross correlation to obtain time differences that determine a family of parabolas whose envelope is the boundary of the object. A curve-fitting method and a phase-based method are described to estimate and correct the offset of an uncentered radial or elliptical object. A method based on the extinction theorem is described to estimate absorption in the object. The methods are applied to calculated scattering from a circular object with an offset and to measured scattering from an offset noncircular object. The results show that the estimated boundaries, sound speeds, and absorption slopes agree very well with independently measured or true values when the assumptions of the methods are reasonably satisfied.

  9. Characteristics of ion spectrum in a low energy nitrogen operated plasma focus: application to the metallic substrates thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, H.; Lepone, A.; Marquez, A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This work presents the nitrogen ion spectrum characteristics in a Plasma Focus device, determined using a Thomson spectrometer and a Faraday cup, operated in the secondary electron collective mode. It is also discussed the thermal treatment and the re coating induce by ions incident on a metallic surface (AISI 304 steel) placed in front of the coaxial gun, when the device is operated with a Ti implant at the end of the central electrode

  10. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for the detection of simulated microcalcifications on mammograms using hardcopy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, C J; Shaw, Chris C; Whitman, Gary J; Yang, Wei T; Dempsey, Peter J; Nguyen, Victoria; Ice, Mary F

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare mammography systems based on three different detectors-a conventional screen-film (SF) combination, an a-Si/CsI flat-panel (FP)-based detector, and a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based x-ray phosphor-based detector-for their performance in detecting simulated microcalcifications (MCs). 112-150 μm calcium carbonate grains were used to simulate MCs and were overlapped with a slab phantom of simulated 50% adipose/50% glandular breast tissue-equivalent material referred to as the uniform background. For the tissue structure background, 200-250 μm calcium carbonate grains were used and overlapped with an anthropomorphic breast phantom. All MC phantom images were acquired with and without magnification (1.8X). The hardcopy images were reviewed by five mammographers. A five-point confidence level rating was used to score each detection task. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and the areas under the ROC curves (A z s) were used to compare the performances of the three mammography systems under various conditions. The results showed that, with a uniform background and contact images, the FP-based system performed significantly better than the SF and the CCD-based systems. For magnified images with a uniform background, the SF and the FP-based systems performed equally well and significantly better than the CCD-based system. With tissue structure background and contact images, the SF system performed significantly better than the FP and the CCD-based systems. With magnified images and a tissue structure background, the SF and the CCD-based systems performed equally well and significantly better than the FP-based system. In the detection of MCs in the fibroglandular and the heterogeneously dense regions, no significant differences were found except that the SF system performed significantly better than the CCD-based system in the fibroglandular regions for the contact images

  11. ROC-ing along: Evaluation and interpretation of receiver operating characteristic curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jane V; Pan, Jianmin; Rai, Shesh N; Galandiuk, Susan

    2016-06-01

    It is vital for clinicians to understand and interpret correctly medical statistics as used in clinical studies. In this review, we address current issues and focus on delivering a simple, yet comprehensive, explanation of common research methodology involving receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC curves are used most commonly in medicine as a means of evaluating diagnostic tests. Sample data from a plasma test for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer were used to generate a prediction model. These are actual, unpublished data that have been used to describe the calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values, and accuracy. The ROC curves were generated to determine the accuracy of this plasma test. These curves are generated by plotting the sensitivity (true-positive rate) on the y axis and 1 - specificity (false-positive rate) on the x axis. Curves that approach closest to the coordinate (x = 0, y = 1) are more highly predictive, whereas ROC curves that lie close to the line of equality indicate that the result is no better than that obtained by chance. The optimum sensitivity and specificity can be determined from the graph as the point where the minimum distance line crosses the ROC curve. This point corresponds to the Youden index (J), a function of sensitivity and specificity used commonly to rate diagnostic tests. The area under the curve is used to quantify the overall ability of a test to discriminate between 2 outcomes. By following these simple guidelines, interpretation of ROC curves will be less difficult and they can then be interpreted more reliably when writing, reviewing, or analyzing scientific papers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Depression of the Thoracolumbar Posterior Vertebral Body on the Estimation of Cement Leakage in Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Jia, Pu; Bao, Li; Feng, Fei; Yang, He; Li, Jin-Jun; Tang, Hai

    2015-12-05

    The cross-section of thoracolumbar vertebral body is kidney-shaped with depressed posterior boundary. The anterior wall of the vertebral canal is separated from the posterior wall of the vertebral body on the lateral X-ray image. This study was designed to determine the sagittal distance between the anterior border of the vertebral canal and the posterior border of the vertebral body (DBCV) and to analyze the potential role of DBCV in the estimation of cement leakage during percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) or percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP). We retrospectively recruited 233 patients who had osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures and were treated with PVP or PKP. Computed tomography images of T11-L2 normal vertebrae were measured to obtain DBCV. The distance from cement to the posterior wall of the vertebral body (DCPW) of thoracolumbar vertebrae was measured from C-arm images. The selected vertebrae were divided into two groups according to DCPW, with the fracture levels, fracture grades and leakage rates of the two groups compared. A relative operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to determine whether the DCPW difference can be used to estimate the degree of cement leakage. The data were processed by statistical software SPSS version 21.0 using independent sample t-test and Chi-square tests. The maximum DBCV was 6.40 mm and the average DBCV was 3.74 ± 0.95 mm. DBCV appeared to be longer in males than in females, but the difference was not statistically significant. The average DCPW of type-B leakage vertebrae (2.59 ± 1.20 mm) was shorter than that of other vertebrae (7.83 ± 2.38 mm, P 6.40 mm for type-C and type-S, but much higher for type-B. ROC curve revealed that DCPW only has a predictive value for type-B leakage (area under the curve: 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.95-0.99, P DBCV on C-arm images for safety during PVP or PKP.

  13. Estimation of characteristics on high temperature filtration system for particle removal in vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Chul; Ryu, Bo Hyun; Park, Byoung Chul; Ryu, Chang Soo; Hwang, Tae Won; Ha, Jong Hyun

    2003-01-01

    High temperature filtration technology has been widely used in nuclear industry systems to remove particulate matter from air and gas streams. Air filters are defined as porous structures through which air is passed to separate out entrained particulate matter. Especially among of them, ceramic candle filters are suitable to gain efficient dust removal at high temperatures and achieve high collection efficiencies for (sub-)micron particles. The paper presents experimental results for their application in the pilot scale vitrification plant operations. Experimental results were transformed into design equations for (i) total pressure drop and the effect of face velocity; (ii) the prediction of the operating parameters

  14. Characteristic features of determining the labor input and estimated cost of the development and manufacture of equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurmanaliyev, T. I.; Breslavets, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The difficulties in obtaining exact calculation data for the labor input and estimated cost are noted. The method of calculating the labor cost of the design work using the provisional normative indexes with respect to individual forms of operations is proposed. Values of certain coefficients recommended for use in the practical calculations of the labor input for the development of new scientific equipment for space research are presented.

  15. Size matters: Exploring the importance of vessel characteristics to inform estimates of shipping emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Conor; Bows, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ship emission baselines can be used to inform studies but require prior knowledge. ► Region specific conditions alter average shipping emission factors. ► Region specific conditions are clearer when individual callings are examined. ► Relationship between ship size and emissions frustrates estimating mean emissions. -- Abstract: The decarbonisation agenda is placing increasing pressure on retailers to directly and indirectly influence greenhouse gas emissions associated with full supply chains. Transportation by sea is an important and significant element of these supply chains, yet the emissions associated with shipping, particularly international shipping, are often poorly accounted for. The magnitude of emissions embodied in a product is directly related to the distances involved in globalised product chains, where shipping can represent the most emission intensive stage per tonne of goods transported. Specifically, limited choice of ship type and size within assessment tools negates a fair estimate of product chain emissions. To address this, the correlation between ship emissions and size is quantified for a sample of United Kingdom (UK) port callings to estimate typical UK emission factors by ship type and size and to determine how well existing global data and available databases represent UK shipping activity. The results highlight that although ship type is a crucial determinant of emissions, vessel size is also important, particularly for smaller ships where the variance in emission factors is greatest. Existing, globally averaged data correlating ship size with emissions agree well with the UK data. However, the relatively higher proportion of smaller ships satisfying a UK demand for short sea shipping results in a skew towards higher typical emission factors, principally within the general cargo, product and chemical tanker categories. This bias is most visible when emissions per individual ship calling are estimated. Incorporating

  16. Estimating flow characteristics of different weir types and optimum dimensions of downstream receiving pool

    OpenAIRE

    Emiroglu, M. Emin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study on the flow characteristics of sharp-crested weirs, broad-crested weirs, and labyrinth weirs. The variation of the maximum bubble penetration depth for different weir types is investigated depending on overfall jet expansion, discharge, and drop height. Moreover, most efficient depth, length and width of the downstream receiving pool in an open channel system are studied by considering the penetration depth, overfall jet expansion, jet tra...

  17. Estimation of hydraulic jump characteristics of channels with sudden diverging side walls via SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushangar, Kiyoumars; Valizadeh, Reyhaneh; Ghasempour, Roghayeh

    2017-10-01

    Sudden diverging channels are one of the energy dissipaters which can dissipate most of the kinetic energy of the flow through a hydraulic jump. An accurate prediction of hydraulic jump characteristics is an important step in designing hydraulic structures. This paper focuses on the capability of the support vector machine (SVM) as a meta-model approach for predicting hydraulic jump characteristics in different sudden diverging stilling basins (i.e. basins with and without appurtenances). In this regard, different models were developed and tested using 1,018 experimental data. The obtained results proved the capability of the SVM technique in predicting hydraulic jump characteristics and it was found that the developed models for a channel with a central block performed more successfully than models for channels without appurtenances or with a negative step. The superior performance for the length of hydraulic jump was obtained for the model with parameters F 1 (Froude number) and (h 2- h 1 )/h 1 (h 1 and h 2 are sequent depth of upstream and downstream respectively). Concerning the relative energy dissipation and sequent depth ratio, the model with parameters F 1 and h 1 /B (B is expansion ratio) led to the best results. According to the outcome of sensitivity analysis, Froude number had the most significant effect on the modeling. Also comparison between SVM and empirical equations indicated the great performance of the SVM.

  18. Method of Estimating the Principal Characteristics of an Infantry Fighting Vehicle from Basic Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    in a linear scaling with vehicle weight. • Counter-examples to linear scaling, such as torsion rods , account only for a small fraction (< 10%) of...at the maximum cabin height comes out to be 61 cm which is consistent with previous designs. We wish to keep as much flexibility for the designer...the ground via the track shoe(s). If we assume the track is perfectly flexible , one can estimate the sinkage by:10 0 = 6 5 √

  19. Estimation of the thermal characteristics of a bridgewire environment by an electrothermal response test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.B.; Strasburg, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    The electrothermal response of an electroexplosive device is determined by applying a subcritical square wave current pulse to the bridgewire and monitoring the resultant temperature excursion. The temperature profile, thus obtained, can be utilized with a mathematical model called the ''Probe Method'' for approximating thermal properties. It is possible to estimate the thermal conductivity and specific heat of the pyrotechnic and the thermal contact conductance at the bridgewire/pyrotechnic interface by this technique

  20. Expert estimation of human error probabilities in nuclear power plant operations: a review of probability assessment and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillwell, W.G.; Seaver, D.A.; Schwartz, J.P.

    1982-05-01

    This report reviews probability assessment and psychological scaling techniques that could be used to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plant operations. The techniques rely on expert opinion and can be used to estimate HEPs where data do not exist or are inadequate. These techniques have been used in various other contexts and have been shown to produce reasonably accurate probabilities. Some problems do exist, and limitations are discussed. Additional topics covered include methods for combining estimates from multiple experts, the effects of training on probability estimates, and some ideas on structuring the relationship between performance shaping factors and HEPs. Preliminary recommendations are provided along with cautions regarding the costs of implementing the recommendations. Additional research is required before definitive recommendations can be made

  1. Analysis characteristics determination of electrohydraulic control system operation to reduce the operation time of a powered roof support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurgacz, Dawid

    2018-01-01

    The article discusses basic functions of a powered roof support in a longwall unit. The support function is to provide safety by protecting mine workings against uncontrolled falling of rocks. The subject of the research includes the measures to shorten the time of roof support shifting. The roof support is adapted to transfer, in hazard conditions of rock mass tremors, dynamic loads caused by mining exploitation. The article presents preliminary research results on the time reduction of the unit advance to increase the extraction process and thus reduce operating costs. Conducted stand tests showed the ability to increase the flow for 3/2-way valve cartridges. The level of fluid flowing through the cartridges is adequate to control individual actuators.

  2. Receiver-operating characteristic curves for somatic cell scores and California mastitis test in Valle del Be lice dairy sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riggio, V.; Pesce, L.L.; Morreale, S.; Portolano, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology this study was designed to assess the diagnostic effectiveness of somatic cell count (SCC) and the California mastitis test (CMT) in Valle del Belice sheep, and to propose and evaluate threshold values for those tests that would

  3. Screening for Depressive Disorders Using the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire Anhedonic Depression Scale: A Receiver-Operating Characteristic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…

  4. Main components and characteristics of landslide early warning systems operational worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piciullo, Luca; Cepeda, José

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades the number of victims and economic losses due to natural hazards are dramatically increased worldwide. The reason can be mainly ascribed to climate changes and urbanization in areas exposed at high level of risk. Among the many mitigation measures available for reducing the risk to life related to natural hazards, early warning systems certainly constitute a significant cost-effective option available to the authorities in charge of risk management and governance. The aim is to help and protect populations exposed to natural hazards, reducing fatalities when major events occur. Landslide is one of the natural hazards addressed by early warning systems. Landslide early warning systems (LEWSs) are mainly composed by the following four components: set-up, correlation laws, decisional algorithm and warning management. Within this framework, the set-up includes all the preliminary actions and choices necessary for designing a LEWS, such as: the area covered by the system, the types of landslides and the monitoring instruments. The monitoring phase provides a series of important information on different variables, considered as triggering factors for landslides, in order to define correlation laws and thresholds. Then, a decisional algorithm is necessary for defining the: number of warning levels to be employed in the system, decision making procedures, and everything else system managers may need for issuing warnings in different warning zones. Finally the warning management is composed by: monitoring and warning strategy; communication strategy; emergency plan and, everything connected to the social sphere. Among LEWSs operational worldwide, two categories can be defined as a function of the scale of analysis: "local" and "territorial" systems. The scale of analysis influences several actions and aspects connected to the design and employment of the system, such as: the actors involved, the monitoring systems, type of landslide phenomena

  5. Outer measures and weak type estimates of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasawa Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We will introduce the times modified centered and uncentered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on nonhomogeneous spaces for . We will prove that the times modified centered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator is weak type bounded with constant when if the Radon measure of the space has "continuity" in some sense. In the proof, we will use the outer measure associated with the Radon measure. We will also prove other results of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on homogeneous spaces and on the real line by using outer measures.

  6. Statistical summary of selected physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics, and estimates of constituent loads in urban stormwater, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.; Phillips, J.V.; Monical, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stormwater and streamflow in the Phoenix, Arizona, area were monitored to determine the physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics of storm- water from areas having different land uses; to describe the characteristics of streamflow in a river that receives urban stormwater; and to estimate constituent loads in stormwater from unmonitored areas in Maricopa County, Arizona. Land use affects urban stormwater chemistry mostly because the percentage of impervious area controls the suspended-solids concentrations and varies with the type of land use. Urban activities also seem to concentrate cadmium, lead, and zinc in sediments. Urban stormwater had larger concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, oil and grease, and higher counts of fecal bacteria than streamflow and could degrade the quality of the Salt River. Most regression equations for estimating constituent loads require three explanatory variables (total rainfall, drainage area, and per- centage of impervious area) and had standard errors that were from 65 to 266 percent. Localized areas that appear to contribute a large proportion of the constituent loads typically have 40 percent or more impervious area and are associated with industrial, commercial, and high-density residential land uses. The use of the mean value of the event-mean constituent concentrations measured in stormwater may be the best way of estimating constituent concentrations.

  7. Investigating time-efficiency of forward masking paradigms for estimating basilar membrane input-output characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    -output (I/O) function have been proposed. However, such measures are very time consuming. The present study investigated possible modifications of the temporal masking curve (TMC) paradigm to improve time and measurement efficiency. In experiment 1, estimates of knee point (KP) and compression ratio (CR......”, was tested. In contrast to the standard TMC paradigm, the maker level was kept fixed and the “gap threshold” was obtained, such that the masker just masks a low-level (12 dB sensation level) signal. It is argued that this modification allows for better control of the tested stimulus level range, which...

  8. Impact characteristics for high-pressure large-flow water-based emulsion pilot operated check valve reverse opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Chuanhui; Yu, Ping; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    To improve the dynamic characteristics and cavitation characteristics of large-flow pilot operated check valve, consider the pilot poppet as the research object, analyses working principle and design three different kinds of pilot poppets. The vibration characteristics and impact characteristics are analyzed. The simulation model is established through flow field simulation software. The cavitation characteristics of large-flow pilot operated check valve are studied and discussed. On this basis, high-pressure large-flow impact experimental system is used for impact experiment, and the cavitation index is discussed. Then optimal structure is obtained. Simulation results indicate that the increase of pilot poppet half cone angle can effectively reduce the cavitation area, reducing the generation of cavitation. Experimental results show that the pressure impact is not decreasing with increasing of pilot poppet half cone angle in process of unloading, but the unloading capacity, response speed and pilot poppet half cone angle are positively correlated. The impact characteristics of 60° pilot poppet, and its cavitation index is lesser, which indicates 60° pilot poppet is the optimal structure, with the theory results are basically identical.

  9. IR radiation characteristics of rocket exhaust plumes under varying motor operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin NIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared (IR irradiance signature from rocket motor exhaust plumes is closely related to motor type, propellant composition, burn time, rocket geometry, chamber parameters and flight conditions. In this paper, an infrared signature analysis tool (IRSAT was developed to understand the spectral characteristics of exhaust plumes in detail. Through a finite volume technique, flow field properties were obtained through the solution of axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations with the Reynolds-averaged approach. A refined 13-species, 30-reaction chemistry scheme was used for combustion effects and a k-ε-Rt turbulence model for entrainment effects. Using flowfield properties as input data, the spectrum was integrated with a line of sight (LOS method based on a single line group (SLG model with Curtis-Godson approximation. The model correctly predicted spectral distribution in the wavelengths of 1.50–5.50 μm and had good agreement for its location with imaging spectrometer data. The IRSAT was then applied to discuss the effects of three operating conditions on IR signatures: (a afterburning; (b chamber pressure from ignition to cutoff; and (c minor changes in the ratio of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB binder to ammonium perchlorate (AP oxidizer in propellant. Results show that afterburning effects can increase the size and shape of radiance images with enhancement of radiation intensity up to 40%. Also, the total IR irradiance in different bands can be characterized by a non-dimensional chamber pressure trace in which the maximum discrepancy is less than 13% during ignition and engine cutoff. An increase of chamber pressure can lead to more distinct diamonds, whose distance intervals are extended, and the position of the first diamond moving backwards. In addition, an increase in HTPB/AP causes a significant jump in spectral intensity. The incremental rates of radiance intensity integrated in each band are linear with the increase of HTPB

  10. Drive Control Scheme of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Neural Network Learning of Human Wheelchair Operation Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanohata, Naoki; Seki, Hirokazu

    This paper describes a novel drive control scheme of electric power assisted wheelchairs based on neural network learning of human wheelchair operation characteristics. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which enhances the drive force of the operator by employing electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly and disabled people. However, some handicapped people with paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body cannot maneuver the wheelchair as desired because of the difference in the right and left input force. Therefore, this study proposes a neural network learning system of such human wheelchair operation characteristics and a drive control scheme with variable distribution and assistance ratios. Some driving experiments will be performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  11. DEM Resolution Impact on the Estimation of the Physical Characteristics of Watersheds by Using SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranyu Buakhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A digital elevation model (DEM is an important spatial input for automatic extraction of topographic parameters for the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of DEM resolution (from 5 to 90 m on the delineation process of a SWAT model with two types of watershed characteristics (flat area and mountain area and three sizes of watershed area (about 20,000, 200,000, and 1,500,000 hectares. The results showed that the total lengths of the streamline, main channel slope, watershed area, and area slope were significantly different when using the DEM datasets to delineate. Delineation using the SRTM DEM (90 m, ASTER DEM (30 m, and LDD DEM (5 m for all watershed characteristics showed that the watershed sizes and shapes obtained were only slightly different, whereas the area slopes obtained were significantly different. The total lengths of the generated streams increased when the resolution of the DEM used was higher. The stream slopes obtained using the small area sizes were insignificant, whereas the slopes obtained using the large area sizes were significantly different. This suggests that water resource model users should use the ASTER DEM as opposed to a finer resolution DEM for model input to save time for the model calibration and validation.

  12. Evaluation of spatial and temporal characteristics of GNSS-derived ZTD estimates in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isioye, Olalekan Adekunle; Combrinck, Ludwig; Botai, Joel

    2018-05-01

    This study presents an in-depth analysis to comprehend the spatial and temporal variability of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) over Nigeria during the period 2010-2014, using estimates from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data. GNSS data address the drawbacks in traditional techniques (e.g. radiosondes) by means of observing periodicities in ZTD. The ZTD estimates show weak spatial dependence among the stations, though this can be attributed to the density of stations in the network. Tidal oscillations are noticed at the GNSS stations. These oscillations have diurnal and semi-diurnal components. The diurnal components as seen from the ZTD are the principal source of the oscillations. This upshot may perhaps be ascribed to temporal variations in atmospheric water vapour on a diurnal scale. In addition, the diurnal ZTD cycles exhibited noteworthy seasonal dependence, with larger amplitudes in the rainy (wet) season and smaller ones in the harmattan (dry) season. Notably, the stations in the northern part of the country reach very high amplitudes in the months of June, July and August at the peak of the wet season, characterized by very high rainfall. This pinpoints the fact that in view of the small amount of atmospheric water vapour in the atmosphere, usually around 10%, its variations greatly influence the corresponding diurnal and seasonal discrepancies of ZTD. This study further affirms the prospective relevance of ground-based GNSS data to atmospheric studies. GNSS data analysis is therefore recommended as a tool for future exploration of Nigerian weather and climate.

  13. A Low-Cost Automated Test Column to Estimate Soil Hydraulic Characteristics in Unsaturated Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Salas-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of soil hydraulic properties in the vadose zone has some issues, such as accuracy, acquisition time, and cost. In this study, an inexpensive automated test column (ATC was developed to characterize water flow in a homogeneous unsaturated porous medium by the simultaneous estimation of three hydraulic state variables: water content, matric potential, and water flow rates. The ATC includes five electrical resistance probes, two minitensiometers, and a drop counter, which were tested with infiltration tests using the Hydrus-1D model. The results show that calibrations of electrical resistance probes reasonably match with similar studies, and the maximum error of calibration of the tensiometers was 4.6% with respect to the full range. Data measured by the drop counter installed in the ATC exhibited a high consistency with the electrical resistance probes, which provides an independent verification of the model and indicates an evaluation of the water mass balance. The study results show good performance of the model against the infiltration tests, which suggests a robustness of the methodology developed in this study. An extension to the applicability of this system could be successfully used in low-budget projects in large-scale field experiments, which may be correlated with resistivity changes.

  14. Imprecision in estimates of dose from ingested 137Cs due to variability in human biological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, G.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt has been made to quantify the variability in human biological parameters determining dose to man from ingestion of a unit activity of soluble 137 Cs and the resulting imprecision in the predicted total-body dose commitment. The analysis is based on an extensive review of the literature along with the application of statistical methods to determine parameter variability, correlations between parameters, and predictive imprecision. The variability in the principal biological parameters (biological half-time and total-body mass) involved can be described by a geometric standard deviation of 1.2-1.5 for adults and 1.6-1.9 for children/ adolescents of age 0.1-18 yr. The estimated predictive imprecision (using a Monte Carlo technique) in the total-body dose commitment from ingested 137 Cs can be described by a geometric standard deviation on the order of 1.3-1.4, meaning that the 99th percentile of the predicted distribution of dose is within approximately 2.1 times the mean value. The mean dose estimate is 0.009 Sv/MBq (34 mrem/μ Ci) for children/adolescents and 0.01 Sv/MBq (38 mrem/μ Ci) for adults. Little evidence of age dependence in the total-body dose from ingested 137 Cs is observed. (author)

  15. Photophysical characteristics of three novel benzanthrone derivatives: Experimental and theoretical estimation of dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddlingeshwar, B.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Kirilova, E.M.; Kirilov, Georgii K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of solvents on absorption and fluorescence spectra and dipole moments of novel benzanthrone derivatives such as 3-N-(N',N'-Dimethylformamidino) benzanthrone (1), 3-N-(N',N'-Diethylacetamidino) benzanthrone (2) and 3-morpholinobenzanthrone (3) have been studied in various solvents. The fluorescence lifetime of the dyes (1-3) in chloroform were also recorded. Bathochromic shift observed in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of these molecules with increasing solvent polarity indicates that the transitions involved are π→π * . Using the theory of solvatochromism, the difference in the excited-state (μ e ) and the ground-state (μ e ) dipole moments was estimated from Lippert-Mataga, Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet, and McRae equations by using the variation of Stokes shift with the solvent's relative permittivity and refractive index. AM1 and PM6 semiempirical molecular calculations using MOPAC and ab-initio calculations at B3LYP/6-31 G * level of theory using Gaussian 03 software were carried out to estimate the ground-state dipole moments and some other physicochemical properties. Further, the change in dipole moment value (Δμ) was also calculated by using the variation of Stokes shift with the molecular-microscopic empirical solvent polarity parameter (E T N ). The excited-state dipole moments observed are larger than their ground-state counterparts, indicating a substantial redistribution of the π-electron densities in a more polar excited state for all the systems investigated.

  16. The TileCal Online Energy Estimation for the Next LHC Operation Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotto-Maior Peralva, B.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the detector used in the reconstruction of hadrons, jets and missing transverse energy from the proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It covers the central part of the ATLAS detector (|η| occupancy, the pile-up, which is often modeled by a non-Gaussian distribution, can be seen as outlier events. Consequently, the classical covariance matrix estimation does not describe correctly the second order statistics of the background for the majority of the events, as this approach is very sensitive to outliers. As a result, the OF (or MF) coefficients are miscalculated leading to a larger variance and biased energy estimator. This work evaluates the usage of a robust covariance estimator, namely the Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) algorithm, to be applied in the OF design. The goal of the MCD estimator is to find a number of observations whose classical covariance matrix has the lowest determinant. Hence, this procedure avoids taking into account low likelihood events to describe the background. It is worth mentioning that the background covariance matrix as well as the OF coefficients for each TileCal channel are computed offline and stored for both online and offline use. In order to evaluate the impact of the MCD estimator on the performance of the OF, simulated data sets were used. Different average numbers of interactions per bunch crossing and bunch spacings were tested. The results show that the estimation of the background covariance matrix through MCD improves significantly the final energy resolution with respect to the identity matrix which is currently used. Particularly, for high occupancy cells, the final energy resolution is improved by more than 20%. Moreover, the use of the classical covariance matrix degrades the energy resolution for the majority of TileCal cells.

  17. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. Operating experience with pulsed-column holdup estimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for estimating pulsed-column holdup are being investigated as part of the Safeguards Assessment task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The CFRP was a major sponsor of test runs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel plant (BNFP) in 1980 and 1981. During these tests, considerable measurement data were collected for pulsed columns in the plutonium purification portion of the plant. These data have been used to evaluate and compare three available methods of holdup estimation

  18. Complete characteristics of rating estimations economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamid Nurislamovich Gizatullin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper allocates complete characteristics of indicators of economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation. Their system representation has appeared more informative, than system of simple social and economic indexes as allows reflecting variety of communications between them, providing preserving and development of researched objects. It is established that at deterioration of state of the economy of regions of their structure change the role in formation of base indicators. At the first stage it is expressed by change of a vector of development with an opposite direction; on the second — in transition from an optimum condition of available structures on periphery; on the third — in the termination of their participation in forming of under laying echelons. At transition of subsystems of social and economic indexes from the first on the second echelon the contribution of the moved potential from structures «resource-product» and «process» for elements of activization increases, for structures «object», on the contrary, decreases, while for final elements the opposite situation is observed. As approaching the top echelon there is a reduction of interaction of base indicators from structures «resource-product» and «process», and on the contrary, growth to structures «object». The conclusion is drawn that successful social and economic activity of regions is determined by synchronous interaction of all allocated structures («resource-product», «process» and «object». Use of the offered algorithm on the basis of complete characteristics allows not only to find out problem regions, but also shows possibility of management on the basis of revealed statistical regularities their condition by forming of optimum mutual relations between the allocated subsystems and, finally, creation of the big possibilities for realization of the having potential

  19. Operating characteristics of a prototype high energy gamma-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, T.L.; Frye, G.M.; Hall, C.J.; Owens, A.; Pendleton, G.N.; Carter, J.N.; Ramsden, D.; Agrinier, B.; Bonfand, E.; Refloch, A.; Tabary, A.

    1985-08-01

    We have operated a prototype coded aperture telescope in a tagged photon beam ranging in energy from 23 to 123 MeV. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a coded aperture mask telescope in this energy region. This paper reports some preliminary results and conclusions drawn from some of the data resulting from this experiment

  20. A parametric cost model for estimating operating and support costs of US Navy (non-nuclear) surface ships

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With few effective decision-making tools to assess the affordability of major weapon systems, management of total ownership costs is continually misunderstood. Cost analysis provides a quick and reliable assessment of affordability. Because there is no standardized method for calculating reliable estimates of operating and support (O&S) costs (the principal component of total ownership cost), this thesis formulates a parametric cost mo...

  1. Estimation of Lifetime Duration for a Lever Pin of Runner Blade Operating Mechanism using a Graphic – analytic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Budai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented a graphic - analytic method that can be used to estimate the fatigue lifetime duration for an operating mechanism lever pin to a Kaplan turbine. The presented calculus algorithm is adapted from the one used by Fuji Electric to made strength calculus in order to refurbish a Romanian hydropower plant, equipped with a Kaplan turbine. The graphic part includes a 3D fatigue diagram for rotating bending stress designed by Fuji Electric specialists.

  2. CFD investigating the effects of different operating conditions on the performance and the characteristics of a high-temperature PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, A.; Ferng, Y.M.; Shih, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of different operating conditions on the performance and the characteristics of a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) are investigated using a three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) fuel-cell model. This model consists of the thermal-hydraulic equations and the electrochemical equations. Different operating conditions studied in this paper include the inlet gas temperature, system pressure, and inlet gas flow rate, respectively. Corresponding experiments are also carried out to assess the accuracy of this CFD model. Under the different operating conditions, the PEMFC performance curves predicted by the model correspond well with the experimentally measured ones. The performance of PEMFC is improved as the increase in the inlet temperature, system pressure or flow rate, which is precisely captured by the CFD fuel cell model. In addition, the concentration polarization caused by the insufficient supply of fuel gas can be also simulated as the high-temperature PEMFC is operated at the higher current density. Based on the calculation results, the localized thermal-hydraulic characteristics within a PEMFC can be reasonably captured. These characteristics include the fuel gas distribution, temperature variation, liquid water saturation distribution, and membrane conductivity, etc.

  3. Comparison of environmental radiation doses estimated for Hanford Operations, 1977 through 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, W.D.; Carlile, J.M.V.; Peloquin, R.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-12-01

    Offsite environmental radiation dose equivalents based on Hanford operations are compared for the years 1977 through 1981 to those calculated for 1982. The comparison revealed a downward trend in calculated offsite doses over the period 1977 through 1982, due primarily to reported reduced effluent releases, changes in effluent reporting methods, and increased Columbia River flow over this period. The calculated doses verify the surveillance program findings that potential offsite radiation doses due to Hanford Operations are small and well below our ability to detect in the environment. 11 references, 23 tables

  4. Estimating steady state and transient characteristics of molten salt natural circulation loop using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudariyawar, J.Y. [Homi Bhabha National Institue, Mumbai (India); Vaidya, A.M.; Maheshwari, K.K.; Srivastava, A.K. [Reactor Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India); Satyamurthy, P. [ATDS, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India)

    2015-03-15

    The steady state and transient characteristics of a molten salt natural circulation loop (NCL) are obtained by 3D CFD simulations. The working fluid is a mixture of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} in 60:40 ratio. Simulation is performed using PHOENICS CFD software. The computational domain is discretized by a body fitted grid generated using in-built mesh generator. The CFD model includes primary side. Primary side fluid is subjected to heat addition in heater section, heat loss to ambient (in piping connecting heater and cooler) and to secondary side (in cooler section). Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved along with the standard k-ε turbulence model. Validation of the model is done by comparing the computed steady state Reynolds number with that predicted by various correlations proposed previously. Transient simulations were carried out to study the flow initiations transients for different heater powers and different configurations. Similarly the ''power raising'' transient is computed and compared with in-house experimental data. It is found that, using detailed information obtained from 3D transient CFD simulations, it is possible to understand the physics of oscillatory flow patterns obtained in the loop under certain conditions.

  5. Numerical Estimation of the Outer Bank Resistance Characteristics in AN Evolving Meandering River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Konsoer, K. M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Garcia, M. H.; Best, J.

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have examined the three-dimensional flow structure and its interaction with bed morphology within elongate loops of large meandering rivers. The present study uses a numerical model to simulate the flow pattern and sediment transport, especially the flow close to the outer-bank, at two elongate meandering loops in Wabash River, USA. The numerical grid for the model is based on a combination of airborne LIDAR data on floodplains and the multibeam data within the river channel. A Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to solve the non-hydrostatic RANS equation using a K-epsilon turbulence closure scheme. High-resolution topographic data allows detailed numerical simulation of flow patterns along the outer bank and model calibration involves comparing simulated velocities to ADCP measurements at 41 cross sections near this bank. Results indicate that flow along the outer bank is strongly influenced by large resistance elements, including woody debris, large erosional scallops within the bank face, and outcropping bedrock. In general, patterns of bank migration conform with zones of high near-bank velocity and shear stress. Using the existing model, different virtual events can be simulated to explore the impacts of different resistance characteristics on patterns of flow, sediment transport, and bank erosion.

  6. Estimation of Parameters and Flow Characteristics for the Design of Sanitary Sewers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the flow characteristics is very important for the design of sanitary sewers in any area. In the present study these are determined in the running sewers for the two parameters; per capita flow contribution and the peak flow factor. ISCO area - velocity flow meter model 4250 is used for this purpose. The flow meter, before being used in the running sewers, is calibrated first in the Hydraulics and Hydrology Laboratory of the UTM (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. During the study the flow meter is installed inside the manhole in 10 different phases in the months of June, August, September, and October 2005 to monitor the sewage flow running in it. Continuous data is recorded in the flow meter during the process and the recorded time varies between 47 hours 25 minutes and 128 hours 35 minutes. The rainfall data is also collected during the same time using an automatic rain gauge which recorded rainfall at every five minutes of interval. Both the parameters thus calculated are then compared with the Malaysian Standard for sewer design i.e. MS 1228:1991. The results show that higher values of these parameters are being used in the design of sanitary sewers and extensive study needs to be carried out to review these values for future use

  7. Estimation of sensing characteristics for refractory nitrides based gain assisted core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishodia, Manmohan Singh; Pathania, Pankaj

    2018-04-01

    Refractory transition metal nitrides such as zirconium nitride (ZrN), hafnium nitride (HfN) and titanium nitride (TiN) have emerged as viable alternatives to coinage metals based plasmonic materials, e.g., gold (Au) and silver (Ag). The present work assesses the suitability of gain assisted ZrN-, HfN- and TiN-based conventional core-shell nanoparticles (CCSNPs) and multilayered core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) for refractive index sensing. We report that the optical gain incorporation in the dielectric layer leads to multifold enhancement of the scattering efficiency (Qsca), substantial reduction of the spectral full width at half maximum, and a higher figure of merit (FOM). In comparison with CCSNPs, the MCSNP system exhibits superior sensing characteristics such as higher FOM, ˜ 45% reduction in the critical optical gain, response shift towards the biological window, and higher degree of tunability. Inherent biocompatibility, growth compatibility, chemical stability and flexible spectral tuning of refractory nitrides augmented by superior sensing properties in the present work may pave the way for refractory nitrides based low cost sensing.

  8. The relationship of insulin resistance estimated by triglyceride glucose index and coronary plaque characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Ki-Bum; Kim, Yun Seok; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Heo, Ran; Han, Donghee; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Sung, Ji Min; Cho, Iksung; Park, Hyung-Bok; Cho, In-Jeong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2018-05-01

    The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index is a useful surrogate marker for insulin resistance, which is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, data on the relationship of the TyG index and coronary plaque characteristics are limited.This study included 2840 participants with near-normal renal function who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography. CAD was defined as the presence of any plaques, and obstructive CAD was defined as the presence of plaques with ≥50% stenosis. The relationship between the TyG index and noncalcified plaque (NCP), calcified or mixed plaque (CMP), and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was evaluated.All participants were stratified into 4 groups based on the quartiles of the TyG index. The prevalence of CAD and obstructive CAD significantly increased with increasing quartiles. The risk for NCP and obstructive NCP was not different among all groups. However, compared with group I (lowest quartile), the risk for CMP was higher in groups III (odds ratio [OR]: 1.438) and IV (highest quartile) (OR: 1.895) (P index was associated with an increased risk for CAD (OR: 1.700), obstructive CAD (OR: 1.692), and CACS >400 (OR: 1.448) (P index was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAD due to an increased risk for CMP.

  9. Identification of dominant interactions between climatic seasonality, catchment characteristics and agricultural activities on Budyko-type equation parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wanqiu; Wang, Weiguang; Shao, Quanxi; Yong, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying precipitation (P) partition into evapotranspiration (E) and runoff (Q) is of great importance for global and regional water availability assessment. Budyko framework serves as a powerful tool to make simple and transparent estimation for the partition, using a single parameter, to characterize the shape of the Budyko curve for a "specific basin", where the single parameter reflects the overall effect by not only climatic seasonality, catchment characteristics (e.g., soil, topography and vegetation) but also agricultural activities (e.g., cultivation and irrigation). At the regional scale, these influencing factors are interconnected, and the interactions between them can also affect the single parameter of Budyko-type equations' estimating. Here we employ the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model to estimate the Budyko curve shape parameter (n in the Choudhury's equation, one form of the Budyko framework) of the selected 96 catchments across China using a data set of long-term averages for climatic seasonality, catchment characteristics and agricultural activities. Results show average storm depth (ASD), vegetation coverage (M), and seasonality index of precipitation (SI) are three statistically significant factors affecting the Budyko parameter. More importantly, four pairs of interactions are recognized by the MARS model as: The interaction between CA (percentage of cultivated land area to total catchment area) and ASD shows that the cultivation can weaken the reducing effect of high ASD (>46.78 mm) on the Budyko parameter estimating. Drought (represented by the value of Palmer drought severity index 0.23) tend to enhance the Budyko parameter reduction by large SI (>0.797). Low vegetation coverage (34.56%) is likely to intensify the rising effect on evapotranspiration ratio by IA (percentage of irrigation area to total catchment area). The Budyko n values estimated by the MARS model reproduce the calculated ones by the observation well

  10. The anchor-based minimal important change, based on receiver operating characteristic analysis or predictive modeling, may need to be adjusted for the proportion of improved patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terluin, Berend; Eekhout, Iris; Terwee, Caroline B

    2017-03-01

    Patients have their individual minimal important changes (iMICs) as their personal benchmarks to determine whether a perceived health-related quality of life (HRQOL) change constitutes a (minimally) important change for them. We denote the mean iMIC in a group of patients as the "genuine MIC" (gMIC). The aims of this paper are (1) to examine the relationship between the gMIC and the anchor-based minimal important change (MIC), determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis or by predictive modeling; (2) to examine the impact of the proportion of improved patients on these MICs; and (3) to explore the possibility to adjust the MIC for the influence of the proportion of improved patients. Multiple simulations of patient samples involved in anchor-based MIC studies with different characteristics of HRQOL (change) scores and distributions of iMICs. In addition, a real data set is analyzed for illustration. The receiver operating characteristic-based and predictive modeling MICs equal the gMIC when the proportion of improved patients equals 0.5. The MIC is estimated higher than the gMIC when the proportion improved is greater than 0.5, and the MIC is estimated lower than the gMIC when the proportion improved is less than 0.5. Using an equation including the predictive modeling MIC, the log-odds of improvement, the standard deviation of the HRQOL change score, and the correlation between the HRQOL change score and the anchor results in an adjusted MIC reflecting the gMIC irrespective of the proportion of improved patients. Adjusting the predictive modeling MIC for the proportion of improved patients assures that the adjusted MIC reflects the gMIC. We assumed normal distributions and global perceived change scores that were independent on the follow-up score. Additionally, floor and ceiling effects were not taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of radon concentration in various operating areas of a reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayan, M.P.; Ashok Kumar, P.; Raman, Anand; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports 222 Rn concentration of various operating areas of a reprocessing facility and also the U-processing area, measured using a microcontroller based Continuous Radon Monitor (CRM) built indigenously by Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

  12. Ensemble Kalman Filtering with Residual Nudging: An Extension to State Estimation Problems with Nonlinear Observation Operators

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    -space-based strategy, called residual nudging, to improve the stability of the EnKF when dealing with linear observation operators. The main idea behind residual nudging is to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the distances (misfits) between the real observations

  13. Expected shortfall estimation for apparently infinite-mean models of operational risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirillo, P.; Taleb, Nassim Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Statistical analyses on actual data depict operational risk as an extremely heavy-tailed phenomenon, able to generate losses so extreme as to suggest the use of infinite-mean models. But no loss can actually destroy more than the entire value of a bank or of a company, and this upper bound should be

  14. Fixation of operating point and measurement of turn on characteristics of IGBT F4-75R06W1E3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseena, A.; Subhash Joshi T., G.; George, Saly

    2018-05-01

    For the proficient operation of the Power electronic circuit, signal level performance of power electronic devices are very important. For getting good signal level characteristics, fixing operating point is very critical. Device deviates from the typical characteristics given in the datasheet due to the presence of stray components in the circuit lay out. Fixation of operating point of typical silicon IGBT and its turn on characteristics is discussed in this paper.

  15. The characteristics of activities of the operator of a management system by the line for release of foodstuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hetari H.M. Abdulaziz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of the main stages of professional activity of the operator of a management system by a production line of food products. Studied the question of the serious consequences of human error as the cause of the marriage in the manufacture of food products on automated lines. The nature of the error automated systems operators as a result of the deterioration of psychophysical state of the working person. The importance of modeling the signal generating emergency alarm, can significantly reduce the probability of release of potentially dangerous products. The optimality of the psychophysical state of the control system operator line of food production is highlighted as one of the main criteria for the rational organization of work. The problem of assessing changes in the human condition is also studied, participating in professional activities. The classification of types of functional states control over employee -depending on its purpose. Special attention in work is paid to an example of change of a psychophysical state, expressed in exhaustion of the worker of production. It gives a detailed description of the external signs of exhaustion in the comparative analysis of manual and mental work. The article shows the main tariff and qualification characteristics of activities of operators of lines in production of food products depending on their categories are specified. Describes a group of workers, depending on the operator's activity, indicating the brief description of each group. Based on the analysis of tariff and qualifying characteristics of lines of the operators in the production of food products of different categories, it shows that the range of qualifying categories covers almost al l groups of workers with the exception of the head of the operator. Highlight the desired differentiated approach to the assessment of psychophysiological state operators.

  16. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF OPERATING SYSTEM OF TAX PLANNING IN THE COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy A. Samsonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present clause is devoted to scientific judgement and estimations of efficiency of stimulating mechanisms (tools of application of system of tax planning in the commercial organizations which allow to estimate разнонаправленное influence of taxes on final financial result of the organization, and also to predict change of business activity of the organization depending on tax loading. The big attention is given to complicated questions of features of management by the taxation and the order of reflection in the tax account of the facts of the economic activities arising between the state, on the one hand, and managing subjects - the commercial organizations - with another.

  17. Economic Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation using Nonlinear Model Predictive Control with State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Rawlings, James B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) for a complete spray drying plant with multiple stages. In the E-NMPC the initial state is estimated by an extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with noise covariances estimated by an autocovariance least...... squares method (ALS). We present a model for the spray drying plant and use this model for simulation as well as for prediction in the E-NMPC. The open-loop optimal control problem in the E-NMPC is solved using the single-shooting method combined with a quasi-Newton Sequential Quadratic programming (SQP......) algorithm and the adjoint method for computation of gradients. We evaluate the economic performance when unmeasured disturbances are present. By simulation, we demonstrate that the E-NMPC improves the profit of spray drying by 17% compared to conventional PI control....

  18. Operation Ajax: A Case Study on Analyst-Policymaker Tensions and the Challenges of Estimative Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    States’ role in world affairs had expanded significantly after World War II and would require a robust intelligence architecture . Furthermore, concerns...intelligence architecture that could successfully coordinate estimates. The various intelligence organizations feared that an overly centralized CIA...and warships, as they were to do a few years later against the Egyptians at Suez, it was almost certain that the Soviet Union would have

  19. Global gradient estimates for divergence-type elliptic problems involving general nonlinear operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yumi

    2018-05-01

    We study nonlinear elliptic problems with nonstandard growth and ellipticity related to an N-function. We establish global Calderón-Zygmund estimates of the weak solutions in the framework of Orlicz spaces over bounded non-smooth domains. Moreover, we prove a global regularity result for asymptotically regular problems which are getting close to the regular problems considered, when the gradient variable goes to infinity.

  20. Empirical investigation on using wind speed volatility to estimate the operation probability and power output of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Heping; Shi, Jing; Qu, Xiuli

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ten-minute wind speed and power generation data of an offshore wind turbine are used. ► An ARMA–GARCH-M model is built to simultaneously forecast wind speed mean and volatility. ► The operation probability and expected power output of the wind turbine are predicted. ► The integrated approach produces more accurate wind power forecasting than other conventional methods. - Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a quantitative methodology that performs the interval estimation of wind speed, calculates the operation probability of wind turbine, and forecasts the wind power output. The technological advantage of this methodology stems from the empowered capability of mean and volatility forecasting of wind speed. Based on the real wind speed and corresponding wind power output data from an offshore wind turbine, this methodology is applied to build an ARMA–GARCH-M model for wind speed forecasting, and then to compute the operation probability and the expected power output of the wind turbine. The results show that the developed methodology is effective, the obtained interval estimation of wind speed is reliable, and the forecasted operation probability and expected wind power output of the wind turbine are accurate

  1. Open-source LCA tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Houjeiri, Hassan M; Brandt, Adam R; Duffy, James E

    2013-06-04

    Existing transportation fuel cycle emissions models are either general and calculate nonspecific values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil production, or are not available for public review and auditing. We have developed the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) to provide open-source, transparent, rigorous GHG assessments for use in scientific assessment, regulatory processes, and analysis of GHG mitigation options by producers. OPGEE uses petroleum engineering fundamentals to model emissions from oil and gas production operations. We introduce OPGEE and explain the methods and assumptions used in its construction. We run OPGEE on a small set of fictional oil fields and explore model sensitivity to selected input parameters. Results show that upstream emissions from petroleum production operations can vary from 3 gCO2/MJ to over 30 gCO2/MJ using realistic ranges of input parameters. Significant drivers of emissions variation are steam injection rates, water handling requirements, and rates of flaring of associated gas.

  2. TRADE ENHANCEMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF DESSERT BANANA FRUITS AND ESTIMATES OF TRANSACTION COSTS IN OKIGWE METROPOLIS, IMO STATE NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ogbonna Emerole

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on trade enhancement Characteristics of sweet (dessert banana fruit and estimation of transaction costs was conducted in Okigwe Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 80 respondents comprising 40 dessert banana traders (panelists and 40 dessert banana consumers. Monthly trade data was collected from the respondents using pretested semi-structured questionnaire during dry season (November-April and rain season (May-October for the year 2012. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis; with transaction costs estimated as ex ante and ex post components. Hedonic pricing regression model was used in determining buyer socioeconomic/banana attributes that influenced willingness to pay price. Fruit characteristics that significantly enhanced trade of sweet banana in descending order were taste (3.83, fruit variety (3.57, and fruit skin colour (3.50. Other significant factors were level of ripeness (3.49, availability in off-season (3.46, fruit size (3.20 and cleanliness (3.20. Mean ex-ante transaction costs for sweet banana was N77, 800.00/trader and its mean ex-post transaction cost was N25,080.00/trader. We recommended that traders should take advantage of Global Mobile System (GSM to overcome information barriers on banana trading. Government and health institutions should intensify consumer safety education, and encourage horticultural unions to heighten postharvest monitoring of stored and displayed dessert banana fruits to enforce observance of ripening standards.

  3. Ventricular Cycle Length Characteristics Estimative of Prolonged RR Interval during Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    CIACCIO, EDWARD J.; BIVIANO, ANGELO B.; GAMBHIR, ALOK; EINSTEIN, ANDREW J.; GARAN, HASAN

    2014-01-01

    Background When atrial fibrillation (AF) is incessant, imaging during a prolonged ventricular RR interval may improve image quality. It was hypothesized that long RR intervals could be predicted from preceding RR values. Methods From the PhysioNet database, electrocardiogram RR intervals were obtained from 74 persistent AF patients. An RR interval lengthened by at least 250 ms beyond the immediately preceding RR interval (termed T0 and T1, respectively) was considered prolonged. A two-parameter scatterplot was used to predict the occurrence of a prolonged interval T0. The scatterplot parameters were: (1) RR variability (RRv) estimated as the average second derivative from 10 previous pairs of RR differences, T13–T2, and (2) Tm–T1, the difference between Tm, the mean from T13 to T2, and T1. For each patient, scatterplots were constructed using preliminary data from the first hour. The ranges of parameters 1 and 2 were adjusted to maximize the proportion of prolonged RR intervals within range. These constraints were used for prediction of prolonged RR in test data collected during the second hour. Results The mean prolonged event was 1.0 seconds in duration. Actual prolonged events were identified with a mean positive predictive value (PPV) of 80% in the test set. PPV was >80% in 36 of 74 patients. An average of 10.8 prolonged RR intervals per 60 minutes was correctly identified. Conclusions A method was developed to predict prolonged RR intervals using two parameters and prior statistical sampling for each patient. This or similar methodology may help improve cardiac imaging in many longstanding persistent AF patients. PMID:23998759

  4. ESTIMATION OF MULTI-MODAL ANALGESIA ADEQUACY IN THE PERIOPERATIVE PERIOD AT LONG-TERMED TRAUMATIZING ABDOMINAL OPERATIVE INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kh. Sharipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE OF THE STUDY. Improvement of perioperative multimodal analgesia at long­termed traumatizing abdominal interventions with estimation of its effectiveness.MATERIALS AND METHODS. Eighty six patients have been examined and divided into 3 groups depending on anesthesia and postoperative pain relief methods.RESULTS. The effectiveness of perioperative multi­modal analgesia using methods affecting the whole pathogenesis of pain has been revealed. Minimal stress of central and peripheral hemodynamics parameters, less evident pain syndrome in the post­operative period, economic effect shown up by the decrease of the use of narcotic analgesics both in intra­ and post­operative period have been observed.CONCLUSION. Algorithm of perioperative multi­modal analgesia at long­termed and traumatizing abdominal operative interventions has been developed. 

  5. Advanced Best-Estimate Methodologies for Thermal-Hydraulics Stability Analyses with TRACG code and Improvements on Operating Boiling Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedovi, J.; Trueba, M.; Ibarra, L; Espino, M.; Hoang, H.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years GE Hitachi has introduced two advanced methodologies to address the thermal-hydraulics instabilities in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs); the “Detect and Suppress Solution - Confirmation Density (DSS-CD)” and the “GEH Simplified Stability Solution (GS3).” These two methodologies are based on Best-Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) analyses and provide significant improvement on safety, plant maneuvering and fuel economics with respect to existing solutions. DSS-CD and GS3 solutions have been recently approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper describes the main characteristics of these two stability methodologies and shares the experience of their recent implementation in operating BWRs. The BEPU approach provided a much deeper understanding of the parameters affecting instabilities in operating BWRs and allowed for better calculation of plant setpoints by improving plant manoeuvring restrictions and reducing manual operator actions. DSS-CD and GS3 methodologies are both based on safety analyses performed with the best-estimate system code TRACG. The assessment of uncertainty is performed following the Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) methodology documented in NUREG/CR-5249. The two solutions have been already implemented in a combined 18 BWR units with 7 more units in the process of transitioning. The main results demonstrate a significant decrease (>0.1) in the stability based Operating Limit Minimum Critical Power Ratio (OLMCPR), which possibly results in significant fuel savings and the increase in allowable stability plant setpoints that address instability events such as the one occurred at the Fermi 2 plant in 2015 and can help prevent unnecessary Scrams. The paper also describes the advantages of reduced plant manoeuvring as a result to transitioning to these solutions; in particular the history of a BWR/6 transition to DSS-CD is discussed.

  6. Design parameters and operating characteristics of animal waste anaerobic digestion systems - swine and poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D T

    1983-01-01

    The development and validation of a comprehensive dynamic simulation model of the anaerobic fermentation of animal waste have been described by Hill. This model has proved to be highly accurate, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in predicting the steady-state methane productivity of conventional fermentation plants and in simulating the transient-state response of semi-batch fed digesters. Simulation studies using this model have been performed and results have been used to develop design recommendations for steady-state operations. These simulation studies have also produced a start-up procedure that will ensure successful initial operation of the digestion system and, more importantly, have allowed determination of the operational techniques that will provide recovery from failure due to organic overloading or excessively short detention time. This paper describes the results of these studies for swine and poultry (caged layer) waste and presents the design recommendations and operating techniques developed from the simulations. (Refs. 11).

  7. Machine characteristics, system arrangement, driver and operation effects on surge of dynamic compressor in oil and gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasi, Amin

    2012-12-15

    Working in the surge area will result in an unstable compressor operation, exposing the dynamic compressor (centrifugal compressor or axial compressor) to destructive stress, high vibration and other damaging effects. The destructive power of the surge is enormous, ranging from changes in clearances, which result in a penalty in the compressor efficiency, to destruction of parts leading to bearing, rotor or seal replacements. The effects of compressor characteristics, driver type, compressor accessories, vent valve, check valve, trip delay and operation details on surge events and anti-surge system designs are studied. A case study is also discussed. (orig.)

  8. Operational characteristics of a 100-mA, 2-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Cottingame, W.B.; Bolme, G.O.; Fortgang, C.M.; Ingalls, W.B.; Marquardt, J.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Sander, O.R.; Smith, M.; Worth, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    A 100-mA, 2.07-MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ III) has been commissioned and operated routinely on the Accelerator Test Stand (ATS) [1] at Los Alamos National Laboratory. To characterize the RFQ output beam dynamics, measurements were made of the beam transmission and of the transverse and longitudinal phase-space distributions. Data were taken for different RFQ III operating conditions and compared to simulations

  9. Approach to evaluation and prediction of lifetime characteristics of NPP valve on the basis of operation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelyanov, V.; Kamyshnikov, O.; Dovgalyuk, V.; Plying, B.

    1994-01-01

    The report contains brief description of the main activity stages for testing, evaluation and prediction of reliability factors (including characteristics and factors of longevity) for NPP operating equipment. Valves equipped with electric drive that are installed in level control system of steam generator in WWER-1000 reactor are taken as an example. Main emphasis is made on classification of failures which had taken place during operation, on detection of prevailing mechanisms of ageing and on assessment of operation factors of reliability and methods of their testing, assessment and prediction. Principles of product ageing parameters selection are briefly described as well as mathematic methods used for quantitative assessment of products reliability factors according to its operation data. The report includes considerations on procedure of operating evaluation, testing and prediction of complex unique equipment based on testing of state vectors path, probabilities of defining parameters to be tested characterizing operability of set components within the assumed boundaries written in design and operation documentation are components of the vectors mentioned above. 9 refs, 4 figs

  10. Preliminary estimation of the dose rates of the operation room of the RPR radioisotope cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S.; Silva, J.J.G.; Pina, J.L.S. de; Fajardo, P.W.

    1986-07-01

    During the preliminary studies, about the installations layout of a radioisotope production reactor, the possibility of construction of a radioisotope cell at the reactor building has been investigated. The decisions about that construction has considered mainly the level of the radiation dose over the cell operator. The dose rate has been calculated based on: neutron flux and gamma radiation from fission products and activation materials inside the reactor; volatile fission products such as noble gases and iodides; tritium form ternary fission. The objective was calculate the radiation dose over the cell operator during a journey of 8 hours of work per day. For those calculations some data have been obtained from the Angra-3 reactor. (author)

  11. A HEDONIC APPROACH TO ESTIMATING OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS FOR NEW YORK MUNICIPAL WATER SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit, Todd M.; Boisvert, Richard N.

    1997-01-01

    A hedonic cost function is used to isolate the operation and maintenance costs for water treatments. For small systems, costs are substantial for some technologies, but not for others. When regional differences in input costs are accounted for, small systems located in rural areas may have a cost advantage over similar systems closer to urban centers; however, costs of water treatment to meet Safe Drinking Water Act amendments may still be substantial.

  12. Dynamic Performance Characteristics of a Curved Slider Bearing Operating with Ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya P. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present theoretical investigation, the effect of ferrofluid on the dynamic characteristics of curved slider bearings is presented using Shliomis model which accounts for the rotation of magnetic particles, their magnetic moments, and the volume concentration in the fluid. The modified Reynolds equation for the dynamic state of the bearing is obtained. The results of dynamic stiffness and damping characteristics are presented. It is observed that the effect of rotation of magnetic particles improves the stiffness and damping capacities of the bearings.

  13. [Simulation of air pollution characteristics and estimates of environmental capacity in Zibo City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wen-Bo; Wang, Jin-Nan; Yang, Jin-Tian; Lei, Yu; Yan, Li; He, Jin-Yu; Han, Bao-Ping

    2013-04-01

    To develop a new pattern of air pollution control that is based on the integration of "concentration control, total amount control, and quality control", and in the context of developing national (2011-2015 air pollution control plan for key areas) and (Environmental protection plan of Zibo municipality for the "12th Five-Year Plan" period), a simulation of atmospheric dispersion of air pollutants in Zibo City and its peripheral areas is carried out by employing CALPUFF model, and the atmospheric environmental capacity of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 is estimated based on the results of model simulation and using multi-objective linear programming optimization. The results indicates that the air pollution in Zibo City is significantly related to the pollution sources outside of Zibo City, which contributes to the annual average concentration of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in Zibo City by 26.34%, 21.23%, and 14.58% respectively. There is a notable interaction between districts and counties of Zibo municipality, in which the contribution of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 emissions in surrounding counties and districts to the annual average concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 in downtown area are 35.96%, 43.17%, and 17.69% respectively. There is a great variation in spatial sensitivity of air pollutant emission, and the environmental impact of unit pollutant emissions from Zhoucun, Huantai, Zhangdian and Zichuan is greater than that released from other districts/counties. To meet the requirement of (Ambient air quality standard) (GB 3095-2012), the environmental capacities of SO2, NO(x) and PM10 of Zibo City are only 8.03 x 10(4) t, 19.16 x 10(4) t and 3.21 x 10(4) t, respectively. Therefore, it is imperative to implement regional air pollution joint control in Shandong peninsula in order to ensure the achievement of air quality standard in Zibo City.

  14. An estimation of core damage frequency of a pressurized water reactor during mid-loop operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, C.C.; Chen, C.T.; Lee, M.

    2004-01-01

    The core damage frequency during mid-loop operation of a Westinghouse designed 3-loop Pressurizer Water Reactor (PWR) due to loss of Residual Heat Removal (RHR) events was assessed. The assessment considers two types of outages (refueling and drained maintenance), and uses failure data collected specifically for shutdown condition. Event trees were developed for five categories of loss of RHR events. Human actions to mitigate the loss of RHR events was identified and human error probabilities were quantified using HCR and THERP model. The result showed that the core damage frequency due to loss of RHR events during mid-loop operation is 3.1x10 -5 per year. The results also showed that the core damage frequency can be reduced significantly by removing a pressurizer safety valve before entering mid-loop operation. The establishment of reflux cooling, i.e. decay heat removal through steam generator secondary side also plays important role in mitigating the loss of RHR events. (author)

  15. Studies on the power output of a MADE AE-30 operating on complex terrain. Annual Energy Production estimation and Multivariable analysis. A case of multi-stall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-12-01

    The main need of the EWTS-II Sub-project IV group is to have a suitable data-base which allows it to reach proper conclusions on the characteristics of power performance of wind turbines in complex terrain. With this aim, this document presents an analysis on the power output of the MADE AE-30 Wind turbine operating at Tarifa (also data from flat terrain are enclosed as a reference). An application of the bin method and AEP estimation for energy production method, in the two last issues a directional analysis and an study for two different turbulence intensity ranges are enclosed. Finally the Stepwise multirregression method is applied on the measurements to identify the stored parameters that have influence on the power output. A brief description of multi stall effect is enclosed. (Author)

  16. Studies on the power output of a MADEAE-30 operating on complex terrain. Annual Energy Production estimation and Multivariable analysis. A case of multi-stall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva, A.

    1996-01-01

    The main need of the EWTS-II Sub-project IV group is to have a suitable data-base which allows it to reach proper conclusions on the characteristics of power performance of wind turbines in complex terrain. With this aim, this document presents an analysis on the power output of the MADE AE-30 Wind turbine operating at Tarifa (also data from flat terrain are enclosed as a reference). An application of the bin method and AEP estimation for energy production method. In the two last issues a directional analysis and an study for two different turbulence intensity ranges are enclosed. Finally the STEPWISE multirregression method is applied on the measurements to identify the stored parameters that have influence on the power output. A brief description of multi stall effect is enclosed. (Author) 7 refs

  17. Estimates of the eigenvalues of operator arising in swelling pressure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanguzhin, Baltabek; Zhapsarbayeva, Lyailya

    2016-01-01

    Swelling pressures from materials confined by structures can cause structural deformations and instability. Due to the complexity of interactions between expansive solid and solid-liquid equilibrium, the forces exerting on retaining structures from swelling are highly nonlinear. This work is our initial attempt to study a simplistic spectral problem based on the Euler-elastic beam theory and some simplistic swelling pressure model. In this work estimates of the eigenvalues of some initial/boundary value problem for nonlinear Euler-elastic beam equation are obtained.

  18. Naval Aircraft Operating and Support Cost-Estimating Model - FY77 Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    cont’d.) SAMPLE DPERflTING AND SUPPDRT COST ESTIMATE CTHQUSAMtiS DP FY77S:> iso AVERAGE AHNUAL TDTflL COST COST PER UE 10 AC TDTflL 939...0 01 1 1 0 0 J 9 ? 9 p 14 0 0J 15 0 0, 9 1 P 1700J 18ij 0 P 1900 P 9p £1 0 0 P £8 00 P 9» £400 P 9J 9P 27001 £8 0 0 P 9p 3 000 £ P 31 01 j P 9 ? 3

  19. Research on the operation characteristics of a free-piston linear generator: Numerical model and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Chendong; Feng, Huihua; Jia, Boru; Zuo, Zhengxing; Guo, Yuyao; Roskilly, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation process of free-piston linear generator is investigated. • The larger the motor force at the starting process, the fewer circulations of the piston reciprocating to meet ignition condition. • The “gradually switching strategy” is the best strategy in the intermediate process. • During the generating process, engines indicated power is 2.9 kW with an efficiency of 37.3% under medium load. - Abstract: Free piston linear generator (FPLG) shows unique operation characteristics due to the elimination of crankshaft and connecting rod mechanism. This paper investigates its operation characteristics during each operating process based on the simulation and experiment results. During the starting process, the larger motor force during the starting process, the fewer times of reciprocating pistons which meet the condition of ignition. When the motor force reached 300 N, the prototype could adopt one-stroke starting strategy. During the intermediate process, it was found that the “gradually switching strategy” could help to achieve a smoother operation during the intermediate process. And the values of the operation parameters after the intermediate process were lower than those before the intermediate process. During the generating process, cycle-to-cycle variations were observed for piston TDC and in-cylinder gas pressure from the experimental results. According to the experimental results of the FPLG during the generating process, the calculated engine indicated power is 2.9 kW, and the corresponding indicated thermal efficiency is 37.3%. Additionally, based on the comparison of the FPLG performance, it is found that the parameters of the FPLG during the generating process are smaller than those when it was operated during the second stage of the starting process, while much higher than those during the first stage of the starting process.

  20. Developing a Ballistic Software Kit to Estimate Vehicle Characteristics at the Draft Design Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Maiorova

    2015-01-01

    similar situations happen also when using other software of the kit. So there are special logical and mathematical tricks to overcome these difficulties.The free accessible software available for the trajectory calculation is either inappropriate for solving the regarded tasks, in principle, or is functionally limited. The real analogues are available either at the rocket and space enterprises, or in research institutes, and a high cost disables their licensing use, especially, in state educational institutions. Besides, such software often falls within the restrictions on double-purpose technology circulation. In spite of the existing non-commercial analogues the developed software kit allows the transformation of the program while dealing with various tasks in new projects. This kit holds an intermediate niche between approximate estimations of vehicle’s ballistic properties at the stage of technical proposal and accurate calculations to be performed, usually, only for final version of the flying vehicle.

  1. Operation Characteristics Optimization of Low Power Three-Phase Asynchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLAD, I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Most published papers on low power asynchronous motors were aimed to achieve better operational performances in different operating conditions. The optimal design of the general-purpose motors requires searching and selecting an electric machine to meet minimum operating costs criterion and certain customer imposed restrictive conditions. In this paper, there are many significant simulations providing qualitative and quantitative information on reducing active and reactive energy losses in motors, and on parameters and constructive solution. The optimization study applied the minimal operating costs criterion, and it took into account the starting restrictive conditions. Thirteen variables regarding electromagnetic stresses and main constructive dimensions were considered. The operating costs of the optimized motor decreased with 25.6%, as compared to the existing solution. This paper can be a practical and theoretical support for the development and implementation of modern design methods, based on theoretical and experimental study of stationary and transient processes in low power motors, to increase efficiency and power factor.

  2. Job task characteristics of Australian emergency services volunteers during search and rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Aaron; Lenton, Gavin; Savage, Robbie; Aisbett, Brad

    2018-02-01

    Search and rescue operations are necessary in locating, assisting and recovering individuals lost or in distress. In Australia, land-based search and rescue roles require a range of physically demanding tasks undertaken in dynamic and challenging environments. The aim of the current research was to identify and characterise the physically demanding tasks inherent to search and rescue operation personnel within Australia. These aims were met through a subjective job task analysis approach. In total, 11 criterion tasks were identified by personnel. These tasks were the most physically demanding, frequently occurring and operationally important tasks to these specialist roles. Muscular strength was the dominant fitness component for 7 of the 11 tasks. In addition to the discrete criterion tasks, an operational scenario was established. With the tasks and operational scenario identified, objective task analysis procedures can be undertaken so that practitioners can implement evidence-based strategies, such as physical selection procedures and task-based physical training programs, commensurate with the physical demands of search and rescue job roles. Practitioner Summary: The identification of physically demanding tasks amongst specialist emergency service roles predicates health and safety strategies which can be incorporated into organisations. Knowledge of physical task parameters allows employers to mitigate injury risk through the implementation of strategies modelled on the precise physical demands of the role.

  3. Operational Actual Wetland Evapotranspiration Estimation for South Florida Using MODIS Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal N. Ceron

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration is a reliable indicator of wetland health. Wetlands are an important and valuable ecosystem on the South Florida landscape. Accurate wetland Actual Evapotranspiration (AET data can be used to evaluate the performance of South Florida’s Everglades restoration programs. However, reliable AET measurements rely on scattered point measurements restricting applications over a larger area. The objective of this study was to validate the ability of the Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB approach and the Simple Method (also called the Abtew Method to provide large area AET estimates for wetland recovery efforts. The study used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor spectral data and South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD solar radiation data to derive weekly AET values for South Florida. The SSEB-Simple Method approach provided acceptable results with good agreement with observed values during the critical dry season period, when cloud cover was low (rave (n = 59 = 0.700, pave < 0.0005, but requires further refinement to be viable for yearly estimates because of poor performance during wet season months, mainly because of cloud contamination. The approach can be useful for short-term wetland recovery assessment projects that occur during the dry season and/or long term projects that compare site AET rates from dry season to dry season.

  4. Estimation of intra-operator variability in perfusion parameter measurements using DCE-US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Marianne; Leguerney, Ingrid; Thalmensi, Jessie; Chebil, Mohamed; Parisot, Sarah; Peronneau, Pierre; Roche, Alain; Lassau, Nathalie

    2011-03-28

    To investigate intra-operator variability of semi-quantitative perfusion parameters using dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (DCE-US), following bolus injections of SonoVue(®). The in vitro experiments were conducted using three in-house sets up based on pumping a fluid through a phantom placed in a water tank. In the in vivo experiments, B16F10 melanoma cells were xenografted to five nude mice. Both in vitro and in vivo, images were acquired following bolus injections of the ultrasound contrast agent SonoVue(®) (Bracco, Milan, Italy) and using a Toshiba Aplio(®) ultrasound scanner connected to a 2.9-5.8 MHz linear transducer (PZT, PLT 604AT probe) (Toshiba, Japan) allowing harmonic imaging ("Vascular Recognition Imaging") involving linear raw data. A mathematical model based on the dye-dilution theory was developed by the Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, France and used to evaluate seven perfusion parameters from time-intensity curves. Intra-operator variability analyses were based on determining perfusion parameter coefficients of variation (CV). In vitro, different volumes of SonoVue(®) were tested with the three phantoms: intra-operator variability was found to range from 2.33% to 23.72%. In vivo, experiments were performed on tumor tissues and perfusion parameters exhibited values ranging from 1.48% to 29.97%. In addition, the area under the curve (AUC) and the area under the wash-out (AUWO) were two of the parameters of great interest since throughout in vitro and in vivo experiments their variability was lower than 15.79%. AUC and AUWO appear to be the most reliable parameters for assessing tumor perfusion using DCE-US as they exhibited the lowest CV values.

  5. Towards uncertainty estimates in global operational forecasts of trace gases in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijnen, V.; Bouarar, I.; Chabrillat, S. H.; Christophe, Y.; Thierno, D.; Karydis, V.; Marecal, V.; Pozzer, A.; Flemming, J.

    2017-12-01

    Operational atmospheric composition analyses and forecasts such as developed in the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) rely on modules describing emissions, chemical conversion, transport and removal processing, as well as data assimilation methods. The CAMS forecasts can be used to drive regional air quality models across the world. Critical analyses of uncertainties in any of these processes are continuously needed to advance the quality of such systems on a global scale, ranging from the surface up to the stratosphere. With regard to the atmospheric chemistry to describe the fate of trace gases, the operational system currently relies on a modified version of the CB05 chemistry scheme for the troposphere combined with the Cariolle scheme to describe stratospheric ozone, as integrated in ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). It is further constrained by assimilation of satellite observations of CO, O3 and NO2. As part of CAMS we have recently developed three fully independent schemes to describe the chemical conversion throughout the atmosphere. These parameterizations originate from parent model codes in MOZART, MOCAGE and a combination of TM5/BASCOE. In this contribution we evaluate the correspondence and elemental differences in the performance of the three schemes in an otherwise identical model configuration (excluding data-assimilation) against a large range of in-situ and satellite-based observations of ozone, CO, VOC's and chlorine-containing trace gases for both troposphere and stratosphere. This analysis aims to provide a measure of model uncertainty in the operational system for tracers that are not, or poorly, constrained by data assimilation. It aims also to provide guidance on the directions for further model improvement with regard to the chemical conversion module.

  6. The Lifetime Estimate for ACSR Single-Stage Splice Connector Operating at Higher Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Graziano, Joe; Chan, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of Part I effort to develop a protocol of integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector (SSC) assembly during service at high operating temperature.1The Part II efforts are mainly focused on the thermal mechanical testing, thermal-cycling simulation and its impact on the effective lifetime of the SSC system. The investigation indicates that thermal cycling temperature and frequency, conductor cable tension loading, and the compressive residual stress field within a SSC system have significant impact on the SSC integrity and the associated effective lifetime.

  7. Global characteristics of an ATON stationary plasma thruster operating with krypton and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrova, A.I.; Lipatov, A.S.; Solomatina, L.V.; Morozov, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    Paper contains the experimental results of operation of the ATON plasma thruster operating with krypton and xenon. It is shown that consumption of a working gas for consumption of a working gas the krypton base thrust is higher in contrast to xenon base one at lower efficiency. In case of krypton use one obtained the efficiency constituting ∼ 60% at specific pulse reaching 3000 s. Jet divergence in case of krypton use is ∼ ± 22 deg in contrast to ∼ ± 11 deg in case of xenon use [ru

  8. NSSS operating characteristics: experience obtained from Fessenheim nuclear power station start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, A.; Wilmart, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The two 900 MWe units of the Fessenheim Nuclear Power Plant are the first of a series of 26 installations equipped with Framatome 3-loop PWR-type NSSS systems which are scheduled to enter into service in France by 1982. The tests carried out at Fessenheim represented the first of the series, and thus it was important to provide the most complete tests possible. We shall examine here only the part of the operating tests which made it possible to demonstrate the correct behavior of these reactors under transient conditions and the adaptation of regulation systems required to meet the needs of a modern operation

  9. Quantitative estimation of the human error probability during soft control operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kim, Jaewhan; Jung, Wondea

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An HRA method to evaluate execution HEP for soft control operations was proposed. ► The soft control tasks were analyzed and design-related influencing factors were identified. ► An application to evaluate the effects of soft controls was performed. - Abstract: In this work, a method was proposed for quantifying human errors that can occur during operation executions using soft controls. Soft controls of advanced main control rooms have totally different features from conventional controls, and thus they may have different human error modes and occurrence probabilities. It is important to identify the human error modes and quantify the error probability for evaluating the reliability of the system and preventing errors. This work suggests an evaluation framework for quantifying the execution error probability using soft controls. In the application result, it was observed that the human error probabilities of soft controls showed both positive and negative results compared to the conventional controls according to the design quality of advanced main control rooms

  10. A possible approach to estimating the operational efficiency of multiprocessor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N.Y.; Gorlach, S.P.; Sumskaya, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    This article presents a mathematical model that constructs the upper and lower estimates evaluating the efficiency of solution of a large class of problems using a multiprocessor system with a specific architecture. Efficiency depends on a system's architecture (e.g., the number of processors, memory volume, the number of communication links, commutation speed) and the types of problems it is intended to solve. The behavior of the model is considered in a stationary mode. The model is used to evaluate the efficiency of a particular algorithm implemented in a multiprocessor system. It is concluded that the model is flexible and enables the investigation of a broad class of problems in computational mathematics, including linear algebra and boundary-value problems of mathematical physics

  11. Diagnosis of Heat Exchanger Tube Failure in Fossil Fuel Boilers Through Estimation of Steady State Operating Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herszage, A.; Toren, M.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of operating conditions for fossil fuel boiler heat exchangers is often required due to changes in working conditions, design modifications and especially for monitoring performance and failure diagnosis. Regular heat exchangers in fossil fuel boilers are composed of tube banks through which water or steam flow, while hot combustion (flue) gases flow outside the tubes. This work presents a top-down approach to operating conditions estimation based on field measurements. An example for a 350 MW unit superheater is thoroughly discussed. Integral calculations based on measurements for all unit heat exchangers (reheaters, superheaters) were performed first. Based on these calculations a scheme of integral conservation equations (lumped parameter) was then formulated at the single tube level. Steady state temperatures of superheater tube walls were obtained as a main output, and were compared to the maximum allowable operating temperatures of the tubes material. A combined lumped parameter - CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics, FLUENT code) approach constitutes an efficient tool in certain cases. A brief report of such a case is given for another unit superheater. We conclude that steady state evaluations based on both integral and detailed simulations are a valuable monitoring and diagnosis tool for the power generation industry

  12. Evaluation of the behavioral characteristics of the mdx mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy through operant conditioning procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewon, Matthew; Peters, Christina M; Van Ry, Pam M; Burkin, Dean J; Hunter, Kenneth W; Hayes, Linda J

    2017-09-01

    The mdx mouse is an important nonhuman model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) research. Characterizing the behavioral traits of the strain relative to congenic wild-type (WT) mice may enhance our understanding of the cognitive deficits observed in some humans with DMD and contribute to treatment development and evaluation. In this paper we report the results of a number of experiments comparing the behavior of mdx to WT mice in operant conditioning procedures designed to assess learning and memory. We found that mdx outperformed WT in all learning and memory tasks involving food reinforcement, and this appeared to be related to the differential effects of the food deprivation motivating operation on mdx mice. Conversely, WT outperformed mdx in an escape/avoidance learning task. These results suggest motivational differences between the strains and demonstrate the potential utility of operant conditioning procedures in the assessment of the behavioral characteristics of the mdx mouse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. To selecting the characteristics of saturated steam direct cycle NPPs for operation under variable loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrustalev, V.A.; Demidov, O.I.

    1986-01-01

    Problems for operating process optimization of NPPs with RBMK type reactors under load swings in the power system is considered. Determination technique for optimal values of such parameters as initial steam pressure and fuel enrichment for NPP different load factors is developed. Optimization of these parameters gives a 150000 rouble saving of annual expenditures per each 3200 MW of reactor heat output

  14. A summary of design, policies and operational characteristics for shared bicycle/bus lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains the results of an investigation of the design and operation of shared bicycle/bus lanes in municipalities in the United States and other countries. These lanes are designated for use by public transit buses, bicycles, and usually...

  15. Detector evaluation for improved situational awareness: Receiver operator characteristic curve based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    In military and civilian operations good situational awareness is a prerequisite to make proper decisions. The situational awareness is among others based upon intelligence, threat analysis and detection, altogether element of the so-called DIM (detection, identification, monitoring) system. In case

  16. Prediction of Operating Characteristics of Electrotechnical Devices using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASCA Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose is to emphasize the possibilities and the advantages to use the artificial intelligence techniques for operating mode prediction of electrotechnical devices. The considered application consists of the analysis of behavior of an inductive proximity sensor at variation of design parameters.

  17. Operational characteristics in the three-phase transformer-type SFCL with neutral line based on sequential reclosing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.S.; Choi, H.S.; Jung, B.I.

    2011-01-01

    The three-phase transformer-type SFCL with a neutral line can control the current limiting rates according to the turn's ratio between primary and secondary windings. The transformer-type SFCL with a neutral line can reliably conduct the fault current limiting operation according to the reclosing operation duty and fault types. The superconducting elements recovered their superconducting state within the opening cycle of the circuit breaker according to the reclosing operation duty. It is expected to improve the transient stability and supply reliability of the power network. In a transformer-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with a neutral line, which is connected between the superconducting elements and secondary windings, we verified that the SFCL has excellent characteristics that induce the perfect simultaneous quench of the superconducting elements in the previous study. The application of the SFCL to the power networks requires its coordination with the reclosing operation duty, which protects a circuit. In this study, the fault current limiting and recovery characteristics of superconducting elements in the three-phase transformer-type SFCL with the neutral line were analyzed. The limiting rate of the fault current in the transformer-type SFCL could increased by an iron core, which allows quenching of the superconducting elements in a sound phase as well as in a faulted phase. In addition, the simultaneous quench led to uniform burdens on superconducting elements, all of which recovered their superconducting state within an opening cycle of a circuit breaker. Thus, the transformer-type SFCL with the neutral line could reliably conduct the fault current limiting and recovery operations of superconducting elements according to the reclosing operation duty and fault types.

  18. First-trimester screening for early and late preeclampsia using maternal characteristics, biomarkers, and estimated placental volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonek, Jiri; Krantz, David; Carmichael, Jon; Downing, Cathy; Jessup, Karen; Haidar, Ziad; Ho, Shannon; Hallahan, Terrence; Kliman, Harvey J; McKenna, David

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. First-trimester screening has been shown to be effective in selecting patients at an increased risk for preeclampsia in some studies. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of screening for preeclampsia in the first trimester based on maternal characteristics, medical history, biomarkers, and placental volume. This is a prospective observational nonintervention cohort study in an unselected US population. Patients who presented for an ultrasound examination between 11-13+6 weeks' gestation were included. The following parameters were assessed and were used to calculate the risk of preeclampsia: maternal characteristics (demographic, anthropometric, and medical history), maternal biomarkers (mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index, placental growth factor, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein), and estimated placental volume. After delivery, medical records were searched for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Detection rates for early-onset preeclampsia (preeclampsia (≥34 weeks' gestation) for 5% and 10% false-positive rates using various combinations of markers were calculated. We screened 1288 patients of whom 1068 (82.99%) were available for analysis. In all, 46 (4.3%) developed preeclampsia, with 13 (1.22%) having early-onset preeclampsia and 33 (3.09%) having late-onset preeclampsia. Using maternal characteristics, serum biomarkers, and uterine artery pulsatility index, the detection rate of early-onset preeclampsia for either 5% or 10% false-positive rate was 85%. With the same protocol, the detection rates for preeclampsia with delivery preeclampsia were 15% and 48% for 5% and 10%, while for preeclampsia at ≥37 weeks' gestation the detection rates were 24% and 43%, respectively. The detection rates for late-onset preeclampsia and preeclampsia with delivery at >37 weeks' gestation were not improved by the addition of biomarkers. Screening

  19. Transport of Radon Gas into a Tunnel at Yucca Mountain-Estimating Large-Scale Fractured Tuff Hydraulic Properties and Implications for the Operation of the Ventilation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, A.; Finsterle, S.; Bodvarsson, G.

    2003-01-01

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of l x 10 -11 m 2 and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level

  20. Operating cost estimate low-level radioactive waste volume reduction and packaging options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.C.; Collins, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The projected operating cost data examine the differences in compaction and incineration for DAW. Two commonly achieved densities for compaction are presented, while a third case approaching the theoretical density of the cloth and paper materials shows the interesting possibilities of improved compaction. Incineration at two benchmarks for the chlorinated plastic component of typical DAW illustrates the impact waste stream make-up has on economics. Evaporator concentrates are considered as a liquid at four concentrations (6%, 12%, 25% and 50%) and after all water has been removed for the cement and polymer cases. Five separate processing schemes are presented for bead resins. These range from dewatering and packaging in high integrity containers to incineration with solidification